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Sample records for hypophysis axis lesions

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of hypothalamus hypophysis axis lesions; Relationship between posterior pituitary function and posterior bright spot

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    Shiina, Takeki; Uno, Kimiichi; Arimizu, Noboru; Yoshida, Sho (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Yamada, Kenichi

    1990-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a 0.5T superconductive machine was performed to the thirty three cases with a variety of the sellar and parasellar tumors and with dysfunction of the hypothalamus-hypophysis axis. Posterior pituitary bright spot (PBS) on T1 weighted image was evaluated with the pituitary hormonal function. These cases were 12 cases of post-treated tumors including pituitary adenoma (9 patients), suprasellar germinoma (2 patients) and craniopharyngioma (one patient), and non-tumorous conditions including 15 cases of central diabetes insipidus (DI), Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH) (one patient), Sheehan's syndrome (3 patients) and anorexia nervosa (2 patients). Pituitary bright spot was not seen in all 19 cases with overt DI. On the other hand, PBS was not seen in 9 cases without overt DI. Three cases of these 9 cases showing Sheehan's syndrome with insufficient antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion was considered as the state of subclinical DI. Posterior bright spot was not seen in all 13 cases of empty sella including partial empty sella. The results suggested that disappearance of PBS represents abnormality or loss of posterior pituitary function and also it was considered to be closely related to the empty sella. (author).

  2. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

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    Sushil Kumar

    Full Text Available Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  3. Intermittent fasting dietary restriction regimen negatively influences reproduction in young rats: a study of hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis.

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    Kumar, Sushil; Kaur, Gurcharan

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional infertility is very common in societies where women fail to eat enough to match their energy expenditure and such females often present as clinical cases of anorexia nervosa. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that link energy balance and central regulation of reproduction are still not well understood. Peripheral hormones such as estradiol, testosterone and leptin, as well as neuropeptides like kisspeptin and neuropeptides Y (NPY) play a potential role in regulation of reproduction and energy balance with their primary target converging on the hypothalamic median eminence-arcuate region. The present study was aimed to explore the effects of negative energy state resulting from intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) regimen on complete hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal axis in Wistar strain young female and male rats. Significant changes in body weight, blood glucose, estrous cyclicity and serum estradiol, testosterone and LH level indicated the negative role of IF-DR regimen on reproduction in these young animals. Further, it was elucidated whether serum level of metabolic hormone, leptin plays a mechanistic role in suppressing hypothalamo-hypophysial-gonadal (HPG) axis via energy regulators, kisspeptin and NPY in rats on IF-DR regimen. We also studied the effect of IF-DR regimen on structural remodeling of GnRH axon terminals in median eminence region of hypothalamus along with the glial cell marker, GFAP and neuronal plasticity marker, PSA-NCAM using immunostaining, Western blotting and RT-PCR. Together these data suggest that IF-DR regimen negatively influences reproduction in young animals due to its adverse effects on complete hypothalamus-hypophysial-gonadal axis and may explain underlying mechanism(s) to understand the clinical basis of nutritional infertility.

  4. The Functional Status of Hypophysis — ​Gonad Axis in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

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    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most frequent form of endocrine pathology and occurs in 5–10 % women of reproductive age and makes up 80 %, and according to some data, even 90 % of all forms of hyperandrogenism. The information about pathogenesis of PCOS is contradictory. The main step of the SPCO pathogenesis is hyperproduction of LH of by the hypophysis, revealed in 40–80 % patients. According to one of numerous theories, an increase secretion results in the increase of LH by the hypothalamus of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH, secreted in the discrete mode under control sexual steroid hormones, monoamines and opioid peptides. The aim of the investigation is to study the functional status of hypophysis — gonads axis for women with SPCO. Material and methods. In the department of neuroendocrinology of the Center of Endocrinology of Health Ministry of the Republic of Uzbekistan in a period from September 2015 till July 2016 120 outpatients of fertile age with PCOS were inspected. Mean age of patients was 25.5 ± 4.3 years. The duration of the disease hesitated from 7 months to 9 years. 20 healthy women of corresponding age made a control group. The complex of researches, including clinical, biochemical (glycemia, glucose tolerance test, hormonal (LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrostendion (ДGEA, 17-oxyprogesterone, аntimuller hormone (АМH, insulin was performed in all patients, ultrasonic examination of uterus and ovaries (transabdominal and transvaginal on the 14th day of cycle with folliculometria in dynamics, and also magnetically-resonant tomography of hypophysis and questionnaire of patients were carried out. Results. Patients were divided into two groups: with primary sterility (94 cases and with secondary sterility (26 cases. In the first group of patients with primary sterility the reliable decline of both pituitary and ovarian hormones was determined on a background of

  5. Advanced methods of treatment of hypophysis adenoma

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    Kan Ya.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypophysis adenomas are mostly spread in the chiasmatic cellular area. They account 18% of all new brain formations, the structure of pituitary adenomas includes prolactinomas in a large number of cases which are manifested by the syndrome of hyperprolactinemia and hormone inactive hypophysis tumours (35%. Somatotropins (13-15% are lower in frequency, the main clinical feature is acromegalia. One can rarely reveal corticotropins (8-10%, gonadotro-pins (7-9% and thyrotropins (1% and their mixed forms. Transsphenoidal surgical interventions are considered to be methods of choice treatment of hypophysis adenomas and other formations in the chiasmatic cellular area. Alternative methods of treatment are conservative. They can be as an addition to microsurgery (radiotherapy

  6. Sublabial transseptal transsphenoidal approach to the hypophysis

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    Lee, K.J.

    1978-07-01

    A simple and safe technique for the sublabial transseptal transsphenoidal approach to the hypophysis and parasellar region is described. With today's antibiotic therapy and hormonal replacement, plus the use of the operating microscope, the transsphenoidal route to the hypophysis has gained renewed interest among neurosurgeons and otolaryngologists. Each of the transsphenoidal routes and the advantages of the from below approach are described. The applications of transsphenoidal approach and the nonsurgical modalities for hypophysectomy are reviewed. The simplicity and safety of the sublabial transseptal transsphenoidal approach depend on a thorough familiarity with the surgical anatomy, proper positioning of the patient, and the availability of appropriate instrumentation. Photographs of specially prepared whole head anatomical specimens plus skull dissections with radiographic correlation illustrate the pertinent anatomy. A method for preoperative determination of key distances within the patient's skull is described along with other preoperative tests. This paper discusses the self-retaining speculum and other new instruments for this procedure. Thirty cases are included in this report, six of which are presented in detail. No operative mortality, CSF rhinorrhea, visual damage carotid or cavernous sinus hemorrhage fracture of the medial pterygoid plates or maxilla were encountered in this series. Three patients developed diabetes insipidus and two patients had meningitis which responded to antibiotic therapy.

  7. Oxytocin and vasopressin in rat hypophysial portal blood: experimental studies in normal and Brattleboro rats.

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    Horn, A M; Robinson, I C; Fink, G

    1985-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured by radioimmunoassay in hypophysial portal and peripheral blood from male Wistar rats and heterozygous and homozygous Brattleboro rats anaesthetized with urethane. In Wistar rats the concentrations of OT and VP were about 50 times greater than the concentrations in peripheral blood, whether or not the pituitary gland was left in situ during collection, and also considerably greater than the reported concentrations of the peptides in the cerebrospinal fluid. The release of both peptides was increased significantly by a lesion of the supraoptico-hypophysial tract that led to diabetes insipidus, but which left intact the external layer of the median eminence (ME). Concentrations of VP were undetectable in plasma from homozygous Brattleboro rats, but the portal plasma concentrations of VP in heterozygous Brattleboro rats were not significantly lower than in Wistar rats. The concentrations of OT in portal plasma from both types of Brattleboro rat were significantly higher than in Wistar rats. The output of VP and OT into hypophysial portal blood of Wistar rats was not significantly affected by electrical stimulation of the suprachiasmatic, supraoptic or paraventricular nuclei or the ME using two types of stimuli, one of which produced an increase in peripheral plasma concentrations of VP and OT in intact rats and a significant increase in the release of LH-releasing hormone into hypophysial portal blood. The output of VP and OT into portal blood was also not significantly affected by either adrenalectomy with or without injection of dexamethasone or the injection of either the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis blocker, parachlorophenylalanine, or the 5-HT uptake blockers, alaproclate or zimelidine. These results show that large amounts of OT as well as VP are released into hypophysial portal blood from fibres of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system that terminate in the external layer of the ME. Although distinct

  8. External radiotherapy of hypophysis adenomas; Radiotherapie externe des adenomes hypophysaires

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    Proudhom, M.A

    1998-05-13

    Since 1974, 76 hypophysis adenomas have been irradiated at the Institute Claudius Regaud according to a classical technique or more recently, in stereotaxic conditions. The whole of this work bears on the study of these files. After determining the indication of irradiation and the technique used, the results in term of tumor control and side effects are expressed and confronted to the literature review. (N.C.)

  9. Volumetric assessment of optic nerve sheath and hypophysis in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

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    Hoffmann, J; Schmidt, C; Kunte, H; Klingebiel, R; Harms, L; Huppertz, H-J; Lüdemann, L; Wiener, E

    2014-03-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome characterized by increased CSF pressure. Compression of the hypophysis and distension of the optic nerve sheath are reliable imaging signs. The purpose of the study was to validate, in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, MR imaging-based volumetric measurements of the optic nerve sheath and hypophysis as an objective observation method for more accurate diagnosis and posttreatment follow-up. Twenty-three patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension as well as age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls underwent volumetric measurements of the optic nerve, optic nerve sheath, and hypophysis on high-resolution T2-weighted MR images by using a 7-cm surface coil, followed by correlation with CSF opening pressures and clinical symptom scores of visual disturbances and headache. Mean values of optic nerve sheath (341.86 ± 163.69 mm(3) versus 127.56 ± 53.17 mm(3), P 201.30 mm(3) (sensitivity, 86.96%; specificity, 91.30%) and hypophysis volumes of intracranial hypertension diagnosis. In patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, no correlations were found between optic nerve sheath and hypophysis volumes and CSF opening pressures or clinical scores of visual disturbances and headache. Semiautomated volumetric measurement of optic nerve sheath and hypophysis has the potential to more accurately diagnose and follow patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

  10. Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Occlusive Lesions of the Celiac Axis: Diagnosis, Treatment Options, Outcomes, and Review of the Literature

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    Flood, Karen, E-mail: karenrogers@doctors.org.uk; Nicholson, Anthony A. [Leeds Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To describe the presentation, treatment, and outcomes for 14 patients with aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries associated with occlusive lesions of the celiac axis, and to review the literature for similar cases. Methods, Over a period of 12 years, 14 patients (10 women and 4 men) ranging in age from 26 to 50 (mean 46) years were demonstrated to have aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery origin associated with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac axis. All patients were treated by a combination of surgery and interventional radiology. Results. Outcome data collected between 3 months and 4 years (mean 2 years) demonstrated that all aneurysms remained excluded, and all 14 patients were well. The 49 case reports in the literature confirm the findings of this cohort. Conclusion. In inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm resulting from celiac occlusive disease, endovascular treatment is best achieved by stenting the celiac axis and/or embolizing the aneurysm when necessary.

  11. Inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms associated with occlusive lesions of the celiac axis: diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, and review of the literature.

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    Flood, Karen; Nicholson, Anthony A

    2013-06-01

    To describe the presentation, treatment, and outcomes for 14 patients with aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries associated with occlusive lesions of the celiac axis, and to review the literature for similar cases. Over a period of 12 years, 14 patients (10 women and 4 men) ranging in age from 26 to 50 (mean 46) years were demonstrated to have aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery origin associated with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac axis. All patients were treated by a combination of surgery and interventional radiology. Outcome data collected between 3 months and 4 years (mean 2 years) demonstrated that all aneurysms remained excluded, and all 14 patients were well. The 49 case reports in the literature confirm the findings of this cohort. In inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm resulting from celiac occlusive disease, endovascular treatment is best achieved by stenting the celiac axis and/or embolizing the aneurysm when necessary.

  12. Signaling pathways to and from the hypophysial pars tuberalis, an important center for the control of seasonal rhythms.

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    Korf, Horst-Werner

    2017-05-13

    Seasonal (circannual) rhythms play an important role for the control of body functions (reproduction, metabolism, immune responses) in nearly all living organisms. Also humans are affected by the seasons with regard to immune responses and mental functions, the seasonal affective disorder being one of the most prominent examples. The hypophysial pars tuberalis (PT), an important interface between the hypophysial pars distalis and neuroendocrine centers in the brain, plays an essential role in the regulation of seasonal functions and may even be the seat of the circannual clock. Photoperiodic signals provide a major input to the PT. While the perception of these signals involves extraocular photoreceptors in non-mammalian species (birds, fish), mammals perceive photoperiodic signals exclusively in the retina. A multisynaptic pathway connects the retina with the pineal organ where photoperiodic signals are translated into the neurohormone melatonin that is rhythmically produced night by night and encodes the length of the night. Melatonin controls the functional activity of the mammalian PT by acting upon MT1 melatonin receptors. The PT sends its output signals via retrograde and anterograde pathways. The retrograde pathway targetting the hypothalamus employs TSH as messenger and controls a local hypothalamic T3 system. As discovered in Japanese quail, TSH triggers molecular cascades mediating thyroid hormone conversion in the ependymal cell layer of the infundibular recess of the third ventricle. The local accumulation of T3 in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) appears to activate the gonadal axis by affecting the neuro-glial interaction between GnRH terminals and tanycytes in the median eminence. This retrograde pathway is conserved in photoperiodic mammals (sheep and hamsters), and even in non-photoperiodic laboratory mice provided that they are capable to synthesize melatonin. The anterograde pathway is implicated in the control of prolactin secretion, targets

  13. Two Uncommon Sites of Metastasis: Breast and Hypophysis Metastases of Head and Neck Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Detected by FDG PET/CT

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    Evrim Sürer Budak; Şenay Yıldırım; Sevim Yıldız; Ali Ozan Öner; Şeyda Gündüz

    2017-01-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare epithelial malignancy arising from secretory glands, particularly the salivary glands. It tends to invade nerves and has a high potential for distant hematogenous metastasis, especially to the lungs, bone, liver and brain. The breast and hypophysis are not common sites of ACC metastatic disease. Herein, we report a case of ACC of the head and neck region with two unusual sites of metastases, the hypophysis and breast.

  14. Two Uncommon Sites of Metastasis: Breast and Hypophysis Metastases of Head and Neck Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Detected by FDG PET/CT.

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    Sürer Budak, Evrim; Yıldırım, Şenay; Yıldız, Sevim; Öner, Ali Ozan; Gündüz, Şeyda

    2017-10-03

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare epithelial malignancy arising from secretory glands, particularly the salivary glands. It tends to invade nerves and has a high potential for distant hematogenous metastasis, especially to the lungs, bone, liver and brain. The breast and hypophysis are not common sites of ACC metastatic disease. Herein, we report a case of ACC of the head and neck region with two unusual sites of metastases, the hypophysis and breast.

  15. Two Uncommon Sites of Metastasis: Breast and Hypophysis Metastases of Head and Neck Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma Detected by FDG PET/CT

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    Evrim Sürer Budak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a rare epithelial malignancy arising from secretory glands, particularly the salivary glands. It tends to invade nerves and has a high potential for distant hematogenous metastasis, especially to the lungs, bone, liver and brain. The breast and hypophysis are not common sites of ACC metastatic disease. Herein, we report a case of ACC of the head and neck region with two unusual sites of metastases, the hypophysis and breast.

  16. Dose-response and histopathological study, with special attention to the hypophysis, of the differential effects of domoic acid on rats and mice.

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    Vieira, Andrés Crespo; Martínez, J Manuel Cifuentes; Pose, Roberto Bermúdez; Queijo, Álvaro Antelo; Posadas, Nuria Alemañ; López, Luis M Botana

    2015-05-01

    The effects of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) in the central nervous system of rodents (essentially rats and mice) after intraperitoneal administration have been profusely studied in the past. These observations have shown that the toxin induces similar symptoms and pathology in both species, but the lethality varies greatly. This article addresses the common and specific histopathological effects in rats and mice and the difference in sensitivity of these species to DA. Various sublethal and lethal doses were employed in mice (from 3 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg) to observe their neurotoxicity by using different histological techniques, and these results were compared with the pathological effects after the administration of LD50 in rats (2.5 mg/kg). Additionally we also detected the presence of this toxin in various tissues by means of immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that rats are more vulnerable than mice to the neurotoxic effects of DA after intraperitoneal inoculation: lethality was extremely high in rats and the toxin produced hippocampal damage in rats surviving the intoxication, while lesions were not observed in DA-inoculated mice. As for similarities between rats and mice, both displayed similar clinical signs and in both the toxin was detected in the hypophysis by immunohistochemistry, a brain region not reported to date as target of the toxin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Different effects of continuous infusion of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 on the hypothalamic-hypophysial-thyroid axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.C. van Haasteren (Goedele); M.J. van der Meer; A.R.M.M. Hermus (Ad); E. Linkels; W. Klootwijk (Willem); E. Kaptein (Ellen); H. van Toor (Hans); C.G. Sweep; T.J. Visser (Theo); W.J. de Greef

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 are thought to be important mediators in the suppression of thyroid function during nonthyroidal illness. In this study we compared the effects of IL-1 and IL-6 infusion on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid

  18. HPA axis activity in multiple sclerosis correlates with disease severity, lesion type and gene expression in normal-appearing white matter

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    Melief, Jeroen; de Wit, Stella J.; van Eden, Corbert G.; Teunissen, Charlotte; Hamann, Jörg; Uitdehaag, Bernard M.; Swaab, Dick; Huitinga, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated in most, but not all multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and is implicated in disease progression and comorbid mood disorders. In this post-mortem study, we investigated how HPA axis activity in MS is related to disease severity,

  19. [The sexual peculiarities of aging changes in circannual rhythms of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus functions in healthy subjects].

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    Labunets, I F

    2013-01-01

    The interrelations of circannual rhythms of the functional state of pineal gland, hypophysis, adrenal cortex, thymus in healthy women and men from 20 to 79 years were studied. Fluctuations of melatonin, ACTH, cortisol and thymic serum factor, which were exchanged in aging (the season peaks of hormones and its acrophase) were found in blood of healthy 20-29 years old people. The changes of rhythmicity of indices were in male earlier (pineal gland and hypophysis over 30 years, thymus and adrenal cortex over 40 years) and more impressive than in women. The aging changes of pineal gland function's rhythm in healthy subjects have important role for changes of interrelations of circannual rhythms hypophysis, adrenal cortex and thymus.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE HORMONAL STIMULATION STERLET (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS, LINNAEUS, 1758 USING CARP HYPOPHYSIS AND ARTIFICIAL HORMONE TYPE NERESTIN 5-5A

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    R. C. DIMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the particular sturgeon reproductive biology, propagation of technology through artificial comprises a number of phases required including: selection, parking broodstocks cell maturation and sexual stimulation in order fertilized their conditions provided. To stimulate the process of sexual maturation of the sexual elements for sterlet could be hypophysis and also analogue gonadothropic hormone type Nerestin 5. Literature attesting to the use of sterlet dry hypophysis treated with acetone (Maria Caloianu-Iordăchel, 1973 and employing successful hormone analogue found as LHRHa (N.Patrichi and collaborators, 1989- unpublished data. Advantages and disadvantages of using hypophysis or gonadotropic hormone analogue fdhgghNerestin 5 are very important and decisive for modern aquaculture the century XXI century.

  1. Evaluation of superovulatory treatment with extract of equine hypophysis in creole mares

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    Juan Gabriel Abril Abril

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated the super-ovulatory answer in creole mares which were administered with equine hypophysis extract (EHE in two different doses, compared to FSH of porcine origin (Folltropin V. Twenty cyclical Colombian creole mares were taken whose ages oscillated between 2 and 8 years (5,3 years on average which were randomly selected and assigned to the following four groups: Group 1 also called control group (T1: This group was administered with 5cc of saline solution IM (a.m. , p.m.; Group 2 (T2: 6,25 mg of Foltropin- v (FSH-P IM (a.m., p.m.; Group 3 (T3: 8,3mg EHE IM (a.m., p.m.; Group 4 (T4: 12,5 mg EHE IM (a.m., p.m.. The treatments started seven days after the detection of an ovulation by ultrasound, the 8th day 12,5mg PgF2alfa were administered intramuscular (IM via. The treatment with EHE was canceled when most of the follicles reached a size ≥ 35 mm, at that point 2500 UI of hCG were administered IV (intravenous via, followed by artificial insemination. Between the 7th or 8th day the embryos were collected by means of intrauterine pumping. A one way variance analysis (ANOVA was done specifying the follicular growing between the day of the beginning of treatment and the ovulation, the number of pre-ovulatory follicles sized ≥ 35mm, the number of treatment days and the quantity of embryos collected on each group. A rank test or Duncan multiple comparison was carried out to see differences between the groups, and the condition and the quality of the embryos on each kind of treatment to determine the viability was determined through a relation analysis. The results showed that T4 group developed a higher number of follicles ≥ 35 mm in comparison to the rest of the groups (p<0.005 in 7,4 days of treatment, higher rate of follicle growing (3,01mm/day, higher number of ovulations per treatment (2,8 and a higher number of collected embryos per mare (1,6. So, T4 showed the best results in comparison to the results of the other groups in

  2. THE FUNCTION OF HYPOPHYSIS-THYROID SYSTEM IN PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOLISM DEPENDING ON IODINE SUFFICIENCY OF THE HUMAN BODY

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    LARYSA ROSTOKA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our investigation was to study the hypophysis- thyroid status of a body in patients with alcoholism, the inhabitants of various biogeochemical zones of the Transcarpathia, in the highlands – with expressed iodine deficiency and in the lowlands – with lower degree of iodine insufficiency. The content of thyroxin, triiodothyromine, thyrotropic hormone in blood serum has been defined by radioimmunologic method with the use of standard test- sets. The general iodine in the blood and urine has been studied by cerium-arsenide method. The peculiarities as to the influence of various ecologically iodine supply of the body upon TSH function of the hypophysis, hormone function of the thyroid gland, iodine reserves of the body both in practically healthy people and in alcoholism have been established. Alcoholism has been shown to be accompanied by the increased losses of iodine with urine and the depletion of the iodine reserves of the body, the increase of T3 level in blood serum both in lowlands and highlands of the Transcarpathia, it being characterized by different degrees of iodine deficiency complicating the existing iodine deficiency of the body. These findings may be good reasons for including iodine correction into the treatment of alcoholism.

  3. A Lifelong Smoker with Hypopituitarism: Rethinking the Hypothesis of a Tumor in the Hypophysis

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    Nestoras Mathioudakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas are the most common cause of a sellar mass. Metastases to the pituitary gland, a rare occurrence, may mimic benign pituitary adenomas. We report here a case of a 61-year-old woman with an 80-pack-year smoking history who presented with headache and diplopia. Visual field testing demonstrated bitemporal hemianopsia. Pituitary MRI revealed a 2.0 cm sellar mass impinging upon the optic chiasm. Hypopituitarism was present, with no evidence of diabetes insipidus. The patient was referred to our service for transsphenoidal resection of a presumed pituitary macroadenoma. As part of her preoperative evaluation, a chest radiograph was obtained, which showed a large hilar mass. In light of the patient’s extensive smoking history, the differential diagnosis was expanded to include metastatic lesion to the sella. Transsphenoidal resection of the tumor was performed and histopathology revealed small cell carcinoma. The patient received chemotherapy, but died 18 months later due to widespread brain metastases. Although the presence of diabetes insipidus may help to discriminate between pituitary adenomas and metastatic lesions, this is not a sensitive finding. This case illustrates the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pituitary metastasis in patients with known risk factors for malignancy.

  4. Modifications of receptor concentrations for adrenaline, steroid hormones, prostaglandin F2alpha and gonadotropins in hypophysis and ovary of dairy cows with ovarian cysts.

