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Sample records for hypoxanthine guanine xanthine

  1. Effect of Six Sessions of High Intensity Interval Training on Levels of Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and Serum Uric Acid in active young men

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    ROHOULLAH HAGHSHENAS GATABI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and objectives: long-term sport and physical activity results in compatibility in maintaining purine derivatives but the compatibility achieved within a few sessions is not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 30-seconds high intensity interval training on Hypoxanthine, xanthine, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and serum uric acid in young college men. Methods: In this study, 18 untrained healthy men were divided into two control and training groups after homogenization based on their personal characteristics. Training included six sessions (every other day for two weeks with different intervals (4, 7, 6, 6, 5 & 4, respectively with a fixed four-minute rest between each interval, and with a constant load of .6 on the cycle-ergometer. Blood samples were taken before and 48 hours after the last training session, and were used to analyze hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, and serum HGPRT. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The results showed that high-intensity interval training for two weeks did not cause significant changes in serum HGPRT (P = .73; likewise, the increase in serum hypoxanthine (P = .170 and serum xanthine (P = .170 was not statistically significant but significant reduction was observed in serum uric acid (P = .025. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that two-week HIIT training is likely to enhance athletic performance and recovery of purine nucleotide cycle.

  2. Human T cell recognition of the blood stage antigen Plasmodium hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGXPRT in acute malaria

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    Woodberry Tonia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGXPRT can protect mice against Plasmodium yoelii pRBC challenge in a T cell-dependent manner and has, therefore, been proposed as a novel vaccine candidate. It is not known whether natural exposure to Plasmodium falciparum stimulates HGXPRT T cell reactivity in humans. Methods PBMC and plasma collected from malaria-exposed Indonesians during infection and 7–28 days after anti-malarial therapy, were assessed for HGXPRT recognition using CFSE proliferation, IFNγ ELISPOT assay and ELISA. Results HGXPRT-specific T cell proliferation was found in 44% of patients during acute infection; in 80% of responders both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets proliferated. Antigen-specific T cell proliferation was largely lost within 28 days of parasite clearance. HGXPRT-specific IFN-γ production was more frequent 28 days after treatment than during acute infection. HGXPRT-specific plasma IgG was undetectable even in individuals exposed to malaria for at least two years. Conclusion The prevalence of acute proliferative and convalescent IFNγ responses to HGXPRT demonstrates cellular immunogenicity in humans. Further studies to determine minimal HGXPRT epitopes, the specificity of responses for Plasmodia and associations with protection are required. Frequent and robust T cell proliferation, high sequence conservation among Plasmodium species and absent IgG responses distinguish HGXPRT from other malaria antigens.

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Asymmetric Acyclic Nucleoside Bisphosphonates as Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum and Human Hypoxanthine-Guanine-(Xanthine) Phosphoribosyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, Petr; Keough, D. T.; Chavchich, M.; Dračínský, Martin; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Guddat, L. W.; Hocková, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 17 (2017), s. 7539-7554 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase * 2nd phosphonate group * 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 6.259, year: 2016

  4. Specificities and pH profiles of adenine and hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferases (nucleotide synthases) of the thermoacidophile archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Jensen, Kristine Steen; Rasmussen, Mads Skytte

    2014-01-01

    Two open reading frames in the genome of Sulfolobus solfataricus (SSO2341 and SSO2424) were cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein products were purified and their enzymatic activity characterized. Although SSO2341 was annotated as a gene (gpT-1) encoding a 6-oxopurine...... phosphoribosyltransferase (PRTase), the protein product turned out to be a PRTase highly specific for adenine and we suggest that the reading frame should be renamed apT. The other reading frame SSO2424 (gpT-2) proved to be a true 6-oxopurine PRTase active with hypoxanthine, xanthine and guanine as substrates, and we.......5, while maximal activity with xanthine was observed at pH 7.5. We discuss likely reasons why SSO2341 in S. solfataricus and similar open reading frames in other Crenarchaeota could not be identified as genes encoding APRTase....

  5. Purine salvage in the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona, and generation of hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient clones for positive-negative selection of transgenic parasites.

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    Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Zhang, Zijing; Howe, Daniel K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that causes severe neurological disease in horses and marine mammals. The Apicomplexa are all obligate intracellular parasites that lack purine biosynthesis pathways and rely on the host cell for their purine requirements. Hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) and adenosine kinase (AK) are key enzymes that function in two complementary purine salvage pathways in apicomplexans. Bioinformatic searches of the S. neurona genome revealed genes encoding HXGPRT, AK and all of the major purine salvage enzymes except purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Wild-type S. neurona were able to grow in the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) but were inhibited by 6-thioxanthine (6-TX), suggesting that the pathways involving either HXGPRT or AK are functional in this parasite. Prior work with Toxoplasma gondii demonstrated the utility of HXGPRT as a positive-negative selection marker. To enable the use of HXGPRT in S. neurona, the SnHXGPRT gene sequence was determined and a gene-targeting plasmid was transfected into S. neurona. SnHXGPRT-deficient mutants were selected with 6-TX, and single-cell clones were obtained. These Sn∆HXG parasites were susceptible to MPA and could be complemented using the heterologous T. gondii HXGPRT gene. In summary, S. neurona possesses both purine salvage pathways described in apicomplexans, thus allowing the use of HXGPRT as a positive-negative drug selection marker in this parasite.

  6. Xanthine, hypoxanthine and muscle pain. Histochemical and biochemical observations

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    Isaacs, H; Badenhorst, M; Pickering, A [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Department of Physiology; Heffron, J J.A. [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Department of Physiological Chemistry; Berman, L

    1975-06-21

    A suspected case of xanthine oxidase deficiency has been further investigated. The patient complained of arthralgia and myalgia. Further studies included histochemical and ultramicroscopic analysis of muscle sarcoplasmic recticulum, and biochemical studies. High levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine were found, while uric acid was absent in the muscle extracts.

  7. Metabolism of xanthine and hypoxanthine in the tea plant (Thea sinensis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takahashi, E

    1975-01-01

    1. The metabolism of xanthine and hypoxanthine in excised shoot tips of tea was studied with micromolar amounts of [2(-14)C]xanthine or [8(-14)C]hypoxanthine. Almost all of the radioactive compounds supplied were utilized by tea shoot tips by 30 h after their uptake. 2. The main products of [2(-14)C]xanthine and [8(-14)C]hypoxanthine metabolism in tea shoots were urea, allantoin and allantoic acid. There was also incorporation of the label into theobromine, caffeine and RNA purine nucleotides. 3. The results indicate that tea plants can catabolize purine bases by the same pathways as animals. It is also suggested that tea plants have the ability to snythesize purine nucleotides from glycine by the pathways of purine biosynthesis de novo and from hypoxanthine and xanthine by the pathway of purine salvage. 4. The results of incorporation of more radioactivity from [8(-14)C]hypoxanthine than from [2(-14)C]xanthine into RNA purine nucleotides and caffeine suggest that hypoxanthine is a more effective precursor of caffeine biosynthesis than xanthine. The formation of caffeine from hypoxanthine is a result of nucleotide synthesis via the pathway of purine salvage. PMID:1147906

  8. Pulse radiolytic investigation of the hypoxanthine-xanthine-uric acid system: evidence for transient species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Pasquier, C.; Ferradini, C.; Pucheault, J.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation in aqueous solutions of hypoxanthine into xanthine and xanthine into uric acid by OH radicals has been investigated using pulse radiolysis and fast kinetic absorption spectrophotometry. After hypoxanthine irradiations the spectrum of transient R 1 has been characterized. This radical is formed with a rate constant k/sub (Hyx+OH) = 6.5 x 10 9 M -1 sec -1 and disappears by disproportionation leading to xanthine and hypoxanthine with a rate constant 2K/sub (R 1 + r 1 / = 1.3 x 10 8 M -1 sec - 1 . After xanthine irradiations a radical intermediate R 2 is formed with a rate constant k/sub(X+ OH)/= 5.2 x 10 8 M -1 sec -1 and disappears through a second-order reaction 2K/sub (R 2 + R 2 )/ = 2.0 x 10 8 M -1 sec -1 . Finally, after aeration only uric acid and xanthine are measured

  9. Absence of hypoxanthine:guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity in murine Dunn osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, H.T.; Gorka, C.

    1983-01-01

    The transplantable murine Dunn osteosarcoma has no detectable hypoxanthine:guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 2.4.2.8) activity. This was established from the tumors directly and from tissue culture cell lines derived from the tumor using a variety of assays: e.g., no [3H]hypoxanthine uptake into tumor or tissue culture cells, no conversion of [3H]hypoxanthine to [3H]IMP by cell extracts from tumors or tissue culture cells, no growth of tissue culture cells in hypoxanthine:aminopterin:thymidine medium, and normal growth of these cells in 10 microM 6-mercaptopurine. Ten human osteosarcomas have been assayed, and two have no apparent hypoxanthine:guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme activity. After high-dose methotrexate treatment in vivo, murine tumors could be selectively killed and normal tissues could be spared by using a rescue regimen of hypoxanthine-thymidine-allopurinol

  10. Application of HPLC to study the kinetics of a branched bi-enzyme system consisting of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and xanthine oxidase--an important biochemical system to evaluate the efficiency of the anticancer drug 6-mercaptopurine in ALL cell line.

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    Kalra, Sukirti; Paul, Manash K; Balaram, Hemalatha; Mukhopadhyay, Anup Kumar

    2007-05-01

    The thiopurine antimetabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) is an important chemotherapeutic drug in the conventional treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 6MP is mainly catabolized by both hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) to form thioinosinic monophosphate (TIMP) (therapeutically active metabolite) and 6-thiouric acid (6TUA) (inactive metabolite), respectively. The activity of both the enzymes varies among ALL patients governing the active and the inactive metabolite profile within the immature lymphocytes. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the kinetic nature of the branched bi-enzyme system acting on 6MP and to quantitate TIMP and 6TUA formed when the two enzymes are present in equal and variable ratios. The quantification of the branched kinetics using spectrophotometric method presents problem due to the closely apposed lambda(max) of the substrates and products. Hence, employing an HPLC method, the quantification of the products was done with the progress of time. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of substrate was found to be 10nM and for products as 50 nM. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 1 nM for the substrate and the products. The method exhibited linearity in the range of 0.01-100 microM for 6MP and 0.05-100 microM for both 6TUA and TIMP. The amount of TIMP formed was higher than that of 6TUA in the bi-enzyme system when both the enzymes were present in equivalent enzymatic ratio. It was further found that enzymatic ratios play an important role in determining the amounts of TIMP and 6TUA. This method was further validated using actively growing T-ALL cell line (Jurkat) to study the branched kinetics, wherein it was observed that treatment of 50 microM 6MP led to the generation of 12 microM TIMP and 0.8 microM 6TUA in 6 h at 37 degrees C.

  11. Primary overproduction of urate caused by a partial deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, M.; Gregory, M.C.; Harley, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    Inherited enzyme deficiencies are found in a small proportion of patients with gout who produce an excess of uric acid. The clinical, biochemical and therapeutic aspects of a case of hyperuricaemia caused by an atypical mutant hypoxanthine-guanine phophoribosyl transferase are presented. Urate overproduction was moderate and controlled by allopurinol therapy

  12. Detection of hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid in γ-irradiated aqueous solution of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tsuya; Shirai, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    The aqueous solution of cytosine of 3.6 x 10 -2 M was irradiated with gamma -ray (60 megarad) in nitrogen-saturated glass ampules, and freeze-dried, then the residue obtained was changed to trimethylsilylacid, and this was analyzed by paper chromatography, UV spectrometry, and/or gas-liquid chromatography. Hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid were detected in this solution, in addition to some other compounds already known to be produced by gamma -irradiation, e.g., TMS-uracil, TMS-6-hydroxyuracil and TMS-hypoxanthine. It was presumed that these compounds were formed by the recombination of the primary radiolytic products. Uric acid formation by this mechanism was confirmed by gamma -irradiation of the mixture that contained urea, and 5- and 6-hydroxyuracil. (Kaihara, S.)

  13. Photoion mass spectroscopy and valence photoionization of hypoxanthine, xanthine and caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feyer, Vitaliy, E-mail: vitaliy.feyer@elettra.trieste.it [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Plekan, Oksana [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy)] [Institute of Electron Physics, 21 Universitetska St., 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine); Richter, Robert [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Coreno, Marcello [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, CP10, I-00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Italy)] [CNR-Laboratorio Nazionale TASC-INFM, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Prince, Kevin C. [Sincrotrone Trieste, in Area Science Park, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy)] [CNR-Laboratorio Nazionale TASC-INFM, I-34012 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy)

    2009-03-30

    Photoionization mass spectra of hypoxanthine, xanthine and caffeine were measured using the photoelectron-photoion coincidence technique and noble gas resonance radiation at energies from 8.4 to 21.2 eV for ionization. The fragmentation patterns for these compounds show that hydrogen cyanide is the main neutral loss species at higher photon energies, while photoionization below 16.67 eV led predominantly to the parent ion. The valence photoelectron spectra of this family of molecules were measured over an extended energy range, including the inner C, N and O 2s valence orbitals. The observed ion fragments were related to ionization of the valence orbitals.

  14. Determination of Xanthine in the Presence of Hypoxanthine by Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry at the Mercury Film Electrode

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    Percio Augusto Mardini Farias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A stripping method for the determination of xanthine in the presence of hypoxanthine at the submicromolar concentration levels is described. The method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation at the thin-film mercury electrode followed by a fast linear scan voltammetric measurement of the surface species. Optimum experimental conditions were found to be the use of 1.0 × 10 −3 mol L −1 NaOH solution as supporting electrolyte, an accumulation potential of 0.00 V for xanthine and −0.50 V for hypoxanthine–copper, and a linear scan rate of 200 mV second −1 . The response of xanthine is linear over the concentration ranges of 20-140 ppb. For an accumulation time of 30 minutes, the detection limit was found to be 36 ppt (2.3 × 10 −10 mol L −1 . Adequate conditions for measuring the xanthine in the presence of hypoxanthine, copper and other metals, uric acid, and other nitrogenated bases were also investigated. The utility of the method is demonstrated by the presence of xanthine associated with hypoxanthine, uric acid, nitrogenated bases, ATP, and ssDNA.

  15. Scaffold-hopping from xanthines to tricyclic guanines: A case study of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pissarnitski, Dmitri A.; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Cole, David; Wu, Wen-Lian; Domalski, Martin; Clader, John W.; Scapin, Giovanna; Voigt, Johannes; Soriano, Aileen; Kelly, Theresa; Powles, Mary Ann; Yao, Zuliang; Burnett, Duane A. (Merck)

    2016-11-01

    Molecular modeling of unbound tricyclic guanine scaffolds indicated that they can serve as effective bioisosteric replacements of xanthines. This notion was further confirmed by a combination of X-ray crystallography and SAR studies, indicating that tricyclic guanine DPP4 inhibitors mimic the binding mode of xanthine inhibitors, exemplified by linagliptin. Realization of the bioisosteric relationship between these scaffolds potentially will lead to a wider application of cyclic guanines as xanthine replacements in drug discovery programs for a variety of biological targets. Newly designed DPP4 inhibitors achieved sub-nanomolar potency range and demonstrated oral activity in vivo in mouse glucose tolerance test.

  16. The effect of xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine on the permeability of red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Halima W M; Rees, David C; Brewin, John N; Hannemann, Anke; Gibson, John S

    2018-03-01

    Red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are under greater oxidative challenge than those from normal individuals. We postulated that oxidants generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HO) contribute to the pathogenesis of SCA through altering solute permeability. Sickling, activities of the main red cell dehydration pathways (P sickle , Gardos channel, and KCl cotransporter [KCC]), and cell volume were measured at 100, 30, and 0 mmHg O 2 , together with deoxygenation-induced nonelectrolyte hemolysis. Unexpectedly, XO/HO mixtures had mainly inhibitory effects on sickling, P sickle , and Gardos channel activities, while KCC activity and nonelectrolyte hemolysis were increased. Gardos channel activity was significantly elevated in red cells pharmacologically loaded with Ca 2+ using the ionophore A23187, consistent with an effect on the transport system per se as well as via Ca 2+ entry likely via the P sickle pathway. KCC activity is controlled by several pairs of conjugate protein kinases and phosphatases. Its activity, however, was also stimulated by XO/HO mixtures in red cells pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which is thought to prevent regulation via changes in protein phosphorylation, suggesting that the oxidants formed could also have direct effects on this transporter. In the presence of XO/HO, red cell volume was better maintained in deoxygenated red cells. Overall, the most notable effect of XO/HO mixtures was an increase in red cell fragility. These findings increase our understanding of the effects of oxidative challenge in SCA patients and are relevant to the behavior of red cells in vivo. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Pre-thymic somatic mutation leads to high mutant frequency at hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    While characterizing the background mutation spectrum of the Hypoxathine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene in a healthy population, an outlier with a high mutant frequency of thioguanine resistant lymphocytes was found. When studied at the age of 46, this individual had been smoking 60 cigarettes per day for 38 years. His mutant frequency was calculated at 3.6 and 4.2x10{sup {minus}4} for two sampling periods eight months apart. Sequencing analysis of the HPRT gene in his mutant thioguanine resistant T lymphocytes was done to find whether the cells had a high rate of mutation, or if the mutation was due to a single occurrence of mutation and, if so, when in the T lymphocyte development the mutation occurred. By T-cell receptor analysis it has been found that out of 35 thioguanine resistant clones there was no dominant gamma T cell receptor gene rearrangement. During my appointment in the Science & Engineering Research Semester, I found that 34 of those clones have the same base substitution of G{yields}T at cDNA position 197. Due to the consistent mutant frequency from both sampling periods and the varying T cell receptors, the high mutant frequency cannot be due to recent proliferation of a mature mutant T lymphocyte. From the TCR and DNA sequence analysis we conclude that the G{yields}T mutation must have occurred in a T lymphocyte precursor before thymic differentiation so that the thioguanine resistant clones share the same base substitution but not the same gamma T cell receptor gene.

  18. Design of a new hypoxanthine biosensor: xanthine oxidase modified carbon film and multi-walled carbon nanotube/carbon film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A Carolina; Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2013-04-01

    A new and simple-to-prepare hypoxanthine biosensor has been developed using xanthine oxidase (XOD) immobilised on carbon electrode surfaces. XOD was immobilised by glutaraldehyde cross-linking on carbon film (CF) electrodes and on carbon nanotube (CNT) modified CF (CNT/CF). A comparison of the performance of the two configurations was carried out by the current response using amperometry at fixed potential; the best characteristics being exhibited by XOD/CNT/CF modified electrodes. The effects of electrolyte pH and applied potential were evaluated, and a proposal is made for the enzyme mechanism of action involving competition between regeneration of flavin adenine dinucleotide and reduction of hydrogen peroxide. Under optimised conditions, the determination of hypoxanthine was carried out at -0.2 V vs. a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) with a detection limit of 0.75 μM on electrodes with CNT and at -0.3 V vs. SCE with a detection limit of 0.77 μM on electrodes without CNT. The applicability of the biosensor was verified by performing an interference study, reproducibility and stability were investigated, and hypoxanthine was successfully determined in sardine and shrimp samples.

  19. Localization of the 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate binding site of human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, D T; Emmerson, B T; de Jersey, J

    1991-02-22

    Human erythrocyte hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) is inactivated by iodoacetate in the absence, but not in the presence, of the substrate, 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate (PRib-PP). Treatment of HPRT with [14C]iodoacetate followed by tryptic digestion, peptide separation and sequencing has shown that Cys-22 reacts with iodoacetate only in the absence of PRib-PP; this strongly suggests that Cys-22 is in or near the PRib-PP binding site. In contrast, Cys-105 reacts with [14C]iodoacetate both in the presence and absence of PRib-PP. Carboxymethylation of Cys-22 resulted in an increase in the Km for PRib-PP, but no change in Vmax. Storage of HPRT also resulted in an increase in the Km for PRib-PP and a decrease in its susceptibility to inactivation by iodoacetate. Dialysis of stored enzyme against 1 mM dithiothreitol resulted in a marked decrease in Km for PRib-PP. The stoichiometry of the reaction of [14C]iodoacetate with Cys-22 in HPRT leading to inactivation (approx. 1 residue modified per tetramer) showed that, in this preparation of HPRT purified from erythrocytes, only about 25% of the Cys-22 side chains were present as free and accessible thiols. Titration of thiol groups [with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)] and the effect of dithiothreitol on Km for PRib-PP indicate that oxidation of thiol groups occurs on storage of HPRT, even in the presence of 1 mM beta-mercaptoethanol.

  20. Increased PRPP synthetase activity in cultured rat hepatoma cells containing mutations in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, L H; McRoberts, J A; Harrison, T M; Martin, D W

    1976-07-01

    Nine independently derived clones of mutagenized rat hepatoma cells selected for resistance to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) or 6-thioguanine (6-ThioG) have been isolated. Each has severely reduced catalytic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and seven of them possess significantly increased activities of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase. The degrees of elevations of PRPP synthetase activities do not correlate with the degrees of deficiencies of HPRT activities. The cells from one of these clones, 1020/12, posses 40% of the normal HPRT catalytic activity and overproduce purines. We have extensively examined the cells from this clone. Immunotration studies of 1020/12 cells indicate that there is a mutation in the structural gene for HPRT. Although they possess increased specific catalytic activities of the enzyme. PRPP synthetase, the catalytic parameters, heat stability, and isoelectric pH of PRPP synthetase from 1020/12 cells are indistinguishable from those of the enzyme from wild-type cells. The cause of purine overproduction by 1020/12 cells appears to be the elevated PRPP synthetase activity, rather than a PRPP "sparing" effect stemming from reduced HPRT activity. Support for this idea is provided by the observation that the complete loss of HPRT activity in a clone derived from 1020/12 cells does not further enhance the levels of PRPP synthetase or purine overproduction. We propose that the elevated levels of PRPP synthetase activity in these HPRT deficient cells result from a mutational event in the structural gene for HPRT, and that this causes the disruption of a previously undescribed regulatory function of this gene on the expression of the PRPP synthetase gene.

  1. An ultrasensitive electrochemical sensor for simultaneous determination of xanthine, hypoxanthine and uric acid based on Co doped CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavanya, N. [Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Sekar, C., E-mail: Sekar2025@gmail.com [Department of Bioelectronics and Biosensors, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India); Murugan, R.; Ravi, G. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630003, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-08-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor has been fabricated using Co doped CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles for selective and simultaneous determination of xanthine (XA), hypoxanthine (HXA) and uric acid (UA) in a phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 5.0) for the first time. The Co-CeO{sub 2} NPs have been prepared by microwave irradiation method and characterized by Powder XRD, Raman spectroscopy, HRTEM and VSM measurements. The electrochemical behaviours of XA, HXA and UA at the Co-CeO{sub 2} NPs modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were studied by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry methods. The modified electrode exhibited remarkably well-separated anodic peaks corresponding to the oxidation of XA, HXA and UA over the concentration range of 0.1–1000, 1–600 and 1–2200 μM with detection limits of 0.096, 0.36, and 0.12 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. For simultaneous detection by synchronous change of the concentrations of XA, HXA and UA, the linear responses were in the range of 1–400 μM each with the detection limits of 0.47, 0.26, and 0.43 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The fabricated sensor was further applied to the detection of XA, HXA and UA in human urine samples with good selectivity and high reproducibility. - Highlights: • A novel electrochemical sensor has been fabricated for simultaneous determination of purine metabolites xanthine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid based on Co doped CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles. • The Co-CeO{sub 2} modified glassy carbon electrode exhibited wide linear range towards the detection of XA, HXA and UA than ever reported in the literature. • The fabricated sensor was successfully applied for the analysis of human urine samples with satisfactory results.

  2. Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes: V. Utilization of hypoxanthine for the synthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethlenfalvay, N.C.; White, J.C.; Chadwick, E.; Lima, J.E. (Fitzsimons Army Medical Center, Aurora, CO (USA))

    1990-06-01

    High pressure liquid radiochromatography was used to test the ability of opossum erythrocytes to incorporate tracer amounts of (G-{sup 3}H) hypoxanthine (Hy) into ({sup 3}H) labelled triphosphates of adenine and guanine. In the presence of supraphysiologic (30 mM) phosphate which is optimal for PRPP synthesis, both ATP and GTP are extensively labelled. When physiologic (1 mM) medium phosphate is used, red cells incubated under an atmosphere of nitrogen accumulate ({sup 3}H) ATP in a linear fashion suggesting ongoing PRPP synthesis in red cells whose hemoglobin is deoxygenated. In contrast, a lesser increase of labelled ATP is observed in cells incubated under oxygen, suggesting that conditions for purine nucleotide formation from ambient Hy are more favorable in the venous circulation.

  3. Studies on the energy metabolism of opossum (Didelphis virginiana) erythrocytes: V. Utilization of hypoxanthine for the synthesis of adenine and guanine nucleotides in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethlenfalvay, N.C.; White, J.C.; Chadwick, E.; Lima, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    High pressure liquid radiochromatography was used to test the ability of opossum erythrocytes to incorporate tracer amounts of [G- 3 H] hypoxanthine (Hy) into [ 3 H] labelled triphosphates of adenine and guanine. In the presence of supraphysiologic (30 mM) phosphate which is optimal for PRPP synthesis, both ATP and GTP are extensively labelled. When physiologic (1 mM) medium phosphate is used, red cells incubated under an atmosphere of nitrogen accumulate [ 3 H] ATP in a linear fashion suggesting ongoing PRPP synthesis in red cells whose hemoglobin is deoxygenated. In contrast, a lesser increase of labelled ATP is observed in cells incubated under oxygen, suggesting that conditions for purine nucleotide formation from ambient Hy are more favorable in the venous circulation

  4. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris, semiaquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens and terrestrial (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna eBarjau Perez-Milicua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens can hold their breath for about 30 sec. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia and reduced blood supply (ischemia to tissues. Production of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa, are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal (n=11, semiaquatic (neotropical river otter (n=4 and terrestrial (domestic pig (n=11. Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX, inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP, adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP, ATP, guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP, guanosine 5’-triphosphate (GTP, and xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise, aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  5. The radioprotector WR-2721 reduces neutron-induced mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus in mouse splenocytes when administered prior to or following irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grdina, D.J.; Basic, I.

    1992-01-01

    An in vitro T-lymphocyte cloning technique has been applied to study the effects of JANUS fission-spectrum neutron irradiation and the radioprotector S-2-(3-aminopropylamino) ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721) on the subsequent development of somatic mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in hybrid B6CF1 male mice. In control studies performed to establish an in vitro cloning technique, the mutant frequencies of splenic T-lymphocytes, as a result of exposure to a 100 cGy dose of neutrons, increased with time from a control level of 9 x 10 -7 to a maximum value of 1.7 x 10 -5 at 56 days following irradiation. Between 56 and 150 days after irradiation, mutant frequencies were observed to plateau and remain stable. All subsequent determinations were performed at 56 days following the experimental treatment of animals. WR-2721 at a dose of 400 mg/kg was effective in protecting against the induction of hprt mutants (i.e. a mutant frequency reduction factor, MFRF) following the largest dose of neutrons used (i.e. 150 cGy). The antimutagenic effectiveness of WR-2721 administered 30 min prior to irradiation was unaffected, even when the dose was reduced to 200 mg/kg. These findings confirm our earlier report using the radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,2-diaminopropane (WR-1065) under in vitro conditions, and demonstrate that these agents can be used as effective antimutagens even when they are administered up to 3 h following radiation exposure. (Author)

  6. Adenine and guanine nucleotide metabolism during platelet storage at 22 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenbrandt, C.M.; Murphy, S.

    1990-01-01

    Adenine and guanine nucleotide metabolism of platelet concentrates (PCs) was studied during storage for transfusion at 22 +/- 2 degrees C over a 7-day period using high-pressure liquid chromatography. There was a steady decrease in platelet adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which was balanced quantitatively by an increase in plasma hypoxanthine. As expected, ammonia accumulated along with hypoxanthine but at a far greater rate. A fall in platelet guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and guanosine diphosphate (GDP) paralleled the fall in ATP + ADP. When adenine was present in the primary anticoagulant, it was carried over into the PC and metabolized. ATP, GTP, total adenine nucleotides, and total guanine nucleotides declined more slowly in the presence of adenine than in its absence. With adenine, the increase in hypoxanthine concentration was more rapid and quantitatively balanced the decrease in adenine and platelet ATP + ADP. Plasma xanthine rose during storage but at a rate that exceeded the decline in GTP + GDP. When platelet ATP + ADP was labeled with 14C-adenine at the initiation of storage, half of the radioactivity was transferred to hypoxanthine (45%) and GTP + GDP + xanthine (5%) by the time storage was completed. The isotopic data were consistent with the presence of a radioactive (metabolic) and a nonradioactive (storage) pool of ATP + ADP at the initiation of storage with each pool contributing approximately equally to the decline in ATP + ADP during storage. The results suggested a continuing synthesis of GTP + GDP from ATP + ADP, explaining the slower rate of fall of GTP + GDP relative to the rate of rise of plasma xanthine. Throughout storage, platelets were able to incorporate 14C-hypoxanthine into both adenine and guanine nucleotides but at a rate that was only one fourth the rate of hypoxanthine accumulation

  7. Hypoxanthine as a predictor of performance in highly trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, J; Krasińska, B; Kusy, K

    2013-12-01

    Purine metabolism reflects the exercise-induced muscle adaptations and training status. This study evaluated the utility of plasma hypoxanthine in the prediction of actual sport performance. We studied male athletes: 28 triathletes (21.4±2.9 years), 12 long-distance runners (23.2±1.9 years), 13 middle-distance runners (22.9±1.8 years) and 18 sprinters (22.0±2.7 years). Season-best race times were considered, achieved over standard triathlon, 5 000 m, 1 500 m and 100 m, respectively. Incremental treadmill test was administered to determine maximum and "threshold" oxygen uptake. Resting and post-exercise plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid and lactate were measured as well as resting erythrocyte hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to identify significant contributors to the variance in performance. Hypoxanthine considered alone explained more variance in triathletes, long-distance runners, middle-distance runners and sprinters (r 2=0.81, 0.81, 0.88 and 0.78, respectively) than models based on aerobic capacity and lactate (R 2=0.51, 0.37, 0.59 and 0.31, respectively). Combining purine metabolites and cardiorespiratory variables resulted in the best prediction (R 2=0.86, 0.93, 0.93 and 0.91; r=0.93, 0.96, 0.96 and 0.95, respectively). In summary, hypoxanthine is a strong predictor of performance in highly trained athletes and its prediction ability is very high regardless of sport specialization, spanning the continuum from speed-power to endurance disciplines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Synthesis of 9-phosphonoalkyl and 9-phosphonoalkoxyalkyl purines: Evaluation of their ability to act as inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Hocková, Dana; Holý, Antonín; Dračínský, Martin; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; de Jersey, J.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2012), s. 1076-1089 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Plasmodium * malaria * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.903, year: 2012

  9. The effect of novel [3-fluoro-(2-phosphonoethoxy)propyl]purines on the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Hocková, Dana; Janeba, Zlatko; Holý, Antonín; Jansa, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, Sep (2013), s. 81-89 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Grant - others:National Health and Madical Research Council(AU) 1030353; National Health and Medical Research Council(AU) 569703 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Malaria * nucleoside phosphonates * fluorine * purines * FPMP Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2013

  10. Immobilization of xanthine oxidase on a polyaniline silicone support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadruz, W; Marques, E T; Azevedo, W M; Lima-Filho, J L; Carvalho, L B

    1996-03-01

    A polyaniline silicone support to immobilize xanthine oxidase is proposed as a reactor coil to monitor the action of xanthine oxidase on hypoxanthine, xanthine and 6-mercaptopurine. A purified xanthine oxidase immobilized on this support lost 80% of the initial activity after 12 min of use. Co-immobilization of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased the stability of immobilized xanthine oxidase so that the derivative maintained 79% of its initial activity after 4.6 h of continuous use in which 1.5 mumol purine bases were converted by the immobilized enzyme system. There is no evidence of either polyaniline or protein leaching from the coil during 3 h of continuous use. When solutions (10 ml) of hypoxanthine, xanthine and 6-mercaptopurine were circulated individually through the xanthine oxidase-superoxide dismutase-catalase-polyaniline coil (1 mm internal diameter and 3 m in length, 3 ml internal volume) activities of 8.12, 11.17 and 1.09 nmol min-1 coil-1, respectively, were obtained. The advantages of the reactor configuration and the redox properties of the polymer, particularly with respect to immobilized oxidoreductases, make this methodology attractive for similar enzyme systems. This immobilized enzyme system using polyaniline-silicone as support converted 6-mercaptopurine to 6-thiouric acid with equal efficiency as resins based on polyacrylamide and polyamide 11.

  11. Oligomeric state of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, W. S.; Keough, D. T.; Hocková, Dana; Winzor, D. J.; Guddat, L. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 135, Apr (2017), s. 6-14 ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2016

  12. Hypoxanthine Derivatives in Experimental Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio De Simone

    1992-01-01

    ability of ST 789 to increase interleukin-6 production, suggest that monocyte/macrophages are likely to be the main cellular target of the immunomodulating activity of ST 789. Finally, in the presentln vivo study, hypoxanthine derivatives did not enhance the mean survival time of tumour-bearing immunosuppressed mice.

  13. A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method for screening levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don E; Sica, Domenic; Hindle, Michael; Edinboro, Les; Xi, Lei; Gehr, Todd W B; Gehr, Lynne; Farthing, Christine A; Larus, Terri L; Fakhry, Itaf; Karnes, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method was developed for detection of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. The method utilized a microplate luminometer with direct injectors to automatically dispense reagents during sample analysis. Enzymatic conversions of inosine to hypoxanthine, followed by hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, generated superoxide anion radicals as a useful metabolic by-product. The free radicals react with Pholasin(®) , a sensitive photoprotein used for chemiluminescence detection, to produce measurable blue-green light. The use of Pholasin(®) and a chemiluminescence signal enhancer, Adjuvant-K™, eliminated the need for plasma clean-up steps prior to analysis. The method used 20 μL of heparinized plasma, with complete analysis of total hypoxanthine levels (inosine is metabolized to hypoxanthine using purine nucleoside phosphorylase) in approximately 3.7 min. The rapid chemiluminescence method demonstrated the capability of differentiating total hypoxanthine levels between healthy individuals, and patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain and potential acute cardiac ischemia. The results support the potential use of chemiluminescence methodology as a diagnostic tool to rapidly screen for elevated levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma, potential biomarkers of acute cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Hypoxanthine as a measurement of hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, O D

    1975-04-01

    The hypoxanthine concentration in plasma was found to be a sensitive parameter of hypoxia of the fetus and the newborn infant. The plasma level of hypoxanthine in the umbilical cord in 29 newborn infants with normal delivery varied between 0 and 11.0 mumol/liter with a mean of 5.8 mumol/liter, SD 3.0 mumol/liter. Compared with this reference group the hypoxanthine concentration in plasma of the umbilical cord in 10 newborn infants with clinical signs of intrauterine hypoxia during labor was found to be significantly higher, with a range of 11.0-61.5 mumol/liter, with a mean of 25.0 mumol/liter, SD 18.0 mumol/liter. The plasma level of hypoxanthine in two premature babies developing an idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome was monitored. The metabolite was found to be considerably increased, in one of them more than 24 hr after a period of hypoxia necessitating artificial ventilation. The hypoxanthine level in plasma of umbilical arterial blood was followed about 2 hr postpartum in three newborn infants with clinical signs of intrauterine hypoxia. The decrease of the plasma concentration of the metabolite seemed to be with a constant velocity, as it was about 10 mumol/liter/hr in these cases. A new method was used for the determination of hypoxanthine in plasma, based on the principle that PO2 decreased when hypoxanthine is oxidized to uric acid.

  15. Brain purine metabolism and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase conversion in hyperammonemia are under control of NMDA receptors and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Yury; Kosenko, Elena

    2009-10-19

    In hyperammonemia, a decrease in brain ATP can be a result of adenine nucleotide catabolism. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are the end steps in the purine catabolic pathway and directly involved in depletion of the adenylate pool in the cell. Besides, XD can easily be converted to XO to produce reactive oxygen species in the cell. In this study, the effects of acute ammonia intoxication in vivo on brain adenine nucleotide pool and xanthine and hypoxanthine, the end degradation products of adenine nucleotides, during the conversion of XD to XO were studied. Injection of rats with ammonium acetate was shown to lead to the dramatic decrease in the ATP level, adenine nucleotide pool size and adenylate energy charge and to the great increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine 11 min after the lethal dose indicating rapid degradation of adenylates. Conversion of XD to XO in hyperammonemic rat brain was evidenced by elevated XO/XD activity ratio. Injection of MK-801, a NMDA receptor blocker, prevented ammonia-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides and conversion of XD to XO suggesting that in vivo these processes are mediated by activation of NMDA receptors. The in vitro dose-dependent effects of sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, on XD and XO activities are indicative of the direct modification of the enzymes by nitric oxide. This is the first report evidencing the increase in brain xanthine and hypoxanthine levels and adenine nucleotide breakdown in acute ammonia intoxication and NMDA receptor-mediated prevention of these alterations.

  16. Xanthine tracers and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groman, E.V.; Cabelli, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    Compounds useful as tracers in the radioimmunoassay of xanthine derivatives such as theophylline and pharmacologically related drugs are described. They are substituted xanthines in which at least one substituted radical contains radioiodine. The tracers are made by linking radioiodinatable or preradioiodinated radicals to the xanthine derivative which is to be assayed. The tracers may be employed in known radioimmunoassay techniques. (author)

  17. Xanthines Studied via Femtosecond Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Changenet-Barret

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xanthines represent a wide class of compounds closely related to the DNA bases adenine and guanine. Ubiquitous in the human body, they are capable of replacing natural bases in double helices and give rise to four-stranded structures. Although the use of their fluorescence for analytical purposes was proposed, their fluorescence properties have not been properly characterized so far. The present paper reports the first fluorescence study of xanthine solutions relying on femtosecond spectroscopy. Initially, we focus on 3-methylxanthine, showing that this compound exhibits non-exponential fluorescence decays with no significant dependence on the emission wavelength. The fluorescence quantum yield (3 × 10−4 and average decay time (0.9 ps are slightly larger than those found for the DNA bases. Subsequently, we compare the dynamical fluorescence properties of seven mono-, di- and tri-methylated derivatives. Both the fluorescence decays and fluorescence anisotropies vary only weakly with the site and the degree of methylation. These findings are in line with theoretical predictions suggesting the involvement of several conical intersections in the relaxation of the lowest singlet excited state.

  18. Xanthine oxidoreductase and its inhibitors: relevance for gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard O; Kamel, Bishoy; Kannangara, Diluk R W; Williams, Kenneth M; Graham, Garry G

    2016-12-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism and converts hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine into uric acid. When concentrations of uric acid exceed its biochemical saturation point, crystals of uric acid, in the form of monosodium urate, emerge and can predispose an individual to gout, the commonest form of inflammatory arthritis in men aged over 40 years. XOR inhibitors are primarily used in the treatment of gout, reducing the formation of uric acid and thereby, preventing the formation of monosodium urate crystals. Allopurinol is established as first-line therapy for gout; a newer alternative, febuxostat, is used in patients unable to tolerate allopurinol. This review provides an overview of gout, a detailed analysis of the structure and function of XOR, discussion on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of XOR inhibitors-allopurinol and febuxostat, and the relevance of XOR in common comorbidities of gout. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  19. Adenine nucleotide depletion from endothelial cells exposed to xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, T.K.; Raivio, K.O.

    1990-01-01

    Hypoxia causes breakdown of cellular nucleotides, accumulation of hypoxanthine (HX), and conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase (XO). Upon reoxygenation, the HX-XO reaction generates free radicals, one potential mechanism of tissue damage. Because endothelial cells contain XO and are exposed to circulating HX, they are a likely target for damage. We studied the effect of XO and/or HX at physiologically relevant concentrations on nucleotide metabolism of cultured endothelial cells from human umbilical veins. Cells were labeled with [14C]adenine and incubated for up to 6 h with HX, XO, or both, in the absence or presence of serum. Adenine nucleotides from cell extracts and nucleotide breakdown products (HX, xanthine, and urate) from the medium were separated and counted. HX alone had no effect. XO (80 mU/ml) alone caused a 70% (no serum) or 40% (with serum) fall in adenine nucleotides and an equivalent increase of xanthine and urate. The combination of HX and XO caused a 90% (no serum) or 70% (with serum) decrease in nucleotides, decrease in energy charge, and detachment of cells from the culture plate. Nucleotide depletion was not accounted for by proteolytic activity in the XO preparation. Albumin was only half as effective as serum in preventing nucleotide loss. Thus exogenous XO, in the presence of endogenous HX, triggers adenine nucleotide catabolism, but endogenous XO activity is too low to influence nucleotide levels even at high exogenous HX concentrations. Serum limits the catabolic effect of XO and thus protects cells from free radical damage

  20. Posttranslational ruling of xanthine oxidase activity in bovine milk by its substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silanikove, Nissim [Ruminant Physiology, Institute of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250 (Israel); Shapiro, Fira [Ruminant Physiology, Institute of Animal Science, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Center, P.O. Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250 (Israel); Leitner, Gabriel [National Mastitis Reference Center, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan 50250 (Israel)

    2007-11-23

    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that the substrates of xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine and hypoxanthine, are consumed while the milk is stored in the gland between milkings, and to explore how XO activity responds to bacteria commonly associated with subclinical infections in the mammary gland. Freshly secreted milk was obtained following complete evacuation of the gland and induction of milk ejection with oxytocin. In bacteria-free fresh milk xanthine and hypoxanthine were converted to uric acid within 30 min (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 10 min), which in turn provides electrons for formation of hydrogen peroxide and endows the alveolar lumen with passive protection against invading bacteria. On the other hand, the longer residence time of milk in the cistern compartment was not associated with oxidative stress as a result of XO idleness caused by exhaustion of its physiological fuels. The specific response of XO to bacteria species and the resulting bacteria-dependent nitrosative stress further demonstrates that it is part of the gland immune system.

  1. Posttranslational ruling of xanthine oxidase activity in bovine milk by its substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silanikove, Nissim; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that the substrates of xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine and hypoxanthine, are consumed while the milk is stored in the gland between milkings, and to explore how XO activity responds to bacteria commonly associated with subclinical infections in the mammary gland. Freshly secreted milk was obtained following complete evacuation of the gland and induction of milk ejection with oxytocin. In bacteria-free fresh milk xanthine and hypoxanthine were converted to uric acid within 30 min (T 1/2 ∼ 10 min), which in turn provides electrons for formation of hydrogen peroxide and endows the alveolar lumen with passive protection against invading bacteria. On the other hand, the longer residence time of milk in the cistern compartment was not associated with oxidative stress as a result of XO idleness caused by exhaustion of its physiological fuels. The specific response of XO to bacteria species and the resulting bacteria-dependent nitrosative stress further demonstrates that it is part of the gland immune system

  2. Polyethylene Glycols as Efficient Catalysts for the Oxidation of Xanthine Alkaloids by Ceric Ammonium Nitrate in Acetonitrile: A Kinetic and Mechanistic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shylaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of oxidation of xanthine alkaloids, such as Xanthine (XAN, hypoxanthine (HXAN, caffeine (CAF, theophylline (TPL, and theobromine (TBR, have been studied with ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN using poly ethylene glycols (PEG as catalysts. Reaction obeyed first order kinetics in both [CAN] and [Xanthine alkaloid]. Highly sluggish CAN-xanthine alkaloid reactions (in acetonitrile media even at elevated temperatures are enhanced in presence PEGs (PEG-200, -300, -400, -600. An increase in [PEG] increased the rate of oxidation linearly. This observation coupled with a change in absorption of CAN in presence of PEG, [H–(OCH2–CH2n–O–NH4Ce(NO34(CH3CN] (PEG bound CAN species, is considered to be more reactive than CAN. The mechanism of oxidation in PEG media has been explained by Menger-Portnoy’s enzymatic model.

  3. Control of biofouling by xanthine oxidase on seawater reverse osmosis membranes from a desalination plant: enzyme production and screening of bacterial isolates from the full-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, V; Skillman, L; Li, D; Xie, Z; Ho, G

    2017-07-01

    Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme. Initially, 64 bacterial strains were isolated from different locations of the Perth Seawater Desalination Plant. In our preceding study, 25/64 isolates were selected from the culture collection as models for biofouling studies, based on their prevalence in comparison to the genomic bacterial community. In this study, screening of these model strains was performed using a nitroblue tetrazolium assay in the presence of hypoxanthine as substrate. Enzyme activity was measured by absorbance. Nine of 25 strains tested positive for xanthine oxidase production, of which Exiguobacterium from sand filters and Microbacterium from RO membranes exhibited significant levels of enzyme production. Other genera that produced xanthine oxidase were Marinomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas and Staphylococcus. Strain variations were observed between members of the genera Microbacterium and Bacillus. Xanthine oxidase, an oxidoreductase enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species, is endogenously produced by many bacterial species. In this study, production of the enzyme by bacterial isolates from a full-scale desalination plant was investigated for potential use as biological control of membrane fouling in seawater desalination. We have previously demonstrated that free radicals generated by a commercially available xanthine oxidase in the presence of a hypoxanthine substrate, effectively dispersed biofilm polysaccharides on industrially fouled membranes

  4. Inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase by acyclic nucleoside phosphonates: A new class of antimalarial therapeutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Hocková, Dana; Holý, Antonín; Naesens, L.; Skinner-Adams, T. S.; de Jersey, J.; Guddat, L. W.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 14 (2009), s. 4391-4399 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA AV ČR 1QS400550501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * phosphoribosyltransferase * enzyme inhibitors * Plasmodium falciparum Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.802, year: 2009

  5. Crystal structures and inhibition of Trypanosoma brucei hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Terán, D.; Hocková, Dana; Česnek, Michal; Zíková, Alena; Naesens, L.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Oct 27 (2016), č. článku 35894. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S; GA MŠk LL1205 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * HGPRT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 http://www.nature.com/articles/srep35894

  6. Design of Plasmodium vivax Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors as Potential Antimalarial Therapeutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Rejman, Dominik; Pohl, Radek; Zborníková, Eva; Hocková, Dana; Croll, T.; Edstein, M. D.; Birrell, G. W.; Chavchich, M.; Naesens, L. M. J.; Pierens, G. K.; Brereton, I. M.; Guddat, L. W.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2018), s. 82-90 ISSN 1554-8929 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S; GA ČR GA15-11711S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : plasmodium vivax * inhibitor * pyrrolidine nucleotide bisphosphonate * HXGPRT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 4.995, year: 2016

  7. Mutations Associated with Functional Disorder of Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Hereditary Xanthinuria in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishino

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to xanthine and xanthine to uric acid with concomitant reduction of either NAD+ or O2. The enzyme is a target of drugs to treat hyperuricemia, gout and reactive oxygen-related diseases. Human diseases associated with genetically determined dysfunction of XOR are termed xanthinuria, because of the excretion of xanthine in urine. Xanthinuria is classified into two subtypes, type I and type II. Type I xanthinuria involves XOR deficiency due to genetic defect of XOR, whereas type II xanthinuria involves dual deficiency of XOR and aldehyde oxidase (AO, a molybdoflavo enzyme similar to XOR due to genetic defect in the molybdenum cofactor sulfurase. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency is associated with triple deficiency of XOR, AO and sulfite oxidase, due to defective synthesis of molybdopterin, which is a precursor of molybdenum cofactor for all three enzymes. The present review focuses on mutation or chemical modification studies of mammalian XOR, as well as on XOR mutations identified in humans, aimed at understanding the reaction mechanism of XOR and the relevance of mutated XORs as models to estimate the possible side effects of clinical application of XOR inhibitors.

  8. Rapid determination of the hypoxanthine increase in ischemic exercise tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, P. A.; Zwart, R.; Bär, P. R.; de Visser, M.; van der Helm, H. J.

    1988-01-01

    After ischemic exercise tests, performed to detect glycogenoses or myoadenylate deaminase (EC 3.5.4.6) deficiency, the increases in serum lactate and ammonia usually are measured. Determination of hypoxanthine instead of ammonia can also be used to show myoadenylate deaminase deficiency, but HPLC of

  9. Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase in rat liver and plasma at the onset of reperfusion after ischemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Schiller, H. J.; Schijns, M.; van Noorden, C. J.; Frederiks, W. M.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase as induced by fasting, ischemia of the liver or both is an in vivo process or only occurs in vitro in homogenates. For this purpose, the conversion rate of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay for simultaneous screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors and free radical scavengers from complex mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D Q; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2014-06-06

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to generate uric acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion radical (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide. XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers are beneficial to the treatment of gout and many related diseases. In the present study, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay was established and successfully applied to simultaneously screening of XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers from a complex mixture, Oroxylum indicum extract. The integrated system of HPLC separation, bioactivity screening and mass spectrometry identification was proved to be simple and effective for rapid and sensitive screening of individual bioactive compounds in complex mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetic isotope effect studies on milk xanthine oxidase and on chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ardenne, S.C.; Edmondson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of isotopic substitution of the 8-H of xanthine (with 2 H and 3 H) on the rate of oxidation by bovine xanthine oxidase and by chicken xanthine dehydrogenase has been measured. V/K isotope effects were determined from competition experiments. No difference in H/T (V/K) values was observed between xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase. Xanthine dehydrogenase exhibited a larger T/D (V/K) value than that observed for xanthine oxidase. Observed H/T (V/K) values for either enzyme are less than those H/T (V/K) values calculated with D/T (V/K) data. These discrepancies are suggested to arise from the presence of a rate-limiting step(s) prior to the irreversible C-H bond cleavage step in the mechanistic pathways of both enzymes. These kinetic complexities preclude examination of whether tunneling contributes to the reaction coordinate for the H-transfer step in each enzyme. No observable exchange of tritium with solvent is observed during the anaerobic incubation of [8- 3 H]xanthine with either enzyme, which suggests the reverse commitment to catalysis (C r ) is essentially zero. With the assumption of adherence to reduced mass relationships, the intrinsic deuterium isotope effect ( D k) for xanthine oxidation is calculated. By the use of these values and steady-state kinetic data, the minimal rate for the hydrogen-transfer step is calculated to be ∼75-fold faster than k cat for xanthine oxidase and ∼10-fold faster than k cat for xanthine dehydrogenase. Values calculated for each enzyme were found to be identical within experimental uncertainty

  12. Preferential inhibition of xanthine oxidase by 2-amino-6-hydroxy-8-mercaptopurine and 2-amino-6-purine thiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhopadhyay Anup

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anticancer drug, 6-mercaptopurine (6MP is subjected to metabolic clearance through xanthine oxidase (XOD mediated hydroxylation, producing 6-thiouric acid (6TUA, which is excreted in urine. This reduces the effective amount of drug available for therapeutic efficacy. Co-administration of allopurinol, a suicide inhibitor of XOD, which blocks the hydroxylation of 6MP inadvertently enhances the 6MP blood level, counters this reduction. However, allopurinol also blocks the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine (released from dead cancer cells leading to their accumulation in the body causing biochemical complications such as xanthine nephropathy. This necessitates the use of a preferential XOD inhibitor that selectively inhibits 6MP transformation, but leaves xanthine metabolism unaffected. Results Here, we have characterized two such unique inhibitors namely, 2-amino-6-hydroxy-8-mercaptopurine (AHMP and 2-amino-6-purinethiol (APT on the basis of IC50 values, residual activity in bi-substrate simulative reaction and the kinetic parameters like Km, Ki, kcat. The IC50 values of AHMP for xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 17.71 ± 0.29 μM and 0.54 ± 0.01 μM, respectively and the IC50 values of APT for xanthine and 6MP as substrates are 16.38 ± 0.21 μM and 2.57 ± 0.08 μM, respectively. The Ki values of XOD using AHMP as inhibitor with xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 5.78 ± 0.48 μM and 0.96 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The Ki values of XOD using APT as inhibitor with xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 6.61 ± 0.28 μM and 1.30 ± 0.09 μM. The corresponding Km values of XOD using xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 2.65 ± 0.02 μM and 6.01 ± 0.03 μM, respectively. The results suggest that the efficiency of substrate binding to XOD and its subsequent catalytic hydroxylation is much superior for xanthine in comparison to 6MP. In addition, the efficiency of the inhibitor binding to XOD is much more superior when 6MP is the

  13. Inverting the G-Tetrad Polarity of a G-Quadruplex by Using Xanthine and 8-Oxoguanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Vee Vee; Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2016-01-04

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded nucleic acid structures that are built from consecutively stacked guanine tetrad (G-tetrad) assemblies. The simultaneous incorporation of two guanine base lesions, xanthine (X) and 8-oxoguanine (O), within a single G-tetrad of a G-quadruplex was recently shown to lead to the formation of a stable G⋅G⋅X⋅O tetrad. Herein, a judicious introduction of X and O into a human telomeric G-quadruplex-forming sequence is shown to reverse the hydrogen-bond polarity of the modified G-tetrad while preserving the original folding topology. The control exerted over G-tetrad polarity by joint X⋅O modification will be valuable for the design and programming of G-quadruplex structures and their properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Isolation of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-defective mutants in Chinese hamster V79 cells by tritium suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, R.E.; Schauer, I.E.; Hatcher, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    Tritium suicide was shown to be a highly efficient method for isolating mutants defective in hypoxanthine incorporation in the Chinese hamster lung of one kill cycle were used for the next kill cycle. The kill cycles involved incorporation of ( 3 H) hypoxanthine for 5 or 10 min, followed by storage of 3 H-labelled cells at -70 0 C for 4-10 days. 12 clones that survived the 3rd kill cycle were tested for incorporation of ( 3 H)hypoxanthine and all were found to be defective. At least 6 of the clones have defective hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) activity. One mutant, H19, chosen for further characterization, had HPRT with a 13-fold elevation in apparent Ksub(m) for phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Thin-layer chromatography of cell extracts showed that this mutant was incapable of converting intracellular hypoxanthine to IMP or to other purine metabolites. In addition, H19 was resistant to 6-thioguanine. (orig.)

  15. Investigation of antihemolytic, xanthine oxidase inhibition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abbreviations: SVEs: Salvia Verbenaca L. aerial part Extracts; CrE: Crud Extract; ChE: Chloroform Extract ; EAE: Ethyl Acetate Extract; AqE : Aqueous Extract ; ROS: Reactive Oxygen Spices; AAPH : 2,2, -Azobis (2-AmidinoPropane) Dihydrochloride ; DPPH: DiPhenyl- Picryl-Hydrazyl; XO: Xanthine Oxidase; Gen: Gentamicin ...

  16. Amperometric biosensor based on prussian blue and nafion modified screen-printed electrode for screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrad, Loubna; Amine, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive amperometric biosensor was developed for the screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants. This biosensor was prepared by immobilization of xanthine oxidase on the surface of prussian blue modified screen-printed electrodes using nafion and glutaraldehyde. The developed biosensor showed a linear amperometric response at an applied potential of +0.05 V toward the detection of hypoxanthine from 5 μM to 45 μM with a detection limit of 0.4 μM (S/N=3) and its sensitivity was found to be 600 mA M(-1) cm(-2). In addition, the biosensor exhibited a good storage stability. The inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol was studied under the optimized conditions. The linear range of allopurinol concentration is obtained up to 2.5 μM with an estimated 50% of inhibitionI50=1.8 μM. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors from 13 medicinal plants belonging to different families. Indeed, Moroccan people traditionally use these plants as infusion for the treatment of gout and its related symptoms. For this purpose, water extracts obtained from the infusion of these plants were used for the experiments. In this work, 13 extracts were assayed and several of them demonstrated xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, with an inhibition greater than 50% compared to spectrophotometry measurements that only few extracts showed an inhibition greater than 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Density functional theory and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy studies of tautomeric hypoxanthine and its adsorption behaviors in electrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Wei; Jiang, Jin-Zhi; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Bi-Qi; Deng, Shu-Fen; Sun, Jian Jun; Chen, Wen-Kai

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Hypoxanthine, a purine heterocyclic compound with N and O atoms, has capability to combine metal ions or adsorb on metals. By using density functional theory (DFT) method calculation, the energy, charge distribution, molecular orbital and vibration spectra information of tautomeric hypoxanthine were given. Combined with these DFT results, the influence of pH on the structure of tautomeric hypoxanthine was studied by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Electrochemical SERS was applied to study the properties of hypoxanthine/gold interface. It is found that the structure of adsorbed hypoxanthine was changed from slightly tilted to upright with negatively moving of potentials

  18. 21 CFR 73.1329 - Guanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring externally... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1329 Guanine. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive guanine is the crystalline material obtained from fish scales and consists principally of the two purines...

  19. Bisphenol A 3,4-quinone induces the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Morinaga, Kazuhiro; Fujitake, Mihoyo; Wada, Shun-ichi; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the influence of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A 3,4-quinone (BPAQ) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) into xanthine oxidase (XO) in the rat liver in vitro. BPA up to 100 micromol/L did not affect the XO and XD activities in the partially purified cytosolic fraction from rat liver, whereas BPAQ (2-10 micromol/L) dose-dependently enhanced the XO activity concomitant with a decrease in the XD activity, implying that BPAQ, but not BPA, can convert XD into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing the form XO. Furthermore, it was found that BPAQ could increase the generation of ROS and oxidize the guanine moiety of deoxyguanosine in the DNA of primary rat hepatocyte cultures. These results suggest that BPAQ has the potential to convert XD into XO in the liver, which in turn may lead to ROS generation and oxidative DNA damage in this region. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis of Lipophilic Guanine N-9 Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Michael C; Pedersen, Pernille L; Löffler, Philipp M G

    2017-01-01

    the synthesis of five new guanine-N9 derivatives bearing alkyl chains with different attachment chemistries, exploiting a synthesis pathway that allows a flexible choice of hydrophobic anchor moiety. In this study, these guanine derivatives were functionalized with C10 chains for insertion into decanoic acid...... bilayer structures, in which both alkyl chain length and attachment chemistry determined their interaction with the membrane. Incubation of these guanine conjugates, as solids, with a decanoic acid vesicle suspension, showed that ether- and triazole-linked C10 anchors yielded an increased partitioning...... of the guanine derivative into the membranous phase compared to directly N-9-linked saturated alkyl anchors. Decanoic acid vesicle membranes could be loaded with up to 5.5 mol % guanine derivative, a 6-fold increase over previous limits. Thus, anchor chemistries exhibiting favorable interactions with a bilayer...

  1. Effect of Naturally Occurring Xanthines on Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, C. V. Sundar; Dhala, Salim

    1965-01-01

    The effect of xanthines on various microorganisms was studied. The antibacterial effect was not high; most of the test organisms could easily withstand a concentration of 2,500 μg/ml. Caffeine was more antibacterial than theophylline, and the latter more than theobromine. Caffeine citrate exhibited greater inhibitory effect than did pure caffeine. The effect was both bacteriostatic and bactericidal against susceptible organisms. The susceptibility of organisms to xanthines differed greatly even in related species. The morphology of Aerobacter aerogenes and A. cloacae was affected under the influence of caffeine; filamentation of cells followed sublethal doses. Potentiation was seen with antibiotics and caffeine; resistant strains were killed with a lower dose of drug in the presence of caffeine. This potentiating effect was pronounced with the tetracyclines; with streptomycin, the effect was the contrary. Images Fig. 1A Fig. 1B Fig. 2A Fig. 2B PMID:14325283

  2. Synthesis and purification of 13C labelled xanthine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukraa, M.S.; Deruaz, D.; Bannier, A.; Desage, M.; Brazier, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    3-[Methyl- 13 )C]xanthine, 7-[Methyl- 13 )C]xanthine, 1,3-[Dimethyl- 13 )C 2 ]xanthine (theophylline-1,3-[ 13 )CH 3 ] 2 ), 1,7-[Dimethyl- 13 )C 2 ]xanthine (paraxanthine-1,7[ 13 )CH 3 ] 2 ), and 3,7-[Dimethyl- 13 )C 2 ]xanthine (theobromine-3,7-[ 13 )CH 3 ] 2 were synthesized by nucleophilic substitution reaction(SN 2 ) from xanthine (X) and iodomethane-[ 13 C]. The 3-isobutylparaxanthine-7-[ 13 CH 3 ] was prepared from 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). The compounds were purified by reverse phase semipreparative liquid chromatography and their chemical structure and purity verified by GC-MS. (Author)

  3. Electronic spectra and structures of some biologically important xanthines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, M. K.; Mishra, P. C.

    1994-08-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of aqueous solutions of xanthine, caffeine, theophylline and theobromine have been studied at different pH. The observed spectra have been interpreted in terms of neutral and ionic forms of the molecules with the help of molecular orbital calculations. At neutral and acidic pH, the spectra can be assigned to the corresponding most stable neutral forms, with the exception that the fluorescence of xanthine at acidic pH appears to originate from the lowest singlet excited state of a cation of the molecule. At alkaline pH, xanthine and theophylline exist mainly as their monoanions. In xanthine and theophylline at alkaline pH, fluorescence originates from the lowest singlet excited state of the corresponding anion. However, in caffeine and theobromine, even at alkaline pH, fluorescence belongs to the neutral species. On the whole, the properties of xanthine are quite different from those of the methyl xanthines.

  4. Dissociative electron attachment to the gas-phase nucleobase hypoxanthine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawley, M. Michele [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Tanzer, Katrin; Denifl, Stephan, E-mail: Stephan.Denifl@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Sylwia.Ptasinska.1@nd.edu [Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, and Center for Molecular Biosciences Innsbruck (CMBI), Leopold-Franzens Universität Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Carmichael, Ian [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Ptasińska, Sylwia, E-mail: Stephan.Denifl@uibk.ac.at, E-mail: Sylwia.Ptasinska.1@nd.edu [Radiation Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2015-06-07

    We present high-resolution measurements of the dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to isolated gas-phase hypoxanthine (C{sub 5}H{sub 4}N{sub 4}O, Hyp), a tRNA purine base. The anion mass spectra and individual ion efficiency curves from Hyp were measured as a function of electron energy below 9 eV. The mass spectra at 1 and 6 eV exhibit the highest anion yields, indicating possible common precursor ions that decay into the detectable anionic fragments. The (Hyp − H) anion (C{sub 5}H{sub 3}N{sub 4}O{sup −}) exhibits a sharp resonant peak at 1 eV, which we tentatively assign to a dipole-bound state of the keto-N1H,N9H tautomer in which dehydrogenation occurs at either the N1 or N9 position based upon our quantum chemical computations (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) and U(MP2-aug-cc-pVDZ+)) and prior studies with adenine. This closed-shell dehydrogenated anion is the dominant fragment formed upon electron attachment, as with other nucleobases. Seven other anions were also observed including (Hyp − NH){sup −}, C{sub 4}H{sub 3}N{sub 4}{sup −}/C{sub 4}HN{sub 3}O{sup −}, C{sub 4}H{sub 2}N{sub 3}{sup −}, C{sub 3}NO{sup −}/HC(HCN)CN{sup −}, OCN{sup −}, CN{sup −}, and O{sup −}. Most of these anions exhibit broad but weak resonances between 4 and 8 eV similar to many analogous anions from adenine. The DEA to Hyp involves significant fragmentation, which is relevant to understanding radiation damage of biomolecules.

  5. Xanthine oxidase in human skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Frandsen, Ulrik; Orthenblad, N.

    1997-01-01

    the increase in xanthine oxidase in the muscle there were no detectable changes in the levels of muscle malondialdehyde or in plasma antioxidant capacity up to 4 days post-exercise. 5. It is concluded that eccentric exercise leads to an increased level of xanthine oxidase in human muscle and that the increase...

  6. XANTHINE OXYDASE INHIBITION OF KOMBUCHA TEA IN HYPERURICEMIA INDUCED WISTAR RAT: decrease of uric acid, malondialdehyde, and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I D. M. Sukrama

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperuricemia is a condition of high level of uric acid in the body due to distortion of purine nucleoside metabolism through hipoxanthin, xanthin, and guanin of basic purine. Objective: to find a cure of hyperuricemia base on the utilization of kombucha tea. Methods: This is a true experimental study by applying posttest only control group design to determine whether kombucha tea inhibit xanthine oxidase in hyperuricemic induced rat reveales by decrease of uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG. In this study, hyperuricemia rat was achieved by intake of high purine diet. Rats were fed with a mixture of 4 g/kg BW of Gnetum gnemon with 50 mL/kg BW of chicken liver ad libitum for 9 days. Treatments in this research are combination of fermentation time of Kombucha tea and volume of this tea, i.e fermentation time 4, 8, and 12 days and the volume are 1 mL and 4 mL. Therefore, there would be seven groups of treatment including control group. ANOVA was then applied to determine the treatment effect with p < 0.05 was concidered significant. Results: This study indicates that kombucha tea has an ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase in hyperuricemic induced rat and decrease uric acid, MDA, and 8-OHdG. This ability was achieved with combination treatment of 12 days fermentation and 4 mL of kombucha intake. Xanthine oxidase, uric acid, MDA, and 8-OHdG levels by this treatment were obtained significantly lower compare to control group. Conclusion: This study proved that kombucha tea was potent to cure hyperuricemia of wistar rat via inhibition of xanthine oxidase produced.