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    Odore, R; Re, G; Badino, P; Donn, A; Vigo, D; Biolatti, B; Girardi, C

    1999-04-01

    Receptor concentrations for adrenaline, steroid hormones, PGF2alpha, LH and FSH were measured in the hypophysis and ovary of dairy cows with ovarian cysts and the results were compared with those of healthy animals. Significant modifications were found in all receptor concentrations, either between follicular and luteal structures or between the hypophyseal and ovarian receptorial status. The correlations between catecholaminergic and steroidal systems have already been demonstrated, particularly those existing between beta-adrenoceptors and steroid hormone receptors. Particular attention has been given to the possibility that a derangement in neurogenic inputs may be at the basis of some ovarian pathologies. The results of the present study suggest that the modifications of the ovarian and hypophyseal receptorial status of healthy and affected cows could play an important role in the pathogenesis of ovarian cysts. Copyright 1999 The Italian Pharmacological Society.

  5. Brain Lesions

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    Symptoms Brain lesions By Mayo Clinic Staff A brain lesion is an abnormality seen on a brain-imaging test, such as ... tomography (CT). On CT or MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don' ...

  6. Acute myocardial infarction with changing axis deviation.

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    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2011-07-01

    Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Changing axis deviation has been rarely reported also during acute myocardial infarction associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. Left anterior hemiblock development during acute inferior myocardial infarction can be an indicator of left anterior descending coronary artery lesions, multivessel coronary artery disease, and impaired left ventricular systolic function. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 62-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Also this case focuses attention on changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Left axis deviation.

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    MacKenzie, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Left axis deviation is one of the most commonly encountered ECG abnormalities. Its presence should alert medical directors and underwriters to the possibility of underlying structural heart disease. Many of the causes of left axis deviation are apparent from the clinical findings. Left anterior fascicular block is one of the commonest causes of left axis deviation and has specific ECG criteria for its diagnosis.

  8. Axis instrumentation: surgical results

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    Andrei F. Joaquim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the surgical results of axis screw instrumentation. METHODS: Retrospective evaluation of the clinical and radiological data of patients submitted to axis fixation using screws. RESULTS: Seventeen patients were surgically treated. The mean age was 41.8 years (range: 12-73. Spinal cord trauma was the most common cause of instability (8 patients - 47%. Bilateral axis fixation was performed in all cases, except one, with laminar screw (total of 33 axis screws. Seven patients (41.1% underwent bilateral pars screws; laminar screws were used in six cases and pedicular screws were used in two. In two cases, we performed a hybrid construction (laminar + pars and pedicle + pars. There was no neurological worsening or death, nor complications directly related to use axis screws. CONCLUSION: Axis instrumentation was effective and safe, regardless of the technique used for stabilization. Based on our learnt experience, we proposed an algorithm to choose the best technique for axis screw fixation.

  9. The acute effect of fludrocortisone on basal and hCRH-stimulated hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenal (HPA) axis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzis, Ioannis; Berardelli, Rita; Marinazzo, Elisa; D'Angelo, Valentina; Zinnà, Domenico; Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Zichi, Clizia; Fussotto, Beatrice; Giordano, Roberta; Ghigo, Ezio; Arvat, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the hippocampus display an important role in the control of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, mediating the "proactive"-feedback of glucocorticoids. Fludrocortisone (FC), a potent MR agonist, has been shown to decrease HPA activity through a mechanism placed at hippocampal level. In order to clarify the effects of MR agonism on HPA function in humans, we studied the effects of FC, in a dose-related manner, on both basal and CRH-stimulated HPA axis during the quiescent phase. 8 young women were studied. ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone levels were evaluated every 15', from 1600 to 2000 hours, in randomized sessions: (1) placebo p.o. + placebo i.v., (2) 0.3 mg FC p.o. + placebo, (3) 0.1 mg FC. + placebo, (4) 0.075 mg FC + placebo, (5) 0.05 mg FC + placebo, (6) placebo + hCRH (2.0 μg/kg iv-bolus), (7) 0.3 mg FC + hCRH, (8) 0.1 mg FC + hCRH, (9) 0.075 mg FC + hCRH, (10) 0.05 mg FC + hCRH. FC induced a dose-related trend toward a further decrease of the ACTH and cortisol levels, while it showed a significant and dose-dependent inhibition of the hormonal response to hCRH (p HPA activity. These data suggest a possible hypophysial MR-mediated inhibiting effect of FC, although its pituitary glucocorticoid-mediated effect cannot be excluded. The interplay between fludrocortisone and hypophysial glucocorticoid receptors needs to be clarified in order to define better the clinical consequences of the hormonal replacement therapy of patients with primary adrenal insufficiency.

  10. Gut-brain axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Johannes A.; Corssmit, Eleonora P.; Havekes, Louis M.; Pijl, Hanno

    2008-01-01

    To summarize recent studies on the regulation and the functions of the gut-brain axis. Visual cues of food and food intake interact with the gut-brain axis at the level of the hypothalamus. However, the hypothalamic response to glucose intake is considerably altered in patients with type 2 diabetes

  11. Lesiones laborales

    OpenAIRE

    Plachesi, Pierina

    2015-01-01

    Las lesiones laborales se producen por un esfuerzo repetitivo, cuando un exceso de presión se ejerce sobre una parte del cuerpo provocando lesiones óseas, articulares, musculares y daños en los tejidos. Los accidentes laborales también pueden producir una lesión en el organismo y esto sumado a diversos factores es un problema para la reinserción laboral de los trabajadores de la energía eléctrica. Objetivo: Establecer cuáles son las lesiones más frecuentes que afectan a los ...

  12. Single-Axis Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis Stephen (Inventor); Capo-Lugo, Pedro A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single-axis accelerometer includes a housing defining a sleeve. An object/mass is disposed in the sleeve for sliding movement therein in a direction aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. A first piezoelectric strip, attached to a first side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The first piezoelectric strip includes a first strip of a piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A second piezoelectric strip, attached to a second side of the object and to the housing, is longitudinally aligned with the sleeve's longitudinal axis. The second piezoelectric strip includes a second strip of the piezoelectric material with carbon nanotubes substantially aligned along a length thereof. A voltage sensor is electrically coupled to at least one of the first and second piezoelectric strips.

  13. Oblique Axis Body Fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takai, Hirokazu; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Schmal, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    Anderson type III fractures with a characteristic fracture pattern that we refer to as "oblique type axis body fracture." Results. The female patients aged 90 and 72 years, respectively, were both diagnosed with minimally displaced Anderson type III fractures. Both fractures had a characteristic "oblique...... was uneventful. Conclusions. Oblique type axis body fractures resemble a highly unstable subtype of Anderson type III fractures with the potential of severe secondary deformity following conservative treatment, irrespective of initial grade of displacement. The authors therefore warrant a high index of suspicion...

  14. Secretory patterns of LH and FSH during development and hypothalamic and hypophysial characteristics following development of steroid-induced ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, D L; Parfet, J R; Smith, C A; Moss, G E; Youngquist, R S; Garverick, H A

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to (1) investigate developmental endocrinology of ovarian follicular cysts (cysts) in cattle and (2) evaluate effects of cysts on hypothalamic and hypophysial characteristics. Cysts were induced with oestradiol-17 beta (15 mg) and progesterone (37.5 mg) dissolved in alcohol and injected s.c. twice daily for 7 days. Cysts were defined as the presence of follicular structures (which may or may not have been the same structure) of 2.0 cm in diameter or greater that were present for 10 days without ovulation and corpus luteum development. In Exp. 1,22 non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were allocated to 3 groups. Beginning on Day 5 (oestrus = Day 0) of the oestrous cycle, 7 cows (Controls) were treated with twice daily s.c. injections of ethanol (2 ml/injection) for 7 days. Luteolysis was then induced with PGF-2 alpha and blood samples were collected daily every 15 min for 6 h from the morning after the PGF-2 alpha injection (Day 13) until oestrus. Steroids to induce cysts were injected as previously described into the remaining cows (N = 15). Three blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals every 12 h throughout the experimental period. Additional blood samples were collected every 15 min for 6 h on a twice weekly basis. After steroid injections, follicular and luteal structures on ovaries were not detected via rectal palpation for a period of 36 +/- 4 days (static phase). Then follicles developed which ovulated within 3-7 days (non-cystic; N = 7) or increased in size with follicular structures present for 10 days (cystic; N = 8). Mean (+/- s.e.m.) concentrations of LH, FSH, oestradiol-17 beta and progesterone in serum remained low and were not different during the static phase between cows that subsequently developed cysts or ovulated. During the follicular phase, mean serum concentration of LH (ng/ml) was higher (P less than 0.1) in cows with cysts (2.9 +/- 0.2) than in cows without cysts (1.1 +/- 0.1) or control cows (1

  15. Pancreas Bone Testis Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfidan Coskun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bone which has movement and support functions, is the largest organ of the body. Bone is regulated by hormonal signal but it also acts as an endocrine organ. Many peptide hormones such as osteocalcin are secreted from bone. Osteocalcin which is an osteoblast derived hormone, has two forms: and ldquo;carboxylated (inactive osteocalcin and decarboxylated (active osteocalcin and rdquo;. While inactive osteocalcin is found in bone matrix, active osteocalcin is given to blood circulation and acts as a multifunctional hormone. In the past ten years, numerous epidemiological, genetic and biochemical studies have revealed hormonal links between bone and pancreas, adipose tissue, gonads via active osteocalcin. In this review, a newly defined pathway called pancreas-bone-testis axis which stimulates testosterone synthesis independent of hypothalamic hypophyseal testicular axis, is discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 355-367

  16. Pathologic Axis Fracture Secondary to Solitary Bone Plasmacytoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yurac, Ratko; Delgado, Matias; Marré, Bartolomé; Ballesteros, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    .... A nonsystematic literature review about cervical spine SBP was conducted. Results Cervical X-ray study showed a lytic lesion in C2 vertebral body with anterolisthesis of the atlas over the axis...

  17. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  18. Arbitrary mandibular hinge axis locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J W; Hesby, R A; Pfeifer, D L; Pelleu, G B

    1984-06-01

    This study compared selected arbitrary hinge axis locations with the kinematic axis location. Fifty subjects were studied, and the data were statistically analyzed. Results showed significant differences between the location of experimental arbitrary axis point and those of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom in relation to the kinematic axis. The arbitrary points of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom showed directional tendencies, whereas the experimental arbitrary points were evenly distributed around the kinematic axis. This study indicates that the experimental arbitrary axis point more closely and consistently approximated the kinematic axis than the arbitrary points of Beyron, Gysi, and Bergstrom. The finding suggests that the clinical use of a point on Camper's line, 10 mm from the superior border of the tragus, results in a more accurate transfer of the maxillary cast to the articulator.

  19. Proteus mirabilis abscess involving the entire neural axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, A S; Thango, N S; Husein, M Ben

    2016-08-01

    Intramedullary spinal cord abscesses are rare and potentially devastating lesions usually associated with other infective processes such as bacterial endocarditis, or pulmonary or urogenital infection. We describe a 2-year-old girl who presented with an infected dermal sinus leading to an intraspinal abscess. This abscess eventually spread and involved the entire neural axis leaving her quadriparetic. Drainage of the abscess resulted in recovery and the child regained normal function of her limbs. To our knowledge this is the first documented case of an intramedullary abscess involving the entire neural axis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Talar Dome Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Please enable Javascript in your browser. Talar Dome Lesion What Is a Talar Dome Lesion? The ankle joint is composed of the bottom ... on the specific case. Complications of Talar Dome Lesions Depending on the amount of damage to the ...

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF IODINIZED OIL ON THE FUNCTION OF HYPOPHYSIS-THYROID SYSTEM AND THE CONTENS OF MIDDLE MOLECULE PEPTIDES IN HEALTHY PEOPLE DEPENDING ON IODINE SUPPLY OF THE BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. ROSTOKA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of iodinized oil (IO on the function of hypophysis-thyroid system and the content of middle molecule peptides (MMP in the blood serum in people of two groups living of biogeochemical zones with different levels of iodine deficiency expression has been investigated. Taking the iodinized oil during 14 days in the dose of 200 μg of iodine daily by the inhabitants of the Tissa-Danube lowland with less expressed iodine deficiency than in highlands, increases iodine dependence of the human body, decreases TSH content and the risk of goitre development, increases the excretion of iodine with urine and after a month’s taking it the mediane ioduria is achieved that corresponds to complete iodine sufficiency. Taking the IO by people constantly living in the Carpathians favours the increase of T3, T4 hormone production, decreases TSH concentration to the norm in people living in better iodine ecological conditions, normalizes MMP production formation in tissues to the level of the inhabitants of lowlands and stimulates the increase of iodine with the urine.

  2. A regulação do lobo anterior da hypophyse por um hormonio testicular, especialmente sob o ponto de vista morphologico The regulation of the anterior hypophysis by a testicular hormone, principally under morphological consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Martins

    1931-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors summarize the results of former works, based on the technics of parabiosis. After parabiotic union of two infantile rats, normal + castrate, the normal fellow enters into precocious puberty in about 7 days (Kallas. In the case of pairs: castrated male + normal female, the implants of testicles, or injection of maceration or aqueous extracts of testis in the castrated fellow, prevents the induction of early puberty in the normal female. In the case: castrated female + normal female, no inhibiting effect is provoked by that treatment. There is therefore a testicular hormone that regulates the hypophysis. After castration, this gland manifests a hyper-function and shows histological alterations, the chief character of these being the appearing in the anterior lobe, of the so-called castration cells, probably originated from basophile cells. Implants or injections of testis material prevent those alterations. This is a useful test; the effect is controlled by estimating the castration cells in the microscopic field. The testicular hormone that regulates the anterior lobe is probably another one, quite different from that which regulates the accessory genitalia. On account of the facts and experiments, it may be assumed that this new hormone is elaborated by the germinal epithelium of the testicles.

  3. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-10-05

    To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future.

  4. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of s...

  5. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    of predictors increases the accuracy of lesion activity prediction for both primary coronal and root lesions. Three surrogate methods have been used for evaluating lesion activity (construct validity); all have disadvantages. If construct validity is accepted as a 'gold standard', it is possible to assess......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R...... in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  6. Skin lesion removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin; Excision of skin lesions - benign; Skin lesion removal - benign; Cryosurgery - skin, benign; BCC - removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; ...

  7. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000865.htm Skin lesion of blastomycosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A skin lesion of blastomycosis is a symptom of an infection ...

  8. Skin lesion aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003451.htm Skin lesion aspiration To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Skin lesion aspiration is the withdrawal of fluid from a ...

  9. Vertical axis wind turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir; Krivospitski, Vladimir; Maksimov, Vasili; Halstead, Richard; Grahov, Jurij Vasiljevich

    2012-12-18

    A vertical axis wind turbine airfoil is described. The wind turbine airfoil can include a leading edge, a trailing edge, an upper curved surface, a lower curved surface, and a centerline running between the upper surface and the lower surface and from the leading edge to the trailing edge. The airfoil can be configured so that the distance between the centerline and the upper surface is the same as the distance between the centerline and the lower surface at all points along the length of the airfoil. A plurality of such airfoils can be included in a vertical axis wind turbine. These airfoils can be vertically disposed and can rotate about a vertical axis.

  10. Gut Microbiota-brain Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Xing; Wang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. Data Sources: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of “gut microbiota”, “gut-brain axis”, and “neuroscience”. Study Selection: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design. Results: It is well-recognized that gut microbiota affects the brain's physiological, behavioral, and cognitive functions although its precise mechanism has not yet been fully understood. Gut microbiota-brain axis may include gut microbiota and their metabolic products, enteric nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic branches within the autonomic nervous system, neural-immune system, neuroendocrine system, and central nervous system. Moreover, there may be five communication routes between gut microbiota and brain, including the gut-brain's neural network, neuroendocrine-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, gut immune system, some neurotransmitters and neural regulators synthesized by gut bacteria, and barrier paths including intestinal mucosal barrier and blood-brain barrier. The microbiome is used to define the composition and functional characteristics of gut microbiota, and metagenomics is an appropriate technique to characterize gut microbiota. Conclusions: Gut microbiota-brain axis refers to a bidirectional information network between the gut microbiota and the brain, which may provide a new way to protect the brain in the near future. PMID:27647198

  11. Tumefactive demyelinating lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, A.P. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology; Smirniotopoulos, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Div. of Neuroradiology]|[Armed Forces Inst. of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Radiological Pathology

    1996-08-01

    We studied 21 cases of pathologically confirmed tumefactive demyelinating lesions and reviewed the spectrum of tumefactive demyelinating lesions in the literature. Radiological features and clinical data were reviewed to characterize the lesions as consistent with a known demyelinating disease, most notably multiple sclerosis. Atypical clinical or radiological features (other than tumefaction) were noted. Most lesions were part of a clinical and/or radiological picture consistent with multiple sclerosis. No case strongly suggestive of variants or related diseases, such as Schilder`s disease or Balo`s concentric sclerosis, were found. There was one case suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Features which help distinguish the lesions from tumour are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Stress and the reproductive axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toufexis, D; Rivarola, M A; Lara, H; Viau, V

    2014-09-01

    There exists a reciprocal relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, wherein the activation of one affects the function of the other and vice versa. For example, both testosterone and oestrogen modulate the response of the HPA axis, whereas activation of the stress axis, especially activation that is repeating or chronic, has an inhibitory effect upon oestrogen and testosterone secretion. Alterations in maternal care can produce significant effects on both HPG and HPA physiology, as well as behaviour in the offspring at adulthood. For example, changes in reproductive behaviour induced by altered maternal care may alter the expression of sex hormone receptors such as oestrogen receptor (ER)α that govern sexual behaviour, and may be particularly important in determining the sexual strategies utilised by females. Stress in adulthood continues to mediate HPG activity in females through activation of a sympathetic neural pathway originating in the hypothalamus and releasing norepinephrine into the ovary, which produces a noncyclic anovulatory ovary that develops cysts. In the opposite direction, sex differences and sex steroid hormones regulate the HPA axis. For example, although serotonin (5-HT) has a stimulatory effect on the HPA axis in humans and rodents that is mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, only male rodents respond to 5-HT1A antagonism to show increased corticosterone responses to stress. Furthermore, oestrogen appears to decrease 5-HT1A receptor function at presynaptic sites, yet increases 5-HT1A receptor expression at postsynaptic sites. These mechanisms could explain the heightened stress HPA axis responses in females compared to males. Studies on female rhesus macaques show that chronic stress in socially subordinate female monkeys produces a distinct behavioural phenotype that is largely unaffected by oestrogen, a hyporesponsive HPA axis that is hypersensitive to the modulating effects

  13. Uterine vascular lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management.

  14. Dual axis solar collector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiden, G.E.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a solar collector. It comprises: an elongate main boom having a longitudinal axis; a solar collector frame first mounting means for pivotally mounting the solar collector frame to the main boom for pivotal motion about first pivotal axis substantially parallel to the longitudinal axis of the main boom; and first motor means, separate from the first mounting means a generally horizontal countertop mounted on the frame means adapted for a placement and retention of an ostomy bag thereon during cleaning of the ostomy bag. The countertop having a sink formed therein for draining liquid and waste materials from the ostomy bag and from the countertop; a mirror mounted upright on the frame means; a light source mounted to the frame means for illuminating the countertop, a user and the mirror; and a drainage conduit, having a first end connected to the sink, the drainage conduit being adapted for carrying the waste materials and the liquid from the sink to the disposal location.

  15. Computed tomographic angiography of the liver via the coeliac axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, C.; Goetberg, S.; Lunderquist, A.; Stridbeck, H.; Ekberg, H.

    Sixty computed tomographic angiographic (CTA) examinations of the liver were performed with contrast injection into the coeliac axis. Data from both an arterial and a portal venous phase were recorded. In 41 patients it was possible to compare the results of CTA with palpation of the liver during laparotomy. The results from CTA and laparotomy were the same in 35 patients (85%). In one patient CTA disclosed verified liver lesions not diagnosed at laparotomy. There were 2 false negative and 3 false positive CTA examinations. In the remaining 19 patients, a clinical follow-up period of at least 6 months was used to evaluate the results of CTA. In the 7 patients in whom CTA showed benign lesions or a normal liver parenchyma, the clinical follow-up revealed to evidence of tumour growth in the liver.

  16. A systematic comparison of on-axis and off-axis transmission Kikuchi diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niessen, F.; Burrows, A.; Fanta, A. Bastos da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The capabilities of the novel on-axis transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) technique were explored in a systematic comparison with conventional off-axis TKD. The effect of experimental parameters on the appearance of on-axis and off-axis Kikuchi patterns was measured and discussed. In ...... with the determined resolution, whereas off-axis TKD is more sensitive to beam drift. Band detection by the Hough-transform led to indexing of, on average, one additional Kikuchi band when measuring with on-axis TKD compared to off-axis TKD and operated more stable on on-axis patterns....

  17. Hypothalamo-hypophysial relations in amphibian larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oordt, P.G.W.J. van; Goos, H.J.Th.; Peute, J.; Terlou, M.

    1972-01-01

    The results of studies on the differentiation of the preoptic nucleus and of experiments regarding the effects of propylthiouracil and extirpation of the preoptic area demonstrate that in Xenopus laevis tadpoles a thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF) is formed in peptidergic cells in the dorsal part

  18. The Radical Axis: A Motion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivney, Ray; McKim, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Interesting problems sometimes have surprising sources. In this paper we take an innocent looking problem from a calculus book and rediscover the radical axis of classical geometry. For intersecting circles the radical axis is the line through the two points of intersection. For nonintersecting, nonconcentric circles, the radical axis still…

  19. PS-OCT of natural pigmented and nonpigmented interproximal caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the measured reflectivity of natural caries lesions with the mineral loss measured using digital microradiography. An all polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of natural white spot lesions and pigmented lesions on the smooth surfaces of extracted teeth. There was a strong positive correlation between the increase in the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system and the increase in the integrated mineral loss or lesion severity for both white-spot and pigmented lesions, P caries lesions and resolve the internal structure of early caries lesions for the potential assessment of the lesion activity.

  20. Mercury's rotation axis and period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaasen, K. P.

    1976-01-01

    Recent measurements made from high-resolution Mariner 10 photography of the planet Mercury yield a rotation period of 58.6461 + or 0.005 days, in excellent agreement with the period required for a precise 2/3 resonance with its orbital period (58.6462 days). The axis of rotation of the planet was calculated to be offset about 2 deg from the perpendicular to its orbital plane within a 50% probability error ellipse of + or - 2.6 deg by + or - 6.5 deg. Dynamical considerations make it most likely that the true displacement from the orbit normal is less than 1 deg.

  1. Intraosseous osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, C.P.; Wenz, W.

    1981-10-01

    Any pathological damage occurring in a bone will produce either an osteolytic or osteosclerotic lesion which can be seen in the macroscopic specimen as well as in the roentgenogram. Various bone lesions may lead to local destructions of the bone. An osteoma or osteoplastic osteosarcoma produces an osteosclerotic lesion showing a dense mass in the roentgenogram; a chondroblastoma or an osteoclastoma, on the other hand, induces an osteolytic focal lesion. This paper presents examples of different osteolytic lesions of the humerus. An osteolytic lesion seen in the roentgenogram may be either produced by an underlying non-ossifying fibroma of the bone, by fibrous dysplasia, osteomyelitis or Ewing's sarcoma. Differential diagnostic considerations based on the radiological picture include eosinophilic bone granuloma, juvenile or aneurysmal bone cyst, multiple myeloma or bone metastases. Serious differential diagnostic problems may be involved in case of osteolytic lesions occurring in the humerus. Cases of this type involving complications have been reported and include the presence of an teleangiectatic osteosarcoma as well as that of a hemangiosarcoma of the bone.

  2. Flexible helical-axis stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey H.; Hender, Timothy C.; Carreras, Benjamin A.; Cantrell, Jack L.; Morris, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An 1=1 helical winding which spirals about a conventional planar, circular central conductor of a helical-axis stellarator adds a significant degree of flexibility by making it possible to control the rotational transform profile and shear of the magnetic fields confining the plasma in a helical-axis stellarator. The toroidal central conductor links a plurality of toroidal field coils which are separately disposed to follow a helical path around the central conductor in phase with the helical path of the 1=1 winding. This coil configuration produces bean-shaped magnetic flux surfaces which rotate around the central circular conductor in the same manner as the toroidal field generating coils. The additional 1=1 winding provides flexible control of the magnetic field generated by the central conductor to prevent the formation of low-order resonances in the rotational transform profile which can produce break-up of the equilibrium magnetic surfaces. Further, this additional winding can deepen the magnetic well which together with the flexible control provides increased stability.

  3. Gram stain of skin lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skin lesion gram stain ... skin sore. This procedure is called a skin lesion biopsy . Before the biopsy, your provider will numb ... means bacteria have been found in the skin lesion. Further tests are needed to confirm the results. ...

  4. Acute periodontal lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Gonzalez, David; Alonso Álvarez, Bettina; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; Santa- Cruz Astorqui, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz Alonso, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    This is a review and update on acute conditions affecting the gingival tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases, and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious process not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, muco-cutanenous disorders, and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important since it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodo...

  5. Traditional lesion detection aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, K W; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A; Pitts, N B

    2009-01-01

    Lesion detection aids ideally aim at increasing the sensitivity of visual caries detection without trading off too much in terms of specificity. The use of a dental probe (explorer), bitewing radiography and fibre-optic transillumination (FOTI) have long been recommended for this purpose. Today, probing of suspected lesions in the sense of checking the 'stickiness' is regarded as obsolete, since it achieves no gain of sensitivity and might cause irreversible tooth damage. Bitewing radiography helps to detect lesions that are otherwise hidden from visual examination, and it should therefore be applied to a new patient. The diagnostic performance of radiography at approximal and occlusal sites is different, as this relates to the 3-dimensional anatomy of the tooth at these sites. However, treatment decisions have to take more into account than just lesion extension. Bitewing radiography provides additional information for the decision-making process that mainly relies on the visual and clinical findings. FOTI is a quick and inexpensive method which can enhance visual examination of all tooth surfaces. Both radiography and FOTI can improve the sensitivity of caries detection, but require sufficient training and experience to interpret information correctly. Radiography also carries the burden of the risks and legislation associated with using ionizing radiation in a health setting and should be repeated at intervals guided by the individual patient's caries risk. Lesion detection aids can assist in the longitudinal monitoring of the behaviour of initial lesions. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Oral lesions in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprotic oral lesions are more common in the lepromatous form of leprosy, indicate a late manifestation, and have a great epidemiological importance as a source of infection. METHODS: Patients with leprosy were examined searching for oral lesions. Biopsies of the left buccal mucosa in all patients, and of oral lesions, were performed and were stained with H&E and Wade. RESULTS: Oral lesions were found in 26 patients, 11 lepromatous leprosy, 14 borderline leprosy, and one tuberculoid leprosy. Clinically 5 patients had enanthem of the anterior pillars, 3 of the uvula and 3 of the palate. Two had palatal infiltration. Viable bacilli were found in two lepromatous patients. Biopsies of the buccal mucosa showed no change or a nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate. Oral clinical alterations were present in 69% of the patients; of these 50% showed histopathological features in an area without any lesion. DISCUSSION: Our clinical and histopathological findings corroborate earlier reports that there is a reduced incidence of oral changes, which is probably due to early treatment. The maintenance of oral infection in this area can also lead to and maintain lepra reactions, while they may also act as possible infection sources. Attention should be given to oral disease in leprosy because detection and treatment of oral lesions can prevent the spread of the disease.

  7. [Interpreting the hospitalization experiences of patients with spine lesion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Ana Lúcia Pereira; de Freitas, Consuelo Helena Aires; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa

    2009-01-01

    Qualitative study with theoretical axis in symbolic interactionism interpretative of Norman Denzin that had as objective to comprehend the meanings of experiences lived by being victim of spine lesion in context hospital and to describe the narratives in range of experiences lived. The subjects of research were seven patient victims of spine lesion traumatic hospitalized in unity of neurology of Institute Dr. José Frota, sited in Fortaleza/Ce. Interpreted hard fronting to balance of oneself, given to sudden breaking of trajectory of their lives, the organic alterations acquired that pass to be motives of fears, uncertain, non-comfort and menace to life that had along their families.

  8. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  9. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  10. Acute injuries of the axis vertebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.T. (United General Hospital, Sedro Woolley, WA (USA)); Harris, J.H. (Texas Univ., Houston, TX (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-08-01

    A retrospective analysis of 165 patients admitted to Hermann Hospital with acute injuries of the axis vertebra revealed 68 (41%) dens fractures, 62 (38%) cases of traumatic spondylolisthesis ('hangman's' fracture), 21 (13%) extension teardrop fractures, 10 (6%) hyperextension dislocations, and 2 (1.0%) fractures each of the laminae and spinous processes. Of the axis injuries 31 (18%) were limited to the axis body alone. Of these, 21 (61%) were hyperextension teardrop fractures and 10 (32%) were hyperextension dislocations. Axis injuries were associated with acute injuries of other cervical vertebrae in 14 (8%) of the patients. (orig./GDG).

  11. Axis deviation without left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Mancuso, Antonia

    2010-04-15

    It has been rarely reported changing axis deviation in the presence of left bundle branch block also during atrial fibrillation and with acute myocardial infarction too. It has also been rarely reported changing axis deviation with changing bundle branch block with onset of atrial fibrillation during acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction in a 65-year-old Italian man. To our knowledge, this is the first report of axis deviation without left bundle branch block and without atrial fibrillation and acute myocardial infarction. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Helical axis stellarator with noninterlocking planar coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Allan; Boozer, Allen H.

    1987-01-01

    A helical axis stellarator using only noninterlocking planar, non-circular coils, generates magnetic fields having a magnetic well and large rotational transform with resultant large equilibrium beta.

  13. Suspected Acoustic Neuroma Demyelinating Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuming; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Xiejun; Wu, Qiang; Huang, Guodong; Li, Weiping

    2016-11-01

    Demyelinating lesions were recognized as a kind of rare central nervous system demyelinating lesion. The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of demyelinating lesions is difficult. Once the diagnosis was delayed or incorrect, it will make a great impact on patients.Demyelinating lesions often involved in young and middle-aged, but this patient was the aged, which is rare.

  14. Supernova Remnant Science with AXIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian J.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; AXIS Science Team

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of the supernova remnant (SNR) science that will be achieved with the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS). AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band. These capabilities enable major advances in several areas of SNR science. These include, but are not limited to: 1) a more thorough spatial mapping of the ejecta products of both intermediate-mass and iron-group elements in core-collapse and Type Ia SNRs, particularly in remnants with a small diameter. The iron-group elements, specifically Cr, Mn, and Ni, are extremely important for constraining the explosion mechanism for SNe, but are generally weak and difficult to detect with Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. 2) Studying the interface of a shock wave with the ambient ISM/CSM to constrain the degree of particle heating and acceleration at shock fronts. Chandra has only provided upper limits on shock precursor emission, and a detailed study of the thermal and nonthermal emission at the shock with greatly increased photon count rates will constrain the properties of the immediate post-shock plasma. 3) A high spatial resolution X-ray observatory will continue to build on the legacy begun by Chandra of studying the proper motion of young remnants. Directly measuring the dynamics of an SNR's evolution is crucial for understanding the explosion mechanism, and with the order of magnitude increase collecting area, we can measure the expansion of individual elemental species in the ejecta. 4) We will greatly increase the statistics of SNRs in nearby galaxies, going much faster and deeper than Chandra's observations. The increased depth of coverage would allow us to do spectroscopy in places where it was previously possible only to do rudimentary statistics. We can compare the local SNR population with the local star-formation rates for galaxies

  15. Mallory-Weiss lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, J.; Jensen, Lone Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Malory-Weiss syndrome (MW) has been known since 1929. Only few studies exist which focus on the prognosis of the lesion. No Danish MW data are available. The purpose of the study was to describe the demographics of patients admitted with an MW to a Danish surgical unit during a 5-year...

  16. Common conjunctival lesions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    where vision is affected, if the pterygium looks suspicious or if it is cosmetically unacceptable. Limbal dermoid (Fig. 6). A limbal dermoid is a congenital tumour that usually occurs at the inferotemporal limbus or globe. ... Such lesions may be multiple and appear in the caruncle or fornix. e sessile papilloma is more frequently ...

  17. White matter lesion progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Edith; Cavalieri, Margherita; Bis, Joshua C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression on magnetic resonance imaging is related to cognitive decline and stroke, but its determinants besides baseline WML burden are largely unknown. Here, we estimated heritability of WML progression, and sought common genetic variants asso...

  18. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwendicke, F; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    or permanent teeth,selective removal to soft dentineshould be performed, although in permanent teeth,stepwise removalis an option. The evidence and, therefore, these recommendations support less invasive carious lesion management, delaying entry to, and slowing down, the restorative cycle by preserving tooth...

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution.

  20. Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Fangjie; Lei, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    To review current knowledge of the Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) to help clinicians become familiar with this entity. Familiarization may decrease missed diagnoses and misdiagnoses. It could also help steer the clinician to the proper treatment choice. A search was performed via PubMed and EMBASE from 1966 to July 2013 using the following keywords: Morel-Lavallee lesion, closed degloving injury, concealed degloving injury, Morel-Lavallee effusion, Morel-Lavallee hematoma, posttraumatic pseudocyst, posttraumatic soft tissue cyst. Chinese and English language literatures relevant to the subject were collected. Their references were also reviewed. Morel-Lavallee lesion is a relatively rare condition involving a closed degloving injury. It is characterized by a filled cystic cavity created by separation of the subcutaneous tissue from the underlying fascia. Apart from the classic location over the region of the greater trochanter, MLLs have been described in other parts of the body. The natural history of MLL has not yet been established. The lesion may decrease in volume, remain stable, enlarge progressively or show a recurrent pattern. Diagnosis of MLL was often missed or delayed. Ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging have great value in the diagnosis of MLL. Treatment of MLL has included compression, local aspiration, open debridement, and sclerodesis. No standard treatment has been established. A diagnosis of MLL should be suspected when a soft, fluctuant area of skin or chronic recurrent fluid collection is found in a region exposed to a previous shear injury. Clinicians and radiologists should be aware of both the acute and chronic appearances to make the correct diagnosis. Treatment decisions should base on association with fractures, the condition of the lesion, symptom and desire of the patient.

  1. Transcriptome differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis in laser-captured microdissected rat hippocampal granular cell layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, T.; Bisgaard, C.F.; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2010-01-01

    Several findings suggest a functional and anatomical differentiation along the dorso-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Lesion studies in rats have indicated that the dorsal hippocampus preferentially plays a role in spatial learning and memory, while the ventral hippocampus is involved in anxiety...

  2. Lesion progression in post-treatment persistent endodontic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Victoria Soo Hoon; Messer, Harold Henry; Shen, Liang; Yee, Robert; Hsu, Chin-ying Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Radiographic lesions related to root-filled teeth may persist for long periods after treatment and are considered to indicate failure of initial treatment. Persistent lesions are found in a proportion of cases, but information on lesion progression is lacking. This study examined the incidence of lesion improvement, remaining unchanged, and deterioration among persistent lesions in a group of patients recruited from a university-based clinic and identified potential predictors for lesion progression. Patients of a university clinic with persistent endodontic lesions at least 4 years since treatment and with original treatment radiographs available were recruited with informed consent. Data were obtained by interview and from dental records and clinical and radiographic examinations. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were carried out by using SPSS (version 19). One hundred fifty-one persistent lesions were identified in 114 patients. A majority of the lesions (107, 70.9%) received treatment between 4 and 5 years prior. Eighty-six lesions (57.0%) improved, 18 (11.9%) remained unchanged, and 47 (31.1%) deteriorated since treatment. Potential predictors for lesions that did not improve included recall lesion size, pain on biting at recall examination, history of a postobturation flare-up, and a non-ideal root-filling length (P < .05). Lesions that had persisted for a longer period appeared less likely to be improving (relative risk, 1.038; 95% confidence interval, 1.000-1.077). A specific time interval alone should not be used to conclude that a lesion will not resolve without intervention. This study identified several clinical factors that are associated with deteriorating persistent lesions, which should aid in identifying lesions that require further intervention. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. VEGF/VEGFR2 Axis in Periodontal Disease Progression and Angiogenesis: Basic Approach for a New Therapeutic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladau, Mircea; Cimpean, Anca Maria; Balica, Raluca Amalia; Jitariu, Andreea Adriana; Popovici, Ramona Amina; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal lesions are associated with activation of pathological angiogenesis and a high number of newly-formed blood vessels. Most angiogenic growth factors have been studied in the crevicular fluid or serum, but tissue correlations with vascular density or endothelial proliferation, are very rare, even inexistent. We assessed the VEGF/VEGFR2 axis expression in a multimodal fashion, in both epithelial and stromal compartments, with emphasis to endothelial proliferation and severity of periodontal lesions. Compared to normal gingiva, negative for VEGF/VEGFR2, periodontal lesions had a progressive increase for these markers from low to severe periodontal lesions. The transition from low to moderate periodontal lesions represents the milestone in disease progression and implies an active angiogenesis based on the highest angiogenic parameter variability observed for these lesions. Epithelial vascularization was firstly observed in moderate periodontal lesions and persists during severe periodontal disease. All the parameters used to quantify angiogenesis in periodontal lesions, were significantly increased in severe periodontal lesions dependent on VEGF expression in both the epithelial and stromal compartment. Our results support the use of anti-VEGF/VEGFR2-targeted therapy as adjuvant treatment for severe periodontal lesions. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LAPRADE, ROBERT F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and conse...

  5. Skin lesions in sadomasochism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sønderbo, K; Nyfors, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the case of a 35-year-old man who consulted the department of venereology because of healing problems with some wounds caused by burning his skin perianally with cigarettes as part of a sexual satisfaction ritual. Knowledge of such lesions may be useful to physicians and social workers. Sadomasochism and 'offers' in the intimate-massage clinics in Copenhagen are surveyed.

  6. Changing axis deviation during acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo

    2010-07-09

    Changing axis deviation has been reported during acute myocardial infarction also associated with atrial fibrillation. Isolated left posterior hemiblock is a very rare finding but the evidence of transient right axis deviation with a left posterior hemiblock pattern has been reported during acute anterior myocardial infarction as related with significant right coronary artery obstruction and collateral circulation between the left coronary system and the posterior descending artery. We present a case of changing axis deviation in a 70-year-old Italian man with acute myocardial infarction. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin lesion removal-aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave excision - skin aftercare; Excision of skin lesions - benign aftercare; Skin lesion removal - benign aftercare; Cryosurgery - skin aftercare; BCC - removal aftercare; Basal cell cancer - removal aftercare; Actinic keratosis - removal aftercare; Wart - ...

  8. Morphological classifications of gastrointestinal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    In the era of spreading adoption of gastrointestinal endoscopy screening worldwide, endoscopists encounter an increasing number of complex lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. For decision-making on optimal treatment, precise lesion characterization is crucial. Especially the assessment of

  9. Acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, David; Alonso, Bettina; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Santa Cruz, Isabel; Serrano, Cristina; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-06-01

    This review provides updates on acute conditions affecting the periodontal tissues, including abscesses in the periodontium, necrotizing periodontal diseases and other acute conditions that cause gingival lesions with acute presentation, such as infectious processes not associated with oral bacterial biofilms, mucocutaneous disorders and traumatic and allergic lesions. A periodontal abscess is clinically important because it is a relatively frequent dental emergency, it can compromise the periodontal prognosis of the affected tooth and bacteria within the abscess can spread and cause infections in other body sites. Different types of abscesses have been identified, mainly classified by their etiology, and there are clear differences between those affecting a pre-existing periodontal pocket and those affecting healthy sites. Therapy for this acute condition consists of drainage and tissue debridement, while an evaluation of the need for systemic antimicrobial therapy will be made for each case, based on local and systemic factors. The definitive treatment of the pre-existing condition should be accomplished after the acute phase is controlled. Necrotizing periodontal diseases present three typical clinical features: papilla necrosis, gingival bleeding and pain. Although the prevalence of these diseases is not high, their importance is clear because they represent the most severe conditions associated with the dental biofilm, with very rapid tissue destruction. In addition to bacteria, the etiology of necrotizing periodontal disease includes numerous factors that alter the host response and predispose to these diseases, namely HIV infection, malnutrition, stress or tobacco smoking. The treatment consists of superficial debridement, careful mechanical oral hygiene, rinsing with chlorhexidine and daily re-evaluation. Systemic antimicrobials may be used adjunctively in severe cases or in nonresponding conditions, being the first option metronidazole. Once the acute

  10. A disappearing neonatal skin lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawkes, Colin Patrick

    2012-01-31

    A preterm baby girl was noted at birth to have a firm, raised, non-tender skin lesion located over her right hip. She developed three similar smaller lesions on her ear, buttock and right knee. All lesions had resolved by 2 months of age.

  11. UMAPRM: Uniformly sampling the medial axis

    KAUST Repository

    Yeh, Hsin-Yi Cindy

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Maintaining clearance, or distance from obstacles, is a vital component of successful motion planning algorithms. Maintaining high clearance often creates safer paths for robots. Contemporary sampling-based planning algorithms That utilize The medial axis, or The set of all points equidistant To Two or more obstacles, produce higher clearance paths. However, They are biased heavily Toward certain portions of The medial axis, sometimes ignoring parts critical To planning, e.g., specific Types of narrow passages. We introduce Uniform Medial Axis Probabilistic RoadMap (UMAPRM), a novel planning variant That generates samples uniformly on The medial axis of The free portion of Cspace. We Theoretically analyze The distribution generated by UMAPRM and show its uniformity. Our results show That UMAPRM\\'s distribution of samples along The medial axis is not only uniform but also preferable To other medial axis samplers in certain planning problems. We demonstrate That UMAPRM has negligible computational overhead over other sampling Techniques and can solve problems The others could not, e.g., a bug Trap. Finally, we demonstrate UMAPRM successfully generates higher clearance paths in The examples.

  12. Actuator assembly including a single axis of rotation locking member

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmeyer, James N.; Benson, Dwayne M.; Geck, Kellan P.

    2009-12-08

    An actuator assembly including an actuator housing assembly and a single axis of rotation locking member fixedly attached to a portion of the actuator housing assembly and an external mounting structure. The single axis of rotation locking member restricting rotational movement of the actuator housing assembly about at least one axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a first end to the actuator housing assembly about a Y axis and at a 90.degree. angle to an X and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the Y axis. The single axis of rotation locking member is coupled at a second end to a mounting structure, and more particularly a mounting pin, about an X axis and at a 90.degree. angle to a Y and Z axis providing rotation of the actuator housing assembly about the X axis. The actuator assembly is thereby restricted from rotation about the Z axis.

  13. Lesiones deportivas Sports injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100

  14. Managing Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innes, N P T; Frencken, J E; Bjørndal, L

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the terminology used to describe clinical management of carious lesions has contributed to a lack of clarity in the scientific literature and beyond. In this article, the International Caries Consensus Collaboration presents 1) issues around terminology, a scoping review of current...... manifestations to the histopathology, we have based the terminology around the clinical consequences of disease (soft, leathery, firm, and hard dentine). Approaches to carious tissue removal are defined: 1)selective removal of carious tissue-includingselective removal to soft dentineandselective removal to firm...

  15. Study of genital lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar B

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39, chancroid (30, herpes genitolis (13, condylomato lato (9, LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5, genital scabies (3, granuloma inguinole (2 and genital candidiasis (1. In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively.

  16. Lesiones Deportivas En Corredores

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Cano, Juan Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Hoy escribo como médico pero también como corredor. Por eso hay que empezar diciendo que los corredores somos unos apasionados con este deporte. Se convierte en una adicción. No se corre de vez en cuando, se hace por lo menos 5 días a la semana. Y los días que no corremos, quedamos incompletos. Eso es lo que siente un corredor, una sensación que parecería que sólo la entiende quien ha corrido. Tal vez por eso las lesiones deportivas son tan sentidas en este gremio d...

  17. LONG TERM FOLLOW-UP OF LESIONAL AND NON-LESIONAL PATIENTS WITH ELECTRICAL STATUS EPILEPTICUS IN SLOW WAVE SLEEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegyi, Márta; Siegler, Zsuzsa; Fogarasi, András; Barsi, Péter; Halász, Péter

    2016-01-30

    A retrospective study has been done at the Bethesda Children's Hospital Epilepsy Center with those patients whose EEG records fulfilled in one or more records the criteria of electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep (ESES) pattern, occupying at least 75% of NREM sleep with bilateral discharges, and had detailed disease history and long term follow-up data, between 2000 and 2012. PATIENTS AND METHODS--Thirty-three patients (mean 11.1 +/- 4.2 years of age) were studied by 171 sleep EEG records. Sleep was recorded after sleep deprivation or during spontaneous sleep at least for one hour length of NREM. From the 492 EEGs, 171 sleep records were performed (average five/patient). Average follow-up time was 7.5 years. Eighty-two ESES records have been analyzed in 15 non-lesional and 18 lesional (11 with dysgenetic and seven with perinatal-asphyxic or vascular origin) patients. Variability of seizure types, seizure frequency and frequency of status epilepticus was higher in the lesional group. Impairment of the cognitive functions was moderate and partial in the non-lesional, while severely damaged in the lesional group. EEG records of 29 patients shawed unihemispherial spike fields with a perpendicular axis (in anterior, medial and posterior variants) to the Sylvian fissure, regardless their lesional or non-lesional origin. Only three (lone nonlesional and two lesional) patients had bilateral synchronous spike-wave discharges with bilateral symmetric frontocentral spike fields. The individual discharges of the sleep EEG pattern were very similar to the awake interictal records except their extension in time and field, their increased number, amplitude, and continuity of them and furthermore in the increased trans-hemispheral propagation and their synchronity. Assumed circuits involved in the pathomechanism of discharges during NREM sleep in ESES are discussed based on our findings.

  18. Oral lesions in lupus erythematosus: correlation with cutaneous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Marcello Menta Simonsen; Vilela, Maria Apparecida Constantino; Rivitti, Evandro Ararigbóia; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions in the context of lupus erythematosus (LE) have long been described. However, definitive agreement on about the exact nature and correct classification of these manifestations is lacking in published studies. Controversy exists on the significance of oral LE lesions regarding patient outcome. In this article, medical and dental literature on clinical and histopathological aspects of oral LE lesions are reviewed and critically discussed. A clinico-pathological correlation of oral lesions (interface mucositis-lupus mucositis) with cutaneous lesions (interface dermatitis-lupus dermatitis) is established, for those represent the mucosal counterparts of cutaneous LE. Validity about widely used but imprecise terms such as "oral ulcers", "ulcerative plaques", and others, in the context of LE, is discussed, and the uncertain relationship of these alterations to systemic disease with a worse outcome is commented. Furthermore, insights about the nature, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of oral lesions in LE patients are presented.

  19. Lesion procedures in psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun R; Aronson, Joshua P; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N

    2013-01-01

    Lesion procedures for psychiatric indications have a history that spans more than a century. This review provides a brief history of psychiatric surgery and addresses the most recent literature on lesion surgery for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Relevant data described in publications from the early 1900 s through the modern era regarding lesion procedures for psychiatric indications, both historical and current use, are reported. The early procedures of Burkhardt, Moniz, and Freeman are reviewed, followed by descriptions of the more refined techniques of Leksell, Knight, Foltz, White, and Kelly. The application of lesion procedures to obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and addiction are discussed. Lesioning procedures have informed modern deep brain stimulation targets. Recent lesioning studies demonstrate the efficacy and durability of these procedures in severely disabled patients. Judicious application of these techniques should continue for appropriately selected patients with severe, refractory psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Thalamic Lesions: A Radiological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Renard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thalamic lesions are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, trauma, tumours, and infections. In some diseases, thalamic involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases thalamic lesions are observed only occasionally (often in the presence of other typical extrathalamic lesions. Summary. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of thalamic lesions. Identification of the origin of the thalamic lesion depends on the exact localisation inside the thalamus, the presence of extrathalamic lesions, the signal changes on different MRI sequences, the evolution of the radiological abnormalities over time, the history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and nonradiological examinations.