  7. Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 induces increased complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 colony biofilms via hypoxanthine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kankel, Stefanie; Götze, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    to identify soil bacteria, which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with B. subtilis. We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as inducer of wrinkle-formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated......O, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression, but rather caused by the excess of hypoxanthine...... within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death. Importance Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be favorable, for instance in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities...

  8. Plasmodium falciparum: assessment of in vitro growth by [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chulay, J.D.; Haynes, J.D.; Diggs, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    To evaluate rapidly Plasmodium falciparum growth in Vitro, [ 3 H]hypoxanthine was added to parasite microcultures and radioisotope incorporation was measured. When culture parameters were carefully controlled, [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation was proportional to the number of parasitized erythrocytes present. Factors affecting [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation included initial parasitemia, duration of culture, duration of radioisotope pulse, parasite stage, concentration of uninfected erythrocytes, the use of serum or plasma to supplement growth, and the concentration of a variety of purines in the culture medium. The method described can be used to measure inhibition of P. falciparum growth by immune serum and has previously been used to study antimalarial drug activity in vitro

  9. Interactions of xanthines with activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete Casas, R.; Garcia Rodriguez, A.; Rey Bueno, F.; Espinola Lara, A.; Valenzuela Calahorro, C.; Navarrete Guijosa, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, we have studied the adsorption of xanthine derivatives by activated carbon sorbents in aqueous solutions. The study comprised both kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic aspects. The kinetic results were reported in a previous paper; the equilibrium-related results are discussed here. The two types of carbon used exhibit some differences but the equilibrium isotherms obtained are all of the H-3 type in the classification of Giles. This suggests a high affinity of the sorbents for the sorbates. We also found that the overall adsorption process comprises more than one individual adsorption-desorption process of which one leads to the formation of a 'monolayer' and the other to the 'precipitation' of the sorbate on the sorbent surface (multilayer adsorption); the amount of sorbate adsorbed in monolayer form was seemingly greater in C-A14

  10. Ascertainment of the concentration of hypoxanthine in frozen meat of chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Lopes d e Abreu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abreu R.L., Godoy R.L.O., Pacheco S., Pereira V.L. & Salgado N.L.G. [Ascertainment of the concentration of hypoxanthine in frozen meat of chicken.] Averiguação da concentração de hipoxantina em carne congelada de frango. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:350-352, 2015. Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: robsonlopesabreu@uol.com.br The objective of this study was to ascertain the concentration of hypoxanthine of the product “Cut Frozen Chicken (drumsticks” from the SIF 2423, by the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with ultraviolet detection. The sample presented 284µg.g-1 (2.08µmoles.g-1 of hypoxanthine, showing that reached the optimal maturation in terms of sensory, which occurs when concentration of hypoxanthine reaches 1.5 to 2.0 µmoles.g-1 of meat. This was a consequence of the high concentration of triphosphate of adenosine (ATP present in the sample, due to cuts in question are energy storage.

  11. Amperometric xanthine biosensors using glassy carbon electrodes modified with electrografted porous silica nanomaterials loaded with xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadaoui, Maroua; Sánchez, Alfredo; Díez, Paula; Raouafi, Noureddine; Pingarrón, José M.; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrodes were modified with silica materials such as silica nanoparticles, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and mesoporous silica thin films with the aim to introduce scaffolds suitable for the immobilization of enzymes. Xanthine oxidase was selected as a model enzyme, and xanthine as the target analyte. A comparison of the modified electrodes showed the biosensor prepared with mesoporous silica nanoparticles to perform best. By using the respective biosensor, xanthine can be amperometrically determined (via measurement of enzymatically formed hydrogen peroxide) at a working voltage of 0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with a 0.28 μM detection limit. The biosensor was evaluated in terms of potential interferences, reproducibility and stability, and applied to the determination of fish freshness via sensing of xanthine. (author)

  12. Kinetics of adenylate metabolism in human and rat myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Tavenier, M.; Skladanowski, A.C.; Abreu, R.A. de; Jong, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPathways producing and converting adenosine have hardly been investigated in human heart, contrasting work in other species. We compared the kinetics of enzymes associated with purine degradation and salvage in human and rat heart cytoplasm assaying for adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, xanthine oxidoreductase, AMP deaminase, AMP- and IMP-specific 5′-nucleotidases, adenosine kinase and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT). Xanthine oxidoreductase was...

  13. Thermochemical parameters of caffeine, theophylline, and xanthine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Tuan Cuong; Truong Ba Tai [Department of Chemistry, and Mathematical Modeling and Computational Science Center (LMCC), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vu Thi Thu Ha [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Minh Tho Nguyen, E-mail: minh.nguyen@chem.kuleuven.b [Department of Chemistry, and Mathematical Modeling and Computational Science Center (LMCC), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-04-15

    Thermochemical parameters of caffeine 1, theophylline 2, xanthine 3, uracil, and imidazole derivatives are determined by quantum chemical calculations. Using the composite G3B3 method, the standard heat of formation of caffeine in the gaseous phase amounts to DELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(1)=-243+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}, which lends a support for the recent experimental value of -237.0 +- 2.5 kcal . mol{sup -1}. We also obtain DELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(2)=-232+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}andDELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(3)=-209+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}. The adiabatic ionization energies are IE{sub a}(1) = 7.9 eV, IE{sub a}(2) = 8.1 eV, and IE{sub a}(3) = 8.5 eV using B3LYP calculations. The enhanced ability of caffeine to eject electron, as compared to the parent compounds and cyclic components, is of interest with regard to its potential use as a corrosion inhibitor.

  14. Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 Induces Increased Complexity in Bacillus subtilis 168 Colony Biofilms via Hypoxanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Kankel, Stefanie; Götze, Sebastian; Barnett, Robert; Stallforth, Pierre; Kovács, Ákos T

    2017-11-15

    In recent years, biofilms have become a central subject of research in the fields of microbiology, medicine, agriculture, and systems biology, among others. The sociomicrobiology of multispecies biofilms, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we report a screening system that allowed us to identify soil bacteria which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with Bacillus subtilis We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as an inducer of wrinkle formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule. This compound was isolated by bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation. The elicitor was identified to be the purine hypoxanthine using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We show that the induction of wrinkle formation by hypoxanthine is not dependent on signal recognition by the histidine kinases KinA, KinB, KinC, and KinD, which are generally involved in phosphorylation of the master regulator Spo0A. Likewise, we show that hypoxanthine signaling does not induce the expression of biofilm matrix-related operons epsABCDEFGHIJKLMNO and tasA-sipW-tapA Finally, we demonstrate that the purine permease PbuO, but not PbuG, is necessary for hypoxanthine to induce an increase in wrinkle formation of B. subtilis biofilm colonies. Our results suggest that hypoxanthine-stimulated wrinkle development is not due to a direct induction of biofilm-related gene expression but rather is caused by the excess of hypoxanthine within B. subtilis cells, which may lead to cell stress and death. IMPORTANCE Biofilms are a bacterial lifestyle with high relevance regarding diverse human activities. Biofilms can be beneficial, for instance, in crop protection. In nature, biofilms are commonly found as multispecies communities displaying complex social behaviors and characteristics. The study of interspecies interactions will thus lead to a better understanding and use of biofilms as they

  15. Monochloramine produces reactive oxygen species in liver by converting xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Satoru; Miyoshi, Emi; Sadatoku, Namiko; Fujita, Junko; Negoro, Miki; Arakawa, Yukio; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2009-09-15

    In the present study, we assessed the influence of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) into xanthine oxidase (XO) in rat liver in vitro. When incubated with the partially purified cytosolic fraction from rat liver, NH(2)Cl (2.5-20 microM) dose-dependently enhanced XO activity concomitant with a decrease in XD activity, implying that NH(2)Cl can convert XD into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing form XO. The NH(2)Cl (5 microM)-induced XD/XO interconversion in the rat liver cytosol was completely inhibited when added in combination with an inhibitor of NH(2)Cl methionine (25 microM). A sulfhydryl reducing agent, dithiothreitol at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 5 mM also dose-dependently reversed the NH(2)Cl (5 microM)-induced XD/XO interconversion. These imply that NH(2)Cl itself acts on the XD/XO interconversion, and that this conversion occurs at the cysteine residues in XD. Furthermore, using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, it was found that NH(2)Cl could increase ROS generation in the cytoplasm of rat primary hepatocyte cultures, and that this increase might be reversed by an XO inhibitor, allopurinol. These results suggest that NH(2)Cl has the potential to convert XD into XO in the liver, which in turn may induce the ROS generation in this region.

  16. Effects of low dose irradiation on the K-value and hypoxanthine concentration of fish fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.J.; Mitchell, G.E.; Nottingham, S.M.; Jarrett, S.J.; Petroff, M.

    1993-01-01

    Fillets of five fish species were irradiated at 0, 1 and 3kGy to investigate whether the K-value test of freshness can be applied to irradiated fish. Following irradiation, the fillets were stored on ice and sampled regularly for K-value analysis. Hypoxanthine (Hx) and total nucleotide content were also determined on fillets of two species. K-values of irradiated fillets were generally lower than those of unirradiated controls. Hypoxanthine levels paralleled the K-value changes. These results indicated that quality standards based on K-values or Hx levels that have been set for unirradiated species cannot be directly applied to fish that has been irradiated. Total nucleotide content did not appear to be affected by irradiation

  17. Methyl DNA adducts, DNA repair, and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase mutations in peripheral white blood cells from patients with malignant melanoma treated with dacarbazine and hydroxyurea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philip, P.A.; Souliotis, V.L.; Harris, A.L.; Salisbury, A.; Tates, A.D.; Mitchell, K.; Delft, J.H.M. van; Ganesan, T.S.; Kyrtopoulos, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Dacarbazine (DTIC) is a DNA-methylating drug used in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Among the DNA dducts induced by DTIC are N7-methylguanine (N7-meG) and O6-methylguamne (O6-meG). The latter adduct, in particular, may be important in the mutagenic as well as the cytotoxic activity of DTIC.

  18. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases; Effet antioxydant de xanthines naturelles sur le dommage oxydant des bases de l`ADN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, A.J.S.C.; Telo, J.P.; Pereira, H.F.; Patrocinio, P.F. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Dias, R.M.B. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem codex (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophylline and para-xanthine repair the oxidizes radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine to do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. (authors) 10 refs.

  19. Studies on mixed ligand complexes of adenine and xanthine with some rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, P.R.; Singh, Mamta; Nayan, Ram

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of 6-aminopurine (adenine, HA) and 2,6-dihydroxypurine (xanthine, HB) with trivalent rare earth ions Y, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm, have been studied by pH-titration methods in aqueous solution at 20 o (μ = 0.1 M KNO 3 ). The ligands in their mixtures with tripositive rare earth ions (M 3+ ) form a number of mixed ligand complexes, M 3+ -adenine-xanthine, M 3+ -(adenine) 2 -xanthine, M 3+ -adenine-(xanthine) 2 in addition to the binary complexes, M 3+ -(adenine), M 3+ -(adenine) 2 , M 3+ -(adenine) 3 , M 3+ -(xanthine), M 3+ -(xanthine) 2 and M 3+ -(xanthine) 3 . The stability constants of these complexes have been evaluated and the results discussed. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Rapid clearance of xanthines from airway and pulmonary tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroell, F.K.; Karlsson, J.A.; Nilsson, E.; Ryrfeldt, A.; Persson, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The airway and pulmonary fate of two antiasthma xanthines was examined in a guinea pig perfused lung preparation where the airway mechanics and airway microvascular perfusion are maintained at near normal values. 14C-theophylline or 14C-enprofylline was infused for 10, 30, and 300 s into the pulmonary artery of the guinea pig isolated lung. The radioactivity increased rapidly (within 10 s) in tracheobronchial as well as in lung tissue, confirming that the large airway microcirculation was well supplied also by the perfusion. The effluent concentrations of total 3H and 14C radioactivity at the onset, during, and after intrapulmonary infusion of 14C-labeled xanthines and 3H-sucrose were closely associated, suggesting that the xanthines, like sucrose, largely distributed in extracellular fluid and were not taken up by the tissues. No metabolites of enprofylline or theophylline could be detected in the lung tissue or lung effluent, suggesting that xanthines are not biotransformed by the guinea pig lung. After intratracheal instillation of 14C-theophylline, the peak radioactivity in the lung effluent appeared in the second 15-s fraction after instillation, and after 10 and 60 min, 68.1 +/- 4.7% and 86.9 +/- 8.4%, respectively, of the given dose had appeared in the lung effluent. The present data suggest a mainly extracellular distribution and a rapid clearance of xanthines from the lung and airway tissues. The rapid disappearance of topical theophylline may explain the lack of success of inhalation therapy with this drug

  1. Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Shuichi; Kagi, Akiko; Koyama, Hidekazu; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Xanthine urolithiasis was found in a 4-year-old spayed female Himalayan cat with a 10-month history of intermittent haematuria and dysuria. Ultrasonographs indicated the existence of several calculi in the bladder that were undetectable by survey radiographic examination. Four bladder stones were removed by cystotomy. The stones were spherical brownish-yellow and their surface was smooth and glossy. Quantitative mineral analysis showed a representative urolith to be composed of more than 95% xanthine. Ultrasonographic examination of the bladder 4.5 months postoperatively indicated the recurrence of urolithiasis. Analysis of purine concentration in urine and blood showed that the cat excreted excessive amounts of xanthine. In order to test the hypothesis that xanthinuria was caused by a homozygote of the inherited mutant allele of a gene responsible for deficiency of enzyme activity in purine degradation pathway, the allele composition of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene (one of the candidate genes for hereditary xanthinuria) was evaluated. The cat with xanthinuria was a heterozygote of the polymorphism. A single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the cat XDH gene strongly indicated that the XDH gene of the patient cat was composed of two kinds of alleles and ruled out the hypothesis that the cat inherited the same recessive XDH allele suggesting no activity from a single ancestor.

  2. Xanthine and 8-oxoguanine in G-quadruplexes: formation of a G·G·X·O tetrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Vee Vee; Heddi, Brahim; Lech, Christopher Jacques; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2015-12-02

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded structures built from stacked G-tetrads (G·G·G·G), which are planar cyclical assemblies of four guanine bases interacting through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. A G-quadruplex containing a single guanine analog substitution, such as 8-oxoguanine (O) or xanthine (X), would suffer from a loss of a Hoogsteen hydrogen bond within a G-tetrad and/or potential steric hindrance. We show that a proper arrangement of O and X bases can reestablish the hydrogen-bond pattern within a G·G·X·O tetrad. Rational incorporation of G·G·X·O tetrads in a (3+1) G-quadruplex demonstrated a similar folding topology and thermal stability to that of the unmodified G-quadruplex. pH titration conducted on X·O-modified G-quadruplexes indicated a protonation-deprotonation equilibrium of X with a pKa ∼6.7. The solution structure of a G-quadruplex containing a G·G·X·O tetrad was determined, displaying the same folding topology in both the protonated and deprotonated states. A G-quadruplex containing a deprotonated X·O pair was shown to exhibit a more electronegative groove compared to that of the unmodified one. These differences are likely to manifest in the electronic properties of G-quadruplexes and may have important implications for drug targeting and DNA-protein interactions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Fluorescence study of some xanthine dyes under stepped laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirkova, L.V.; Ketsle, G.A.; Ermagambetov, K.T.

    1996-01-01

    Paper is devoted to definition of triplet state in molecules of xanthine dyes and study of intramolecular energy circulation. Stepped two-quanta excitation of dyes has been carried out with help of experimental unit. Intensive luminescence activated by excitation of triplet molecules of dyes within triplet-triplet band with wave length of 1060 nm was registered for eosin. Given luminescence spectrally coincides with fast fluorescence. 5 refs., 6 figs

  4. Xanthine oxidoreductase in cancer: more than a differentiation marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Human xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the last two steps of purine catabolism and is present in two interconvertible forms, which may utilize O 2 or NAD + as electron acceptors. In addition to uric acid, XOR products may comprise reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that have many biologic effects, including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and cytotoxicity, as well as mutagenesis and induction of proliferation. XOR is strictly modulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels, and its expression and activity are highly variable in cancer. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) expression has been negatively associated with a high malignity grade and a worse prognosis in neoplasms of the breast, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and kidney, which normally express a high level of XOR protein. However, the level of XOR expression may be associated with a worse outcome in cancer of low XOR-expressing cells, in relation to the inflammatory response elicited through the tissue damage induced by tumor growth. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has been implicated in the process of oncogenesis either directly because it is able to catalyze the metabolic activation of carcinogenic substances or indirectly through the action of XOR-derived reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The role of uric acid is characterized by both oxidant and antioxidant action; thus, it is still debatable whether control of uricemia may be helpful to improve the outcomes of tumor illness

  5. Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of caffeine, theobromine and xanthine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Sonish; Hadi, Naghma; Khan, Nizam Uddin; Hadi, Sheikh Mumtaz

    2003-09-01

    Caffeine, along with its catabolic products theobromine and xanthine, is a key component of tea and coffee. These compounds are structurally similar to uric acid, a known antioxidant which is present in blood at relatively high concentrations, but also shows prooxidant activity. In view of the structural similarity between uric acid and caffeine and its metabolites, we studied the antioxidant and prooxidant properties of these compounds. Antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the quenching effect of the compounds on oxidative DNA degradation by a hydroxyl radical generating system. Prooxidant activity was studied by measuring the ability of the compounds to oxidatively degrade DNA in the presence of copper ions. Caffeine, theobromine and xanthine have a quenching effect on the production of hydroxyl radicals, as well as on oxidative DNA breakage by hydroxyl radicals. Consistent with previous observations that many known antioxidants of plant origin are also capable of prooxidant action, the purine alkaloids also show oxidative DNA breakage in the presence of transition metal ions. The alkaloid caffeine and its catabolic products theobromine and xanthine exhibit both antioxidant and prooxidant properties. The results lead to the observation that caffeine and its metabolites may also contribute to the overall antioxidant and chemopreventive properties of caffeine-bearing beverages, such as tea.

  6. Reactivity of chitosan derivatives and their interaction with guanine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Density functional theory; hydrogen bonding; chitosan derivative; guanine; solvent effect. 1. Introduction .... Out of different models for accounting the solva- tion energies ..... Authors thank DST, New Delhi for financial support. (Grant No.

  7. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, A.J.S.C.; Telo, J.P.; Pereira, H.F.; Patrocinio, P.F.; Dias, R.M.B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophylline and para-xanthine repair the oxidizes radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine to do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. (authors)

  8. Phospholipid alterations in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum induced by xanthine oxidase: contamination of commercial preparations of xanthine oxidase by phospholipase A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamache, D.A.; Kornberg, L.J.; Bartolf, M.; Franson, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    Incubation of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum with xanthine oxidase alone at pH 7.0 resulted in a loss of lipid phosphorus that was potentiated by the addition of xanthine. Using autoclaved E.coli with 1- 14 C-oleate in the 2-acyl position of membrane phospholipids, the authors demonstrate that many, but not all, commercial preparations of xanthine oxidase contain significant phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) activity (64.3-545.6 nmols/min/mg). The PLA 2 was maximally active in the neutral-alkaline pH range, was Ca 2+ -dependent, and was unaffected by the addition of xanthine. PLA 2 activity was totally inhibited by 1mM EDTA whereas radical production by optimal concentrations of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) was unaffected by EDTA. Chromatographically purified xanthine oxidase (Sigma Grade III) contained high levels of PLA 2 activity (64.3 nmols/min/mg) compared to endogenous levels of neutral-active, Ca 2+ -dependent PLA 2 measured in various tissue homogenates (≤ 0.5 nmols/ min/mg). Because X/XO mixtures are used extensively to study oxygen free radical-induced cell injury and membrane phospholipid alterations, the presence of a potent extracellular PLA 2 may have influenced previously published reports, and such studies should be interpreted cautiously

  9. Complex formation of hypoxanthine and 6-mercaptopurine with Cd(II) ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perello, L.; Borras, J.; Soto, L.; Gordo, F.J.; Gordo, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Reaction of Cd(II) ion with hypoxanthine (H 2 Y) and with 6-mercaptopurine (H 2 MP) in dioxane-water (50%) leads to the formation of CdY x 2H 2 O and Cd(HMP) 2 x 2H 2 O, respectively. In methanolic medium Cd(II) and H 2 MP give Cd(MP) x H 2 O. These compounds have been characterized by chemical analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The stability constant of CdY complex at 25 +- 0.1 0 C and 1M ionic strength with NaClO 4 in dioxane-water medium is logβ = 10.25 +- 0.05. (Author)

  10. Complex formation of hypoxanthine and 6-mercaptopurine with Cd(II) ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perello, L.; Borras, J.; Soto, L.; Gordo, F.J.; Gordo, J.C. (Valencia Univ. (Spain))

    1984-01-01

    Reaction of Cd(II) ion with hypoxanthine (H/sub 2/Y) and with 6-mercaptopurine (H/sub 2/MP) in dioxane-water (50%) leads to the formation of CdY x 2H/sub 2/O and Cd(HMP)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O, respectively. In methanolic medium Cd(II) and H/sub 2/MP give Cd(MP) x H/sub 2/O. These compounds have been characterized by chemical analysis, IR spectra and thermogravimetric analysis. The stability constant of CdY complex at 25 +- 0.1/sup 0/C and 1M ionic strength with NaClO/sub 4/ in dioxane-water medium is log..beta.. = 10.25 +- 0.05.

  11. Mutagenic and Cytotoxic Properties of 6-Thioguanine, S6-Methylthioguanine, and Guanine-S6-sulfonic Acid*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Bifeng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2008-01-01

    Thiopurine drugs, including 6-thioguanine (SG), 6-mercaptopurine, and azathioprine, are widely employed anticancer agents and immunosuppressants. The formation of SG nucleotides from the thiopurine prodrugs and their subsequent incorporation into nucleic acids are important for the drugs to exert their cytotoxic effects. SG in DNA can be methylated by S-adenosyl-l-methionine to give S6-methylthioguanine (S6mG) and oxidized by UVA light to render guanine-S6-sulfonic acid ...

  12. [Triplet expansion cytosine-guanine-guanine: Three cases of OMIM syndrome in the same family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Jesús; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Silvia; Fuertes-Rodrigo, Cristina; Monge-Galindo, Lorena; Peña-Segura, José Luis; López-Pisón, Francisco Javier

    2016-04-01

    The dynamic increase in the number of triplet repeats of cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) in the FMR1 gene mutation is responsible for three OMIM syndromes with a distinct clinical phenotype: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) and two pathologies in adult carriers of the premutation (55-200 CGG repeats): Primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI) and tremor-ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) associated with FXS. CGG mutation dynamics of the FMR1 gene were studied in DNA samples from peripheral blood from the index case and other relatives of first, second and third degree by TP-PCR, and the percentage methylation. Diagnosis of FXS was confirmed in three patients (21.4%), eight patients (57.1%) were confirmed in the premutation range transmitters, one male patient with full mutation/permutation mosaicism (7.1%) and two patients (14.3%) with normal study. Of the eight permutated patients, three had FXPOI and one male patient had FXTAS. Our study suggests the importance of making an early diagnosis of SXF in order to carry out a family study and genetic counselling, which allow the identification of new cases or premutated patients with FMR1 gene- associated syndromes (FXTAS, FXPOI). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. High levels of xanthine oxidoreductase in rat endothelial, epithelial and connective tissue cells. A relation between localization and function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Bosch, K. S.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity was investigated in unfixed cryostat sections of various rat tissues by an enzyme histochemical method which specifically demonstrates both the dehydrogenase and oxidase forms of xanthine oxidoreductase. High activity was found in epithelial cells

  14. Characterization of oxidative guanine damage and repair in mammalian telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilong Wang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG are among the most common oxidative DNA lesions and are substrates for 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1-initiated DNA base excision repair (BER. Mammalian telomeres consist of triple guanine repeats and are subject to oxidative guanine damage. Here, we investigated the impact of oxidative guanine damage and its repair by OGG1 on telomere integrity in mice. The mouse cells were analyzed for telomere integrity by telomere quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (telomere-FISH, by chromosome orientation-FISH (CO-FISH, and by indirect immunofluorescence in combination with telomere-FISH and for oxidative base lesions by Fpg-incision/Southern blot assay. In comparison to the wild type, telomere lengthening was observed in Ogg1 null (Ogg1(-/- mouse tissues and primary embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs cultivated in hypoxia condition (3% oxygen, whereas telomere shortening was detected in Ogg1(-/- mouse hematopoietic cells and primary MEFs cultivated in normoxia condition (20% oxygen or in the presence of an oxidant. In addition, telomere length abnormalities were accompanied by altered telomere sister chromatid exchanges, increased telomere single- and double-strand breaks, and preferential telomere lagging- or G-strand losses in Ogg1(-/- mouse cells. Oxidative guanine lesions were increased in telomeres in Ogg1(-/- mice with aging and primary MEFs cultivated in 20% oxygen. Furthermore, oxidative guanine lesions persisted at high level in Ogg1(-/- MEFs after acute exposure to hydrogen peroxide, while they rapidly returned to basal level in wild-type MEFs. These findings indicate that oxidative guanine damage can arise in telomeres where it affects length homeostasis, recombination, DNA replication, and DNA breakage repair. Our studies demonstrate that BER pathway is required in repairing oxidative guanine damage in telomeres and maintaining telomere integrity

  15. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  16. Increased xanthine oxidase during labour--implications for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many, A; Roberts, J M

    1997-11-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) produces uric acid. When in the oxidase form, this production is coupled with the generation of free radicals. Hypoxia-reperfusion enhances conversion of XDH to XO. Since the placenta is exposed to short periods of hypoxia reperfusion during labour, 17 placentae of pregnancy terminated by elective caesarean section and five placentae of pregnancies terminated by caesarean section during labour were examined for XDH/XO activity. It was found that XO activity was higher in the placentae of labouring women (P = 0.003), which suggests that labour enhances conversion of XDH to XO, facilitating free radical production.

  17. Endogenous melatonin and oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davanipour, Zoreh; Poulsen, Henrik E; Weimann, Allan

    2009-01-01

    overnight guanine DNA damage. 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay. The mother, father, and oldest sampled daughter were used for these analyses. Comparisons between the mothers, fathers, and daughters were...... attack and increase the rate of repair of that damage. This paper reports the results of a study relating the level of overnight melatonin production to the overnight excretion of the two primary urinary metabolites of the repair of oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA. METHODS: Mother...

  18. Free radical generation in post-irradiation period: an evidence from the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) system which consists of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xathine oxidase (XO), is one of the major sources of free radicals in biological systems. XOR system is pre-dominantly present as XDH in the normal tissue and converts into free radical generating XO-Form in the damaged tissue. Therefore, XO-Form of XOR system, is expected to be mainly found in the radiolytically damaged tissue. In such an event, XO may catalyze the generation of free radicals and potentiate the radiation effects in post-irradiation period. Recent findings on the effect of ionizing radiation on XOR system in the liver of mice, peroxidative damage and lactate dehydrogenase support this possibility. From these results it has been hypothized that free radical generating systems could be activated in the radiolytically damaged cell and in turn contribute to the cause and complications of late effects and their persistence in post-irradiation period. This aspect may have great significance in understanding the radiation - induced damages. It may also have serious implication in various fields like radiation therapy, health physics, carcinogenesis, space travelling radiation exposures and post nuclear accident care. Further, it is suggested that efforts need to be made to search more system(s) which could be activated particularly at lower doses of radiation and generate free radicals in post-irradiation period

  19. Synthesis of purine N9-[2-hydroxy-3-O-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] derivatives and their side-chain modified analogues as potential antimalarial agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Dračínský, Martin; Hocková, Dana; Holý, Antonín; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2012), s. 1222-1230 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * Malaria * Plasmodium falciparum * Plasmodium vivax * hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine)-phosphoribosyltransferase Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.903, year: 2012

  20. Novel nucleotide analogues bearing (1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)phosphonic acid moiety as inhibitors of Plasmodium and human 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáč, Miloš; Hocková, Dana; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.; Janeba, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2017), s. 692-702 ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * 6-oxopurine * hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferase * copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  1. Endogenous melatonin and oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Henrik E

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant body of literature indicates that melatonin, a hormone primarily produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, is an important scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Melatonin may also lower the rate of DNA base damage resulting from hydroxyl radical attack and increase the rate of repair of that damage. This paper reports the results of a study relating the level of overnight melatonin production to the overnight excretion of the two primary urinary metabolites of the repair of oxidatively damaged guanine in DNA. Methods Mother-father-daughter(s families (n = 55 were recruited and provided complete overnight urine samples. Total overnight creatinine-adjusted 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s/Cr has been shown to be highly correlated with total overnight melatonin production. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxoGua results from the repair of DNA or RNA guanine via the nucleobase excision repair pathway, while urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG may possibly result from the repair of DNA guanine via the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Total overnight urinary levels of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua are therefore a measure of total overnight guanine DNA damage. 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry assay. The mother, father, and oldest sampled daughter were used for these analyses. Comparisons between the mothers, fathers, and daughters were calculated for aMT6s/Cr, 8-oxodG, and 8-oxoGua. Regression analyses of 8-oxodG and 8-oxoGua on aMT6s/Cr were conducted for mothers, fathers, and daughters separately, adjusting for age and BMI (or weight. Results Among the mothers, age range 42-80, lower melatonin production (as measured by aMT6s/CR was associated with significantly higher levels of 8-oxodG (p Conclusion Low levels of endogenous melatonin production among older individuals may lead to

  2. Long-term inhibition of xanthine oxidase by febuxostat does not decrease blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

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    Theodora Szasz

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidase and its products, uric acid and ROS, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. We have previously reported that allopurinol inhibition of XO does not alter the progression of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. However other researchers have observed a reduction in blood pressure after allopurinol treatment in the same model. To resolve this controversy, in this study we used the newer and more effective XO inhibitor febuxostat, and hypothesized that a more complete XO blockade might impair hypertension development and its end-organ consequences. We used DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and administered vehicle (salt water or febuxostat (orally, 5 mg/kg/day in salt water in a short-term "reversal" experiment (2 weeks of treatment 3 weeks after DOCA-salt beginning and a long-term "prevention" experiment (treatment throughout 4 weeks of DOCA-salt. We confirmed XO inhibition by febuxostat by measuring circulating and tissue levels of XO metabolites. We found an overall increase in hypoxanthine (XO substrate and decrease in uric acid (XO product levels following febuxostat treatment. However, despite a trend for reduced blood pressure in the last week of long-term febuxostat treatment, no statistically significant difference in hemodynamic parameters was observed in either study. Additionally, no change was observed in relative heart and kidney weight. Aortic media/lumen ratio was minimally improved by long-term febuxostat treatment. Additionally, febuxostat incubation in vitro did not modify contraction of aorta or vena cava to norepinephrine, angiotensin II or endothelin-1. We conclude that XO inhibition is insufficient to attenuate hypertension in the rat DOCA-salt model, although beneficial vascular effects are possible.

  3. Long-term inhibition of xanthine oxidase by febuxostat does not decrease blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Davis, Robert Patrick; Garver, Hannah S; Burnett, Robert J; Fink, Gregory D; Watts, Stephanie W

    2013-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase and its products, uric acid and ROS, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. We have previously reported that allopurinol inhibition of XO does not alter the progression of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in rats. However other researchers have observed a reduction in blood pressure after allopurinol treatment in the same model. To resolve this controversy, in this study we used the newer and more effective XO inhibitor febuxostat, and hypothesized that a more complete XO blockade might impair hypertension development and its end-organ consequences. We used DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and administered vehicle (salt water) or febuxostat (orally, 5 mg/kg/day in salt water) in a short-term "reversal" experiment (2 weeks of treatment 3 weeks after DOCA-salt beginning) and a long-term "prevention" experiment (treatment throughout 4 weeks of DOCA-salt). We confirmed XO inhibition by febuxostat by measuring circulating and tissue levels of XO metabolites. We found an overall increase in hypoxanthine (XO substrate) and decrease in uric acid (XO product) levels following febuxostat treatment. However, despite a trend for reduced blood pressure in the last week of long-term febuxostat treatment, no statistically significant difference in hemodynamic parameters was observed in either study. Additionally, no change was observed in relative heart and kidney weight. Aortic media/lumen ratio was minimally improved by long-term febuxostat treatment. Additionally, febuxostat incubation in vitro did not modify contraction of aorta or vena cava to norepinephrine, angiotensin II or endothelin-1. We conclude that XO inhibition is insufficient to attenuate hypertension in the rat DOCA-salt model, although beneficial vascular effects are possible.

  4. The physicochemical properties and solubility of pharmaceuticals – Methyl xanthines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pobudkowska, Aneta; Domańska, Urszula; Kryska, Justyna A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of methyl xanthines in water and alcohols was measured. • Solubility in water, or alcohols was of the order of 10 −4 in mole fraction. • Experimental aqueous pK a ’s values are reported for the selected drugs. • The basic thermodynamic functions were determined. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physio-chemical properties and solubility of three pharmaceuticals (Phs): theophylline, 7-(β-hydroxyethyl) theophylline, and theobromine in binary systems in different solvents. The solvents used were water, ethanol, and 1-octanol. Score of the solubility of these substances is being important for their dissolution effect inside the cell, the transportation by body fluids and the penetration possibility of lipid membranes. The Phs were classified to the group of methyl xanthines, which contain purine in their structure. Although they are mainly obtained via chemical synthesis, they can be also found in natural ingredients such as cocoa beans and tea leaves. These drugs are mainly acting on the central nervous system but are also used in the treatment of asthma or blood vessels. Solubility of 7 (β-hydroxyethyl) theophylline and theophylline were tested using synthetic method. In case of theobromine, which solubility is very small in the solvents noted, the spectrophotometric method has been used to measure its solubility. After designating phase diagrams of each of the solubility in the bipolar system, the experimental points have been correlated with the equations: Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC. Results show that theophylline and its derivatives show the best solubility from all tested Phs. Another method also used during this study was the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which allowed designation of the thermal properties of Phs. The fusion temperature and the enthalpy of melting were measured. Unfortunately, it was not possible to determine the fusion temperature and enthalpy of melting of theobromine, because of

  5. Guanine base stacking in G-quadruplex nucleic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplexes constitute a class of nucleic acid structures defined by stacked guanine tetrads (or G-tetrads) with guanine bases from neighboring tetrads stacking with one another within the G-tetrad core. Individual G-quadruplexes can also stack with one another at their G-tetrad interface leading to higher-order structures as observed in telomeric repeat-containing DNA and RNA. In this study, we investigate how guanine base stacking influences the stability of G-quadruplexes and their stacked higher-order structures. A structural survey of the Protein Data Bank is conducted to characterize experimentally observed guanine base stacking geometries within the core of G-quadruplexes and at the interface between stacked G-quadruplex structures. We couple this survey with a systematic computational examination of stacked G-tetrad energy landscapes using quantum mechanical computations. Energy calculations of stacked G-tetrads reveal large energy differences of up to 12 kcal/mol between experimentally observed geometries at the interface of stacked G-quadruplexes. Energy landscapes are also computed using an AMBER molecular mechanics description of stacking energy and are shown to agree quite well with quantum mechanical calculated landscapes. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a structural explanation for the experimentally observed preference of parallel G-quadruplexes to stack in a 5′–5′ manner based on different accessible tetrad stacking modes at the stacking interfaces of 5′–5′ and 3′–3′ stacked G-quadruplexes. PMID:23268444

  6. Scambio, a novel guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groffen John

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small GTPases of the Rho family are critical regulators of various cellular functions including actin cytoskeleton organization, activation of kinase cascades and mitogenesis. For this reason, a major objective has been to understand the mechanisms of Rho GTPase regulation. Here, we examine the function of a novel protein, Scambio, which shares homology with the DH-PH domains of several known guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rho family members. Results Scambio is located on human chromosome 14q11.1, encodes a protein of around 181 kDa, and is highly expressed in both heart and skeletal muscle. In contrast to most DH-PH-domain containing proteins, it binds the activated, GTP-bound forms of Rac and Cdc42. However, it fails to associate with V14RhoA. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that Scambio and activated Rac3 colocalize in membrane ruffles at the cell periphery. In accordance with these findings, Scambio does not activate either Rac or Cdc42 but rather, stimulates guanine nucleotide exchange on RhoA and its close relative, RhoC. Conclusion Scambio associates with Rac in its activated conformation and functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho.

  7. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of a Plectranthus saccatus aqueous extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldeira F

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a disease with high prevalence in developed countries, resulting from the deposition of uric acid crystals in various locations, particularly at the joints. The pharmacotherapeutic approach to chronic gout essentially consists of administration of uric acid-lowering agents. The main mechanism of action of these agents is the inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO, the enzyme responsible for the formation of uric acid. The therapeutic alternatives available for this purpose are limited, thus justifying the interest of the discovery of potential new uric acidlowering drugs. In this regard, an aqueous extract of the plant Plectranthus saccatus has been studied for its ability to inhibit XO. The composition of the extract was determined by HPLC and rosmarinic acid was identified as the major constituent. Both the extract and rosmarinic acid have demonstrated the ability to inhibit the production of uric acid by interfering with XO activity. The results obtained herein support the continuation of the study of their uric acid-lowering properties in cell-based and in vivo models to further explore their potential in gout therapy.

  8. Xanthine oxidase activity regulates human embryonic brain cells growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevorkian G. A.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Involvement of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC1.1.3.22 in cellular proliferation and differentiation has been suggested by the numerous investigations. We have proposed that XO might have undoubtedly important role during the development, maturation as well as the death of human embryos brain cells. Methods. Human abortion material was utilized for the cultivation of brain cells (E90. XO activity was measured by the formation of uric acid in tissue. Cell death was detected by the utility of Trypan Blue dye. Results. Allopurinol suppressed the XO activity in the brain tissue (0.12 ± 0.02; 0.20 ± 0.03 resp., p < 0.05. On day 12th the number of cells in the culture treated with the Allopurinol at the early stage of development was higher in comparison with the Control (2350.1 ± 199.0 vs 2123 ± 96 and higher in comparison with the late period of treatment (1479.6 ± 103.8, p < < 0.05. In all groups, the number of the dead cells was less than in Control, indicating the protective nature of Allopurinol as an inhibitor of XO. Conclusions. Allopurinol initiates cells proliferation in case of the early treatment of the human brain derived cell culture whereas at the late stages it has an opposite effect.

  9. Purine Metabolism in Acute Cerebral Ischemia

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    Ye. V. Oreshnikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of purine metabolism in clinically significant acute cerebral ischemia. Subjects and materials. Three hundred and fifty patients with the acutest cerebral ischemic stroke were examined. The parameters of gas and electrolyte composition, acid-base balance, the levels of malonic dialdehyde, adenine, guanine, hypox-anthine, xanthine, and uric acid, and the activity of xanthine oxidase were determined in arterial and venous bloods and spinal fluid. Results. In ischemic stroke, hyperuricemia reflects the severity of cerebral metabolic disturbances, hemodynamic instability, hypercoagulation susceptiility, and the extent of neurological deficit. In ischemic stroke, hyperuri-corachia is accompanied by the higher spinal fluid levels of adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine and it is an indirect indicator of respiratory disorders of central genesis, systemic acidosis, hypercoagulation susceptibility, free radical oxidation activation, the intensity of a stressor response to cerebral ischemia, cerebral metabolic disturbances, the depth of reduced consciousness, and the severity of neurological deficit. Conclusion. The high venous blood activity of xanthine oxidase in ischemic stroke is associated with the better neurological parameters in all follow-up periods, the better early functional outcome, and lower mortality rates. Key words: hyperuricemia, stroke, xanthine oxidase, uric acid, cerebral ischemia.

  10. Simultaneous quantification of purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and their degradation products in bovine blood plasma by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Vestergaard, Mogens; Løvendahl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    describes the development and validation of a sensitive and specific method for simultaneous determination of 20 purines (adenine, guanine, guanosine, inosine, 2′-deoxyguanosine, 2′-deoxyinosine, xanthine, hypoxanthine), pyrimidines (cytosine, thymine, uracil, cytidine, uridine, thymidine, 2′-deoxyuridine...... investigated. It was confirmed that using a log-calibration model rather than a linear calibration model resulted in lower CV% and a lack of fit test demonstrated a satisfying linear regression. The method covers concentration ranges for each metabolite according to that in actual samples, e.g. guanine: 0...... veins and, with a few exceptions, also for other species such as chicken, pig, mink, human and rat....

  11. Electron detachment of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain guanine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-07-01

    The photoelectron spectra of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain-guanine complexes has been studied at the partial third order (P3) self-energy approximation of the electron propagator theory. The correlation between the vertical electron detachment energy and the charge distributions on the guanine moiety reveals that the vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) increases as the positive charge distribution on the guanine increases. The low VDE values determined for the negatively charged complexes of the guanine-side-chain-group of Asp/Glu suggest that the influence of the H-bonded anionic groups on the VDE of guanine could be more important than that of the anionic backbone structure. The even lower vertical electron detachment energy for guanine is thus can be expected in the H-bonded protein-DNA systems.

  12. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

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    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  13. Quantum molecular modeling of the interaction between guanine and alkylating agents--2--nitrogen mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, A; Broch, H; Vasilescu, D

    1996-06-01

    The alkylation mechanism of guanine by nitrogen mustard (HN2) was studied by using a supermolecular modeling at the ab initio 6-31G level. Our computations show that interaction of guanine with the aziridinium form of HN2 necessitates a transition state for the N7 alkylation route. The pathway of N7-guanine alkylation by nitrogen and sulfur mustards is discussed on the basis of the Molecular Electrostatic Potential and HOMO-LUMO properties of these molecules.

  14. Xanthine oxidase activity and free radical generation in patients with sepsis syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galley, H F; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Webster, N R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine xanthine oxidase activity, free radical concentrations, and lipid peroxidation in patients with sepsis syndrome compared with noninfected critically ill patients. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: A nine-bed intensive care unit in a university teaching......). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with sepsis have xanthine oxidase activation, high free-radical concentrations, and evidence of free radical damage. The finding that xanthine oxidase activity was lower in those patients who died, coupled with increased lactate concentrations implies more severe ischemia with incomplete...... to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score or to the presence of organ dysfunction. The mean ascorbyl radical concentration (arbitrary units) determined by electron paramagnetic resonance following spin trapping was increased in patients compared with healthy subjects (p

  15. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives—theophylline, caffeine and theobromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Sankari, G.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Γ vib=27 A'+12 A″ based on C s point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A″ normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F- G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  16. A colorimetric method for the determination of xanthine based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Wendan; Zhao, Huawen; Wu, Liping; Zhao, Xianying

    2015-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive method for the determination of traces of xanthine based on the aggregation of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). It is found that, under optimal conditions of pH, the imide group of xanthine is adsorbed on the surface of the AuNPs, thereby displacing citrate ions. This leads to an aggregation of the AuNPs via hydrogen-bond interactions. As a result, the color of the solution changes from red to blue which can be seen with bare eyes and also can be measured by spectrophotometry. The ratio of the absorbances at 630 nm and 520 nm is linearly related to the concentration of xanthine in the 125 nM to 6.0 μM range (r = 0.9988), and the detection limit (3σ/slope) is 23 nM. The method is simple, feasible and fast. (author)

  17. The extraordinary specificity of xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase from Bacillus subtilis elucidated by reaction kinetics, ligand binding, and crystallography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arent, Susan; Kadziola, Anders; Larsen, Sine

    2006-01-01

    Xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (XPRTase) from Bacillus subtilis is a representative of the highly xanthine specific XPRTases found in Gram-positive bacteria. These XPRTases constitute a distinct subclass of 6-oxopurine PRTases, which deviate strongly from the major class of H(X)GPRTases with ...

  18. Development of a New Reporter Gene System-dsRed/Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase-Xanthine for Molecular Imaging of Processes Behind the Intact Blood-Brain Barrier

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    Mikhail Doubrovin

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of a novel dual-modality fusion reporter gene system consisting of Escherichia coli xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (XPRT for nuclear imaging with radiolabeled xanthine and Discosoma red fluorescent protein for optical fluorescent imaging applications. The dsRed/XPRT fusion gene was successfully created and stably transduced into RG2 glioma cells, and both reporters were shown to be functional. The level of dsRed fluorescence directly correlated with XPRT enzymatic activity as measured by ribophosphorylation of [14C]-xanthine was in vitro (Ki = 0.124 ± 0.008 vs. 0.00031 ± 0.00005 mL/min/g in parental cell line, and [*]-xanthine octanol/water partition coefficient was 0.20 at pH = 7.4 (logP = 0.69, meeting requirements for the blood-brain barrier (BBB penetrating tracer. In the in vivo experiment, the concentration of [* C]-xanthine in the normal brain varied from 0.20 to 0.16 + 0.05% dose/g under 0.87 + 0.24% dose/g plasma radiotracer concentration. The accumulation in vivo in the transfected flank tumor was to 2.4 ± 0.3% dose/g, compared to 0.78 ± 0.02% dose/g and 0.64 ± 0.05% dose/g in the control flank tumors and intact muscle, respectively. [14C]-Xanthine appeared to be capable of specific accumulation in the transfected infiltrative brain tumor (RG2-dsRed/XPRT, which corresponded to the 585 nm fluorescent signal obtained from the adjacent cryosections. The images of endogenous gene expression with the “sensory system” have to be normalized for the transfection efficiency based on the “beacon system” image data. Such an approach requires two different “reporter genes” and two different “reporter substrates.” Therefore, the novel dsRed/XPRT fusion gene can be used as a multimodality reporter system in the biological applications requiring two independent reporter genes, including the cells located behind the BBB.

  19. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  20. Aag Hypoxanthine-DNA Glycosylase Is Synthesized in the Forespore Compartment and Involved in Counteracting the Genotoxic and Mutagenic Effects of Hypoxanthine and Alkylated Bases in DNA during Bacillus subtilis Sporulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-García, Víctor M; Valenzuela-García, Luz I; Setlow, Peter; Pedraza-Reyes, Mario

    2016-12-15

    Aag from Bacillus subtilis has been implicated in in vitro removal of hypoxanthine and alkylated bases from DNA. The regulation of expression of aag in B. subtilis and the resistance to genotoxic agents and mutagenic properties of an Aag-deficient strain were studied here. A strain with a transcriptional aag-lacZ fusion expressed low levels of β-galactosidase during growth and early sporulation but exhibited increased transcription during late stages of this developmental process. Notably, aag-lacZ expression was higher inside the forespore than in the mother cell compartment, and this expression was abolished in a sigG-deficient background, suggesting a forespore-specific mechanism of aag transcription. Two additional findings supported this suggestion: (i) expression of an aag-yfp fusion was observed in the forespore, and (ii) in vivo mapping of the aag transcription start site revealed the existence of upstream regulatory sequences possessing homology to σ G -dependent promoters. In comparison with the wild-type strain, disruption of aag significantly reduced survival of sporulating B. subtilis cells following nitrous acid or methyl methanesulfonate treatments, and the Rif r mutation frequency was significantly increased in an aag strain. These results suggest that Aag protects the genome of developing B. subtilis sporangia from the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of base deamination and alkylation. In this study, evidence is presented revealing that aag, encoding a DNA glycosylase implicated in processing of hypoxanthine and alkylated DNA bases, exhibits a forespore-specific pattern of gene expression during B. subtilis sporulation. Consistent with this spatiotemporal mode of expression, Aag was found to protect the sporulating cells of this microorganism from the noxious and mutagenic effects of base deamination and alkylation. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Archaeal DNA Polymerase-B as a DNA Template Guardian: Links between Polymerases and Base/Alternative Excision Repair Enzymes in Handling the Deaminated Bases Uracil and Hypoxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Abellón-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Archaea repair of uracil and hypoxanthine, which arise by deamination of cytosine and adenine, respectively, is initiated by three enzymes: Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG, which recognises uracil; Endonuclease V (EndoV, which recognises hypoxanthine; and Endonuclease Q (EndoQ, (which recognises both uracil and hypoxanthine. Two archaeal DNA polymerases, Pol-B and Pol-D, are inhibited by deaminated bases in template strands, a feature unique to this domain. Thus the three repair enzymes and the two polymerases show overlapping specificity for uracil and hypoxanthine. Here it is demonstrated that binding of Pol-D to primer-templates containing deaminated bases inhibits the activity of UDG, EndoV, and EndoQ. Similarly Pol-B almost completely turns off EndoQ, extending earlier work that demonstrated that Pol-B reduces catalysis by UDG and EndoV. Pol-B was observed to be a more potent inhibitor of the enzymes compared to Pol-D. Although Pol-D is directly inhibited by template strand uracil, the presence of Pol-B further suppresses any residual activity of Pol-D, to near-zero levels. The results are compatible with Pol-D acting as the replicative polymerase and Pol-B functioning primarily as a guardian preventing deaminated base-induced DNA mutations.

  2. Xanthine oxidase functionalized Ta2O5 nanostructures as a novel scaffold for highly sensitive SPR based fiber optic xanthine sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2018-01-15

    Fabrication and characterization of a surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic xanthine sensor using entrapment of xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme in several nanostructures of tantalum (v) oxide (Ta 2 O 5 ) have been reported. Chemical route was adopted for synthesizing Ta 2 O 5 nanoparticles, nanorods, nanotubes and nanowires while Ta 2 O 5 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique. The synthesized Ta 2 O 5 nanostructures were characterized by photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Visible spectra and X-ray diffraction pattern. The probes were fabricated by coating an unclad core of the fiber with silver layer followed by the deposition of XO entrapped Ta 2 O 5 nanostructures. The crux of sensing mechanism relies on the modification of dielectric function of sensing layer upon exposure to xanthine solution of diverse concentrations, reflected in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. The sensing probe coated with XO entrapped Ta 2 O 5 nanofibers has been turned out to possess maximum sensitivity amongst the synthesized nanostructures. The probe was optimized in terms of pH of the sample and the concentration of XO entrapped in Ta 2 O 5 nanofibers. The optimized sensing probe possesses a remarkably good sensitivity of 26.2nm/µM in addition to linear range from 0 to 3µM with an invincible LOD value of 0.0127µM together with a response time of 1min. Furthermore, probe selectivity with real sample analysis ensure the usage of the sensor for practical scenario. The results reported open a novel perspective towards a sensitive, rapid, reliable and selective detection of xanthine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Some Plant Extracts Towards Xanthine Oxidase, Lipoxygenase and Tyrosinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Yu Chen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural products have the potential to be developed into new drugs for the treatment of various diseases. The aim of the present study was to screen the antioxidant activities of some common edible fruits, garden plants and medicinal plants indigenous to Taiwan. This was performed by assessing the activities of lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase following incubation with extracts from these plants. A further aim was to use HPLC-DAD and tyrosinase to chromatographically identify the antioxidative constituents obtained from an extract exhibiting strong antioxidative properties. The acetone extracts of 27 cultivated plant species from Taiwan were tested for antioxidant activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase and lipoxygenase using spectrophotometric assays. Koelreuteria henryi, Prunus campanulata, and Rhodiola rosea showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Camellia sinensis, Rhodiola rosea, and Koelreuteria henryi exhibited good tyrosinase inhibitory activities and potent anti-lipoxygenase activities. As Koelreuteria henryi had notable significant inhibitory activities towards xanthine oxidase, tyrosinase, and lipoxygenase, it was further tested with tyrosinase and HPLC-DAD. The results from this part of the study revealed that the more powerful the antioxidant capability of the extracted component, the greater the decrease in peak height obtained after reacting with tyrosinase. Additional studies are warranted to further characterize the compounds responsible for the antioxidant properties of the examined extracts.

  4. Free radicals in hypoxic rat diaphragm contractility: no role for xanthine oxidase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heunks, L.M.A.; Machiels, H.A.; Abreu, R.A. de; Zhu, X.; Heijden, E. van der; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2001-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that hypoxia enhances the generation of oxidants. Little is known about the role of free radicals in contractility of the rat diaphragm during hypoxia. We hypothesized that antioxidants improve contractility of the hypoxic rat diaphragm and that xanthine oxidase (XO) is an

  5. The role of xanthine oxidase in ischemia/reperfusion damage of rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.

    1995-01-01

    Oxygen radicals have been proposed to be involved in the induction of liver cell damage during reperfusion after ischemia. The role of xanthine oxidase in this process and the potential of the antioxidant system have been studied in a model of in vivo ischemia of rat liver followed by 1 h

  6. Evidence for the existence of a tyrosyl residue in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding site of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T.; Nishino, T.

    1987-01-01

    Xanthine-NAD and NADH-methylene blue oxidoreductase activities of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase were inactivated by incubation with 5'-[p-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyl]adenosine (5'-FSBA), an active site directed reagent for nucleotide binding sites. The inactivation reaction displayed pseudo-first-order kinetics. A double-reciprocal plot of inactivation velocity vs. 5'-FSBA concentration showed that 5'-FSBA and enzyme formed a complex prior to inactivation. NAD protected the enzyme from inactivation by 5'-FSBA in a competitive fashion. The modified enzyme had the same xanthine-dichlorophenolindophenol and xanthine-O 2 oxidoreductase activities as the native enzyme, and on addition of xanthine to the modified enzyme, bleaching of the spectrum occurred in the visible region. The amount of radioactivity incorporated into the enzyme by incubation with [ 14 C]-5'-FSBA was parallel to the loss of xanthine-NAD oxidoreductase activity, and the stoichiometry was 1 mol/mol of enzyme-bound FAD for complete inactivation. These results indicated that 5'-FSBA modified specifically the binding site for NAD of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase. The incorporated radioactivity was released slowly from 14 C-labeled enzyme by incubation with dithiothreitol with concomitant restoration of catalytic activity. The modified residue responsible for inactivation was identified as a tyrosine

  7. Mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of 6-thioguanine, S6-methylthioguanine, and guanine-S6-sulfonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bifeng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2008-08-29

    Thiopurine drugs, including 6-thioguanine ((S)G), 6-mercaptopurine, and azathioprine, are widely employed anticancer agents and immunosuppressants. The formation of (S)G nucleotides from the thiopurine prodrugs and their subsequent incorporation into nucleic acids are important for the drugs to exert their cytotoxic effects. (S)G in DNA can be methylated by S-adenosyl-l-methionine to give S(6)-methylthioguanine (S(6)mG) and oxidized by UVA light to render guanine-S(6)-sulfonic acid ((SO3H)G). Here, we constructed single-stranded M13 shuttle vectors carrying a (S)G, S(6)mG, or (SO3H)G at a unique site and allowed the vectors to propagate in wild-type and bypass polymerase-deficient Escherichia coli cells. Analysis of the replication products by using the competitive replication and adduct bypass and a slightly modified restriction enzyme digestion and post-labeling assays revealed that, although none of the three thionucleosides considerably blocked DNA replication in all transfected E. coli cells, both S(6)mG and (SO3H)G were highly mutagenic, which resulted in G-->A mutation at frequencies of 94 and 77%, respectively, in wild-type E. coli cells. Deficiency in bypass polymerases does not result in alteration of mutation frequencies of these two lesions. In contrast to what was found from previous steady-state kinetic analysis, our data demonstrated that 6-thioguanine is mutagenic, with G-->A transition occurring at a frequency of approximately 10%. The mutagenic properties of 6-thioguanine and its derivatives revealed in the present study offered important knowledge about the biological implications of these thionucleosides.

  8. Quantum molecular modeling of the interaction between guanine and alkylating agents--1--sulfur mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broch, H; Hamza, A; Vasilescu, D

    1996-06-01

    Interaction between Guanine and the episulfonium form of Sulfur mustard (HD) was studied using the ab initio LCAO-MO method at the HF/6-31G level. The alkylation mechanism on guanine-N7 was analyzed by using a supermolecular modeling. Our stereostructural results associated with the molecular electrostatic potentials and HOMO-LUMO properties, show that in vacuum the alkylation of the N7 of guanine by HD in the aggressive episulfonium form is a direct process without transition state and of which the pathway is determined.

  9. Application of Ammonium Persulfate for Selective Oxidation of Guanines for Nucleic Acid Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafen Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids can be sequenced by a chemical procedure that partially damages the nucleotide positions at their base repetition. Many methods have been reported for the selective recognition of guanine. The accurate identification of guanine in both single and double regions of DNA and RNA remains a challenging task. Herein, we present a new, non-toxic and simple method for the selective recognition of guanine in both DNA and RNA sequences via ammonium persulfate modification. This strategy can be further successfully applied to the detection of 5-methylcytosine by using PCR.

  10. Localization of xanthine oxidoreductase activity using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol and final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, A.; Frederiks, W. M.; Gossrau, R.; van Noorden, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    We have detected xanthine oxidoreductase activity in unfixed cryostat sections of rat and chicken liver, rat duodenum, and bovine mammary gland using the tissue protectant polyvinyl alcohol, the electron carrier 1-methoxyphenazine methosulfate, the final electron acceptor Tetranitro BT, and

  11. Development and Validation of a Simple High Performance Liquid Chromatography/UV Method for Simultaneous Determination of Urinary Uric Acid, Hypoxanthine, and Creatinine in Human Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimanthi Wijemanne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid and hypoxanthine are produced in the catabolism of purine. Abnormal urinary levels of these products are associated with many diseases and therefore it is necessary to have a simple and rapid method to detect them. Hence, we report a simple reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV technique, developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of uric acid, hypoxanthine, and creatinine in human urine. Urine was diluted appropriately and eluted with C-18 column 100 mm × 4.6 mm with a C-18 precolumn 25 mm × 4.6 mm in series. Potassium phosphate buffer (20 mM, pH 7.25 at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min was employed as the solvent and peaks were detected at 235 nm. Tyrosine was used as the internal standard. The experimental conditions offered a good separation of analytes without interference of endogenous substances. The calibration curves were linear for all test compounds with a regression coefficient, r2>0.99. Uric acid, creatinine, tyrosine, and hypoxanthine were eluted at 5.2, 6.1, 7.2, and 8.3 min, respectively. Intraday and interday variability were less than 4.6% for all the analytes investigated and the recovery ranged from 98 to 102%. The proposed HPLC procedure is a simple, rapid, and low cost method with high accuracy with minimum use of organic solvents. This method was successfully applied for the determination of creatinine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid in human urine.

  12. Isolation, Identification, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Activity of Alkaloid Compound from Peperomia pellucida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachriyah, E.; Ghifari, M. A.; Anam, K.

    2018-04-01

    The research of the isolation and xanthine oxidation inhibition activity of alkaloid compound from Peperomia pellucida has been carried out. Alkaloid extract is isolated by column chromatography and preparative TLC. Alkaloid isolate is identified spectroscopically by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR, and LC-MS/MS. Xanthine oxidase inhibition activity is carried out by in vitro assay. The result showed that the alkaloid isolated probably has piperidine basic structure. The alkaloid isolate has N-H, C-H, C = C, C = O, C-N, C-O-C groups and the aromatic ring. The IC50 values of ethanol and alkaloid extract are 71.6658 ppm and 76.3318 ppm, respectively. Alkaloid extract of Peperomia pellucida showed higher activity than ethanol extract.

  13. Novel insights into the inhibitory mechanism of kaempferol on xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Zhang, Guowen; Pan, Junhui; Gong, Deming

    2015-01-21

    Xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme in purine catabolism, is widely distributed in human tissues. It can catalyze xanthine to generate uric acid and cause hyperuricemia and gout. Inhibition kinetics assay showed that kaempferol inhibited XO activity reversibly in a competitive manner. Strong fluorescence quenching and conformational changes of XO were found due to the formation of a kaempferol-XO complex, which was driven mainly by hydrophobic forces. The molecular docking further revealed that kaempferol inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of XO to interact with some amino acid residues. The main inhibition mechanism of kaempferol on XO activity may be due to the insertion of kaempferol into the active site of XO occupying the catalytic center of the enzyme to avoid the entrance of the substrate and inducing conformational changes of XO. In addition, luteolin exhibited a stronger synergistic effect with kaempferol than did morin at the lower concentration.

  14. Purine nucleotide synthesis from exogenous adenine and guanine in rodent small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, C.J.; Karlberg, P.K.; Savaiano, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    14 C-Adenine and 14 C-guanine uptake was studied in isolated guinea pig enterocytes. Cells were incubated in Hank's buffer and separated from the medium by centrifugation through silicone oil into 1M PCA. Uptake was temperature and concentration dependent. Both compounds were incorporated into nucleotides as measured by HPLC and HVE. Adenine was more extensively incorporated into nucleotides than was guanine. Adenine nucleotides accounted for about 70% of the intracellular label after 30 min with a majority being ADP and ATP (medium concentration = 10 μM). Guanine nucleotides accounted for only 30% of the intracellular label after 30 min. Labeled intracellular free adenine or guanine were not detected. Significantly more guanine vs. adenine was converted to uric acid. After 30 min, 11.5 +/- 3.9% (n=3) and 83.0 +/- 8.4% (n=4) of the label was present as uric acid in the medium when adenine and guanine, respectively, were the substrate. After 1 min, 34.8 +/- 3.4% (n=4) of the label in the medium was present as uric acid when guanine was the substrate. Decreasing the concentration of adenine resulted in an increase in the percent of uric acid in the medium. 14 C-adenine (75 nmol) was injected into 1 gm segments of rat jejunum. After 5 min., segments were quickly flushed and the tissue homogenized in 1M PCA. Only uric acid was present after 5 min (n=6). In contrast, in animals fasted 3 to 5 days, less conversion to uric acid was observed in the intestinal content (50-80% of the same dose was still present as adenine after 5 min) and nucleotide formation was observed in the tissue. The results indicate that uric acid and nucleotide synthesis from exogenous adenine and guanine are concentration dependent and affected by nutritional state

  15. Guanine nucleotides stimulate hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol bis phosphate in human myelin membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulias, C.; Moscarello, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase activity was stimulated in myelin membranes in the presence of guanine nucleotide analogues. This activity was reduced in myelin membranes which had been adenosine diphosphate ribosylated in the presence of cholera toxin which ADP-ribosylated three proteins of Mr 46,000, 43,000 and 18,500. Aluminum fluoride treatment of myelin had the same stimulatory effects on phosphodiesterase activity as did the guanine nucleotides

  16. Serum xanthine oxidase profile in stressed Marwari sheep from arid tracts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maan R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was aimed to determine serum xanthine oxidase profile in stressed Marwari breed of sheep belonging to arid tracts in Rajasthan, India. Extreme hot and cold ambiences were considered as stress conditions to the animals. Blood samples were collected to obtain sera during moderate, extreme hot and cold ambiences. The mean value of serum xanthine oxidase during moderate ambience was 93.33±1.11 mU L-1.The mean value of serum xanthine oxidase was significantly (p≤0.05higher during hot and significantly (p≤0.05 lower during cold ambiences as compared to moderate mean value serving as control. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05 in all ambiences. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05 higher in males than females. In each ambience the age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05 increase in the mean values being highest in the animals of 2.5-4.5 years of age. The effects of extreme ambiences were observed on the male and female animals of all age groups as revealed by various interactions studied viz. ambience X age; ambience X sex and age X sex (p≤0.01. Further sex effect was present in the animals of each age group. It can be concluded that serum xanthine oxidase can be used as an effective marker to assess oxidative stress in these animals. Mean values obtained from large number of animals during moderate ambience will help in providing physiological reference values for future research and clinical interpretations.

  17. Relationship between plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity and left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy among cardiac patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujimura

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR, which catalyzes purine catabolism, has two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, the latter of which produces superoxide during uric acid (UA synthesis. An association between plasma XOR activity and cardiovascular and renal outcomes has been previously suggested. We investigated the potential association between cardiac parameters and plasma XOR activity among cardiology patients.Plasma XOR activity was measured by [13C2,15N2]xanthine coupled with liquid chromatography/triplequadrupole mass spectrometry. Among 270 patients who were not taking UA-lowering drugs, XOR activity was associated with body mass index (BMI, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, HbA1c and renal function. Although XOR activity was not associated with serum UA overall, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, those with higher XOR activity had higher serum UA among patients without CKD. Compared with patients with the lowest XOR activity quartile, those with higher three XOR activity quartiles more frequently had left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, plasma XOR activity showed a U-shaped association with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and increased plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels, and these associations were independent of age, gender, BMI, ALT, HbA1C, serum UA, and CKD stages.Among cardiac patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, low LVEF, and increased BNP were significantly associated with plasma XOR activity independent of various confounding factors. Whether pharmaceutical modification of plasma XOR activity might inhibit cardiac remodeling and improve cardiovascular outcome should be investigated in future studies.