  1. New Urban Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mihai CISMILIANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a different approach for enhancing the performance of Vertical Axis Wind Turbines for the use in the urban or rural environment and remote isolated residential areas. Recently the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT have become more attractive due to the major advantages of this type of turbines in comparison to the horizontal axis wind turbines. We aim to enhance the overall performance of the VAWT by adding a second set of blades (3 x 2=6 blades following the rules of biplane airplanes. The model has been made to operate at a maximum power in the range of the TSR between 2 to 2.5. The performances of the VAWT were investigated numerically and experimentally and justify the new proposed design.

  2. Biopsy of the pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David; Mariwalla, Kavita

    2012-07-01

    Although new technologies are becoming available to aid in diagnosis, the skin biopsy continues to be the fundamental tool of the dermatologist to evaluate the nature of a pigmented lesion. There are 3 major techniques for the biopsy of a pigmented lesion: shave biopsy, punch/incisional biopsy, and excisional biopsy. This article discusses when to biopsy a pigmented lesion and reviews the different biopsy techniques, with reference to specific clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. A users guide to HPA axis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert L; Deak, Terrence

    2017-09-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol and corticosterone - CORT) are the effector hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis neuroendocrine system. CORT is a systemic intercellular signal whose level predictably varies with time of day and dynamically increases with environmental and psychological stressors. This hormonal signal is utilized by virtually every cell and physiological system of the body to optimize performance according to circadian, environmental and physiological demands. Disturbances in normal HPA axis activity profiles are associated with a wide variety of physiological and mental health disorders. Despite numerous studies to date that have identified molecular, cellular and systems-level glucocorticoid actions, new glucocorticoid actions and clinical status associations continue to be revealed at a brisk pace in the scientific literature. However, the breadth of investigators working in this area poses distinct challenges in ensuring common practices across investigators, and a full appreciation for the complexity of a system that is often reduced to a single dependent measure. This Users Guide is intended to provide a fundamental overview of conceptual, technical and practical knowledge that will assist individuals who engage in and evaluate HPA axis research. We begin with examination of the anatomical and hormonal components of the HPA axis and their physiological range of operation. We then examine strategies and best practices for systematic manipulation and accurate measurement of HPA axis activity. We feature use of experimental methods that will assist with better understanding of CORT's physiological actions, especially as those actions impact subsequent brain function. This research approach is instrumental for determining the mechanisms by which alterations of HPA axis function may contribute to pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fuzzy description of skin lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Ballerini, Lucia; Fisher, Robert B.; Aldridge, Ben; Rees, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    We propose a system for describing skin lesions images based on a human perception model. Pigmented skin lesions including melanoma and other types of skin cancer as well as non-malignant lesions are used. Works on classification of skin lesions already exist but they mainly concentrate on melanoma. The novelty of our work is that our system gives to skin lesion images a semantic label in a manner similar to humans. This work consists of two parts: first we capture they way users perceive each lesion, second we train a machine learning system that simulates how people describe images. For the first part, we choose 5 attributes: colour (light to dark), colour uniformity (uniform to non-uniform), symmetry (symmetric to non-symmetric), border (regular to irregular), texture (smooth to rough). Using a web based form we asked people to pick a value of each attribute for each lesion. In the second part, we extract 93 features from each lesions and we trained a machine learning algorithm using such features as input and the values of the human attributes as output. Results are quite promising, especially for the colour related attributes, where our system classifies over 80% of the lesions into the same semantic classes as humans.

  5. Radio-induced brain lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan Mircea Radu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Radiotherapy, an important tool in multimodal oncologic treatment, can cause radio-induced brain lesion development after a long period of time following irradiation.

  6. MALIGNANCY IN LARGE COLORECTAL LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Oliveira dos SANTOS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context The size of colorectal lesions, besides a risk factor for malignancy, is a predictor for deeper invasion Objectives To evaluate the malignancy of colorectal lesions ≥20 mm. Methods Between 2007 and 2011, 76 neoplasms ≥20 mm in 70 patients were analyzed Results The mean age of the patients was 67.4 years, and 41 were women. Mean lesion size was 24.7 mm ± 6.2 mm (range: 20 to 50 mm. Half of the neoplasms were polypoid and the other half were non-polypoid. Forty-two (55.3% lesions were located in the left colon, and 34 in the right colon. There was a high prevalence of III L (39.5% and IV (53.9% pit patterns. There were 72 adenomas and 4 adenocarcinomas. Malignancy was observed in 5.3% of the lesions. Thirty-three lesions presented advanced histology (adenomas with high-grade dysplasia or early adenocarcinoma, with no difference in morphology and site. Only one lesion (1.3% invaded the submucosa. Lesions larger than 30 mm had advanced histology (P = 0.001. The primary treatment was endoscopic resection, and invasive carcinoma was referred to surgery. Recurrence rate was 10.6%. Conclusions Large colorectal neoplasms showed a low rate of malignancy. Endoscopic treatment is an effective therapy for these lesions.

  7. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  8. Horizontal Axis Levitron--A Physics Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Max M.

    2014-01-01

    After a brief history of the Levitron, the first horizontal axis Levitron is reported. Because it is easy to operate, it lends itself to educational physics experiments and analogies. Precession and nutation are visualized by reflecting the beam from a laser pointer off the "spignet". Precession is fundamental to nuclear magnetic…

  9. Tennis Rackets and the Parallel Axis Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Derek

    2014-01-01

    This simple experiment uses an unusual graph straightening exercise to confirm the parallel axis theorem for an irregular object. Along the way, it estimates experimental values for g and the moment of inertia of a tennis racket. We use Excel to find a 95% confidence interval for the true values.

  10. Microbes and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercik, P; Collins, S M; Verdu, E F

    2012-05-01

    The 'gut-brain' or 'brain-gut axis', depending on whether we emphasize bottom-up or top-bottom pathways, is a bi-directional communication system, comprised of neural pathways, such as the enteric nervous system (ENS), vagus, sympathetic and spinal nerves, and humoral pathways, which include cytokines, hormones, and neuropeptides as signaling molecules. Recent evidence, mainly arising from animal models, supports a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge regarding the role of microbes, including commensals, probiotics and gastrointestinal pathogens, in bottom-up pathways of communication in the gut-brain axis. Although this has clear implications for psychiatric co-morbidity in functional and inflammatory conditions of the gut, the focus of this review will be to discuss the current evidence for a role of bacteria (commensals, probiotics, and pathogens) as key modulators of gut-brain communication. The strongest evidence for a role of microbes as signaling components in the gut-brain axis currently arises from animal studies and indicate that mechanisms of communication are likely to be multiple. There is need for the concepts generated in animal models to be translated to the human in the future. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. gonadal axis in male Wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    assessed the effect of the single and combined administration of vigabatrin (VIG) and carbamazepine. (CBZ) on the pituitary-gonadal axis of male ..... possible that the active reversal of sperm characteristics that was observed was ... weights, sex hormones and biochemical profiles of male rats. Neuroendocrinology Letters.

  12. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  13. Postmortem MR quantification of the heart for characterization and differentiation of ischaemic myocardial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Schwendener, Nicole; Jackowski, Christian [University of Bern, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bern (Switzerland); Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J. [University of Linkoeping, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Recently, an MRI quantification sequence has been developed which can be used to acquire T1- and T2-relaxation times as well as proton density (PD) values. Those three quantitative values can be used to describe soft tissue in an objective manner. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of quantitative cardiac MRI for characterization and differentiation of ischaemic myocardial lesions of different age. Fifty post-mortem short axis cardiac 3 T MR examinations have been quantified using a quantification sequence. Myocardial lesions were identified according to histology and appearance in MRI images. Ischaemic lesions were assessed for mean T1-, T2- and proton density values. Quantitative values were plotted in a 3D-coordinate system to investigate the clustering of ischaemic myocardial lesions. A total of 16 myocardial lesions detected in MRI images were histologically characterized as acute lesions (n = 8) with perifocal oedema (n = 8), subacute lesions (n = 6) and chronic lesions (n = 2). In a 3D plot comprising the combined quantitative values of T1, T2 and PD, the clusters of all investigated lesions could be well differentiated from each other. Post-mortem quantitative cardiac MRI is feasible for characterization and discrimination of different age stages of myocardial infarction. (orig.)

  14. [The focal renal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-05

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  15. Atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallner-Blazek, Mirja; Rovira, Alex; Fillipp, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atypical lesions of a presumably idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating origin present quite variably and may pose diagnostic problems. The subsequent clinical course is also uncertain. We, therefore, wanted to clarify if atypical idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating lesions (AIIDLs) can...... and magnetic resonance imaging data and obtained follow-up (FU) information on 77 of these patients over a mean duration of 4 years. The AIIDLs presented as a single lesion in 72 (80 %) patients and exhibited an infiltrative (n = 35), megacystic (n = 16), Baló (n = 10) or ring-like (n = 16) lesion appearance...... in 77 (86 %) patients. Additional multiple sclerosis (MS)-typical lesions existed in 48 (53 %) patients. During FU, a further clinical attack occurred rarely (23-35 % of patients) except for patients with ring-like AIIDLs (62 %). Further attacks were also significantly more often in patients...

  16. Endoscopic approach to subepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Laila; Buscaglia, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) play a critical role in the detection and management of subepithelial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common subepithelial lesions detected by endoscopists are gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), leiomyomas, lipomas, granular cell tumors (GCTs), pancreatic rests and carcinoid tumors. These lesions can be classified based on unique histochemical staining and the gastrointestinal layer of origin. While the majority of the lesions are considered benign, some tumors such as GISTs and carcinoids have a strong propensity for malignant transformation. Therefore, appropriate endoscopic versus surgical management based on size and location is crucial in the prevention of malignant transformation and metastasis. In this review, we provide a systematic approach to the diagnosis, management and treatment of commonly encountered subepithelial lesions.

  17. Lesion margin analysis for automated classification of cervical cancer lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raad, Viara; Xue, Zhiyun; Lange, Holger

    2006-03-01

    Digital colposcopy is an emerging technology, replacing the traditional colposcope for diagnosis of cervical lesions. Incorporating automated algorithms within a digital colposcopy system can improve the reliability and the diagnostic accuracy of cervical precancer and cancer. An automated computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can assess the three important cervical diagnostic cues: the color, the vascular patterns and the lesion margins with quantitative measures, similar to the way colposcopists use the Reid's index in traditional colposcopy. In this work we present a novel way to analyze and classify the global and the local features of one of the three major components in colposcopy diagnosis - the lesion margins. The margins of cervical lesion can be described as 'feathered,' 'geographic,' 'satellite,' 'regular or smooth' and 'margin-in-margin,' or they can be of mixed type. As margin characterization is a complex task, we use irregularity descriptors such as compactness indices and curvature descriptors. To address the complexity of the problem, the dependency of scale and the position of the lesion on the cervical image, our method use novel Fourier energy descriptors. The conceptually complex analysis of describing lesions as 'satellite' lesions or lesions with multiple margins is performed using descriptors, where the distance, the position and the local statistical estimates of image intensity play important role. We trained this new algorithm to classify and diagnose the cervix, evaluating only the lesions. The accuracy of the results is assessed against a 'ground truth' scheme, using colposcopists' annotations and pathology results. We report the resulted accuracy of the classification method assessed against this scheme.

  18. Accuracy of exercise-induced left axis QRS deviation as a specific marker of left anterior descending coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiran, A; Halon, D A; Merdler, A; Makhoul, N; Khader, N; Ben-David, J; Lewis, B S

    1998-05-01

    In this prospective study, we examined the diagnostic accuracy of exercise-induced left QRS axis deviation as a marker of LAD coronary artery stenosis. The mean frontal QRS axis of 66 consecutive patients with chest pain and exercise-induced ST segment depression referred for diagnostic coronary angiography was analyzed and related to the angiographic findings. An exercise-induced leftward QRS axis deviation was found in 9/40 patients with and 0/26 patients without obstructive (> or = 70%) LAD disease (sensitivity 23%, specificity 100%, p = 0.025). In 7 of the 9 patients with left axis deviation, the lesion was proximal to and in 2 in the region of the first septal perforator. Inclusion of patients with 0 degrees exercise-induced QRS axis deviation provided a more sensitive but less specific marker of LAD disease [sensitivity 53% (21/40), specificity 81% (21/26), p = 0.015]. The findings were similar in patients with single and with multivessel coronary artery disease. Grouping all patients in the present prospective and two previous retrospective studies (n = 165), the sensitivity was 29% and specificity 100% (p left QRS axis deviation was a highly specific marker of LAD coronary artery stenosis.

  19. Diffusion-weighted images of intracranial cyst-like lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergui, M.; Zhong, J.; Sales, S. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University of Turin (Italy); Bradac, G.B. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University of Turin (Italy); Neuroradiologia Universitaria, Ospedale S. G. Battista, Turin (Italy)

    2001-10-01

    Magnetic resonance sequences may be designed to evaluate the diffusion movements of the protons (diffusion-weighted images, DWI). In these images, a bright signal identifies a region where the diffusion along a spatial axis is restricted. The contents of a cystic lesion frequently have the signal intensities of a generic homogeneous hyperproteinic fluid (hypointensity in T1-, hyperintensity in T2-weighted images). DWI may give further information about the microscopic organisation of these fluids: a hyperintense signal indicates the presence of a restricted diffusion, due to some kind of microscopic organisation, at the cellular or macromolecular level. This may provide additional information useful for clinical purposes. We obtained DWI in 24 consecutive patients with intracranial cystic lesions, (19 intra-axial: five abscesses, five gliomas, six metastases, two demyelinating lesions, one neurocysticercosis; five extra-axial: two arachnoid cysts, two epidermoid cysts, one cholesteatoma). We found a strongly hyperintense signal, indicating restricted diffusion, in brain abscesses, epidermoid cysts and cholesteatoma; all the remaining lesions were hypointense or mildly hyperintense. We found these data useful in critical diagnoses, such as in differentiating abscesses from tumours, and in identifying elusive tumours such as epidermoid cysts. (orig.)

  20. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001 (UARPE2AXIS2) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  1. Environmental stressors and epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA-axis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard; Sawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we provide a brief summary of several key studies that broaden our understanding of stress and its epigenetic control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA)-axis function and behavior. Clinical and animal studies suggest a link among exposure to stress, dysregulation of the HPA-axis, and susceptibility to neuropsychiatric illnesses. Recent studies have supported the notion that exposure to glucocorticoids and stress in various forms, duration, and intensity during different periods of development leads to long-lasting maladaptive HPA-axis response in the brain. They demonstrate that this maladaptive response is comprised of persistent epigenetic changes in the function of HPA-axis-associated genes that govern homeostatic levels of glucocorticoids. Stressors and/or disruption of glucocorticoid dynamics also target genes such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) that are important for neuronal function and behavior. While a definitive role for epigenetic mechanisms remains unclear, these emerging studies implicate glucocorticoid signaling and its ability to alter the epigenetic landscape as one of the key mechanisms that alter the function of the HPA-axis and its associated cascades. We also suggest some of the requisite studies and techniques that are important, such as additional candidate gene approaches, genome-wide epigenomic screens, and innovative functional and behavioral studies in order to further explore and define the relationship between epigenetics and HPA-axis biology. Additional studies examining stress-induced epigenetic changes of HPA-axis genes, aided by innovative techniques and methodologies are needed to advance our understanding of this relationship and lead to better preventive, diagnostic, and corrective measures. PMID:25427939

  2. Two-axis joint assembly and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thang D. (Inventor); Lewis, James L. (Inventor); Carroll, Monty B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In an embodiment, a two-axis joint that utilizes planar reactions to handle moments applied to the side of the joint thereby allowing the device to remain low profile and compact with minimal intrusion to the mounting surface of the two-axis joint. To handle larger moments, the diameter of the planar member can be increased without increasing the overall height of the joint assembly thereby retaining the low profile thereof. Upper and lower antifriction bearings may be positioned within a housing engage the planar member to reduce rotational friction. The upper and lower bearings and a hub which supports the planar member transfer forces produced by moments applied to the side of the joint so as to spread the forces over the area of the housing.

  3. AXIS - Advanced X-ray Imaging Sarellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, Michael; AXIS Team

    2018-01-01

    We present an overview of the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS), a probe mission concept under study to the 2020 Decadal survey. AXIS follows in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10 keV band over a 15' field of view. These capabilities are designed to attain a wide range of science goals such as (i) measuring the event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the spin of supermassive black holes through monitoring of gravitationally microlensed quasars; (ii) understanding AGN and starburst feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters through direct imaging of winds and interaction of jets and via spatially resolved imaging of galaxies at high-z; (iii) probing the fueling of AGN by resolving the SMBH sphere of influence in nearby galaxies; (iv) investigating hierarchical structure formation and the SMBH merger rate through measurement of the occurrence rate of dual AGN and occupation fraction of SMBHs; (v) advancing SNR physics and galaxy ecology through large detailed samples of SNR in nearby galaxies; (vi) measuring the Cosmic Web through its connection to cluster outskirts. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS benefits from natural synergies with LSST, ELTs, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS utilizes breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, and developments in the fabrication of large format, small pixel, high readout detectors.

  4. Voxel-based lesion mapping of meningioma: a comprehensive lesion location mapping of 260 lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuichi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Arita, Hideyuki; Kagawa, Naoki; Kishima, Haruhiko; Hashimoto, Naoya; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2017-09-01

    OBJECTIVE In the present study the authors aimed to determine preferred locations of meningiomas by avoiding descriptive analysis and instead using voxel-based lesion mapping and 3D image-rendering techniques. METHODS Magnetic resonance images obtained in 248 treatment-naïve meningioma patients with 260 lesions were retrospectively and consecutively collected. All images were registered to a 1-mm isotropic, high-resolution, T1-weighted brain atlas provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (the MNI152), and a lesion frequency map was created, followed by 3D volume rendering to visualize the preferred locations of meningiomas in 3D. RESULTS The 3D lesion frequency map clearly showed that skull base structures such as parasellar, sphenoid wing, and petroclival regions were commonly affected by the tumor. The middle one-third of the superior sagittal sinus was most commonly affected in parasagittal tumors. Substantial lesion accumulation was observed around the leptomeninges covering the central sulcus and the sylvian fissure, with very few lesions observed at the frontal, parietal, and occipital convexities. CONCLUSIONS Using an objective visualization method, meningiomas were shown to be located around the middle third of the superior sagittal sinus, the perisylvian convexity, and the skull base. These observations, which are in line with previous descriptive analyses, justify further use of voxel-based lesion mapping techniques to help understand the biological nature of this disease.

  5. PS-OCT of occlusal and interproximal caries lesions viewed from occlusal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel; Bush, Jeff; Bell, Steve

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The primary objective of this study was to compare the measured reflectivity of natural occlusal caries lesions with the relative mineral loss measured using digital microradiography. There was excellent agreement between the increase in the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system and the increase in the integrated mineral loss or lesion severity for occlusal lesions. Therefore, PS-OCT is ideally suited to image natural caries lesions in the important occlusal surfaces for the assessment of the lesion severity and activity. A secondary objective was to compare the performance of a new autocorrelator-based PS-OCT system employing a novel polarization-switching probe with our polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system, both operating at 1310-nm. The new PS-OCT system produced clean images with no artifacts and achieved high penetration depth. Yet a third objective was to determine if interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above) since interproximal lesions may only be accessible in vivo from buccal or lingual surfaces or from the occlusal surface. Simulated and natural interproximal caries lesions were imaged from the occlusal surfaces as long as there was no intervening dentin.

  6. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  7. Destructive lesions of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybaud, C

    1983-01-01

    The congenital destructive lesions of the brain include focal lesions (porencephaly) and diffuse lesions (micrencephaly, hydranencephaly). According to the time the injury occurred and following the assumption of Yakovlev and Wadworth (1946), they are classified as agenetic porencephalies, either - bilateral (schizencephaly) or unilateral, when the injury occurs early enough in gestation (before 6 months) to disturb the growth of the cerebral mantle: abnormal sulcal pattern and heterotopic gray matter are then observed. They are classified as encephaloclastic when the destruction affects an otherwise normal cerebrum (last trimester). The porencephalies should be differenciated from post natal lesions (multicystic encephalomalacia, focal cavitations). By showing the fluid cavity and the cortical distortion, neuroradiology permits precise diagnosis of the defect itself and the associated cortical disorder, as well as an evaluation when they occurred.

  8. Itchy lesions in pigmented skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Rachel; Ahmeen, Mahreen; Fleming, Ann; Hoque, Shamali

    2013-10-10

    A 37-year-old woman with type VI skin presented with 1-year history of pruritic lesions affecting her arms, chest and legs. The lesions were approximately 5 mm in diameter, annular and with a raised border. A skin biopsy was performed which showed a diagnosis of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. Porokeratosis is an unusual presentation in pigmented skin and there are very limited reports of this occurrence in the literature.

  9. Rosacea with extensive extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, TM; Vieira, AP; Sousa-Basto, A

    2008-01-01

    Rosacea is a very common skin disorder in the clinical practice that primarily affects the convex areas of the face. Extrafacial rosacea lesions have occasionally been described, but extensive involvement is exceptional. In the absence of its typical clinical or histological features, the diagnosis of extrafacial rosacea may be problematic. We describe an unusual case of rosacea with very exuberant extrafacial lesions, when compared with the limited involvement of the face.

  10. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdeva Meenakshi; Kaur Surjeet; Nagpal Madhu; Dewan S

    2002-01-01

    Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8%) newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%), Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%), su...

  11. MRI atlas of MS lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences Sina Hospital (Iran). Dept. of Neurology; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm [Univ. Hospital Basel (Switzerland). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2008-07-01

    MRI has become the main paraclinical test in the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis. We have demonstrated more than 400 pictures of different typical and atypical MS lesions in this atlas. Each image has a teaching point. New diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis are discussed and the book is supported by a teaching DVD where the reader can see MS lesions in different slices and sequences. (orig.)

  12. BuShenYiQi Granule Inhibits Atopic Dermatitis via Improving Central and Skin Hypothalamic -Pituitary -Adrenal Axis Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingwen; Wu, Jingfeng; Lin, Yanhua; Wang, Genfa; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jiaqi; Chen, Meixia; Du, Xin; Sun, Jing; Lin, Jinpei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Dysfunction of central and skin Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis play important roles in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Our previous studies showed that several Chinese herbs could improve HPA axis function. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of BuShenYiQi granule (BSYQ), a Chinese herbs formula, in AD mice and explored the effective mechanism from regulation of HPA axis. Methods The ovalbumin (OVA) induced AD mice model were established and treated with BSYQ. We evaluated dermatitis score and histology analysis of dorsal skin lesions, meanwhile, serum corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA. The changes of CRH/proopiomelanocortin(POMC) axis elements, corresponding functional receptors and crucial genes of glucocorticosteroidogenesis in the skin were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. Results The symptoms and pathological changes in skin of AD mice were significantly improved and several markers of inflammation and allergy descended obviously after BSYQ treatment. We found that AD mice had insufficient central HPA tone, but these conditions were markedly improved after BSYQ treatment. The AD mice also showed a disturbed expression of skin HPA. In lesion skin of AD mice, the mRNA and protein expressions of CRH decreased significantly, on the contrary, POMC and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) increased markedly, meanwhile, NR3C1 (mouse GR), CRHR2 and 11-hydroxylase type 1(CYP11B1) were reduced locally. Most of these tested indexes were improved after BSYQ treatment. Conclusions AD mice displayed the differential expression pattern of central and skin HPA axis and BSYQ treatment significantly alleviated the symptoms of AD mice and presented anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects via regulating the expression of central and skin HPA axis. PMID

  13. BuShenYiQi granule inhibits atopic dermatitis via improving central and skin Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingwen; Wu, Jinfeng; Wu, Jingfeng; Lin, Yanhua; Wang, Genfa; Wang, Jia; Liu, Jiaqi; Chen, Meixia; Du, Xin; Sun, Jing; Lin, Jinpei; Dong, Jingcheng

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of central and skin Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis play important roles in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). Our previous studies showed that several Chinese herbs could improve HPA axis function. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of BuShenYiQi granule (BSYQ), a Chinese herbs formula, in AD mice and explored the effective mechanism from regulation of HPA axis. The ovalbumin (OVA) induced AD mice model were established and treated with BSYQ. We evaluated dermatitis score and histology analysis of dorsal skin lesions, meanwhile, serum corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and inflammatory cytokines were determined by ELISA. The changes of CRH/proopiomelanocortin(POMC) axis elements, corresponding functional receptors and crucial genes of glucocorticosteroidogenesis in the skin were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. The symptoms and pathological changes in skin of AD mice were significantly improved and several markers of inflammation and allergy descended obviously after BSYQ treatment. We found that AD mice had insufficient central HPA tone, but these conditions were markedly improved after BSYQ treatment. The AD mice also showed a disturbed expression of skin HPA. In lesion skin of AD mice, the mRNA and protein expressions of CRH decreased significantly, on the contrary, POMC and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) increased markedly, meanwhile, NR3C1 (mouse GR), CRHR2 and 11-hydroxylase type 1(CYP11B1) were reduced locally. Most of these tested indexes were improved after BSYQ treatment. AD mice displayed the differential expression pattern of central and skin HPA axis and BSYQ treatment significantly alleviated the symptoms of AD mice and presented anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects via regulating the expression of central and skin HPA axis.

  14. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  15. Histomorphological spetrum of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, S; Koirala, U; Khatri, R; Acharya, L; Suwal, A

    2011-04-01

    Cancer of the breast is the second most common cause of cancer in women. Mass in the breast, whether benign or malignant is a cause of anxiety to the patients and the family members. All breast lumps are considered to be carcinomas until proved otherwise and are the causes of concern both for the patient and surgeon. This is a retrospective study conducted in Kathmandu Model Hospital for a total duration of three years from August 2007 to August 2010. 114 sample of breast tissue sent for histopathology were studied. Peak incidence of benign lesion was in between 21-30 years and malignant lesions in between 31-50 years. No breast lesions were seen in the first decade of life. Cancer of the breast was seen in 12.28% of cases. Fibroadenoma and fibrocystic disease were the commonest benign lesion and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the commonest malignant lesion. Specimens from 10 male breasts were received. Gynaecomastia was the most common lesion encountered in males. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was seen in a 70 year old male. Breast cancer is one of the commonest causes of breast lump particularly in women and is growing public health problem in Nepal.

  16. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    OpenAIRE

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga; Jason eJacobskind; Jacob eRaber

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure) on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors suc...

  17. FFA STUDY OF MACULAR LESIONS

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    K. Vinayagamurthy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Macula is an important portion of retina that occupies the posterior pole of retina. Any disease that affects macula results in significant loss of central vision, form vision and colour vision to an extent. Macular lesions can be hereditary as well as acquired. Macular lesions occur in both younger and older individuals. Anatomically, a macular lesions can vary from a simple lesion like an RPF defect to a vision-threatening lesions like choroidal neovascular membrane. Many screening tests that are sensitive and specific are available to assess the functioning of macula called as ‘macular function test’. But, the greater understanding of the retinal vascular led to the usage of fluorescein angiogram in the detection and screening of macular, retinovascular and optic disc lesions. Through fundus fluorescein angiogram is a thirty-year-old procedure; it is still in vogue in almost all parts of the world. It has its own merits. The aim of the study is to study the role of fluorescein angiography in the evaluation of macular lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based prospective randomised study was done, which included 50 patients. Detailed patient history was taken and thorough ocular and systemic examination was done. All patients were examined by ophthalmoscopy (direct and indirect and slit-lamp examination with 90D followed by fluorescein angiography. Ophthalmoscopic and fluorescein angiography findings were analysed and categorised. Patients were advised proper ocular and systemic treatment and follow up. RESULTS 50 cases with macular lesions were analysed and categorised into conditions like ARMD, CSR, macular oedema, CME, degenerations and dystrophies and miscellaneous conditions. FFA altered the diagnosis in 8% cases and categorised the cases in all cases. 16% patients developed adverse reactions like allergy, vomiting and nausea. On statistical analysis, FFA proved to be cheap and superior diagnostic tool in confirming

  18. Coronary calcification with no flow limiting lesions: A potential cause for ischaemic dysfunction in syndrome X patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Palmerini

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: In symptomatic patients with no obstructive coronary lesions and with more than mild CAC, long axis disturbances and wall motion score index rise occur with stress, at the time of symptom development and correlate with severity of arterial calcification. These findings suggest CAC as a potential mechanism for coronary wall stiffness and consequently exertional ischaemic changes as a result of limited flow reserve.

  19. Fetal cardiac axis and congenital heart defects in early gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkovskaya, Elena S; Chaoui, Rabih; Karl, Katrin; Andreeva, Elena; Zhuchenko, Ludmila; Abuhamad, Alfred Z

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between cardiac axis and fetal congenital heart defects to demonstrate the potential clinical applicability of cardiac axis measurement for detection of congenital heart defect in early gestation. This case-control study was undertaken in three tertiary centers with expertise in fetal imaging in early gestation. Fetal cardiac axis was evaluated between 11 0/7 and 14 6/7 weeks of gestation in 197 fetuses with confirmed congenital heart defects. A control group was selected by matching each fetus with a congenital heart defect with two fetuses in the control group with similar crown-rump length (± 5 mm) and date of study (± 2 months). Cardiac axis was measured on the four-chamber view as the angle between the line that traces the long axis of the heart and the line that bisects the thorax in an anteroposterior direction. In the control group, mean cardiac axis was 44.5 ± 7.4°. The cardiac axis did not significantly change in early pregnancy. In the congenital heart defect group, 25.9% of fetuses had cardiac axis measurements within normal limits. In 74.1%, the cardiac axis was abnormal including 110 fetuses in the case group with left deviation (cardiac axis > 97.5th percentile), 19 fetuses in the case group with right deviation (cardiac axis axis. The performance of cardiac axis measurement in detection of major congenital heart defect was significantly better than enlarged nuchal translucency, tricuspid regurgitation, or reversed A-wave in ductus venosus used alone or in combination. Abnormal cardiac axis is present in two-thirds of fetuses with congenital heart defect in early gestation. Adding cardiac axis assessment to the nuchal translucency measurement is helpful in defining a population at risk for fetal congenital heart defect.

  20. Destructive lesions of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybaud, C.

    1983-08-01

    The destructive lesions of the brain include a wide variety of congenital and postnatally acquired lesions, variably designated porencephaly, schizencephaly, multicystic encephalomalacia and micrencephaly. The term ''porencephaly'' has been a source of confusion since it was first coined by Heschl in 1859. At first, ''porencephaly'' was used to describe a defect which extended through the full thickness of the cerebral mantle. The ventricular lumen then communicated with the subarachnoid space through the ''porus''. Later ''porencephaly'' was used indiscriminately to describe any cavity of the brain parenchyma, whatever its etiology, pathogenesis, or time of development. This problem in nomenclature was compounded by inability to determine whether the cavities observed represented ''true'' malformations or acquired encephaloclastic lesions. In 1946, Yakovlev and Wadsworth published two papers entitled ''Schizencephalies; study of the congenital clefts in the cerebral mantle''. In these works, they stressed the peculiar morphology of the congenital porencephalies, and suggested that these lesions were sufficiently distinctive to be isolated from the other defects of the brain. Without addressing the precise origin or developmental course of these lesions, they pointed out that the morphologic changes indicated partial agenesis of the cerebral mantle at an early stage of development.

  1. Spectroscopic Detection of Caries Lesions

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    Mika Ruohonen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A caries lesion causes changes in the optical properties of the affected tissue. Currently a caries lesion can be detected only at a relatively late stage of development. Caries diagnosis also suffers from high interobserver variance. Methods. This is a pilot study to test the suitability of an optical diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for caries diagnosis. Reflectance visible/near-infrared spectroscopy (VIS/NIRS was used to measure caries lesions and healthy enamel on extracted human teeth. The results were analysed with a computational algorithm in order to find a rule-based classification method to detect caries lesions. Results. The classification indicated that the measured points of enamel could be assigned to one of three classes: healthy enamel, a caries lesion, and stained healthy enamel. The features that enabled this were consistent with theory. Conclusions. It seems that spectroscopic measurements can help to reduce false positives at in vitro setting. However, further research is required to evaluate the strength of the evidence for the method’s performance.

  2. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Gabriel Zuloaga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  3. Methamphetamine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga, Damian G; Jacobskind, Jason S; Jacosbskind, Jason S; Raber, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as methamphetamine (MA) induce significant alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These changes in HPA axis function are associated with altered stress-related behaviors and might contribute to addictive processes such as relapse. In this mini-review we discuss acute and chronic effects of MA (adult and developmental exposure) on the HPA axis, including effects on HPA axis associated genes/proteins, brain regions, and behaviors such as anxiety and depression. A better understanding of the mechanisms through which MA affects the HPA axis may lead to more effective treatment strategies for MA addiction.

  4. Association of HPA axis-related genetic variation with stress reactivity and aggressive behaviour in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muráni Eduard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress, elicited for example by aggressive interactions, has negative effects on various biological functions including immune defence, reproduction, growth, and, in livestock, on product quality. Stress response and aggressiveness are mutually interrelated and show large interindividual variation, partly attributable to genetic factors. In the pig little is known about the molecular-genetic background of the variation in stress responsiveness and aggressiveness. To identify candidate genes we analyzed association of DNA markers in each of ten genes (CRH g.233C>T, CRHR1 c.*866_867insA, CRHBP c.51G>A, POMC c.293_298del, MC2R c.306T>G, NR3C1 c.*2122A>G, AVP c.207A>G, AVPR1B c.1084A>G, UCN g.1329T>C, CRHR2 c.*13T>C related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis, one of the main stress-response systems, with various stress- and aggression-related parameters at slaughter. These parameters were: physiological measures of the stress response (plasma concentrations of cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, and lactate, adrenal weight (which is a parameter reflecting activity of the central branch of the HPA axis over time and aggressive behaviour (measured by means of lesion scoring in the context of psychosocial stress of mixing individuals with different aggressive temperament. Results The SNP NR3C1 c.*2122A>G showed association with cortisol concentration (p = 0.024, adrenal weight (p = 0.003 and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.012; total lesion score p = 0.045. The SNP AVPR1B c.1084A>G showed a highly significant association with aggressive behaviour (middle lesion score, p = 0.007; total lesion score p = 0.003. The SNP UCN g.1329T>C showed association with adrenal weight (p = 0.019 and aggressive behaviour (front lesion score, p = 0.029. The SNP CRH g.233C>T showed a significant association with glucose concentration (p = 0.002, and the polymorphisms POMC c.293_298del and MC2R c.306T>G with adrenal

  5. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

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    P. Castellarin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients.

  6. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  7. Dual Lesions: A Diagnostic Dilemma

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    M. P. V. Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC is a rare aggressive developmental cyst of the jaw. It most commonly occurs in middle-aged people with mandible anterior region being the most affected site. This lesion can present as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency and has high recurrence rate. The histopathologic features of the GOC are complex and often coincide with the features of dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst, and low-grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC. At times, the microscopic features are so similar to central low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma that it becomes highly impossible to distinguish the two entities even with various advanced investigations. The reported case represents one such diagnostic dilemma occurring in the maxilla which is a rare site, and the lesion/s appeared as two distinct entities, that is, GOC and CMEC on either aspects of the same side of maxilla clinically, yet showing continuity on advanced imaging and demonstrating histopathological perplexity.

  8. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  9. Congenital granular cell lesion in newborn mandible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... Congenital granular cell lesion (CGCL) is a rare non-neoplastic lesion found in newborns also known as Neumann's tumor. This benign lesion occurs predominantly in females mostly as a single mass. The histogenesis and natural history of the lesion remains obscure. It arises from the mucosa of the ...

  10. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population.

  11. Shear wave elastography contribution in ultrasound diagnosis management of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, T; Boussion, V; Kwiatkowski, F; Dieu-de Fraissinette, V; Bailly-Glatre, A; Lemery, S; Boyer, L

    2014-09-01

    To determine the diagnosis performance of shear wave elastography in the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions and the factors influencing the elasticity values. To suggest an appropriate management of breast lesions using the ultrasound-elastography combination. Monocentric retrospective study of 167 breast lesions classified by conventional ultrasound as BI-RADS category 3 or higher that underwent an elastography study and histological analysis. The analysis of qualitative parameters, according to the classification established in this study, allows us to obtain a sensitivity of 91.1% and a specificity of 92.3%. These values are very close to or better than the quantitative parameters Emax and Emean. Different Emax thresholds values were established based on the long axis of the lesion and its palpable character, which appeared to be significant factors influencing elasticity. The management of breast lesions by combining ultrasound and elastography, as proposed here, allows us to keep the sensitivity of an ultrasound (96%), while doubling its specificity (86.2% versus 43.1%). With the complementary nature of their performance, the combination of conventional ultrasound and shear wave elastography can improve the management of breast lesions. The qualitative classification proposed appears to be relevant assistance in lesion characterization. Copyright © 2014 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Small Lesions Induce Language Reorganization as Large Lesions Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestu, Fernando; Saldana, Cristobal; Amo, Carlos; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Fernandez, Alberto; Fernandez, Santiago; Mata, Pedro; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Ortiz, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Shift of the cortical mechanisms of language from the usually dominant left to the non-dominant right hemisphere has been demonstrated in the presence of large brain lesions. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in a patient with a cavernoma over the anterolateral superior temporal gyrus associated with epilepsy. Language mapping was performed by…

  13. Flexibilidad y lesiones de futbolistas

    OpenAIRE

    Gocebate, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Cabe destacar que en deporte se requiere de una correcta preparación física y el caso del fútbol no es diferente a cualquier otro. Este es un deporte en equipo que genera un desgaste físico y mental en cada partido en el cual se pueden sufrir diferentes lesiones. Son varios los factores que predisponen a que se produzcan lesiones, por lo que es importante un correcto entrenamiento diario. Objetivo: Determinar la relación entre los niveles de flexibilidad de la cadena muscula...

  14. Dynamic MRI of orbital lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroko (Kochi Medical School, Nangoku (Japan))

    1991-04-01

    Study of time intensity curves was performed for 15 orbital lesions. Inflammatory lesions (2 chronic dacryoadenitis, 1 chalazion, 1 inflammatory pseudotumor), 1 meningioma, and 4 pseudolymphoma showed rapid increase with run off. They showed peak formations within 2 minutes. Tumors except for meningioma (3 malignant lymphoma, 2 retinoblastoma, 1 pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland) showed gradual increase without peak formation. No difference between benign and malignancy was detected. Dynamic MRI would be useful for differential diagnosis between pseudotumor and malignant lymphoma, that has been difficult for imaging diagnosis so far. (author).

  15. Ulcerative Lesions in Behcet's Disease

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    Ümit Türsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative lesions in Behcet’s disease (BD are regarded as important manifestation for diagnosis. Various kinds of ulcerative lesions appear in patients with BD. They present as orogenital ulcers, necrotizing vasculitis and pyoderma gengrenosum. Gastrointestinal system involvement (Gis in Behçet’s disease affects all areas from the esophagus to the anus. Most authors believe that the Gis manifestations of Behçet’s disease should be confined to aphthous ulcers, which can occur throughout the Gis tract. All patients with oro-genital and Gis ulcerations should be fully investigated to establish a definitive diagnosis and eliminate the possibility of an underlying BD.

  16. Response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, S G; Fu, Y; Valentine, J D; Sharp, B M

    1998-02-01

    Nicotine has been shown to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of the stress-responsive hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and prolactin. This paper reviews the findings by our laboratory and others that demonstrate the polysynaptic pathways involved in the neuroendocrine responses to systemic nicotine. It will focus primarily on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the effect of nicotine on ACTH secretion, with supplementary information on prolactin secretion, where relevant. Data are presented demonstrating that nicotine acts via a central mechanism to stimulate indirectly the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary corticotropes. Nicotine does not appear to act directly at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the site of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons crucial to the regulation of ACTH. However, brainstem catecholaminergic regions projecting to the PVN showed a regionally selective and dose-dependent sensitivity to nicotine, particularly the noradrenergic/adrenergic nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). A reduction in the modulatory effect of these catecholamines (by neurotoxic lesion, synthetic enzyme inhibitors or adrenergic receptor antagonists) resulted in an inhibition of nicotine-stimulated ACTH secretion. In addition, blockade of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (NAchRs) in the brainstem by the antagonist, mecamylamine, resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in norepinephrine (NE) release from terminals in the PVN, and a concomitant reduction in plasma ACTH. The differential sensitivity of these receptors to the nicotinic agonists, cytisine and nicotine, reflects the heterogeneity of the NAchR subtypes involved. The desensitization characteristics of the neuroendocrine responses to both acute and chronic nicotine exposure are indicative of an alteration in these NAchRs.

  17. Disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis diagnosis based on oral lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Preto Webber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a deep mycosis with primary lung manifestations that may present cutaneous and oral lesions. Oral lesions mimic other infectious diseases or even squamous cell carcinoma, clinically and microscopically. Sometimes, the dentist is the first to detect the disease, because lung lesions are asymptomatic, or even misdiagnosed. An unusual case of PCM with 5 months of evolution presenting pulmonary, oral, and cutaneous lesions that was diagnosed by the dentist based on oral lesions is presented and discussed.

  18. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  19. Arterial thoracic vascularization in some deer species: pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus), brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and axis deer (Axis axis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Erdoğan, S

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the arterial distributions of the aortic arches of three deer species (Axis axis, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Mazama gouazoubira) were described. The animals were dissected immediately after being found dead. Latex injection method was used to observe the vascularization of the thorax. The branching pattern of the arteries of the thoracic aorta in O. bezoarticus was similar to domestic ruminants. In the M. gouazoubira and A. axis, there were no bicarotid trunk. Interestingly, the first branch of the brachiocephalic trunk was the left costocervical trunk in A. axis. Then, brachiocephalic trunk was divided into right and left subclavian arteries. M. gouazoubira and A. axis in contrast to O. bezoarticus were different when compared with other ruminants, and the absence of bicarotid trunk was more striking than previous reports. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Focal lesions of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, B. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, A. [Royal national Orthopaedic Hospital Stanmore, Brockley Hill Stanmore, Department of Radiology, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Focal lesions of the patella may be identified during the investigation of anterior knee pain or as an incidental finding on radiological images. This pictorial review describes the radiographic appearances of a wide range of conditions that have been seen in this sesamoid bone. Where appropriate, computed tomography and magnetic resonance features have been included. (orig.)

  1. Melatonin and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L; Li, N; Bo, L; Xu, Z

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine), a principal product of the pineal gland, is produced mainly during the dark phase of the circadian cycle. This hormone plays a crucial role in the regulation of circadian and seasonal changes in various aspects of physiology and neuroendocrine functions. In mammals, melatonin can influence sexual maturation and reproductive functions via activation of its receptors and binding sites in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. This review summarizes current knowledge of melatonin on the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads. We also review recent progress in clinical applications of melatonin or potentials of using melatonin, as a reducer of oxidative stress, to improve reproductive functions for the diseases such as women infertility.

  2. Two-axis tracking solar collector mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a novel solar tracking mechanism incorporating a number of practical features that give it superior environmental resilience and exceptional tracking accuracy. The mechanism comprises a lightweight space-frame assembly supporting an array of point-focus Fresnel lenses in a two-axis tracking structure. The system is enclosed under a glass cover which isolates it from environmental exposure and enhances tracking accuracy by eliminating wind loading. Tracking accuracy is also enhanced by the system's broad-based tracking support. The system's primary intended application would be to focus highly concentrated sunlight into optical fibers for transmission to core building illumination zones, and the system may also have potential for photovoltaic or photothermal solar energy conversion.

  3. The proline regulatory axis and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Ming Phang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies in metabolism and cancer have characterized changes in core pathways involving glucose and glutamine, emphasizing the provision of substrates for building cell mass. But recent findings suggest that pathways previously considered peripheral may play a critical role providing mechanisms for cell regulation. Several of these mechanisms involve the metabolism of nonessential amino acids, for example, the channeling of glycolytic intermediates into the serine pathway for one-carbon transfers. Historically, we proposed that the proline biosynthetic pathway participated in a metabolic interlock with glucose metabolism. The discovery that proline degradation is activated by p53 directed our attention to the initiation of apoptosis by proline oxidase/dehydrogenase. Now, however, we find that the biosynthetic mechanisms and the metabolic interlock may depend on the pathway from glutamine to proline, and it is markedly activated by the oncogene MYC. These findings add a new dimension to the proline regulatory axis in cancer and present attractive potential targets for cancer treatment.

  4. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  5. A Portable Single Axis Magnetic Gradiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Petersen, Jan Raagaard; Nielsen, Otto V

    2001-01-01

    not provide vector information about the magnetic field. Secondly, one of the sensors measures the ambient magnetic field and is used to compensate for the main field at both sensors. Several methods have been developed for characterization of the 2 gradiometer, and the calibration of the gradient...... measurements is achieved by using a magnetic dipole of strength 2 mAm(2). In a coil facility, the gradient can be determined with an accuracy of 0.3 nT/m(RMS).......The single axis magnetic gradiometer based on two compact detector compensation (CDC) fluxgate ringcore sensors separated 20 cm is described. Despite its high stability and precision better than 1 nT, the calibration procedures are not straightforward. Firstly, the mono-axial measurement does...

  6. Granulomatous lesions of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gautam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Granulomatous skin lesions often present as a diagnostic challenge to dermatopathologists due to various modes of presentation and identical histological picture produced by several causes. The aim of the study was to study different granulomatous skin lesions and to determine the relative frequency, the level of clinicopathologic concordance and to compare our results with those of other workers. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of skin biopsies received over a period of two years from January 2007 to December 2008; was performed, and cases of granulomatous dermatitis reported on histopathological examination were reviewed along with special stains. Results: Out of a total of 1590 skin biopsies 106 (6.67% cases were found to have a granulomatous reaction. It was common in males (63.21% with most occurring in the fourth to fifth decades. Majority of cases (79 cases, 74.5% were categorized as infectious granulomatous lesions with predominance of leprosy (63 cases, 79.7% followed by tuberculosis (6 cases, 7.6%. An overall clinicopathologic concordance was seen in 97% of cases of leprosy. Conclusion: In this study leprosy is the most common cause of granulomatous skin lesions. It can be concluded that histopathology plays an important role in classification of leprosy, and in diagnosis and management of a variety of granulomatous skin diseases. Special stains play a supportive role in infectious granulomas. Keywords: Granulomatous skin lesion; Leprosy; Skin biopsy DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v1i2.5397 JPN 2011; 1(2: 81-86

  7. Measurement of the severity of natural smooth surface (interproximal) caries lesions with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the measured reflectivity of natural caries lesions found on smooth surfaces (interproximal lesions) with the mineral loss measured using digital microradiography (DM) in order to determine if PS-OCT can be used as a non-destructive method to measure the severity of dental decay and resolve the internal structure of caries lesions. A PS-OCT system operating at 1,310 nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of natural white spot lesions and pigmented lesions on the smooth surfaces of extracted teeth. The integrated reflectivity from lesion areas was compared to polarized light microscopic images (PLM) and to the integrated mineral loss from the same lesion area measured using high resolution DM. The frequently complex internal structure of caries lesions could be resolved with PS-OCT. Such structural information is potentially useful for determining whether or not the lesion is active and progressing or whether it has become arrested and remineralized and does not require intervention. There was a strong correlation between the integrated mineral loss of the caries lesions measured using DM and the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system. The integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization channel can be used to represent the severity of demineralization in natural early caries lesions. Therefore, PS-OCT has considerable potential as a non-destructive clinical probe of early caries lesions to assess their severity, monitor their progression over-time and potentially assess lesion activity. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Petrous apex lesions in the pediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Son, Hwa Jung [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-03-15

    A variety of abnormal imaging findings of the petrous apex are encountered in children. Many petrous apex lesions are identified incidentally while images of the brain or head and neck are being obtained for indications unrelated to the temporal bone. Differential considerations of petrous apex lesions in children include ''leave me alone'' lesions, infectious or inflammatory lesions, fibro-osseous lesions, neoplasms and neoplasm-like lesions, as well as a few rare miscellaneous conditions. Some lesions are similar to those encountered in adults, and some are unique to children. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and primary and metastatic pediatric malignancies such as neuroblastoma, rhabomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma are more likely to be encountered in children. Lesions such as petrous apex cholesterol granuloma, cholesteatoma and chondrosarcoma are more common in adults and are rarely a diagnostic consideration in children. We present a comprehensive pictorial review of CT and MRI appearances of pediatric petrous apex lesions. (orig.)