  18. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babkov, D A; Geisman, A N; Novikov, M S; Khandazhinskaya, A L

    2016-01-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references

  19. Non-standard base pairing and stacked structures in methyl xanthine clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Callahan, M. P.; Gengeliczki, Z.; Svadlenak, N.; Valdes, Haydee; Hobza, Pavel; de Vries, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 19 (2008), s. 2819-2826 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE-0615401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : non-standard base pairing * stacked structures * in methyl xanthine Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.064, year: 2008

  20. Protection by deferoxamine from endothelial injury: A possible link with inhibition of intracellular xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldo, J.E.; Gorry, M.

    1990-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical scavengers and xanthine oxidase inhibitors protect cultured bovine pulmonary endothelial cells (BPAEC) from lytic injury by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We hypothesized that exposure of BPAEC to cytotoxic concentrations of LPS activated intracellular xanthine oxidase, and that intracellular iron-dependent hydroxyl radical formation (a Fenton reaction) ensued, resulting in cell lysis. To test this, the protective effects of deferoxamine against H2O2 and LPS-induced cytotoxicity to BPAEC was assessed by 51Cr release. Preincubation with 0.4 mM deferoxamine conferred 67 +/- 15% (mean +/- SE) protection from LPS-induced cytotoxicity but 48 h of preincubation were required to induce significant protection. Significant protection form a classical Fenton reaction model, injury by 50 microM H2O2, could be induced by a 1-h preincubation with a 0.4 mM deferoxamine. The dissociated time course suggested that deferoxamine might work by different mechanisms in these models. The effects of LPS and deferoxamine on BPAEC-associated xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) activity were assessed using a spectrofluorophotometric measurement of the conversion of pterin to isoxanthopterin. BPAEC had 106 +/- 7 microU/mg XD+XO activity; XO activity constituted 48 +/- 1% of total XO+XD activity. LPS at a cytotoxic concentration did not alter XO, XD, or percent XO. Deferoxamine had striking proportional inhibitory effects on XO and XD in intact cells. XO+XD activity fell to 6 +/- 1% of control levels during a 48-h exposure of BPAEC to deferoxamine. Deferoxamine did not inhibit XO+XD ex vivo

  1. Charge splitters and charge transport junctions based on guanine quadruplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ruojie; Xiang, Limin; Liu, Chaoren; Balaeff, Alexander; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yueqi; Beratan, David N.; Tao, Nongjian; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2018-04-01

    Self-assembling circuit elements, such as current splitters or combiners at the molecular scale, require the design of building blocks with three or more terminals. A promising material for such building blocks is DNA, wherein multiple strands can self-assemble into multi-ended junctions, and nucleobase stacks can transport charge over long distances. However, nucleobase stacking is often disrupted at junction points, hindering electric charge transport between the two terminals of the junction. Here, we show that a guanine-quadruplex (G4) motif can be used as a connector element for a multi-ended DNA junction. By attaching specific terminal groups to the motif, we demonstrate that charges can enter the structure from one terminal at one end of a three-way G4 motif, and can exit from one of two terminals at the other end with minimal carrier transport attenuation. Moreover, we study four-way G4 junction structures by performing theoretical calculations to assist in the design and optimization of these connectors.

  2. Myristoylated α subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buss, J.E.; Mumby, S.M.; Casey, P.J.; Gilman, A.G.; Sefton, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Antisera directed against specific subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) were used to immunoprecipitate these polypeptides from metabolically labeled cells. This technique detects, in extracts of a human astrocytoma cell line, the α subunits of G/sub s/ (stimulatory) (α 45 and α 52 ), a 41-kDa subunit of G/sub i/ (inhibitory) (α 41 ), a 40-kDa protein (α 40 ), and the 36-kDa β subunit. No protein that comigrated with the α subunit of G 0 (unknown function) (α 39 ) was detected. In cells grown in the presence of [ 3 H]myristic acid, α 41 and α 40 contained 3 H label, while the β subunit did not. Chemical analysis of lipids attached covalently to purified α 41 and α 39 from bovine brain also revealed myristic acid. Similar analysis of brain G protein β and γ subunits and of G/sub t/ (Transducin) subunits (α, β, and γ) failed to reveal fatty acids. The fatty acid associated with α 41 , α 40 , and α 39 was stable to treatment with base, suggesting that the lipid is linked to the polypeptide via an amide bond. These GTP binding proteins are thus identified as members of a select group of proteins that contains myristic acid covalently attached to the peptide backbone. Myristate may play an important role in stabilizing interactions of G proteins with phospholipid or with membrane-bound proteins

  3. Active site labeling of the guanine-7-methyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streaker, E.; Sitz, T.O.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the guanine-7-methyltransferase have defined three domains in the active site: the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) region, the cap region (GpppG), and the RNA binding domain (--NpNpNpNpNp---). The authors attempted to label the SAM binding domain by a photoaffinity label using 8-azido-SAM and another method using 3 H-SAM and long exposures to uv-light. Neither method was successful. The next approach was to attempt to label the cap-RNA binding domain (GpppGpNpNpNpNpN) by synthesizing RNA containing 8-azido-Ap using an in vitro transcription system and T7 RNA polymerase. The 8-azido-ATP inhibited the T7 RNA polymerase preventing the synthesis of RNA. As they were unable to synthesize the photoaffinity label, they next tried to synthesize an end labeled RNA and directly label by long exposures to uv-light. When the enzyme was incubated with 32 P-labeled RNA for 15 min at 37 degrees and then exposed to a germicidal lamp for various times at O degrees, optimal labeling occurred after 45 min. Various enzyme preparations were labeled by this method and two polypeptides were found to specifically bind the non-methylated mRNA analog. This labeling method should allow characterization of the subunit structure and generate information about the nature of the RNA binding domain

  4. Chlamydial entry involves TARP binding of guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Josh Lane

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis attachment to cells induces the secretion of the elementary body-associated protein TARP (Translocated Actin Recruiting Protein. TARP crosses the plasma membrane where it is immediately phosphorylated at tyrosine residues by unknown host kinases. The Rac GTPase is also activated, resulting in WAVE2 and Arp2/3-dependent recruitment of actin to the sites of chlamydia attachment. We show that TARP participates directly in chlamydial invasion activating the Rac-dependent signaling cascade to recruit actin. TARP functions by binding two distinct Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, Sos1 and Vav2, in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. The tyrosine phosphorylation profile of the sequence YEPISTENIYESI within TARP, as well as the transient activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K, appears to determine which GEF is utilized to activate Rac. The first and second tyrosine residues, when phosphorylated, are utilized by the Sos1/Abi1/Eps8 and Vav2, respectively, with the latter requiring the lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Depletion of these critical signaling molecules by siRNA resulted in inhibition of chlamydial invasion to varying degrees, owing to a possible functional redundancy of the two pathways. Collectively, these data implicate TARP in signaling to the actin cytoskeleton remodeling machinery, demonstrating a mechanism by which C.trachomatis invades non-phagocytic cells.

  5. Fluorescence enhancement of DNA-silver nanoclusters from guanine proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsin-chih [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, Jaswinder [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoo, Hyojong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Jennifer S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-templated, silver nanoclusters (DNA/Ag NCs) are a versatile set of fluorophores and have already been used for live cell imaging, detection of specific metal ions, and single-nucleotide variation identification. Compared to commonly used organic dyes, these fluorescent nanoclusters have much better photostability and are often a few times brighter. Owing to their small size, simple preparation, and biocompatibility (i.e. made of nontoxic metals), DNA/Ag NCs should find more applications in biological imaging and chemical detection in the years to come. While clearly promising as new fluorophores, DNA/Ag NCs possess a unique and poorly understood dynamic process not shared by organic dyes or photoluminescent nanocrystals - the conversion among different NC species due to silver oxidation/reduction or NC regrouping. While this environmental sensitivity can be viewed as a drawback, in the appropriate context, it can be used as a sensor or reporter. Often reversible, conversions among different NC species have been found to depend upon a number of factors, including time, temperature, oxygen and salt content. In this communication, we report significant fluorescence enhancement of DNA/Ag NCs via interactions with guanine-rich DNA sequences. Moreover, we demonstrated this property can be used for sensitive detection of specific target DNA from a human oncogene (i.e. Braf gene).

  6. Inhibition of chrysin on xanthine oxidase activity and its inhibition mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Suyun; Zhang, Guowen; Liao, Yijing; Pan, Junhui

    2015-11-01

    Chrysin, a bioactive flavonoid, was investigated for its potential to inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme catalyzing xanthine to uric acid and finally causing gout. The kinetic analysis showed that chrysin possessed a strong inhibition on XO ability in a reversible competitive manner with IC50 value of (1.26±0.04)×10(-6)molL(-1). The results of fluorescence titrations indicated that chrysin bound to XO with high affinity, and the interaction was predominately driven by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Analysis of circular dichroism demonstrated that chrysin induced the conformational change of XO with increases in α-helix and β-sheet and reductions in β-turn and random coil structures. Molecular simulation revealed that chrysin interacted with the amino acid residues Leu648, Phe649, Glu802, Leu873, Ser876, Glu879, Arg880, Phe1009, Thr1010, Val1011 and Phe1013 located within the active cavity of XO. The mechanism of chrysin on XO activity may be the insertion of chrysin into the active site occupying the catalytic center of XO to avoid the entrance of xanthine and causing conformational changes in XO. Furthermore, the interaction assays indicated that chrysin and its structural analog apigenin exhibited an additive effect on inhibition of XO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives--theophylline, caffeine and theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S; Sankari, G; Ponnusamy, S

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Gamma(vib) = 27 A' + 12 A" based on C(s) point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A'' normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F-G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  8. Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (Transcutol) displays antiproliferative properties alone and in combination with xanthines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Schaffer, F; Dayan, N; Touitou, E

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we have investigated the effects of diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (Transcutol) in combination with theophylline, caffeine and dyphylline and alone on 3T3 mouse fibroblast proliferation. These three xanthines (1-0.01 mM) inhibited fibroblast proliferation by themselves. Enhancement of the effect was detected by addition of 1 and 0.1 mM Transcutol. Transcutol alone also displayed a dose-dependent inhibition (2-0.01 mM) of both 3T3 and human normal and psoriatic fibroblasts, although normal human fibroblasts were the least sensitive to Transcutol antiproliferative activity. Transcutol was assessed for its antiproliferative effects on YAC lymphoma and P-815 mastocytoma human cell lines. Transcutol inhibited cell proliferation of both these cell lines, being more effective towards P-815 mastocytoma (at 2 mM it displayed 3.95-fold vs. 2.4-fold inhibition towards YAC lymphoma). In conclusion, we have shown that Transcutol has antiproliferative effects on 3T3 murine, human normal and psoriatic fibroblasts and tumour cell lines. In addition it enhances xanthine antiproliferative effects on 3T3 fibroblasts. Therefore it might be a useful topical drug alone or in combination with xanthines in the treatment of skin hyperproliferative disorders.

  9. Guanine is indispensable for immunoglobulin switch region RNA-DNA hybrid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Ryushin; Mizuta, Midori; Kitamura, Daisuke

    2005-01-01

    It is suggested that the formation of the switch (S) region RNA-DNA hybrid and the subsequent generation of higher-order chromatin structures including R-loop initiate a class switch recombination of the immunoglobulin gene. The primary factor of this recombination is the S-region derived noncoding RNA. However, the biochemical character of this guanine-rich (G-rich) transcript is poorly understood. The present study was performed to analyze the structure of this G-rich RNA using atomic force microscope (AFM). The in vitro transcribed S-region RNA was spread on a mica plate, air-dried and observed by non-contact mode AFM in air. The G-rich transcripts tend to aggregate on the template DNA and to generate a higher-order RNA-DNA complex. However, the transcripts that incorporated guanine analogues as substitutes for guanine neither aggregated nor generated higher-order structures. Incorporation of guanine analogues in transcribes RNA partially disrupts hydrogen bonds related to guanine, such as Watson-Crick GC-base pair and Hoogsteen bond GG-base pair. Thus, aggregation of S-region RNA and generation of the higher-order RNA-DNA complex are attributed to hydrogen bonds of guanine. (author)

  10. High pressure {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy on guanine nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerner, Michael; Karl, Matthias; Lopes, Pedro; Hoering, Marcus; Loeffel, Karoline; Nuehs, Andrea; Adelsberger, Joseph; Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert, E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@ur.de [University of Regensburg, Centre of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry and Biomedicine, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    The {sup 31}P NMR pressure response of guanine nucleotides bound to proteins has been studied in the past for characterizing the pressure perturbation of conformational equilibria. The pressure response of the {sup 31}P NMR chemical shifts of the phosphate groups of GMP, GDP, and GTP as well as the commonly used GTP analogs GppNHp, GppCH{sub 2}p and GTPγS was measured in the absence and presence of Mg{sup 2+}-ions within a pressure range up to 200 MPa. The pressure dependence of chemical shifts is clearly non-linear. For all nucleotides a negative first order pressure coefficient B{sub 1} was determined indicating an upfield shift of the resonances with pressure. With exception of the α-phosphate group of Mg{sup 2+}·GMP and Mg{sup 2+}·GppNHp the second order pressure coefficients are positive. To describe the data of Mg{sup 2+}·GppCH{sub 2}p and GTPγS a Taylor expansion of 3rd order is required. For distinguishing pH effects from pressure effects a complete pH titration set is presented for GMP, as well as GDP and GTP in absence and presence of Mg{sup 2+} ions using indirect referencing to DSS under identical experimental conditions. By a comparison between high pressure {sup 31}P NMR data on free Mg{sup 2+}-GDP and Mg{sup 2+}-GDP in complex with the proto-oncogene Ras we demonstrate that pressure induced changes in chemical shift are clearly different between both forms.

  11. Behavior of the guanine base in G-quadruplexes probed by the fluorescent guanine analog, 6-methyl isozanthopterin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ji Hoon; Chitrapriya, Nataraj; Lee, Hyun Suk; Lee, Young Ae; Kim, Seog K. [Dept. of Chemistry, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Maeng Joon [Dept. of Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    In this study, circular dichroism (CD) spectrum and fluorescence techniques were used to examine the dynamic properties and microenvironment of the guanine base (G) at the central loop and at the middle of the G-stem of the G-quadruplex formed from the G{sub 3}T{sub 2}G{sub 3}TGTG{sub 3}T{sub 2}G{sub 3} sequence (G-quadruplex 1), in which the G base at the 10th and 13th position were replaced with a fluorescent G analog, 6-methyl isoxanthopterin (6MI) (G-quadruplex 2 and 3, respectively). For all G-quadruplexes, the CD spectrum revealed a positive band at 263 nm and a shoulder at 298 nm, and the thermal melting profiles were the sum of at least two sigmoidal curves. These observations indicated the presence of two conformers in the G-quadruplex. The fluorescence intensity of G-quadruplex 2 was greater than 3, as expected from the extent of stacking interaction, which is larger in the G(6MI)G sequence than the T(6MI)T sequence. The efficiency of fluorescence quenching by the polar acrylamide quencher and negatively charged I− quencher were larger for G-quadruplex 3, suggesting that 6MI in the G(6MI)G stem is exposed more to the aqueous environment compared to that in the T(6MI)T central loop. In the latter case, 6MI may direct to the center of the top G-quartet layer. The possibility of hydrogen bond formation between the carbonyl group of 6MI and the acrylamide of the G-quadruplex 3 was proposed.

  12. Construction of novel xanthine biosensor by using polymeric mediator/MWCNT nanocomposite layer for fish freshness detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Custiuc, Esma; Çevik, Emre; Şenel, Mehmet

    2015-08-15

    A novel nanocomposite host matrix for enzyme immobilization of xanthine oxidase was developed by incorporating MWCNT in poly(GMA-co-VFc) copolymer film. In the food industry fish is a product with a very low commercial life, and a high variability as well elevated level of xanthine is an important biomarker as a sign of spoilage. The fabricated process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrochemical behaviors of the biosensor were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The prepared enzyme electrodes exhibited maximum response at pH 7.0 and 45°C +0.35 V and reached 95% of steady-state current in about ∼ 4 s and its sensitivity was 16 mAM(-1). Linear ranges (2-28 μM, 28-46 and 46-86 μM), analytical performance and a low detection limit 0.12 μM obtained from the xanthine biosensor gives reliable results in measuring xanthine concentration in the fish meat. All the results indicating that the resulting biosensor exhibited a good response to xanthine that was related to the addition of MWCNT in the polymeric mediator film which played an important role in the biosensor performance. In addition, the biosensor exhibited high good storage stability and satisfactory anti-interference ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly sensitive and selective fluorescent assay for guanine based on the Cu(2+)/eosin Y system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Cui, Yi; Gong, Yijun; Feng, Suling

    2016-05-15

    A fluorescent probe has been developed for the determination of guanine based on the quenched fluorescence signal of Cu(2+)/eosin Y. Cu(2+) interacted with eosin Y, resulting in fluorescence quenching. Subsequently, with the addition of guanine to the Cu(2+)/eosin Y system, guanine reacted with Cu(2+) to form 1:1 chelate cation, which further combined with eosin Y to form a 1:1 ternary ion-association complex by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction, resulting in significant decrease of the fluorescence. Hence, a fluorescent system was constructed for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of guanine with a detection limit as low as 1.5 nmol L(-1) and a linear range of 3.3-116 nmol L(-1). The method has been applied satisfactorily to the determination of guanine in DNA and urine samples with the recoveries from 98.7% to 105%. This study significantly expands the realm of application of ternary ion-association complex in fluorescence probe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Highly sensitive and selective fluorescent assay for guanine based on the Cu2 +/eosin Y system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huimin; Cui, Yi; Gong, Yijun; Feng, Suling

    2016-05-01

    A fluorescent probe has been developed for the determination of guanine based on the quenched fluorescence signal of Cu2 +/eosin Y. Cu2 + interacted with eosin Y, resulting in fluorescence quenching. Subsequently, with the addition of guanine to the Cu2 +/eosin Y system, guanine reacted with Cu2 + to form 1:1 chelate cation, which further combined with eosin Y to form a 1:1 ternary ion-association complex by electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interaction, resulting in significant decrease of the fluorescence. Hence, a fluorescent system was constructed for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of guanine with a detection limit as low as 1.5 nmol L- 1 and a linear range of 3.3-116 nmol L- 1. The method has been applied satisfactorily to the determination of guanine in DNA and urine samples with the recoveries from 98.7% to 105%. This study significantly expands the realm of application of ternary ion-association complex in fluorescence probe.

  15. Modulatory role of allopurinol on xanthine oxidoreductase system and antioxidant status in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.; Abbady, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor, used for management of hyperuricaema. It acts on purine catabolism without disrupting the biosynthesis of purine. The present work was conducted to examine the role of xanthine oxidase inhibitor (allopurinol) in minimizing radiation injuries in male albino rats. Allopurinol was given to rats via intraperitoneal (i.p) injection at a dose of 30 mg/kg body wt/day for 7 successive days before starting irradiation and 14 successive days during and in between exposure to gamma radiation. Rats were exposed to whole body gamma radiation, delivered as 1 Gy every other day up to total dose 8 Gy. Results demonstrate that treatment with allopurinol by the regime assumed in the present study minimized significantly the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), product of lipid peroxidation, in liver, intestine and plasma. This effect was associated with significant amelioration in xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) system as observed on the 1st and 7th days post last radiation fraction. The severity of changes in antioxidant parameters namely: superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were less manifested in liver, intestine and blood as compared to irradiated rats. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) were significantly improved in plasma and the two investigated tissues as compared to irradiated rats. A significant decrease in plasma uric acid concentration was recorded on the 1st and 7th days post last allopurinol dose. However, significant amelioration was recorded in the plasma uric acid of rats treated with allopurinol before and during radiation exposure as compared to irradiated rats. Accordingly, it could be concluded that XO inhibitor (allopurinol) play a significant role in minimizing the tissue damages upon exposure to ionizing radiation via preventing the over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in irradiated cells through the XOR system of irradiation rats

  16. Spectroscopic evidence of xanthine compounds fluorescence quenching effect on water-soluble porphyrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    The formation of π-stacked complexes between water-soluble porphyrins: 4,4‧,4″,4″‧-(21H,23H-porphine-5,10,15,20-tetrayl)tetrakis-(benzoic acid) (H2TCPP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-21H,23H-porphine (H2TPPS4), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(trimethylammonio)phenyl]-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H2TTMePP), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)-21H,23H-porphine tetra-p-tosylate (H2TMePyP), the Cu(II) complexes of H2TTMePP and H2TMePyP, as well as chlorophyll a with xanthine, theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine) has been studied analysing their absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra in aqueous (or acetone in case of chlorophyll a) solution. During titration by the compounds from xanthine group the bathochromic effect in the porphyrin absorption spectra as well as the hypochromicity of the porphyrin Soret maximum can be noticed. The fluorescence quenching effect observed during interactions in the systems examined suggests the process of static quenching. The association and fluorescence quenching constants are of the order of magnitude of 103 - 102 mol-1. The results obtained show that xanthine and its derivatives can quench the fluorescence of the porphyrins according to the number of methyl groups in the molecule of quencher.

  17. Gastric mucosal injury in the rat. Role of iron and xanthine oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.M.; Grisham, M.B.; Manci, E.A.; Granger, D.N.; Kvietys, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated oxygen free radicals in ischemia-reperfusion injury to the gastric mucosa. The aims of the present study were to test the hypothesis that the enzyme xanthine oxidase is the source of the oxygen radicals in the ischemic stomach and determine the importance of the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction in generating the cytotoxic oxygen radicals. Gastric mucosal clearance of 51 Cr-labeled red blood cells was measured during a 30-min control period, a 30-min ischemic period (hemorrhage to 25 mmHg arterial pressure), and a 60-80-min reperfusion period (reinfusion of shed blood). In untreated (control) rats, a dramatic rise (100-fold) in the leakage of 51 Cr-labeled red blood cells into the gastric lumen was observed only during the reperfusion period. After the reperfusion period, gastric mucosal damage was further assessed using gross lesion area and histology. Rats were placed on a sodium tungstate diet (to inactivate xanthine oxidase), or treated with either deferoxamine (an iron chelating agent) or superoxide dismutase (a superoxide scavenger). All three interventions substantially reduced 51 Cr-labeled red blood cell clearance and gross lesion area relative to untreated rats. However, tissue injury assessed histologically was similar in both treated and untreated animals. The results of this study support the hypothesis that oxygen free radicals mediate the hemorrhagic shock-induced extravasation of red blood cells. The data also indicate that xanthine oxidase is the source of the oxy-radicals and that the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction is largely responsible for hydroxyl radical generation in this model

  18. Preliminary pharmacological studies on Eugenia uniflora leaves: xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Theoduloz, C; Franco, L; Ferro, E; de Arias, A R

    1987-11-01

    Eugenia uniflora is widely used in Paraguayan folk medicine. A hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves showed some central nervous system activity in hippocratic screening when given intraperitoneally, but little to no acute or subacute toxicity in doses up to 4200 mg/kg orally in BALB c mice. The LD50 of the extract was 220 mg/kg i.p. in mice. A decoction or infusion of the leaves is recommended for treating gout by native herbalists. The known flavonoids quercitrin, quercetin, myricitrin and myricetin were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase inhibitory action of the plant extract.

  19. Studies on the mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine. Interaction with copper and xanthine oxidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Kela, U; Vijayvargiya, R

    1981-01-01

    Interaction between 6-mercaptopurine, Cu2+ and the enzyme xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was examined. Whereas Cu2+ was found to inhibit the enzyme, 6-mercaptopurine could protect as well as reverse the enzyme inhibition produced by the metal ion. The formation of a complex between 6-mercaptopurine and Cu2+ seems to be responsible for the observed effect. Job's [(1928) Ann. Chem. 9, 113] method has shown the composition of the complex to be 1:1. The apparent stability constant (log K value), ...

  20. The solute specificity profiles of nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) from Zea mays and Setaria viridis illustrate functional flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Micah; Schein, Jessica; Hunt, Kevin A; Nalam, Vamsi; Mourad, George S; Schultes, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    The solute specificity profiles (transport and binding) for the nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) proteins, from the closely related C4 grasses Zea mays and Setaria viridis, differ from that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii NCS1. Solute specificity profiles for NCS1 from Z. mays (ZmNCS1) and S. viridis (SvNCS1) were determined through heterologous complementation studies in NCS1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The four Viridiplantae NCS1 proteins transport the purines adenine and guanine, but unlike the dicot and algal NCS1, grass NCS1 proteins fail to transport the pyrimidine uracil. Despite the high level of amino acid sequence similarity, ZmNCS1 and SvNCS1 display distinct solute transport and recognition profiles. SvNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, cytosine, and allantoin and competitively binds xanthine and uric acid. ZmNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, and cytosine and competitively binds, 5-fluorocytosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid. The differences in grass NCS1 profiles are due to a limited number of amino acid alterations. These amino acid residues do not correspond to amino acids essential for overall solute and cation binding or solute transport, as previously identified in bacterial and fungal NCS1, but rather may represent residues involved in subtle solute discrimination. The data presented here reveal that within Viridiplantae, NCS1 proteins transport a broad range of nucleobase compounds and that the solute specificity profile varies with species.

  1. Preparation and bioevaluation of 99mTc-carbonyl complex of guanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigdem Ichedef; Serap Teksoez; Kamile Senocak; Eser Ucar; Ayfer Yurt Kilcar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare radiolabeled guanine with 99m Tc(CO) 3 + core. For this purpose, guanine has been radiolabeled with 99m Tc(CO) 3 + core. Quality control study of radiolabeled guanine molecule with 99m Tc(CO) 3 + core was performed by thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) and high performance liquid radio chromatography (HPLRC). The results showed that the radiolabeling yield was quite high (94 ± 3%). Beside that 99m Tc(CO) 3 -Gua complex has showed good in vitro stability during the 24 h period. Radiopharmaceutical potential of this complex was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats. It was concluded that 99m Tc(CO) 3 -Gua could be used as a nucleotide radiopharmaceutical for in vivo applications. (author)

  2. Synthesis of a Pseudodisaccharide α-C-Glycosidically Linked to an 8-Alkylated Guanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Duchek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of stable guanofosfocin analogues has attracted considerable attention in the past 15 years. Several guanofosfocin analogues mimicking the three constitutional elements of mannose, ribose, and guanine were designed and synthesized. Interest in ether-linked pseudodisaccharides and 8-alkylated guanines is increasing, due to their potential applications in life science. In this article, a novel guanofosfocin analogue 6, an ether-linked pseudodisaccharide connected α-C-glycosidically to an 8-alkylated guanine, was synthesized in a 10-longest linear step sequence from known diol 13, resulting in an overall yield of 26%. The key steps involve the ring-opening of cyclic sulfate 8 by alkoxide generated from 7 and a reductive cyclization of 4-N-acyl-2,4-diamino-5-nitrosopyrimidine 19 to form compound 6.

  3. A DFT investigation on interactions between asymmetric derivatives of cisplatin and nucleobase guanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Truong Ba; Nhat, Pham Vu

    2017-07-01

    The interactions of hydrolysis products of cisplatin and its asymmetric derivatives cis- and trans-[PtCl2(iPram)(Mepz)] with guanine were studied using DFT methods. These interactions are dominated by electrostatic effects, namely hydrogen bond contributions and there exists a charge flow from H-atoms of ligands to the O-atoms of guanine. The replacement of NH3 moieties by larger functional groups accompanies with a moderate reaction between PtII and guanine molecule, diminishing the cytotoxicity of the drug. The asymmetric and symmetric NH2 stretching modes of complexes having strong hydrogen bond interactions are red shifted importantly as compared to complexes without presence of hydrogen bond interactions.

  4. A novel colorimetric method based on copper nanoclusters with intrinsic peroxidase-like for detecting xanthine in serum samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Niu, Qianqian; Mou, Mingyao; Wu, Yi; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Liao, Shenghua

    2017-07-01

    A facile strategy for detecting xanthine in serum samples by copper nanocluster (CuNCs) with high intrinsic peroxidase-like activity was reported. Firstly, a simple, mild and time-saving method for preparing CuNCs was developed, in which dithiothreitol (DTT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as reductant and stabilizer, respectively. The as-prepared CuNCs exhibited a fluorescence emission at 590 nm with a quantum yield (QY) of approximately 5.29%, the fluorescence intensity of the as-prepared CuNCs exhibited no considerable change when stored under ambient condition with the lifetime is 1.75 μs. Moreover, the as-prepared CuNCs exhibited high intrinsic peroxidase-like activity with lower K m ( K m = 8.90 × 10-6 mol L-1) for H2O2, which indicated that CuNCs have a higher affinity for H2O2. Compared with natural enzyme, the as-synthesized CuNCs are more catalytic stable over a wide range of pH (4.0 13.0) and temperature (4 80 °C). Finally, an indirect method for sensing xanthine was established because xanthine oxidase can catalyse the oxidation of xanthine to produce H2O2. Xanthine could be detected as low as 3.8 × 10-7 mol L-1 with a linear range from 5.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1. These results proved that the proposed method is sensitive and accurate and could be successfully applied to the determination of xanthine in the serum sample with satisfaction.

  5. Absorption of enzymatically active 125I-labeled bovine milk xanthine oxidase fed to rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzucidlo, S.J.; Zikakis, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Rabbits fed a regular laboratory diet supplemented with a high-fat milk containing xanthine oxidase (XO) were studied to determine the presence of active XO in the blood. A pilot feeding study, where rabbits consumed a high-fat diet containing xanthine oxidase, showed a correlation between dairy food consumption and XO activity in the blood. Antibody to dietary XO was also found. In a second study, rabbits were fed ad libitum the high-fat milk and blood serum samples were tested weekly for XO activity. No elevation in serum XO activity was found. A third study showed that serum XO activity was increased when rabbits were force fed the high-fat milk. The final study consisted of force feeding 125 I-labeled XO to one rabbit to ascertain whether the observed increase in serum XO was due to dietary or endogenous XO. Isoelectric focusing of sera collected from the test rabbit strongly suggested that at least a portion of the serum XO contained the radioactive label. This is the first direct evidence showing the uptake of dietary active XO from the gut

  6. Guanine as a hygienic index for allergological relevant mite infestation in mattress dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Since guanine is not only an essential constituent of vital nucleic acids, but also the main end product of nitrogenous waste excretion in arachnids, it is a potential candidate for a hygienic index for mite activity in house dust. The public health significance of these mites is based on their

  7. Solubilization and reconstitution of the formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine receptor coupled to guanine nucleotide regulatory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, K.; Dickey, B.F.; Pyun, H.Y.; Navarro, J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the solubilization, resolution, and reconstitution of the formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMet-Leu-Phe) receptor and guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins (G-proteins). The receptor was solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. Guanine nucleotides decreased the number of high-affinity binding sites and accelerated the rate of dissociation of the receptor-ligand complex, suggesting that the solubilized receptor remained coupled to endogenous G-proteins. The solubilized receptor was resolved from endogenous G-proteins by fractionation on a wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-Sepharose 4B column. High-affinity [ 3 H]fMet-Leu-Phe binding to the WGA-purified receptor was diminished and exhibited reduced guanine nucleotide sensitivity. High-affinity [ 3 H]fMET-Leu-Phe binding and guanine nucleotide sensitivity were reconstituted upon the addition of purified brain G-proteins. Similar results were obtained when the receptor was reconstituted with brain G-proteins into phospholipid vesicles by gel filtration chromatography. In addition, they also demonstrated fMET-Leu-Phe-dependent GTP hydrolysis in the reconstituted vesicles. The results of this work indicate that coupling of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor to G-proteins converts the receptor to a high-affinity binding state and that agonist produces activation of G-proteins. The resolution and functional reconstitution of this receptor should provide an important step toward the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of the fMet-Leu-Phe transduction system in neutrophils

  8. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of conformers of (guanine + adenine) repeat strands of DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejnovská, Iva; Kypr, Jaroslav; Vorlíčková, Michaela

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 7 (2003), s. 584-592 ISSN 0899-0042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004201; GA ČR GA204/01/0561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA conformation * (guanine + adenine) repeats * homoduplexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.793, year: 2003

  9. The Study of Adsorption of Patulin by Nanocellulose Conjugated with Poly Guanine in Contaminated Apple juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafori Bidakhavidi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introdction: Patulin is a dangerous toxin produced by various fungi. Hence, the current study aimed to evaluate adsorption of Patulin by nanocellulose conjugated with Poly-guanine in contaminated apple juice. Methods: Firstly, nanocellulose was synthesized, and then it was bonded to poly-guanine by a cross-linker. Then, concentration serial of Patulin was prepared in the apple juice, conjugated nanoparticles were added to them, and all were incubated at 37 ºC. After incubation, the Patulin concentration was measured by HPLC, and finally the adsorption percentage was calculated for each tube. Regarding molecular simulation, the initial structures of Patulin and nanocellulose conjugated with Poly-guanine were inserted into Hyperchem software, and their intermolecular energy was calculated during 50 picoseconds. Results: The results of the present study demonstrated that there was a significant direct correlation between the initial concentration of Patulin and the adsorption percentage of toxin. In addition, the adsorption maximum was reported 70±5 %, and the intermolecular energy between two structures was -20.3 Kcal/mol based on the computational simulation. Conclusions: It can be concluded that nanocellulose conjugated with Poly-guanine seems to be a good adsorbent for Patulin, which is demanded to be used in the future studies in regard with its application.

  10. Coupling of guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein to somatostatin receptors on pancreatic acinar membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, C.; Matozaki, T.; Nagao, M.; Baba, S.

    1987-01-01

    Guanine nucleotides and pertussis toxin were used to investigate whether somatostatin receptors interact with the guanine nucleotide inhibitory protein (NI) on pancreatic acinar membranes in the rat. Guanine nucleotides reduced 125 I-[Tyr 1 ]somatostatin binding to acinar membranes up to 80%, with rank order of potency being 5'-guanylyl imidodiphosphate [Gpp(NH)p]>GTP>TDP>GMP. Scatchard analysis revealed that the decrease in somatostatin binding caused by Gpp(NH)p was due to the decrease in the maximum binding capacity without a significant change in the binding affinity. The inhibitory effect of Gpp(NH)p was partially abolished in the absence of Mg 2+ . When pancreatic acini were treated with 1 μg/ml pertussis toxin for 4 h, subsequent 125 I-[Tyr 1 ]somatostatin binding to acinar membranes was reduced. Pertussis toxin treatment also abolished the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on vasoactive intestinal peptide-stimulated increase in cellular content of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) in the acini. The present results suggest that 1) somatostatin probably functions in the pancreas to regulate adenylate cyclase enzyme system via Ni, 2) the extent of modification of Ni is correlated with the ability of somatostatin to inhibit cAMP accumulation in acini, and 3) guanine nucleotides also inhibit somatostatin binding to its receptor

  11. Thermal properties of milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins in pulsed electric field-treated bovine whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic study on the inhibition of xanthine oxidase by acylated derivatives of flavonoids synthesised enzymatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Maria Elisa Melo Branco; Franco, Yollanda Edwirges Moreira; Alberto, Thiago Grando; Messias, Marcia Cristina Fernandes; Leme, Camila Wielewski; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Carvalho, Patricia de Oliveira

    2017-12-01

    Studies have reported that flavonoids inhibit xanthine oxidase (XO) activity; however, poor solubility and stability in lipophilic media limit their bioavailability and applications. This study evaluated the kinetic parameters of XO inhibition and partition coefficients of flavonoid esters biosynthesised from hesperidin, naringin, and rutin via enzymatic acylation with hexanoic, octanoic, decanoic, lauric, and oleic acids catalysed by Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB). Quantitative determination by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) showed higher conversion yields (%) for naringin and rutin esters using acyl donors with 8C and 10C. Rutin decanoate had higher partition coefficients (0.95), and naringin octanoate and naringin decanoate showed greater inhibitory effects on XO (IC 50 of 110.35 and 117.51 μM, respectively). Kinetic analysis showed significant differences (p flavonoids before and after acylation regarding K m values, whereas the values for V max were the same, implying the competitive nature of XO inhibition.

  13. Studies on the mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine. Interaction with copper and xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kela, U; Vijayvargiya, R

    1981-03-01

    Interaction between 6-mercaptopurine, Cu2+ and the enzyme xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was examined. Whereas Cu2+ was found to inhibit the enzyme, 6-mercaptopurine could protect as well as reverse the enzyme inhibition produced by the metal ion. The formation of a complex between 6-mercaptopurine and Cu2+ seems to be responsible for the observed effect. Job's [(1928) Ann. Chem. 9, 113] method has shown the composition of the complex to be 1:1. The apparent stability constant (log K value), as determined by Subhrama Rao & Raghav Rao's [(1955) J. Sci. Chem. Ind. Res. 143, 278], method is found to be 6.74. It is suggested that the formation of a stable complex between 6-mercaptopurine molecules and Cu2+ may be an additional mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine, particularly with reference to its anti-inflammatory properties.

  14. Studies on the mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine. Interaction with copper and xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kela, U; Vijayvargiya, R

    1981-01-01

    Interaction between 6-mercaptopurine, Cu2+ and the enzyme xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was examined. Whereas Cu2+ was found to inhibit the enzyme, 6-mercaptopurine could protect as well as reverse the enzyme inhibition produced by the metal ion. The formation of a complex between 6-mercaptopurine and Cu2+ seems to be responsible for the observed effect. Job's [(1928) Ann. Chem. 9, 113] method has shown the composition of the complex to be 1:1. The apparent stability constant (log K value), as determined by Subhrama Rao & Raghav Rao's [(1955) J. Sci. Chem. Ind. Res. 143, 278], method is found to be 6.74. It is suggested that the formation of a stable complex between 6-mercaptopurine molecules and Cu2+ may be an additional mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine, particularly with reference to its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:6895465

  15. Guanine nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain mediates the allosteric inhibition of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buey, Rubén M.; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Balsera, Mónica; Chagoyen, Mónica; de Pereda, José M.; Revuelta, José L.

    2015-11-01

    Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) plays key roles in purine nucleotide metabolism and cell proliferation. Although IMPDH is a widely studied therapeutic target, there is limited information about its physiological regulation. Using Ashbya gossypii as a model, we describe the molecular mechanism and the structural basis for the allosteric regulation of IMPDH by guanine nucleotides. We report that GTP and GDP bind to the regulatory Bateman domain, inducing octamers with compromised catalytic activity. Our data suggest that eukaryotic and prokaryotic IMPDHs might have developed different regulatory mechanisms, with GTP/GDP inhibiting only eukaryotic IMPDHs. Interestingly, mutations associated with human retinopathies map into the guanine nucleotide-binding sites including a previously undescribed non-canonical site and disrupt allosteric inhibition. Together, our results shed light on the mechanisms of the allosteric regulation of enzymes mediated by Bateman domains and provide a molecular basis for certain retinopathies, opening the door to new therapeutic approaches.

  16. Structure-wise discrimination of adenine and guanine by proteins on the basis of their nonbonded interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, S; Selvaraj, S

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed the nonbonded interactions of the structurally similar moieties, adenine and guanine forming complexes with proteins. The results comprise (a) the amino acid-ligand atom preferences, (b) solvent accessibility of ligand atoms before and after complex formation with proteins, and (c) preferred amino acid residue atoms involved in the interactions. We have observed that the amino acid preferences involved in the hydrogen bonding interactions vary for adenine and guanine. The structural variation between the purine atoms is clearly reflected by their burial tendency in the solvent environment. Correlation of the mean amino acid preference values show the variation that exists between adenine and guanine preferences of all the amino acid residues. All our observations provide evidence for the discriminating nature of the proteins in recognizing adenine and guanine.

  17. Guanine nucleotide regulation of α1-adrenergic receptors of muscle and kidney eptihelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, B.I.; Hughes, R.J.; Slivka, S.R.; Insel, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have examined the effect of guanine nucleotides on the interaction of adrenergic agents with α 1 -adrenergic receptors of two cell lines, the Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and BC3H-1 muscle cells. While gaunylylimidodiphosphoate (Gpp(NH)p) had no effect on the affinity or the total number of [ -3 H]prazosin binding sites in membranes prepared from these cells, the nucleotide decreased the apparent affinity of the agonist epinephrine in competing for [ 3 H]prazosin binding sites in both cell types. The EC 50 of Gpp(NH)p was ∼100 μM, and a maximal effect was seen at 500 μM. In contrast, 100 μM Gpp(NH)p yielding maximal shifts in binding of epinephrine to β-adrenergic receptors in BC3H-1 cell membranes. Guanine nucleotides were significantly more effective than adenine nucleotides in shifting agonist affinity for the α 1 -receptor and Mg ++ was required to observe a maximal effect. α 1 -receptor agonists activated phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis in both cell types, but have no direct effect on membrane adenylate cyclase activity. In intact BC3H-1 cells, α 1 -agonists inhibited β-adrenergic cAMP production, an effect which appears in preliminary studies not to result from enhanced phosphodieterase activity. These results show that agonist binding to α 1 -adrenergic receptors in mammalian kidney and muscle cells is regulated by guanine nucleotides. This regulation and inturn transmembrane signalling (PI hydrolysis) by these receptors appear to involve a guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein, which may be different than G/sub s/ and G/sub i/

  18. Benchmark Theoretical and Experimental Study on N-15 NMR Shifts of Oxidatively Damaged Guanine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Šála, Michal; Klepetářová, Blanka; Šebera, Jakub; Fukal, Jiří; Holečková, Veronika; Tanaka, Y.; Nencka, Radim; Sychrovský, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 5 (2016), s. 915-925 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27676S; GA ČR GA15-11223S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * DFT calculations * oxidatively damaged guanine * hOGG1 Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.177, year: 2016

  19. Voltammetric Determination of Guanine on the Electrode Modified by Gold Deposit and Nafion Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Shaidarova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrodeposited gold and Nafion-gold composite on the surface of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE have shown electrocatalytic activity during guanine oxidation. In comparison with the unmodified electrode, decreasing of the oxidation potential by 100 mV and increasing of the current of organic compound oxidation have been observed. When the Nafion (NF film is applied to the surface of the glassy carbon electrode with electrodeposited gold, a five-fold increase of guanine oxidation current has been achieved compared to its oxidation on the modified electrode without the NF film. Conditions have been found for electrodeposition of gold on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode, including that one covered with the NF film, as well as for registration of the maximum catalytic current on these electrodes. Linear dependence of the electrocatalytic response of the modified electrode from the guanine concentration has been observed in the range from 5·10–6 to 5·10–3 mol·L–1 (for Au GCE and from 5·10–7 to 5·10–3 mol·L–1 (for NF-Au GCE.

  20. Covalent Bonding of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) to Terminal Guanine Residues within Duplex and Hairpin DNA Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantaj, Julia; Jackson, Paul J. M.; Karu, Kersti; Rahman, Khondaker M.; Thurston, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) are covalent-binding DNA-interactive agents with growing importance as payloads in Antibody Drug Conjugates (ADCs). Until now, PBDs were thought to covalently bond to C2-NH2 groups of guanines in the DNA-minor groove across a three-base-pair recognition sequence. Using HPLC/MS methodology with designed hairpin and duplex oligonucleotides, we have now demonstrated that the PBD Dimer SJG-136 and the C8-conjugated PBD Monomer GWL-78 can covalently bond to a terminal guanine of DNA, with the PBD skeleton spanning only two base pairs. Control experiments with the non-C8-conjugated anthramycin along with molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the C8-substituent of a PBD Monomer, or one-half of a PBD Dimer, may provide stability for the adduct. This observation highlights the importance of PBD C8-substituents, and also suggests that PBDs may bind to terminal guanines within stretches of DNA in cells, thus representing a potentially novel mechanism of action at the end of DNA strand breaks. PMID:27055050

  1. Photoluminescence properties of a novel conjugate of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots to guanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Xuejiao [North-East Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Shang, Qingkun, E-mail: shangqk995@nenu.edu.c [North-East Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu Hongjian [Relia Diagnostic Systems, Burlingame, CA 94010 (United States); Wang Wenlan; Wang Zhidan; Liu Junyu [North-East Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A novel conjugate of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots to a small biomolecule guanine has been obtained in aqueous phase. The photoluminescence property and the stability of the conjugate increased comparing to CdTe QDs. The interaction between CdTe QDs and guanine was studied by TEM, fluorescence microscope and photoluminescence (PL), IR, UV-Vis spectra. The effects of reflux time, pH value, ionic strength, and the ratio of CdTe QDs to guanine on the photoluminescence properties of conjugate were investigated in detail. The results show that guanine has a great influence on both the photoluminescence property and stability of thioglycolic acid-stabilized CdTe QDs. The formation of coordination and hydrogen bond between guanine molecules and CdTe including thioglycolic acid on its surface may effectively enhance the PL intensity and stability of CdTe QDs. The maximum PL intensity of the conjugate was obtained on the condition with lower ionic strength, less than 30 min reflux time, neutral pH value and 6/1 as molar ratio of guanine to CdTe.

  2. Synthesis, crystal structures, fluorescence and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, De-Qiang; Yu, Chuan-Ming; You, Jin-Zong; Yang, Guang-Hui; Wang, Xue-Jie; Zhang, Yi-Ping

    2015-11-01

    A series of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were rationally designed and synthesized in good yields by following a convenient route. All the newly synthesized molecules were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. Eight compounds were structurally determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The fluorescence properties of all the compounds were investigated in dimethyl sulfoxide media. In addition, these newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against commercial enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) by measuring the formation of uric acid from xanthine. Among the compounds synthesized and tested, 3d and 3e were found to be moderate inhibitory activity against commercial XO with IC50 = 72.4 μM and 75.6 μM. The studies gave a new insight in further optimization of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with excellent fluorescence properties and XO inhibitory activity.

  3. Design, synthesis and inhibitory activities of 8-(substituted styrol-formamido)phenyl-xanthine derivatives on monoamine oxidase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Suwen; Nian, Siyun; Qin, Kuiyou; Xiao, Tong; Li, Lingna; Qi, Xiaolu; Ye, Faqing; Liang, Guang; Hu, Guoxin; He, Jincai; Yu, Yinfei; Song, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The design and synthesis of two series of 8-(substituted styrol-formamido)phenyl-xanthine derivatives are described. Their in vitro monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibition were tested and the effect of substituents on the N-7, phenyl and the substituted positions are discussed. It was observed that compound 9b displayed significant MAO-B inhibition activity and selectivity, fluorine substitution plays a key role in the selectivity of MAO-B inhibition, and the styrol-formamido group at position-3' may enhance the activity and selectivity of 8-phenyl-xanthine analogues. These results suggest that such compounds may be utilized for the development of new candidate MAO-B inhibitors for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  4. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2012-05-01

    Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species.

  5. Uric acid, an important screening tool to detect inborn errors of metabolism: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinge, Eresha; Kularatnam, Grace Angeline Malarnangai; Dilanthi, Hewa Warawitage; Vidanapathirana, Dinesha Maduri; Jayasena, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike; Chandrasiri, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika; Indika, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan; Ratnayake, Pyara Dilani; Gunasekara, Vindya Nandani; Fairbanks, Lynette Dianne; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2017-09-06

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment. Low uric acid concentrations in serum and low urinary fractional excretion of uric acid associated with high urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine were compatible with xanthine oxidase deficiency. CASE 2: An 8-month-old boy presented with intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, screaming episodes, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and severe neuro developmental delay. Low uric acid level in serum, low fractional excretion of uric acid and radiological findings were consistent with possible molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of xanthine, hypoxanthine and sulfocysteine levels in urine. CASE 3: A 3-year-10-month-old boy presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dystonia and self-destructive behaviour. High uric acid levels in serum, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and absent hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme level confirmed the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. CASE 4: A 9-year-old boy was investigated for lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and right renal calculus. Low uric acid level in serum and increased fractional excretion of uric acid pointed towards hereditary renal hypouricaemia which was confirmed by genetic studies. Abnormal uric acid level in blood and urine is a valuable tool in screening for clinical conditions related to derangement of the nucleic acid metabolic pathway.

  6. Covalently bound phosphate residues in bovine milk xanthine oxidase and in glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: A reevaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA)); London, R.E. (National Institute of Environmental Health Science, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The reported presence of covalently bound phosphate residues in flavoproteins has significant implications with regard to the catalytic mechanisms and structural stability of the specific enzymes themselves and in terms of general cellular metabolic regulation. These considerations have led to a reevaluation of the presence of covalently bound phosphorus in the flavoproteins xanthine oxidase and glucose oxidase. Milk xanthine oxidase purified by a procedure that includes anion-exchange chromatography is shown to contain three phosphate residues. All three are noncovalently associated with the protein, two with the FAD cofactor, and one with the molybdenum cofactor. Results of chemical analysis and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy indicate that enzyme purified by this method contains no phosphoserine residues. Xanthine oxidase preparations purified by chromatography on calcium phosphate gel in place of DEAE-Sephadex yielded higher phosphate-to-protein ratios, which could be reduced to the expected values by additional purification on a folate affinity column. Highly active, highly purified preparations of glucose oxidase are shown to contain only the two phosphate residues of the FAD cofactor. The covalently bound bridging phosphate reported by others may arise in aged or degraded preparations of the enzyme but appears not to be a constituent of functional glucose oxidase. These results suggest that the presence of covalent phosphate residues in other flavoproteins should be rigorously reevaluated as well.

  7. Covalently bound phosphate residues in bovine milk xanthine oxidase and in glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger: A reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Rajagopalan, K.V.; London, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The reported presence of covalently bound phosphate residues in flavoproteins has significant implications with regard to the catalytic mechanisms and structural stability of the specific enzymes themselves and in terms of general cellular metabolic regulation. These considerations have led to a reevaluation of the presence of covalently bound phosphorus in the flavoproteins xanthine oxidase and glucose oxidase. Milk xanthine oxidase purified by a procedure that includes anion-exchange chromatography is shown to contain three phosphate residues. All three are noncovalently associated with the protein, two with the FAD cofactor, and one with the molybdenum cofactor. Results of chemical analysis and 31 P NMR spectroscopy indicate that enzyme purified by this method contains no phosphoserine residues. Xanthine oxidase preparations purified by chromatography on calcium phosphate gel in place of DEAE-Sephadex yielded higher phosphate-to-protein ratios, which could be reduced to the expected values by additional purification on a folate affinity column. Highly active, highly purified preparations of glucose oxidase are shown to contain only the two phosphate residues of the FAD cofactor. The covalently bound bridging phosphate reported by others may arise in aged or degraded preparations of the enzyme but appears not to be a constituent of functional glucose oxidase. These results suggest that the presence of covalent phosphate residues in other flavoproteins should be rigorously reevaluated as well

  8. Xanthine-Catechin Mixture Enhances Lithium-Induced Anti-Inflammatory Response in Activated Macrophages In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Barbisan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium (Li is a chemical element used for treating and preventing bipolar disorder (BD and exerts positive effects such as anti-inflammatory effects as well as undesirable side effects. These effects of Li can be influenced by interaction with some nutritional elements. Therefore, we investigated the potential effects of xanthine (caffeine and theobromine and catechin molecules present in some food beverages broadly consumed worldwide, such as coffee and tea, on Li-induced anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we concomitantly exposed RAW 264.7 macrophages to Li, isolated xanthine and catechin molecules, and a xanthine-catechin mixture (XC mixture. We evaluated the effects of these treatments on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, oxidative and antioxidant marker expression, cytokine levels, gene expression, and GSK-3β enzyme expression. Treatment with the XC mixture potentialized Li-induced anti-inflammatory effects by intensification of the following: GSK-3β inhibitory action, lowering effect on proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, and increase in the levels of IL-10 that is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Despite the controversial nature of caffeine consumption by BD patients, these results suggested that consumption of caffeine, in low concentrations, mixed with other bioactive molecules along with Li may be safe.

  9. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel xanthine carboxylate amides as A2A adenosine receptor ligands exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rakesh; Bansal, Ranju; Rohilla, Suman; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The carboxylate amides of 8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine described herein represent a new series of selective ligands of the adenosine A2A receptors exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity. The effects of location of 8-phenyl substitutions on the adenosine receptor (AR) binding affinities of the newly synthesized xanthines have also been studied. The compounds displayed moderate to potent binding affinities toward various adenosine receptor subtypes when evaluated through radioligand binding studies. However, most of the compounds showed the maximum affinity for the A2A subtype, some with high selectivity versus all other subtypes. Xanthine carboxylate amide 13b with a diethylaminoethylamino moiety at the para-position of the 8-phenylxanthine scaffold was identified as the most potent A2A adenosine receptor ligand with Ki=0.06μM. Similarly potent and highly A2A-selective are the isovanillin derivatives 16a and 16d. In addition, the newly synthesized xanthine derivatives showed good in vivo bronchospasmolytic activity when tested in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased mobility and on/off ratio in organic field-effect transistors using low-cost guanine-pentacene multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Zheng, Yifan; Taylor, André D.; Yu, Junsheng; Katz, Howard E.

    2017-07-01

    Layer-by-layer deposited guanine and pentacene in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is introduced. Through adjusting the layer thickness ratio of guanine and pentacene, the tradeoff of two electronic parameters in OFETs, charge carrier mobility and current on/off ratio, was controlled. The charge mobility was enhanced by depositing pentacene over and between guanine layers and by increasing the proportion of pentacene in the layer-by-layer system, while the current on/off ratio was increased via the decreased off current induced by the guanine layers. The tunable device performance was mainly ascribed to the trap and dopant neutralizing properties of the guanine layers, which would decrease the density of free hydroxyl groups in the OFETs. Furthermore, the cost of the devices could be reduced remarkably via the adoption of low-cost guanine.

  11. Analysis of xanthines in beverages using a fully automated SPE-SPC-DAD hyphenated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedovici, A. [Bucarest Univ., Bucarest (Romania). Faculty of Chemistry, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; David, F.; David, V.; Sandra, P. [Research Institute of Chromatography, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2000-08-01

    Analysis of some xanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine) in beverages has been achieved by a fully automated on-line Solid Phase Extraction - Supercritical Fluid Chromatography - Diode Array Detection (Spe - Sofc - Dad). Three adsorbents have been tested for the Spe procedure: octadecyl modified silicagel (ODS) and two types of styrene-divinylbenzen copolymer based materials, from which Porapack proved to be the most suitable adsorbent. Optimisation and correlation of both Spe and Sofc operational parameters are also discussed. By this technique, caffeine was determined in ice tea and Coca-Cola in a concentration of 0.15 ppm, theobromine - 1.5 ppb, and theophylline - 0.15 ppb. [Italian] Si e' realizzata l'analis di alcune xantine (caffeina, teofillina e teobromina) mediante un sistema, in linea, completamente automatizzato basato su Estrazione in Fase Solida - Cromatografia in Fase Supercritica - Rivelazione con Diode Array (Spe - Sfc - Dad). Per la procedura Spe sono stati valutati tre substrati: silice ottadecilica (ODS) e due tipi di materiali polimerici a base stirene-divinilbenzene, di cui, quello denominato PRP-1, e' risultato essere il piu' efficiente. Sono discusse sia l'ottimizzazione che la correlazione dei parametri operazionali per la Spe e la Sfc. Con questa tecnica sono state determinate, in te' ghiacciato e Coca-Cola, la caffeina, la teobromina e la teofillina alle concentrazini di 0.15, 1.5 e 0.15 ppm.

  12. Antioxidant, xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and phenolics of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compaoré, M; Lamien, C E; Lamien-Meda, A; Vlase, L; Kiendrebeogo, M; Ionescu, C; Nacoulma, O G

    2012-01-01

    An aqueous acetone extract of the stem with the leaves of Bauhinia rufescens and its fractions were analysed for their antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activities, as well as their phytochemical composition. For measurement of the antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate) and the ferric-reducing methods were used. The results indicated that the aqueous acetone, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions possessed considerable antioxidant activity. Further, the xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory assays showed that the n-butanol fraction possessed compounds that can inhibit both these enzymes. In the phytochemical analysis, the ethyl acetate and the n-butanol fractions of the aqueous acetone extract were screened by HPLC-MS for their phenolic content. The results indicated the presence of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin quercetin, quercitrin, p-coumaric and ferulic acids in the non-hydrolysed fractions. In the hydrolysed fractions, kaempferol, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified.

  13. Determination of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, and Xanthines in Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis St.-Hil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Bojić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Raw material, different formulations of foods, and dietary supplements of mate demands control of the content of bioactive substances for which high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC, described here, presents simple and rapid approach for detections as well as quantification. Using TLC densitometry, the following bioactive compounds were identified and quantified: chlorogenic acid (2.1 mg/g, caffeic acid (1.5 mg/g, rutin (5.2 mg/g, quercetin (2.2 mg/g, and kaempferol (4.5 mg/g. The results obtained with TLC densitometry for caffeine (5.4 mg/g and theobromine (2.7 mg/g show no statistical difference to the content of total xanthines (7.6 mg/g obtained by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Thus, TLC remains a technique of choice for simple and rapid analysis of great number of samples as well as a primary screening technique in plant analysis.

  14. Characterization and Thermodynamic Relationship of Three Polymorphs of a Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor, Febuxostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jinish; Jagia, Moksh; Bansal, Arvind Kumar; Patel, Sarsvatkumar

    2015-11-01

    Febuxostat (FXT), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is an interesting and unique molecule, which exhibits extensive polymorphism, with over 15 polymorphic forms reported to date. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the three polymorphic forms with respect to their thermodynamic quantities and establish thermodynamic relationship between them. The polymorphs were characterized by thermal and powder X-ray diffraction methods. Three different methods were used to calculate the transition temperatures (Ttr) and thereby their thermodynamic relationships. Although the first and second method used calorimetric data (melting point and heat of fusion), the third method employed the use of configurational free energy phase diagram. The onset melting points of three polymorphic forms were found to be 482.89 ± 0.37 K for form I, 476.30 ± 1.21 K for form II, and 474.19 ± 0.11 K for form III. Moreover, the powder X-ray diffraction patterns for each form were also unique. The polymorphic pair of form I and II and of form I and III was found to be enantiotropic, whereas pair of form II and III was monotropic. Besides the relative thermodynamic aspects (free energy differences, enthalpy, entropy contributions) using different methods, the pharmaceutical implications and phase transformation aspects have also been covered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Metabonomics revealed xanthine oxidase-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingping; Wang, Chengshi; Liu, Fang; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is a major public health problem in the world. To reveal the metabolic changes associated with DN, we analyzed the serum, urine, and renal extracts obtained from control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN rats by (1)H NMR-based metabonomics and multivariate data analysis. A significant difference between control and DN rats was revealed in metabolic profiles, and we identified several important DN-related metabolites including increased levels of allantoin and uric acid (UA) in the DN rats, suggesting that disturbed purine metabolism may be involved in the DN. Combined with conventional histological and biological methods, we further demonstrated that xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme for purine catabolism, was abnormally activated in the kidney of diabetic rats by hyperglycemia. The highly activated XO increased the level of intracellular ROS, which caused renal injury by direct oxidative damage to renal cells, and indirect inducing inflammatory responses via activating NF-κB signaling pathway. Our study highlighted that metabonomics is a promising tool to reveal the metabolic changes and the underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of DN.

  16. Lead-elevated activity of xanthine oxidase in lead-exposed workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Kasperczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to explore the connection between lead toxicity and the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO. In addition, we indicated the uric acid (UA and creatinine levels and concentration of erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA to estimate oxidative stress intensity. Materials and Methods: The examined group consisted of 125 healthy male employees of zinc and lead works. The examined group was divided into tertiles according to blood lead levels. In the collected blood samples, concentrations of lead-exposure indices, UA, creatinine, and MDA as well as activity of XO were measured concomitantly. The control group consisted of 32 healthy male administrative workers who were exposed to lead only environmentally. Results: XO activity and MDA level were significantly elevated in all tertiles compared to the control group. Creatinine level was significantly elevated in the medium and high tertiles. However, the level of UA was significantly elevated in the high tertile, while in the low and medium tertile only a tendency toward higher values was observed. Conclusions: Occupational exposure to lead induces activity of XO. This induction may contribute to the observed simultaneously increased oxidative stress, measured as MDA level, and the increased level of UA. Med Pr 2013;64(2:175–180

  17. Structure–Activity Relationship of Xanthones as Inhibitors of Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yun Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polygala plants contain a large number of xanthones with good physiological activities. In our previous work, 18 xanthones were isolated from Polygala crotalarioides. Extented study of the chemical composition of the other species Polygala sibirica led to the separation of two new xanthones—3-hydroxy-1,2,6,7,8-pentamethoxy xanthone (A and 6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-1,7-dimethoxy xanthone (C—together with 14 known xanthones. Among them, some xanthones have a certain xanthine oxidase (XO inhibitory activity. Furthemore, 14 xanthones as XO inhibitors were selected to develop three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA models. The CoMFA model predicted a q2 value of 0.613 and an r2 value of 0.997. The best CoMSIA model predicted a q2 value of 0.608 and an r2 value of 0.997 based on a combination of steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic effects. The analysis of the contour maps from each model provided insight into the structural requirements for the development of more active XO inhibitors.

  18. Effects of Greek legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanou, Chrysoula I; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Stagos, Dimitrios; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Aligiannis, Nectarios; Angelis, Apostolos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Anastasiadi, Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-03-01

    Legumes are considered to have beneficial health implications, which have been attributed to their phytochemical content. Polyphenols are considered the most important phytochemical compounds extensively studied for their antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of potent antioxidant legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. XO exerts a dual role, as it is the major contributor of free radicals during exercise while it generates uric acid, the most potent antioxidant molecule in plasma. CAT and SOD are two of the main enzymes of the antioxidant defence of tissues. We demonstrate that the majority of the extracts inhibited XO activity, but they had no effect on CAT inhibition and SOD induction when used at low concentrations. These results imply that the tested extracts may be considered as possible source of novel XO inhibitors. However, we have shown that allopurinol administration, a known XO inhibitor, before exercise reduces performance and induces oxidative stress in rats. Considering the fact that the extracts examined had an inhibitory effect on XO activity, possibly posing a restriction in their characterization as antioxidants, phytochemical antioxidant administration before exercise should probably be reconsidered.

  19. Studies on the biotechnological production of methyl xanthines. Untersuchung zur biotechnologischen Gewinnung von Methylxanthinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, M.

    1986-04-25

    Two strains of Pseudomonas putida were isolated during enrichment of caffeine-degrading microorganisms of the two, the strain Pseudomonas putida WS grew on media containing up to 2% of caffeine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. Of 25 further strains of bacteria and fungi, only one yeast also had caffeine-degrading characteristics. Caffeine degradation was much slower than with the two Pseudomonas strains, and caffeine was used only as a nitrogen source. This suggests two alternative methods of methyl xanthine production: 1) When graining Mutant H8 on glucose caffeine, the reaction could be interrupted with good yields after a short time. This method requires the processing of a complex mixture of caffeine, theobromine, and heteroxanthine. 2) When growing Mutant H8 on a mixture of peptone meat broth plus caffeine, the reaction can be interrupted with average yields after near-complete conversion. This method is recommended for heteroxanthine production, owing to the fact that peak heteroxanthine yields of 50% are not reached until all other methyl anthines have been converted more or less completely.

  20. Study on inclusion complex of cyclodextrin with methyl xanthine derivatives by fluorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Ding, Li-Hua; Dong, Chuan; Niu, Wei-Ping; Shuang, Shao-Min

    2003-10-01

    The inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and HP-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) with caffeine, theophylline and theobromine were investigated by fluorimetry. Various factors affecting the formation of inclusion complexes were discussed in detail including forming time, pH effect and temperature. The results indicate that inclusion process was affected seriously by laying time and pH. The forming time of β-CD inclusion complexes is much longer than that of HP-β-CD. The optimum pH range is about 7-12 for caffeine, 8-10 for TP, 10.5-12 for TB. The intensities of their fluorescence increase with the decreasing of temperature. Their maximum excitation wavelengths are all in the range of 280-290 nm. The emission wavelength of caffeine and theophylline are both in the range of 340-360 nm, and that of theobromine is about 325 nm. The fluorescence signals are intensified with the increasing concentration of CD. The stoichiometry of the inclusion complexes of CD with these three methyl xanthine derivatives are all 1:1 and the formation constant are all calculated.

  1. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Spanou

    Full Text Available Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC(50 values range from 40-135 µg/mL and 55-260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their K(i values ranged from 13-767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action.

  2. Impact of single anaerobic exercise on delayed activation of endothelial xanthine oxidase in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in the blood of men and women during the first hour following a single anaerobic exercise (AN-EX), and after 24 hours of recovery, and to determine whether the changes in XO activity in the blood after AN-EX are dependent on anaerobic performance. Ten men and ten women performed a single AN-EX. Blood was collected before and five times after completion of the AN-EX. The activity of XO was determined. In both groups, a significant (P women (P work performed during the AN-EX and the power decrease. In the first hour after the single AN-EX, XO activity in the blood of women and men did not change, but after 24 hours of recovery, it was significantly higher compared to baseline levels in both sexes. Single AN-EX causes a smaller increase in XO activity in people with higher anaerobic performance.