  9. Lesion network localization of criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R Ryan; Horn, Andreas; Cushman, Fiery; Fox, Michael D

    2018-01-16

    Following brain lesions, previously normal patients sometimes exhibit criminal behavior. Although rare, these cases can lend unique insight into the neurobiological substrate of criminality. Here we present a systematic mapping of lesions with known temporal association to criminal behavior, identifying 17 lesion cases. The lesion sites were spatially heterogeneous, including the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and different locations within the bilateral temporal lobes. No single brain region was damaged in all cases. Because lesion-induced symptoms can come from sites connected to the lesion location and not just the lesion location itself, we also identified brain regions functionally connected to each lesion location. This technique, termed lesion network mapping, has recently identified regions involved in symptom generation across a variety of lesion-induced disorders. All lesions were functionally connected to the same network of brain regions. This criminality-associated connectivity pattern was unique compared with lesions causing four other neuropsychiatric syndromes. This network includes regions involved in morality, value-based decision making, and theory of mind, but not regions involved in cognitive control or empathy. Finally, we replicated our results in a separate cohort of 23 cases in which a temporal relationship between brain lesions and criminal behavior was implied but not definitive. Our results suggest that lesions in criminals occur in different brain locations but localize to a unique resting state network, providing insight into the neurobiology of criminal behavior. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    OpenAIRE

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus; Mahir Asif Mohammed; Sanzidur Rahman; Sayedus Salehin; Mohammad Abdul Mannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. Th...

  11. Analysis and design of a vertical axis wind turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Goyena Iriso, Joseba

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to design a new vertical axis wind turbine, specifically one Giromill wind turbine. The project development requires performing a previous study of the vertical axis wind turbines currently development. This study has to be performed before starting to design the wind turbine. Other very important aim is the development of a new vertical axis wind turbine. The after analyses that will result in the final design of the wind turbine will b...

  12. Granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiello, Luigi; Palla, Marco; Aiello, Francesco Saviero; Baroni, Adone; Satriano, Rocco Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a 7-year history of gradually enlarging plaques on his face and trunk. The first lesions had developed on both sides of the forehead and the left cheekbone (Figure 1). Four years later similar lesions appeared on his neck and back. He presented a histologic report of a biopsy specimen from a facial plaque performed 5 years earlier that was diagnostic for granuloma faciale. He had different treatments such as topical steroids and cryotherapy without improvement. The appearance of new lesions on his trunk and the gradual enlarging of the old lesions convinced the patient to seek further treatment. Physical examination revealed dusky, violaceous plaques and papules, 0.5 to 2 cm, well-circumscribed, slightly elevated, and located on the face and trunk, with mild pruritus (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Laboratory investigations, including complete blood cell count, VDRL test, antinuclear antibody test, biochemical parameters, and chest x-ray, did not reveal any abnormalities. A skin biopsy taken from the upper part of the back showed similar features to the facial lesion, detected 5 years before, revealing a dense, polymorphous infiltrate involving mid and deep dermis and displaying a diffuse and perivascular pattern (Figure 3A). A narrow grenz zone of normal collagen was consistently observed between dermal infiltrate and epidermis as well as around the pilosebaceous follicles (Figure 3A). The infiltrate mainly consisted of eosinophils and lymphocytes, but neutrophils (often displaying leukocytoclasis), macrophages, and plasma cells were also present (Figures 3B, 3C). Some mast cells were also identified by staining with toluidine blue (Figure 3D). Perivascular infiltrates were often seen, sometimes penetrating vessel walls and in association with leukocytoclasis. Hyalinization of vessel walls, extravasation of red blood cells around capillaries, and nuclear dust were also noted. The epidermis did not show any remarkable change except for

  13. Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Alexandre Perez; Perrella, Andreia; Arita, Emiko Saito; Pereira, Marlene Fenyo Soeiro de Matos; Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso, E-mail: alexperez34@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia

    2010-10-15

    There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using two protocols: axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); and sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill no.1). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis. (author)

  14. Concept of a Programmable Fixture for 3-Axis CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Dalloul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available CNC machine is the one of the major reasons for industrial advancement in recent decades for its ability of producing accurate parts. The most commen CNC machines are of 3-axis and adopted widely in the industrial sector. However, for producing more complicated parts 5-axis CNC machines are required. Although the introduction of the 5-axis machine came after the 3-axis CNC machine has established itself and many manufacturers did not make the move toward the newer model and its high pricing compared to the 3-axis model did not help either. In this time the development of a fixture or a platform to help transfer the 3-axis to a 5-axis to some degree. This paper discusses the concept of a programmable fixture that gives 3-axis CNC machine the freedom to act in similar manner as the 5-axis. The paper describes the mechanism with some initial results of the testing. Result showed that the platform moves in translation manner with an average error of 5.58 % and 7.303% average error for rotation movement.

  15. Suicidal behavior on Axis VI: clinical data supporting a sixth Axis for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Witte, Tracy K; Holm-Denoma, Jill; Gordon, Kathryn H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Oquendo and colleagues (Oquendo, Baca-García, Mann, & Giner, 2008; Oquendo & Currier, 2009) recommend that DSM-V emphasize suicide risk assessment on a sixth axis, thereby increasing regularity of suicide risk assessments. We propose that evidence of nonredundancy with Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is one piece of data that can serve as a starting point for a line of research establishing incremental predictive utility for a separate suicide risk assessment in the DSM framework. A standardized suicide risk assessment protocol, measures of depressive, anxious, and eating disordered symptomatology, as well as an index of comorbidity were administered to a sample of 412 adult outpatients. Our data indicate that data from standardized suicide risk assessments are associated with indices of symptomatology severity as well as comorbidity, controlling for GAF. These results support the nonredundancy of the assessments and suggest the utility of longitudinal investigations of the predictive utility of a sixth DSM axis in the assessment of suicide risk.

  16. [HIV-associated periodontal lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, A

    1990-05-01

    During HIV infection different lesions may occur in the area of the gingiva and/or the periodontium. An increased frequency and severity of periodontal diseases has been observed. Different forms of Candida albicans infection have been clinically characterized as pseudomembranous, erythematous (atrophic) or hyperplastic form or as papillary variant. While infection with Candida albicans may occur frequently in other areas of the oral mucosa, candidiasis of the gingiva seems to be quite rare. Due to the underlying immunodeficiency, HIV-infected patients are prone to infection with and/or reactivation of different viruses, which may cause oral lesions as well. Recurrent progressive ulcerations may occur due to herpes simplex virus 1/2, while ulcerations with a punched-out appearance may result from disseminated CMV infection. Oral Kaposi's sarcoma may clinically present as bluish or red spots, which may increase into exophytic tumors during the progress of the disease.

  17. Cystic brain lesion in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Fujiyoshi, Y; Fukuda, S; Matsunaga, T; Hashimoto, T; Manabe, A; Nakashima, T

    1986-04-01

    Two autopsy cases of cystic brain lesion in utero are reported. One of them was a donor infant of twin transfusion syndrome. The baby died immediately after birth and showed multicystic encephalomalacia in the distribution of the anterior cerebral artery. The second baby was a stillborn infant with thanatophoric dwarfism with associated chronic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). It was suggested that the multicystic encephalomalacia and chronic PVL found in the first and second cases were caused by persistent circulatory disturbances in utero.

  18. NEOPLASTIC LESIONS OF THE APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bryk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to present the clinical observations of neoplastic lesions of the appendix (one carcinoid and two mucous cysts and to discuss various manners of treatment and prognosis. Material and methods: The authors of the following paper present a description of three cases of appendix tumours, two patients with a mucous cyst and a patient with carcinoid, against the background of all the appendectomies performed at the Clinical Department of General, Endocrine and Oncological Surgery of the Provincial Polyclinical Hospital in Kielce in the years 2005–2011. Results : Within the 7-year period, a total of 11 719 surgical operations have been performed, where 834 (7.1% were that of appendectomy. Among all of the removed vermiform appendixes, neoplastic lesions occurred in three cases constituting a mere 0.3% of all of the appendectomies performed within that period. In two of the cases there was a suspicion of mucous cysts before the surgical operation. In none of the above-mentioned cases was is possible to ultimately establish the diagnosis before the operation. The patients were subjected to a simple appendectomy. The patients are in good clinical health, with no signs of relapse. Conclusions : The presented cases of patients with appendix tumours illustrate the difficulty of preoperative detection of a neoplastic lesion. This is mainly due to a scantily symptomatic course or symptoms typical of appendicitis. In light of this, histopathological examination of each appendix should be treated as obligatory.

  19. Eye lesions in pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Amongst eye lesions in birds that died in quarantine, cataracts were the most common disorders (37/241, 15.4%), being prevalent in the annular pads of cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). The incidence in male birds was more than twice that in females. Deposition of crystals, mostly in the cornea, was the second most frequent lesion (21/293, 8.7%), mainly found in cockatiels, parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis), Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva), budgerigars and finches (Poephila gouldiae gouldiae). These corneal crystals were negative to PAS and Kossa's stains. Six parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) had calcium salts deposited in the inner plexiform layer of the retina and occasionally in the iris and ciliary body. Neither inflammation nor neo-vascularization was observed when cataracts, corneal crystalline deposition, and retinal and ciliary calcification were present. Intranuclear inclusion bodies typical for papovavirus infection were found in the eyelids of six budgerigars (2.5%). Similar inclusions were simultaneously found in the pars ciliaris retinae (4, 1.7%), inner plexiform of retina (1, 0.4%) and anterior epithelium of the cornea (1, 0.4%). Other lesions such as candidial endophthalmitis, conjunctival cryptosporidiosis, corneal dystrophy, keratitis, corneal perforation and iridocyclitis, were occasional findings.

  20. Artefactual skin lesions in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring, Hans Christian; Miller, Iben M; Benfeldt, Eva

    2015-01-01

    ) with striking purpuric lesions diagnosed as factitious purpura. The clinical lesions were similar, but the underlying psychological problems differed significantly (depression and stress). The current state of knowledge of dermatitis artefacta in children and adolescents was reviewed. CONCLUSION: The presence...

  1. Kaposi sarcoma - lesion on the foot (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposi sarcoma lesion on the foot. This once-rare malignancy of the blood vessels is now associated with AIDS. It is ... users. The malignancy results in purplish grape-like lesions in the skin, gastrointestinal tract and other organs.

  2. Tutorial on off-axis electron holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Michael; Lichte, Hannes

    2002-12-01

    Through recent years, off-axis electron holography has helped us to understand and to overcome some experimental restrictions in transmission electron microscopy. With development of powerful electron microscopes, slow-scan CCD cameras, and computers, holography is not an academic technique anymore used by specialized laboratories. Holography has proven its wide range of applications in solving real-world problems in materials science and biology. At medium resolution, that is, on nanometer scale, holography allows access to large area phase contrast produced by magnetic fields and electric potentials. In the high-resolution domain, holography unveils its power by unscrambling amplitude and phase of the electron wave, resulting in an improved lateral resolution up to the information limit. Holography is a thoroughly quantitative method, and, in combination with the perfect zero-loss filtering inherent to this method, the interpretation of the reconstructed data is strongly simplified. After outlining the basics of holography, in this tutorial we focus on development of a step-by-step procedure for recording and reconstruction of holograms. At the end, some recent applications are discussed.

  3. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  4. Microbiota and the gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang; Forsythe, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Changes in gut microbiota can modulate the peripheral and central nervous systems, resulting in altered brain functioning, and suggesting the existence of a microbiota gut-brain axis. Diet can also change the profile of gut microbiota and, thereby, behavior. Effects of bacteria on the nervous system cannot be disassociated from effects on the immune system since the two are in constant bidirectional communication. While the composition of the gut microbiota varies greatly among individuals, alterations to the balance and content of common gut microbes may affect the production of molecules such as neurotransmitters, e.g., gamma amino butyric acid, and the products of fermentation, e.g., the short chain fatty acids butyrate, propionate, and acetate. Short chain fatty acids, which are pleomorphic, especially butyrate, positively influence host metabolism by promoting glucose and energy homeostasis, regulating immune responses and epithelial cell growth, and promoting the functioning of the central and peripheral nervous systems. In the future, the composition, diversity, and function of specific probiotics, coupled with similar, more detailed knowledge about gut microbiota, will potentially help in developing more effective diet- and drug-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Emeran A; Tillisch, Kirsten; Gupta, Arpana

    2015-03-02

    Tremendous progress has been made in characterizing the bidirectional interactions between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract. A series of provocative preclinical studies have suggested a prominent role for the gut microbiota in these gut-brain interactions. Based on studies using rodents raised in a germ-free environment, the gut microbiota appears to influence the development of emotional behavior, stress- and pain-modulation systems, and brain neurotransmitter systems. Additionally, microbiota perturbations by probiotics and antibiotics exert modulatory effects on some of these measures in adult animals. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms, including endocrine and neurocrine pathways, may be involved in gut microbiota-to-brain signaling and that the brain can in turn alter microbial composition and behavior via the autonomic nervous system. Limited information is available on how these findings may translate to healthy humans or to disease states involving the brain or the gut/brain axis. Future research needs to focus on confirming that the rodent findings are translatable to human physiology and to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, autism, anxiety, depression, and Parkinson's disease.

  6. Control system for a vertical axis windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulle, Robert V.

    1983-10-18

    A vertical axis windmill having a rotating structure is provided with a series of articulated vertical blades whose positions are controlled to maintain a constant RPM for the rotating structure, when wind speed is sufficient. A microprocessor controller is used to process information on wind speed, wind direction and RPM of the rotating structure to develop an electrical signal for establishing blade position. The preferred embodiment of the invention, when connected to a utility grid, is designed to generate 40 kilowatts of power when exposed to a 20 mile per hour wind. The control system for the windmill includes electrical blade actuators that modulate the blades of the rotating structure. Blade modulation controls the blade angle of attack, which in turn controls the RPM of the rotor. In the preferred embodiment, the microprocessor controller provides the operation logic and control functions. A wind speed sensor provides inputs to start or stop the windmill, and a wind direction sensor is used to keep the blade flip region at 90.degree. and 270.degree. to the wind. The control system is designed to maintain constant rotor RPM when wind speed is between 10 and 40 miles per hour.

  7. Multi-axis model predictive contouring control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Denise; Manzie, Chris; Good, Malcolm C.

    2013-08-01

    Contouring systems involve competing control objectives of maximising accuracy while minimising traversal time. A previously developed model predictive contouring controller for biaxial systems is extended to multi-axis systems subject to joint acceleration and jerk constraints. This requires consideration of manipulator forward kinematics and both position and orientation of the end effector. The control design is based on minimising a cost function which reflects the trade-off between the control objectives. A new architecture is proposed where the joint position controllers operate at a sample rate comparable to industrial machines, while the contouring control scheme operates at a slower rate. The proposed approach is applied to a simulation model of an industrial profile cutting machine. A number of implementations are presented requiring varying degrees of modification to the existing machine hardware and sensing capability. Results demonstrate the effect of the cost function weights on contouring accuracy and traversal time, as well as the trade-off between achieving the best contouring performance and minimising modification of the existing system.

  8. Morel-Lavallée lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kharat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morel-Lavallée lesion is a degloving injury occurring at the interface of the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. The lesion usually results from shearing forces due to trauma separating the skin and subcutaneous tissue. We report here a case of a patient diagnosed with Morel-Lavallée lesion in the hip region.

  9. Morel-Lavallée lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Kharat; Dhaval K Thakkar; Mansi N Jantre; Amarjit Singh; Vora, Harshil J.

    2015-01-01

    Morel-Lavallée lesion is a degloving injury occurring at the interface of the subcutaneous fat and the underlying fascia. The lesion usually results from shearing forces due to trauma separating the skin and subcutaneous tissue. We report here a case of a patient diagnosed with Morel-Lavallée lesion in the hip region.

  10. Amalgam contact hypersensitivity lesion: an unusual presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, ACHL presenting primarily as a black pigmented lesion is extremely rare if not reported. The clinician should be aware of one such presentation of ACHL; we report a unique case of ACHL in a 30‑year‑old female with such a pigmented lesion in close contact with amalgam restorations. The lesion regressed ...

  11. Spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without vertical axis of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Louis [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd [Albuquerque, NM; Aaronson, Gene [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-06-09

    The symmetry properties of a magnetic levitation arrangement are exploited to produce spin-stabilized magnetic levitation without aligning the rotational axis of the rotor with the direction of the force of gravity. The rotation of the rotor stabilizes perturbations directed parallel to the rotational axis.

  12. Angular momentum projection of tilted axis rotating states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, M.; Onishi, N.; Tajima, N. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Horibata, T.

    1998-03-01

    We applied an exact angular momentum projection to three dimensional cranked HFB (3d-CHFB) states. Tilted axis rotating states (TAR) and principal axis rotating states (PAR) are compared. It is shown that TAR is more adequate than PAR for description of the back bending phenomena driven by tilted rotation or wobbling motion. (author)

  13. The Performance Characteristics of a Closed Loop, One Axis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a closed loop one axis solar tracking device of the polar axis type, which achieves an accurate tracking of the sun with a steady state error of less, than 2%. This prototype uses a photo-sensing system to generate an error signal. This error signal switches on a relay, which actuates an electromechanical ...

  14. Axis: Generating Explanations at Scale with Learnersourcing and Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph Jay; Kim, Juho; Rafferty, Anna; Heffernan, Neil; Maldonado, Samuel; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.; Lasecki, Walter S.; Heffernan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    While explanations may help people learn by providing information about why an answer is correct, many problems on online platforms lack high-quality explanations. This paper presents AXIS (Adaptive eXplanation Improvement System), a system for obtaining explanations. AXIS asks learners to generate, revise, and evaluate explanations as they solve…

  15. Divide and conquer: Segmentation and patterning of the anteroposterior axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peres, João Nuno Borges Baptista

    2005-01-01

    The formation of the anteroposterior (AP) axis is one of the key events that occur during embryogenesis. Here we investigate the dual processes of patterning and segmentation of the AP axis. To study the role of Hox genes in AP patterning, we decided to analyse the function of the PG1 (paralogous

  16. A psychology of the human brain–gut–microbiome axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress‐related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain–gut–microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain–gut–microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain–gut–microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology. PMID:28804508

  17. Wind rotor with vertical axis. Vindrotor med vertikal axel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colling, J.; Sjoenell, B.

    1987-06-15

    This rotor is of dual type i.e. a paddle wheel shaped rotor close to the vertical axis and a second rotor consisting of vertical blades with wing profile and attached to radial spokes which are fixed to the axis together with the paddle wheel rotor. (L.F.).

  18. A psychology of the human brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew P; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard; Cryan, John F

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress-related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain-gut-microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain-gut-microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain-gut-microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

  19. Investigation of blade performance of horizontal axis wind turbine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shape of rotor blade plays an important role in determining the overall aerodynamic performance of a horizontal axis wind turbine. In this work, blade is designed for a 5KW horizontal axis wind turbine which is already in market. For designing blade, blade element momentum theory (BEMT) is used and a computer ...

  20. Three-Axis Ground Reaction Force Distribution during Straight Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Masataka; Nakai, Akihito; Shimoyama, Isao

    2017-10-24

    We measured the three-axis ground reaction force (GRF) distribution during straight walking. Small three-axis force sensors composed of rubber and sensor chips were fabricated and calibrated. After sensor calibration, 16 force sensors were attached to the left shoe. The three-axis force distribution during straight walking was measured, and the local features of the three-axis force under the sole of the shoe were analyzed. The heel area played a role in receiving the braking force, the base area of the fourth and fifth toes applied little vertical or shear force, the base area of the second and third toes generated a portion of the propulsive force and received a large vertical force, and the base area of the big toe helped move the body's center of mass to the other foot. The results demonstrate that measuring the three-axis GRF distribution is useful for a detailed analysis of bipedal locomotion.

  1. Shear wave speed imaging of breast lesions: Speed within the lesion, fat-to-lesion speed ratio, or gland-to-lesion speed ratio?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Long; Ren, Wei-Wei; Fu, Hui-Jun; He, Ya-Ping; Wang, Qiao; Sun, Li-Ping; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Bo-Ji; Fang, Lin; Xu, Hui-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of shear wave speed (SWS) within the lesion, fat-to-lesion speed ratio (FLR), and gland-to-lesion speed ratio (GLR) for differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions using a novel SWS imaging technique. From April 2016 to June 2016, 182 breast lesions were prospectively included in the study. For each lesion, SWS-lesion, FLR, and GLR were calculated. Pathological results were used as the reference standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were plotted to assess the diagnostic performance. Of the 182 lesions, 142 (78.0%) were benign and 40 (22.0%) were malignant. Significant differences were found between benign and malignant lesions in SWS-lesion, FLR and GLR (2.12±0.64 m/s vs 3.87±1.45 m/s, 1.63±0.61 vs 2.60±1.04, and 1.33±0.39 vs 2.08±0.78, respectively. All P lesion, FLR, GLR were 2.88 m/s, 2.31 and 1.51, respectively. The diagnostic performance of SWS-lesion in terms of AUC was the highest (i.e. AUC = 0.845), in comparison with FLR and GLR alone or their combination. The associated sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for SWS-lesion were 75.0%, 89.4%, and 86.3%, respectively. SWS-lesion is a valuable and sufficient method for differentiation between benign and malignant breast lesions.

  2. Characterization of off-axis fishbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W W; Muscatello, C M; Zhu, Y B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Austin, M E [Institute of Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Fisher, R K; Strait, E J; Van Zeeland, M A [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Garcia-Munoz, M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Matsunaga, G; Shinohara, K [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka City, Ibaraki (Japan); McKee, G R [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Moyer, R A [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Okabayashi, M; Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Pace, D C [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Repetitive bursting instabilities with strong frequency chirping occur in high-beta, beam-heated plasmas with safety factor q > 1 in the DIII-D tokamak. Although the mode structures differ, in many ways, the off-axis fishbones are similar to the q = 1 fishbones first observed on the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX). The modes are driven by energetic trapped ions at the fast-ion precession frequency. During a burst, the frequency changes most rapidly as the mode reaches its maximum amplitude. Larger amplitude bursts have larger growth rates and frequency chirps. Unlike PDX fishbones, the decay phase is highly variable and is usually shorter than the growth phase. Also, the waveform is highly distorted by higher harmonics during the latter portion of a burst. The radial mode structure alters its shape during the burst. Like PDX fishbones, the modes expel trapped ions in a 'beacon' with a definite phase relationship relative to the mode. Seven types of loss detectors measure the beacon. The losses scale linearly with mode amplitude. The neutron rate changes most rapidly at maximum mode amplitude but, depending on the loss diagnostic, the losses often peak a few cycles later. The non-ambipolar fast-ion losses cause a sudden change in toroidal rotation frequency across the entire plasma. In addition to an overall drop, the neutron signal oscillates in response to the wave. Unlike the beacon of lost particles, which maintains a fixed phase relative to the mode, the phase of the neutron oscillations steadily increases throughout the burst, with the greatest phase slippage occurring in the highly nonlinear phase near maximum mode amplitude.