  3. Kynurenic acid inhibits intestinal hypermotility and xanthine oxidase activity during experimental colon obstruction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszaki, J; Palásthy, Z; Erczes, D; Rácz, A; Torday, C; Varga, G; Vécsei, L; Boros, M

    2008-01-01

    Kynurenic acid (KynA), an endogenous antagonist of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors, protects the central nervous system in excitotoxic neurological diseases. We hypothesized that the inhibition of enteric glutamate receptors by KynA may influence dysmotility in the gastrointestinal tract. Group 1 of healthy dogs served as the sham-operated control, in group 2, the animals were treated with KynA, while in groups 3 and 4 mechanical colon obstruction was maintained for 7 h. Group 4 was treated with KynA at the onset of ileus. Hemodynamics and motility changes were monitored, and the activities of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined from tissue samples. Colon obstruction induced a hyperdynamic circulatory reaction, significantly elevated the motility index and increased the mucosal leucocyte accumulation and the XOR activity. The KynA treatment augmented the tone of the colon, permanently decreased the motility index of the giant colonic contractions and reduced the increases in XOR and MPO activities. These effects were concomitant with the in vitro inhibition of XOR activity. In conclusion, KynA antagonizes the obstruction-induced motility responses and XOR activation in the colon. Inhibition of enteric NMDA receptors may provide an option to influence intestinal hypermotility and inflammatory changes.

  4. Is Xanthine oxidase activity in polycystic ovary syndrome associated with inflammatory and cardiovascular risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isık, Hatice; Aynıoglu, Oner; Tımur, Hakan; Sahbaz, Ahmet; Harma, Muge; Can, Murat; Guven, Berrak; Alptekin, Husnu; Kokturk, Furuzan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to determine the relationship between xanthine oxidase (XO) and oxidative stress, inflammatory status, and various clinical and biochemical parameters. In this cross-sectional study a total of 83 women including 45 PCOS patients and 38 healthy women were enrolled. We collected blood samples for XO and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, hormone levels, cholesterol values, and inflammatory markers. Body mass index (BMI) , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and blood pressure were assessed. Blood samples were taken for hormonal levels, cholesterol levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell and neutrophil counts, XO and SOD activities. The basal hormone levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, TG/HDL-C (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) ratios FPG, FPI and HOMA-IR levels were higher in PCOS patients compared to controls (pPCOS patients (pPCOS patients. Positive correlations between XO and inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease risk factors suggest that XO plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS and its metabolic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New Markers: Urine Xanthine Oxidase and Myeloperoxidase in the Early Detection of Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Ciragil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate if xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase levels quantitation method may alternate routine culture method, which takes more time in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections. Material and Methods. Five hundred and forty-nine outpatients who had admitted to Clinic Microbiology Laboratory were included in the study. The microorganisms were identified by using VITEK System. The urine specimens that were negative from the quantitative urine culture were used as controls. The activities of MPO and XO in spot urine were measured by spectrophotometric method. Results. Through the urine cultures, 167 bacteria were isolated from 163 urine specimens; 386 cultures yielded no bacterial growth. E. coli was the most frequent pathogen. In infection with E. coli both XO and MPO levels were increased the most. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for XO were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. These values for MPO were 87%, 100%, 100%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusion. These data obtained suggest that urine XO and MPO levels may be new markers in the early detection of UTI.

  6. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces oxidative stress and improves skeletal muscle function in response to electrically stimulated isometric contractions in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael J.; Jackson, Janna R.; Hao, Yanlei; Leonard, Stephen S.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a putative factor responsible for reducing function and increasing apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle with aging. This study examined the contribution and functional significance of the xanthine oxidase enzyme as a potential source of oxidant production in aged skeletal muscle during repetitive in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited in young adult and aged mice via a subcutaneously placed time release (2.5 mg/day) allopurinol pellet, 7 days prior to the start of in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Gastrocnemius muscles were electrically activated with 20 maximal contractions for three consecutive days. Xanthine oxidase activity was 65% greater in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged mice compared to young mice. Xanthine oxidase activity also increased after in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions in muscles from both young (33%) and aged (28%) mice, relative to contralateral non-contracted muscles. Allopurinol attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress, but it did not affect the elevated basal levels of oxidative stress that was associated with aging. In addition, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity decreased caspase 3 activity, but it had no effect on other markers of mitochondrial associated apoptosis. Our results show that compared to control conditions, suppression of xanthine oxidase activity by allopurinol reduced xanthine oxidase activity, H2O2 levels, lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 activity, prevented the in situ electrically stimulated isometric contraction-induced loss of glutathione, prevented the increase of catalase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities, and increased maximal isometric force in the plantar flexor muscles of aged mice after repetitive electrically evoked contractions. PMID:21530649

  7. Effect O6-guanine alkylation on DNA flexibility studied by comparative molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Mahmut; Drsata, Tomas; Lankas, Filip; Zacharias, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Alkylation of guanine at the O6 atom is a highly mutagenic DNA lesion because it alters the coding specificity of the base causing G:C to A:T transversion mutations. Specific DNA repair enzymes, e.g. O(6)-alkylguanin-DNA-Transferases (AGT), recognize and repair such damage after looping out the damaged base to transfer it into the enzyme active site. The exact mechanism how the repair enzyme identifies a damaged site within a large surplus of undamaged DNA is not fully understood. The O(6)-alkylation of guanine may change the deformability of DNA which may facilitate the initial binding of a repair enzyme at the damaged site. In order to characterize the effect of O(6)-methyl-guanine (O(6)-MeG) containing base pairs on the DNA deformability extensive comparative molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on duplex DNA with central G:C, O(6)-MeG:C or O(6)-MeG:T base pairs were performed. The simulations indicate significant differences in the helical deformability due to the presence of O(6)-MeG compared to regular undamaged DNA. This includes enhanced base pair opening, shear and stagger motions and alterations in the backbone fine structure caused in part by transient rupture of the base pairing at the damaged site and transient insertion of water molecules. It is likely that the increased opening motions of O(6)-MeG:C or O(6)-MeG:T base pairs play a decisive role for the induced fit recognition or for the looping out of the damaged base by repair enzymes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Silver (I) as DNA glue: Ag+-mediated guanine pairing revealed by removing Watson-Crick constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swasey, Steven M.; Leal, Leonardo Espinosa; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Pavlovich, James; Gwinn, Elisabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    Metal ion interactions with DNA have far-reaching implications in biochemistry and DNA nanotechnology. Ag+ is uniquely interesting because it binds exclusively to the bases rather than the backbone of DNA, without the toxicity of Hg2+. In contrast to prior studies of Ag+ incorporation into double-stranded DNA, we remove the constraints of Watson-Crick pairing by focusing on homo-base DNA oligomers of the canonical bases. High resolution electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry reveals an unanticipated Ag+-mediated pairing of guanine homo-base strands, with higher stability than canonical guanine-cytosine pairing. By exploring unrestricted binding geometries, quantum chemical calculations find that Ag+ bridges between non-canonical sites on guanine bases. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the Ag+-mediated structuring of guanine homobase strands persists to at least 90 °C under conditions for which canonical guanine-cytosine duplexes melt below 20 °C. These findings are promising for DNA nanotechnology and metal-ion based biomedical science. PMID:25973536

  9. Silver (I) as DNA glue: Ag(+)-mediated guanine pairing revealed by removing Watson-Crick constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swasey, Steven M; Leal, Leonardo Espinosa; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Pavlovich, James; Gwinn, Elisabeth G

    2015-05-14

    Metal ion interactions with DNA have far-reaching implications in biochemistry and DNA nanotechnology. Ag(+) is uniquely interesting because it binds exclusively to the bases rather than the backbone of DNA, without the toxicity of Hg(2+). In contrast to prior studies of Ag(+) incorporation into double-stranded DNA, we remove the constraints of Watson-Crick pairing by focusing on homo-base DNA oligomers of the canonical bases. High resolution electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry reveals an unanticipated Ag(+)-mediated pairing of guanine homo-base strands, with higher stability than canonical guanine-cytosine pairing. By exploring unrestricted binding geometries, quantum chemical calculations find that Ag(+) bridges between non-canonical sites on guanine bases. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the Ag(+)-mediated structuring of guanine homobase strands persists to at least 90 °C under conditions for which canonical guanine-cytosine duplexes melt below 20 °C. These findings are promising for DNA nanotechnology and metal-ion based biomedical science.

  10. Silver (I) as DNA glue: Ag+-mediated guanine pairing revealed by removing Watson-Crick constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swasey, Steven M.; Leal, Leonardo Espinosa; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga; Pavlovich, James; Gwinn, Elisabeth G.

    2015-05-01

    Metal ion interactions with DNA have far-reaching implications in biochemistry and DNA nanotechnology. Ag+ is uniquely interesting because it binds exclusively to the bases rather than the backbone of DNA, without the toxicity of Hg2+. In contrast to prior studies of Ag+ incorporation into double-stranded DNA, we remove the constraints of Watson-Crick pairing by focusing on homo-base DNA oligomers of the canonical bases. High resolution electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry reveals an unanticipated Ag+-mediated pairing of guanine homo-base strands, with higher stability than canonical guanine-cytosine pairing. By exploring unrestricted binding geometries, quantum chemical calculations find that Ag+ bridges between non-canonical sites on guanine bases. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that the Ag+-mediated structuring of guanine homobase strands persists to at least 90 °C under conditions for which canonical guanine-cytosine duplexes melt below 20 °C. These findings are promising for DNA nanotechnology and metal-ion based biomedical science.

  11. CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes for electrochemical determination of guanine and adenine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Yan [College of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Department of Chemistry, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002 (China); Huang Qinan [Department of Chemistry, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241002 (China); Li Maoguo [College of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Huang Xingjiu [Institute of Intelligent Machines, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Fang Bin, E-mail: binfang_47@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China); Wang Lun, E-mail: wanglun@mail.ahnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Materials Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Sub-10 nm CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes has been constructed for electrochemial determination of guanine and adenine. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the nanoparticles CeO{sub 2}/MWCNTs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterize the electrode modifying process. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were used to study the electrocatalytic activity toward the electrochemical oxidation of guanine and adenine. The detection limit (S/N = 3) for adenine and guanine was found to be 20 and 10 nM, respectively. The obtained sensitivity toward guanine and adenine was 1.26 and 1.13 {mu}A/{mu}M in the linear concentration range 5-50 {mu}M and 5-35 {mu}M, respectively. These results demonstrate that the carbon nanotubes could provide huge locations and facilitate the adsorptive accumulation of the guanine and adenine, and the CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles are promising substrates for the development of high-performance electrocatalysts for biosensing.

  12. First-Principles Vibrational Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy of β -Guanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, G.; Taverna, D.; Lazzeri, M.; Balan, E.

    2017-07-01

    A general approach to model vibrational electron energy loss spectra obtained using an electron beam positioned away from the specimen is presented. The energy-loss probability of the fast electron is evaluated using first-principles quantum mechanical calculations (density functional theory) of the dielectric response of the specimen. The validity of the method is assessed using recently measured anhydrous β -guanine, an important molecular solid used by animals to produce structural colors. The good agreement between theory and experiments lays the basis for a quantitative interpretation of this spectroscopy in complex systems.

  13. Development of 2-(Substituted Benzylamino)-4-Methyl-1, 3-Thiazole-5-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives as Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors and Free Radical Scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Rahmat; Kumar, Suresh; Afzal, Obaid; Shalmali, Nishtha; Sharma, Manju; Bawa, Sandhya

    2016-04-01

    A series of 2-(substituted benzylamino)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid was designed and synthesized as structural analogue of febuxostat. A methylene amine spacer was incorporated between the phenyl ring and thiazole ring in contrast to febuxostat in which the phenyl ring was directly linked with the thiazole moiety. The purpose of incorporating methylene amine was to provide a heteroatom which is expected to favour hydrogen bonding within the active site residues of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. The structure of all the compounds was established by the combined use of FT-IR, NMR and MS spectral data. All the compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to inhibit the enzyme xanthine oxidase as per the reported procedure along with DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Compounds 5j, 5k and 5l demonstrated satisfactory potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values, 3.6, 8.1 and 9.9 μm, respectively, whereas compounds 5k, 5n and 5p demonstrated moderate antioxidant activities having IC50 15.3, 17.6 and 19.6 μm, respectively, along with xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Compound 5k showed moderate xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity as compared with febuxostat along with antioxidant activity. All the compounds were also studied for their binding affinity in active site of enzyme (PDB ID-1N5X). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Role of xanthine oxidase and reactive oxygen intermediates in LPS- and TNF-induced pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioni, R; Gatti, S; Demitri, M T; Delgado, R; Echtenacher, B; Gnocchi, P; Heremans, H; Ghezzi, P

    1994-03-01

    We studied the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary edema. LPS treatment (600 micrograms/mouse, IP) was associated with a marked induction of the superoxide-generating enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) in serum and lung. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC)--1 gm/kg orally, 45 minutes before LPS--or with the XO inhibitor allopurinol (AP)--50 mg/kg orally at -1 hour and +3 hours--was protective. On the other hand nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, indomethacin, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid) were ineffective. These data suggested that XO might be involved in the induction of pulmonary damage by LPS. However, treatment with the interferon inducer polyriboinosylic-polyribocytidylic acid, although inducing XO to the same extent as LPS, did not cause any pulmonary edema, indicating that XO is not sufficient for this toxicity of LPS. To define the possible role of cytokines, we studied the effect of direct administration of LPS (600 micrograms/mouse, IP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF, 2.5 or 50 micrograms/mouse, IV), interleukin-1 (IL-1 beta, 2.5 micrograms/mouse, IV), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma, 2.5 micrograms/mouse, IV), or their combination at 2.5 micrograms each. In addition to LPS, only TNF at the highest dose induced pulmonary edema 24 hours later. LPS-induced pulmonary edema was partially inhibited by anti-IFN-gamma antibodies but not by anti-TNF antibodies, anti-IL-1 beta antibodies, or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra).

  15. Genomic sequencing of uric acid metabolizing and clearing genes in relationship to xanthine oxidase inhibitor dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Matthew B; Smith, Derek M; Shaak, Thomas L

    2017-03-01

    It remains unclear why the dose of xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) allopurinol or febuxostat varies among patients though they reach similar serum uric acid (SUA) goal. We pursued genomic sequencing of XOI metabolism and clearance genes to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relate to differences in XOI dose. Subjects with a diagnosis of Gout based on the 1977 American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for the disorder, who were on stable doses of a XOI, and who were at their goal SUA level, were enrolled. The primary outcome was relationship between SNPs in any of these genes to XOI dose. The secondary outcome was relationship between SNPs and change in pre- and post-treatment SUA. We enrolled 100 subjects. The average patient age was 68.6 ± 10.6 years old. Over 80% were men and 77% were Caucasian. One SNP was associated with a higher XOI dose: rs75995567 (p = 0.031). Two SNPs were associated with 300 mg daily of allopurinol: rs11678615 (p = 0.022) and rs3731722 on Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) (His1297Arg) (p = 0.001). Two SNPs were associated with a lower dose of allopurinol: rs1884725 (p = 0.033) and rs34650714 (p = 0.006). For the secondary outcome, rs13415401 was the only SNP related to a smaller mean SUA change. Ten SNPs were identified with a larger change in SUA. Though multiple SNPs were identified in the primary and secondary outcomes of this study, rs3731722 is known to alter catalytic function for some aldehyde oxidase substrates.

  16. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure or hydrophobic modification on thermal stability of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halalipour, Ali; Duff, Michael R; Howell, Elizabeth E; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I

    2017-08-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the kinetics of thermal inactivation of xanthine oxidase (XOx) from bovine milk was studied. Inactivation of XOx followed pseudo-first-order kinetics at 0.1-300MPa and 55.0-70.0°C. High pressure up to at least 300MPa stabilized XOx at all the studied temperatures. The highest stabilization effect of HHP on XOx was at 200-300MPa at 55.0 and 58.6°C, and at 250-300MPa at 62.3-70.0°C. The stability of XOx increased 9.5 times at 300MPa and 70.0°C compared to atmospheric pressure at the same temperature. The activation energy of inactivation of XOx decreased with pressure and was 1.9 times less at 300MPa (97.0±8.2kJmol -1 ) than at 0.1MPa (181.7±12.1kJmol -1 ). High pressure decreased the dependence of the rate constant of inactivation to temperature effects compared to atmospheric pressure. The stabilizing effect of HHP on XOx was highest at 70.0°C where the activation volume of inactivation of XOx was 28.9±2.9cm 3 mol -1 . A second approach to try to increase XOx stability involved hydrophobic modification using aniline or benzoate. However, the thermal stability of XOx remained unaffected after 8-14 modifications of carboxyl side groups per XOx monomer with aniline, or 12-17 modifications of amino side groups per XOx monomer with benzoate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Emerging Role of Guanine Exchange Factors in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian eDroppelmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Small GTPases participate in a broad range of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and migration. The exchange of GDP for GTP resulting in the activation of these GTPases is catalyzed by a group of enzymes called guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs, of which two classes: Dbl-related exchange factors and the more recently described Dock family exchange factors. Increasingly, deregulation of normal GEF activity or function has been associated with a broad range of disease states, including neurodegeneration and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this review, we examine this evidence with special emphasis on the novel role of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RGNEF/p190RhoGEF in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. RGNEF is the first neurodegeneration-linked GEF that regulates not only RhoA GTPase activation but also functions as an RNA binding protein that directly acts with low molecular weight neurofilament (NEFL mRNA 3’UTR to regulate its stability. This dual role for RGNEF, coupled with the increasing understanding of the key role for GEFs in modulating the GTPase function in cell survival suggests a prominent role for GEFs in mediating a critical balance between cytotoxicity and neuroprotection which, when disturbed, contributes to neuronal loss.

  18. New investigations of the guanine trichloro cuprate(II) complex crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabijanić, Ivana; Matković-Čalogović, Dubravka; Pilepić, Viktor; Ivanišević, Irena; Mohaček-Grošev, Vlasta; Sanković, Krešimir

    2017-01-01

    Crystals of the guanine trichloro cuprate(II) complex, (HGua)2[Cu2Cl6]·2H2O (HGua = protonated guanine), were prepared and analysed by spectroscopic (IR, Raman) and computational methods. A new single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis was conducted to obtain data with lower standard uncertainties than those in the previously published structure. Raman and IR spectroscopy and quantum-mechanical analysis gave us new insight into the vibrational states of the (HGua)2[Cu2Cl6]·2H2O crystal. The vibrational spectra of the crystal were assigned by performing a normal coordinate analysis for a free dimer with a centre of inversion as the only symmetry element. The stretching vibration observed at 279 cm-1 in the infrared spectrum corresponds to the N-Cu bond. The noncovalent interaction (NCI) plots and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analysis of the electron density obtained from periodic DFT calculations elucidated the interactions that exist within the crystal structure. Closed-shell ionic attractions, as well as weak and medium strength hydrogen bonds, prevailed in the crystal packing.

  19. A multi-functional guanine derivative for studying the DNA G-quadruplex structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Takumi; Zhao, Pei-Yan; Bao, Hong-Liang; Xu, Yan

    2017-10-23

    In the present study, we developed a multi-functional guanine derivative, 8F G, as a G-quadruplex stabilizer, a fluorescent probe for the detection of G-quadruplex formation, and a 19 F sensor for the observation of the G-quadruplex. We demonstrate that the functional nucleoside bearing a 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene group at the 8-position of guanine stabilizes the DNA G-quadruplex structure and fluoresces following the G-quadruplex formation. Furthermore, we show that the functional sensor can be used to directly observe DNA G-quadruplexes by 19 F-NMR in living cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that the nucleoside derivative simultaneously allows for three kinds of functions at a single G-quadruplex DNA. Our results suggest that the multi-functional nucleoside derivative can be broadly used for studying the G-quadruplex structure and serves as a powerful tool for examining the molecular basis of G-quadruplex formation in vitro and in living cells.

  20. Guanine nucleotide regulatory protein co-purifies with the D2-dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senogles, S.E.; Caron, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The D 2 -dopamine receptor from bovine anterior pituitary was purified ∼1000 fold by affinity chromatography on CMOS-Sepharose. Reconstitution of the affinity-purified receptor into phospholipid vesicles revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist sites as detected by N-n-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) competition experiments with 3 H-spiperone. High affinity agonist binding could be converted to the low affinity form by guanine nucleotides, indicating the presence of an endogenous guanine nucleotide binding protein (N protein) in the affinity-purified D 2 receptor preparations. Furthermore, this preparation contained an agonist-sensitive GTPase activity which was stimulated 2-3 fold over basal by 10 μM NPA. 35 S-GTPγS binding to these preparations revealed a stoichiometry of 0.4-0.7 mole N protein/mole receptor, suggesting the N protein may be specifically coupled with the purified D 2 -dopamine receptor and not present as a contaminant. Pertussis toxin treatment of the affinity purified receptor preparations prevented high affinity agonist binding, as well as agonist stimulation of the GTPase activity, presumably by inactivating the associated N protein. Pertussis toxin lead to the ADP-ribosylation of a protein of 39-40K on SDS-PAGE. These findings indicate that an endogenous N protein, N/sub i/ or N/sub o/, co-purifies with the D 2 -dopamine receptor which may reflect a precoupling of this receptor with an N protein within the membranes

  1. Mechanism of porcine liver xanthine oxidoreductase mediated N-oxide reduction of cyadox as revealed by docking and mutagenesis studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigang Chen

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR is a cytoplasmic molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase, catalyzing both endogenous purines and exogenous compounds. It is suggested that XOR in porcine hepatocytes catalyzes the N-oxide reduction of quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this metabolism, the cDNA of porcine XOR was cloned and heterologously expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. The bovine XOR, showing sequence identity of 91% to porcine XOR, was employed as template for homology modeling. By docking cyadox, a representative compound of QdNOs, into porcine XOR model, eight amino acid residues, Gly47, Asn352, Ser360, Arg427, Asp430, Asp431, Ser1227 and Lys1230, were located at distances of less than 4Å to cyadox. Site-directed mutagenesis was performed to analyze their catalytic functions. Compared with wild type porcine XOR, G47A, S360P, D431A, S1227A, and K1230A displayed altered kinetic parameters in cyadox reduction, similarly to that in xanthine oxidation, indicating these mutations influenced electron-donating process of xanthine before subsequent electron transfer to cyadox to fulfill the N-oxide reduction. Differently, R427E and D430H, both located in the 424-434 loop, exhibited a much lower K(m and a decreased V(max respectively in cyadox reduction. Arg427 may be related to the substrate binding of porcine XOR to cyadox, and Asp430 is suggested to be involved in the transfer of electron to cyadox. This study initially reveals the possible catalytic mechanism of porcine XOR in cyadox metabolism, providing with novel insights into the structure-function relationship of XOR in the reduction of exogenous di-N-oxides.

  2. Discovery and biological evaluation of some (1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxybenzaldehyde derivatives containing an anthraquinone moiety as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Jian; Li, Song-Ye; Yuan, Wei-Yan; Wu, Qing-Xia; Wang, Lin; Yang, Su; Sun, Qi; Meng, Fan-Hao

    2017-02-15

    A series of (1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxybenzaldehyde derivatives containing an anthraquinone moiety were synthesized and identified as novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Among them, the most promising compounds 1h and 1k were obtained with IC 50 values of 0.6μM and 0.8μM, respectively, which were more than 10-fold potent compared with allopurinol. The Lineweaver-Burk plot revealed that compound 1h acted as a mixed-type xanthine oxidase inhibitor. SAR analysis showed that the benzaldehyde moiety played a more important role than the anthraquinone moiety for inhibition potency. The basis of significant inhibition of xanthine oxidase by 1h was rationalized by molecular modeling studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Linagliptin, a xanthine-based dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor with an unusual profile for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, Carolyn F; Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    data presented at Scientific Meetings and peer-reviewed studies published since 2007. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: This article reviews pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of linagliptin. Linagliptin belongs to a new chemical class of dipeptidyl pepidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which...... comprise xanthine-based compounds. It is a potent, long-acting inhibitor with high selectivity for DPP-4 versus the related enzymes DPP-8 and DPP-9. The drug has modest oral availability in humans, but is absorbed rapidly to inhibit plasma DPP-4 activity by > 80% over 24 h. It is not metabolized...

  4. Structural and functional insights into the catalytic inactivity of the major fraction of buffalo milk xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh S Gadave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH and xanthine oxidase (XO, catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m of 0.11 sec(-1 µM(-1 of buffalo XO was 8-10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm of 46,000 M(-1 cm(-1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD(+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. CONCLUSION: A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way.

  5. Polymerase recognition of 2-thio-iso-guanine·5-methyl-4-pyrimidinone (iGs·P)--A new DD/AA base pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kye; Switzer, Christopher

    2016-02-15

    Polymerase specificity is reported for a previously unknown base pair with a non-standard DD/AA hydrogen bonding pattern: 2-thio-iso-guanine·5-methyl-4-pyrimidinone. Our findings suggest that atomic substitution may provide a solution for low fidelity previously associated with enzymatic copying of iso-guanine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical behaviors and simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine based on graphene–ionic liquid–chitosan composite film modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Xiuli; Yang Wu; Ren Jie; Guo Hao; Long Shijia; Chen Jiaojiao; Gao Jinzhang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This work developed a novel electrochemical biosensors for guanine and adenine detection simultaneously. ► A disposable electrode based on graphene sheets, ionic liquid and chitosan was proposed. ► The presented method was also applied to simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine in denatured DNA samples with satisfying results. ► Easy fabrication, high sensitivity, excellent reproducibility and long-term stability. - Abstract: A graphene sheets (GS), ionic liquid (IL) and chitosan (CS) modified electrode was fabricated and the modified electrode displayed excellent electrochemical catalytic activities toward guanine and adenine. The transfer electron number (n) and the charge transfer coefficient (α) were calculated with the result as n = 2, α = 0.58 for guanine, and n = 2, α = 0.51 for adenine, which indicated the electrochemical oxidation of guanine and adenine on GS/IL/CS modified electrode was a two-electron and two-proton process. The oxidation overpotentials of guanine and adenine were decreased significantly compared with those obtained at the bare glassy carbon electrode and multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode. The modified electrode exhibited good analytical performance and was successfully applied for individual and simultaneous determination of guanine and adenine. Low detection limits of 0.75 μM for guanine and 0.45 μM for adenine were obtained, with the linear calibration curves over the concentration range 2.5–150 μM and 1.5–350 μM, respectively. At the same time, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of guanine and adenine in denatured DNA samples with satisfying results. Moreover, the GS/IL/CS modified electrode exhibited good sensitivity, long-term stability and reproducibility for the determination of guanine and adenine.

  7. Antidepressant-like effects of the xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibitor allopurinol in rats. A comparison with fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz Özgür, Börte; Aksu, Hatice; Birincioğlu, Mustafa; Dost, Turhan

    2015-11-01

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. The activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, which metabolizes tryptophan (TRP), is decreased by xanthine oxidase inhibitors, causing TRP levels in the body to be increased. Increases in TRP levels in the brain might have antidepressant effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antidepressant effects of allopurinol compared to those of fluoxetine, which is a proven antidepressant. Thirty-two Wistar albino male rats were divided into four groups (control, 10mg/kg fluoxetine, 50mg/kg allopurinol, 50mg/kg allopurinol+10 mg/kg fluoxetine; n=8 per group), and forced swimming tests were performed before and after 14days of drug administration. Serotonin, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and uric acid levels were measured in blood samples after the final treatment. When allopurinol and fluoxetine were administered separately, a decrease in the duration of immobility and an increased duration of swimming were observed in the forced swimming test. The results showed similar antidepressant efficacies between allopurinol and fluoxetine. However, we found no statistically significant difference in the antidepressant effect of the combined therapy versus single drug therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-xanthine oxidase antibodies in sera and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other joint inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrar, L.; Hanachi, N.; Rouba, K.; Charef, N.; Khennouf, S.; Baghiani, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to study anti-bovine milk xanthine oxidoreductase XOPR antibody levels in synovial fluid as well as in serum of patients suffering from rheumatoid affections to assess a possible correlation between antibody titres and severity of disease. Sera and synovial fluids were collected from volunteer donors at Setif University Hospital, Setif, Algeria from 2001-2007 with the consent of patients. Human IgG and IgM levels of free and bound anti-bovine milk XOR antibodies were determined using bovine XOR as antigen, with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA. Serum IgG anti-bovine milk XOR titres in 30 healthy normal subjects 2.74+-2.31 microgram/mL are in agreement with that reported in the literature. Immunoglobulin G and IgM anti-bovine milk XOR antibody titres were found to be significantly higher in serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis RA and latex positives subjects. Synovial IgM antibody titres to bovine XOR were found to be significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients compared to patients with other joint inflammations. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, high concentrations of antibodies against XOR were noticed. These antibodies may play a major role in RA by inhibiting both xanthine and NADH oxidase activities of XOR. They may also play a key role in eliminating XOR from serum and synovial fluid positive role but unfortunately, immune complex formation could also activate complement and participate in self maintenance of inflammation. (author)

  9. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, K; Leszczynska, A; Przyborowski, K; Kaminski, T; Rykaczewska, U; Sitek, B; Zakrzewska, A; Proniewski, B; Smolenski, R T; Chabielska, E; Buczko, W; Chlopicki, S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying nitrite-induced effects on thrombosis and hemostasis in vivo are not clear. The goal of the work described here was to investigate the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in the anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic activities of nitrite in rats in vivo. Arterial thrombosis was induced electrically in rats with renovascular hypertension by partial ligation of the left renal artery. Sodium nitrite (NaNO2, 0.17 mmol/kg twice daily for 3 days, p.o) was administered with or without one of the XOR-inhibitors: allopurinol (ALLO) and febuxostat (FEB) (100 and 5 mg/kg, p.o., for 3 days). Nitrite treatment (0.17 mmol/kg), which was associated with a significant increase in NOHb, nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration, resulted in a substantial decrease in thrombus weight (TW) (0.48 ± 0.03 mg vs. vehicle [VEH] 0.88 ± 0.08 mg, p < 0.001) without a significant hypotensive effect. The anti-thrombotic effect of nitrite was partially reversed by FEB (TW = 0.63 ± 0.06 mg, p < 0.05 vs. nitrites), but not by ALLO (TW = 0.43 ± 0.02 mg). In turn, profound anti-platelet effect of nitrite measured ex vivo using collagen-induced whole-blood platelet aggregation (70.5 ± 7.1% vs. VEH 100 ± 4.5%, p < 0.05) and dynamic thromboxaneB2 generation was fully reversed by both XOR-inhibitors. In addition, nitrite decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration (0.47 ± 0.13 ng/ml vs. VEH 0.62 ± 0.04 ng/ml, p < 0.05) and FEB/ALLO reversed this effect. In vitro the anti-platelet effect of nitrite (1 mM) was reversed by FEB (0.1 mM) under hypoxia (0.5%O2) and normoxia (20%O2). Nitrite treatment had no effect on coagulation parameters. In conclusion, the nitrite-induced anti-platelet effect in rats in vivo is mediated by XOR, but XOR does not fully account for the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite.

  10. Nanoswitches based on DNA base pairs: why adenine-thymine is less suitable than guanine-cytosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca Guerra, C.; van der Wijst, T.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substituted Watson-Crick guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs were recently shown to yield robust three-state nanoswitches. Here, we address the question: Can such supramolecular switches also be based on Watson-Crick adenine-thymine (AT) base pairs? We have theoretically analyzed AT pairs in which

  11. Higher order structural effects stabilizing the reverse watson-crick guanine-cytosine base pair in functional RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Oliva, Romina; Cavallo, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    of the Guanine can increase its stability. Herein, we extend our survey and report on other H-bonding interactions that can increase the stability of this base pair. To this aim, we performed a bioinformatics search of the PDB to locate all the occurencies of G

  12. Examination of the effect of the annealing cation on higher order structures containing guanine or isoguanine repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Sarah E.; Wang, Junmei; Jayawickramarajah, Janarthanan; Hamilton, Andrew D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2010-01-01

    Isoguanine (2-oxo-6-amino-guanine), a natural but non-standard base, exhibits unique self-association properties compared to its isomer, guanine, and results in formation of different higher order DNA structures. In this work, the higher order structures formed by oligonucleotides containing guanine repeats or isoguanine repeats after annealing in solutions containing various cations are evaluated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The guanine-containing strand (G9) consistently formed quadruplexes upon annealing, whereas the isoguanine strand (Ig9) formed both pentaplexes and quadruplexes depending on the annealing cation. Quadruplex formation with G9 showed some dependence on the identity of the cation present during annealing with high relative quadruplex formation detected with six of ten cations. Analogous annealing experiments with Ig9 resulted in complex formation with all ten cations, and the majority of the resulting complexes were pentaplexes. CD results indicated most of the original complexes survived the desalting process necessary for ESI-MS analysis. In addition, several complexes, especially the pentaplexes, were found to be capable of cation exchange with ammonium ions. Ab initio calculations were conducted for isoguanine tetrads and pentads coordinated with all ten cations to predict the most energetically stable structures of the complexes in the gas phase. The observed preference of forming quadruplexes versus pentaplexes as a function of the coordinated cation can be interpreted by the calculated reaction energies of both the tetrads and pentads in combination with the distortion energies of tetrads. PMID:19746468

  13. The role of alkali metal cations in the stabilization of guanine quadruplexes: why K(+) is the best.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, F; Paragi, G; Fonseca Guerra, C

    2016-08-21

    The alkali metal ion affinity of guanine quadruplexes has been studied using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D). We have done computational investigations in aqueous solution that mimics artificial supramolecular conditions where guanine bases assemble into stacked quartets as well as biological environments in which telomeric quadruplexes are formed. In both cases, an alkali metal cation is needed to assist self-assembly. Our quantum chemical computations on these supramolecular systems are able to reproduce the experimental order of affinity of the guanine quadruplexes for the cations Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+). The strongest binding is computed between the potassium cation and the quadruplex as it occurs in nature. The desolvation and the size of alkali metal cations are thought to be responsible for the order of affinity. Until now, the relative importance of these two factors has remained unclear and debated. By assessing the quantum chemical 'size' of the cation, determining the amount of deformation of the quadruplex needed to accommodate the cation and through the energy decomposition analysis (EDA) of the interaction energy between the cation and the guanines, we reveal that the desolvation and size of the alkali metal cation are both almost equally responsible for the order of affinity.

  14. Structural study and investigation of NMR tensors in interaction of dopamine with Adenine and guanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjia Xu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of dopamine with adenine and guanine were studied at the Hartree-Fock level theory. The structural and vibrational properties of dopamine-4-N7GUA and dopamine-4-N3ADE were studied at level of HF/6-31G*. Interaction energies (ΔE were calculated to be -11.49 and -11.92 kcal/mol, respectively. Some of bond lengths, angels and tortions are compared. NBO studies were performed to the second-order and perturbative estimates of donor-acceptor interaction have been done. The procedures of gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO and continuous-set-of-gauge-transformation (CSGT were employed to calculate isotropic shielding, chemical shifts anisotropy and chemical shifts anisotropy asymmetry and effective anisotropy using 6-31G* basis set. These calculations yielded molecular geometries in good agreement with available experimental data.

  15. INTRACELLULAR Leishmania amazonensis KILLING INDUCED BY THE GUANINE NUCLEOSIDE 8-BROMOGUANOSINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIORGIO Selma

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effect of 8-Bromoguanosine, an immunostimulatory compound, on the cytotoxicity of macrophages against Leishmania amazonensis in an in vitro system. The results showed that macrophages treated with 8-Bromoguanosine before or after infection are capable to reduce parasite load, as monitored by the number of amastigotes per macrophage and the percentage of infected cells (i.e. phagocytic index. Since 8-Bromoguanosine was not directly toxic to the promastigotes, it was concluded that the ribonucleoside induced macrophage activation. Presumably, 8-Bromoguanosine primed macrophages by inducing interferon alpha and beta which ultimately led to L. amazonensis amastigote killing. The results suggest that guanine ribonucleosides may be useful to treat infections with intracellular pathogens.

  16. Modified gold electrodes based on thiocytosine/guanine-gold nanoparticles for uric and ascorbic acid determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulcu, Adriana; Grosan, Camelia; Muresan, Liana Maria; Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation of new modified surfaces for electrodes based on guanine/thiocytosine and gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it was found that they have diameters between 30 and 40 nm. The layers were characterized by specular reflectance infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-RAS) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thickness of layers was found to be approximately 30 nm for TC layers and 300 nm for GU layers. Every layer was characterized as electrochemical sensor (by cyclic voltammetry) both for uric acid and ascorbic acid determinations, separately and in their mixture. The modified sensors have good calibration functions with good sensitivity (between 1.145 and 1.406 mA cm −2 /decade), reproducibility ( t hiocytosine (Au T C) and gold g uanine (Au G U) layers

  17. Research Update: Density functional theory investigation of the interactions of silver nanoclusters with guanine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon B. Dale

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bare and guanine-complexed silver clusters Ag n z (n = 2-6; z = 0-2 are examined using density functional theory to elucidate the geometries and binding motifs that are present experimentally. Whereas the neutral systems remain planar in this size range, a 2D-3D transition occurs at Ag 5 + for the cationic system and at Ag 4 2 + for the dicationic system. Neutral silver clusters can bind with nitrogen 3 or with the pi system of the base. However, positively charged clusters interact with nitrogen 7 and the neighboring carbonyl group. Thus, the cationic silver-DNA clusters present experimentally may preferentially interact at these sites.

  18. Guanine holes are prominent targets for mutation in cancer and inherited disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Bacolla

    Full Text Available Single base substitutions constitute the most frequent type of human gene mutation and are a leading cause of cancer and inherited disease. These alterations occur non-randomly in DNA, being strongly influenced by the local nucleotide sequence context. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such sequence context-dependent mutagenesis are not fully understood. Using bioinformatics, computational and molecular modeling analyses, we have determined the frequencies of mutation at G • C bp in the context of all 64 5'-NGNN-3' motifs that contain the mutation at the second position. Twenty-four datasets were employed, comprising >530,000 somatic single base substitutions from 21 cancer genomes, >77,000 germline single-base substitutions causing or associated with human inherited disease and 16.7 million benign germline single-nucleotide variants. In several cancer types, the number of mutated motifs correlated both with the free energies of base stacking and the energies required for abstracting an electron from the target guanines (ionization potentials. Similar correlations were also evident for the pathological missense and nonsense germline mutations, but only when the target guanines were located on the non-transcribed DNA strand. Likewise, pathogenic splicing mutations predominantly affected positions in which a purine was located on the non-transcribed DNA strand. Novel candidate driver mutations and tissue-specific mutational patterns were also identified in the cancer datasets. We conclude that electron transfer reactions within the DNA molecule contribute to sequence context-dependent mutagenesis, involving both somatic driver and passenger mutations in cancer, as well as germline alterations causing or associated with inherited disease.

  19. The laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectra of some methylated xanthines and the laser desorption of caffeine and theophylline from thin layer chromatography plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kevin; Milnes, John; Gormally, John

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption/laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and xanthine are reported. These mass spectra are compared with published spectra obtained using electron impact ionization. Mass spectra of caffeine and theophylline obtained by IR laser desorption from thin layer chromatography plates are also described. The laser desorption of materials from thin layer chromatography plates is discussed.

  20. A quantitative histochemical procedure for the demonstration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity in rat and human liver using Tetranitro BT and xanthine oxidase as auxiliary enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Bosch, K. S.; van Gulik, T.

    1993-01-01

    A quantitative histochemical procedure was developed for the demonstration of purine nucleoside phosphorylase in rat liver using unfixed cryostat sections and the auxiliary enzyme xanthine oxidase. The optimum incubation medium contained 18% (w/v) poly(vinyl alcohol), 100 mM phosphate buffer, pH

  1. Trichomonas vaginalis NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase hydrolyze guanine nucleotides and increase extracellular guanosine levels under serum restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Camila Braz; Durgante, Juliano; de Oliveira, Rafael Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Victor Hugo Jacks Mendes; Rodrigues, Luiz Frederico; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Dos Santos, Odelta; Tasca, Tiana

    2016-05-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aethiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease in the world. The purinergic signaling pathway is mediated by extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides that are involved in many biological effects as neurotransmission, immunomodulation and inflammation. Extracellular nucleotides can be hydrolyzed by a family of enzymes known as ectonucleotidases including the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) family which hydrolyses nucleosides triphosphate and diphosphate as preferential substrates and ecto-5'-nucleotidase which catalyzes the conversion of monophosphates into nucleosides. In T. vaginalis the E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities upon adenine nucleotides have already been characterized in intact trophozoites but little is known concerning guanine nucleotides and nucleoside. These enzymes may exert a crucial role on nucleoside generation, providing the purine sources for the synthesis de novo of these essential nutrients, sustaining parasite growth and survival. In this study, we investigated the hydrolysis profile of guanine-related nucleotides and nucleoside in intact trophozoites from long-term-grown and fresh clinical isolates of T. vaginalis. Knowing that guanine nucleotides are also substrates for T. vaginalis ectoenzymes, we evaluated the profile of nucleotides consumption and guanosine uptake in trophozoites submitted to a serum limitation condition. Results show that guanine nucleotides (GTP, GDP, GMP) were substrates for T. vaginalis ectonucleotidases, with expected kinetic parameters for this enzyme family. Different T. vaginalis isolates (two from the ATCC and nine fresh clinical isolates) presented a heterogeneous hydrolysis profile. The serum culture condition increased E-NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase activities with high consumption of extracellular GTP generating enhanced GDP, GMP and guanosine levels as demonstrated by HPLC, with final

  2. Electronic structure of some adenosine receptor antagonists. III. Quantitative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of alkyl xanthines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, H.; Shalaby, Samia H.; El-sawy, K. M.; Hilal, Rifaat

    2002-07-01

    Quantitative and comparative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of theophylline, caffeine and their derivatives is reported. The spectra of theophylline, caffeine and theobromine were compared to establish the predominant tautomeric species in solution. This comparison, analysis of solvent effects and assignments of the observed transitions via MO computations indicate the exits of only one tautomeric species in solution that is the N7 form. A low-lying triplet state was identified which corresponds to a HOMO-LUMO transition. This relatively long-lived T 1 state is always less polar than the ground state and may very well underlie the photochemical reactivity of alkyl xanthines. Substituents of different electron donating or withdrawing strengths and solvent effects are investigated and analyzed. The present analysis is facilitated via computer deconvolution of the observed spectra and MO computation.

  3. Direct demonstration of guanine nucleotide sensitive receptors for vasoactive intestinal peptide in the anterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agui, T.; Matsumoto, K.

    1990-01-01

    The vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors were identified on the membranes from the rat anterior pituitary gland with [ 125 I]VIP. The dissociation constant (Kd) and the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) values were estimated from the competitive inhibition data. The Kd and Bmax values were 1.05 +/- 0.75 nM and 103 +/- 11 fmol/mg protein, respectively. The order of molar potency of related peptides to inhibit [ 125 I]VIP binding was VIP greater than peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) greater than secretin greater than glucagon. Glucagon was not effective to inhibit the binding. [ 125 I]VIP binding was effectively inhibited by the addition of guanine nucleotides. The order of molar potency to inhibit the binding was Gpp(NH)p greater than GTP greater than GDP greater than GMP greater than ATP. These results directly suggest the coupling of VIP receptors with guanine nucleotide binding proteins in the anterior pituitary gland

  4. Automated quantum chemistry based molecular dynamics simulations of electron ionization induced fragmentations of the nucleobases Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimme, Stefan; Bauer, Christopher Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The gas-phase decomposition pathways of electron ionization (EI)-induced radical cations of the nucleobases uracil, thymine, cytosine, and guanine are investigated by means of mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics. No preconceived fragmentation channels are used in the calculations. The results compare well to a plethora of experimental and theoretical data for these important biomolecules. With our combined stochastic and dynamic approach, one can access in an unbiased way the energetically available decomposition mechanisms. Additionally, we are able to separate the EI mass spectra of different tautomers of cytosine and guanine. Our method (previously termed quantum chemistry electron ionization mass spectra) reproduces free nucleobase experimental mass spectra well and provides detailed mechanistic in-sight into high-energy unimolecular decomposition processes.

  5. Structure of Radicals from X-irradiated Guanine Derivatives: An Experimental and Computational Study of Sodium Guanosine Dihydrate Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilaka, Nayana; Nelson, William H.

    2008-01-01

    In sodium guanosine dihydrate single crystals, the guanine moiety is deprotonated at N1 due to growth from high-pH (>12) solutions. EPR and ENDOR study of crystals x-irradiated at 10 K detected evidence for three radical forms. Radical R1,characterized by two proton and two nitrogen hyperfine interactions, was identified as the product of net hydrogenation at N7 of the N1-deprotonated guanine unit. R1 exhibited an unusually distorted structure leading to net positive isotropic components of the hydrogen couplings. Radical R2, characterized by one proton and one nitrogen hyperfine coupling was identified as the primary electron loss product. This product is equivalent to that of deprotonation at N1 by the guanine cation and represents the first ENDOR characterization of that product. Radical R3, characterized by a single hydrogen hyperfine coupling, was identified as the product of net dehydrogenation at C1 of the ribose moiety. The identification of radicals R1-R3 was supported by DFT calculations on several possible structures using the B3LYP/6-311G(2df,p)//6-31G(d,p) approach. Radical R4, detected after warming the crystals to room temperature, was identified as the well-known product of net hydrogenation of C8 of the (N1-deprotonated) guanine component. Radical R1, evidently formed by protonation of the primary electron addition product, was present as roughly 60% of the total radicals detected at 10 K. Radical R2 was present as roughly 27% of the total yield, and the concentration of R3 contributed the remaining 13%. R3 is evidently the product of oneelectron oxidation followed by deprotonation; thus, the balance of oxidation and reduction products is approximately equal within experimental uncertainty. PMID:17249824

  6. Ball with hair: modular functionalization of highly stable G-quadruplex DNA nano-scaffolds through N2-guanine modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christopher Jacques; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2017-06-20

    Functionalized nanoparticles have seen valuable applications, particularly in the delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents in biological systems. However, the manufacturing of such nano-scale systems with the consistency required for biological application can be challenging, as variation in size and shape have large influences in nanoparticle behavior in vivo. We report on the development of a versatile nano-scaffold based on the modular functionalization of a DNA G-quadruplex. DNA sequences are functionalized in a modular fashion using well-established phosphoramidite chemical synthesis with nucleotides containing modification of the amino (N2) position of the guanine base. In physiological conditions, these sequences fold into well-defined G-quadruplex structures. The resulting DNA nano-scaffolds are thermally stable, consistent in size, and functionalized in a manner that allows for control over the density and relative orientation of functional chemistries on the nano-scaffold surface. Various chemistries including small modifications (N2-methyl-guanine), bulky aromatic modifications (N2-benzyl-guanine), and long chain-like modifications (N2-6-amino-hexyl-guanine) are tested and are found to be generally compatible with G-quadruplex formation. Furthermore, these modifications stabilize the G-quadruplex scaffold by 2.0-13.3 °C per modification in the melting temperature, with concurrent modifications producing extremely stable nano-scaffolds. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by functionalizing nano-scaffolds for use within the biotin-avidin conjugation approach. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. QuadBase2: web server for multiplexed guanine quadruplex mining and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhapola, Parashar; Chowdhury, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    DNA guanine quadruplexes or G4s are non-canonical DNA secondary structures which affect genomic processes like replication, transcription and recombination. G4s are computationally identified by specific nucleotide motifs which are also called putative G4 (PG4) motifs. Despite the general relevance of these structures, there is currently no tool available that can allow batch queries and genome-wide analysis of these motifs in a user-friendly interface. QuadBase2 (quadbase.igib.res.in) presents a completely reinvented web server version of previously published QuadBase database. QuadBase2 enables users to mine PG4 motifs in up to 178 eukaryotes through the EuQuad module. This module interfaces with Ensembl Compara database, to allow users mine PG4 motifs in the orthologues of genes of interest across eukaryotes. PG4 motifs can be mined across genes and their promoter sequences in 1719 prokaryotes through ProQuad module. This module includes a feature that allows genome-wide mining of PG4 motifs and their visualization as circular histograms. TetraplexFinder, the module for mining PG4 motifs in user-provided sequences is now capable of handling up to 20 MB of data. QuadBase2 is a comprehensive PG4 motif mining tool that further expands the configurations and algorithms for mining PG4 motifs in a user-friendly way. PMID:27185890

  8. WBSCR16 Is a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Important for Mitochondrial Fusion

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    Guorui Huang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulated inter-mitochondrial fusion/fission is essential for maintaining optimal mitochondrial respiration and control of apoptosis and autophagy. In mammals, mitochondrial fusion is controlled by outer membrane GTPases MFN1 and MFN2 and by inner membrane (IM GTPase OPA1. Disordered mitochondrial fusion/fission contributes to various pathologies, and MFN2 or OPA1 mutations underlie neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that the WBSCR16 protein is primarily associated with the outer face of the inner mitochondrial membrane and is important for mitochondrial fusion. We provide evidence of a WBSCR16/OPA1 physical interaction in the intact cell and of a WBSCR16 function as an OPA1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF. Homozygosity for a Wbscr16 mutation causes early embryonic lethality, whereas neurons of mice heterozygous for the mutation have mitochondria with reduced membrane potential and increased susceptibility to fragmentation upon exposure to stress, suggesting roles for WBSCR16 deficits in neuronal pathologies.

  9. Proteomic analysis of Rac1 signaling regulation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hadir; Carpy, Alejandro; Macek, Boris; Malliri, Angeliki

    2016-08-02

    The small GTPase Rac1 is implicated in various cellular processes that are essential for normal cell function. Deregulation of Rac1 signaling has also been linked to a number of diseases, including cancer. The diversity of Rac1 functioning in cells is mainly attributed to its ability to bind to a multitude of downstream effectors following activation by Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs). Despite the identification of a large number of Rac1 binding partners, factors influencing downstream specificity are poorly defined, thus hindering the detailed understanding of both Rac1's normal and pathological functions. In a recent study, we demonstrated a role for 2 Rac-specific GEFs, Tiam1 and P-Rex1, in mediating Rac1 anti- versus pro-migratory effects, respectively. Importantly, via conducting a quantitative proteomic screen, we identified distinct changes in the Rac1 interactome following activation by either GEF, indicating that these opposing effects are mediated through GEF modulation of the Rac1 interactome. Here, we present the full list of identified Rac1 interactors together with functional annotation of the differentially regulated Rac1 binding partners. In light of this data, we also provide additional insights into known and novel signaling cascades that might account for the GEF-mediated Rac1-driven cellular effects.

  10. The selective phosphorylation of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor-activated signal transduction pathways regulate the responsiveness of cells to external stimuli. These transduction pathways themselves are subject to regulation, most commonly by phosphorylation. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G Proteins), as requisite signal transducing elements for many plasma membrane receptors, are considered likely targets for regulation by phosphorylation. Protein kinase C (PKC) has been shown to phosphorylate the α subunit of G i and other G proteins in solution. However, the occurrence of the phosphorylation of G 1 within intact cells in response to activation of PKC has not been rigorously demonstrated. In this thesis, the extent to which the α subunits of G i undergo phosphorylation within human platelets in response to activation of PKC was examined by means of radiolabeling and immunoprecipitation. Incubation of platelets with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a potent activator of PKC, promoted the phosphorylation of several proteins within saponin-permeabilized and intact platelets incubated with [γ 32 P]ATP and [ 32 P]H 3 PO 4 , respectively. None of the phosphoproteins, however, were precipitated by either of two antisera containing antibodies differing in specificities for epitopes within G iα -despite precipitation of a substantial fraction of the subunit itself. In contrast, other antisera, containing antibodies specific for the recently describe G zα , or antibodies for both G zα and G iα , precipitated a 40-kDa phosphoprotein

  11. In vitro guanine nucleotide exchange activity of DHR-2/DOCKER/CZH2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Jean-François; Vuori, Kristiina

    2006-01-01

    Rho family GTPases regulate a large variety of biological processes, including the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Like other members of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins, Rho GTPases cycle between a GDP-bound (inactive) and a GTP-bound (active) state, and, when active, the GTPases relay extracellular signals to a large number of downstream effectors. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) promote the exchange of GDP for GTP on Rho GTPases, thereby activating them. Most Rho-GEFs mediate their effects through their signature domain known as the Dbl Homology-Pleckstrin Homology (DH-PH) module. Recently, we and others identified a family of evolutionarily conserved, DOCK180-related proteins that also display GEF activity toward Rho GTPases. The DOCK180-family of proteins lacks the canonical DH-PH module. Instead, they rely on a novel domain, termed DHR-2, DOCKER, or CZH2, to exchange GDP for GTP on Rho targets. In this chapter, the experimental approach that we used to uncover the exchange activity of the DHR-2 domain of DOCK180-related proteins will be described.

  12. Quenching of light flickering in synthetic guanine crystals in aqueous solutions under strong static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootha, A.; Takanezawa, Y.; Iwasaka, M.

    2018-05-01

    The present study focused on the vibration of micro crystal particles of guanine due to Brownian motion. The organic particle has a refractive index of 1.83 and caused a flickering of light. To test the possibility of using magnetic properties under wet conditions, changes in the frequency of particle vibration by applying magnetic fields were investigated. At first, we found that the exposure at 5 T inhibited the flickering light intensities and the particle vibration slightly decreased. Next, we carried out a high speed camera measurement of the Brownian motion of the particle with a time resolution of 100 flame per second (fps) with and without magnetic field exposures. It was revealed that the vibrational speed of synthetic particles was enhanced at 500 mT. Detailed analyses of the particle vibration by changing the direction of magnetic fields versus the light source revealed that the Brownian motion's vibrational frequency was entrained under magnetic fields at 500 mT, and an increase in vibration speed to 20Hz was observed. Additional measurements of light scattering fluctuation using photo-detector and analyses on auto-correlation also confirmed this speculation. The studied Brownian vibration may be influenced by the change in mechanical interactions between the vibration particles and surrounding medium. The discovered phenomena can be applied for molecular and biological interactions in future studies.

  13. Guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 is a potential prognosis indicator of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Dong, Shuang; Hu, Jiangfeng; Duan, Bensong; Yao, Jian; Zhang, Ruiyun; Zhou, Hongmei; Sheng, Haihui; Gao, Hengjun; Li, Shunlong; Zhang, Xianwen

    2015-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (GNL3) is a GIP-binding nuclear protein that has been reported to be involved in various biological processes, including cell proliferation, cellular senescence and tumorigenesis. This study aimed to investigate the expression level of GNL3 in gastric cancer and to evaluate the relationship between its expression and clinical variables and overall survival of gastric cancer patients. The expression level of GNL3 was examined in 89 human gastric cancer samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. GNL3 in gastric cancer tissues was significantly upregulated compared with paracancerous tissues. GNL3 expression in adjacent non-cancerous tissues was associated with sex and tumor size. Survival analyses showed that GNL3 expression in both gastric cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissues were not related to overall survival. However, in the subgroup of patients with larger tumor size (≥ 6 cm), a close association was found between GNL3 expression in gastric cancer tissues and overall survival. GNL3-positive patients had a shorter survival than GNL3-negative patients. Our study suggests that GNL3 might play an important role in the progression of gastric cancer and serve as a biomarker for poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients.

  14. Expression of a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, Ect2, in the developing mouse pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M S; Tsuji, T; Higashida, C; Takahashi, M; Higashida, H; Koizumi, K

    2010-05-01

    The pituitary gland is a highly mitotically active tissue after birth. Various cell types are known to undergo proliferation in the anterior pituitary. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating mitotic activity in this tissue. When searching for genes specifically expressed in the pituitary gland among those that we previously screened in Drosophila, we found epithelial cell-transforming gene 2 (Ect2). Ect2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, which is known to play an essential role in cytokinesis. Although there have been many cellular studies regarding the function of Ect2, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Ect2 in vivo have not been determined. In the present study, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of Ect2 in the mouse pituitary. Enhanced Ect2 expression was detected in the mouse pituitary gland during the first 3 weeks after birth, which coincided well with the period of rapid pituitary expansion associated with increased growth rate. Immunostaining analysis showed that Ect2-expressing cells were distributed in the anterior and intermediate lobes, but not the posterior lobe, of the pituitary. These Ect2-expressing cells frequently incorporated the thymidine analogue, EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), indicating that these cells were mitotically active. Taken together, the results demonstrate the functional role of Ect2 in postnatal proliferating cells in the two lobes of the pituitary, thereby suggesting roles in developmental growth of the mammalian pituitary.

  15. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  16. Characterization of a mimivirus RNA cap guanine-N2 methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benarroch, Delphine; Qiu, Zhicheng R; Schwer, Beate; Shuman, Stewart

    2009-04-01

    A 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) cap is a signature feature of eukaryal snRNAs, telomerase RNAs, and trans-spliced nematode mRNAs. TMG and 2,7-dimethylguanosine (DMG) caps are also present on mRNAs of two species of alphaviruses (positive strand RNA viruses of the Togaviridae family). It is presently not known how viral mRNAs might acquire a hypermethylated cap. Mimivirus, a giant DNA virus that infects amoeba, encodes many putative enzymes and proteins implicated in RNA transactions, including the synthesis and capping of viral mRNAs and the promotion of cap-dependent translation. Here we report the identification, purification, and characterization of a mimivirus cap-specific guanine-N2 methyltransferase (MimiTgs), a monomeric enzyme that catalyzes a single round of methyl transfer from AdoMet to an m(7)G cap substrate to form a DMG cap product. MimiTgs, is apparently unable to convert a DMG cap to a TMG cap, and is thereby distinguished from the structurally homologous yeast and human Tgs1 enzymes. Nonetheless, we show genetically that MimiTgs is a true ortholog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tgs1. Our results hint that DMG caps can satisfy many of the functions of TMG caps in vivo. We speculate that DMG capping of mimivirus mRNAs might favor viral protein synthesis in the infected host.

  17. Enzymatic production of dietary nucleotides from low-soluble purine bases by an efficient, thermostable and alkali-tolerant biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Arco, J; Cejudo-Sanches, J; Esteban, I; Clemente-Suárez, V J; Hormigo, D; Perona, A; Fernández-Lucas, J

    2017-12-15

    Traditionally, enzymatic synthesis of nucleoside-5'-monophosphates (5'-NMPs) using low water-soluble purine bases has been described as less efficient due to their low solubility in aqueous media. The use of enzymes from extremophiles, such as thermophiles or alkaliphiles, offers the potential to increase solubilisation of these bases by employing high temperatures or alkaline pH. This study describes the cloning, expression and purification of hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase from Thermus thermophilus (TtHGXPRT). Biochemical characterization indicates TtHGXPRT as a homotetramer with excellent activity and stability across a broad range of temperatures (50-90°C) and ionic strengths (0-500mMNaCl), but it also reveals an unusually high activity and stability under alkaline conditions (pH range 8-11). In order to explore the potential of TtHGXPRT as an industrial biocatalyst, enzymatic production of several dietary 5'-NMPs, such as 5'-GMP and 5'-IMP, was carried out at high concentrations of guanine and hypoxanthine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Guanine limitation results in CodY-dependent and -independent alteration of Staphylococcus aureus physiology and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alyssa N; Borkar, Samiksha; Samuels, David J; Batz, Zachary; Bulock, Logan; Sadykov, Marat R; Bayles, Kenneth W; Brinsmade, Shaun R

    2018-04-30

    In Staphylococcus aureus , the global transcriptional regulator CodY modulates the expression of hundreds of genes in response to the availability of GTP and the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV). CodY DNA-binding activity is high when GTP and ILV are abundant. When GTP and ILV are limited, CodY's affinity for DNA drops, altering expression of CodY regulated targets. In this work, we investigated the impact of guanine nucleotides on S. aureus physiology and CodY activity by constructing a guaA null mutant (Δ guaA ). De novo biosynthesis of guanine monophosphate is abolished due to the guaA mutation; thus, the mutant cells require exogenous guanosine for growth. We also found that CodY activity was reduced when we knocked out guaA , activating the Agr two-component system and increasing secreted protease activity. Notably, in a rich, complex medium, we detected an increase in alternative sigma factor B activity in the Δ guaA mutant, which results in a 5-fold increase in production of the antioxidant pigment staphyloxanthin. Under biologically relevant flow conditions, Δ guaA cells failed to form robust biofilms when limited for guanine or guanosine. RNA-seq analysis of S. aureus transcriptome during growth in guanosine-limited chemostats revealed substantial CodY-dependent and -independent alteration of gene expression profiles. Importantly, these changes increase production of proteases and δ-toxin, suggesting that S. aureus exhibits a more invasive lifestyle when limited for guanosine. Further, gene-products upregulated under GN limitation, including those necessary for lipoic acid biosynthesis and sugar transport, may prove to be useful drug targets for treating Gram-positive infections. Importance Staphylococcus aureus infections impose a serious economic burden on healthcare facilities and patients because of the emergence of strains resistant to last-line antibiotics. Understanding the physiological processes governing

  19. In vitro antioxidant, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of fractions from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav., Sida alba L. and Sida acuta Burn f. (Malvaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaté, K; Souza, A; Coulibaly, A Y; Meda, N T R; Kiendrebeogo, M; Lamien-Meda, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J; Lamidi, M; Nacoulma, O G

    2010-11-15

    In this study polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipoxygenase (LOX) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory effects of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of aqueous acetone extracts from S. alba L., S. acuta Burn f and Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. were investigated. The total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and total tannins were determined by spectrophotometric methods using Folin-ciocalteu, AlCl3 reagents and tannic acid, respectively. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using three methods: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydramzyl (DPPH), ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and Iron (III) to iron (II) reduction activity (FRAP). For enzymatic activity, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities were used. This study shows a relationship between polyphenol contents, antioxidant and enzymatic activities. Present results showed that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions elicit the highest polyphenol content, antioxidant and enzymatic activities.

  20. Phosphorescent inner filter effect-based sensing of xanthine oxidase and its inhibitors with Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dandan; Zhang, Jinyi; Zhou, Rongxin; Xie, Ya-Ni; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Kailai; Wu, Peng

    2018-05-10

    Overexpression and crystallization of uric acid have been recognized as the course of hyperuricemia and gout, which is produced via xanthine oxidase (XOD)-catalyzed oxidation of xanthine. Therefore, the medicinal therapy of hyperuricemia and gout is majorly based on the inhibition of the XOD enzymatic pathway. The spectroscopic nature of xanthine and uric acid, namely both absorption (near the ultraviolet region) and emission (non-fluorescent) characteristics, hinders optical assay development for XOD analysis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art analysis of XOD and the screening of XOD inhibitors are majorly based on chromatography. Here, we found the near ultraviolet absorption of uric acid overlapped well with the absorption of a large bandgap semiconductor quantum dots, ZnS. On the other hand, the intrinsic weak fluorescence of ZnS QDs can be substantially improved via transition metal ion doping. Therefore, herein, we developed an inner filter effect-based assay for XOD analysis and inhibitor screening with Mn-doped ZnS QDs. The phosphorescence of Mn-doped ZnS QDs could be quenched by uric acid generated from xanthine catabolism by XOD, leading to the phosphorescence turn-off detection of XOD with a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.02 U L-1. Furthermore, the existence of XOD inhibitors could inhibit the XOD enzymatic reaction, resulting in weakened phosphorescence quenching. Therefore, the proposed assay could also be explored for the facile screening analysis of XOD inhibitors, which is important for the potential medicinal therapy of hyperuricemia and gout.

  1. Amyloid Precursor Protein Translation Is Regulated by a 3'UTR Guanine Quadruplex.

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    Ezekiel Crenshaw

    Full Text Available A central event in Alzheimer's disease is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ peptides generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP. APP overexpression leads to increased Aβ generation and Alzheimer's disease in humans and altered neuronal migration and increased long term depression in mice. Conversely, reduction of APP expression results in decreased Aβ levels in mice as well as impaired learning and memory and decreased numbers of dendritic spines. Together these findings indicate that therapeutic interventions that aim to restore APP and Aβ levels must do so within an ideal range. To better understand the effects of modulating APP levels, we explored the mechanisms regulating APP expression focusing on post-transcriptional regulation. Such regulation can be mediated by RNA regulatory elements such as guanine quadruplexes (G-quadruplexes, non-canonical structured RNA motifs that affect RNA stability and translation. Via a bioinformatics approach, we identified a candidate G-quadruplex within the APP mRNA in its 3'UTR (untranslated region at residues 3008-3027 (NM_201414.2. This sequence exhibited characteristics of a parallel G-quadruplex structure as revealed by circular dichroism spectrophotometry. Further, as with other G-quadruplexes, the formation of this structure was dependent on the presence of potassium ions. This G-quadruplex has no apparent role in regulating transcription or mRNA stability as wild type and mutant constructs exhibited equivalent mRNA levels as determined by real time PCR. Instead, we demonstrate that this G-quadruplex negatively regulates APP protein expression using dual luciferase reporter and Western blot analysis. Taken together, our studies reveal post-transcriptional regulation by a 3'UTR G-quadruplex as a novel mechanism regulating APP expression.

  2. Transduction proteins of olfactory receptor cells: identification of guanine nucleotide binding proteins and protein kinase C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anholt, R.R.H.; Mumby, S.M.; Stoffers, D.A.; Girard, P.R.; Kuo, J.F.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have analyzed guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G-proteins) in the olfactory epithelium of Rana catesbeiana using subunit-specific antisera. The olfactory epithelium contained the α subunits of three G-proteins, migrating on polyacrylamide gels in SDS with apparent molecular weights of 45,000, 42,000, and 40,000, corresponding to G/sub s/, G/sub i/, and G/sub o/, respectively. A single β subunit with an apparent molecular weight of 36,000 was detected. An antiserum against the α subunit of retinal transducin failed to detect immunoreactive proteins in olfactory cilia detached from the epithelium. The olfactory cilia appeared to be enriched in immunoreactive G/sub sα/ relative to G/sub ichemical bond/ and G/sub ochemical bond/ when compared to membranes prepared from the olfactory epithelium after detachment of the cilia. Bound antibody was detected by autoradiography after incubation with [ 125 I]protein. Immunohistochemical studies using an antiserum against the β subunit of G-proteins revealed intense staining of the ciliary surface of the olfactory epithelium and of the axon bundles in the lamina propria. In contrast, an antiserum against a common sequence of the α subunits preferentially stained the cell membranes of the olfactory receptor cells and the acinar cells of Bowman's glands and the deep submucosal glands. In addition to G-proteins, they have identified protein kinase C in olfactory cilia via a protein kinase C specific antiserum and via phorbol ester binding. However, in contrast to the G-proteins, protein kinase C occurred also in cilia isolated from respiratory epithelium

  3. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein regulation of melatonin receptors in lizard brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivkees, S.A.; Carlson, L.L.; Reppert, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Melatonin receptors were identified and characterized in crude membrane preparations from lizard brain by using 125 I-labeled melatonin ( 125 I-Mel), a potent melatonin agonist. 125 I-Mel binding sites were saturable; Scatchard analysis revealed high-affinity and lower affinity binding sites, with apparent K d of 2.3 ± 1.0 x 10 -11 M and 2.06 ± 0.43 x 10 -10 M, respectively. Binding was reversible and inhibited by melatonin and closely related analogs but not by serotonin or norepinephrine. Treatment of crude membranes with the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate (GTP[γS]), significantly reduced the number of high-affinity receptors and increased the dissociation rate of 125 I-Mel from its receptor. Furthermore, GTP[γS] treatment of ligand-receptor complexes solubilized by Triton X-100 also led to a rapid dissociation of 125 I-Mel from solubilized ligand-receptor complexes. Gel filtration chromatography of solubilized ligand-receptor complexes revealed two major peaks of radioactivity corresponding to M r > 400,000 and M r ca. 110,000. This elution profile was markedly altered by pretreatment with GTP[γS] before solubilization; only the M r 110,000 peak was present in GTP[γS]-pretreated membranes. The results strongly suggest that 125 I-mel binding sites in lizard brain are melatonin receptors, with agonist-promoted guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupling and that the apparent molecular size of receptors uncoupled from G proteins is about 110,000

  4. Haploinsufficiency of the Sec7 guanine nucleotide exchange factor gea1 impairs septation in fission yeast.

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    Alan M Eckler

    Full Text Available Membrane trafficking is essential to eukaryotic life and is controlled by a complex network of proteins that regulate movement of proteins and lipids between organelles. The GBF1/GEA family of Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors (GEFs regulates trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi by catalyzing the exchange of GDP for GTP on ADP Ribosylation Factors (Arfs. Activated Arfs recruit coat protein complex 1 (COP-I to form vesicles that ferry cargo between these organelles. To further explore the function of the GBF1/GEA family, we have characterized a fission yeast mutant lacking one copy of the essential gene gea1 (gea1+/-, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe ortholog of GBF1. The haploinsufficient gea1+/- strain was shown to be sensitive to the GBF1 inhibitor brefeldin A (BFA and was rescued from BFA sensitivity by gea1p overexpression. No overt defects in localization of arf1p or arf6p were observed in gea1+/- cells, but the fission yeast homolog of the COP-I cargo sac1 was mislocalized, consistent with impaired COP-I trafficking. Although Golgi morphology appeared normal, a slight increase in vacuolar size was observed in the gea1+/- mutant strain. Importantly, gea1+/- cells exhibited dramatic cytokinesis-related defects, including disorganized contractile rings, an increased septation index, and alterations in septum morphology. Septation defects appear to result from altered secretion of enzymes required for septum dynamics, as decreased secretion of eng1p, a β-glucanase required for septum breakdown, was observed in gea1+/- cells, and overexpression of eng1p suppressed the increased septation phenotype. These observations implicate gea1 in regulation of septum breakdown and establish S. pombe as a model system to explore GBF1/GEA function in cytokinesis.

  5. Expression Pattern and Localization Dynamics of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor RIC8 during Mouse Oogenesis.

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    Merly Saare

    Full Text Available Targeting of G proteins to the cell cortex and their activation is one of the triggers of both asymmetric and symmetric cell division. Resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (RIC8, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, activates a certain subgroup of G protein α-subunits in a receptor independent manner. RIC8 controls the asymmetric cell division in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster, and symmetric cell division in cultured mammalian cells, where it regulates the mitotic spindle orientation. Although intensely studied in mitosis, the function of RIC8 in mammalian meiosis has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that the expression and subcellular localization of RIC8 changes profoundly during mouse oogenesis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that RIC8 expression is dependent on oocyte growth and cell cycle phase. During oocyte growth, RIC8 is abundantly present in cytoplasm of oocytes at primordial, primary and secondary preantral follicle stages. Later, upon oocyte maturation RIC8 also populates the germinal vesicle, its localization becomes cell cycle dependent, and it associates with chromatin and the meiotic spindle. After fertilization, RIC8 protein converges to the pronuclei and is also detectable at high levels in the nucleolus precursor bodies of both maternal and paternal pronucleus. During first cleavage of zygote RIC8 localizes in the mitotic spindle and cell cortex of forming blastomeres. In addition, we demonstrate that RIC8 co-localizes with its interaction partners Gαi1/2:GDP and LGN in meiotic/mitotic spindle, cell cortex and polar bodies of maturing oocytes and zygotes. Downregulation of Ric8 by siRNA leads to interferred translocation of Gαi1/2 to cortical region of maturing oocytes and reduction of its levels. RIC8 is also expressed at high level in female reproductive organs e.g. oviduct. Therefore we suggest a regulatory function for RIC8 in mammalian gametogenesis and fertility.

  6. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor RIC8 regulates conidial germination through Gα proteins in Neurospora crassa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J Eaton

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G protein signaling is essential for normal hyphal growth in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We have previously demonstrated that the non-receptor guanine nucleotide exchange factor RIC8 acts upstream of the Gα proteins GNA-1 and GNA-3 to regulate hyphal extension. Here we demonstrate that regulation of hyphal extension results at least in part, from an important role in control of asexual spore (conidia germination. Loss of GNA-3 leads to a drastic reduction in conidial germination, which is exacerbated in the absence of GNA-1. Mutation of RIC8 leads to a reduction in germination similar to that in the Δgna-1, Δgna-3 double mutant, suggesting that RIC8 regulates conidial germination through both GNA-1 and GNA-3. Support for a more significant role for GNA-3 is indicated by the observation that expression of a GTPase-deficient, constitutively active gna-3 allele in the Δric8 mutant leads to a significant increase in conidial germination. Localization of the three Gα proteins during conidial germination was probed through analysis of cells expressing fluorescently tagged proteins. Functional TagRFP fusions of each of the three Gα subunits were constructed through insertion of TagRFP in a conserved loop region of the Gα subunits. The results demonstrated that GNA-1 localizes to the plasma membrane and vacuoles, and also to septa throughout conidial germination. GNA-2 and GNA-3 localize to both the plasma membrane and vacuoles during early germination, but are then found in intracellular vacuoles later during hyphal outgrowth.

  7. The influence of N-7 guanine modifications on the strength of Watson-Crick base pairing and guanine N-1 acidity: Comparison of gas-phase and condensed-phase trends

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burda, J. V.; Šponer, Jiří; Hrabáková, J.; Zeizinger, M.; Leszczynski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 22 (2003), s. 5349-5356 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 517; GA MŠk LN00A016 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(GB) GR067507MF; ONR(US) N00034-03-1-0116; National Science Foundation(US) CREST 9805465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : Watson-Crick base pairing * guanines * gas-phase and condensed-phase trends Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.679, year: 2003

  8. Purine content of some Philippine foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lontoc, A.V.; Ladines, E.O.; Jalandoon, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    To facilitate dietary advice for prevention and management of hyperuricemia, the content of individual purines, namely: adenine, hypoxanthine, guanine and xanthine was determined in market samples of 161 legumes and dried beans, 41 organ meats, and 25 finfishes and shellfishes using Waters HPLC Model ALC/GPC 244. Analysis for moisture, protein and purines were conducted on the slurries or dried forms of the edible portions of the food samples. Food samples were subsequently classified into three categories adapted from Williams' dietary guide for purines, expressed in decreasing levels of total purines per 100 g serving. Category 1 foods are those that contain very large amount (150 to 1000 mg) of total purines; category 2 foods are those that contain a large amount (75-<150 mg) of total purines; and category 3 foods are those that contain a moderate amount (up to 75 mg) of total purines. (auth.). 17 refs.; 8 tabs

  9. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chihiro Moriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects.

  10. Electron attachment to the guanine-cytosine nucleic acid base pair and the effects of monohydration and proton transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Jaeger, Heather M; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-05-17

    The guanine-cytosine (GC) radical anion and its interaction with a single water molecule is studied using ab initio and density functional methods. Z-averaged second-order perturbation theory (ZAPT2) was applied to GC radical anion for the first time. Predicted spin densities show that the radical character is localized on cytosine. The Watson-Crick monohydrated GC anion is compared to neutral GC·H2O, as well as to the proton-transferred analogue on the basis of structural and energetic properties. In all three systems, local minima are identified that correspond to water positioned in the major and minor grooves of macromolecular DNA. On the anionic surface, two novel structures have water positioned above or below the GC plane. On the neutral and anionic surfaces, the global minimum can be described as water interacting with the minor groove. These structures are predicted to have hydration energies of 9.7 and 11.8 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Upon interbase proton-transfer (PT), the anionic global minimum has water positioned in the major groove, and the hydration energy increases to 13.4 kcal mol(-1). PT GC·H2O(•-) has distonic character; the radical character resides on cytosine, while the negative charge is localized on guanine. The effects of proton transfer are further investigated through the computed adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of GC and monohydrated GC, and the vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the corresponding anions. Monohydration increases the AEAs and VDEs by only 0.1 eV, while proton-transfer increases the VDEs substantially (0.8 eV). The molecular charge distribution of monohydrated guanine-cytosine radical anion depends heavily on interbase proton transfer.

  11. The electrochemical reduction of the purines guanine and adenine at platinum electrodes in several room temperature ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Rogers, Emma I.; Hardacre, Christopher; Compton, Richard G.

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of guanine was studied by microelectrode voltammetry in the room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) N-hexyltriethylammonium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide [N 6,2,2,2 ][N(Tf) 2 ], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorosphosphate [C 4 mim][PF 6 ], N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C 4 mpyrr][N(Tf) 2 ], 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide [C 4 mim][N(Tf) 2 ], N-butyl-N-methyl-pyrrolidinium dicyanamide [C 4 mpyrr][N(NC) 2 ] and tris(P-hexyl)-tetradecylphosphonium trifluorotris(pentafluoroethyl)phosphate [P 14,6,6,6 ][FAP] on a platinum microelectrode. In [N 6,2,2,2 ][NTf 2 ] and [P 14,6,6,6 ][FAP], but not in the other ionic liquids studied, guanine reduction involves a one-electron, diffusion-controlled process at very negative potential to produce an unstable radical anion, which is thought to undergo a dimerization reaction, probably after proton abstraction from the cation of the ionic liquid. The rate of this subsequent reaction depends on the nature of the ionic liquid, and it is faster in the ionic liquid [P 14,6,6,6 ][FAP], in which the formation of the resulting dimer can be voltammetrically monitored at less negative potentials than required for the reduction of the parent molecule. Adenine showed similar behaviour to guanine but the pyrimidines thymine and cytosine did not; thymine was not reduced at potentials less negative than required for solvent (RTIL) decomposition while only a poorly defined wave was seen for cytosine. The possibility for proton abstraction from the cation in [N 6,2,2,2 ][NTf 2 ] and [P 14,6,6,6 ][FAP] is noted and this is thought to aid the electrochemical dimerization process. The resulting rapid reaction is thought to shift the reduction potentials for guanine and adenine to lower values than observed in RTILs where the scope for proton abstraction is not present. Such shifts are characteristic of so-called EC processes where reversible electron transfer

  12. Reactions of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide: O6-methylation versus charge transfer complex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.; Suhai, S.

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G* and B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ levels was employed to study O6-methylation of guanine due to its reactions with methyl chloride and methyl bromide and to obtain explanation as to why the methyl halides cause genotoxicity and possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Geometries of the various isolated species involved in the reactions, reactant complexes (RCs), and product complexes (PCs) were optimized in gas phase. Transition states connecting the reactant complexes with the product complexes were also optimized in gas phase at the same levels of theory. The reactant complexes, product complexes, and transition states were solvated in aqueous media using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) of the self-consistent reaction field theory. Zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to total energy and the corresponding thermal energy correction to enthalpy were made in each case. The reactant complexes of the keto form of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide in water are appreciably more stable than the corresponding complexes involving the enol form of guanine. The nature of binding in the product complexes was found to be of the charge transfer type (O6mG+ · X-, X dbond Cl, Br). Binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs obtained with the keto form of guanine did not alter the positions of the halide anions in the PCs, and the charge transfer character of the PCs was also not modified due to this binding. Further, the complexes obtained due to the binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs had greater stability than the isolated PCs. The reaction barriers involved in the formation of PCs were found to be quite high (?50 kcal/mol). Mechanisms of genotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the methyl halides appear to involve charge transfer-type complex formation. Thus the mechanisms of these processes involving the methyl halides appear to be quite different from those that involve the

  13. Kinetics of the interactions between yeast elongation factors 1A and 1Balpha, guanine nucleotides, and aminoacyl-tRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromadski, Kirill B; Schümmer, Tobias; Strømgaard, Anne

    2007-01-01

    of guanine nucleotides. At the concentrations of nucleotides and factors prevailing in the cell, the overall exchange rate is expected to be in the range of 6 s(-1), which is compatible with the rate of protein synthesis in the cell. eEF1A.GTP binds Phe-tRNA(Phe) with a K(d) of 3 nm, whereas eEF1A.GDP shows...... no significant binding, indicating that eEF1A has similar tRNA binding properties as its prokaryotic homolog, EF-Tu. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec-7...

  14. Regulation of mitotic spindle formation by the RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Takaya

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF10 was originally identified as the product of the gene associated with slowed nerve-conduction velocities of peripheral nerves. However, the function of ARHGEF10 in mammalian cells is totally unknown at a molecular level. ARHGEF10 contains no distinctive functional domains except for tandem Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology and putative transmembrane domains. Results Here we show that RhoA is a substrate for ARHGEF10. In both G1/S and M phases, ARHGEF10 was localized in the centrosome in adenocarcinoma HeLa cells. Furthermore, RNA interference-based knockdown of ARHGEF10 resulted in multipolar spindle formation in M phase. Each spindle pole seems to contain a centrosome consisting of two centrioles and the pericentriolar material. Downregulation of RhoA elicited similar phenotypes, and aberrant mitotic spindle formation following ARHGEF10 knockdown was rescued by ectopic expression of constitutively activated RhoA. Multinucleated cells were not increased upon ARHGEF10 knockdown in contrast to treatment with Y-27632, a specific pharmacological inhibitor for the RhoA effector kinase ROCK, which induced not only multipolar spindle formation, but also multinucleation. Therefore, unregulated centrosome duplication rather than aberration in cytokinesis may be responsible for ARHGEF10 knockdown-dependent multipolar spindle formation. We further isolated the kinesin-like motor protein KIF3B as a binding partner of ARHGEF10. Knockdown of KIF3B again caused multipolar spindle phenotypes. The supernumerary centrosome phenotype was also observed in S phase-arrested osteosarcoma U2OS cells when the expression of ARHGEF10, RhoA or KIF3B was abrogated by RNA interference. Conclusion Collectively, our results suggest that a novel RhoA-dependent signaling pathway under the control of ARHGEF10 has a pivotal role in the regulation of the cell division cycle. This pathway is not involved in

  15. Simultaneous protection of organic p- and n-channels in complementary inverter from aging and bias-stress by DNA-base guanine/Al2O3 double layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Junyeong; Hwang, Hyuncheol; Min, Sung-Wook; Shin, Jae Min; Kim, Jin Sung; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2015-01-28

    Although organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have various advantages of lightweight, low-cost, mechanical flexibility, and nowadays even higher mobility than amorphous Si-based FET, stability issue under bias and ambient condition critically hinder its practical application. One of the most detrimental effects on organic layer comes from penetrated atmospheric species such as oxygen and water. To solve such degradation problems, several molecular engineering tactics are introduced: forming a kinetic barrier, lowering the level of molecule orbitals, and increasing the band gap. However, direct passivation of organic channels, the most promising strategy, has not been reported as often as other methods. Here, we resolved the ambient stability issues of p-type (heptazole)/or n-type (PTCDI-C13) OFETs and their bias-stability issues at once, using DNA-base small molecule guanine (C5H5N5O)/Al2O3 bilayer. The guanine protects the organic channels as buffer/and H getter layer between the channels and capping Al2O3, whereas the oxide capping resists ambient molecules. As a result, both p-type and n-type OFETs are simultaneously protected from gate-bias stress and 30 days-long ambient aging, finally demonstrating a highly stable, high-gain complementary-type logic inverter.

  16. ARHGEF7 (Beta-PIX acts as guanine nucleotide exchange factor for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Haebig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations within the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are a common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease. The multidomain protein LRRK2 exhibits overall low GTPase and kinase activity in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that the rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor ARHGEF7 and the small GTPase CDC42 are interacting with LRRK2 in vitro and in vivo. GTPase activity of full-length LRRK2 increases in the presence of recombinant ARHGEF7. Interestingly, LRRK2 phosphorylates ARHGEF7 in vitro at previously unknown phosphorylation sites. We provide evidence that ARHGEF7 might act as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for LRRK2 and that R1441C mutant LRRK2 with reduced GTP hydrolysis activity also shows reduced binding to ARHGEF7. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Downstream effects of phosphorylation of ARHGEF7 through LRRK2 could be (i a feedback control mechanism for LRRK2 activity as well as (ii an impact of LRRK2 on actin cytoskeleton regulation. A newly identified familial mutation N1437S, localized within the GTPase domain of LRRK2, further underlines the importance of the GTPase domain of LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis.

  17. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of human ADP-ribosylation factors: Two guanine nucleotide-dependent activators of cholera toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobak, D.A.; Nightingale, M.S.; Murtagh, J.J.; Price, S.R.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M.

    1989-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) are small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins that enhance the enzymatic activities of cholera toxin. Two ARF cDNAs, ARF1 and ARF3, were cloned from a human cerebellum library. Based on deduced amino acid sequences and patterns of hybridization of cDNA and oligonucleotide probes with mammalian brain poly(A) + RNA, human ARF1 is the homologue of bovine ARF1. Human ARF3, which differs from bovine ARF1 and bovine ARF2, appears to represent a newly identified third type of ARF. Hybridization patterns of human ARF cDNA and clone-specific oligonucleotides with poly(A) + RNA are consistent with the presence of at least two, and perhaps four, separate ARF messages in human brain. In vitro translation of ARF1, ARF2, and ARF3 produced proteins that behaved, by SDS/PAGE, similar to a purified soluble brain ARF. Deduced amino acid sequences of human ARF1 and ARF3 contain regions, similar to those in other G proteins, that are believed to be involved in GTP binding and hydrolysis. ARFS also exhibit a modest degree of homology with a bovine phospholipase C. The observations reported here support the conclusion that the ARFs are members of a multigene family of small guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Definition of the regulation of ARF mRNAs and of function(s) of recombinant ARF proteins will aid in the elucidation of the physiologic role(s) of ARFs

  18. Higher order structural effects stabilizing the reverse watson-crick guanine-cytosine base pair in functional RNAs

    KAUST Repository

    Chawla, Mohit

    2013-10-10

    The G:C reverse Watson-Crick (W:W trans) base pair, also known as Levitt base pair in the context of tRNAs, is a structurally and functionally important base pair that contributes to tertiary interactions joining distant domains in functional RNA molecules and also participates in metabolite binding in riboswitches. We previously indicated that the isolated G:C W:W trans base pair is a rather unstable geometry, and that dicationic metal binding to the Guanine base or posttranscriptional modification of the Guanine can increase its stability. Herein, we extend our survey and report on other H-bonding interactions that can increase the stability of this base pair. To this aim, we performed a bioinformatics search of the PDB to locate all the occurencies of G:C trans base pairs. Interestingly, 66% of the G:C trans base pairs in the PDB are engaged in additional H-bonding interactions with other bases, the RNA backbone or structured water molecules. High level quantum mechanical calculations on a data set of representative crystal structures were performed to shed light on the structural stability and energetics of the various crystallographic motifs. This analysis was extended to the binding of the preQ1 metabolite to a preQ1-II riboswitch. 2013 The Author(s).

  19. Multiscale QM/MM molecular dynamics study on the first steps of guanine damage by free hydroxyl radicals in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfath, Ramin M; Biswas, P K; Rajnarayanam, R; Brabec, Thomas; Kodym, Reinhard; Papiez, Lech

    2012-04-19

    Understanding the damage of DNA bases from hydrogen abstraction by free OH radicals is of particular importance to understanding the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. Previous studies address the problem with truncated DNA bases as ab initio quantum simulations required to study such electronic-spin-dependent processes are computationally expensive. Here, for the first time, we employ a multiscale and hybrid quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical simulation to study the interaction of OH radicals with a guanine-deoxyribose-phosphate DNA molecular unit in the presence of water, where all of the water molecules and the deoxyribose-phosphate fragment are treated with the simplistic classical molecular mechanical scheme. Our result illustrates that the presence of water strongly alters the hydrogen-abstraction reaction as the hydrogen bonding of OH radicals with water restricts the relative orientation of the OH radicals with respect to the DNA base (here, guanine). This results in an angular anisotropy in the chemical pathway and a lower efficiency in the hydrogen-abstraction mechanisms than previously anticipated for identical systems in vacuum. The method can easily be extended to single- and double-stranded DNA without any appreciable computational cost as these molecular units can be treated in the classical subsystem, as has been demonstrated here. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  20. Free terminal amines in DNA-binding peptides alter the product distribution from guanine radicals produced by single electron oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsfeld, Katie M; Lee, Melissa; Urata, Sarah M; Aguilera, Joe A; Milligan, Jamie R

    2012-03-01

    Electron deficient guanine radical species are major intermediates produced in DNA by the direct effect of ionizing irradiation. There is evidence that they react with amine groups in closely bound ligands to form covalent crosslinks. Crosslink formation is very poorly characterized in terms of quantitative rate and yield data. We sought to address this issue by using oligo-arginine ligands to model the close association of DNA and its binding proteins in chromatin. Guanine radicals were prepared in plasmid DNA by single electron oxidation. The product distribution derived from them was assayed by strand break formation after four different post-irradiation incubations. We compared the yields of DNA damage produced in the presence of four ligands in which neither, one, or both of the amino and carboxylate termini were blocked with amides. Free carboxylate groups were unreactive. Significantly higher yields of heat labile sites were observed when the amino terminus was unblocked. The rate of the reaction was characterized by diluting the unblocked amino group with its amide blocked derivative. These observations provide a means to develop quantitative estimates for the yields in which these labile sites are formed in chromatin by exposure to ionizing irradiation.

  1. Sensitive detection of mercury and copper ions by fluorescent DNA/Ag nanoclusters in guanine-rich DNA hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Ling, Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Bai, Hui-Ping; Zheng, Liyan; Cao, Qiu-E; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2015-02-25

    In this work, we designed a new fluorescent oligonucleotides-stabilized silver nanoclusters (DNA/AgNCs) probe for sensitive detection of mercury and copper ions. This probe contains two tailored DNA sequence. One is a signal probe contains a cytosine-rich sequence template for AgNCs synthesis and link sequence at both ends. The other is a guanine-rich sequence for signal enhancement and link sequence complementary to the link sequence of the signal probe. After hybridization, the fluorescence of hybridized double-strand DNA/AgNCs is 200-fold enhanced based on the fluorescence enhancement effect of DNA/AgNCs in proximity of guanine-rich DNA sequence. The double-strand DNA/AgNCs probe is brighter and stable than that of single-strand DNA/AgNCs, and more importantly, can be used as novel fluorescent probes for detecting mercury and copper ions. Mercury and copper ions in the range of 6.0-160.0 and 6-240 nM, can be linearly detected with the detection limits of 2.1 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Our results indicated that the analytical parameters of the method for mercury and copper ions detection are much better than which using a single-strand DNA/AgNCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV1 V3 loop hypermutability is enhanced by the guanine usage bias in the part of env gene coding for it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, Vladislav Victorovich

    2009-01-01

    Guanine is the most mutable nucleotide in HIV genes because of frequently occurring G to A transitions, which are caused by cytosine deamination in viral DNA minus strands catalyzed by APOBEC enzymes. Distribution of guanine between three codon positions should influence the probability for G to A mutation to be nonsynonymous (to occur in first or second codon position). We discovered that nucleotide sequences of env genes coding for third variable regions (V3 loops) of gp120 from HIV1 and HIV2 have different kinds of guanine usage biases. In the HIV1 reference strain and 100 additionally analyzed HIV1 strains the guanine usage bias in V3 loop coding regions (2G>1G>3G) should lead to elevated nonsynonymous G to A transitions occurrence rates. In the HIV2 reference strain and 100 other HIV2 strains guanine usage bias in V3 loop coding regions (3G>2G>1G) should protect V3 loops from hypermutability. According to the HIV1 and HIV2 V3 alignment, insertion of the sequence enriched with 2G (21 codons in length) occurred during the evolution of HIV1 predecessor, while insertion of the different sequence enriched with 3G (19 codons in length) occurred during the evolution of HIV2 predecessor. The higher is the level of 3G in the V3 coding region, the lower should be the immune escaping mutation occurrence rates. This hypothesis was tested in this study by comparing the guanine usage in V3 loop coding regions from HIV1 fast and slow progressors. All calculations have been performed by our algorithms "VVK In length", "VVK Dinucleotides" and "VVK Consensus" (www.barkovsky.hotmail.ru).

  3. Dispelling dogma and misconceptions regarding the most pharmacologically targetable source of reactive species in inflammatory disease, xanthine oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Eric E

    2015-08-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), the molybdoflavin enzyme responsible for the terminal steps of purine degradation in humans, is also recognized as a significant source of reactive species contributory to inflammatory disease. In animal models and clinical studies, inhibition of XOR has resulted in diminution of symptoms and enhancement of function in a number of pathologies including heart failure, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, hypertension and ischemia-reperfusion injury. For decades, XOR involvement in pathologic processes has been established by salutary outcomes attained from treatment with the XOR inhibitor allopurinol. This has served to frame a working dogma that elevation of XOR-specific activity is associated with enhanced rates of reactive species generation that mediate negative outcomes. While adherence to this narrowly focused practice of designating elevated XOR activity to be "bad" has produced some benefit, it has also led to significant underdevelopment of the processes mediating XOR regulation, identification of alternative reactants and products as well as micro-environmental factors that alter enzymatic activity. This is exemplified by recent reports: (1) identifying XOR as a nitrite reductase and thus a source of beneficial nitric oxide ((•)NO) under in vivo conditions similar to those where XOR inhibition has been assumed an optimal treatment choice, (2) describing XOR-derived uric acid (UA) as a critical pro-inflammatory mediator in vascular and metabolic disease and (3) ascribing an antioxidant/protective role for XOR-derived UA. When taken together, these proposed and countervailing functions of XOR affirm the need for a more comprehensive evaluation of product formation as well as the factors that govern product identity. As such, this review will critically evaluate XOR-catalyzed oxidant, (•)NO and UA formation as well as identify factors that mediate their production, inhibition and the resultant impact on inflammatory disease.

  4. Xanthine oxidase and uric acid as independent predictors of albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisic, Aleksandra; Kocic, Gordana; Kavaric, Nebojsa; Jovanovic, Milovan; Stanisic, Verica; Ninic, Ana

    2018-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important enzyme responsible for conversion of purine bases to uric acid and represents the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in circulation. Since pathophysiological mechanism of the relationship between XO activity and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate is not well elucidated, we aimed to investigate this association in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). In addition, we wanted to examine whether uric acid itself plays an independent role in albuminuria onset and progression, or it is only mediated through XO activity. A total of 83 patients with DM2 (of them 56.6% females) were included in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and blood pressure were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that uric acid and XO were the independent predictors for albuminuria onset in patients with DM2 [odds ratio (OR) 1.015, 95% CI (1.008-1.028), p = 0.026 and OR 1.015, 95% CI (1.006-1.026), p = 0.040, respectively]. Rise in uric acid for 1 µmol/L enhanced the probability for albuminuria by 1.5%. Also, elevation in XO activity for 1 U/L increased the probability for albuminuria for 1.5%. A total of 66.7% of variation in UAE could be explained with this Model. Both XO and uric acid are independently associated with albuminuria in diabetes. Better understanding of pathophysiological relationship between oxidative stress and albuminuria could lead to discoveries of best pharmacological treatment of XO- and/or uric acid-induced ROS, in order to prevent albuminuria onset and progression.

  5. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Archidendron clypearia (Jack.) I.C. Nielsen: Results from systematic screening of Vietnamese medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Thuy Duong; Pham Duc Vinh; Phuong Thien Thuong; Nguyen Thi Hoai; Le Nguyen Thanh; Tran The Bach; Nguyen Hai Nam; Nguyen Hoang Anh

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To screen Vietnamese medicinal plants for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and to isolate XO inhibitor(s) from the most active plant.Methods: The plants materials were extracted by methanol. The active plant materials were fractionated using different organic solvents, includingn-hexane, ethyl acetate, andn-butanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation and column chromatography were used to isolate compounds. The compounds structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Results:Three hundreds and eleven methanol extracts (CME) belonging to 301 Vietnamese herbs were screened for XO inhibitory activity. Among these plants, 57 extracts displayed XO inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates of over 50%. The extracts of Archidendron clypearia,Smilax poilanei,Linociera ramiflora and Passiflora foetida exhibited the greatest potency with IC50 values below 30 μg/mL. Chemical study performed on the extract ofArchidendron clypearia resulted in the isolation of six compounds, including 1-octacosanol, docosenoic acid, daucosterol, methyl gallate, quercitrin and (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan. The compound (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan showed the most potent XO inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 25.5 μmol/L.Conclusions:From this investigation, four Vietnamese medicinal plants were identified to have XO inhibitory effects with IC50 values of the methanol extracts below 30 μg/mL. Compound (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan was identified as an XO inhibitor from Archidendron clypearia with IC50 value of 25.5 μmol/L.

  6. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Archidendron clypearia (Jack.) I.C. Nielsen: Results from systematic screening of Vietnamese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Nguyen Thuy; Vinh, Pham Duc; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Thanh, Le Nguyen; Bach, Tran The; Nam, Nguyen Hai; Anh, Nguyen Hoang

    2017-06-01

    To screen Vietnamese medicinal plants for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and to isolate XO inhibitor(s) from the most active plant. The plants materials were extracted by methanol. The active plant materials were fractionated using different organic solvents, including n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation and column chromatography were used to isolate compounds. The compounds structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Three hundreds and eleven methanol extracts (CME) belonging to 301 Vietnamese herbs were screened for XO inhibitory activity. Among these plants, 57 extracts displayed XO inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates of over 50%. The extracts of Archidendron clypearia (A. clypearia), Smilax poilanei, Linociera ramiflora and Passiflora foetida exhibited the greatest potency with IC 50 values below 30 μg/mL. Chemical study performed on the extract of A. clypearia resulted in the isolation of six compounds, including 1-octacosanol, docosenoic acid, daucosterol, methyl gallate, quercitrin and (-)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan. The compound (-)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan showed the most potent XO inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 25.5 μmol/L. From this investigation, four Vietnamese medicinal plants were identified to have XO inhibitory effects with IC 50 values of the methanol extracts below 30 μg/mL. Compound (-)-7-O- galloyltricetiflavan was identified as an XO inhibitor from A. clypearia with IC 50 value of 25.5 μmol/L. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of reactive oxygen species metabolism in the rat aorta and vena cava: focus on xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Theodora; Thompson, Janice M; Watts, Stephanie W

    2008-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators in vascular biology. Venous function, although relevant to cardiovascular disease, is still understudied. We compared aspects of ROS metabolism between a major artery (the aorta) and a major vein (the vena cava, VC) of the rat, with the hypothesis that venous ROS metabolism would be overall increased compared with its arterial counterpart. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) release in basal conditions was higher in VC compared with aorta. The antioxidant capacity for H2O2 was also higher in VC than in aorta. Exogenous superoxide induced a higher contraction in VC compared with aorta. Protein expression of three major ROS metabolizing enzymes, xanthine oxidase (XO), CuZn-SOD, and catalase, was higher in VC compared with aorta. Because XO seemed a likely source of the higher VC ROS levels, we examined it further and found higher mRNA expression and activity of XO in VC compared with aorta. We also investigated the impact of XO inhibition by allopurinol on aorta and VC functional responses to norepinephrine, ANG II, ET-1, and ACh. Maximal ET-1-mediated contraction was decreased by allopurinol in VC but not in the aorta. Our results suggest that there are overall differences in ROS metabolism between aorta and VC, with the latter operating normally at a higher set point, releasing but also being able to handle, higher ROS levels. We propose XO to be an important source for these differences. The result of this particular comparison may be reflective of a general arteriovenous contrast.

  8. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.

  9. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol prevents skeletal muscle atrophy: role of p38 MAPKinase and E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Derbre

    Full Text Available Alterations in muscle play an important role in common diseases and conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are generated during hindlimb unloading due, at least in part, to the activation of xanthine oxidase (XO. The major aim of this study was to determine the mechanism by which XO activation causes unloading-induced muscle atrophy in rats, and its possible prevention by allopurinol, a well-known inhibitor of this enzyme. For this purpose we studied one of the main redox sensitive signalling cascades involved in skeletal muscle atrophy i.e. p38 MAPKinase, and the expression of two well known muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in proteolysis, the Muscle atrophy F-Box (MAFbx; also known as atrogin-1 and Muscle RING (Really Interesting New Gene Finger-1 (MuRF-1. We found that hindlimb unloading induced a significant increase in XO activity and in the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes CuZnSOD and Catalase in skeletal muscle. The most relevant new fact reported in this paper is that inhibition of XO with allopurinol, a drug widely used in clinical practice, prevents soleus muscle atrophy by ~20% after hindlimb unloading. This was associated with the inhibition of the p38 MAPK-MAFbx pathway. Our data suggest that XO was involved in the loss of muscle mass via the activation of the p38MAPK-MAFbx pathway in unloaded muscle atrophy. Thus, allopurinol may have clinical benefits to combat skeletal muscle atrophy in bedridden, astronauts, sarcopenic, and cachexic patients.

  10. Biosensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and an electronic component to transduce and detect the signal. A variety of .... aliphatic aldehyde as fol- lows: FMNH2 + .... microorganisms by the use of high temperature. ... ISFET. The oxidation of hypoxanthine to uric acid by xanthine.

  11. Fingerprints of Both Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen Isomers of the Isolated (Cytosine-Guanine)H+ Pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ortiz, Andrés F; Rossa, Maximiliano; Berthias, Francis; Berdakin, Matías; Maitre, Philippe; Pino, Gustavo A

    2017-11-16

     Gas phase protonated guanine-cytosine (CGH + ) pair was generated using an electrospray ionization source from solutions at two different pH (5.8 and 3.2). Consistent evidence from MS/MS fragmentation patterns and differential ion mobility spectra (DIMS) point toward the presence of two isomers of the CGH + pair, whose relative populations depend strongly on the pH of the solution. Gas phase infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy in the 900-1900 cm -1 spectral range further confirms that the Watson-Crick isomer is preferentially produced (91%) at pH = 5.8, while the Hoogsteen isomer predominates (66%) at pH = 3.2). These fingerprint signatures are expected to be useful for the development of new analytical methodologies and to trigger isomer selective photochemical studies of protonated DNA base pairs.

  12. Differential Rac1 signalling by guanine nucleotide exchange factors implicates FLII in regulating Rac1-driven cell migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hadir; Carpy, Alejandro; Woroniuk, Anna; Vennin, Claire; White, Gavin; Timpson, Paul; Macek, Boris; Malliri, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 has been implicated in the formation and dissemination of tumours. Upon activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), Rac1 associates with a variety of proteins in the cell thereby regulating various functions, including cell migration. However, activation of Rac1 can lead to opposing migratory phenotypes raising the possibility of exacerbating tumour progression when targeting Rac1 in a clinical setting. This calls for the identification of factors that influence Rac1-driven cell motility. Here we show that Tiam1 and P-Rex1, two Rac GEFs, promote Rac1 anti- and pro-migratory signalling cascades, respectively, through regulating the Rac1 interactome. In particular, we demonstrate that P-Rex1 stimulates migration through enhancing the interaction between Rac1 and the actin-remodelling protein flightless-1 homologue, to modulate cell contraction in a RhoA-ROCK-independent manner. PMID:26887924

  13. Spectroscopic (UV/VIS, Raman) and Electrophoresis Study of Cytosine-Guanine Oligonucleotide DNA Influenced by Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihashemian, Seyedeh Maryam; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Boon Tong, Goh; Abdul Rahman, Saadah

    2016-01-01

    Studying the effect of a magnetic field on oligonucleotide DNA can provide a novel DNA manipulation technique for potential application in bioengineering and medicine. In this work, the optical and electrochemical response of a 100 bases oligonucleotides DNA, cytosine-guanine (CG100), is investigated via exposure to different magnetic fields (250, 500, 750, and 1000 mT). As a result of the optical response of CG100 to the magnetic field, the ultra-violet-visible spectrum indicated a slight variation in the band gap of CG100 of about 0.3 eV. Raman spectroscopy showed a significant deviation in hydrogen and phosphate bonds' vibration after exposure to the magnetic field. Oligonucleotide DNA mobility was investigated in the external electric field using the gel electrophoresis technique, which revealed a small decrease in the migration of CG100 after exposure to the magnetic field.

  14. Spectroscopic (UV/VIS, Raman and Electrophoresis Study of Cytosine-Guanine Oligonucleotide DNA Influenced by Magnetic Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Maryam Banihashemian

    Full Text Available Studying the effect of a magnetic field on oligonucleotide DNA can provide a novel DNA manipulation technique for potential application in bioengineering and medicine. In this work, the optical and electrochemical response of a 100 bases oligonucleotides DNA, cytosine-guanine (CG100, is investigated via exposure to different magnetic fields (250, 500, 750, and 1000 mT. As a result of the optical response of CG100 to the magnetic field, the ultra-violet-visible spectrum indicated a slight variation in the band gap of CG100 of about 0.3 eV. Raman spectroscopy showed a significant deviation in hydrogen and phosphate bonds' vibration after exposure to the magnetic field. Oligonucleotide DNA mobility was investigated in the external electric field using the gel electrophoresis technique, which revealed a small decrease in the migration of CG100 after exposure to the magnetic field.

  15. Electron transfer from nucleobase electron adducts to 5-bromouracil. Is guanine an ultimate sink for the electron in irradiated DNA?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, C.; Yuan, Z.; Schuchmann, M.N.; Sonntag, C. von

    1992-01-01

    Electron transfer to 5-bromouracil (5-BrU) from nucleobase (N) electron adducts (and their protonated forms) has been studied by product analysis and pulse radiolysis. When an electron is transferred to 5-BrU, the ensuing 5-BrU radical anion rapidly loses a bromide ion; the uracilyl radical thus formed reacts with added t-butanol, yielding uracil. From the uracil yields measured as the function of [N]/[5-BrU] after γ-radiolysis of Ar-saturated solutions it is concluded that thymine and adenine electron adducts and their heteroatom-protonated forms transfer electrons quantitatively to 5-BrU. The data raise the question whether in DNA the guanine moiety may act as the ultimate sink of the electron in competition with other processes such as protonation at C(6) of the thymine electron adduct. (Author)

  16. The PDZ domain of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor PDZGEF directs binding to phosphatidic acid during brush border formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah V Consonni

    Full Text Available PDZGEF is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small G protein Rap. It was recently found that PDZGEF contributes to establishment of intestinal epithelial polarity downstream of the kinase Lkb1. By binding to phosphatidic acid enriched at the apical membrane, PDZGEF locally activates Rap2a resulting in induction of brush border formation via a pathway that includes the polarity players TNIK, Mst4 and Ezrin. Here we show that the PDZ domain of PDZGEF is essential and sufficient for targeting PDZGEF to the apical membrane of polarized intestinal epithelial cells. Inhibition of PLD and consequently production of phosphatidic acid inhibitis targeting of PDZGEF to the plasma membrane. Furthermore, localization requires specific positively charged residues within the PDZ domain. We conclude that local accumulation of PDZGEF at the apical membrane during establishment of epithelial polarity is mediated by electrostatic interactions between positively charged side chains in the PDZ domain and negatively charged phosphatidic acid.

  17. Estrogen Repression of MicroRNAs Is Associated with High Guanine Content in the Terminal Loop Sequences of Their Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Cohen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Widespread microRNA (miRNA repression is a phenomenon observed in mammals after exposure to cigarette smoke and in many types of cancer. A comprehensive reduction in miRNA expression after treatment with the hormone estrogen has also previously been described. Here, we reveal a conserved association of miRNA downregulation after estrogen exposure in zebrafish, mouse, and human breast cancer cell line, with a high guanine content in the terminal loop sequences of their precursors, and offer a possible link between estrogen-related miRNA-adducts formation and carcinogenesis. We also show common gene expression patterns shared by breast cancer tumors and estrogen-treated zebrafish, suggesting that this organism can be used as a powerful model system for the study of human breast cancer.

  18. Effect of Soy Sauce on Serum Uric Acid Levels in Hyperuricemic Rats and Identification of Flazin as a Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huipin; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-15

    This is the first report on the ability of soy sauce to effectively reduce the serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities of hyperuricemic rats. Soy sauce was partitioned sequentially into ethyl acetate and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction with strong XOD inhibition effect was purified further. On the basis of xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity-guided purification, nine compounds including 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate, diisobutyl terephthalate, harman, daidzein, flazin, catechol, thymine, genistein, and uracil were obtained. It was the first time that 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate and diisobutyl terephthalate had been identified from soy sauce. Flazin with hydroxymethyl furan ketone group at C-1 and carboxyl at C-3 exhibited the strongest XOI activity (IC50 = 0.51 ± 0.05 mM). According to fluorescence quenching and molecular docking experiments, flazin could enter into the catalytic center of XOD to interact with Lys1045, Gln1194, and Arg912 mainly by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. Flazin, catechol, and genistein not only were potent XOD inhibitors but also held certain antioxidant activities. According to ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) simulation in silico, flazin had good oral bioavailability in vivo.

  19. Periodic variation in bile acids controls circadian changes in uric acid via regulation of xanthine oxidase by the orphan nuclear receptor PPARα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemitsu, Takumi; Tsurudome, Yuya; Kusunose, Naoki; Oda, Masayuki; Matsunaga, Naoya; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2017-12-29

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD), also known as xanthine dehydrogenase, is a rate-limiting enzyme in purine nucleotide degradation, which produces uric acid. Uric acid concentrations in the blood and liver exhibit circadian oscillations in both humans and rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that XOD expression and enzymatic activity exhibit circadian oscillations in the mouse liver. We found that the orphan nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcriptionally activated the mouse XOD gene and that bile acids suppressed XOD transactivation. The synthesis of bile acids is known to be under the control of the circadian clock, and we observed that the time-dependent accumulation of bile acids in hepatic cells interfered with the recruitment of the co-transcriptional activator p300 to PPARα, thereby repressing XOD expression. This time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids caused an oscillation in the hepatic expression of XOD, which, in turn, led to circadian alterations in uric acid production. Finally, we also demonstrated that the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the XOD inhibitor febuxostat was enhanced by administering it at the time of day before hepatic XOD activity increased. These results suggest an underlying mechanism for the circadian alterations in uric acid production and also underscore the importance of selecting an appropriate time of day for administering XOD inhibitors. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Nitrate decreases xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated nitrite reductase activity and attenuates vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damacena-Angelis, Célio; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Crevelin, Eduardo J; Portella, Rafael L; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite and nitrate restore deficient endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production as they are converted back to NO, and therefore complement the classic enzymatic NO synthesis. Circulating nitrate and nitrite must cross membrane barriers to produce their effects and increased nitrate concentrations may attenuate the nitrite influx into cells, decreasing NO generation from nitrite. Moreover, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) mediates NO formation from nitrite and nitrate. However, no study has examined whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated NO generation from nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrate attenuates the vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite either by interfering with nitrite influx into vascular tissue, or by competing with nitrite for XOR, thus inhibiting XOR-mediated NO generation. We used two independent vascular function assays in rats (aortic ring preparations and isolated mesenteric arterial bed perfusion) to examine the effects of sodium nitrate on the concentration-dependent responses to sodium nitrite. Both assays showed that nitrate attenuated the vascular responses to nitrite. Conversely, the aortic responses to the NO donor DETANONOate were not affected by sodium nitrate. Further confirming these results, we found that nitrate attenuated the acute blood pressure lowering effects of increasing doses of nitrite infused intravenously in freely moving rats. The possibility that nitrate could compete with nitrite and decrease nitrite influx into cells was tested by measuring the accumulation of nitrogen-15-labeled nitrite ( 15 N-nitrite) by aortic rings using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Nitrate exerted no effect on aortic accumulation of 15 N-nitrite. Next, we used chemiluminescence-based NO detection to examine whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate significantly shifted the Michaelis Menten saturation curve to the right, with a 3-fold increase in the

  1. Protein Kinase A (PKA) Type I Interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Vargas, Lydia; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Castillo-Kauil, Alejandro; Bruystens, Jessica G. H.; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Taylor, Susan S.; Mochizuki, Naoki; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2016-01-01

    Morphology of migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases and fine-tuned by protein interactions and phosphorylation. PKA affects cell migration potentially through spatiotemporal interactions with regulators of Rho GTPases. Here we show that the endogenous regulatory (R) subunit of type I PKA interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that integrates chemotactic signals. Type I PKA holoenzyme interacts with P-Rex1 PDZ domains via the CNB B domain of RIα, which when expressed by itself facilitates endothelial cell migration. P-Rex1 activation localizes PKA to the cell periphery, whereas stimulation of PKA phosphorylates P-Rex1 and prevents its activation in cells responding to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). The P-Rex1 DEP1 domain is phosphorylated at Ser-436, which inhibits the DH-PH catalytic cassette by direct interaction. In addition, the P-Rex1 C terminus is indirectly targeted by PKA, promoting inhibitory interactions independently of the DEP1-PDZ2 region. A P-Rex1 S436A mutant construct shows increased RacGEF activity and prevents the inhibitory effect of forskolin on sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent endothelial cell migration. Altogether, these results support the idea that P-Rex1 contributes to the spatiotemporal localization of type I PKA, which tightly regulates this guanine exchange factor by a multistep mechanism, initiated by interaction with the PDZ domains of P-Rex1 followed by direct phosphorylation at the first DEP domain and putatively indirect regulation of the C terminus, thus promoting inhibitory intramolecular interactions. This reciprocal regulation between PKA and P-Rex1 might represent a key node of integration by which chemotactic signaling is fine-tuned by PKA. PMID:26797121

  2. Magnetically-assembled micro/mesopixels exhibiting light intensity enhancement in the (012) planes of fish guanine crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikashige, T.; Iwasaka, M.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a new method was investigated to form light-reflecting dots at the micrometer scale using the magnetic orientations of biogenic guanine crystals obtained from fish skin and scales. The crystal platelets, possessing average dimensions of 5 μm×20 μm×100 nm, were dispersed in water and observed during exposure to vertical magnetic fields up to 5 T. The magnetic field direction was parallel to Earth's gravity, and allowed the narrowest edges of the crystals to be observed at the micrometer scale for the first time. The magnetic orientation process was initiated under conditions where the crystal platelets in water were laid on a glass substrate or where the platelets had random orientations. In the former case, the crystal platelets followed a two-stage magnetic orientation process where, in the first step, the platelet widths were aligned in the magnetic field direction. The second step required rotation of the ˜20-μm-long plates with respect to the Earth's gravity, where application of a 5 T magnetic field enabled their orientation. Real-time images of the magnetically aligning platelets provided new evidence that the crystal platelets also emitted reflected light from a very narrow window at two crystal planes (i.e., (0 1 ¯ 2 ¯ ) and (0 1 ¯ 2 )). In the latter case with random platelet orientation, spatially-condensed light-reflecting dots appeared while the guanine crystal platelets were floating and maintaining their orientation. The technique developed for controlling light-reflecting microscale objects in an aqueous medium can be applied to produce a type of microfluidic optical tool.

  3. Magnetically-assembled micro/mesopixels exhibiting light intensity enhancement in the (012 planes of fish guanine crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chikashige

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new method was investigated to form light-reflecting dots at the micrometer scale using the magnetic orientations of biogenic guanine crystals obtained from fish skin and scales. The crystal platelets, possessing average dimensions of 5 μm×20 μm×100 nm, were dispersed in water and observed during exposure to vertical magnetic fields up to 5 T. The magnetic field direction was parallel to Earth’s gravity, and allowed the narrowest edges of the crystals to be observed at the micrometer scale for the first time. The magnetic orientation process was initiated under conditions where the crystal platelets in water were laid on a glass substrate or where the platelets had random orientations. In the former case, the crystal platelets followed a two-stage magnetic orientation process where, in the first step, the platelet widths were aligned in the magnetic field direction. The second step required rotation of the ∼20-μm-long plates with respect to the Earth’s gravity, where application of a 5 T magnetic field enabled their orientation. Real-time images of the magnetically aligning platelets provided new evidence that the crystal platelets also emitted reflected light from a very narrow window at two crystal planes (i.e., (01¯2¯ and (01¯2. In the latter case with random platelet orientation, spatially-condensed light-reflecting dots appeared while the guanine crystal platelets were floating and maintaining their orientation. The technique developed for controlling light-reflecting microscale objects in an aqueous medium can be applied to produce a type of microfluidic optical tool.

  4. Stable isotope labeling-mass spectrometry analysis of methyl- and pyridyloxobutyl-guanine adducts of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in p53-derived DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Mathur; Wang, Gang; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2005-02-15

    The p53 tumor suppressor gene is a primary target in smoking-induced lung cancer. Interestingly, p53 mutations observed in lung tumors of smokers are concentrated at guanine bases within endogenously methylated (Me)CG dinucleotides, e.g., codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273 ((Me)C = 5-methylcytosine). One possible mechanism for the increased mutagenesis at these sites involves targeted binding of metabolically activated tobacco carcinogens to (Me)CG sequences. In the present work, a stable isotope labeling HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS approach was employed to analyze the formation of guanine lesions induced by the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) within DNA duplexes representing p53 mutational "hot spots" and surrounding sequences. Synthetic DNA duplexes containing p53 codons 153-159, 243-250, and 269-275 were prepared, where (Me)C was incorporated at all physiologically methylated CG sites. In each duplex, one of the guanine bases was replaced with [1,7,NH(2)-(15)N(3)-2-(13)C]-guanine, which served as an isotope "tag" to enable specific quantification of guanine lesions originating from that position. After incubation with NNK diazohydroxides, HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis was used to determine the yields of NNK adducts at the isotopically labeled guanine and at unlabeled guanine bases elsewhere in the sequence. We found that N7-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and N7-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)but-1-yl]guanine lesions were overproduced at the 3'-guanine bases within polypurine runs, while the formation of O(6)-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine and O(6)-[4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl)but-1-yl]-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts was specifically preferred at the 3'-guanine base of 5'-GG and 5'-GGG sequences. In contrast, the presence of 5'-neighboring (Me)C inhibited O(6)-guanine adduct formation. These results indicate that the N7- and O(6)-guanine adducts of NNK are not overproduced at the endogenously methylated CG dinucleotides within the p53 tumor suppressor gene

  5. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne F. Millogo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus, two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE, methanolic (ME, and aqueous extracts (AE from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method and iron reducing power (FRAP method ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants.

  6. Molecular structures and vibrational frequencies of xanthine and its methyl derivatives (caffeine and theobromine) by ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucun, Fatih; Sağlam, Adnan; Güçlü, Vesile

    2007-06-01

    The molecular structures, vibrational frequencies and corresponding vibrational assignments of xanthine and its methyl derivatives (caffeine and theobromine) have been calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with 6-31G(d, p) basis set level. The calculations were utilized to the CS symmetries of the molecules. The obtained vibrational frequencies and optimised geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were seen to be well agreement with the experimental data. The used scale factors which have been obtained the ratio of the frequency values of the strongest peaks in the calculated and experimental spectra seem to cause the gained vibrations well corresponding to the experimental ones. Theoretical infrared intensities and Raman activities are also reported.

  7. The Role of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Biotransformation of a Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ryan D.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Byers, Frank W.; Santomango, Tammy S.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Stec, Donald; Brewer, Katrina A.; Sanchez-Ponce, Raymundo; Corlew, Melany M.; Rush, Roger; Felts, Andrew S.; Manka, Jason; Bates, Brittney S.; Venable, Daryl F.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulation (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of childhood developmental disorders, such as fragile X syndrome and autism. VU0409106 emerged as a lead compound within a biaryl ether series, displaying potent and selective inhibition of mGlu5. Despite its high clearance and short half-life, VU0409106 demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of anxiety after extravascular administration. However, lack of a consistent correlation in rat between in vitro hepatic clearance and in vivo plasma clearance for the biaryl ether series prompted an investigation into the biotransformation of VU0409106 using hepatic subcellular fractions. An in vitro appraisal in rat, monkey, and human liver S9 fractions indicated that the principal pathway was NADPH-independent oxidation to metabolite M1 (+16 Da). Both raloxifene (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor) and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) attenuated the formation of M1, thus implicating the contribution of both molybdenum hydroxylases in the biotransformation of VU0409106. The use of 18O-labeled water in the S9 experiments confirmed the hydroxylase mechanism proposed, because 18O was incorporated into M1 (+18 Da) as well as in a secondary metabolite (M2; +36 Da), the formation of which was exclusively xanthine oxidase-mediated. This unusual dual and sequential hydroxylase metabolism was confirmed in liver S9 and hepatocytes of multiple species and correlated with in vivo data because M1 and M2 were the principal metabolites detected in rats administered VU0409106. An in vitro-in vivo correlation of predicted hepatic and plasma clearance was subsequently established for VU0409106 in rats and nonhuman primates. PMID:22711749

  8. Binding of a novel 12-E2-12 gemini surfactant to xanthine oxidase: Analysis involving tensiometric, spectroscopic, microscopic and molecular docking approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Mohd; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2016-01-01

    Binding interaction of a synthesized biodegradable gemini surfactant, ethane-1, 2-diyl bis(N, N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammoniumacetoxy) dichloride (12-E2-12), with bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) was studied using tensiometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV, CD, FT-IR, TEM and molecular docking. Tensiometry revealed lowering in surface tension (γ) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 12-E2-12 upon XO combination, suggesting a significant interaction between XO and 12-E2-12 (both in the bulk as well as at interface). Intrinsic fluorescence studies depict that 12-E2-12 quenches XO fluorescence intensity through static mechanism. The magnitude of binding parameters infers substantial and effective binding of 12-E2-12 to (XO). ANS and pyrene fluorescence demonstrate the exposure of aromatic residues (tyrosine/tryptophan) to a non-polar environment. UV, circular dichroism (CD) and FT-IR results delineate change in the secondary structure of the enzyme XO. Microscopic TEM micrographs confirm the disrupture of enzyme structure at higher concentrations of 12-E2-12. Molecular docking results show that 12-E2-12 binds to XO in the vicinity of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, inferring that binding is governed by both hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces. This study may be of significance in biomedical world to further interpret mechanistic treatment modes of diseases like gout and hyperuricemia. Moreover, this study provides deeper biophysical insight into surfactant–protein interactions. - Highlights: • Binding of biodegradable gemini surfactant 12-E2-12 with xanthine oxidase. • Binding induces conformational changes in the latter. • Conformational change can be useful for biomedical and industrial purposes.

  9. Binding of a novel 12-E2-12 gemini surfactant to xanthine oxidase: Analysis involving tensiometric, spectroscopic, microscopic and molecular docking approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Mohd, E-mail: drmohdakram@rediffmail.com; Bhat, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kabir-ud-Din

    2016-02-15

    Binding interaction of a synthesized biodegradable gemini surfactant, ethane-1, 2-diyl bis(N, N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammoniumacetoxy) dichloride (12-E2-12), with bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) was studied using tensiometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV, CD, FT-IR, TEM and molecular docking. Tensiometry revealed lowering in surface tension (γ) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 12-E2-12 upon XO combination, suggesting a significant interaction between XO and 12-E2-12 (both in the bulk as well as at interface). Intrinsic fluorescence studies depict that 12-E2-12 quenches XO fluorescence intensity through static mechanism. The magnitude of binding parameters infers substantial and effective binding of 12-E2-12 to (XO). ANS and pyrene fluorescence demonstrate the exposure of aromatic residues (tyrosine/tryptophan) to a non-polar environment. UV, circular dichroism (CD) and FT-IR results delineate change in the secondary structure of the enzyme XO. Microscopic TEM micrographs confirm the disrupture of enzyme structure at higher concentrations of 12-E2-12. Molecular docking results show that 12-E2-12 binds to XO in the vicinity of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues, inferring that binding is governed by both hydrophilic and hydrophobic forces. This study may be of significance in biomedical world to further interpret mechanistic treatment modes of diseases like gout and hyperuricemia. Moreover, this study provides deeper biophysical insight into surfactant–protein interactions. - Highlights: • Binding of biodegradable gemini surfactant 12-E2-12 with xanthine oxidase. • Binding induces conformational changes in the latter. • Conformational change can be useful for biomedical and industrial purposes.