  3. Quantitative angiography methods for bifurcation lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collet, Carlos; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Cavalcante, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Bifurcation lesions represent one of the most challenging lesion subsets in interventional cardiology. The European Bifurcation Club (EBC) is an academic consortium whose goal has been to assess and recommend the appropriate strategies to manage bifurcation lesions. The quantitative coronary...... angiography (QCA) methods for the evaluation of bifurcation lesions have been subject to extensive research. Single-vessel QCA has been shown to be inaccurate for the assessment of bifurcation lesion dimensions. For this reason, dedicated bifurcation software has been developed and validated. These software...

  4. Prevalence and comorbidity of axis I and axis II disorders among treatment refractory adolescents admitted for specialized psychotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Feenstra (Dineke); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); R. Verheul (Roel); J. Hutsebaut (Joost)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractResearch shows that approximately half of the adolescents in a clinical setting suffer from a personality disorder (PD). This finding has not yet been replicated in Europe. To test whether this finding also applies to Europe, structured diagnostic interviews for both Axis I and Axis II

  5. A study of hippocampal structure-function relations along the septo-temporal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrard, Leonard E; Luu, Lisa P; Davidson, Terry L

    2012-04-01

    This study examined structural-functional differences along the septo-temporal axis of hippocampus using radial-maze tasks that involved two different memory processes [reference memory (RM) and working memory (WM)], and the use of two kinds of information (spatial vs. nonspatial cue learning). In addition, retention of the nonspatial cue task was tested nine weeks following completion of acquisition, and the rats then underwent discrimination reversal training. Ibotenic acid lesions limited to either the dorsal pole, intermediate area, or ventral pole had minimal effects on acquisition of the complex place and cue discrimination tasks. The one exception was that rats with lesions confined to the dorsal third of hippocampus made more WM errors on the spatial task (but not the cue task) early in training. Selective lesions of the three hippocampal regions had no effects on either long-term retention or reversal of the nonspatial cue discrimination task. In contrast, rats that had all of the hippocampus removed were severely impaired in learning the spatial task, making many RM and WM errors, whereas on the nonspatial cue task, the impairment was limited to WM errors. Further analysis of the WM errors made in acquisition showed that rats with complete lesions were significantly more likely on both the spatial and nonspatial cue tasks to reenter arms that had been baited and visited on that trial compared to arms that had not been baited. A similar pattern of errors emerged for complete hippocampal lesioned rats during reversal discrimination. This pattern of errors suggests that in addition to an impairment in handling spatial information, complete removal of hippocampus also interferes with the ability to inhibit responding to cues that signal reward under some conditions but not under others. The finding that selective lesions limited to the intermediate zone of the hippocampus produce no impairment in either WM ("rapid place learning") or RM in our radial maze

  6. The gut-brain axis interactions during heat stress and avian necrotic enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calefi, Atilio Sersun; da Silva Fonseca, Juliana Garcia; Cohn, Daniel Wagner Hamada; Honda, Bruno Takashi Bueno; Costola-de-Souza, Carolina; Tsugiyama, Lucila Emiko; Quinteiro-Filho, Wanderley Moreno; Piantino Ferreira, Antonio J; Palermo-Neto, João

    2016-05-01

    The gut-brain axis is known to modulate behavioral and immune responses in animals; evidence supporting this modulation in chickens, however, is elusive. Here, we analyzed the effects of heat stress and/orClostridium perfringens (CP) infection on behavior, intestinal morphology, brain activity, and corticosterone serum levels in chickens. Broilers were randomly divided into 5 equal groups: a naïve group (N), a thioglycolate group (T), a thioglycolate heat-stressed group (T/HS35), an infected group (I), and an infected/stressed (I/HS35) group. Broilers in the I and I/HS35 groups were experimentally infected withClostridium perfringensfrom the 15th to the 19th day of life. Heat stress (35±1°C) was constantly applied to the broilers in the stressed groups from the 14th to the 19th day of life. Our data showed that heat stress andC. perfringensinfection produced significant differential responses in the chickens' behavior and in c-fosexpression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), nucleus taenia of the amygdala (Tn), medial preoptic area (POM), andglobus pallidus (GP) of the chickens. Heat stress ameliorated some of the intestinal lesions and the neuroendocrine changes induced byC. perfringensin the birds. Our results suggest the existence of clear relationships between the degree of intestinal lesions, the chickens' behavioral outcomes, brain activity, and serum levels of corticosterone. Together, they reinforce the importance of neuroimmunomodulation and especially of brain-gut axis interactions. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Imaging in cardiac mass lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundinger, A.; Gruber, H.P.; Dinkel, E.; Geibel, A.; Beck, A.; Wimmer, B.; Schlosser, V. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany))

    In 26 patients with cardiac mass lesions confirmed by surgery, diagnostic imaging was performed preoperatively by means of two-dimensional echocardiography (26 patients), angiography (12 patients), correlative computed tomography (CT, 8 patients), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 patients). Two-dimensional echocardiography correctly identified the cardiac masses in all patients. Angiography missed two of 12 cardiac masses; CT missed one of eight. MRI identified three of three cardiac masses. Although the sensitivity of two-dimensional echocardiography was high (100%), all methods lacked specificity. None of the methods allowed differentiation between myxoma (n=13) and thrombus (n=7). Malignancy of the lesions was successfully predicted by noninvasive imaging methods in all six patients. However, CT and MRI provided additional information concerning cardiac mural infiltration, pericardial involvement, and extracardiac tumor extension, and should be integrated within a preoperative imaging strategy. Thus two-dimensional echocardiography is the method of choice for primary assessment of patients with suspected cardiac masses. Further preoperative imaging by CT or MRI can be limited to patients with malignancies suspected on the grounds of pericardial effusion or other clinical results. (author).

  8. Psychiatric (Axis I) and personality (Axis II) disorders and subjective psychiatric symptoms in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlsten, Hanna; Taiminen, Tero; Karukivi, Max; Sjösten, Noora; Nikkilä, Johanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Paavola, Janika; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-11-30

    Chronic tinnitus has been associated with several psychiatric disorders. Only few studies have investigated these disorders using validated diagnostic interviews. The aims were to diagnose psychiatric and personality disorders with structured interviews, to assess self-rated psychiatric symptoms and elucidate temporal relations between psychiatric disorders and tinnitus. Current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of axis-I (psychiatric disorders) and axis-II (personality disorders) were assessed using structured clinical interviews (SCID-I and -II). Current subjective psychiatric symptoms were evaluated via self-rating instruments: the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). 83 patients (mean age 51.7, 59% men) with chronic, disturbing tinnitus and a median Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 32. The rates of lifetime and current major depression were 26.5% and 2.4%. The lifetime rate of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (type C) was 8.4%. None of the patients had cluster B personality disorder or psychotic symptoms. The SCL-90 subscales did not differ from the general population, and median DES score was low, 2.4. Tinnitus patients are prone to episodes of major depression and often also have obsessive-compulsive personality features. Psychiatric disorders seem to be comorbid or predisposing conditions rather than consequences of tinnitus. Clinical trial reference: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT 01929837).

  9. Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.

    1982-02-01

    We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.

  10. The glider balloon: a useful device for the treatment of bifurcation lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguori, Carlo; Visconti, Gabriella; Donahue, Michael; Chiariello, Giovanni Alfonso; Focaccio, Amelia

    2013-10-09

    Final kissing balloon dilatation (FKBD) is a recommended final step in case of treatment of bifurcation lesions by two stents approaches. Furthermore, dilatation of the side branch (SB) may be necessary following main vessel (MV) stenting. Occasionally, recrossing the stent struts with a balloon is hampered because the tip hits a stent strut. The Glider (TriReme Medical, Pleasanton, CA) is a dedicated balloon designed for crossing through struts of deployed stents toward a SB. From October 2010 to January 2012, FKBD was attempted in 236 consecutive bifurcation lesions treated in our Institution. FKBD was successfully performed by conventional balloon catheters in 221 (93.5%) lesions (Conventional group). In the remaining 15 (6.5%) lesions, where a conventional balloon failed to cross the stent strut, the Glider balloon was attempted (Glider group). The angle beta (between the axis of the MV after the branch point and the SB axis at the point of divergence) was wider in the Glider group (83±17° versus 65±27°; p=0.032). A trend toward an higher rate of the true bifurcation lesions was observed in the Glider group (93% versus 70.5%; p=0.07). The Glider balloon successfully crossed through MV stent struts toward a SB in 12 patients (80%), whereas failed in the remaining 3 patients. The Glider balloon represents an unique bail-out device which offers an effective rescue strategy for recrossing stent struts during complex bifurcation stenting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Size and geometry of hepatic radiofrequency lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulier, S; Ni, Y; Miao, Y; Rosière, A; Khoury, A; Marchal, G; Michel, L

    2003-12-01

    To report and compare the size and geometry of hepatic radiofrequency (RF) lesions using the currently available commercial devices. A literature search was carried out for the period from January 1st 1990 to June 15th 2003. The commercial suppliers were asked to provide all available data. For each electrode and protocol, size and geometry of single-cycle thermal lesions were registered. No information at all on size and geometry of the inducible lesions was available for 17 of the 28 current commercial electrodes. Many descriptions of RF lesions are limited to the mean transverse diameter. With normal blood flow, diameter of lesions is often smaller than suggested by the length of the electrode tip or the diameter of the deployed prongs. Lesions are rarely perfect spheres but either ellipses or flattened spheres. Distortion of the RF lesion by nearby blood vessels is very common. Fusion of thermal zones between prongs of expandable electrodes can be incomplete. Blood flow interruption using a Pringle maneuver yields larger lesions that are less distorted and more complete. There is insufficient experimental data for many electrodes that are currently used in patients. RF companies should provide these data before releasing electrodes for use. For those electrodes for which data exist, coagulation lesions are often smaller, less spherical, less complete and less regular than generally presumed. Accurate knowledge of size and geometry of RF lesions is crucial to prevent local recurrence.

  12. Benign Eyelid Lesions: Six Months Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Abbasi Shavvazi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Benign eyelid lesions are classified to infectious, inflammatory and tumoral lesions. The various number of these lesions is due to unique eyelid anatomical structure. Some lesions are simple and do not need any treatment but sometimes patients refer to ophthalmologists due to beauty or problems such as pain, swelling. The aim of our study is to investigate and compare the relative frequency of benign eyelid lesions in Shahid Sadoughi eye clinic as well as the private offices. Methods: This cross sectional six month study was done on 247 patients who referred to Shahid Sadoughi eye clinic and the private offices in 2011. They were examined by direct observation and slit lamp regardless of the cause. The information was gleaned by a questionnaire and the research data was analyzed by SPSS (ver.16. Results: we studied 247 patients including 84(34% male and 163(6% female. The mean age of the patients was 42.7 years. 60.2% of lesions were in upper lid and 39.8% were in lower lid. 51.2% of lesions were in right eye and 48.8% were in left eye. The most common eyelid lesions were papilloma (32.9% nevus (21.9% and chalazion (14.1% respectively. Conclusion: Papilloma, nevus and chalazion are respectively the most common lesion in men and women. Benign lesions were more common in women located more in upper lid, though there was no statistically difference between right and left lid.

  13. [Diagnosis and treatment of oral precancerous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbø, J; Warloe, T; Aamdal, S; Reith, A; Bryne, M

    2001-10-30

    Risk factors for oral carcinomas have been identified, but there are no reliable markers for assessing the clinical outcome in individual patients with oral precancerous lesions. DNA aneuploidy is now recognized as an early and significant event in carcinogenesis. We identified 242 patients with oral red or white patches histologically verified as epithelial dysplasias and measured the nuclear DNA content (DNA ploidy) of the lesions to determine whether DNA ploidy could be used to predict the clinical outcome. Disease-free survival was assessed in relation to DNA ploidy and histological grade. The mean duration of follow-up was approximately eight years. Among 242 patients with verified epithelial dysplasia, a carcinoma developed in 48 (20%). 167 (69%) had diploid lesions, 20 (8%) had tetraploid lesions and 55 (23%) had aneuploid lesions. Of the 167 with diploid lesions, only four (1%) later developed an oral carcinoma. By contrast, 48 of 55 patients with aneuploid lesions (87%) later developed a carcinoma. The DNA content (DNA ploidy) can be used to predict the risk for oral cancer in a wide range of oral precancerous lesions. By contrast, histological grading of the same lesions does not give any prognostic information. The clinical value of an early identification of oral lesions with malignant cell clones is substantiated by the fact that there are methods for early intervention.

  14. Development of a three-dimensional surface imaging system for melanocytic skin lesion evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Androniki; Kokolakis, Athanasios; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Zabulis, Xenophon; Marnelakis, Ioannis; Ripoll, Jorge; Stephanidis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    Even though surface morphology is always taken into account when assessing clinically pigmented skin lesions, it is not captured by most modern imaging systems using digital imaging. Our aim is to develop a novel three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to record detailed information of the surface anatomy of melanocytic lesions that will enable improved classification through digital imaging. The apparatus consists of three high-resolution cameras, a light source, and accompanying software. Volume measurements of specific phantoms using volumetric tubes render slightly lower values than those obtained by our 3D imaging system (mean%± SD, 3.8%± 0.98, Pimaging of melanocytic lesions is carried out. The mean%± SD differences of area, major axis length, volume, and maximum height are 2.1%± 1.1, 0.9%± 0.8, 3.8%± 2.9, and 2.5%± 3.5, respectively. Thirty melanocytic lesions are assessed, including common and dysplastic nevi and melanomas. There is a significant difference between nevi and melanomas in terms of variance in height and boundary asymmetry (P<0.001). Moreover, dysplastic nevi have significantly higher variances in pigment density values than common nevi (P<0.001). Preliminary data suggest that our instrument has great potential in the evaluation of the melanocytic lesions. However, these findings should be confirmed in larger-scale studies.

  15. Reactive Hyperplastic Lesions of the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Kadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peripheral reactive lesions of soft tissue are common oral lesions that dentists face during routine examinations. Diagnosis and development of a treatment plan is difficult if dentists are not aware of the prevalence and clinical symptoms of these lesions. The frequency of these lesions differs across various populations. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distribution of oral reactive lesions over a period of 7 years (2006–2012.   Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, available records from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Dental School and the two main hospitals in southeast of Iran (Zahedan over a period of 7 years (2006–2012 were reviewed. Information relating to the type of reactive lesion, age, gender and location was extracted and recorded on data forms. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (V.18 using the chi-square and Fisher’s exact test.   Results: Of 451 oral lesions, 91 cases (20.2% were reactive hyperplastic lesions. The most common lesions were pyogenic granuloma and irritation fibroma, respectively. These lesions were more frequent in women (60% than men (40%. The most common locations of involvement were the gingiva and alveolar mucosa of the mandible, and lesions were more common in the 21–40-year age group. The relationship between age group and reactive lesions was statistically significant (P=0.01.   Conclusion:  The major findings in this study are broadly similar to the results of previous studies, with differences observed in some cases. However, knowledge of the frequency and distribution of these lesions is beneficial when establishing a diagnosis and treatment plan in clinical practice.

  16. Surgical management of giant cell tumor of axis vertebra: review of fourteen cases in literature with a case illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary spinal giant cell tumor (PSGCT considered as rare primary neoplasm, with predilection for subarticular location and commonly located at knee joint region, sacrum or distal radius, however, spinal involvent is uncommon and comparatively much rarer in the cervical spine. Further occurrence of giant cell tumor in the Axis vertebra is extremely uncommon and easily misdiagnosed and, thus, treatment is still debated and various treatment modalities and different surgical approaches were utilized during evolution of surgical management. Authors could collect only 14 cases of primary giant cell tumor affecting Axis vertebra in a detailed Pubmed and Medline search, out of which 12 cases were primary and rest two case was recurrent. So authors reviewed in total thirteen cases primary giant cell tumor of Axis managed surgically, including our case. Out of 13 PSGCT, twelve cases were managed with surgical resection and the rest one case was managed with monoclonal antibody using Denosomab monotherapy without any surgical intervention. In the surgical group (n=12, nine cases had two staged surgical procedure, first being posterior fixation followed by anterior approach with resection of tumor while, the rest three had one stage surgical resection including current case. Authors reports a unique case of spinal giant cell tumor developing in a- 38 - year male with history of renal transplant, presented with neck pain and difficulty in walking, neuroimaging revealed a osteolytic mass lesion involving body of axis vertebra with extension into right sided lamina, underwent two stage complete surgical intervention. Authors describes management of such rare locally recurring primary bony pathology affecting axis vertebra as it is not only interesting and challenging and different management modalities, various, surgical approaches and issue of renal osteodystrophy along with pertinent literature is also reviewed briefly.

  17. Treatment of metastatic brain lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zaytsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Increasing survival in patients with secondary brain damage, and identifying the factors of favorable and adverse prognosis.Material and method. In P. A. Hertsen Moscow Oncology Research Institute from 2007 to 2013 there were treated 268 patients with brain metastases. The mean age was 55.8 years (from 24 to 81 years. Metastases of colorectal cancer identified in 7.8%, cases of lung cancer in 34%, melanoma 9.3 %, breast cancer in 26%, kidney cancer in 11%, with non-identified primary tumor in 4.5%, other tumors accounted for 6.7%. Solitary metastasis was diagnosed in 164 (61,19% patients, oligometastasis (2-3 - 72 (26,87% patients with polymetastasis (more than 3 – 32 (11,94% patients. In 106 (39,55% of patients with brain metastases it was the only manifestation of the generalization process. To control the radical removal of the tumor in 93 (34,7% patients we used the method of fluorescence navigation (FN with the drug Alasens. In 66 (24,6% patients intraoperatively was held a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT. In 212 (79,1% cases, the removal of metastasis performed totally, 55 (20,9% patients stated Subtotal removal.Results. The observation period for the patients ranged from 3 to 79 months. Survival median among the entire group of patients with metastatic brain lesion was 12 months. Overall survival was significantly dependent on RPA class, the volume of postoperative treatment, histological type of primary tumor, number of intracerebral metastases and the timing of the relapse-free period.Conclusions. Factors that affects the overall survival are the features of the histology of the primary lesion, multiplicity of metastatic lesions, RPA class and the synchronous nature of the metastasis. The median of overall survival of patients who did not receive after surgical treatment of a particular type of therapy was only 4 months. If to use the combined treatment (surgical treatment with the irradiation of the whole brain median

  18. Transient giant R-wave, right axis deviation, and intraventricular conduction delay during exercise treadmill testing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Man-Hong; Siu, Chung-Wah; Lee, Stephen Wai-Luen; Lam, Linda; Chan, Raymond Hon-Wah

    2004-01-01

    A 53 year old man complained of chest pain during an exercise treadmill test. Electrocardiogram revealed transient giant R-wave, right-axis deviation, intraventricular conduction delay, and ST-segment elevation in the inferolateral leads. Subsequent coronary angiography showed an 80% lesion in mid part of a nondominant left circumflex artery, whereas the other coronary arteries had mild atherosclerosis only. Percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting was performed on the left circumflex artery lesion. A follow-up exercise thallium scan 3 months later still showed an intermediate-sized, mild reversible perfusion defect in the inferior and lateral wall but the giant R-wave ECG pattern was not inducible anymore. Restudy coronary angiography showed no in-stent restenosis, but there was disease progression in the midpart of the right coronary artery. The initial electrocardiographic pattern is typical of the "giant R-wave syndrome." Severe coronary spasm superimposed on the underlying mild atherosclerotic lesion of the right coronary artery is hypothesized to be the cause of the initial event. Ad hoc direct stenting was performed on the right coronary artery lesion. The patient remained symptom-free with a normal thallium scan 9 months later.

  19. Imaging findings of various calvarial bone lesions witha focus on osteolytic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Young Hee; Moon, Won Jin; An, Hyeong Su; Cho, Joon [Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Myung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this review, we present computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of various calvarial lesions on the basis of their imaging patterns and list the differential diagnoses of the lesions. We retrospectively reviewed 256 cases of calvarial lesion (122 malignant neoplasms, 115 benign neoplasms, and 19 non-neoplastic lesions) seen in our institutions, and classified them into six categories based on the following imaging features: generalized skull thickening, focal skull thickening, generalized skull thinning, focal skull thinning, single lytic lesion, and multiple lytic lesions. Although bony lesions of the calvarium are easily identified on CT, bone marrow lesions are better visualized on MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging or fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. Careful interpretation of calvarial lesions based on pattern recognition can effectively narrow a range of possible diagnoses.

  20. Trigeminal Neuralgia and Radiofrequency Lesioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigeminal Neuralgia is a disorder that is characterized with electrical-type shocking pain in the face and jaw. This pain may either present as sharp unbearable pain unilateral or bilaterally. There is no definite etiology for this condition. There are various treatment methods that are currently being used to relieve the pain. One of the pharmacological treatments is Carbamazepine and the most prevalent surgical treatments include Gamma Knife Surgery (GKS, Microvascular Decompression (MVD and Radiofrequency Lesioning (RFL. Although, MVD is the most used surgical method it is not an option for all the patients due to the intensity of the procedure. RFL is used when MVD is not suitable. In this paper we present the various treatments and Monte-Carlo based pharmacokinetic simulations of Carbamazepine in treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia.

  1. 'Emotional Intelligence': Lessons from Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, J; Salvi, C; Grafman, J

    2016-10-01

    'Emotional intelligence' (EI) is one of the most highly used psychological terms in popular nomenclature, yet its construct, divergent, and predictive validities are contentiously debated. Despite this debate, the EI construct is composed of a set of emotional abilities - recognizing emotional states in the self and others, using emotions to guide thought and behavior, understanding how emotions shape behavior, and emotion regulation - that undoubtedly influence important social and personal outcomes. In this review, evidence from human lesion studies is reviewed in order to provide insight into the necessary brain regions for each of these core emotional abilities. Critically, we consider how this neuropsychological evidence might help to guide efforts to define and measure EI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandi C

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical grading and bacteriological study of 107 patients with diabetic foot lesions revealed polymicrobial aetiology in 69 (64.4% and single aetiology in 21 (19.6%. Among 107 patients 62 had ulcer. Of these 31 had mixed aerobes. Twenty six patients with cellulitis and 12 with gangrene had more than 5 types of aerobes and anaerobes such as E.coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Proteus spp., Enterobactor spp., Enterococci spp., Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides spp., Prevotella spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. It was noted that 50 out of 62 patients with ulcer, and all the patients with cellulitis and gangrene were given surgical management and treated with appropriate antibiotics based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

  3. Cutaneous lesions in new born

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdeva Meenakshi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred unselected newborn babies delivered in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit II of SGBT Hospital attached to Government Medical College, Amritsar during April 2000 to October 2000 were examined for cutaneous lesions daily for the first five days after birth. Different cutaneous lesions were seen in 474(94. 8% newborns. The physiological skin changes observed in order of frequency were Epstein pearls in 305(61%, Mongolian spot in 301(60. 2%, superficial cutaneous desquamation in 200(40%, icterus in 128(25. 6%, milia in 119(23. 8%, sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 107 (21. 4%, occipital alopecia in 94(18. 8%, lanugo in 72(14. 4%, peripheral cyanosis in 47(9. 4%, breast hypertrophy in 29(5. 8% and miniature puberty in 28(5. 6% newborns. Of the transient non-infective skin diseases, erythema toxicum neonatorum was observed most commonly in 105(21 %, followed by miliaria rubra in 103(20. 6% and acne neonatorum in 27(5. 4% newborns. The naevi and other developmental defects in the descending order were salmon patch in 69(13. 8%, congenital melanocytic noevi in 10(2%, accessory tragi in 3(0.6%, spina bifida in 2(0.4%, hydrocephalus in 1(0.2% and poliosis in 1(0.2% newborns. Cradle cap was the only dermatitis observed in 50(10% newborns. One (0.2% case each of Harlequin ichthyosis and labial cyst was seen.