  10. BLOC-3 mutated in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a Rab32/38 guanine nucleotide exchange factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Langemeyer, Lars; Liang, Jin-Rui; Linford, Andrea; Barr, Francis A

    2012-11-20

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a human disease characterized by partial loss of pigmentation and impaired blood clotting. These symptoms are caused by defects in the biogenesis of melanosomes and platelet dense granules, often referred to as lysosome-related organelles. Genes mutated in HPS encode subunits of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complexes (BLOCs). BLOC-1 and BLOC-2, together with the AP-3 clathrin adaptor complex, act at early endosomes to sort components required for melanin formation and melanosome biogenesis away from the degradative lysosomal pathway toward early stage melanosomes. However the molecular functions of the Hps1-Hps4 complex BLOC-3 remain mysterious. Like other trafficking pathways, melanosome biogenesis and transport of enzymes involved in pigmentation involves specific Rab GTPases, in this instance Rab32 and Rab38. We now demonstrate that BLOC-3 is a Rab32 and Rab38 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Silencing of the BLOC-3 subunits Hps1 and Hps4 results in the mislocalization of Rab32 and Rab38 and reduction in pigmentation. In addition, we show that BLOC-3 can promote specific membrane recruitment of Rab32/38. BLOC-3 therefore defines a novel Rab GEF family with a specific function in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A High-Throughput Assay for Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Based on the Transcreener GDP Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Melvin; Schabdach, Amanda; Kumar, Meera; Zielinski, Tom; Donover, Preston S; Laury-Kleintop, Lisa D; Lowery, Robert G

    2015-12-01

    Ras homologous (Rho) family GTPases act as molecular switches controlling cell growth, movement, and gene expression by cycling between inactive guanosine diphosphate (GDP)- and active guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound conformations. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) positively regulate Rho GTPases by accelerating GDP dissociation to allow formation of the active, GTP-bound complex. Rho proteins are directly involved in cancer pathways, especially cell migration and invasion, and inhibiting GEFs holds potential as a therapeutic strategy to diminish Rho-dependent oncogenesis. Methods for measuring GEF activity suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS) are limited. We developed a simple, generic biochemical assay method for measuring GEF activity based on the fact that GDP dissociation is generally the rate-limiting step in the Rho GTPase catalytic cycle, and thus addition of a GEF causes an increase in steady-state GTPase activity. We used the Transcreener GDP Assay, which relies on selective immunodetection of GDP, to measure the GEF-dependent stimulation of steady-state GTP hydrolysis by small GTPases using Dbs (Dbl's big sister) as a GEF for Cdc42, RhoA, and RhoB. The assay is well suited for HTS, with a homogenous format and far red fluorescence polarization (FP) readout, and it should be broadly applicable to diverse Rho GEF/GTPase pairs. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  13. The Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates cell polarity and endosomal membrane recycling in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblock, Charlotte; Heckel, Tobias; Czupalla, Cornelia; Espírito Santo, Ana Isabel; Niehage, Christian; Sztacho, Martin; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-06-27

    The initial step of bone digestion is the adhesion of osteoclasts onto bone surfaces and the assembly of podosomal belts that segregate the bone-facing ruffled membrane from other membrane domains. During bone digestion, membrane components of the ruffled border also need to be recycled after macropinocytosis of digested bone materials. How osteoclast polarity and membrane recycling are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we show that the Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates these events through its Src-dependent interaction with different actin-based protein networks. At the plasma membrane, FGD6 couples cell adhesion and actin dynamics by regulating podosome formation through the assembly of complexes comprising the Cdc42-interactor IQGAP1, the Rho GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP10, and the integrin interactors Talin-1/2 or Filamin A. On endosomes and transcytotic vesicles, FGD6 regulates retromer-dependent membrane recycling through its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASH. These results provide a mechanism by which a single Cdc42-exchange factor controlling different actin-based processes coordinates cell adhesion, cell polarity, and membrane recycling during bone degradation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Effect of ionic strength and cationic DNA affinity binders on the DNA sequence selective alkylation of guanine N7-positions by nitrogen mustards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.A.; Forrow, S.M.; Souhami, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Large variations in alkylation intensities exist among guanines in a DNA sequence following treatment with chemotherapeutic alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustards, and the substituent attached to the reactive group can impose a distinct sequence preference for reaction. In order to understand further the structural and electrostatic factors which determine the sequence selectivity of alkylation reactions, the effect of increase ionic strength, the intercalator ethidium bromide, AT-specific minor groove binders distamycin A and netropsin, and the polyamine spermine on guanine N7-alkylation by L-phenylalanine mustard (L-Pam), uracil mustard (UM), and quinacrine mustard (QM) was investigated with a modification of the guanine-specific chemical cleavage technique for DNA sequencing. The result differed with both the nitrogen mustard and the cationic agent used. The effect, which resulted in both enhancement and suppression of alkylation sites, was most striking in the case of netropsin and distamycin A, which differed from each other. DNA footprinting indicated that selective binding to AT sequences in the minor groove of DNA can have long-range effects on the alkylation pattern of DNA in the major groove

  15. Role of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein in α1-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca2+ mobilization in DDT1 MF-2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornett, L.E.; Norris, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this study the mechanisms involved in α 1 -adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca 2+ mobilization at the level of the plasma membrane were investigated. Stimulation of 45 Ca 2+ efflux from saponin-permeabilized DDT 1 MF-2 cells was observed with the addition of either the α 1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine and guanosine-5'-triphosphate or the nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide guanylyl-imidodiphosphate. In the presence of [ 32 P] NAD, pertussis toxin was found to catalyze ADP-ribosylation of a M/sub r/ = 40,500 (n = 8) peptide in membranes prepared from DDT 1 , MF-2 cells, possibly the α-subunit of N/sub i/. However, stimulation of unidirectional 45 Ca 2+ efflux by phenylephrine was not affected by previous treatment of cells with 100 ng/ml pertussis toxin. These data suggest that the putative guanine nucleotide-binding protein which couples the α 1 -adrenergic receptor to Ca 2+ mobilization in DDT 1 MF-2 cells is not a pertussis toxin substrate and may possibly be an additional member of guanine nucleotide binding protein family

  16. A simple method for quantification of allopurinol and oxipurinol in human serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.K.; Nijdam, L.C.; van Roon, E.N.; Movig, K.L.; Jansen, T.L.; Brouwers, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Allopurinol is a uric acid lowering drug used in the treatment of gout and the prevention of tumor lysis syndrome. Allopurinol and its active metabolite oxipurinol inhibit xanthine oxidase, which forms uric acid from xanthine and hypoxanthine. Therapeutic drug monitoring is an important

  17. Oxidative generation of guanine radicals by carbonate radicals and their reactions with nitrogen dioxide to form site specific 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole lesions in oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Avrum; Mock, Steven; Yun, Byeong Hwa; Kolbanovskiy, Alexander; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir

    2003-08-01

    A simple photochemical approach is described for synthesizing site specific, stable 5-guanidino-4-nitroimidazole (NIm) adducts in single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides containing single and multiple guanine residues. The DNA sequences employed, 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC CG(3)C G(4)CC) and 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC C), were a portion of exon 5 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, including the codons 157 (G(2)) and 158 (G(3)) mutation hot spots in the former sequence with four Gs and the codon 157 (G(2)) mutation hot spot in the latter sequence with two Gs. The nitration of oligodeoxynucleotides was initiated by the selective photodissociation of persulfate anions to sulfate radicals induced by UV laser pulses (308 nm). In aqueous solutions, of bicarbonate and nitrite anions, the sulfate radicals generate carbonate anion radicals and nitrogen dioxide radicals by one electron oxidation of the respective anions. The guanine residue in the oligodeoxynucleotide is oxidized by the carbonate anion radical to form the neutral guanine radical. While the nitrogen dioxide radicals do not react with any of the intact DNA bases, they readily combine with the guanine radicals at either the C8 or the C5 positions. The C8 addition generates the well-known 8-nitroguanine (8-nitro-G) lesions, whereas the C5 attack produces unstable adducts, which rapidly decompose to NIm lesions. The maximum yields of the nitro products (NIm + 8-nitro-G) were typically in the range of 20-40%, depending on the number of guanine residues in the sequence. The ratio of the NIm to 8-nitro-G lesions gradually decreases from 3.4 in the model compound, 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetylguanosine, to 2.1-2.6 in the single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides and to 0.8-1.1 in the duplexes. The adduct of the 5'-d(ACC CG(1)C G(2)TC C) oligodeoxynucleotide containing the NIm lesion in codon 157 (G(2)) was isolated in HPLC-pure form. The integrity of this adduct was established by a detailed analysis of exonuclease digestion

  18. Formation of diastereomeric benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-guanine adducts in p53 gene-derived DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Brock; Wang, Gang; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-06-01

    G --> T transversion mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are characteristic of smoking-related lung tumors, suggesting that these genetic changes may result from exposure to tobacco carcinogens. It has been previously demonstrated that the diol epoxide metabolites of bay region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in tobacco smoke, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), preferentially bind to the most frequently mutated guanine nucleotides within p53 codons 157, 158, 248, and 273 [Denissenko, M. F., Pao, A., Tang, M., and Pfeifer, G. P. (1996) Science 274, 430-432]. However, the methodology used in that work (ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction in combination with the UvrABC endonuclease incision assay) cannot establish the chemical structures and stereochemical identities of BPDE-guanine lesions. In the present study, we employ a stable isotope-labeling HPLC-MS/MS approach [Tretyakova, N., Matter, B., Jones, R., and Shallop, A. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 9535-9544] to analyze the formation of diastereomeric N(2)-BPDE-dG lesions within double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing p53 lung cancer mutational hotspots and their surrounding DNA sequences. (15)N-labeled dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes containing 5-methylcytosine at all physiologically methylated sites, followed by (+/-)-anti-BPDE treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the adducted DNA to 2'-deoxynucleosides. Capillary HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS was used to establish the amounts of (-)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, (+)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, (-)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, and (+)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG originating from the (15)N-labeled bases. We found that all four N(2)-BPDE-dG diastereomers were formed preferentially at the methylated CG dinucleotides, including the frequently mutated p53 codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273. The contributions of individual diastereomers to the total adducts number at a given site varied between 70.8 and 92.9% for (+)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, 5.6 and 16.7% for

  19. Modulation of B-cell receptor and microenvironment signaling by a guanine exchange factor in B-cell malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Wei; Sharma, Sanjai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells over-express a guanine exchange factor (GEF), Rasgrf-1. This GEF increases active Ras as it catalyzes the removal of GDP from Ras so that GTP can bind and activate Ras. This study aims to study the mechanism of action of Rasgrf-1 in B-cell malignancies. Methods: N-terminus truncated Rasgrf-1 variants have a higher GEF activity as compared to the full-length transcript therefore a MCL cell line with stable over-expression of truncated Rasgrf-1 was established. The B-cell receptor (BCR) and chemokine signaling pathways were compared in the Rasgrf-1 over-expressing and a control transfected cell line. Results: Cells over-expressing truncated form of Rasgrf-1 have a higher proliferative rate as compared to control transfected cells. BCR was activated by lower concentrations of anti-IgM antibody in Rasgrf-1 over-expressing cells as compared to control cells indicating that these cells are more sensitive to BCR signaling. BCR signaling also phosphorylates Rasgrf-1 that further increases its GEF function and amplifies BCR signaling. This activation of Rasgrf-1 in over-expressing cells resulted in a higher expression of phospho-ERK, AKT, BTK and PKC-alpha as compared to control cells. Besides BCR, Rasgrf-1 over-expressing cells were also more sensitive to microenvironment stimuli as determined by resistance to apoptosis, chemotaxis and ERK pathway activation. Conclusions: This GEF protein sensitizes B-cells to BCR and chemokine mediated signaling and also upregulates a number of other signaling pathways which promotes growth and survival of these cells

  20. The domain architecture of large guanine nucleotide exchange factors for the small GTP-binding protein Arf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geldner Niko

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small G proteins, which are essential regulators of multiple cellular functions, are activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs that stimulate the exchange of the tightly bound GDP nucleotide by GTP. The catalytic domain responsible for nucleotide exchange is in general associated with non-catalytic domains that define the spatio-temporal conditions of activation. In the case of small G proteins of the Arf subfamily, which are major regulators of membrane trafficking, GEFs form a heterogeneous family whose only common characteristic is the well-characterized Sec7 catalytic domain. In contrast, the function of non-catalytic domains and how they regulate/cooperate with the catalytic domain is essentially unknown. Results Based on Sec7-containing sequences from fully-annotated eukaryotic genomes, including our annotation of these sequences from Paramecium, we have investigated the domain architecture of large ArfGEFs of the BIG and GBF subfamilies, which are involved in Golgi traffic. Multiple sequence alignments combined with the analysis of predicted secondary structures, non-structured regions and splicing patterns, identifies five novel non-catalytic structural domains which are common to both subfamilies, revealing that they share a conserved modular organization. We also report a novel ArfGEF subfamily with a domain organization so far unique to alveolates, which we name TBS (TBC-Sec7. Conclusion Our analysis unifies the BIG and GBF subfamilies into a higher order subfamily, which, together with their being the only subfamilies common to all eukaryotes, suggests that they descend from a common ancestor from which species-specific ArfGEFs have subsequently evolved. Our identification of a conserved modular architecture provides a background for future functional investigation of non-catalytic domains.

  1. Guanine nucleotide regulation of muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol phosphate formation in permeabilized 1321N1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, S.A.; Trilivas, I.; Brown, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Carbachol and guanine nucleotides stimulate formation of the ( 3 H)inositol phosphates IP, IP2, and IP3 in saponin-permeabilized monolayers labelled with ( 3 H) inositol. Carbachol alone has little effect on formation of the ( 3 H) inositol phosphates (IPs), but GTPγS causes synergistic accumulation of ( 3 H)IPs to levels similar to those seen in intact cells. GTP, GppNHp, and GTPγS all support formation of the ( 3 H)IPs, with or without hormone, but GTPγS is the most effective. In the presence of GTPγS, the effect of carbachol is dose-dependent. Half-maximal and maximal accumulation of the ( 3 H)IPs occur at ∼ 5 μM and ∼ 100 μM carbachol, respectively; values close to those seen in intact cells. GTPγS alone stimulates formation of the ( 3 H)IPs after a brief lag time. The combination of GTPγS and carbachol both increases the rate of, and decreases the lag in, formation of the ( 3 H)IPs. LiCl increases ( 3 H)IP and IP2, but not IP3, accumulation; while 2,3-diphosphoglycerate substantially increases that of ( 3 H)IP3. GTPγS and carbachol cause formation of ( 3 H)IPs in the absence of Ca ++ , but formation induced by GTPγS with or without carbachol is Ca ++ -sensitive over a range of physiological concentrations. Although carbachol, Ca ++ , and GTPγS all have effects on formation of ( 3 H)IPs, GTPγS appears to be a primary and obligatory regulator of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the permeabilized 1321N1 astrocytoma cell

  2. Overexpression of GEFT, a Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor, predicts poor prognosis in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Shugang; Li, Hongan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Yuwen; Li, Bingcheng; Cui, Xiaobin; Chen, Yunzhao; Zhang, Wenjie; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas in children and adolescents with poor prognosis. Yet, there is lack of effective prognostic biomarkers for RMS. The present study, therefore, aimed to explore potential biomarkers for RMS based on our previous findings using array comparative genomic hybridization. We investigated guanine nucleotide exchange factor, GEFT, at expression level in 45 RMS patients and 36 normal striated muscle controls using immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. The expression rate of GEFT in RMS samples (42/45, 93.33%) was significantly higher (Prate of GEFT in RMS (31/45, 68.89%) was also significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in normal controls (0/36, 0.00%). Increased expression of GEFT correlated significantly with advanced disease stages (stages III/IV) (P=0.001), lymph node metastasis (P=0.019), and distant metastasis (P=0.004), respectively, in RMS patients. In addition, RMS patients having overexpressed GEFT experienced worse overall survival (OS) than those having low levels of GEFT (P=0.001). GEFT overexpression was determined to be an independent prognostic factor for poor OS in RMS patients (hazard ratio: 3.491, 95% confidence interval: 1.121-10.871, P=0.004). In conclusion, these observations provide the first evidence of GEFT overexpression in RMS and its correlations with disease aggressiveness and metastasis. These findings suggest that GEFT may serve as a promising biomarker predicting poor prognosis in RMS patients, thus implying its potential as a therapeutic target.

  3. Mutation analysis of inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci in young and familial pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hande; Donner, Iikki; Kivipelto, Leena; Kuismin, Outi; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; De Menis, Ernesto; Karhu, Auli

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are neoplasms of the anterior pituitary lobe and account for 15-20% of all intracranial tumors. Although most pituitary tumors are benign they can cause severe symptoms related to tumor size as well as hypopituitarism and/or hypersecretion of one or more pituitary hormones. Most pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but it has been estimated that 5% of patients have a familial background. Germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) predispose to hereditary pituitary neoplasia. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AIP mutations predispose to pituitary tumorigenesis through defective inhibitory GTP binding protein (Gαi) signaling. This finding prompted us to examine whether germline loss-of-function mutations in inhibitory guanine nucleotide (GTP) binding protein alpha (GNAI) loci are involved in genetic predisposition of pituitary tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first time GNAI genes are sequenced in order to examine the occurrence of inactivating germline mutations. Thus far, only somatic gain-of-function hot-spot mutations have been studied in these loci. Here, we have analyzed the coding regions of GNAI1, GNAI2, and GNAI3 in a set of young sporadic somatotropinoma patients (n = 32; mean age of diagnosis 32 years) and familial index cases (n = 14), thus in patients with a disease phenotype similar to that observed in AIP mutation carriers. In addition, expression of Gαi proteins was studied in human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting and non-functional pituitary tumors. No pathogenic germline mutations affecting the Gαi proteins were detected. The result suggests that loss-of-function mutations of GNAI loci are rare or nonexistent in familial pituitary adenomas.

  4. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1, a new Annexin A7 interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yue; Meng, Jinyi; Huang, Yuhong; Wu, Jun; Wang, Bo; Ibrahim, Mohammed M.; Tang, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • RACK1 formed a complex with Annexin A7. • Depletion of RACK1 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion. • RACK1 RNAi abolished RACK1-Annexin A7 interaction. • RACK1-Annexin A7 may play a role in regulating the metastatic potentials. - Abstract: We report for the first time that Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-2-like 1 (RACK1) formed a complex with Annexin A7. Hca-F and Hca-P are a pair of syngeneic mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines established and maintained in our laboratory. Our previous study showed that both Annexin A7 and RACK1 were expressed higher in Hca-F (lymph node metastasis >70%) than Hca-P (lymph node metastasis <30%). Suppression of Annexin A7 expression in Hca-F cells induced decreased migration and invasion ability. In this study, knockdown of RACK1 by RNA interference (RNAi) had the same impact on metastasis potential of Hca-F cells as Annexin A7 down-regulation. Furthermore, by co-immunoprecipitation and double immunofluorescence confocal imaging, we found that RACK1 was in complex with Annexin A7 in control cells, but not in the RACK1-down-regulated cells, indicating the abolishment of RACK1-Annexin A7 interaction in Hca-F cells by RACK1 RNAi. Taken together, these results suggest that RACK1-Annexin A7 interaction may be one of the means by which RACK1 and Annexin A7 influence the metastasis potential of mouse hepatocarcinoma cells in vitro

  5. Synthesis and E.I.M.S. fragmentation analysis of [1,3-{sup 15} N{sub 2}] xanthine and [1,3-{sup 15} N{sub 2}] caffeine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenani, A. [Tunis Univ. (Tunisia). Faculte de Medecine; Bernier, J.-L. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique Physique (France); Henichart, J.-P. [UCB-Pharma (Belgium)

    1995-02-01

    HPLC and mass spectrometry can be used to isolate and identify all metabolites of caffeine in plasma of patients. The synthesis of [1,3-{sup 15}N{sub 2}] xanthine and [1,3-{sup 15}N{sub 2}] caffeine are of interest in the elucidation of mass spectrometry fragmentation pathways and unambiguous determination of metabolites, especially uric acid which exists as a natural constituent of human plasma. (Author).

  6. Quantitative and molecular analyses of mutation in a pSV2gpt transformed CHO cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankowski, L.F. Jr.; Tindall, K.R.; Hsie, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    Following NDA-mediated gene transfer we have isolated a cell line useful for studying gene mutation at the molecular level. This line, AS52, derived from a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, carries a single copy of the E. coli xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (XGPRT) gene (gpt) and exhibits a spontaneous mutant frequency of 20 TG/sup r/ mutants/10 6 clonable cells. As with HGPRT - mutants, XGPRT - mutants can be selected in 6-thioguanine. AS52 (XGPRT + ) and wild type CHO (HGPRT + ) cell exhibit almost identical cytotoxic responses to various agents. We observed significant differences in mutation induction by UV light and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Ratios of XGPRT - to HGPRT - mutants induced per unit dose (J/m 2 for UV light and μg/ml for EMS) are 1.4 and 0.70, respectively. Preliminary Southern blot hybridization analyses has been performed on 30 XGPRT - AS52 mutants. A majority of spontaneous mutants have deletions ranging in size from 1 to 4 kilobases (9/19) to complete loss of gpt sequences (4/19); the remainder have no detectable (5/19) or only minor (1/19) alterations. 5/5 UV-induced and 5/6 EMS-induced mutants do not show a detectable change. Similar analyses are underway for mutations induced by x-irradiation and ICR 191 treatment

  7. Mild Lesch-Nyhan Disease in a Boy with a Null Mutation inHPRT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, Allan; Christensen, Mette; Wibrand, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency results in a continuous spectrum of clinical phenotypes though all include overproduction of uric acid with hyperuricaemia, urate nephrolithiasis and gout. HPRT1 mutations that result in very low or no HPRT enzyme activities...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potier MC, Dauphinot L, Shirley TL, Torero-Ibad R, Fuchs J, Jinnah HA. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase regulates early developmental programming of dopamine neurons: implications for Lesch-Nyhan disease ...

  9. Regulation of formyl peptide receptor binding to rabbit neutrophil plasma membranes. Use of monovalent cations, guanine nucleotides, and bacterial toxins to discriminate among different states of the receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltner, D.E.; Marasco, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation by monovalent cations, guanine nucleotides, and bacterial toxins of [3H]FMLP binding to rabbit neutrophil plasma membranes was studied by using dissociation techniques to identify regulatory effects on separate receptor states. Under conditions of low receptor occupancy (1 nM [3H]FMLP) and in both Na+ and K+ buffers, dissociation is heterogenous, displaying two distinct, statistically significant off rates. [3H]FMLP binding was enhanced by substituting other monovalent cations for Na+. In particular, enhanced binding in the presence of K+ relative to Na+ was caused by additional binding to both rapidly and slowly dissociating receptors. Three receptor dissociation rates, two of which appear to correspond to the two affinity states detected in equilibrium binding studies, were defined by specific GTP and pertussis toxin (PT) treatments. Neither GTP, nor PT or cholera toxins (CT) had an effect on the rate of dissociation of [3H]FMLP from the rapidly dissociating form of the receptor. Both 100 microM GTP and PT treatments increased the percentage of rapidly dissociating receptors, correspondingly decreasing the percentage of slowly dissociating receptors. The observed changes in the rapidly and slowly dissociating receptors after GTP, PT, and CT treatments were caused by an absolute decrease in the amount of binding to the slowly dissociating receptors. However, complete inhibition of slowly dissociating receptor binding by GTP, PT, or both was never observed. Both GTP and PT treatments, but not CT treatment, increased by two-fold the rate of dissociation of 1 nM [3H]FMLP from the slowly dissociating form of the receptor, resulting in a third dissociation rate. Thus, slowly dissociating receptors comprise two different receptor states, a G protein-associated guanine nucleotide and PT-sensitive state and a guanine nucleotide-insensitive state

  10. Investigation of specificity determinants in bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase reveals queuine, the substrate of its eucaryotic counterpart, as inhibitor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Biela

    Full Text Available Bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (Tgt catalyses the exchange of the genetically encoded guanine at the wobble position of tRNAs(His,Tyr,Asp,Asn by the premodified base preQ1, which is further converted to queuine at the tRNA level. As eucaryotes are not able to synthesise queuine de novo but acquire it through their diet, eucaryotic Tgt directly inserts the hypermodified base into the wobble position of the tRNAs mentioned above. Bacterial Tgt is required for the efficient pathogenicity of Shigella sp, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery and, hence, it constitutes a putative target for the rational design of anti-Shigellosis compounds. Since mammalian Tgt is known to be indirectly essential to the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine, it is necessary to create substances which only inhibit bacterial but not eucaryotic Tgt. Therefore, it seems of utmost importance to study selectivity-determining features within both types of proteins. Homology models of Caenorhabditis elegans Tgt and human Tgt suggest that the replacement of Cys158 and Val233 in bacterial Tgt (Zymomonas mobilis Tgt numbering by valine and accordingly glycine in eucaryotic Tgt largely accounts for the different substrate specificities. In the present study we have created mutated variants of Z. mobilis Tgt in order to investigate the impact of a Cys158Val and a Val233Gly exchange on catalytic activity and substrate specificity. Using enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography, we gained evidence that the Cys158Val mutation reduces the affinity to preQ1 while leaving the affinity to guanine unaffected. The Val233Gly exchange leads to an enlarged substrate binding pocket, that is necessary to accommodate queuine in a conformation compatible with the intermediately covalently bound tRNA molecule. Contrary to our expectations, we found that a priori queuine is recognised by the binding pocket of bacterial Tgt without, however, being used as a substrate.

  11. Selective fishing and analysis of xanthine oxidase binders from two Fabaceae species by coupling enzyme functionalized core-shell magnetic nanoparticles with HPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangliang; Shi, Shuyun; Zhao, Huading; Yu, Jingang; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-15

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) immobilized core-shell magnetic silica (Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD) nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was developed to fish out and analyze XOD binders from two Fabaceae species, Puerariae lobata flower and Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. The prepared Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD nanoparticles exhibited good specificity for XOD binders, better dispersion in aqueous solution and reusability than those of Fe3O4-XOD nanoparticles. The amount of XOD immobilized onto Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles was 339.9μg/mg and the activity of Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD nanoparticles remained 95% after ten times usage. The optimum conditions of selective fishing were optimized, and finally incubating pH was set at 7, incubating temperature at 25°C and adsorption time at 30min. Twelve XOD binders were successfully identified from ethyl acetate extract of P. lobata flower and G. uralensis root. The developed method provides a rapid, purposeful and effective way to identify active compounds from natural complex mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. IN VITRO INHIBITION OF CELERY (Apium graveolens L. EXTRACT ON THE ACTIVITY OF XANTHINE OXIDASE AND DETERMINATION OF ITS ACTIVE COMPOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Iswantini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the inhibition effect of celery extracts toward xanthine oxidase by in vitro method, and its active compounds. Roots and herb of celery were extracted using water and ethanol solvents. Results indicated that the herbal ethanol extract had the highest inhibition effect (91.40% at 1400 ppm. The components contained in the herbal ethanol extract were then separated by column chromatography using the best eluent (chloroform : ethyl acetate at 7:3. All of the fractions had inhibition effect greater than 50%. The fraction number 4 was the one with the highest inhibition effect followed by fraction 5 with inhibition percentage of both fractions at 200 ppm were 88.62 and 85.44%, respectively. The analysis of the ultraviolet spectrum of fraction 4 showed the presence of π-π* transition which was resulted by the aromatic C=C, -OH, and C-O chromophores, and also showing the n-σ* transition which was given by -C=O chromophore. The infrared spectrum analysis indicated the presence of aromatic -C=C, -OH, and C=O functional groups. Based on the phytochemical assay and both instrumental spectrums, it was thought that the active compounds of fraction 4 and 5 were in the flavonoid group.

  13. Xanthine Oxidase Activity Is Associated with Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease and Inflammatory and Oxidative Status Markers in Metabolic Syndrome: Effects of a Single Exercise Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status. Materials/Methods. A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session. Results. Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group. Conclusions. Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Caffeine affects the biological responses of human hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage via downregulation of the mTOR pathway and xanthine oxidase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abooali, Maryam; Yasinska, Inna M.; Casely-Hayford, Maxwell A.; Berger, Steffen M.; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Sumbayev, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Correction of human myeloid cell function is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory and allergic reactions as well as leukaemia progression. Caffeine, a naturally occurring food component, is known to display anti-inflammatory effects which have previously been ascribed largely to its inhibitory actions on phosphodiesterase. However, more recent studies suggest an additional role in affecting the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of myeloid cell translational pathways, although detailed molecular events underlying its mode of action have not been elucidated. Here, we report the cellular uptake of caffeine, without metabolisation, by healthy and malignant hematopoietic myeloid cells including monocytes, basophils and primary acute myeloid leukaemia mononuclear blasts. Unmodified caffeine downregulated mTOR signalling, which affected glycolysis and the release of pro-inflammatory/pro-angiogenic cytokines as well as other inflammatory mediators. In monocytes, the effects of caffeine were potentiated by its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which plays a central role in human purine catabolism by generating uric acid. In basophils, caffeine also increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels which further enhanced its inhibitory action on mTOR. These results demonstrate an important mode of pharmacological action of caffeine with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic impact for treating non-infectious disorders of the human immune system, where it could be applied directly to inflammatory cells. PMID:26384306

  15. Identification of the free phenolic profile of Adlay bran by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and inhibitory mechanisms of phenolic acids against xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianzhu; Yang, Qingyun; Zhao, Kun; Zhao, Mouming

    2018-07-01

    Adlay bran free phenolic extract has been previously demonstrated to possess potent xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity. The aims of this study were to characterize the free phenolic profile of adlay bran and investigate the structure-activity relationship, underlying mechanism and interaction of phenolic acids as XOD inhibitors. A total of twenty phenolics including ten phenolic acids, two coumarins, two phenolic aldedhyes and six flavonoids were identified in a phenolic compound-guided separation by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Adlay bran free phenolic extract possessed strong XOD inhibitory activity related to hydroxycinnamic acids with methoxyl groups. The hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were the main forces in the binding of adlay phenolics to XOD. Sinapic acid, identified in adlay bran for the first time, possessed strong XOD inhibitory activity in a mixed non-competitive manner, and synergistic effects with other adlay phenolic acids at low concentrations, and would be a promising agent for preventing and treating hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Xanthine oxidase activity is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and inflammatory and oxidative status markers in metabolic syndrome: effects of a single exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status. A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers) was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session. Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group. Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Inhibits LPS-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via Binding to Xanthine Oxidase in Mouse RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA is an effective therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases and autoimmune disorders; however, its regulatory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages has not been investigated. In this study, we predicted the potential interaction between HSYA and xanthine oxidase (XO via PharmMapper inverse docking and confirmed the binding inhibition via inhibitory test (IC50 = 40.04 μM. Computation docking illustrated that, in this HSYA-XO complex, HSYA was surrounded by Leu 648, Leu 712, His 875, Leu 873, Ser 876, Glu 879, Phe 649, and Asn 650 with a binding energy of −5.77 kcal/M and formed hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl groups of HSYA at Glu 879, Asn 650, and His 875. We then found that HSYA significantly decreased the activity of XO in RAW264.7 macrophages and suppressed LPS-induced ROS generation. Moreover, we proved that HSYA markedly inhibited LPS-induced cleaved caspase-1 activation via suppressing the sensitization of NLRP3 inflammasome and prevented the mature IL-1β formation from pro-IL-1β form. These findings suggest that XO may be a potential target of HSYA via direct binding inhibition and the combination of HSYA-XO suppresses LPS-induced ROS generation, contributing to the depression of NLRP3 inflammasome and inhibition of IL-1β secretion in macrophages.

  18. The effect of S-substitution at the O6-guanine site on the structure and dynamics of a DNA oligomer containing a G:T mismatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ann Moore

    Full Text Available The effect of S-substitution on the O6 guanine site of a 13-mer DNA duplex containing a G:T mismatch is studied using molecular dynamics. The structure, dynamic evolution and hydration of the S-substituted duplex are compared with those of a normal duplex, a duplex with S-substitution on guanine, but no mismatch and a duplex with just a G:T mismatch. The S-substituted mismatch leads to cell death rather than repair. One suggestion is that the G:T mismatch recognition protein recognises the S-substituted mismatch (GS:T as G:T. This leads to a cycle of futile repair ending in DNA breakage and cell death. We find that some structural features of the helix are similar for the duplex with the G:T mismatch and that with the S-substituted mismatch, but differ from the normal duplex, notably the helical twist. These differences arise from the change in the hydrogen-bonding pattern of the base pair. However a marked feature of the S-substituted G:T mismatch duplex is a very large opening. This showed considerable variability. It is suggested that this enlarged opening would lend support to an alternative model of cell death in which the mismatch protein attaches to thioguanine and activates downstream damage-response pathways. Attack on the sulphur by reactive oxygen species, also leading to cell death, would also be aided by the large, variable opening.

  19. Decrease in Survival Rate of Colorectal Cancer Patients Due to Insertion of a Single Guanine Base in Promoter Sequences of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Gene (in Tehran Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Hojati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Insertion or deletion of a guanine in -1607 at promoter region of matrix metalloproteinase-1 enzyme creates two allelic types for this gene in the population: 2G and 1G, respectively. 2G allele contains an extra binding site for ETS transcription factors that this may increase the level of gene expression. Therefore, aim of this study was investigation of the single Guanine insertion in the promoter gene and its association with colorectal cancer patient survival rate and tumor progression. Methods: Blood samples from 150 colorectal patients and 100 cases were extracted. The mean follow-up was 25 months (12-36 months. Cases and patients were genotyped using genomic DNA extraction and PCR-RFLP. Results: Colorectal cancer patients were divided in two groups; with activity of metastasis (M+ and without activity of metastasis (M-. 2G allele in metastasis group (55% showed more frequency rather than controls (23%. Survival analyses showed that 3 years survival patients rate in the patients without metastasis activity carrying 1G allele (homo and heterozygote was 81% and for 2G homozygote is 66% (p=0.04. The survival rate dependent to cancer was 90% and 71%, respectively (P=0.01. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that patients carrying 1G allele show a better survival rate dependent on cancer as compared to patients who do not carry this allele.

  20. Causes and consequences of plant radio-resistance. Formation of DNA basis lesions and self-repairing activity of one of them, the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dany, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author first explains how and why DNA is injured when it is submitted to an oxidizing stress, and describes precisely the formation and the biological consequences of lesions of DNA bases, the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine (8-oxoGua). She describes the repairing activities of the oxidized DNA, and more particularly the repairing of 8-oxoGua, in prokaryotes as well as in yeast, mammals and plants. Methodologies used are described, together with the repair activities of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-guanine following a biochemical type approach and a molecular biology approach

  1. Testicular Sperm Count and Oxidative Stress Profile in gamma-Irradiated Rats and Response to Treatment with Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor ''Allopurinol''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Zahran, A.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Allopurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (X O) enzyme and could be useful radiomodifer. X O is present in almost all tissues of mammals. It is considered being one of the major sources of free radicals in the biological systems. The testis is known to be one of the most radiosensitive organs in mammals. Thus, protection for reproductive potential and heredity in the germ cells of these mammals against radiation damage is recommended. Role of allopurinol in ameliorating radiation damage on sperm count and oxidative response in testis of irradiated rats. Male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=12). Group (I) served as controls. Group (II) received i.p., technical allopurinol (30 mg/kg body wt/day suspended in 0.5 ml of sterilized saline for 22 successive days). Group (III) submitted to whole body gamma-radiation as fractionated doses at 1 Gy installment till 8 Gy on 1st, 4th, 7th, 10th, 13th, 16th, 19th and 22nd days of treatment. Group (VI) administrated i.p., technical allopurinol, during which animals were exposed to gamma-irradiation protocol. Experimental observations were performed on the 1st and 15th days after last irradiation fraction or end of treatment. Irradiation resulted in decreases in the levels of total proteins, GSH, NO, DNA and RNA and activities of SOD and Catalase (CAT) in the testicular homogenate. On the contrary, irradiation produced increases in levels of LPX (TBARS) and H 2 O 2 and activities of X O and LDH

  2. Utilization of quercetin and quercetin glycosides from onion (Allium cepa L.) solid waste as an antioxidant, urease and xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Nile, Arti Shivraj; Keum, Young Soo; Sharma, Kavita

    2017-11-15

    This study aimed to determine the flavonol glycosides from onion solid waste (OSW) using HPLC analysis, with antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. We found considerable amount of quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside (QMG: 254.85), quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside (QDG: 162.34), quercetin (Q: 60.44), and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside (IMG: 23.92) (mg/100g) dry weight (DW) of OSW. For OSW, the methanol and ethanol showed the strongest antioxidant activities, followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts. Among the flavonols, Q and QDG possessed higher antioxidant activities. OSW and flavonol glycosides displayed significant enzyme inhibitory activity, with IC 50 values ranging from 12.5±0.11 to 32.5±0.28 for OSW, 8.2±0.07 to 16.8±0.02 for flavonol glycosides, and 4.2±0.05μg/mL for thiourea (positive control) towards urease; while 15.2±0.8 to 35.8±0.2 (μg/mL) for OSW, 10.5±0.06 to 20.8±0.05 (μg/mL) for flavonol glycosides, and 6.5±0.05μg/mL for allopurinol (positive control) towards xanthine oxidase, respectively. The OSW and flavonol glycosides may thus be considered as potential antioxidant and antigout agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of a xanthine permease and phosphate transporter in cultures and field populations of the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens: tracking nutritional deficiency during brown tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurch, Louie L; Gobler, Christopher J; Dyhrman, Sonya T

    2014-08-01

    Targeted gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was employed to track patterns in the expression of genes indicative of nitrogen or phosphorus deficiency in the brown tide-forming alga Aureococcus anophagefferens. During culture experiments, a xanthine/uracil/vitamin C permease (XUV) was upregulated ∼20-fold under nitrogen-deficient conditions relative to a nitrogen-replete control and rapidly returned to nitrogen-replete levels after nitrogen-deficient cells were resupplied with nitrate or ammonium. It was not responsive to phosphorus deficiency. Expression of an inorganic phosphate transporter (PTA3) was enriched ∼10-fold under phosphorus-deficient conditions relative to a phosphorus-replete control, and this signal was rapidly lost upon phosphate resupply. PTA3 was not upregulated by nitrogen deficiency. Natural A. anophagefferens populations from a dense brown tide that occurred in Long Island, NY, in 2009 were assayed for XUV and PTA3 expression and compared with nutrient concentrations over the peak of a bloom. Patterns in XUV expression were consistent with nitrogen-replete growth, never reaching the values observed in N-deficient cultures. PTA3 expression was highest prior to peak bloom stages, reaching expression levels within the range of P-deficient cultures. These data highlight the value of molecular-level assessments of nutrient deficiency and suggest that phosphorus deficiency could play a role in the dynamics of destructive A. anophagefferens blooms. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Alterations of nitric-oxide synthase and xanthine-oxidase activities of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet-B radiation -potential role for peroxynitrite in skin inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deliconstantinos, G.; Villiotou, V.; Stavrides, J.C. [Athens Univ. (Greece). School of Medicine

    1996-06-28

    In the present study, we demonstrated that NO synthase (cNOS) and xanthine oxidase (XO) of human keratinocytes can be activated to release NO, superoxide (O-2(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) following exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We defined that this photo induced response may be involved in the pathogenesis of sunburn erythema and inflammation. Treatment of human keratinocytes with UVB (290-320 nm) radiation (up to 200 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO and ONOO-release that was inhibited by N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). NO and ONOO- release from keratinocytes was accompanied by an increase in intracellular cGMP levels. Treatment of human keratinocyte cytosol with various doses of UVB (up to 100 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in an increase in XO activity that was inhibited by oxypurinol. In in vivo experiments, when experimental animals were subjected to UVB radiation, a protection factor (PF) of 6.5 {+-} 1.8 was calculated when an emulsified cream formulation containing nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) (2%) and L-NMMA (2%) was applied to their skin. The present study indicates that UVB radiation acts as a potent stimulator of cNOS and XO activities in human keratinocytes. NO and ONOO- may exert cytotoxic effects in keratinocytes themselves, as well as in their neighbouring endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This may be a major part of the integrated response leading to erythema production and the inflammation process. (UK).

  5. Alterations of nitric-oxide synthase and xanthine-oxidase activities of human keratinocytes by ultraviolet-B radiation -potential role for peroxynitrite in skin inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliconstantinos, G.; Villiotou, V.; Stavrides, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated that NO synthase (cNOS) and xanthine oxidase (XO) of human keratinocytes can be activated to release NO, superoxide (O-2(-)) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) following exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. We defined that this photo induced response may be involved in the pathogenesis of sunburn erythema and inflammation. Treatment of human keratinocytes with UVB (290-320 nm) radiation (up to 200 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in NO and ONOO-release that was inhibited by N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). NO and ONOO- release from keratinocytes was accompanied by an increase in intracellular cGMP levels. Treatment of human keratinocyte cytosol with various doses of UVB (up to 100 mJ/cm(2)) resulted in an increase in XO activity that was inhibited by oxypurinol. In in vivo experiments, when experimental animals were subjected to UVB radiation, a protection factor (PF) of 6.5 ± 1.8 was calculated when an emulsified cream formulation containing nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) (2%) and L-NMMA (2%) was applied to their skin. The present study indicates that UVB radiation acts as a potent stimulator of cNOS and XO activities in human keratinocytes. NO and ONOO- may exert cytotoxic effects in keratinocytes themselves, as well as in their neighbouring endothelial and smooth muscle cells. This may be a major part of the integrated response leading to erythema production and the inflammation process. (UK)

  6. Identification of the Structural Features of Guanine Derivatives as MGMT Inhibitors Using 3D-QSAR Modeling Combined with Molecular Docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui Sun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT, which plays an important role in inducing drug resistance against alkylating agents that modify the O6 position of guanine in DNA, is an attractive target for anti-tumor chemotherapy. A series of MGMT inhibitors have been synthesized over the past decades to improve the chemotherapeutic effects of O6-alkylating agents. In the present study, we performed a three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D-QSAR study on 97 guanine derivatives as MGMT inhibitors using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA methods. Three different alignment methods (ligand-based, DFT optimization-based and docking-based alignment were employed to develop reliable 3D-QSAR models. Statistical parameters derived from the models using the above three alignment methods showed that the ligand-based CoMFA (Qcv2 = 0.672 and Rncv2 = 0.997 and CoMSIA (Qcv2 = 0.703 and Rncv2 = 0.946 models were better than the other two alignment methods-based CoMFA and CoMSIA models. The two ligand-based models were further confirmed by an external test-set validation and a Y-randomization examination. The ligand-based CoMFA model (Qext2 = 0.691, Rpred2 = 0.738 and slope k = 0.91 was observed with acceptable external test-set validation values rather than the CoMSIA model (Qext2 = 0.307, Rpred2 = 0.4 and slope k = 0.719. Docking studies were carried out to predict the binding modes of the inhibitors with MGMT. The results indicated that the obtained binding interactions were consistent with the 3D contour maps. Overall, the combined results of the 3D-QSAR and the docking obtained in this study provide an insight into the understanding of the interactions between guanine derivatives and MGMT protein, which will assist in designing novel MGMT inhibitors with desired activity.

  7. From lin-Benzoguanines to lin-Benzohypoxanthines as Ligands for Zymomonas mobilis tRNA-Guanine Transglycosylase: Replacement of Protein-Ligand Hydrogen Bonding by Importing Water Clusters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barandun, L.J.; Immekus, F.; Kohler, P.C.; Tonazzi, S.; Wagner, B.; Wendelspiess, S.; Ritschel, T.; Heine, A.; Kansy, M.; Klebe, G.; Diederich, F.

    2012-01-01

    The foodborne illness shigellosis is caused by Shigella bacteria that secrete the highly cytotoxic Shiga toxin, which is also formed by the closely related enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). It has been shown that tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is essential for the pathogenicity of

  8. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX leads to activation of the Rac 1 GTPase/glycogen phosphorylase pathway in interleukin (IL)-2-stimulated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llavero, Francisco; Urzelai, Bakarne; Osinalde, Nerea

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have reported that the active form of Rac 1 GTPase binds to the glycogen phosphorylase muscle isoform (PYGM) and modulates its enzymatic activity leading to T cell proliferation. In the lymphoid system, Rac 1 and in general other small GTPases of the Rho family participate...... in the signaling cascades that are activated after engagement of the T cell antigen receptor. However, little is known about the IL-2-dependent Rac 1 activator molecules. For the first time, a signaling pathway leading to the activation of Rac 1/PYGM in response to IL-2-stimulated T cell proliferation is described....... More specifically, αPIX, a known guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the small GTPases of the Rho family, preferentially Rac 1, mediates PYGM activation in Kit 225 T cells stimulated with IL-2. Using directed mutagenesis, phosphorylation of αPIX Rho-GEF serines 225 and 488 is required for activation...

  9. Relative Stability of the La and Lb Excited States in Adenine and Guanine: Direct Evidence from TD-DFT Calculations of MCD Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Fabrizio; Improta, Roberto; Fahleson, Tobias; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-06-05

    The relative position of La and Lb ππ* electronic states in purine nucleobases is a much debated topic, since it can strongly affect our understanding of their photoexcited dynamics. To assess this point, we calculated the absorption and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectra of adenine, guanine, and their nucleosides in gas-phase and aqueous solution, exploiting recent developments in MCD computational technology within time-dependent density functional theory. MCD spectroscopy allows us to resolve the intense S0→ La transition from the weak S0→ Lb transition. The spectra obtained in water solution, by using B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP functionals and describing solvent effect by cluster models and by the polarizable continuum model (PCM), are in very good agreement with the experimental counterparts, thus providing direct and unambiguous evidence that the energy ordering predicted by TD-DFT, La < Lb, is the correct one.

  10. Protein Kinase A (PKA) Type I Interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor: EFFECT ON PKA LOCALIZATION AND P-Rex1 SIGNALING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Vargas, Lydia; Adame-García, Sendi Rafael; Cervantes-Villagrana, Rodolfo Daniel; Castillo-Kauil, Alejandro; Bruystens, Jessica G H; Fukuhara, Shigetomo; Taylor, Susan S; Mochizuki, Naoki; Reyes-Cruz, Guadalupe; Vázquez-Prado, José

    2016-03-18

    Morphology of migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases and fine-tuned by protein interactions and phosphorylation. PKA affects cell migration potentially through spatiotemporal interactions with regulators of Rho GTPases. Here we show that the endogenous regulatory (R) subunit of type I PKA interacts with P-Rex1, a Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor that integrates chemotactic signals. Type I PKA holoenzyme interacts with P-Rex1 PDZ domains via the CNB B domain of RIα, which when expressed by itself facilitates endothelial cell migration. P-Rex1 activation localizes PKA to the cell periphery, whereas stimulation of PKA phosphorylates P-Rex1 and prevents its activation in cells responding to SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1). The P-Rex1 DEP1 domain is phosphorylated at Ser-436, which inhibits the DH-PH catalytic cassette by direct interaction. In addition, the P-Rex1 C terminus is indirectly targeted by PKA, promoting inhibitory interactions independently of the DEP1-PDZ2 region. A P-Rex1 S436A mutant construct shows increased RacGEF activity and prevents the inhibitory effect of forskolin on sphingosine 1-phosphate-dependent endothelial cell migration. Altogether, these results support the idea that P-Rex1 contributes to the spatiotemporal localization of type I PKA, which tightly regulates this guanine exchange factor by a multistep mechanism, initiated by interaction with the PDZ domains of P-Rex1 followed by direct phosphorylation at the first DEP domain and putatively indirect regulation of the C terminus, thus promoting inhibitory intramolecular interactions. This reciprocal regulation between PKA and P-Rex1 might represent a key node of integration by which chemotactic signaling is fine-tuned by PKA. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. BIG1, a brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein regulates neurite development via PI3K-AKT and ERK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Li, C; Li, D; Wang, Y; Shao, W; You, Y; Peng, J; Zhang, X; Lu, L; Shen, X

    2013-12-19

    The elongation of neuron is highly dependent on membrane trafficking. Brefeldin A (BFA)-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 (BIG1) functions in the membrane trafficking between the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. BFA, an uncompetitive inhibitor of BIG1 can inhibit neurite outgrowth and polarity development. In this study, we aimed to define the possible role of BIG1 in neurite development and to further investigate the potential mechanism. By immunostaining, we found that BIG1 was extensively colocalized with synaptophysin, a marker for synaptic vesicles in soma and partly in neurites. The amount of both protein and mRNA of BIG1 were up-regulated during rat brain development. BIG1 depletion significantly decreased the neurite length and inhibited the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT). Inhibition of BIG1 guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) activity by BFA or overexpression of the dominant-negative BIG1 reduced PI3K and AKT phosphorylation, indicating regulatory effects of BIG1 on PI3K-AKT signaling pathway is dependent on its GEF activity. BIG1 siRNA or BFA treatment also significantly reduced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Overexpression of wild-type BIG1 significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, but the dominant-negative BIG1 had no effect on ERK phosphorylation, indicating the involvement of BIG1 in ERK signaling regulation may not be dependent on its GEF activity. Our result identified a novel function of BIG1 in neurite development. The newly recognized function integrates the function of BIG1 in membrane trafficking with the activation of PI3K-AKT and ERK signaling pathways which are critical in neurite development. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Guanine nucleotide-dependent, pertussis toxin-insensitive, stimulation of inositol phosphate formation by carbachol in a membrane preparation from astrocytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepler, J.R.; Harden, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    Formation of the inositol phosphates (InsP), InsP 3 , InsP 2 , and InsP 1 was increased in a concentration dependent manner (K/sub 0.5/ ∼ 5 μM) by GTPΣS in washed membranes prepared from 3 H-inositol-prelabelled 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells. Both GTPγS and GppNHp stimulated InsP formation by 2-3 fold over control; GTP and GDP were much less efficacious and GMP had no effect. Although the muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonist carbachol had no effect in the absence of guanine nucleotide, in the presence of 10 μM GTPγS, carbachol stimulated (K/sub 0.5/ ∼ 10 μ M) the formation of InsP above the level achieved with GTPγS alone. The effect of carbachol was completely blocked by atropine. The order of potency for a series of nucleotides for stimulation of InsP formation in the presence of 500 μM carbachol was GTPγS > GppNHp > GTP = GDP. Pertussis toxin, at concentrations that fully ADP-ribosylate and functionally inactivate G/sub i/, had no effect on InsP formation in the presence of GTPγS or GTPγS plus carbachol. Histamine and bradykinin also stimulated InsP formation in the presence of GTPγS in washed membranes from 1321N1 cells. These data are consistent with the idea that a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein that is not G/sub i/ is involved in receptor-mediated stimulation of InsP formation in 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells

  13. A simplified one-pot synthesis of 9-[(3-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine([{sup 18}F]FHPG) and 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG) for gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiue, Grace G.; Shiue, Chyng-Yann E-mail: Shiue@rad.upenn.edu; Lee, Roland L.; MacDonald, Douglas; Hustinx, Roland; Eck, Stephen L.; Alavi, Abass A

    2001-10-01

    9-[(3-[{sup 18}F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N{sup 2}-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-{l_brace}[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3 -toluenesulfonyloxy-2-propoxy]methyl{r_brace}guanine (1) with potassium [{sup 18}F]fluoride/Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by deprotection with 1 N HCl and purification with different methods in variable yields. When both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 90 deg. C and the product was purified by HPLC (method A), the yield of compound 2 was 5-10% and the synthesis time was 90 min from EOB. However, if both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 120 deg. C and the product was purified by HPLC, the yield of compound 2 decreased to 2%. When compound 2 was synthesized at 90 deg. C and purified by Silica Sep-Pak (method B), the yield increased to 10-15% and the synthesis time was 60 min from EOB. Similarly, 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG, 4) was synthesized with method A and method B in 9% and 10-15% yield, respectively, in a synthesis time of 90 and 60 min, respectively, from EOB. Compound 2 was relatively unstable in acidic medium at 120 deg. C while compound 4 was stable under the same condition. Both compound 2 and compound 4 had low lipid/water partition coefficient (0.126{+-}0.022, n=5 and 0.165{+-}0.023, n=5, respectively). Although it contains non-radioactive ganciclovir ({approx}5-30 {mu}g) as a chemical by-product, compound 2 synthesized by method B has a similar uptake in 9L glioma cells as that synthesized by method A, and is a potential tracer for imaging herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression in tumors using PET. Similarly, compound 4 synthesized by method B contains {approx}10-25 {mu}g of penciclovir as a chemical by-product. Thus, the simplified one pot synthesis (method B) is a useful method for synthesizing both compound 2 and compound 4 in

  14. A simplified one-pot synthesis of 9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine([18F]FHPG) and 9-(4-[18F]Fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG) for gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiue, Grace G.; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Lee, Roland L.; MacDonald, Douglas; Hustinx, Roland; Eck, Stephen L.; Alavi, Abass A.

    2001-01-01

    9-[(3-[ 18 F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([ 18 F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N 2 -(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-{[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3 -toluenesulfonyloxy-2-propoxy]methyl}guanine (1) with potassium [ 18 F]fluoride/Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by deprotection with 1 N HCl and purification with different methods in variable yields. When both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 90 deg. C and the product was purified by HPLC (method A), the yield of compound 2 was 5-10% and the synthesis time was 90 min from EOB. However, if both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 120 deg. C and the product was purified by HPLC, the yield of compound 2 decreased to 2%. When compound 2 was synthesized at 90 deg. C and purified by Silica Sep-Pak (method B), the yield increased to 10-15% and the synthesis time was 60 min from EOB. Similarly, 9-(4-[ 18 F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([ 18 F]FHBG, 4) was synthesized with method A and method B in 9% and 10-15% yield, respectively, in a synthesis time of 90 and 60 min, respectively, from EOB. Compound 2 was relatively unstable in acidic medium at 120 deg. C while compound 4 was stable under the same condition. Both compound 2 and compound 4 had low lipid/water partition coefficient (0.126±0.022, n=5 and 0.165±0.023, n=5, respectively). Although it contains non-radioactive ganciclovir (∼5-30 μg) as a chemical by-product, compound 2 synthesized by method B has a similar uptake in 9L glioma cells as that synthesized by method A, and is a potential tracer for imaging herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression in tumors using PET. Similarly, compound 4 synthesized by method B contains ∼10-25 μg of penciclovir as a chemical by-product. Thus, the simplified one pot synthesis (method B) is a useful method for synthesizing both compound 2 and compound 4 in good yield for routine clinical use, and the method is

  15. Promising effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol on autonomic heart regulation estimated by heart rate variability (HRV analysis in rats exposed to hypoxia and hyperoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Zajączkowski

    Full Text Available It has long been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS play a role in oxygen sensing via peripheral chemoreceptors, which would imply their involvement in chemoreflex activation and autonomic regulation of heart rate. We hypothesize that antioxidant affect neurogenic cardiovascular regulation through activation of chemoreflex which results in increased control of sympathetic mechanism regulating heart rhythm. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XO, which is among the major endogenous sources of ROS in the rat has been shown to increase during hypoxia promote oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of how XO inhibition affects neurogenic regulation of heart rhythm is still unclear.The study aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol-driven inhibition of XO on autonomic heart regulation in rats exposed to hypoxia followed by hyperoxia, using heart rate variability (HRV analysis.16 conscious male Wistar rats (350 g: control-untreated (N = 8 and pretreated with Allopurinol-XO inhibitor (5 mg/kg, followed by 50 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally (N = 8, were exposed to controlled hypobaric hypoxia (1h in order to activate chemoreflex. The treatment was followed by 1h hyperoxia (chemoreflex suppression. Time-series of 1024 RR-intervals were extracted from 4kHz ECG recording for heart rate variability (HRV analysis in order to calculate the following time-domain parameters: mean RR interval (RRi, SDNN (standard deviation of all normal NN intervals, rMSSD (square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals, frequency-domain parameters (FFT method: TSP (total spectral power as well as low and high frequency band powers (LF and HF. At the end of experiment we used rat plasma to evaluate enzymatic activity of XO and markers of oxidative stress: protein carbonyl group and 8-isoprostane concentrations. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were measures in erythrocyte

  16. Promising effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol on autonomic heart regulation estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in rats exposed to hypoxia and hyperoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Wiesław; Badtke, Piotr; Zajączkowski, Miłosz A.; Flis, Damian J.; Figarski, Adam; Smolińska-Bylańska, Maria; Wierzba, Tomasz H.

    2018-01-01

    Background It has long been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in oxygen sensing via peripheral chemoreceptors, which would imply their involvement in chemoreflex activation and autonomic regulation of heart rate. We hypothesize that antioxidant affect neurogenic cardiovascular regulation through activation of chemoreflex which results in increased control of sympathetic mechanism regulating heart rhythm. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), which is among the major endogenous sources of ROS in the rat has been shown to increase during hypoxia promote oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of how XO inhibition affects neurogenic regulation of heart rhythm is still unclear. Aim The study aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol-driven inhibition of XO on autonomic heart regulation in rats exposed to hypoxia followed by hyperoxia, using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Material and methods 16 conscious male Wistar rats (350 g): control-untreated (N = 8) and pretreated with Allopurinol-XO inhibitor (5 mg/kg, followed by 50 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally (N = 8), were exposed to controlled hypobaric hypoxia (1h) in order to activate chemoreflex. The treatment was followed by 1h hyperoxia (chemoreflex suppression). Time-series of 1024 RR-intervals were extracted from 4kHz ECG recording for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in order to calculate the following time-domain parameters: mean RR interval (RRi), SDNN (standard deviation of all normal NN intervals), rMSSD (square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals), frequency-domain parameters (FFT method): TSP (total spectral power) as well as low and high frequency band powers (LF and HF). At the end of experiment we used rat plasma to evaluate enzymatic activity of XO and markers of oxidative stress: protein carbonyl group and 8-isoprostane concentrations. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione

  17. A miniaturized electrochemical toxicity biosensor based on graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes for assessment of priority pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Wu, Guanlan; Lu, Nan [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117 (China); Yuan, Xing, E-mail: yuanx@nenu.edu.cn [School of Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130117 (China); Li, Baikun, E-mail: baikun@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed. • The cytotoxicity detection vessel was miniaturized to the 96-well plate. • The electrochemical behavior of HepG2 cell was investigated for the first time. • The mixture signal of adenine and hypoxanthine was separated successfully. • The biosensor was used to assess the toxicity of heavy metals and phenols. - Abstract: The study presented a sensitive and miniaturized cell-based electrochemical biosensor to assess the toxicity of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were used as the biological recognition agent to measure the changes of electrochemical signals and reflect the cell viability. The graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed in a facile and green way. Based on the hybrid composite modified pencil graphite electrode, the cell culture and detection vessel was miniaturized to a 96-well plate instead of the traditional culture dish. In addition, three sensitive electrochemical signals attributed to guanine/xanthine, adenine, and hypoxanthine were detected simultaneously. The biosensor was used to evaluate the toxicity of six priority pollutants, including Cd, Hg, Pb, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol. The 24 h IC{sub 50} values obtained by the electrochemical biosensor were lower than those of conventional MTT assay, suggesting the enhanced sensitivity of the electrochemical assay towards heavy metals and phenols. This platform enables the label-free and sensitive detection of cell physiological status with multi-parameters and constitutes a promising approach for toxicity detection of pollutants. It makes possible for automatical and high-throughput analysis on nucleotide catabolism, which may be critical for life science and toxicology.

  18. Multi-level Quantum Mechanics and Molecular Mechanics Study of Ring Opening Process of Guanine Damage by Hydroxyl Radical in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Wang, Qiong; Niu, Meixing; Wang, Dunyou

    2017-08-10

    Combining multi-level quantum mechanics theories and molecular mechanics with an explicit water model, we investigated the ring opening process of guanine damage by hydroxyl radical in aqueous solution. The detailed, atomic-level ring-opening mechanism along the reaction pathway was revealed in aqueous solution at the CCSD(T)/MM levels of theory. The potentials of mean force in aqueous solution were calculated at both the DFT/MM and CCSD(T)/MM levels of the theory. Our study found that the aqueous solution has a significant effect on this reaction in solution. In particular, by comparing the geometries of the stationary points between in gas phase and in aqueous solution, we found that the aqueous solution has a tremendous impact on the torsion angles much more than on the bond lengths and bending angles. Our calculated free-energy barrier height 31.6 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T)/MM level of theory agrees well with the one obtained based on gas-phase reaction profile and free energies of solvation. In addition, the reaction path in gas phase was also mapped using multi-level quantum mechanics theories, which shows a reaction barrier at 19.2 kcal/mol at the CCSD(T) level of theory, agreeing very well with a recent ab initio calculation result at 20.8 kcal/mol.

  19. The G-BHQ synergistic effect: Improved double quenching molecular beacons based on guanine and Black Hole Quencher for sensitive simultaneous detection of two DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dongshan; Li, Fengquan; Wu, Chenyi; Shi, Boan; Zhai, Kun

    2017-11-01

    We designed two double quenching molecular beacons (MBs) with simple structure based on guanine (G base) and Black Hole Quencher (BHQ), and developed a new analytical method for sensitive simultaneous detection of two DNAs by synchronous fluorescence analysis. In this analytical method, carboxyl fluorescein (FAM) and tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA) were respectively selected as fluorophore of two MBs, Black Hole Quencher 1 (BHQ-1) and Black Hole Quencher 2 (BHQ-2) were respectively selected as organic quencher, and three continuous nucleotides with G base were connected to organic quencher (BHQ-1 and BHQ-2). In the presence of target DNAs, the two MBs hybridize with the corresponding target DNAs, the fluorophores are separated from organic quenchers and G bases, leading to recovery of fluorescence of FAM and TAMRA. Under a certain conditions, the fluorescence intensities of FAM and TAMRA all exhibited good linear dependence on their concentration of target DNAs (T1 and T2) in the range from 4 × 10 -10 to 4 × 10 -8 molL -1 (M). The detection limit (3σ, n = 13) of T1 was 3 × 10 -10 M and that of T2 was 2×10 -10 M, respectively. Compared with the existing analysis methods for multiplex DNA with MBs, this proposed method based on double quenching MBs is not only low fluorescence background, short analytical time and low detection cost, but also easy synthesis and good stability of MB probes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Solvent effect on the intermolecular proton transfer of the Watson and Crick guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine base pairs: a polarizable continuum model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Eduardo E; Hernandez, Florencio E

    2018-01-03

    Herein we present our results on the study of the double proton transfer (DPT) mechanism in the adenine-thymine (AT) and guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs, both in gas phase and in solution. The latter was modeled using the polarizable continuum method (PCM) in different solvents. According to our DFT calculations, the DPT may occur for both complexes in a stepwise mechanism in condensate phase. In gas phase only the GC base pair exhibits a concerted DPT mechanism. Using the Wigner's tunneling corrections to the transition state theory we demonstrate that such corrections are important for the prediction of the rate constants of both systems in gas and in condensate phase. We also show that (i) as the polarity of the medium decreases the equilibrium constant of the DPT reaction increases in both complexes, and (ii) that the equilibrium constant in the GC complex is four orders of magnitude larger than in AT. This observation suggests that the spontaneous mutations in DNA base pairs are more probable in GC than in AT.

  1. The influence of anharmonic and solvent effects on the theoretical vibrational spectra of the guanine-cytosine base pairs in Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bende, Attila; Muntean, Cristina M

    2014-03-01

    The theoretical IR and Raman spectra of the guanine-cytosine DNA base pairs in Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen configurations were computed using DFT method with M06-2X meta-hybrid GGA exchange-correlation functional, including the anharmonic corrections and solvent effects. The results for harmonic frequencies and their anharmonic corrections were compared with our previously calculated values obtained with the B3PW91 hybrid GGA functional. Significant differences were obtained for the anharmonic corrections calculated with the two different DFT functionals, especially for the stretching modes, while the corresponding harmonic frequencies did not differ considerable. For the Hoogtseen case the H⁺ vibration between the G-C base pair can be characterized as an asymmetric Duffing oscillator and therefore unrealistic anharmonic corrections for normal modes where this proton vibration is involved have been obtained. The spectral modification due to the anharmonic corrections, solvent effects and the influence of sugar-phosphate group for the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pair configurations, respectively, were also discussed. For the Watson-Crick case also the influence of the stacking interaction on the theoretical IR and Raman spectra was analyzed. Including the anharmonic correction in our normal mode analysis is essential if one wants to obtain correct assignments of the theoretical frequency values as compared with the experimental spectra.

  2. A Histidine pH sensor regulates activation of the Ras-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercoulen, Yvonne; Kondo, Yasushi; Iwig, Jeffrey S; Janssen, Axel B; White, Katharine A; Amini, Mojtaba; Barber, Diane L; Kuriyan, John; Roose, Jeroen P

    2017-09-27

    RasGRPs are guanine nucleotide exchange factors that are specific for Ras or Rap, and are important regulators of cellular signaling. Aberrant expression or mutation of RasGRPs results in disease. An analysis of RasGRP1 SNP variants led to the conclusion that the charge of His 212 in RasGRP1 alters signaling activity and plasma membrane recruitment, indicating that His 212 is a pH sensor that alters the balance between the inactive and active forms of RasGRP1. To understand the structural basis for this effect we compared the structure of autoinhibited RasGRP1, determined previously, to those of active RasGRP4:H-Ras and RasGRP2:Rap1b complexes. The transition from the autoinhibited to the active form of RasGRP1 involves the rearrangement of an inter-domain linker that displaces inhibitory inter-domain interactions. His 212 is located at the fulcrum of these conformational changes, and structural features in its vicinity are consistent with its function as a pH-dependent switch.

  3. GDP-bound and nucleotide-free intermediates of the guanine nucleotide exchange in the Rab5·Vps9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejima, Tamami; Ihara, Kentaro; Goh, Tatsuaki; Ito, Emi; Sunada, Mariko; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Wakatsuki, Soichi

    2010-11-19

    Many GTPases regulate intracellular transport and signaling in eukaryotes. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) activate GTPases by catalyzing the exchange of their GDP for GTP. Here we present crystallographic and biochemical studies of a GEF reaction with four crystal structures of Arabidopsis thaliana ARA7, a plant homolog of Rab5 GTPase, in complex with its GEF, VPS9a, in the nucleotide-free and GDP-bound forms, as well as a complex with aminophosphonic acid-guanylate ester and ARA7·VPS9a(D185N) with GDP. Upon complex formation with ARA7, VPS9 wedges into the interswitch region of ARA7, inhibiting the coordination of Mg(2+) and decreasing the stability of GDP binding. The aspartate finger of VPS9a recognizes GDP β-phosphate directly and pulls the P-loop lysine of ARA7 away from GDP β-phosphate toward switch II to further destabilize GDP for its release during the transition from the GDP-bound to nucleotide-free intermediates in the nucleotide exchange reaction.

  4. An adenine-to-guanine nucleotide change in the IRES SL-IV domain of picornavirus/hepatitis C chimeric viruses leads to a nonviable phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, Kevin L.; Sandefur, Stephanie; Phipps, Krista M.; Heinz, Beverly A.

    2003-01-01

    The inability for the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) to be readily studied in the context of viral replication has been circumvented by constructing chimeras such as with poliovirus (PV), in which translation of the genome polyprotein is under control of the HCV IRES. During our attempts to configure the PV/HCV chimera for our drug discovery efforts, we discovered that an adenine- (A) to-guanine (G) change at nt 350 in domain IV of the HCV IRES resulted in a nonviable phenotype. Similarly, a mengovirus (MV)/HCV chimera using the same configuration with a G at nt 350 (G-350) was found to be nonviable. In contrast, a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)/HCV chimera remained viable with G-350 in the HCV IRES insert. Second-site, resuscitating mutations were identified from the G-350 PV/HCV and MV/HCV viruses after blind passaging. For both viruses, the resuscitating mutations involved destabilization of domain IV in the HCV IRES. The nonviability of G-350 in the picornavirus/HCV chimeric background might be linked to translation efficiency as indicated by analyses with dual reporter and PV/HCV replicon constructs

  5. Identification of a negative regulatory region for the exchange activity and characterization of T332I mutant of Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Taro; Shibata, Satoshi; Tokuhara, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ohoka, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Shinobu

    2011-08-26

    The T332I mutation in Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10) was previously found in persons with slowed nerve conduction velocities and thin myelination of peripheral nerves. However, the molecular and cellular basis of the T332I mutant is not understood. Here, we show that ARHGEF10 has a negative regulatory region in the N terminus, in which residue 332 is located, and the T332I mutant is constitutively active. An N-terminal truncated ARHGEF10 mutant, ARHGEF10 ΔN (lacking amino acids 1-332), induced cell contraction that was inhibited by a Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 and had higher GEF activity for RhoA than the wild type. The T332I mutant also showed the phenotype similar to the N-terminal truncated mutant. These data suggest that the ARHGEF10 T332I mutation-associated phenotype observed in the peripheral nerves is due to activated GEF activity of the ARHGEF10 T332I mutant.

  6. Identification of a Negative Regulatory Region for the Exchange Activity and Characterization of T332I Mutant of Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor 10 (ARHGEF10)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Taro; Shibata, Satoshi; Tokuhara, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Kawahara, Ichiro; Kogo, Mikihiko; Ohoka, Yoshiharu; Inagaki, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    The T332I mutation in Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 10 (ARHGEF10) was previously found in persons with slowed nerve conduction velocities and thin myelination of peripheral nerves. However, the molecular and cellular basis of the T332I mutant is not understood. Here, we show that ARHGEF10 has a negative regulatory region in the N terminus, in which residue 332 is located, and the T332I mutant is constitutively active. An N-terminal truncated ARHGEF10 mutant, ARHGEF10 ΔN (lacking amino acids 1–332), induced cell contraction that was inhibited by a Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 and had higher GEF activity for RhoA than the wild type. The T332I mutant also showed the phenotype similar to the N-terminal truncated mutant. These data suggest that the ARHGEF10 T332I mutation-associated phenotype observed in the peripheral nerves is due to activated GEF activity of the ARHGEF10 T332I mutant. PMID:21719701

  7. Effects of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and its Flavonol Constituents, Kaempferol and Quercetin, on Serum Uric Acid Levels, Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Liver Xanthine Oxidoreductase Aactivity inOxonate-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Seid Ali; Mohammad Shahi, Majid; Mahboob, Soltan-Ali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2011-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid is known to be a major risk related to the development of several oxidative stress diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of parsley, quercetin and kaempferol on serum uric acid levels, liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration) in normal and oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into ten equal groups; including 5 normal groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol) and 5 hyperuricemic groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol). Parsley (5 g/Kg), quercetin (5 mg/Kg), kaempferol (5 mg/Kg) and allopurinol (5 mg/Kg) were administrated to the corresponding groups by oral gavage once a day for 2 weeks. The results showed that parsley and its flavonol did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. All treatments significantly inhibited liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Parsley, kaempferol and quercetin treatment led also to a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol was much higher than that of parsley and its flavonol constituents, it could not significantly change oxidative stress biomarkers. These features of parsley and its flavonols make them as a possible alternative for allopurinol, or at least in combination therapy to minimize the side effects of allopurinol to treat hyperuricemia and oxidative stress diseases.

  8. Endogenous 5-methylcytosine protects neighboring guanines from N7 and O6-methylation and O6-pyridyloxobutylation by the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegel, Rebecca; Shallop, Anthony; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-01-20

    All CG dinucleotides along exons 5-8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene contain endogenous 5-methylcytosine (MeC). These same sites (e.g., codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273) are mutational hot spots in smoking-induced lung cancer. Several groups used the UvrABC endonuclease incision assay to demonstrate that methylated CG dinucleotides of the p53 gene are the preferred binding sites for the diol epoxides of bay region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In contrast, effects of endogenous cytosine methylation on the distribution of DNA lesions induced by tobacco-specific nitrosamines, e.g., 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), have not been elucidated. In the work presented here, a stable isotope labeling HPLC-ESI-MS/MS approach was employed to analyze the reactivity of the N7 and O6 positions of guanines within hemimethylated and fully methylated CG dinucleotides toward NNK-derived methylating and pyridyloxobutylating species. 15N3-labeled guanine bases were placed within synthetic DNA sequences representing endogenously methylated p53 codons 154, 157, and 248, followed by treatment with acetylated precursors to NNK diazohydroxides. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was used to determine the relative yields of N7- and O6-guanine adducts at the 15N3-labeled position. In all cases, the presence of MeC inhibited the formation of N7-methylguanine, O6-methylguanine, and O6-pyridyloxobutylguanine at a neighboring G, with the greatest decrease observed in fully methylated dinucleotides and at guanines preceded by MeC. Furthermore, the O6-Me-dG/N7-Me-G molar ratios were decreased in the presence of the 5'-neighboring MeC, suggesting that the observed decline in O6-alkylguanine adduct yields is, at least partially, a result of an altered reactivity pattern in methylated CG dinucleotides. These results indicate that, unlike N2-guanine adducts of PAH diol epoxides, NNK-induced N7- and O6-alkylguanine adducts are not preferentially formed at the endogenously

  9. A miniaturized electrochemical toxicity biosensor based on graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes for assessment of priority pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Wu, Guanlan; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing; Li, Baikun

    2017-02-15

    The study presented a sensitive and miniaturized cell-based electrochemical biosensor to assess the toxicity of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment. Human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were used as the biological recognition agent to measure the changes of electrochemical signals and reflect the cell viability. The graphene oxide quantum dots/carboxylated carbon nanotubes hybrid was developed in a facile and green way. Based on the hybrid composite modified pencil graphite electrode, the cell culture and detection vessel was miniaturized to a 96-well plate instead of the traditional culture dish. In addition, three sensitive electrochemical signals attributed to guanine/xanthine, adenine, and hypoxanthine were detected simultaneously. The biosensor was used to evaluate the toxicity of six priority pollutants, including Cd, Hg, Pb, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol. The 24h IC 50 values obtained by the electrochemical biosensor were lower than those of conventional MTT assay, suggesting the enhanced sensitivity of the electrochemical assay towards heavy metals and phenols. This platform enables the label-free and sensitive detection of cell physiological status with multi-parameters and constitutes a promising approach for toxicity detection of pollutants. It makes possible for automatical and high-throughput analysis on nucleotide catabolism, which may be critical for life science and toxicology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  11. Immunostimulation by cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides in combination with IL-2 can improve the success rate of karyotype analysis in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaolan; Chen, Jiadi; Huang, Huifang

    2016-07-01

    To assess whether immunostimulatory cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) combined with interleukin-2 (IL-2) improves the number of mitotic metaphases and the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Bone marrow specimens were collected from 36 patients with CLL. CLL cells were cultured with CpG-ODN type DSP30 plus IL-2 for 72 h, following which R-banding analysis was conducted. Conventional culture without the immunostimulant served as the control group. The incidence of genetic abnormalities was measured by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using a panel of five specific probes: D13S25 (13q14.3), RB1 (13q14), P53 (17p13), ATM (11q22.3) and CSP12 (trisomy 12, +12). In the control group, chromosome analysis achieved a success rate of only 22.2, and 11.1% of abnormal karyotypes were detected. After immunostimulation with DSP30 plus IL-2, chromosome analysis achieved a success rate of up to 91.6, and 41.6% of abnormal karyotypes were detected. FISH analysis detected 77.7% of abnormalities. FISH combined with CpG-ODN DSP30 plus IL-2 improved the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in CLL to 83.3%. CpG-ODN DSP30 combined with IL-2 is effective in improving the detection rate of chromosomal abnormalities in CLL cells. This combination with FISH analysis is conducive to increasing the detection rate of genetic abnormalities in CLL.

  12. Solo, a RhoA-targeting guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is critical for hemidesmosome formation and acinar development in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Sachiko; Matsui, Tsubasa S; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Deguchi, Shinji; Mizuno, Kensaku

    2018-01-01

    Cell-substrate adhesions are essential for various physiological processes, including embryonic development and maintenance of organ functions. Hemidesmosomes (HDs) are multiprotein complexes that attach epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Formation and remodeling of HDs are dependent on the surrounding mechanical environment; however, the upstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. We recently reported that Solo (also known as ARHGEF40), a guanine nucleotide exchange factor targeting RhoA, binds to keratin8/18 (K8/K18) intermediate filaments, and that their interaction is important for force-induced actin and keratin cytoskeletal reorganization. In this study, we show that Solo co-precipitates with an HD protein, β4-integrin. Co-precipitation assays revealed that the central region (amino acids 330-1057) of Solo binds to the C-terminal region (1451-1752) of β4-integrin. Knockdown of Solo significantly suppressed HD formation in MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Similarly, knockdown of K18 or treatment with Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), suppressed HD formation. As Solo knockdown or Y-27632 treatment is known to disorganize K8/K18 filaments, these results suggest that Solo is involved in HD formation by regulating K8/K18 filament organization via the RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. We also showed that knockdown of Solo impairs acinar formation in MCF10A cells cultured in 3D Matrigel. In addition, Solo accumulated at the site of traction force generation in 2D-cultured MCF10A cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Solo plays a crucial role in HD formation and acinar development in epithelial cells by regulating mechanical force-induced RhoA activation and keratin filament organization.

  13. Rac1 Activation Caused by Membrane Translocation of a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor in Akt2-Mediated Insulin Signaling in Mouse Skeletal Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Takenaka

    Full Text Available Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is mediated by the glucose transporter GLUT4, which is translocated to the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation. Several lines of evidence suggested that the protein kinase Akt2 plays a key role in this insulin action. The small GTPase Rac1 has also been implicated as a regulator of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation, acting downstream of Akt2. However, the mechanisms whereby Akt2 regulates Rac1 activity remain obscure. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor FLJ00068 has been identified as a direct regulator of Rac1 in Akt2-mediated signaling, but its characterization was performed mostly in cultured myoblasts. Here, we provide in vivo evidence that FLJ00068 indeed acts downstream of Akt2 as a Rac1 regulator by using mouse skeletal muscle. Small interfering RNA knockdown of FLJ00068 markedly diminished GLUT4 translocation to the sarcolemma following insulin administration or ectopic expression of a constitutively activated mutant of either phosphoinositide 3-kinase or Akt2. Additionally, insulin and these constitutively activated mutants caused the activation of Rac1 as shown by immunofluorescent microscopy using a polypeptide probe specific to activated Rac1 in isolated gastrocnemius muscle fibers and frozen sections of gastrocnemius muscle. This Rac1 activation was also abrogated by FLJ00068 knockdown. Furthermore, we observed translocation of FLJ00068 to the cell periphery following insulin stimulation in cultured myoblasts. Localization of FLJ00068 in the plasma membrane in insulin-stimulated, but not unstimulated, myoblasts and mouse gastrocnemius muscle was further affirmed by subcellular fractionation and subsequent immunoblotting. Collectively, these results strongly support a critical role of FLJ00068 in Akt2-mediated Rac1 activation in mouse skeletal muscle insulin signaling.

  14. Simultaneous determination of adenine guanine and thymine at multi-walled carbon nanotubes incorporated with poly(new fuchsin) composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Ching; Yogeswaran, Umasankar [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, No.1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net

    2009-03-16

    A composite film (MWCNTs-PNF) which contains multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) along with the incorporation of poly(new fuchsin) (PNF) has been synthesized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE), gold (Au) and indium tin oxide (ITO) by potentiostatic methods. The presence of MWCNTs in the composite film enhances surface coverage concentration ({gamma}) of PNF to {approx}176.5%, and increases the electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) to {approx}346%. The composite film also exhibits promising enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards the mixture of biochemical compounds such as adenine (AD), guanine (GU) and thymine (THY). The surface morphology of the composite film deposited on ITO has been studied using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. These two techniques reveal that the PNF incorporated on MWCNTs. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance study reveals the enhancement in the functional properties of MWCNTs and PNF. The electrocatalytic responses of analytes at MWCNTs and MWCNTs-PNF films were measured using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). From electrocatalysis studies, well separated voltammetric peaks have been obtained at the composite film for AD, GU and THY, with the peak separation of 320.3 and 132.7 mV between GU-AD and AD-THY respectively. The sensitivity of the composite film towards AD, GU and THY in DPV technique is 218.18, 12.62 and 78.22 mA M{sup -1} cm{sup -2} respectively, which are higher than MWCNTs film. Further, electroanalytical studies of AD, GU and THY present in single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) have been carried out using semi-derivative CV and DPV.

  15. Regulation of follitropin-sensitive adenylate cyclase by stimulatory and inhibitory forms of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein in immature rat Sertoli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    Studies have been designed to examine the role of guanine nucleotides in mediating FSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in Sertoli cell plasma membranes. Analysis of [ 3 H]GDP binding to plasma membranes suggested a single high affinity site with a K d = 0.24 uM. Competition studies indicated that GTP γ S was 7-fold more potent than GDP β S. Bound GDP could be released by FSH in the presence of GTP γ S, but not by FSH alone. Adenylate cyclase activity was enhanced 5-fold by FSH in the presence of GTP. Addition of GDP β S to the activated enzyme (FSH plus GTP) resulted in a time-dependent decay to basal activity within 20 sec. GDP β S competitively inhibited GTP γ S-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with a K i = 0.18 uM. Adenylate cyclase activity was also demonstrated to be sensitive to the nucleotide bound state. In the presence of FSH, only the GTP γ S-bound form persisted even if GDP β S previously occupied all available binding sites. Two membrane proteins, M r = 43,000 and 48,000, were ADP·ribosylated using cholera toxin and labeling was enhanced 2 to 4-fold by GTP γ S but not by GDP β S. The M r = 43,000 and 48,000 proteins represented variant forms of G S . A single protein of M r = 40,000 (G i ) was ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin in vitro. GTP inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity with an IC 50 = 0.1 uM. The adenosine analog, N 6 ·phenylisopropyl adenosine enhanced GTP inhibition of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by an additional 15%. GTP-dependent inhibition of forskolin-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity was abolished in membranes prepared from Sertoli cells treated in culture with pertussis toxin

  16. Modeling of Toxicity-Relevant Electrophilic Reactivity for Guanine with Epoxides: Estimating the Hard and Soft Acids and Bases (HSAB) Parameter as a Predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chenchen; Ji, Li; Liu, Weiping

    2016-05-16

    According to the electrophilic theory in toxicology, many chemical carcinogens in the environment and/or their active metabolites are electrophiles that exert their effects by forming covalent bonds with nucleophilic DNA centers. The theory of hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB), which states that a toxic electrophile reacts preferentially with a biological macromolecule that has a similar hardness or softness, clarifies the underlying chemistry involved in this critical event. Epoxides are hard electrophiles that are produced endogenously by the enzymatic oxidation of parent chemicals (e.g., alkenes and PAHs). Epoxide ring opening proceeds through a SN2-type mechanism with hard nucleophile DNA sites as the major facilitators of toxic effects. Thus, the quantitative prediction of chemical reactivity would enable a predictive assessment of the molecular potential to exert electrophile-mediated toxicity. In this study, we calculated the activation energies for reactions between epoxides and the guanine N7 site for a diverse set of epoxides, including aliphatic epoxides, substituted styrene oxides, and PAH epoxides, using a state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) method. It is worth noting that these activation energies for diverse epoxides can be further predicted by quantum chemically calculated nucleophilic indices from HSAB theory, which is a less computationally demanding method than the exacting procedure for locating the transition state. More importantly, the good qualitative/quantitative correlations between the chemical reactivity of epoxides and their bioactivity suggest that the developed model based on HSAB theory may aid in the predictive hazard evaluation of epoxides, enabling the early identification of mutagenicity/carcinogenicity-relevant SN2 reactivity.

  17. Coordinated regulation by two VPS9 domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors in small GTPase Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Shimazu, Sayuri; Takegawa, Kaoru; Noguchi, Tetsuko; Miyamoto, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to regulate various cellular functions, such as vesicular transport and endocytosis. VPS9 domain-containing proteins are thought to activate Rab5(s) by their guanine-nucleotide exchange activities. Numerous VPS9 proteins have been identified and are structurally conserved from yeast to mammalian cells. However, the functional relationships among VPS9 proteins in cells remain unclear. Only one Rab5 and two VPS9 proteins were identified in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. Here, we examined the cellular function of two VPS9 proteins and the relationship between these proteins in cellular functions. Vps901-GFP and Vps902-GFP exhibited dotted signals in vegetative and differentiated cells. vps901 deletion mutant (Δvps901) cells exhibited a phenotype deficient in the mating process and responses to high concentrations of ions, such as calcium and metals, and Δvps901Δvps902 double mutant cells exhibited round cell shapes similar to ypt5-909 (Rab5 mutant allele) cells. Deletion of both vps901 and vps902 genes completely abolished the mating process and responses to various stresses. A lack of vacuole formation and aberrant inner cell membrane structures were also observed in Δvps901Δvps902 cells by electron microscopy. These data strongly suggest that Vps901 and Vps902 are cooperatively involved in the regulation of cellular functions, such as cell morphology, sexual development, response to ion stresses, and vacuole formation, via Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast cells. - Highlights: • Roles of Rab5 activator VPS9 proteins in cellular functions. • Cooperation between VPS9 proteins in Rab5 signaling pathway. • Roles of each VPS9 protein in Rab5 signaling pathway are discussed

  18. Coordinated regulation by two VPS9 domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors in small GTPase Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Yuta [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kagiwada, Satoshi [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Shimazu, Sayuri [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Takegawa, Kaoru [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Noguchi, Tetsuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Miyamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: miya@kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-20

    The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to regulate various cellular functions, such as vesicular transport and endocytosis. VPS9 domain-containing proteins are thought to activate Rab5(s) by their guanine-nucleotide exchange activities. Numerous VPS9 proteins have been identified and are structurally conserved from yeast to mammalian cells. However, the functional relationships among VPS9 proteins in cells remain unclear. Only one Rab5 and two VPS9 proteins were identified in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. Here, we examined the cellular function of two VPS9 proteins and the relationship between these proteins in cellular functions. Vps901-GFP and Vps902-GFP exhibited dotted signals in vegetative and differentiated cells. vps901 deletion mutant (Δvps901) cells exhibited a phenotype deficient in the mating process and responses to high concentrations of ions, such as calcium and metals, and Δvps901Δvps902 double mutant cells exhibited round cell shapes similar to ypt5-909 (Rab5 mutant allele) cells. Deletion of both vps901 and vps902 genes completely abolished the mating process and responses to various stresses. A lack of vacuole formation and aberrant inner cell membrane structures were also observed in Δvps901Δvps902 cells by electron microscopy. These data strongly suggest that Vps901 and Vps902 are cooperatively involved in the regulation of cellular functions, such as cell morphology, sexual development, response to ion stresses, and vacuole formation, via Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast cells. - Highlights: • Roles of Rab5 activator VPS9 proteins in cellular functions. • Cooperation between VPS9 proteins in Rab5 signaling pathway. • Roles of each VPS9 protein in Rab5 signaling pathway are discussed.

  19. [3H]WB4101 labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor subtype in rat brain. Guanine nucleotide and divalent cation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, A.B.; Battaglia, G.; Creese, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of a 30 nM prazosin mask, [ 3 H]-2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl) aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane ([ 3 H]WB4101) can selectively label 5-HT1 serotonin receptors. Serotonin exhibits high affinity (Ki = 2.5 nM) and monophasic competition for [ 3 H] WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. We have found a significant correlation (r = 0.96) between the affinities of a number of serotonergic and nonserotonergic compounds at [ 3 H]WB4101-binding sites in the presence of 30 nM prazosin and [ 3 H] lysergic acid diethylamide ([ 3 H]LSD)-labeled 5-HT1 serotonin receptors in homogenates of rat cerebral cortex. Despite similar pharmacological profiles, distribution studies indicate that, in the presence of 5 mM MgSO4, the Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 is significantly lower than the Bmax of [ 3 H]LSD in various brain regions. WB4101 competition for [ 3 H] LSD-labeled 5-HT1 receptors fits best to a computer-derived model assuming two binding sites, with the KH for WB4101 being similar to the KD of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding derived from saturation experiments. This suggests that [ 3 H]WB4101 labels only one of the subtypes of the 5-HT1 serotonin receptors labeled by [ 3 H]LSD. The selective 5-HT1A serotonin receptor antagonist, spiperone, and the selective 5-HT1A agonist, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline, exhibit high affinity and monophasic competition for [ 3 H]WB4101 but compete for multiple [ 3 H]LSD 5-HT1 binding sites. These data indicate that [ 3 H]WB4101 selectively labels the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor, whereas [ 3 H] LSD appears to label both the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT1B serotonin receptor subtypes. The divalent cations, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ were found to markedly increase the affinity and Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding in cerebral cortex. Conversely, the guanine nucleotides guanylylimidodiphosphate and GTP, but not the adenosine nucleotide ATP, markedly reduce the Bmax of [ 3 H]WB4101 binding

  20. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krause-Gruszczynska, Malgorzata

    2011-12-28

    Abstract Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-\\/-, integrin-beta1-\\/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-\\/- and Src\\/Yes\\/Fyn-\\/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR) during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA) and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1\\/2-\\/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker

  1. The signaling pathway of Campylobacter jejuni-induced Cdc42 activation: Role of fibronectin, integrin beta1, tyrosine kinases and guanine exchange factor Vav2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause-Gruszczynska Malgorzata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host cell invasion by the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is considered as one of the primary reasons of gut tissue damage, however, mechanisms and key factors involved in this process are widely unclear. It was reported that small Rho GTPases, including Cdc42, are activated and play a role during invasion, but the involved signaling cascades remained unknown. Here we utilised knockout cell lines derived from fibronectin-/-, integrin-beta1-/-, focal adhesion kinase (FAK-/- and Src/Yes/Fyn-/- deficient mice, and wild-type control cells, to investigate C. jejuni-induced mechanisms leading to Cdc42 activation and bacterial uptake. Results Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, GTPase pulldowns, G-Lisa and gentamicin protection assays we found that each studied host factor is necessary for induction of Cdc42-GTP and efficient invasion. Interestingly, filopodia formation and associated membrane dynamics linked to invasion were only seen during infection of wild-type but not in knockout cells. Infection of cells stably expressing integrin-beta1 variants with well-known defects in fibronectin fibril formation or FAK signaling also exhibited severe deficiencies in Cdc42 activation and bacterial invasion. We further demonstrated that infection of wild-type cells induces increasing amounts of phosphorylated FAK and growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR during the course of infection, correlating with accumulating Cdc42-GTP levels and C. jejuni invasion over time. In studies using pharmacological inhibitors, silencing RNA (siRNA and dominant-negative expression constructs, EGFR, PDGFR and PI3-kinase appeared to represent other crucial components upstream of Cdc42 and invasion. siRNA and the use of Vav1/2-/- knockout cells further showed that the guanine exchange factor Vav2 is required for Cdc42 activation and maximal bacterial invasion. Overexpression of certain mutant constructs indicated that Vav2 is a linker

  2. Purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment, urinary excretions of purine derivatives (allantoin N, Uric acid N, Xanthine + Hypoxanthine N) were measured and used to estimate microbial N yield in 9 sheep fed roughage- based diet supplemented with 0, 150 and 300g DM grass silage respectively. Daily urinary excretions of ...

  3. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Pratima; Chandra, M

    2009-01-01

    Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA) and acute myocardial infarction (MI)]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days) resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH) and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO). These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes. PMID:20716909

  4. Oral Administration of L-Arginine in Patients With Angina or Following Myocardial Infarction May Be Protective By Increasing Plasma Superoxide Dismutase and Total Thiols With Reduction in Serum Cholesterol and Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA and acute myocardial infarction (MI]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO. These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes.

  5. pH-Modulated Watson-Crick duplex-quadruplex equilibria of guanine-rich and cytosine-rich DNA sequences 140 base pairs upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucek, Pavel; Jaumot, Joaquim; Aviñó, Anna; Eritja, Ramon; Gargallo, Raimundo

    2009-11-23

    Guanine-rich regions of DNA are sequences capable of forming G-quadruplex structures. The formation of a G-quadruplex structure in a region 140 base pairs (bp) upstream of the c-kit transcription initiation site was recently proposed (Fernando et al., Biochemistry, 2006, 45, 7854). In the present study, the acid-base equilibria and the thermally induced unfolding of the structures formed by a guanine-rich region and by its complementary cytosine-rich strand in c-kit were studied by means of circular dichroism and molecular absorption spectroscopies. In addition, competition between the Watson-Crick duplex and the isolated structures was studied as a function of pH value and temperature. Multivariate data analysis methods based on both hard and soft modeling were used to allow accurate quantification of the various acid-base species present in the mixtures. Results showed that the G-quadruplex and i-motif coexist with the Watson-Crick duplex over the pH range from 3.0 to 6.5, approximately, under the experimental conditions tested in this study. At pH 7.0, the duplex is practically the only species present.

  6. Platelet cytosolic 44-kDa protein is a substrate of cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation and is not recognized by antisera against the α subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Y Vedia, L.M.; Reep, B.R.; Lapetina, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    ADP-ribosylation induced by cholera toxin and pertussis toxin was studied in particulate and cytosolic fractions of human platelets. Platelets were disrupted by a cycle of freezing and thawing in the presence of a hyposmotic buffer containing protease inhibitors. In both fractions, the A subunit of cholera toxin ADP-ribosylates two proteins with molecular masses of 42 and 44 kDa, whereas pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a 41-kDa polypeptide. Two antisera against the α subunit of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein recognize only the 42-kDa polypeptide. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of the 42- and 44-kDa proteins is reduced by pretreatment of platelets with iloprost, a prostacyclin analog. The 44-kDa protein, which is substrate of cholera toxin, could be extracted completely from the membrane and recovered in the cytosolic fraction when the cells were disrupted by Dounce homogenization and the pellet was extensively washed. A 44-kDa protein can also be labeled with 8-azidoguanosine 5'-[α- 32 P]triphosphate in the cytosol and membranes. These finding indicate that cholera and pertussis toxins produced covalent modifications of proteins present in particulate and cytosolic platelet fractions. Moreover, the 44-kDa protein might be an α subunit of a guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein that is not recognized by available antisera

  7. DNA sequence polymorphisms within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha (Gsα-encoding (GNAS genomic imprinting domain are associated with performance traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mullen Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes which are epigenetically regulated via genomic imprinting can be potential targets for artificial selection during animal breeding. Indeed, imprinted loci have been shown to underlie some important quantitative traits in domestic mammals, most notably muscle mass and fat deposition. In this candidate gene study, we have identified novel associations between six validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs spanning a 97.6 kb region within the bovine guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs subunit alpha gene (GNAS domain on bovine chromosome 13 and genetic merit for a range of performance traits in 848 progeny-tested Holstein-Friesian sires. The mammalian GNAS domain consists of a number of reciprocally-imprinted, alternatively-spliced genes which can play a major role in growth, development and disease in mice and humans. Based on the current annotation of the bovine GNAS domain, four of the SNPs analysed (rs43101491, rs43101493, rs43101485 and rs43101486 were located upstream of the GNAS gene, while one SNP (rs41694646 was located in the second intron of the GNAS gene. The final SNP (rs41694656 was located in the first exon of transcripts encoding the putative bovine neuroendocrine-specific protein NESP55, resulting in an aspartic acid-to-asparagine amino acid substitution at amino acid position 192. Results SNP genotype-phenotype association analyses indicate that the single intronic GNAS SNP (rs41694646 is associated (P ≤ 0.05 with a range of performance traits including milk yield, milk protein yield, the content of fat and protein in milk, culled cow carcass weight and progeny carcass conformation, measures of animal body size, direct calving difficulty (i.e. difficulty in calving due to the size of the calf and gestation length. Association (P ≤ 0.01 with direct calving difficulty (i.e. due to calf size and maternal calving difficulty (i.e. due to the maternal pelvic width size was also observed at the rs

  8. NMR solution structure of an N2-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: Intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H.; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A.; Sayer, Jane M.; Jerina, Donald M.; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E.

    2012-01-01

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the non-planar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely-studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14-position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first NMR solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R (+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P–N2-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N2-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3’-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3’-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE - DNA adduct conformation differs from: (1) the classical intercalation motif where Watson-Crick base-pairing is intact at the lesion site, and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix . The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed. PMID:23121427

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of an N(2)-guanine DNA adduct derived from the potent tumorigen dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: intercalation from the minor groove with ruptured Watson-Crick base pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yijin; Liu, Zhi; Ding, Shuang; Lin, Chin H; Cai, Yuqin; Rodriguez, Fabian A; Sayer, Jane M; Jerina, Donald M; Amin, Shantu; Broyde, Suse; Geacintov, Nicholas E

    2012-12-04

    The most potent tumorigen identified among the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is the nonplanar fjord region dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). It is metabolically activated in vivo through the widely studied diol epoxide (DE) pathway to form covalent adducts with DNA bases, predominantly guanine and adenine. The (+)-11S,12R,13R,14S DE enantiomer forms adducts via its C14 position with the exocyclic amino group of guanine. Here, we present the first nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of a DB[a,l]P-derived adduct, the 14R-(+)-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(2)-dG (DB[a,l]P-dG) lesion in double-stranded DNA. In contrast to the stereochemically identical benzo[a]pyrene-derived N(2)-dG adduct (B[a]P-dG) in which the B[a]P rings reside in the B-DNA minor groove on the 3'-side of the modifed deoxyguanosine, in the DB[a,l]P-derived adduct the DB[a,l]P rings intercalate into the duplex on the 3'-side of the modified base from the sterically crowded minor groove. Watson-Crick base pairing of the modified guanine with the partner cytosine is broken, but these bases retain some stacking with the bulky DB[a,l]P ring system. This new theme in PAH DE-DNA adduct conformation differs from (1) the classical intercalation motif in which Watson-Crick base pairing is intact at the lesion site and (2) the base-displaced intercalation motif in which the damaged base and its partner are extruded from the helix. The structural considerations that lead to the intercalated conformation of the DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in contrast to the minor groove alignment of the B[a]P-dG adduct, and the implications of the DB[a,l]P-dG conformational motif for the recognition of such DNA lesions by the human nucleotide excision repair apparatus, are discussed.

  10. On the Formation and Properties of Interstrand DNA-DNA Cross-links Forged by Reaction of an Abasic Site With the Opposing Guanine Residue of 5′-CAp Sequences in Duplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin M.; Price, Nathan E.; Wang, Jin; Fekry, Mostafa I.; Dutta, Sanjay; Seiner, Derrick R.; Wang, Yinsheng; Gates, Kent S.

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported that the aldehyde residue of an abasic (Ap) site in duplex DNA can generate an interstrand cross-link via reaction with a guanine residue on the opposing strand. This finding is intriguing because the highly deleterious nature of interstrand cross-links suggests that even small amounts of Ap-derived cross-links could make a significant contribution to the biological consequences stemming from the generation of Ap sites in cellular DNA. Incubation of 21-bp duplexes containing a central 5′-CAp sequence under conditions of reductive amination (NaCNBH3, pH 5.2) generated much higher yields of cross-linked DNA than reported previously. At pH 7, in the absence of reducing agents, these Ap-containing duplexes also produced cross-linked duplexes that were readily detected on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. Cross-link formation was not highly sensitive to reaction conditions and, once formed, the cross-link was stable to a variety of work-up conditions. Results of multiple experiments including MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, gel mobility, methoxyamine capping of the Ap aldehyde, inosine-for-guanine replacement, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and LCMS/MS were consistent with a cross-linking mechanism involving reversible reaction of the Ap aldehyde residue with the N2-amino group of the opposing guanine residue in 5′-CAp sequences to generate hemiaminal, imine, or cyclic hemiaminal cross-links (7-10) that were irreversibly converted under conditions of reductive amination (NaCNBH3/pH 5.2) to a stable amine linkage. Further support for the importance of the exocyclic N2-amino group in this reaction was provided by an experiment showing that installation of a 2-aminopurine-thymine base pair at the cross-linking site produced high yields (15-30%) of a cross-linked duplex at neutral pH, in the absence of NaCNBH3. PMID:23215239

  11. Autoradiographic studies on the effect of allopurinol on 14C-hydpoxanthine metabolism in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Yoshimasa; Miyazaki, Hisashi; Hashimoto, Masahisa

    1980-01-01

    The Effect of orally given allopurinol on the distribution of intravenously administered 14 C-hypoxanthine radioactivity was studied in squirrel monkeys 8 hr after administration of the label by the whole body autoradiography. Although the distribution of radioactivity in the normal and allopurinol-treated animals was essentially similar to each other, more intense radioactivity was noted in the latter monkey; salvage of 14 C-hypoxanthine was enhanced. Similarly to our previous observation in mice, significant radioactivity in monkeys was seen in tissues undergoing rapid nucleic acid synthesis except for slight species differences in some organs. 14 C-Allantoin alone was the urinary metabolite of the hypoxanthine in the normal monkey whereas significant amounts of 14 C-hypoxanthine and 14 C-xanthine as well were detected in the urine of the drug-treated animal. (author)

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry for the analysis of modified bases in DNA: 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine, the major ethylene oxide-DNA adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, L; Laurent, C; De Pauw, E

    1997-05-15

    A method was developed for the analysis of 7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (7HEG), the major DNA adduct formed after exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). The method is based on DNA neutral thermal hydrolysis, adduct micro-concentration, and final characterization and quantification by HPLC coupled to single-ion monitoring electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC/SIR-ESMS). The method was found to be selective, sensitive, and easy to handle with no need for enzymatic digestion or previous sample derivatization. Detection limit was found to be close to 1 fmol of adduct injected (10(-10) M), thus allowing the detection of approximately three modified bases on 10(8) intact nucleotides in blood sample analysis. Quantification results are shown for 7HEG after calf thymus DNA and blood exposure to various doses of EO, in both cases obtaining clear dose-response relationships.

  13. Oxidative stress and dopamine deficiency in a genetic mouse model of Lesch-Nyhan disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.E.; Smith, D.W.; Moy, S.S.; Breese, G.R.; Friedmann, T.; Rothstein, J.D.; Jinnah, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease, a neurogenetic disorder caused by congenital deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase, is associated with a prominent loss of striatal dopamine. The current studies address the hypothesis that oxidant stress causes damage or

  14. Inhibition of the Escherichia coli 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases by nucleoside phosphonates: potential for new antibacterial agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Hocková, Dana; Rejman, Dominik; Špaček, Petr; Vrbková, Silvie; Krečmerová, Marcela; Eng, W. S.; Jans, H.; West, N. P.; Naesens, L. M. J.; de Jersey, J.; Guddat, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 17 (2013), s. 6967-6984 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : nucleoside phosphonates * antibacterial agents * hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase * state analog inhibitor * antimalarial chemotherapy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.480, year: 2013

  15. Attenuated Variants of Lesch-Nyhan Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, H. A.; Ceballos-Picot, Irene; Torres, Rosa J.; Visser, Jasper E.; Schretlen, David J.; Verdu, Alfonso; Larovere, Laura E.; Chen, Chung-Jen; Cossu, Antonello; Wu, Chien-Hui; Sampat, Radhika; Chang, Shun-Jen; de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson; Nyhan, William; Harris, James C.; Reich, Stephen G.; Puig, Juan G.

    2010-01-01

    Lesch-Nyhan disease is a neurogenetic disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. The classic form of the disease is described by a characteristic syndrome that includes overproduction of uric acid, severe generalized dystonia, cognitive disability and self-injurious behaviour. In addition to the…

  16. Synthesis and spectroscopy of clay intercalated Cu(II) bio-monomer complexes: coordination of Cu(II) with purines and nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Leeman, H.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of Cu(bio-monomer)nm+ complexes [BM=bio-monomer (purine, adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, 5-ADP and 5-GMP)] in saponite clays have been investigated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the UV-Vis-NIR region and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band.

  17. 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferase: A Target for the Development of Antimalarial Drugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de Jersey, J.; Holý, Antonín; Hocková, Dana; Naesens, L.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 16 (2011), s. 2085-2102 ISSN 1568-0266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Malaria * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * hypoxanthine * guanine phosphoribosyl transferase Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.174, year: 2011

  18. Mixed adenine/guanine quartets with three trans-a2 Pt(II) (a=NH(3) or MeNH(2)) cross-links: linkage and rotational isomerism, base pairing, and loss of NH(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, Francisca M; Rodríguez-Santiago, Luis; Sodupe, Mariona; Mirats, Andrea; Kaitsiotou, Helena; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Lippert, Bernhard

    2014-03-17

    Of the numerous ways in which two adenine and two guanines (N9 positions blocked in each) can be cross-linked by three linear metal moieties such as trans-a2 Pt(II) (with a=NH3 or MeNH2 ) to produce open metalated purine quartets with exclusive metal coordination through N1 and N7 sites, one linkage isomer was studied in detail. The isomer trans,trans,trans-[{Pt(NH3 )2 (N7-9-EtA-N1)2 }{Pt(MeNH2 )2 (N7-9-MeGH)}2 ][(ClO4 )6 ]⋅3H2 O (1) (with 9-EtA=9-ethyladenine and 9-MeGH=9-methylguanine) was crystallized from water and found to adopt a flat Z-shape in the solid state as far as the trinuclear cation is concerned. In the presence of excess 9-MeGH, a meander-like construct, trans,trans,trans-[{Pt(NH3 )2 (N7-9-EtA-N1)2 }{Pt(MeNH2 )2 (N7-9-MeGH)2 }][(ClO4 )6 ]⋅[(9-MeGH)2 ]⋅7 H2 O (2) is formed, in which the two extra 9-MeGH nucleobases are hydrogen bonded to the two terminal platinated guanine ligands of 1. Compound 1, and likewise the analogous complex 1 a (with NH3 ligands only), undergo loss of an ammonia ligand and formation of NH4 (+) when dissolved in [D6 ]DMSO. From the analogy between the behavior of 1 and 1 a it is concluded that a NH3 ligand from the central Pt atom is lost. Addition of 1-methylcytosine (1-MeC) to such a DMSO solution reveals coordination of 1-MeC to the central Pt. In an analogous manner, 9-MeGH can coordinate to the central Pt in [D6 ]DMSO. It is proposed that the proton responsible for formation of NH4 (+) is from one of the exocyclic amino groups of the two adenine bases, and furthermore, that this process is accompanied by a conformational change of the cation from Z-form to U-form. DFT calculations confirm the proposed mechanism and shed light on possible pathways of this process. Calculations show that rotational isomerism is not kinetically hindered and that it would preferably occur previous to the displacement of NH3 by DMSO. This displacement is the most energetically costly step, but it is compensated by the proton

  19. Isotope Dilution nanoLC/ESI+-HRMS3 Quantitation of Urinary N7-(1-Hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) Guanine Adducts in Humans and Their Use as Biomarkers of Exposure to 1,3-Butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaraju, Dewakar; Boldry, Emily J; Patel, Yesha M; Walker, Vernon; Stepanov, Irina; Stram, Daniel; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2017-02-20

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is an important industrial and environmental chemical classified as a known human carcinogen. Occupational exposure to BD in the polymer and monomer industries is associated with an increased incidence of lymphoma. BD is present in automobile exhaust, cigarette smoke, and forest fires, raising concern about potential exposure of the general population to this carcinogen. Following inhalation exposure, BD is bioactivated to 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (EB). If not detoxified, EB is capable of modifying guanine and adenine bases of DNA to form nucleobase adducts, which interfere with accurate DNA replication and cause cancer-initiating mutations. We have developed a nanoLC/ESI + -HRMS 3 methodology for N7-(1-hydroxy-3-buten-2-yl) guanine (EB-GII) adducts in human urine (limit of detection: 0.25 fmol/mL urine; limit of quantitation: 1.0 fmol/mL urine). This new method was successfully used to quantify EB-GII in urine of F344 rats treated with 0-200 ppm of BD, occupationally exposed workers, and smokers belonging to two different ethnic groups. EB-GII amounts increased in a dose-dependent manner in urine of laboratory rats exposed to 0, 62.5, or 200 ppm of BD. Urinary EB-GII levels were significantly increased in workers occupationally exposed to 0.1-2.2 ppm of BD (1.25 ± 0.51 pg/mg of creatinine) as compared to administrative controls exposed to <0.01 ppm of BD (0.22 ± 0.08 and pg/mg of creatinine) (p = 0.0024), validating the use of EB-GII as a biomarker of human exposure to BD. EB-GII was also detected in smokers' urine with European American smokers excreting significantly higher amounts of EB-GII than African American smokers (0.48 ± 0.09 vs 0.12 ± 0.02 pg/mg of creatinine, p = 3.1 × 10 -7 ). Interestingly, small amounts of EB-GII were observed in animals and humans with no known exposure to BD, providing preliminary evidence for its endogenous formation. Urinary EB-GII adduct levels and urinary mercapturic acids of BD (MHBMA, DHBMA) were compared

  20. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl) guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG) in HSV1-tk gene transduced hepatoma cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Tae Sup [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung Keun [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2006-08-15

    The HSV1-tk reporter gene system is the most widely used system because of its advantage that direct monitoring is possible without the introduction of a separate reporter gene in case of HSV1-tk suicide gene therapy. In this study, we investigate the usefulness of the reporter probe (substrate), 9-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl) guanine ([{sup 18}F]FHBG) for non-invasive reporter gene imaging using PET in HSV1-tk expressing hepatoma model. Radiolabeled FHBG was prepared in 8 steps from a commercially available triester. The labeling reaction was carried out by NCA nucleophilic substitution with K[{sup 18}F]/K2.2.2. in acetonitrile using N2-monomethoxytrityl-9-[4-(tosly)-3-monomethoxytritylmethylbutl] guanine as a precursor, followed by deprotection with 1 N HCI. Preliminary biological properties of the probe were evaluated with MCA cells and MCA-tk cells transduced with HSV1-tk reporter gene. In vitro uptake and release-out studies of [{sup 18}F]FHBG were performed, and was analyzed correlation between [{sup 18}F]FHBG uptake ratio according to increasing numeric count of MCA-tk cells and degree of gene expression. MicroPET scan image was obtained with MCA and MCA-tk tumor beating Balb/c-nude mouse model. [{sup 18}F]FHBG was purified by reverse phase semi-HPLC system and collected at around 16-18 min. Radiochemical yield was about 20-25% (corrected for decay), radiochemical purity was > 95% and specific activity was around > 55.5 GBq/ {mu} mol. Specific accumulation of [{sup 18}F]FHBG was observed in HSV1-tk gene transduced MCA-tk cells but not MCA cells, and consecutive 1 hour release-out results showed more than 86% of uptaked [{sup 18}F]FHBG was retained inside of cells. The uptake of [{sup 18}F]FHBG was showed a highly significant linear correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.995) with increasing percentage of MCA-tk numeric cell count. In microPET scan images, remarkable difference of accumulation was observed for the two type of tumors. [{sup 18}F]FHBG appears

  1. Surface amplification of pencil graphite electrode with polypyrrole and reduced graphene oxide for fabrication of a guanine/adenine DNA based electrochemical biosensors for determination of didanosine anticancer drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Maleh, Hassan; Bananezhad, Asma; Ganjali, Mohammad R.; Norouzi, Parviz; Sadrnia, Abdolhossein

    2018-05-01

    Didanosine is nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors with many side effects such as nausea and vomiting, stomach pain, tingling, burning and numbness and determination of this drug is very important in biological samples. This paper presents a DNA biosensor for determination of didanosine (DDI) in pharmaceutical samples. A pencil graphite electrode modified with conductive materials such as polypyrrole (PPy) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) (PGE/PPy/rGO) was used for this goal. The double-stranded DNA was successfully immobilized on PGE/PPy/rGO. The PGE/PPy/rGO was characterized by microscopic and electrochemical methods. Then, the interaction of DDI with DNA was identified by decreases in the oxidation currents of guanine and adenine by differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) method. The dynamic range of DDI identified in the range of 0.02-50.0 μM and this electrode provided a low limit of detection (LOD = 8.0 nM) for DDI. The PGE/PPy/rGO loaded with ds-DNA was utilized for the measurement of DDI in real samples and obtained data were compared with HPLC method. The statistical tests such as F-test and t-test were used for confirming ability of PGE/PPy/rGO loaded with ds-DNA for analysis of DDI in real samples.

  2. Catabolism of caffeine and purification of a xanthine oxidade responsible for methyluric acids production in Pseudomonas putida L Catabolismo de cafeína e purificação de xantina oxidase responsável pela produção de ácidos metilúricos em Pseudomonas putida L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Mithico Yamaoka-Yano

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine catabolism and a xanthine oxidase involved in the alkaloid breakdown were studied in Pseudomonas putida L, a strain displaying high ability to grow on this substrate. Cells cultured with unlabelled caffeine and 14C labeled caffeine and xanthine showed that this alkaloid was broken-down via theobromine/paraxanthine -> 7-methylxanthine -> xanthine -> uric acid -> allantoin -> allantoic acid. Methyluric acids were formed from the oxidation of theobromine, paraxanthine and 7-methylxanthine, although no bacterial growth was observed on these compounds, indicating that this might be due to a wide substrate specificity of xanthine oxidase. This was confirmed by activity staining in PAGE where activity was observed with theophylline and 3-methylxanthine, which are not involved in the alkaloid breakdown. A single band of activity was detected without addition of NAD+, showing an oxidase form of the enzyme. The enzyme optimum temperature and pH were 30oC and 7.0, respectively. The determined Km was 169 µM, and the pI 3.1 - 4.0. The molecular weight determined by side by side comparison of activity staining of the enzyme in PAGE and PAGE of BSA was 192 kDa, which was coincident with the sum (198.4 kDa of three subunits (71, 65.6 and 61.8 kDa of the purified protein.O catabolismo de cafeína e a enzima xantina oxidase, envolvida na sua degradação, foram estudados em Pseudomonas putida L, uma linhagem com alta capacidade para utilizar este substrato como fonte de energia. Células crescidas na presença de cafeína e xantina marcadas com 14C, e cafeína não marcada, mostraram que este alcalóide foi degradado via teobromina/paraxantina -> 7-metilxantina -> xantina -> ácido úrico -> alantoína -> ácido alantóico. Ácidos metilúricos foram formados a partir de teobromina, paraxantina e 7-metilxantina, embora nenhum crescimento bacteriano ter sido observado quando estes compostos foram usados como substratos, indicando que a xantina oxidase

  3. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  4. A novel missense variant (Gln220Arg) of GNB4 encoding guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 in a Japanese family with autosomal dominant motor and sensory neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Shiroh; Morikawa, Takuya; Fujioka, Ryuta; Noda, Kazuhito; Kosaka, Kengo; Taniwaki, Takayuki; Shibata, Hiroki

    2017-09-01

    Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease F (CMTDIF) is an autosomal dominant hereditary form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) caused by variations in the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, subunit beta-4 gene (GNB4). We examined two Japanese familial cases with CMT. Case 1 was a 49-year-old male whose chief complaint was slowly progressive gait disturbance and limb dysesthesia that appeared at the age of 47. On neurological examination, he showed hyporeflexia or areflexia, distal limb muscle weakness, and distal sensory impairment with lower dominancy. Nerve conduction studies demonstrated demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy with reduced action potentials in the lower limbs. Case 2 was an 80-year-old man, Case 1's father, who reported difficulty in riding a bicycle at the age of 76. On neurological examination, he showed areflexia in the upper and lower limbs. Distal sensory impairment in the lower limbs was also observed. Nerve conduction studies revealed mainly axonal involvement. Exome sequencing identified a novel heterozygous nonsynonymous variant (NM_021629.3:c.659T > C [p.Gln220Arg]) in GNB4 exon 8, which is known to be responsible for CMT. Sanger sequencing confirmed that both patients are heterozygous for the variation, which causes an amino acid substitution, Gln220Arg, in the highly conserved region of the WD40 domain of GNB4. The frequency of this variant in the Exome Aggregation Consortium Database was 0.000008247, and we confirmed its absence in 502 Japanese control subjects. We conclude that this novel GNB4 variant is causative for CMTDIF in these patients, who represent the first record of the disease in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of mice deficient in Rapgef2 and Rapgef6, a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases possessing the Ras/Rap-associating domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeta, Kazuhiro; Hattori, Satoko; Ikutomo, Junji; Edamatsu, Hironori; Bilasy, Shymaa E; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Kataoka, Tohru

    2018-05-10

    Rapgef2 and Rapgef6 define a subfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors for Rap small GTPases, characterized by the possession of the Ras/Rap-associating domain. Previous genomic analyses suggested their possible involvement in the etiology of schizophrenia. We recently demonstrated the development of an ectopic cortical mass (ECM), which resembles the human subcortical band heterotopia, in the dorsal telencephalon-specific Rapgef2 conditional knockout (Rapgef2-cKO) brains. Additional knockout of Rapgef6 in Rapgef2-cKO mice resulted in gross enlargement of the ECM whereas knockout of Rapgef6 alone (Rapgef6-KO) had no discernible effect on the brain morphology. Here, we performed a battery of behavioral tests to examine the effects of Rapgef2 or Rapgef6 deficiency on higher brain functions. Rapgef2-cKO mice exhibited hyperlocomotion phenotypes. They showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze and the open-field tests as well as increased depression-like behavior in the Porsolt forced swim and tail suspension tests. They also exhibited increased sociability especially in novel environments. They showed defects in cognitive function as evidenced by reduced learning ability in the Barnes circular maze test and by impaired working memory in the T maze tests. In contrast, although Rapgef6 and Rapgef2 share similarities in biochemical roles, Rapgef6-KO mice exhibited mild behavioral abnormalities detected with a number of behavioral tests, such as hyperlocomotion phenotype in the open-field test and the social interaction test with a novel environment and working-memory defects in the T-maze test. In conclusion, although there were differences in their brain morphology and the magnitude of the behavioral abnormalities, Rapgef2-cKO mice and Rapgef6-KO mice exhibited hyperlocomotion phenotype and working-memory defect, both of which could be recognized as schizophrenia-like behavior.

  6. Determination of gouty arthritis' biomarkers in human urine using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Wen Xiang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Creatinine, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine are important diagnostic biomarkers in human urine for gouty arthritis or renal disease diacrisis. A simple method for simultaneous determination of these biomarkers in urine based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC with ultraviolet (UV detector was proposed. After pretreatment by dilution, centrifugation and filtration, the biomarkers in urine samples were separated by ODS-BP column by elution with methanol/50 mM NaH2PO4 buffer solution at pH 5.26 (5:95. Good linearity between peak areas and concentrations of standards was obtained for the biomarkers with correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9957–0.9993. The proposed analytical method has satisfactory repeatability (the recovery of data in a range of creatinine, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine was 93.49–97.90%, 95.38–96.45%, 112.46–115.78% and 90.82–97.13% with standard deviation of <5%, respectively and the limits of detection (LODs, S/N≥3 for creatinine, uric acid, hypoxanthine, and xanthine were 0.010, 0.025, 0.050 and 0.025 mg/L, respectively. The established method was proved to be simple, accurate, sensitive and reliable for the quantitation of gouty arthritis' biomarkers in human urine samples. The ratio of creatinine to uric acid was found to be a possible factor for assessment of gouty arthritis. Keywords: Gouty arthritis, Creatinine, Uric acid, Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, High-performance liquid chromatography

  7. Radiation effects on biochemical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, G.M.

    2000-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine and a wide range of carbonyl compounds. The enzyme exists as an oxidase and a dehydrogenase; both catalyze the oxidation of the same substrates. Steady state radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were used to generate oxidative and reductive free radicals. Their effects on the enzymatic activity of xanthine oxidase were determined. Initially inactivation studies were carried out to evaluate the extent to which radiolysis in aqueous solution affects the enzyme activity. Values of D 37 and G inactivation were calculated following irradiation in the presence of free radical scavengers and in the presence of catalase and superoxide dismutase. The kinetic constants Vmax and Km were also determined following radiolysis. The effect of ionising radiation on the iron content of xanthine oxidase was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Native gel electrophoresis and iso-electric focussing were performed in an attempt to demonstrate changes in the overall structure of the enzyme. The binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin was carried out by measuring, (1) the displacement of methylene blue (MB + ) from a heparin-MB + complex, (2) affinity chromatography and, (3) pulse radiolysis. The effect of irradiation on the binding process was investigated using techniques (1) and (2). Finally the radiation-induced conversion of xanthine oxidase to dehydrogenase was established. The results indicate that xanthine oxidase is inactivated greatest in the presence of air and irradiation causes Vmax to he reduced and Km to increase. The iron content of irradiated xanthine oxidase is unaffected. Electrophoresis shows the enzyme becomes fragmented and the isoelectric points of the fragments vary over a wide range of pH. Binding of xanthine oxidase to heparin as measured by displacement of MB + from a heparin-MB + complex suggests that irradiation increases the affinity of the enzyme for the polyanion, whereas

  8. Prediction of purine derivatives, creatinine and total nitrogen concentrations in urine by FT-Near-lnfrared Reflectance spectroscopy (FT-NIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susmel, P.; Piani, B.; Toso, B.; Stefanon, B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an alternative method for the determination of purine derivatives (PD, which include allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine and xanthine), creatinine and total nitrogen (N) concentrations in urine. About 180 urine samples from cattle, buffaloes and rabbit were collected and analyzed for PD by HPLC, creatinine by spectrophotometry and N by Kjeldahl method. The urine samples were then analyzed by Fourier Transformed Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (FT-NIR) to find conformity between this technique and the HPLC and colorimetric methods. FT-NIR can predict allantoin, uric acid, hypoxanthine, xanthine, creatinine, total N and sum of N in both allantoin and uric acid with a satisfactory level of accuracy: the determination coefficient (r 2 ) of validation ranged from 0.888% for uric acid to 0.982% for total N. The coefficients of determination for allantoin, creatinine and sum of N in both allantoin and uric acid were 0.92, 0.894 and 0.90%, respectively. Hypoxanthine and xanthine in urine samples were not detectable by NIRS, probably because of their low concentrations, and therefore they were not considered for instrumental calibration. (author)

  9. Purine-related metabolites and their converting enzymes are altered in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex at early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Andrés, Patricia; Albasanz, José Luis; Ferrer, Isidro; Martín, Mairena

    2018-01-24

    Adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanosine and inosine levels were assessed by HPLC, and the activity of related enzymes 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) measured in frontal (FC), parietal (PC) and temporal (TC) cortices at different stages of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in age-matched controls. Significantly decreased levels of adenosine, guanosine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, and apparently less inosine, are found in FC from the early stages of AD; PC and TC show an opposing pattern, as adenosine, guanosine and inosine are significantly increased at least at determinate stages of AD whereas hypoxanthine and xanthine levels remain unaltered. 5'-NT is reduced in membranes and cytosol in FC mainly at early stages but not in PC, and only at advanced stages in cytosol in TC. ADA activity is decreased in AD when considered as a whole but increased at early stages in TC. Finally, PNP activity is increased only in TC at early stages. Purine metabolism alterations occur at early stages of AD independently of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques. Alterations are stage dependent and region dependent, the latter showing opposite patterns in FC compared with PC and TC. Adenosine is the most affected of the assessed purines. © 2018 International Society of Neuropathology.

  10. How does the long G·G* Watson-Crick DNA base mispair comprising keto and enol tautomers of the guanine tautomerise? The results of a QM/QTAIM investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-08-14

    The double proton transfer (DPT) in the long G·G* Watson-Crick base mispair (|C6N1(G*)N1C6(G)| = 36.4°; C1 symmetry), involving keto and enol tautomers of the guanine (G) nucleobase, along two intermolecular neighboring O6H···O6 (8.39) and N1···HN1 (6.14 kcal mol(-1)) H-bonds that were established to be slightly anti-cooperative, leads to its transformation into the G*·G base mispair through a single transition state (|C6N1N1C6| = 37.1°; C1), namely to the interconversion into itself. It was shown that the G·G* ↔ G*·G tautomerisation via the DPT is assisted by the third specific contact, that sequentially switches along the intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) in an original way: (G)N2H···N2(G*) H-bond (-25.13 to -10.37) → N2···N2 van der Waals contact (-10.37 to -9.23) → (G)N2···HN2(G*) H-bond (-9.23 to 0.79) → (G*)N2···HN2(G) H-bond (0.79 to 7.35 Bohr). The DPT tautomerisation was found to proceed through the asynchronous concerted mechanism by employing the QM/QTAIM approach and the methodology of the scans of the geometric, electron-topological, energetic, polar and NBO properties along the IRC. Nine key points, that can be considered as part of the tautomerisation repertoire, have been established and analyzed in detail. Furthermore, it was shown that the G·G* or G*·G base mispair is a thermodynamically and dynamically stable structure with a lifetime of 8.22 × 10(-10) s and all 6 low-frequency intermolecular vibrations are able to develop during this time span. Lastly, our results highlight the importance of the G·G* ↔ G*·G DPT tautomerisation, which can have implications for biological and chemical sensing applications.

  11. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of 45Ca2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel

  12. Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor-mediated uptake of sup 45 Ca sup 2+ by cultured rat Sertoli cells does not require activation of cholera toxin- or pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding proteins or adenylate cyclase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasso, P.; Reichert, L.E. Jr. (Albany Medical College, NY (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have previously reported that FSH stimulates flux of 45Ca2+ into cultured Sertoli cells from immature rats via voltage-sensitive and voltage-independent calcium channels. In the present study, we show that this effect of FSH does not require cholera toxin (CT)- or pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive guanine nucleotide binding (G) protein or activation of adenylate cyclase (AC). Significant stimulation of 45Ca2+ influx was observed within 1 min, and maximal response (3.2-fold over basal levels) was achieved within 2 min after exposure to FSH. FSH-stimulated elevations in cellular cAMP paralleled increases in 45Ca2+ uptake, suggesting a possible coupling of AC activation to 45Ca2+ influx. (Bu)2cAMP, however, was not able to enhance 45Ca2+ uptake over basal levels at a final concentration of 1000 microM, although a concentration-related increase in androstenedione conversion to estradiol was evident. Exposure of Sertoli cells to CT (10 ng/ml) consistently stimulated basal levels of androstenedione conversion to estradiol but had no effect on basal levels of 45Ca2+ uptake. Similarly, CT had no effect on FSH-induced 45Ca2+ uptake, but potentiated FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis. PT (10 ng/ml) augmented basal and FSH-stimulated estradiol secretion without affecting 45Ca2+ influx. The adenosine analog N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, which binds to Gi-coupled adenosine receptors on Sertoli cells, inhibited FSH-stimulated androgen conversion to estradiol in a dose-related (1-1000 nM) manner, but FSH-stimulated 45Ca2+ influx remained unchanged. Our results show that in contrast to FSH-stimulated estradiol synthesis, the flux of 45Ca2+ into Sertoli cells in response to FSH is not mediated either directly or indirectly by CT- or PT-sensitive G protein, nor does it require activation of AC. Our data further suggest that the FSH receptor itself may function as a calcium channel.

  13. Topoisomerase IB of Deinococcus radiodurans resolves guanine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-28

    Nov 28, 2015 ... All the oligonucleotides men- tioned here were ... further reactions with DraTopoIB were carried out at 37°C ... of G4 DNA moves faster than unfolded and intermolecular .... for its action on intramolecular G4 DNA structure was.

  14. Is the DPT tautomerization of the long A·G Watson-Crick DNA base mispair a source of the adenine and guanine mutagenic tautomers? A QM and QTAIM response to the biologically important question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Zhurakivsky, Roman O; Hovorun, Dmytro M

    2014-03-05

    Herein, we first address the question posed in the title by establishing the tautomerization trajectory via the double proton transfer of the adenine·guanine (A·G) DNA base mispair formed by the canonical tautomers of the A and G bases into the A*·G* DNA base mispair, involving mutagenic tautomers, with the use of the quantum-mechanical calculations and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). It was detected that the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization proceeds through the asynchronous concerted mechanism. It was revealed that the A·G base mispair is stabilized by the N6H···O6 (5.68) and N1H···N1 (6.51) hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) and the N2H···HC2 dihydrogen bond (DH-bond) (0.68 kcal·mol(-1) ), whereas the A*·G* base mispair-by the O6H···N6 (10.88), N1H···N1 (7.01) and C2H···N2 H-bonds (0.42 kcal·mol(-1) ). The N2H···HC2 DH-bond smoothly and without bifurcation transforms into the C2H···N2 H-bond at the IRC = -10.07 Bohr in the course of the A·G ↔ A*·G* tautomerization. Using the sweeps of the energies of the intermolecular H-bonds, it was observed that the N6H···O6 H-bond is anticooperative to the two others-N1H···N1 and N2H···HC2 in the A·G base mispair, while the latters are significantly cooperative, mutually strengthening each other. In opposite, all three O6H···N6, N1H···N1, and C2H···N2 H-bonds are cooperative in the A*·G* base mispair. All in all, we established the dynamical instability of the А*·G* base mispair with a short lifetime (4.83·10(-14) s), enabling it not to be deemed feasible source of the A* and G* mutagenic tautomers of the DNA bases. The small lifetime of the А*·G* base mispair is predetermined by the negative value of the Gibbs free energy for the A*·G* → A·G transition. Moreover, all of the six low-frequency intermolecular vibrations cannot develop during this lifetime that additionally confirms the aforementioned results. Thus, the A*·G* base mispair cannot be

  15. Uji Penghambatan Xantin Oksidase Secara In Vitro Ekstrak Kulit Rambutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Eka Putri

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is a condition that uric acid levels increased and cause accumulated uric acid crystals in the tissues. Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme which catalyze the oxidation of hypoxanthine into xanthine and into uric acid. Therefore, the inhibition of xanthine oxidase will reduce ammount of uric acid. The purpose of this study was to determine xanthine oxidase inhibition activity and to identify chemical constituent of rrind rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Linn.. Rind of Rambutan was extracted using maceration methods, based on polarity the solvent are n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The test of inhibition xanthine oxidase activity used a spectrophotometer at λ = 274.79 nm, pH 7.8, substrate concentration of xanthine 0.15 mM and incubation temperature of 30°C. Allopurinol as positive control had C50 0.15 μg/mL. The result showed that methanol extract of rind rambutan had the highest inhibition with IC50 3.71 μg/mL. Phytochemical screening showed that the most active extract methanol of rind rambutan contain flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids.

  16. The development of in vitro mutagenicity testing systems using T-lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, R.J.

    1992-05-01

    This work has focused on the development of in vitro T-cell mutation assays. Conditions have been defined to measure the in vitro induction of mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in human T-lymphocytes. This assay is a parallel to our in vivo hprt assay, in that the same cells are utilized. However, the in vitro assay allows for carefully controlled dose response studies. 21 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Crystal Structures of Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates in Complex with Escherichia coli Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eng, W. S.; Hocková, Dana; Špaček, Petr; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 19 (2016), s. 6267-6276 ISSN 2365-6549 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * nucleotide analogues * HPRT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  18. Escherichia coli Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase II, the Product of the xapA Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Szczepanowski, R.H.; Kierdaszuk, B.

    2005-01-01

    the monoanionic form of xanthine. A single amino acid exchange, tyrosine 191 to leucine, is sufficient to convert E. coli PNP-II into an enzyme with the specificity of conventional trimeric PNPs, but the reciprocal mutation in human PNP, valine 195 to tyrosine, does not elicit xanthosine phosphorylase activity...... forms, PNP-II trimers dimerize, leading to a subunit arrangement that is qualitatively different from the "trimer of dimers" arrangement of conventional high molecular mass PNPs. Crystal structures are compatible with similar binding modes for guanine and xanthine, with a preference for the neutral over...

  19. Xanthine oxidase activity during transition period and its association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr BC Mili

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... ISSN 1684-5315 ©2013 Academic Journals ... mammary gland growth and the onset of copious milk synthesis and secretion during this ... pus) or mucopurulent (approximately 50% pus, 50% mucus) uterine exudates in the ...

  20. Reexamining Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics for Xanthine Oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Chinn, Tamara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abbreviated expressions for enzyme kinetic expressions, such as the Michaelis-Menten (M-M) equations, are based on the premise that enzyme concentrations are low compared with those of the substrate and product. When one does progress experiments, where the solute is consumed during conversion to form a series of products, the idealized conditions…

  1. Kinetics of Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Lycium arabicum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced Hyperuricemia and Renal Dysfunction in Mice ... Therefore, there is urgent need to develop new ..... Development of Research in Health (ANDRS). ... New. York: Academic Press; 1965 ; pp 32-191. 6. Markham KR. Techniques of ...

  2. Study for luminescence performance of three methyl xanthine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yan-Li; Dong, Chuan; Shuang, Shao-Min; Liu, Dian-Sheng

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the low-temperature phosphorescence (LTP), the low-temperature fluorescence (LTF), the paper substrate room-temperature phosphorescence (PS-RTP) and the room fluorescence (RTF) properties of caffeine (CF), theophylline (TP), and theobromine (TB) are investigated and compared, and some rules are found out: their maximal excitation wavelength and emission wavelength are in the range of 270-300 nm and 395-445 nm, respectively. And the PS-RTP characters of lifetime, polarization and quanta yield are also investigated and compared. It is found that their lifetimes of PS-RTP are all in the level of 0.1 s. They belong to long-life phosphorescence and their PS-RTP spectra are incompletely polarized.

  3. Side Effects and Interactions of the Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Febuxostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Andreas; Gresser, Ursula

    2018-05-25

    The paper addresses the safety of febuxostat and summarizes reports on side effects and interactions of febuxostat published by the cut-off date (last day of literature search) of 20 March 2018. Publications on side effects and the interactions of febuxostat were considered. Information concerning the occurrence of side effects and interactions in association with the treatment with febuxostat was collected and summarized in the review. The incidence of severe side effects was much less frequent than mild side effects (1.2⁻3.8% to 20.1⁻38.7%). The rate and range of febuxostat side effects are low at doses of up to 120 mg and only increase with a daily dose of over 120 mg. The publications reveal no age-dependent increase in side effects for febuxostat. In patients with impaired renal function, no increase in adverse events is described with a dose of up to 120 mg of febuxostat per day. Patients with impaired liver function had no elevated risk for severe side effects. A known allopurinol intolerance increases the risk of skin reactions during treatment with febuxostat by a factor of 3.6. No correlation between treatment with febuxostat and agranulocytosis has been confirmed. Possible interactions with very few medications (principally azathioprine) are known for febuxostat. Febuxostat is well tolerated and a modern and safe alternative to allopurinol therapy.

  4. Estimation of rumen microbial-nitrogen of sheep using urinary excretion of purine derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dasen; Shan Anshan

    2004-01-01

    Determination of rumen microbial-nitrogen of sheep using urinary excretion of purine derivative was studied. Uric acid and xanthine + hypoxanthine were not affected by diets, but total purine derivatives for 1 mg borax/kg diet was higher than other diets (p<0.05). Microbial-nitrogen estimated from allantoin was not affected by diets, but that of 1 mg borax/kg diet estimated from total purine derivatives was higher than other diets (p<0.05). Microbial-nitrogen estimated from total purine derivatives was higher than that from allantoin

  5. Purine and its analogues and radiation damage in Bacillus megaterium spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    As an extension of results obtained from radiation studies on caffeine both in other laboratories and more recently in this laboratory using the bacterial spore as the test system, six compounds with chemical structures closely resembling that of caffeine were tested as radiation modifiers. Of these compounds, purine, adenine and hypoxanthine resembled caffeine in sensitizing spores to radiation, while theobromine, xanthine and theophylline did not. These responses are discussed in relation to the electron sequestration hypothesis of cellular sensitization to high-energy radiation. (author)

  6. Purine and its analogues and radiation damage in Bacillus megaterium spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, E.L.

    1986-12-01

    As an extension of results obtained from radiation studies on caffeine both in other laboratories and more recently in this laboratory using the bacterial spore as the test system, six compounds with chemical structures closely resembling that of caffeine were tested as radiation modifiers. Of these compounds, purine, adenine and hypoxanthine resembled caffeine in sensitizing spores to radiation, while theobromine, xanthine and theophylline did not. These responses are discussed in relation to the electron sequestration hypothesis of cellular sensitization to high-energy radiation.

  7. Photochemical selectivity in guanine-cytosine base-pair structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abo-Riziq, A.; Grace, L.; Nir, E.; Kabeláč, Martin; Hobza, Pavel; Vries de, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 1 (2005), s. 20-23 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/05/0009 Grant - others:NSF(US) CHE-0244341 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : DNA base pairs * IR-UV spectroscopy * phytochemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 10.231, year: 2005

  8. Towards understanding of poly-guanine activated fluorescent silver nanoclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, Sylwia; Morishita, Kiyoshi; Ahmed, Moin; Liu, Juewen

    2014-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the fluorescence of some DNA-templated silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) can be significantly enhanced upon by hybridizing with a partially complementary DNA containing a G-rich overhang near the AgNCs. This discovery has found a number of analytical applications but many fundamental questions remain to be answered. In this work, the photostability of these activated AgNCs is reported. After adding the G-rich DNA activator, the fluorescence intensity peaks in ∼1 h and then starts to decay, where the decaying rate is much faster with light exposure. The lost fluorescence is recovered by adding NaBH 4 , suggesting that the bleaching is an oxidative process. Once activated, the G-rich activator can be removed while the AgNCs still maintain most of their fluorescence intensity. UV–vis spectroscopy suggests that new AgNC species are generated upon hybridization with the activator. The base sequence and length of the template DNA have also been varied, leading to different emission colors and color change after hybridization. G-rich aptamers can also serve as activators. Our results indicate that activation of the fluorescence by G-rich DNA could be a convenient method for biosensor development since the unstable NaBH 4 is not required for the activation step. (paper)

  9. Measurement of purine derivatives in the urine of some ruminant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscardini, S.; Stefanon, B.; Susmel, P.; Haddi, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    The application of published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of PD in urine of cattle, sheep, buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) was investigated. Urine was taken from two water buffaloes, two camels, three cows and four sheep, all fed at maintenance level. Total nitrogen content in urine was determined using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure. Allantoin, uric acid and creatinine levels were determined colorimetrically while xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Relative proportion of allantoin ranged from 74 ± 7 to 91 ± 1% in camels and cattle, respectively. Uric acid proportion was very low in camel urine (1.7 ± 1) but ranged from 3.7 ± 3 to 9.2 ± 1% in sheep and cows, respectively. Xanthine + hypoxanthine ranged from 11 ± 3 to 25 ± 7% in buffalo and camels, respectively. Total PD:Creatinine ratio (mol/mol W 0.75 ) was 118 ± 15, 46 ± 17, 37 ± 9 and 33 ± 5 for cattle, camels, buffaloes and sheep respectively. The adoption of a single method for the simultaneous detection of all derivatives proved difficult due to elution of polar coextractives at the same retention times as the peaks of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine. (author)

  10. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits 2-deoxyribose damage induced by Fe (III) plus ascorbate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto Lázaro; Delgado, René; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2006-02-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of selected species of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba as a nutritional antioxidant supplement. Many in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress have been used to elucidate the antioxidant mechanisms of this extract. To further characterize the mechanism of Vimang action, its effect on the degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or plus hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase was studied. Vimang was shown to be a potent inhibitor of 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or superoxide (O2-). The results revealed that Vimang, at concentrations higher than 50 microM mangiferin equivalent, was equally effective in preventing degradation of both 15 mM and 1.5 mM 2-deoxyribose. At a fixed Fe (III) concentration, increasing the concentration of ligands (either EDTA or citrate) caused a significant reduction in the protective effects of Vimang. When ascorbate was replaced by O2- (formed by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase) the protective efficiency of Vimang was also inversely related to EDTA concentration. The results strongly indicate that Vimang does not block 2-deoxyribose degradation by simply trapping *OH radicals. Rather, Vimang seems to act as an antioxidant by complexing iron ions, rendering them inactive or poorly active in the Fenton reaction. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Tocotrienol Rich Palm Oil Extract Is More Effective Than Pure Tocotrienols at Improving Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in the Presence of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher F. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiator of vascular disease. Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant but attempts to use it to treat vascular disorders have been disappointing. This study investigated whether tocotrienols, the less abundant components of vitamin E compared to tocopherols, might be more effective at preserving endothelial function. Superoxide generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase or rat aorta was measured using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The effect of α-tocopherol, α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols and a tocotrienol rich palm oil extract (tocomin on levels of superoxide was assessed. Endothelial function in rat aorta was assessed in the presence of the auto-oxidant pyrogallol. Whilst all of the compounds displayed antioxidant activity, the tocotrienols were more effective when superoxide was produced by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase whereas tocomin and α-tocopherol were more effective in the isolated aorta. Tocomin and α-tocopherol restored endothelial function in the presence of oxidant stress but α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols were ineffective. The protective effect of tocomin was replicated when the tocotrienols were present with, but not without, α-tocopherol. Tocotrienol rich tocomin is more effective than α-tocopherol at reducing oxidative stress and restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortae and although α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols effectively scavenged superoxide, they did not improve endothelial function.

  12. Tocotrienol Rich Palm Oil Extract Is More Effective Than Pure Tocotrienols at Improving Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in the Presence of Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saher F.; Woodman, Owen L.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiator of vascular disease. Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant but attempts to use it to treat vascular disorders have been disappointing. This study investigated whether tocotrienols, the less abundant components of vitamin E compared to tocopherols, might be more effective at preserving endothelial function. Superoxide generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase or rat aorta was measured using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The effect of α-tocopherol, α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols and a tocotrienol rich palm oil extract (tocomin) on levels of superoxide was assessed. Endothelial function in rat aorta was assessed in the presence of the auto-oxidant pyrogallol. Whilst all of the compounds displayed antioxidant activity, the tocotrienols were more effective when superoxide was produced by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase whereas tocomin and α-tocopherol were more effective in the isolated aorta. Tocomin and α-tocopherol restored endothelial function in the presence of oxidant stress but α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols were ineffective. The protective effect of tocomin was replicated when the tocotrienols were present with, but not without, α-tocopherol. Tocotrienol rich tocomin is more effective than α-tocopherol at reducing oxidative stress and restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortae and although α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols effectively scavenged superoxide, they did not improve endothelial function. PMID:26075031

  13. Mutagenic effects of 3-carbethoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen plus 365-nm irradiation in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulo, D.; Sagliocco, F.; Averbeck, D.

    1983-01-01

    Cell survival, i.e. colony-forming ability, and the induction of 6-thioguanine-resistant (6-TGsup(r)) mutants were determined in Chinese hamster V79 cells by using two photoreactive furocoumarins of photochemotherapeutic interest: the bifunctional compound 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and the monofunctional compound 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs). To quantify the mutation induction in V79 cells mutants deficient in the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) were selected with the purine analogue 6-thioguanine (6-TG). Both compounds exhibited lethal and mutagenic activities but the monofunctional compound 3-CPs was less lethal and mutagenic than the bifunctional compound 8-MOP. (Auth.)

  14. Massachusetts Institute of Technology progress report, January 1-July 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Progress is recorded on a coordinated research project on the biochemical basis of single nucleotide substitutions which result in a mutant hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT). Reports from individual investigation relate progress in resolution of exon 3 of the human HGPRT gene, isolation of genomic RNA, mutant t-cell growth, restriction analysis of insertion/deletion events in HGPRT, HGPRT messenger DNA isolation, DNA sequencing of HGPRT genes, reduction of selection conditions for HGPRT mutants, and progress in improving the HGPRT assay. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (DT)

  15. Comparison of HPRT mutant frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes of smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Mary Mohankumar, N.; Chatterjee, Indranil; Jeevanram, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The mutant frequency of hypoxanthine guanine phospho ribosyl transferase (HPRT) has been studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of six non-smokers and six smokers. The mutant frequency was studied by following a Uniform Operating Protocol (UOP). The mean lymphocyte cloning efficiency of non-smokers and smokers was about 31 %. The mean mutant frequency obtained in smokers showed a marginal increase compared to that of non-smokers, but they were not significantly different (P= 0.1416). This paper discusses the methodology adopted and the results obtained with the preliminary finding. (author)

  16. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerouali, Abdelhai; El Gass, Youssef; Balcells, Joaquim; Belenguer, Alvaro; Nolan, John

    2004-08-01

    Five experiments were carried out to extend knowledge of purine metabolism in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to establish a model to enable microbial protein outflow from the forestomachs to be estimated from the urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD; i.e. xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin). In experiment 1, four camels were fasted for five consecutive days to enable endogenous PD excretion in urine to be determined. Total PD excretion decreased during the fasting period to 267 (SE 41.5) micromol/kg body weight (W)0.75 per d. Allantoin and xanthine + hypoxanthine were consistently 86 and 6.1 % of total urinary PD during this period but uric acid increased from 3.6 % to 7.4 %. Xanthine oxidase activity in tissues (experiment 2) was (micromol/min per g fresh tissue) 0.038 in liver and 0.005 in gut mucosa but was not detected in plasma. In experiment 3, the duodenal supply of yeast containing exogenous purines produced a linear increase in urinary PD excretion rate with the slope indicating that 0.63 was excreted in urine. After taking account of endogenous PD excretion, the relationship can be used to predict purine outflow from the rumen. From the latter prediction, and also the purine:protein ratio in bacteria determined in experiment 5, we predicted the net microbial outflow from the rumen. In experiment 4, with increasing food intake, the rate of PD excretion in the urine increased linearly by about 11.1 mmol PD/kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), equivalent to 95 g microbial protein/kg DOMI.

  17. Allopurinol-mediated lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitor tolerance by Clostridium beijerinckii during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2015-04-01

    In addition to glucans, xylans, and arabinans, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates contain significant levels of nonsugar components that are toxic to the microbes that are typically used to convert biomass to biofuels and chemicals. To enhance the tolerance of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE)-generating Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to these lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs; e.g., furfural), we have been examining different metabolic perturbation strategies to increase the cellular reductant pools and thereby facilitate detoxification of LDMICs. As part of these efforts, we evaluated the effect of allopurinol, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H-generating xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), on C. beijerinckii grown in furfural-supplemented medium and found that it unexpectedly increased the rate of detoxification of furfural by 1.4-fold and promoted growth, butanol, and ABE production by 1.2-, 2.5-, and 2-fold, respectively. Since NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) levels in C. beijerinckii were largely unchanged upon allopurinol treatment, we postulated and validated a possible basis in DNA repair to account for the solventogenic gains with allopurinol. Following the observation that supplementation of allopurinol in the C. beijerinckii growth media mitigates the toxic effects of nalidixic acid, a DNA-damaging antibiotic, we found that allopurinol elicited 2.4- and 6.7-fold increase in the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases, key purine-salvage enzymes. Consistent with this finding, addition of inosine (a precursor of hypoxanthine) and xanthine led to 1.4- and 1.7-fold increase in butanol production in furfural-challenged cultures of C. beijerinckii. Taken together, our results provide a purine salvage-based rationale for the unanticipated effect of allopurinol in improving furfural tolerance of the ABE-fermenting C. beijerinckii.

  18. Uric acid in plants and microorganisms: Biological applications and genetics - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, Rehab M; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; Naguib, Rasha M

    2017-09-01

    Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing) of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.

  19. Uric acid in plants and microorganisms: Biological applications and genetics - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab M. Hafez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.

  20. The effect of phorbols on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Autoradiography has been used to study the effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), 4-O-methyl TPA, and phorbol on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase+ (HGPRT+) cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of [ 3 H]hypoxanthine and either 4-O-methyl TPA or phorbol, nearly all interactions that developed in 4 h were positive for metabolic cooperation whereas when high concentrations of TPA were used, the number of positive interactions was significantly less than the control. If the phorbol analogs were added after the donors and recipients had made contact, the number of positive interactions was the same as the control in all cases. However, although primary recipients in the cultures that had been treated with phorbol had the same number of grains as those in the control, primary recipients in cultures that had been treated with TPA or high concentrations of 4-O-methyl TPA had significantly fewer grains than those in the control. TPA treatment for 4 h had no effect on total [ 3 H]hypoxanthine incorporation or incorporation into acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions. Thus, the effect of TPA on metabolic cooperation is interpreted as a reduction in the transfer of [ 3 H]nucleotides and is an indication of an interference with intercellular communication

  1. The urinary excretion of orotic acid and orotidine, measured by an isotope dilution assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tax, W.J.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Schretlen, E.D.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Unknown concentrations of orotic acid can be measured by competition with a known amount of [carboxyl- 14 C]orotic acid for reaction with a limiting amount of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate in the presence of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase. The dilution of the specific radioactivity in the product 14 CO 2 is a sensitive and accurate measure of the amount of orotic acid present in the sample. Orotidine can also be determined after hydrolytic cleavage to orotic acid. The method was used to measure orotic acid and orotidine in urine samples from newborns, healthy controls and patients with gout or deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase receiving allopurinol. Urinary excretion of orotic acid and orotidine in newborns was similar whether the infants were breast-fed or received milk powder. The excretion of orotidine was increased in all patients receiving allopurinol. After allopurinol administration orotic acid excretion was increased in gouty patients but close to normal values in patients with deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanism by which allopurinol inhibits pyrimidine metabolism. (Auth.)

  2. Complementation of a DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells by transfer of human chromosome 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, G.P.; Athwal, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Complementation of the repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum cells of complementation group A was achieved by the transfer of human chromosome 9. A set of mouse-human hybrid cell lines, each containing a single Ecogpt-marked human chromosome, was used as a source of donor chromosomes. Chromosome transfer to XPTG-1 cells, a hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mutant of simian virus 40-transformed complementation group A cells, was achieved by microcell fusion and selection for Ecogpt. Chromosome-transfer clones of XPTG-1 cells, each containing a different human donor chromosome, were analyzed for complementation of sensitivity to UV irradiation. Among all the clones, increased levels of resistance to UV was observed only in clones containing chromosome 9. Since our recipient cell line XPTG-1 is hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase deficient, cultivation of Ecogpt+ clones in medium containing 6-thioguanine permits selection of cells for loss of the marker and, by inference, transferred chromosome 9. Clones isolated for growth in 6-thioguanine, which have lost the Ecogpt-marked chromosome, exhibited a UV-sensitive phenotype, confirming the presence of the repair gene(s) for complementation group A on chromosome 9

  3. Olfactory bulb proteins linked to olfactory memory in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Mauric, Veronika; Zheng, Jun-Fang; Kang, Sung Ung; Patil, Sudarshan; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2010-08-01

    Information on systematic analysis of olfactory memory-related proteins is poor. In this study, the odor discrimination task to investigate olfactory recognition memory of adult male C57BL/6J mice was used. Subsequently, olfactory bulbs (OBs) were taken, proteins extracted, and run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with in-gel-protein digestion, followed by mass spectrometry and quantification of differentially expressed proteins. Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1 (DRP1), and fascin are related with Lemon odor memory. Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 3 is related to Rose odor memory. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase is related with both Lemon and Rose odors memory. MEK1 and DRP1 levels were increased, while microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 3, fascin and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase levels were decreased during olfactory memory. In summary, neurogenesis, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, and nucleotide metabolism are involved in olfactory memory formation and storage of C57BL/6J mice.

  4. Differences in activities of antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and prooxidant xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase in the normal corneal epithelium of various mammalia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andonova, Janetta; Pláteník, J.; Vejražka, M.; Štípek, S.; Ardan, Taras; Čejka, Čestmír; Midelfart, A.; Čejková, Jitka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2007), s. 105-112 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/06/1379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Mammalia * Cornea * Epithelium Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2007

  5. Age-related changes in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase activities in the rabbit cornea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Vejražka, M.; Pláteník, J.; Štípek, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2004), s. 1537-1543 ISSN 0531-5565 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906; CEZ:AV0Z5008914 Keywords : aging * cornea Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.880, year: 2004

  6. Oxidation and detoxification of trivalent arsenic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aposhian, H. Vasken; Zakharyan, Robert A.; Avram, Mihaela D.; Kopplin, Michael J.; Wollenberg, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic compounds with a +3 oxidation state are more toxic than analogous compounds with a +5 oxidation state, for example, arsenite versus arsenate, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA III ) versus monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA III ) versus dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ). It is no longer believed that the methylation of arsenite is the beginning of a methylation-mediated detoxication pathway. The oxidation of these +3 compounds to their less toxic +5 analogs by hydrogen peroxide needs investigation and consideration as a potential mechanism for detoxification. Xanthine oxidase uses oxygen to oxidize hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid. Hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen are also products. The oxidation of +3 arsenicals by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the xanthine oxidase reaction was blocked by catalase or allopurinol but not by scavengers of the hydroxy radical, e.g., mannitol or potassium iodide. Melatonin, the singlet oxygen radical scavenger, did not inhibit the oxidation. The production of H 2 O 2 by xanthine oxidase may be an important route for decreasing the toxicity of trivalent arsenic species by oxidizing them to their less toxic pentavalent analogs. In addition, there are many other reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Although chemists have used hydrogen peroxide for the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate to purify water, we are not aware of any published account of its potential importance in the detoxification of trivalent arsenicals in biological systems. At present, this oxidation of the +3 oxidation state arsenicals is based on evidence from in vitro experiments. In vivo experiments are needed to substantiate the role and importance of H 2 O 2 in arsenic detoxication in mammals

  7. Transfer of human genes conferring resistance to methylating mutagens, but not to UV irradiation and cross-linking agents, into Chinese hamster ovary cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaina, B.; Van Zeeland, A.A.; Backendorf, C.; Thielmann, H.W.; Van de Putte, P.

    1987-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected by human DNA ligated to the bacterial gpt (xanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyltransferase) gene which was used either in its native form or after partial inactivation with methylnitrosourea. The gpt+ transfectants were screened for resistance to high doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Using this approach, we showed that Chinese hamster ovary cells can acquire N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine resistance upon transfection with DNA from diploid human fibroblasts, that this resistance is transferable by secondary transfection and is specific for methylating mutagens, and that it is not caused by increased removal of O6-methylguanine, 3-methyladenine, and 7-methylguanine from DNA

  8. The immediate nucleotide precursor, guanosine triphosphate, in the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuda, Hisateru; Nakajima, Kenji; Nadamoto, Tomonori

    1977-01-01

    In the present paper, the nucleotide precursor of riboflavin was investigated by experiments with labeled purines using non-growing cells of Eremothecium ashbyii. The added purines, at 10 -4 M, were effectively incorporated into riboflavin at an early stage of riboflavin biosynthesis under the experimental conditions. In particular, both labeled xanthine and labeled guanine were specifically transported to guanosine nucleotides, GMP, GDP, GDP-Mannose and GTP, in the course of the riboflavin biosynthesis. A comparison of specific activities of labeled guanosine nucleotides and labeled riboflavin indicated that the nucleotide precursor of riboflavin is guanosine triphosphate. From the results obtained, a biosynthetic pathway of riboflavin is proposed. (auth.)

  9. Superoxide scavenging activity of pirfenidone-iron complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoshihiro; Sato, Keizo; Muramoto, Yosuke; Karakawa, Tomohiro; Kitamado, Masataka; Iwanaga, Tatsuya; Nabeshima, Tetsuji; Maruyama, Kumiko; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Ishida, Kazuhiko; Sasamoto, Kazumi

    2008-01-01

    Pirfenidone (PFD) is focused on a new anti-fibrotic drug, which can minimize lung fibrosis etc. We evaluated the superoxide (O 2 ·- ) scavenging activities of PFD and the PFD-iron complex by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay, and cytochrome c reduction assay. Firstly, we confirmed that the PFD-iron complex was formed by mixing iron chloride with threefold molar PFD, and the complex was stable in distillated water and ethanol. Secondary, the PFD-iron complex reduced the amount of O 2 ·- produced by xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine without inhibiting the enzyme activity. Thirdly, it also reduced the amount of O 2 ·- released from phorbor ester-stimulated human neutrophils. PFD alone showed few such effects. These results suggest the possibility that the O 2 ·- scavenging effect of the PFD-iron complex contributes to the anti-fibrotic action of PFD used for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

  10. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remirez, Diadelis; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Delgado, Rene; Harandi, Asghar A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.

  11. Maternal blood total oxypurines and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Akiyama, H; Kurauchi, O; Taira, H; Yamada, R; Narita, O; Tomoda, Y

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pregnancy on the levels of maternal plasma total oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid) and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) was investigated. With advancing gestation there was a slight increasing tendency in plasma total oxypurines as well as erythrocyte 2,3-DPG in pregnant women. When the ratio of 2,3-DPG to total oxypurines was calculated, the ratio was almost unchanged until week 34. After week 35, the ratio decreased to week 37; the ratios between week 37 and 40 had similar values to cord blood. The above data suggest that the changes of these metabolites in maternal peripheral blood may be indicative for hypoxia with fetoplacental tissue.

  12. Biosynthesis of caffeine by tea-leaf extracts. Enzymic formation of theobromine from 7-methylxanthine and of caffeine from theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Takahashi, E

    1975-01-01

    1. Extracts prepared from tea leaves with Polyclar AT (insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidine) contained two methyltransferase activities catalysing the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to 7-methylxanthine, producing theobromine, and to theobromine, producing caffeine. 2. The methyltransferases exhibited the same pH optimum (8.4) and a similar pattern of effects by metal ions, thiol inhibitors and metal-chelating reagents, both for theobromine and caffeine synthesis. Mg2+, Mn2+ and Ca2+ slightly stimulated enzyme activity but they were not essential. Paraxanthine was shown to be most active among methylxanthines, as the methyl acceptor. However, the formation of paraxanthine from 1-methylxanthine was very low and that from 7-methylxanthine was nil, suggesting that the synthesis of caffeine from paraxanthine is of little importance in intact plants. Xanthine, xanthosine, XMP and hypoxanthine were all inactive as methyl acceptors, whereas [2(-14)C]xanthine and [8(-14)C]hypoxanthine were catabolized to allantoin and urea by tea-leaf extracts. The apparent Km values are as follows: 7-methylxanthine, 1.0 times 10(-14)M; theobromine, 1.0 times 10(-3)M; paraxanthine, 0.2 times 10(-3)M; S-adenosylmethionine, 0.25 times 10(-4)M (with each of the three substrates). 3. The results suggest that the pathway for caffeine biosynthesis is as follows: 7-methylxanthine leads to theobromine leads to caffeine. In contrast, it is suggested that theophylline is synthesized from 1-methylxanthine. The methyl groups of the purine ring of caffeine are all derived directly from the methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine. Little is known about the pathways leading to the formation of 7-methylxanthine. 4. A good correlation between caffeine synthesis and shoot formation or growth of tea seedlings was shown, suggesting that the methylating systems in caffeine synthesis are closely associated with purine nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolism in tea plants. PMID:238504

  13. Simultaneous electrochemical monitoring of metabolites related to the xanthine oxidase pathway using a grinded carbon electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasoň, Stanislav; Štěpánková, S.; Kouřilová, Alena; Vetterl, Vladimír; Lata, J.; Fojta, Miroslav; Jelen, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 11 (2009), s. 4302-4307 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200040651; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400040804; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/07/1195; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/08/1688; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : performance liquid-chromatography * uric - acid * capillary-electrophoresis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.214, year: 2009

  14. Inflammatory Role of Macrophage Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Pulmonary Hypertension: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    for analysis of inflammatory disorders that are routinely performed on adult mice. Therefore, germline XOR knockout has been of limited value for...perivascular fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy , whereas XORfl/fl//LysmCre+ mice are protected (demonstrate attenuated fibrosis in pulmonary...according to our approved EXEMPT COMIRB application. • What opportunities for training and professional development did the project provide

  15. Electrochemical determination of xanthine oxidase inhibitor drug in urate lowering therapy using graphene nanosheets modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, M. Amal; John, S. Abraham

    2014-01-01

    We report the electrochemical determination of urate lowering therapeutic drug, allopurinol (AP) using the electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The ERGO modified GCE was fabricated by self–assembling graphene oxide (GO) on 1,6-hexadiamine (HDA) modified GCE by the electrostatic interaction between the positively charged amine group and the negatively charged GO layers followed by the electrochemical reduction of GO layers at negative potential. XPS results confirmed the attachment of GO and its electrochemical reduction. The electrochemical behavior of AP was examined at ERGO modified electrode in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). It was found that ERGO modified electrode not only enhanced the oxidation currents of AP, AA and UA but also showed stable signals for them for repetitive potential cycles. The present modified electrode was successfully used to determine these analytes simultaneously in a mixture. Selective determination of AP in the presence of high concentrations of AA and UA was also demonstrated at ERGO modified GCE. Using amperometry, detections of 40 and 200 nM of UA and AP were achieved and the detection limits were found to be 9.0 × 10 −9 M and 1.1 × 10 −7 M, respectively (S/N = 3). Further, the practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by simultaneously determining the concentrations of AA, UA and AP in human blood serum and urine samples

  16. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor, Allopurinol, Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Myocardial Damage in Isoproterenol Induced Aged Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Alam, Md Ashraful

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the preventive effect of allopurinol on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in aged rats. Twelve- to fourteen-month-old male Long Evans rats were divided into three groups: control, ISO, and ISO + allopurinol. At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed for blood and organ sample collection to evaluate biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers analyses. Histopathological examinations were also conducted to assess inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Our investigation revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers were significantly increased while the level of cellular antioxidants, catalase activity, and glutathione concentration in ISO induced rats decreased. Treatment with allopurinol to ISO induced rats prevented the elevated activities of AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes, and the levels of lipid peroxidation products and increased reduced glutathione concentration. ISO induced rats also showed massive inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Furthermore, allopurinol treatment prevented the inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in ISO induced rats. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that allopurinol treatment is capable of protecting heart of ISO induced myocardial infarction in rats probably by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis.

  17. The kinetics of tritium-hydrogen exchange in xanthosine, theobromine and monomethylated derivatives of xanthine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinska, M.; Szydlowski, J.; Sobkowski, J.

    1979-01-01

    Tritium exchange at C-8 of xanthosine, theobromine, 1-, 3-and 7-methylxanthine in water has been studied. The rates of detritiation of these compounds have been determined over a pH range at constant temperature. Several mechanisms of exchange involving various ionic forms of substrate operating at different pH have been suggested. (author)

  18. Evaluation of fungi contamination and xanthine and phenolic compounds content in irradiated mate (Ilex paraguariensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furgeri, Camilo; Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Koike, Amanda C.R.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Bastos, Deborah H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a native species from South America, is consumed mainly as beverage, either in a hot (chimarrao) as in cold (terere) infusion. An important concern is its fungal contamination responsible to affect the physical and nutritional qualities. The radiation processing is effective to reduce the microbiological contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation from 60 Co at doses of 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy in fungal contamination as well as in the nutritional and sensorial characteristics of Ilex paraguariensis as chimarrao and terere beverage. The results show that the dose of 7 kGy decreases the fungal contamination to a safety levels, however decrease the antioxidant activity in chimarrao and promote a change in color characteristic in both beverages. Besides these effects, the dose of 7 kGy is still indicated once the antioxidant activity loss was minimal although the sensorial attributes changed were not percept by consumers. (author)

  19. Simultaneous quantification by HPLC of purines in umami soup stock and evaluation of their effects on extracellular and intracellular purine metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuuchi, T; Iyama, N; Yamaoka, N; Kaneko, K

    2018-04-13

    Ribonucleotide flavor enhancers such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) provide umami taste, similarly to glutamine. Japanese cuisine frequently uses soup stocks containing these nucleotides to enhance umami. We quantified 18 types of purines (nucleotides, nucleosides, and purine bases) in three soup stocks (chicken, consommé, and dried bonito soup). IMP was the most abundant purine in all umami soup stocks, followed by hypoxanthine, inosine, and GMP. The IMP content of dried bonito soup was the highest of the three soup stocks. We also evaluated the effects of these purines on extracellular and intracellular purine metabolism in HepG2 cells after adding each umami soup stock to the cells. An increase in inosine and hypoxanthine was evident 1 h and 4 h after soup stock addition, and a low amount of xanthine and guanosine was observed in the extracellular medium. The addition of chicken soup stock resulted in increased intracellular and extracellular levels of uric acid and guanosine. Purine metabolism may be affected by ingredients present in soups.

  20. Oral sucrose for heel lance increases adenosine triphosphate use and oxidative stress in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmerom, Yayesh; Slater, Laurel; Boskovic, Danilo S; Bahjri, Khaled; Holden, Megan S; Phillips, Raylene; Deming, Douglas; Ashwal, Stephen; Fayard, Elba; Angeles, Danilyn M

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effects of sucrose on pain and biochemical markers of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) degradation and oxidative stress in preterm neonates experiencing a clinically required heel lance. Preterm neonates that met study criteria (n = 131) were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control; (2) heel lance treated with placebo and non-nutritive sucking; and (3) heel lance treated with sucrose and non-nutritive sucking. Plasma markers of ATP degradation (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) and oxidative stress (allantoin) were measured before and after the heel lance. Pain was measured with the Premature Infant Pain Profile. Data were analyzed by the use of repeated-measures ANOVA and Spearman rho. We found significant increases in plasma hypoxanthine and uric acid over time in neonates who received sucrose. We also found a significant negative correlation between pain scores and plasma allantoin concentration in a subgroup of neonates who received sucrose. A single dose of oral sucrose, given before heel lance, significantly increased ATP use and oxidative stress in premature neonates. Because neonates are given multiple doses of sucrose per day, randomized trials are needed to examine the effects of repeated sucrose administration on ATP degradation, oxidative stress, and cell injury. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stage-specific activity of potential antimalarial compounds measured in vitro by flow cytometry in comparison to optical microscopy and hypoxanthine uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E Contreras

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of new antimalarial agents using older methods of monitoring sensitivity to antimalarial drugs are laborious and poorly suited to discriminate stage-specific activity. We used flow cytometry to study the effect of established antimalarial compounds, cysteine protease inhibitors, and a quinolone against asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Cultured P. falciparum parasites were treated for 48 h with different drug concentrations and the parasitemia was determined by flow cytometry methods after DNA staining with propidium iodide. P. falciparum erythrocytic life cycle stages were readily distinguished by flow cytometry. Activities of established and new antimalarial compounds measured by flow cytometry were equivalent to results obtained with microscopy and metabolite uptake assays. The antimalarial activity of all compounds was higher against P. falciparum trophozoite stages. Advantages of flow cytometry analysis over traditional assays included higher throughput for data collection, insight into the stage-specificity of antimalarial activity avoiding use of radioactive isotopes.

  2. Catalase increases ethanol oxidation through the purine catabolism in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-García, Daniel; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2017-08-01

    Hepatic ethanol oxidation increases according to its concentration and is raised to near-saturation levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH); therefore, re-oxidation of NADH becomes rate limiting in ethanol metabolism by the liver. Adenosine is able to increase liver ethanol oxidation in both in vivo and in vitro conditions; the enhancement being related with the capacity of the nucleoside to accelerate the transport of cytoplasmic reducing equivalents to mitochondria, by modifying the subcellular distribution of the malate-aspartate shuttle components. In the present study, we explored the putative effects of adenosine and other purines on liver ethanol oxidation mediated by non-ADH pathways. Using the model of high precision-cut rat liver slices, a pronounced increase of ethanol oxidation was found in liver slices incubated with various intermediates of the purine degradation pathway, from adenosine to uric acid (175-230%, over controls). Of these, urate had the strongest (230%), whereas xanthine had the less pronounced effect (178% over controls). The enhancement was not abolished by 4-methylpyrazole, indicating that the effect was independent of alcohol dehydrogenase. Conversely, aminotriazole, a catalase inhibitor, completely abolished the effect, pointing out that this enhanced ethanol oxidation is mediated by catalase activity. It is concluded that the H 2 O 2 needed for catalase activity is derived from the oxidation of (hypo)xanthine by xanthine oxidase and the oxidation of urate by uricase. The present and previous data led us to propose that, depending on the metabolic conditions, adenosine might be able to stimulate the metabolism of ethanol through different pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular and biochemical analyses of spontaneous and X-ray-induced mutants in human lymphoblastoid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liber, H L; Call, K M; Little, J B

    1987-05-01

    The authors have isolated a series of 14 spontaneously arising and 28 X-ray-induced mutants at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hgprt) locus in human lymphoblastoid cells. Among the spontaneous mutants, 5/14 (36%) had detectable alterations in their restriction fragment pattern after hybridization with a human cDNA probe for hgprt. Of the 10 remaining mutants, 4 had partial HGPRT enzyme activity, which suggested that they contained point mutations. Among the 28 mutants induced by 150 rad of X-rays, 15 (54%) had deletions of part or all of the hgprt gene. Of the remaining 13 (18% overall) 5 had partial HGPRT enzyme activity, which suggested that they contained point mutations. These data imply that in this human cell system, X-rays induce both point mutants which have residual enzyme activity as well as mutations involving relatively large deletions of DNA. 48 reference, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  4. Effects of caffeine on purine metabolism and ultraviolet light-induced lethality in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldren, C.A.; Patterson, D.

    1979-01-01

    Caffeine, at doses which enhance the killing action of ultraviolet light, inhibits both de novo synthesis and the utilization of exogenous purines in cultured CHO-K1, a Chinese hamster ovary cell line. The effect is dose dependent, with a caffeine concentration of 7.5 mM producing a 90% reduction in 15 min. Interference with utilization of exogenous purines was seen as a substantial decrease in the conversion of [14C]hypoxanthine, [14C]adenine, or [14C]guanine into their respective di- and triphosphates in the presence of caffeine. Thus, one of the ways by which antimetabolites and caffeine act to enhance ultraviolet light killing may be by interference with the supply of purine nucleotides needed for repair

  5. Lesch-nyhan syndrome in an Indian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Chandekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase-1 (HGPRT-1 leading to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS is one of the important causes of self-mutilation. Hereby, we report a case of LNS in a three and half-year-old male child, who presented with characteristic self-mutilating behavior. He had history of developmental delay, difficulty in social interaction, attention deficit and features of autism. His serum blood biochemistry was normal except for low hemoglobin levels and raised serum uric acid levels. With a diagnosis of LNS, the child was treated with allopurinol. With various modalities of physical restraint, his self-mutilating behavior came under control and currently the patient is being followed up.

  6. Specific features of the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of Lesch—Nyhan syndrome and current therapy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Yablonskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rare hereditary diseases encountered in the practice of pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, and geneticists include Lesch—Nyhan syndrome associated with purine metabolic disorders caused by mutations in the HPRT1 gene encoding the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT. HGPRT deficiency gives rise to hyperuricemia, hyperuricemic nephropathy, and a CNS lesion reminiscent of dystonic or hyperkinetic infantile cerebral paralysis concurrent with a propensity to have autoaggressive behavior. The diagnosis is based on a range of history data, characteristic neurological symptoms, the detection of high blood and urine uric acid levels, and the identification of pathogenic mutagens in the HPRT1 gene. Early diagnosis contributes to timely therapy and assists in medical genetic counseling. The paper describes a clinical case of a boy with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and elucidates the problems of diagnosis and treatment of this disease.

  7. Specific locus mutagenesis of human mammary epithelial cells by ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, S.R.; Gould, M.N.

    1991-01-01

    Tissue and locus specificity of mutation induction was studied in human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Primary HMEC from normal tissue, and immortalized HMEC (184B5) derived from normal HMEC, were cultured under identical conditions and exposed to 10J/m 2 ultraviolet (UV) radiation (254 nm peak wavelength), which produced approximately 50% mean survival in all cell strains and lines tested. UV radiation was found to induce mutations at the Na + -K + ATPase locus as determined by ouabain-resistance in both normal and immortalized HMEC. Mutation frequencies measured in these cells following UV exposure were similar to those reported for human diploid fibroblasts. Mutation induction was investigated at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus in normal and immortalized HMEC. Induced mutations at the HPRT locus as determined by 6-thioguanine resistance in normal primary HMEC were not observed following UV radiation. Mutation induction was observed at this locus UV-exposed immortalized HMEC. (author)

  8. Ultra-thin layer chromatography with integrated silver colloid-based SERS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan A; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Simplified lab-on-a-chip techniques are desirable for quick and efficient detection of analytes of interest in the field. The following work involves the use of deterministic pillar arrays on the micro-scale as a platform to separate compounds, and the use of Ag colloid within the arrays as a source of increased signal via surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). One problem traditionally seen with SERS surfaces containing Ag colloid is oxidation; however, our platforms are superhydrophobic, reducing the amount of oxidation taking place on the surface of the Ag colloid. This work includes the successful separation and SERS detection of a fluorescent dye compounds (resorufin and sulforhodamine 640), fluorescent anti-tumor drugs (Adriamycin and Daunomycin), and purine and pyrimidine bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and thymine). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Theoretical and experimental studies on the corrosion inhibition potentials of some purines for aluminum in 0.1 M HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Nnabuk O; Momoh-Yahaya, H; Oguzie, Emeka E

    2015-03-01

    Experimental aspect of the corrosion inhibition potential of adenine (AD), guanine (GU) and, hypoxanthine (HYP) was carried out using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods while the theoretical aspect of the work was carried out by calculations of semi-empirical parameters (for AM1, MNDO, CNDO, PM3 and RM1 Hamiltonians), Fukui functions and inhibitor-metal interaction energies. Results obtained from the experimental studies were in good agreement and indicated that adenine (AD), guanine (GU) and hypoxanthine (HYP) are good adsorption inhibitors for the corrosion of aluminum in solutions of HCl. Data obtained from electrochemical experiment revealed that the studied purines functioned by adsorption on the aluminum/HCl interface and inhibited the cathodic half reaction to a greater extent and anodic half reaction to a lesser extent. The adsorption of the purines on the metal surface was found to be exothermic and spontaneous. Deviation of the adsorption characteristics of the studied purines from the Langmuir adsorption model was compensated by the fitness of Flory Huggins and El Awardy et al. adsorption models. Quantum chemical studies revealed that the experimental inhibition efficiencies of the studied purines are functions of some quantum chemical parameters including total energy of the molecules (TE), energy gap (E L-H), electronic energy of the molecule (EE), dipole moment and core-core repulsion energy (CCR). Fukui functions analysis through DFT and MP2 theories indicated slight complications and unphysical results. However, results obtained from calculated Huckel charges, molecular orbital and interaction energies, the adsorption of the inhibitors proceeded through the imine nitrogen (N5) in GU, emanine nitrogen (N7) in AD and the pyridine nitrogen (N5) in HPY.

  10. Repair of O6-(2-chloroethyl)guanine mediates the biological effects of chloroethylnitrosoureas.

    OpenAIRE

    Bodell, W J; Aida, T; Berger, M S; Rosenblum, M L

    1985-01-01

    Chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs) are alkylating and crosslinking agents used for the treatment of human cancer; they are both mutagenic and carcinogenic. We compared the levels of induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and the cytotoxicity of nitrosoureas that alkylate only with CENUs. CENUs are 200-fold more cytotoxic and induce SCEs with 45-fold greater efficiency than agents that do not crosslink; therefore, crosslinking is probably the most important molecular event that leads to c...

  11. A Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of the Alkylation of Guanine by N- Nitroso Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    these chemical agents alkylate DNA, but, as yet, the precise mechanism is unknown. What is known is that the result is a DNA-mutagen adduct with an alkyl ... nitrosoureas , Singer et. al. found that about 25% of the alkylation caused by MNU was on the DNA phospate backbone while, for ENU, phosphate...sites. 1.3 Mutagenicity of N-Nitroso Compounds In early experimental work with agents which alkylate DNA, comparisons of ultraviolet absorption

  12. Theoretical study of the guanine → 6-thioguanine substitution in duplexes, triplexes, and tetraplexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špačková, Naďa; Cubero, E.; Šponer, Jiří; Orozco, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 44 (2004), s. 14642-14650 ISSN 0002-7863 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A016 Grant - others:European Training Mobility Program(XE) HPRI-CT-1999-00071; Ministry of Science and Technology (ES) BIO2003-06848; Wellcome Trust(GB) GR067507MF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : 6-thioguanine * molecular dynamics simulations * thermodynamic integration Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.903, year: 2004

  13. The regulatory G4 motif of the Kirsten ras (KRAS) gene is sensitive to guanine oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cogoi, Susanna; Ferino, Annalisa; Miglietta, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    KRAS is one of the most mutated genes in human cancer. It is controlled by a G4 motif located upstream of the transcription start site. In this paper, we demonstrate that 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), being more abundant in G4 than in non-G4 regions, is a new player in the regulation of this oncogene. W...

  14. Guanine nucleotide binding proteins in zucchini seedlings: Characterization and interactions with the NPA receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeberg, M.; Jacobs, M.

    1989-01-01

    A microsomal membrane preparation from hypocotyls of dark-grown Cucurbita pepo L. seedlings contains specific high-affinity binding sites for the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-[γ-thio] triphosphate (GTP-γ-S). Both the binding affinity and the pattern of binding specificity for GTP and GTP analogs are similar to animal G-proteins, and two zucchini membrane proteins are recognized in western blots by antiserum specific for the σ subunit of platelet G s protein. GTP-γ-S can increase specific naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) binding in zucchini microsomal membrane preparations, with its stimulation increasing with large tissue age. Al +3 and F - agents known to activate G-proteins - decreased NPA specific binding by ca. 15%. In tests of in vitro auxin transport employing zucchini plasma membrane vesicles, AlF - 4 strongly inhibited 3 H-indoleacetic acid nor accumulation; GTP-γ-S effects on this system will be discussed

  15. Voltametric Determination of Adenine, Guanine and DNA Using Liquid Mercury Free Polished Silver Solid Amalgam Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fadrná, Renata; Josypčuk, Bohdan; Fojta, Miroslav; Navrátil, Tomáš; Novotný, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2004), s. 399-413 ISSN 0003-2719 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4040110 Grant - others:GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Keywords : voltammetry * DNA * polished silver solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2004

  16. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-08-31

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p < 0.001). Competition for (/sup 3/H)-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-(..beta..-..gamma..-imino)triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables.

  17. Guanine nucleotide regulation of dopamine receptor agonist affinity states in rat estradiol-induced pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paolo, T.; Falardeau, P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have investigated dopamine (DA) receptor agonist high- and low-affinity states in female rate estradiol-induced prolactin (PRL)-secreting pituitary tumors and intact pituitary tissue. Estradiol treatment increased the anterior pituitary weight 9-fold and plasma prolactin levels 74-fold and these measures are correlated (R = 0.745, n = 73, p 3 H]-spiperone binding to the DA receptor by apomorphine was compared in normal and adenomatous pituitary tissue. The inhibition constants (Ki) and the proportions of the two apomorphine sites are unchanged in tumors compared to intact pituitary tissue. Guanosine 5'-[β-γ-imino]triphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) causes complete conversion of the high into low affinity dopaminergic agonist site in normal pituitary and in tumors. These results suggest that rats with primary estradiol-induced pituitary tumors have normal and functional DA receptors. 9 references, 2 tables

  18. Theoretical study on the detailed repair of O6-methyl guanine to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Living cells are constantly exposed to both exogenous. (chemical pollutants and UV radiation) and endoge- nous (the normal metabolic byproducts, especially in the oxidative deamination process) sources of DNA damaging agents.1–6 Methylating agents which lead to a wide range of DNA damage such as aging, chronic.

  19. Biocatalytic separation of N-7/N-9 guanine nucleosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sunil K.; Sharma, Vivek K.; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2010-01-01

    Vorbrüggen coupling of trimethylsilylated 2-N-isobutanoylguanine with peracetylated pentofuranose derivatives generally gives inseparable N-7/N-9 glycosyl mixtures. We have shown that the two isomers can be separated biocatalytically by Novozyme-435-mediated selective deacetylation of the 5'-O-a...

  20. Functional reconstitution of prostaglandin E receptor from bovine adrenal medulla with guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negishi, M.; Ito, S.; Yokohama, H.; Hayashi, H.; Katada, T.; Ui, M.; Hayaishi, O.

    1988-01-01

    Prostaglandin E 2 (PEG 2 ) was found to bind specifically to a 100,000 x g pellet prepared from bovine adrenal medulla. The PGE receptor was associated with a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and could be covalently cross-linked with this G-protein by dithiobis(succinimidyl propionate) in the 100,000 x g pellet. In order to characterize the G-protein associated with the PGE receptor and reconstitute these proteins in phospholipid vesicles, the authors purified the G-protein to apparent homogeneity from the 100,000 x g pellet. The G-protein served as a substrate of pertussis toxin but differed in its α subunit from two known pertussis toxin substrate G-proteins (G/sub i/ and G 0 ) purified from bovine brain. The molecular weight of the α subunit was 40,000, which is between those of G/sub i/ and G 0 . The purified protein was also distinguished immunologically from G/sub i/ and G 0 and was referred to as G/sub am/. Reconstitution of the PGE receptor with pure C/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G 0 in phospholipid vesicles resulted in a remarkable restoration of [ 3 H]PGE 2 binding activity in a GTP-dependent manner. The efficiency of these three G-proteins in this capacity was roughly equal. When pertussis toxin- or N-ethylmaleimide-treated G-proteins, instead of the native ones, were reconstituted into vesicles, the restoration of binding activity was no longer observed. These results indicate that the PGE receptor can couple functionally with G/sub am/, G/sub i/, or G 0 in phospholipid vesicles and suggest that G/sub am/ may be involved in signal transduction of the PGE receptor in bovine adrenal medulla

  1. Effect O6-Guanine Alkylation on DNA Flexibility Studied by Comparative Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kara, M.; Dršata, Tomáš; Lankaš, Filip; Zacharias, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 1 (2015), s. 23-32 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-21893S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : DNA damage * DNA alkylation * DNA repair * molecular simulation * molecular dynamics simulation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.248, year: 2015

  2. Different effects of guanine nucleotides (GDP and GTP) on protein-mediated mitochondrial proton leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the influence of GDP and GTP on isolated mitochondria respiring under conditions favoring oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and under conditions excluding this process, i.e., in the presence of carboxyatractyloside, an adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitor, and/or oligomycin, an FOF1-ATP synthase inhibitor. Using mitochondria isolated from rat kidney and human endothelial cells, we found that the action of GDP and GTP can differ diametrically depending on the conditions. Namely, under conditions favoring OXPHOS, both in the absence and presence of linoleic acid, an activator of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), the addition of 1 mM GDP resulted in the state 4 (non-phosphorylating respiration)-state 3 (phosphorylating respiration) transition, which is characteristic of ADP oxidative phosphorylation. In contrast, the addition of 1 mM GTP resulted in a decrease in the respiratory rate and an increase in the membrane potential, which is characteristic of UCP inhibition. The stimulatory effect of GDP, but not GTP, was also observed in inside-out submitochondrial particles prepared from rat kidney mitochondria. However, the effects of GDP and GTP were more similar in the presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. The importance of these observations in connection with the action of UCPs, adenine nucleotide translocase (or other carboxyatractyloside-sensitive carriers), carboxyatractyloside- and purine nucleotide-insensitive carriers, as well as nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK) are considered. Because the measurements favoring oxidative phosphorylation better reflect in vivo conditions, our study strongly supports the idea that GDP cannot be considered a significant physiological inhibitor of UCP. Moreover, it appears that, under native conditions, GTP functions as a more efficient UCP inhibitor than GDP and ATP.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of guanine quadruplex loops: Advances and force field limitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fadrná, E.; Špačková, Naďa; Štefl, R.; Koča, J.; Cheatham III, T. E.; Šponer, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2004), s. 227-242 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A016 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(GB) GR067507MF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : quanine quadruplex * four-thymidine loop * locally enhanced sampling Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.585, year: 2004

  4. Site-Specific Covalent Conjugation of Modified mRNA by tRNA Guanine Transglycosylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, Fabian; Zhou, Cun Yu; Alexander, Seth C; Zhang, Dongyang; Devaraj, Neal K

    2018-03-05

    Modified mRNA (mod-mRNA) has recently been widely studied as the form of RNA useful for therapeutic applications due to its high stability and lowered immune response. Herein, we extend the scope of the recently established RNA-TAG (transglycosylation at guanosine) methodology, a novel approach for genetically encoded site-specific labeling of large mRNA transcripts, by employing mod-mRNA as substrate. As a proof of concept, we covalently attached a fluorescent probe to mCherry encoding mod-mRNA transcripts bearing 5-methylcytidine and/or pseudouridine substitutions with high labeling efficiencies. To provide a versatile labeling methodology with a wide range of possible applications, we employed a two-step strategy for functionalization of the mod-mRNA to highlight the therapeutic potential of this new methodology. We envision that this novel and facile labeling methodology of mod-RNA will have great potential in decorating both coding and noncoding therapeutic RNAs with a variety of diagnostic and functional moieties.

  5. Study of Adenine and Guanine Oxidation Mechanism by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroelectrochemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ibanez, D.; Santidrian, Ana; Heras, A.; Kalbáč, Martin; Colina, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 15 (2015), s. 8191-8198 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LL1301 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : nucleic- acid bases * electrochemical oxidation * silver electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.509, year: 2015

  6. Oxidative damage to guanine nucleosides following combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Jensen, Søren Astrup; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Recent in vitro and animal studies have suggested that the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin is linked to increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This prospective study was undertaken to examine the generation of oxidative stress, in 106 colorectal cancer patie...... concentrations of 8-oxoGuo and 8-oxodG and the treatment effect and the other variables. RESULTS: The analysis showed that chemotherapy increased the excretion of 8-oxoGuo and 8-oxodG around 15% (P ...

  7. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, M; Pandey, S; Tran, V T; Fong, H K

    1991-01-01

    The expression of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was analyzed by RNA blot hybridization and cDNA amplification. Both adult and fetal human RPE cells contain mRNA for multiple G protein alpha subunits (G alpha) including Gs alpha, Gi-1 alpha, Gi-2 alpha, Gi-3 alpha, and Gz alpha (or Gx alpha), where Gs and Gi are proteins that stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, respectively, and Gz is a protein that may mediate pertussis toxin-insensi...

  8. Guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins in retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Meisheng; Tran, V.T.; Fong, H.K.W. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Pandey, S. (Doheny Eye Inst., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1991-05-01

    The expression of GTP-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was analyzed by RNA blot hybridization and cDNA amplification. Both adult and fetal human RPE cells contain mRNA for multiple G protein {alpha} subunits (G{alpha}) including G{sub s}{alpha}, G{sub i-1}{alpha}, G{sub i-2}{alpha}, G{sub i-3}{alpha}, and G{sub z}{alpha} (or G{sub x}{alpha}), where G{sub s} and G{sub i} are proteins that stimulate or inhibit adenylyl cyclase, respectively, and G{sub z} is a protein that may mediate pertussis toxin-insensitive events. Other G{alpha}-related mRNA transcripts were detected in fetal RPE cells by low-stringency hybridization to G{sub i-2}{alpha} and G{sub s}{alpha} protein-coding cDNA probes. The diversity of G proteins in RPE cells was further studied by cDNA amplification with reverse transcriptase and the polymerase chain reaction. This approach revealed that, besides the above mentioned members of the G{alpha} gene family, at least two other G{alpha} subunits are expressed in RPE cells. Human retinal cDNA clones that encode one of the additional G{alpha} subunits were isolated and characterized. The results indicate that this G{alpha} subunit belongs to a separate subfamily of G proteins that may be insensitive to inhibition by pertussis toxin.

  9. The guanine-rich fragile X chromosome repeats are reluctant to form tetraplexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtík, Petr; Kejnovská, Iva; Vorlíčková, Michaela

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2004), s. 298-306 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0561; GA AV ČR IAA4004201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : fragile X chromosome syndrom * trinucleotide repeats * DNA polymorphism Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2004

  10. Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC essential oil: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbah, Habib; Chahdoura, Hassiba; Kammoun, Jannet; Hlila, Malek Besbes; Louati, Hanen; Hammami, Saoussen; Flamini, Guido; Achour, Lotfi; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2018-03-05

    α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid which at high levels can lead to hyperuricemia which is an important cause of gout. Pancreatic lipase (PL) secreted into the duodenum plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of fats. For its importance in lipid digestion, PL represents an attractive target for obesity prevention. The flowers essential oil of Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC (R. acaule) was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities of R. acaule essential oil (RaEO) were also determined using 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and DNA nicking assays. The inhibitory power of RaEO against α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and the derived Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plots were performed to understand the possible mechanism of inhibition exercised by the components of this essential oil. The result revealed the presence of 26 compounds (97.4%). The main constituents include germacrene D (49.2%), methyl eugenol (8.3%), (E)-β-ionone (6.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.7%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.1%) and (Z)-α-bisabolene (3.7%). The kinetic inhibition study showed that the essential oil demonstrated a strong α-glucosidase inhibiton and it was a mixed inhibitor. On the other hand, our results evidenced that this oil exhibited important xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, behaving as a non-competitive inhibitor. The essential oil inhibited the turkey pancreatic lipase, with maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, the inhibition of turkey pancreatic lipase by RaEO was an irreversible one. The results revealed that the RaEO is a new

  11. Synthesis of puric bases labelled with carbon 14 and nitrogen 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamorre, Yves

    1975-01-01

    In this report for graduation in organic chemistry engineering, the author reports the synthesis of adenine 14 C-2 et 14 C-6 by two different chemical ways from two derivatives of imidazole. He has used adenine 14 C-6 to obtain hypoxanthine 14 C-6, and then, by enzymatic processing, uric acid 14 C-6. He reports the study of the production of guanine 14 C-2 by cyclization of silylated derivative of imidazole with the carbon 14 C sulphur. However, a method of complete synthesis of this same compound revealed to be more practical. This complete synthesis way allowed the labelling of guanine in positions 1, 2 and 3 by the 96 per cent isotopic nitrogen. Nitrogen in positions 7 and 9 could have been labelled by the same way from the ethyl cyanoacetate 15 N and from the sodium nitrite 15 N. The study of the mass spectrum of these compounds labelled with nitrogen 15 N allowed most of fragments obtained during this analysis to be identified [fr

  12. The role of conjunctival epithelial cell xanthine oxidoreductase/xanthine oxidase in oxidative reactions on the ocular surface of dry eye patients with Sjögren´s syndrome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Ardan, Taras; Jirsová, K.; Jechová, G.; Malec, J.; Šimonová, Zuzana; Čejka, Čestmír; Filipec, M.; Dotřelová, D.; Brůnová, B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2007), s. 997-1003 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8828; GA ČR GA304/06/1379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Dry eye * Impression cytology * Oxidative reactions Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 2.007, year: 2007

  13. Density functional theory based QSAR study of ruthenium (II) antitumor drugs and their interactions with xanthine oxidoreductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Paritosh; Das, Dharitri

    2013-01-01

    Transition metal containing drugs have been used intensely for their potential anticancer activities. Platinum drugs have been used successfully for the treatment of cancer. However, these drugs have severe drawbacks including unwanted side effects, drug resistance and ineffectiveness towards some of cancers. Therefore scientists are searching for new drugs to solve these problems, and Ruthenium coordination compounds have been found effective alternatives to platinum coordination drugs

  14. Cuparane sesquiterpenes from Laurencia natalensis Kylin as inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and xanthine oxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rengasamy, K.R.R.; Poštová Slavětínská, Lenka; Kulkarni, M. G.; Stirk, W. A.; Van Staden, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, Jul (2017), s. 178-183 ISSN 2211-9264 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1-deoxyalgoane * dipeptidyl peptidase IV * diabetes * gout * Laurencia natalensis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.994, year: 2016

  15. Energy status of pig donor organs after ischemia is independent of donor type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Stiegler, Philipp; Taeubl, Philipp; Sereinigg, Michael; Puntschart, Andreas; Bradatsch, Andrea; Curcic, Pero; Seifert-Held, Thomas; Zmugg, Gerda; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Leopold, Barbara; Blattl, Daniela; Horki, Vera; Mayrhauser, Ursula; Wiederstein-Grasser, Iris; Leber, Bettina; Jürgens, Günther; Tscheliessnigg, Karlheinz; Hallström, Seth

    2013-04-01

    Literature is controversial whether organs from living donors have a better graft function than brain dead (BD) and non-heart-beating donor organs. Success of transplantation has been correlated with high-energy phosphate (HEP) contents of the graft. HEP contents in heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas from living, BD, and donation after cardiac death in a pig model (n=6 per donor type) were evaluated systematically. BD was induced under general anesthesia by inflating a balloon in the epidural space. Ten hours after confirmation, organs were retrieved. Cardiac arrest was induced by 9V direct current. After 10min of ventricular fibrillation without cardiac output, mechanical and medical reanimation was performed for 30min before organ retrieval. In living donors, organs were explanted immediately. Freeze-clamped biopsies were taken before perfusion with Celsior solution (heart) or University of Wisconsin solution (abdominal organs) in BD and living donors or with Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutaric solution (all organs) in non-heart-beating donors, after perfusion, and after cold ischemia (4h for heart, 6h for liver and pancreas, and 12h for kidney). HEPs (adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and phosphocreatine), xanthine, and hypoxanthine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Energy charge and adenosine triphosphate-to-adenosine diphosphate ratio were calculated. After ischemia, organs from different donor types showed no difference in energy status. In all organs, a decrease of HEP and an increase in hypoxanthine contents were observed during perfusion and ischemia, irrespective of the donor type. Organs from BD or non-heart-beating donors do not differ from living donor organs in their energy status after average tolerable ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Obligatory Role of Intraluminal O2− in Acute Endothelin-1 and Angiotensin II Signaling to Mediate Endothelial Dysfunction and MAPK Activation in Guinea-Pig Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Wojtera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that, due to a cross-talk between cytoplasmic O2−-sources and intraluminally expressed xanthine oxidase (XO, intraluminal O2− is instrumental in mediating intraluminal (endothelial dysfunction and cytosolic (p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs phosphorylation manifestations of vascular oxidative stress induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1 and angiotensin II (AT-II. Isolated guinea-pig hearts were subjected to 10-min agonist perfusion causing a burst of an intraluminal O2−. ET-1 antagonist, tezosentan, attenuated AT-II-mediated O2−, indicating its partial ET-1 mediation. ET-1 and Ang-T (AT-II + tezosentan triggered intraluminal O2−, endothelial dysfunction, MAPKs and p47phox phosphorylation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox and XO activation. These effects were: (i prevented by blocking PKC (chelerythrine, Nox (apocynin, mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channel (5-HD, complex II (TTFA, and XO (allopurinol; (ii mimicked by the activation of Nox (NADH; and mitochondria (diazoxide, 3-NPA and (iii the effects by NADH were prevented by 5-HD, TTFA and chelerythrine, and those by diazoxide and 3-NPA by apocynin and chelerythrine, suggesting that the agonists coactivate Nox and mitochondria, which further amplify their activity via PKC. The effects by ET-1, Ang-T, NADH, diazoxide, and 3-NPA were opposed by blocking intraluminal O2− (SOD and XO, and were mimicked by XO activation (hypoxanthine. Apocynin, TTFA, chelerythrine, and SOD opposed the effects by hypoxanthine. In conclusion, oxidative stress by agonists involves cellular inside-out and outside-in signaling in which Nox-mitochondria-PKC system and XO mutually maintain their activities via the intraluminal O2−.

  17. The use of a cloned bacterial gene to study mutation in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, J.; Debenham, P.G.; Stretch, A.; Webb, M.B.T.

    1983-01-01

    The recombinant DNA molecule pSV2-gpt, which contains the bacterial gene coding for xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (XGPRT) activity, was introduced into a hamster cell line lacking the equivalent mammalian enzyme (HGPRT). Hamster cell sublines were found with stable expression of XGPRT activity and were used to study mutation of the integrated pSV2-gpt DNA sequence. Mutants were selected by their resistance to 6-thioguanine (TG) under optimal conditions which were found to be very similar to those for selection of HGPRT-deficient mutants of mammalian cells. The frequency of XGPRT-deficient mutants was increased by treatment with X-rays, ethyl methanesulphonate and ethyl nitrosourea. X-Ray induction of mutants increased approximately linearly with dose up to about 500 rad, but the frequency of mutants per rad was very much higher than that usually found for 'native' mammalian genes. (orig./AJ)

  18. Role of complex formation in the photosensitized degradation of DNA induced by N'-formylkynurenine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walrant, P.; Santus, R.; Charlier, M.

    1976-01-01

    N'-Formylkynurenine derivatives efficiently bind to DNA or polynucleotides. Homopolynucleotides and DNA displayed marked differences in the binding process. Association constants were derived which indicated that the oxidized indole ring is more strongly bound to DNA than the unoxidized one. Irradiation of such complexes with wavelengths greater than 320 nm induced pyrimidine dimer formation as well as DNA chain breaks. Complex formation is shown to play an important role in these photosensitized reactions. The photodynamic action of N-formylkynurenine on DNA constituents was negligible at neutral pH but guanine and xanthine derivatives were sensitizable at higher pH. Thymine dimer splitting can occur in aggregated frozen aqueous solutions of N'-formylkynurenine and thymine dimer but this photosensitized splitting was negligible in liquid solutions at room temperature. (author)

  19. Estimasi Sintesis Protein Mikrobia Rumen Menggunakan Ekskresi Derivat Purin dalam Urin dengan Teknik Spot Sampling pada Kambing Bligon dan Kambing Kejobong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianestu Putra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study were aimed to determine the correlation between concentration of purine derivatives (PD in spot sample with PD total excretion in Bligon and Kejobong goats and determine the appropriate sampling time, in order to predicting microbial protein synthesis in both breeds. Six male Bligon goats and six male Kejobong goats with age range from 8 to 14 months and body weight from 16 to 21 kg were placed in metabolism cages. Peanut straw and water were given to both groups of goats through ad libitum feeding and drinking. The study was done in 14 days for adaptation, 3 days for collection. Sample of feeds, feed residues, and feces were collected and then analyzed to determine dry matter and organic matter content. Spot urine and the total daily urine samples were also collected. Samples collection of spot sampling technique was run by taking the urine periodically with 3 hours intervals at 24 hours. Urine samples were analyzed for the content of creatinine and PD which includes allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, and hypoxanthine. Data were tested for the correlation between concentration of PD spot urine sample with total PD daily excretion. It is known that the concentration of PD and creatinine (µmol/L for Bligon were 1,418.40 and 202.85 respectively, while for Kejobong were 1,547.40 and 219.68 respectively. Total excretion of PD, allantoin, uric acid, xanthyne and hypoxanthine and creatinine (µmol/W0,75/day for Bligon were 114.14, 95.86, 17.31, 0.97, and 16.40 respectively, with microbial protein synthesis efficiency was 4.61 g N/kg degraded of organic matter in rumen (DOMR. Total excretion of PD allantoin, uric acid, xanthyne and hypoxanthine and creatinine (µmol/W0,75/day for Kejobong were 180.18, 158.17, 20.60, 1.40, and 24.87 respectively, with microbial protein synthesis efficiency was 6.90 g N/kg DOMR. Based on this study also known that the best time for spot sampling to determine the total excretion of PD in Bligon was in the range

  20. Influence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii on purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Casali, Emerson A; Silveira, Stephanie S; Moritz, Cesar E J; Camillo, Giovana; Flores, Mariana M; Fighera, Rafael; Thomé, Gustavo R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Rue, Mario De La; Vogel, Fernanda S F; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice (BALB/c) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. In experiment I (n=24) the mice were infected with RH strain of T. gondii, while in experiment II (n=36) they were infected with strain ME-49 of T. gondii. Our results showed that, for RH strain (acute phase), an increase in both periods in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine (only on day 6 PI) and uric acid (only on day 6 PI). By the other hand, the RH strain led, on days 4 and 6 PI, to a reduction in the concentration of inosine. ME-49, a cystogenic strain, showed some differences in acute and chronic phase, since on day 6 PI the levels of ATP and ADP were increased, while on day 30 these same nucleotides were reduced. On day 60 PI, ME-49 induced a reduction in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and xanthine, while uric acid was increased. A decrease of E-ADA activity was observed in brain on days 4 and 6 PI (RH), and 30 PI (ME-49); however on day 60 PI E-ADA activity was increased for infection by ME-49 strain. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that infection with T. gondii changes the purine levels and the activity of E-ADA in brain, which may be associated with neurological signs commonly observed in this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.