  4. Fingolimod anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects modulation of RAGE axis in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Zohara; Kolb, Channa; Chadha, Kailash; Nir, Adam; Nir, Raphael; George, Rayan; Johnson, Joseph; Yu, Jinhee; Hojnacki, David

    2018-03-01

    We investigated Fingolimod treatment effects on the RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) axis in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The primary outcome of the study was whether Fingolimod treatment increases serum levels of the soluble RAGE isoforms, sRAGE and esRAGE - both being considered putative endogenous inhibitors of RAGE signaling. Additional variables were serum levels of RAGE ligands, the high mobility group box (HMGB)1 and pentosidine. Serum levels of the study variables were measured by ELISA, and compared between baseline (before Fingolimod treatment) and 6 and 12 months post-drug treatment in 17 relapsing MS patients. Fingolimod treatment effects on MS disease progression were assessed by comparing pre- and post-Fingolimod values of the EDSS and rate of clinical relapse, and changes in the T1-and T2-enahncing lesions on the MRI scan.methods RESULTS: Twelve months treatment with Fingolimod increased serum levels of sRAGE and esRAGE by 32.4% (P = 0.004) and 48.5% (P = 0.007) respectively. In addition, Fingolimod treatment reduced serum levels of HMGB1 by 71.6% (P = 0.02) and pentosidine serum levels by 41.3% (P = 0.12). EDSS remained stable (baseline: 3.57 ± 1.56; post-Fingolimod: 3.54 ± 1.2, P = 0.96) and the rate of clinical relapse decreased near significantly (P = 0.094). T1-and T2-enhancing lesions remained stable, showing no significant changes pre-vs. post-Fingolimod treatment. Fingolimod mediates modulation of the RAGE axis which apparently contributes to the Fingolimod's anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. These findings may provide a rationale for the clinical efficacy of Fingolimod in pathological states other than MS, where dysregulation of the RAGE axis plays a role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  6. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 2 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 2 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  7. Determination of Elastic Twist in Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoddard, F.; Nelson, V.; Starcher, K.; Andrews, B.

    2006-06-01

    This report presents the results of a project at the Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) which measured and calculated the elastic twist of three representative composite horizontal-axis blades: Carter 300, Gougeon ESI 54, and UTRC 8 kW.

  8. Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle...

  9. Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana N. Joseph

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An organism’s reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero. Clinical studies and experimental data indicate that stress signaling can mediate these effects through direct actions in the brain, gonads, and embryonic tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which stress activation of the HPA axis impacts fertility and fetal development.

  10. A Method for Modeling of Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, Torgeir

    2013-01-01

    It is of interest to investigate the potential advantages of floating vertical axis wind turbine (FVAWT) due to its economical installation and maintenance. A novel 5MW vertical axis wind turbine concept with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure is proposed in this paper....... In order to assess the technical and economic feasibility of this novel concept, a comprehensive simulation tool for modeling of the floating vertical axis wind turbine is needed. This work presents the development of a coupled method for modeling of the dynamics of a floating vertical axis wind turbine....... This integrated dynamic model takes into account the wind inflow, aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, structural dynamics (wind turbine, floating platform and the mooring lines) and a generator control. This approach calculates dynamic equilibrium at each time step and takes account of the interaction between the rotor...

  11. UARS PEM Level 2 AXIS 1 V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The UARS Particle Environment Monitor (PEM) level 2 Atmosphere X-Ray Imaging Spectrometer (AXIS) unit 1 daily product contains the X-ray high-resolution spectral...

  12. Stress and the HPA Axis: Balancing Homeostasis and Fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Dana N; Whirledge, Shannon

    2017-10-24

    An organism's reproductive fitness is sensitive to the environment, integrating cues of resource availability, ecological factors, and hazards within its habitat. Events that challenge the environment of an organism activate the central stress response system, which is primarily mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The regulatory functions of the HPA axis govern the cardiovascular and metabolic system, immune functions, behavior, and reproduction. Activation of the HPA axis by various stressors primarily inhibits reproductive function and is able to alter fetal development, imparting a biological record of stress experienced in utero. Clinical studies and experimental data indicate that stress signaling can mediate these effects through direct actions in the brain, gonads, and embryonic tissues. This review focuses on the mechanisms by which stress activation of the HPA axis impacts fertility and fetal development.

  13. Delayed presentation of Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, Javed; Kumar, Sandeep; Zahid, Mohd; Ahmad, Sohail

    2014-07-01

    Closed degloving skin lesions of the limbs are uncommon, and diagnosis may be missed at the time of acute trauma. Usually, they are associated with pelvic fractures but may occur in absence of any bony injury. When this closed internal degloving occurs over the greater trochanter, it is known as a Morel-Lavallee lesion. We report a case of unusually delayed presentation of Morel-Lavallee lesion treated successfully by debridement, packing, and delayed closure.

  14. Radiologic aspects of the Galeazzi lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, A. de; Meoller, J.T.; Vestergaard-Andersen, T.

    1984-08-01

    In lesions of the forearm that included a fracture of the distal two thirds of the radial shaft, a concomitant disruption of the distal radio-ulnar joint was found in 20 out of 38 cases. In 15 cases a typical Galeazzi lesion was present. Dislocation of the distal radio-ulnar joint frequently goes unrecognized. The clinical significance of a lesion in the distal radio-ulnar joint is related to its prognostic value.

  15. Benign Pigmented Lesions of Oral Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Gökdemir

    2012-01-01

    Oral mucosal pigmented lesions are quite common. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Such lesions may be a manifestation of systemic diseases. Evaluation of a patient with oral pigmentation requires a systematic approach with source to appropriate investigations. A detailed clinical examination, family history and drug ingestion are very important assessment. The algorithm for these diseases are useful to manage the various pigmented lesions of...

  16. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  17. The reno-pineal axis: A novel role for melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland is a tiny endocrine gland whose physiologic role has been the focus of much research and much more speculation over the past century. This mini-review discusses recent findings which correlate melatonin and renal physiology, and postulates the presence of a "reno-pineal axis." Drawing lessons from comparative endocrinology, while quoting human data, it advocates the need to study the "reno-pineal axis" in greater detail.

  18. Estimates of parabolic cylinder functions on the real axis

    OpenAIRE

    Pokrovski, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    We estimate simple combination of the parabolic cylinder functions and their derivatives. These estimates are important for the spectral analysis of non-analytically perturbed quantum harmonic oscillator. The estimates are valid in rather complicated domains and refine there the classical result of Olver. We determine the part of the real x-axis, which is within the domains of the estimates. This requires a detailed study of the image of the real x-axis in the standard quasiclassical variable.

  19. Improved Controller for a Three-Axis Piezoelectric Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    An improved closed-loop controller has been built for a three-axis piezoelectric positioning stage. The stage can be any of a number of commercially available or custom-made units that are used for precise three-axis positioning of optics in astronomical instruments and could be used for precise positioning in diverse fields of endeavor that include adaptive optics, fabrication of semiconductors, and nanotechnology.

  20. Interferon-microRNA signalling drives liver precancerous lesion formation and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingcheng; Lin, Ximeng; Lu, Xinyuan; Luo, Guijuan; Zeng, Tao; Tang, Jing; Jiang, Feng; Li, Liang; Cui, Xiuliang; Huang, Wentao; Hou, Guojun; Chen, Xin; Ouyang, Qing; Tang, Shanhua; Sun, Huanlin; Chen, Luonan; Gonzalez, Frank J; Wu, Mengchao; Cong, Wenming; Chen, Lei; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-07-01

    Precancerous lesion, a well-established histopathologically premalignant tissue with the highest risk for tumourigenesis, develops preferentially from activation of DNA damage checkpoint and persistent inflammation. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which precancerous lesions are initiated and their physiological significance. Laser capture microdissection was used to acquire matched normal liver, precancerous lesion and tumour tissues. miR-484(-/-), Ifnar1(-/-) and Tgfbr2(△hep) mice were employed to determine the critical role of the interferon (IFN)-microRNA pathway in precancerous lesion formation and tumourigenesis. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), pull-down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were applied to explore the underlying mechanisms. miR-484 is highly expressed in over 88% liver samples clinically. DEN-induced precancerous lesions and hepatocellular carcinoma were dramatically impaired in miR-484(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, ectopic expression of miR-484 initiates tumourigenesis and cell malignant transformation through synergistic activation of the transforming growth factor-β/Gli and nuclear factor-κB/type I IFN pathways. Specific acetylation of H3K27 is indispensable for basal IFN-induced continuous transcription of miR-484 and cell transformation. Convincingly, formation of precancerous lesions were significantly attenuated in both Tgfbr2(△hep) and Ifnar1(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate a new protumourigenic axis involving type I IFN-microRNA signalling, providing a potential therapeutic strategy to manipulate or reverse liver precancerous lesions and tumourigenesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Optic axis-driven new horizons for hyperbolic metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boardman Allan D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The broad assertion here is that the current hyperbolic metamaterial world is only partially served by investigations that incorporate only some limited version of anisotropy. Even modest deviations of the optic axis from the main propagation axis lead to new phase shifts, which not only compete with those created by absorption but end up dominating them. Some progress has been attempted in the literature by introducing the terms “asymmetric hyperbolic media”, but it appears that this kind of asymmetry only involves an optic axis at an angle to the interface of a uniaxial crystal. From a device point of view, many new prospects should appear and the outcomes of the investigations presented here yield a new general theory. It is emphasised that the orientation of the optic axis is a significant determinant in the resulting optical properties. Whereas for conventional anisotropic waveguides homogeneous propagating waves occur over a limited range of angular dispositions of the optic axis it is shown that for a hyperbolic guide a critical angular setting exists, above which the guided waves are always homogeneous. This has significant implications for metawaveguide designs. The resulting structures are more tolerant to optic axis misalignment.

  2. Self-starting aerodynamics analysis of vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertical axis wind turbine is a special type of wind-force electric generator which is capable of working in the complicated wind environment. The self-starting aerodynamics is one of the most important considerations for this kind of turbine. This article aims at providing a systematic synthesis on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine based on the numerical analysis approach. First, the physical model of vertical axis wind turbine and its parameter definitions are presented. Secondary, the interaction model between the vertical axis wind turbine and fluid is developed by using the weak coupling approach; the numerical data of this model are then compared with the wind tunnel experimental data to show its feasibility. Third, the effects of solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of the vertical axis wind turbine are analyzed systematically. Finally, the quantification effects of the solidity and fixed pitch angle on the self-starting performance of the turbine can be obtained. The analysis in this study will provide straightforward physical insight into the self-starting aerodynamic characteristics of vertical axis wind turbine.

  3. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  4. Design and optimize of 3-axis filament winding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjin, Ma; Rejab, M. R. M.; Idris, M. S.; Bachtiar, B.; Siregar, J. P.; Harith, M. N.

    2017-10-01

    Filament winding technique is developed as the primary process for composite cylindrical structures fabrication at low cost. Fibres are wound on a rotating mandrel by a filament winding machine where resin impregnated fibres pass through a pay-out eye. This paper aims to develop and optimize a 3-axis, lightweight, practical, efficient, portable filament winding machine to satisfy the customer demand, which can fabricate pipes and round shape cylinders with resins. There are 3 main units on the 3-axis filament winding machine, which are the rotary unit, the delivery unit and control system unit. Comparison with previous existing filament winding machines in the factory, it has 3 degrees of freedom and can fabricate more complex shape specimens based on the mandrel shape and particular control system. The machine has been designed and fabricated on 3 axes movements with control system. The x-axis is for movement of the carriage, the y-axis is the rotation of mandrel and the z-axis is the movement of the pay-out eye. Cylindrical specimens with different dimensions and winding angles were produced. 3-axis automated filament winding machine has been successfully designed with simple control system.

  5. [Neonate with linear rows of vesiculobullous lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María F; Samela, Patricia C; Buján, María M; Merediz, Javier; Pierini, Adrián M

    2010-02-01

    We report the case of an 8-days-old patient with linear rows of vesiculobullous lesions from birth. Along with these lesions, the neonate had eosinophilia, which made us arrive to the clinical diagnosis of Incontinentia Pigmenti. Incontinentia Pigmenti or Bloch Sulzberger disease is a multisystemic neuroectodermal disorder that affects mostly women, which includes as initial manifestation cutaneous lesions that evolve by outbreaks. Occasionally, it is associated with neurologic, ophthalmologic, and dental compromise. This must be considered as a differential diagnosis when a neonate presents vesiculobullous lesions.

  6. Visible and occult microscopic lesions of endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleque Newaz Khan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a multifactorial disease mostly affecting women of reproductive age and is associated with chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Even after 300 years, most of the literature claims that pathogenesis and/or pathophysiology of endometriosis is still elusive. Recurrence of pain and lesion continues to occur after effective medical or surgical therapies. Once generated within the pelvis due to retrograde entry of menstrual debris, peritoneal endometriotic lesions time-dependently change their color appearance resulting from certain biochemical change within lesions. A variable pattern of endometriotic lesions within the pelvis can be detected by laparoscopy as visible peritoneal endometriosis. It is generally believed that besides ovarian steroid hormones, the growth of endometriosis can be regulated by the innate immune system in the pelvic microenvironment by their interaction with endometrial cells and immune cells. Even with the careful eyes of an expert surgeon, we may sometimes miss detecting peritoneal lesion within the peritoneal cavity or deep into the peritoneum. In such a case, random collection of normal peritoneum may carry the possibility to identify some hidden endometriotic lesions by microscopy and these lesions can be named as occult (invisible microscopic endometriosis (OME. Here, we discuss the color appearance of peritoneal lesions and activity of these lesions by analysis of a panel of activity markers. Finally we discuss our recent findings on OME, their biological and clinical significance, and try to make a possible link in the origin between visible endometriosis and OME.

  7. Lesion localization in aphasia without hemiparesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Midori; Senoh, Yoko; Okamoto, Koichi; Morimatsu, Mitsunori; Hirai, Shunsaku (Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of the lesions responsible for aphasia unassociated with right-sided hemiparesis was evaluated by cranial computed tomography (CT) among stroke patients. In the Broca aphasia group were observed atypical aphasic symptoms, and the lesions were far more localized than in ordinary Broca one. In the Wernicke aphasia group showed relatively large lesions in the left superior temporal gyrus, sometimes extending to supramarginal and angular gyri, which caused such additional symptoms as apraxia without motor paresis in some cases. In the Transcortical motor aphasia group showed the occlusion of the left internal carotid artery, though without obvious abnormality at CT. In another patient a circumscribed low density lesion was disclosed in the area anterior and superior to so-called Broca's area. In the Transcortical sensory aphasia group, the lesion involved the borderzone supplied by the left middle and posterior cerebral arteries. In the Amnestic aphasia group showed a lesion in the left parietal lobe, while in another no remarkable change was demonstrated. In the Global aphasia group, one had multiple isolated lesions in both anterior and posterior speech areas. Another showed a large lesion involving the whole territory of the left middle cerebral artery. In the remaining one a high density area was observed in the left superior temporal, supramarginal and angular gyri, not extending to the frontal lobe beyond with sylvian fissure. Therefore, in interpreting CTs of such aphasic patients we must take account of not only the extent of the lesion but also the severity of destruction.

  8. ORAL LESIONS IN KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levarda-Hudolin, Katarina; Hudolin, Tvrtko; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Kaštelan, Željko

    2016-09-01

    Permanent immunosuppression is necessary to prevent rejection after kidney transplantation. However, it may predispose patients to different conditions and diseases including oral lesions. The most common benign oral lesions in kidney transplant recipients are gingival hyperplasia, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and saburral tongue. Oral form of Kaposi sarcoma, although rarely, can also be seen in kidney transplant patients. In this review, we present the incidence, etiology, clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment options for these lesions. For kidney transplant recipients, it is important to maintain good oral hygiene and care, as well as regular professional control by the dentist. This approach can reduce the number and severity of oral lesions.

  9. Benign Pigmented Lesions of Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Gökdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosal pigmented lesions are quite common. Oral pigmentation can be physiological or pathological, and exogenous or endogenous. Such lesions may be a manifestation of systemic diseases. Evaluation of a patient with oral pigmentation requires a systematic approach with source to appropriate investigations. A detailed clinical examination, family history and drug ingestion are very important assessment. The algorithm for these diseases are useful to manage the various pigmented lesions of the oral cavity. This review has been focused on the common causes of oral benign pigmented lesions, the differential diagnosis and therapy modalities for oral pigmentation.

  10. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C; Chan, Kenneth H; Darling, Cynthia L; Fried, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a 10- to 20-fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4 mm × 4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12-48 hours exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths >500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two-dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion contrast in the visible does not accurately reflect the

  11. Multispectral near-IR reflectance imaging of simulated early occlusal lesions: Variation of lesion contrast with lesion depth and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jacob C.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Early demineralization appears with high contrast at near-IR wavelengths due to a ten to twenty fold difference in the magnitude of light scattering between sound and demineralized enamel. Water absorption in the near-IR has a significant effect on the lesion contrast and the highest contrast has been measured in spectral regions with higher water absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine how the lesion contrast changes with lesion severity and depth for different spectral regions in the near-IR and compare that range of contrast with visible reflectance and fluorescence. Materials and Methods Forty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window on the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the unprotected windows after 12–48 hr exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH-4.5. Near-IR reflectance images were acquired over several near-IR spectral distributions, visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. Cross polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) was used to non-destructively assess the depth and severity of demineralization in each sample window. Matching two dimensional CP-OCT images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity were compared with the reflectance and fluorescence images to determine how accurately the variation in the lesion contrast represents the variation in the lesion severity. Results Artificial lesions appear more uniform on tooth surfaces exposed to an acid challenge at visible wavelengths than they do in the near-IR. Measurements of the lesion depth and severity using CP-OCT show that the lesion severity varies markedly across the sample windows and that the lesion

  12. Plasma ionization frequency, edge-to-axis density ratio, and density on axis of a cylindrical gas discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio Mizrahi, J. H. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-06-15

    A rigorous derivation of expressions, starting from the governing equations, for the ionization frequency, edge-to-axis ratio of plasma density, plasma density at the axis, and radially averaged plasma density in a cylindrical gas discharge has been obtained. The derived expressions are simple and involve the relevant parameters of the discharge: Cylinder radius, axial current, and neutral gas pressure. The found expressions account for ion inertia, ion temperature, and changes in plasma ion collisionality.

  13. Design Of Single-Axis And Dual-Axis Solar Tracking Systems Protected Against High Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Salaheldin Elsherbiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is rapidly gaining ground as an important mean of expanding renewable energy use. Solar tracking is employed in order to maximize collected solar radiation by a photovoltaic panel. In this paper we present a prototype for Automatic solar tracker that is designed using Arduino UNO with Wind sensor to Cease Wind effect on panels if wind speed exceeds certain threshold. The Proposed solar tracker tracks the location of the sun anywhere in any time by calculating the position of the sun. For producing the maximum amount of solar energy a solar panel must always be perpendicular to the source of light. Because the sun motion plane varies daily and during the day it moves from east to west one needs two axis tracking to follow the suns position. Maximum possible power is collected when two axis tracking is done. However two axis tracking is relatively costly and complex. A compromise between maximum power collection and system simplicity is obtained by single axis tracking where the plane North south axis is fixed while the east west motion is accomplished. This work deals with the design of both single and two axis tracking systems. Automatic trackers is also compared to Fixed one in terms of Energy generated Efficiency Cost and System reliability.

  14. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez; Rafael A. Gutiérrez; Alicia Keszler; Maria Del Carmen Colacino; Alonio, Lidia V.; Angélica R. Teyssie; Maria Alejandra Picconi

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell ...

  15. Risk of Upgrading from Prostate Biopsy to Radical Prostatectomy Pathology: Does Saturation Biopsy of Index Lesion during mpMRI-TRUS Fusion Biopsy Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calio, Brian P; Sidana, Abhinav; Sugano, Dordaneh; Gaur, Sonia; Maruf, Mahir; Jain, Amit L; Merino, Maria J; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A; Turkbey, Baris

    2018-01-19

    We sought to determine whether saturation of the index lesion during magnetic resonance imaging-transrectal ultrasound fusion guided biopsy would decrease the rate of pathological upgrading from biopsy to radical prostatectomy. We analyzed a prospectively maintained, single institution database for patients who underwent fusion and systematic biopsy followed by radical prostatectomy in 2010 to 2016. Index lesion was defined as the lesion with largest diameter on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. In patients with a saturated index lesion transrectal fusion biopsy targets were obtained at 6 mm intervals along the long axis of the index lesion. In patients with a nonsaturated index lesion only 1 target was obtained from the lesion. Gleason 6, 7 and 8-10 were defined as low, intermediate and high risk, respectively. Included in study were 208 consecutive patients, including 86 with a saturated and 122 with a nonsaturated lesion. Median patient age was 62.0 years (IQR 10.0) and median prostate specific antigen was 7.1 ng/ml (IQR 8.0). The median number of biopsy cores per index lesion was higher in the saturated lesion group (4 vs 2, p lesion group (7 vs 18%, p = 0.021). There was no difference in the upgrade rate based on systematic biopsy between the 2 groups. However, fusion biopsy results were significantly less upgraded in the saturated lesion group (Gleason upgrade 20.9% vs 36.9%, p = 0.014 and risk category upgrade 14% vs 30.3%, p = 0.006). Our results demonstrate that saturation of the index lesion significantly decreases the risk of upgrading on radical prostatectomy by minimizing the impact of tumor heterogeneity. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Is clinical measurement of anatomic axis of the femur adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2017-08-01

    Background and purpose - The accuracy of using clinical measurement from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the center of the knee to determine an anatomic axis of the femur has rarely been studied. A radiographic technique with a full-length standing scanogram (FLSS) was used to assess the adequacy of the clinical measurement. Patients and methods - 100 consecutive young adult patients (mean age 34 (20-40) years) with chronic unilateral lower extremity injuries were studied. The pelvis and intact contralateral lower extremity images in the FLSS were selected for study. The angles between the tibial axis and the femoral shaft anatomic axis (S-AA), the piriformis anatomic axis (P-AA), the clinical anatomic axis (C-AA), and the mechanical axis (MA) were compared between sexes. Results - Only the S-AA and C-AA angles were statistically significantly different in the 100 patients (3.6° vs. 2.8°; p = 0.03). There was a strong correlation between S-AA, P-AA, and C-AA angles (r > 0.9). The average intersecting angle between MA and S-AA in the femur in the 100 patients was 5.5°, and it was 4.8° between MA and C-AA. Interpretation - Clinical measurement of an anatomic axis from the ASIS to the center of the knee may be an adequate and acceptable method to determine lower extremity alignment. The optimal inlet for antegrade femoral intramedullary nailing may be the lateral edge of the piriformis fossa.

  17. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected.

  18. Evaluation of hepatic cystic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantinga, Marten A; Gevers, Tom JG; Drenth, Joost PH

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic cysts are increasingly found as a mere coincidence on abdominal imaging techniques, such as ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). These cysts often present a diagnostic challenge. Therefore, we performed a review of the recent literature and developed an evidence-based diagnostic algorithm to guide clinicians in characterising these lesions. Simple cysts are the most common cystic liver disease, and diagnosis is based on typical USG characteristics. Serodiagnostic tests and microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are invaluable in differentiating complicated cysts, echinococcosis and cystadenoma/cystadenocarcinoma when USG, CT and MRI show ambiguous findings. Therefore, serodiagnostic tests and CEUS reduce the need for invasive procedures. Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is arbitrarily defined as the presence of > 20 liver cysts and can present as two distinct genetic disorders: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease (PCLD). Although genetic testing for ADPKD and PCLD is possible, it is rarely performed because it does not affect the therapeutic management of PLD. USG screening of the liver and both kidneys combined with extensive family history taking are the cornerstone of diagnostic decision making in PLD. In conclusion, an amalgamation of these recent advances results in a diagnostic algorithm that facilitates evidence-based clinical decision making. PMID:23801855

  19. Conceptual apraxia from lateralized lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, K M; Maher, L M; Greenwald, M L; Rothi, L J

    1997-08-01

    Models of praxis have posited two major components, production and conceptual. Conceptual praxis disorders may occur in two domains: associative knowledge (tool-action associations such as hammer pound; tool-object associations such as hammer nail) and mechanical knowledge such as knowing the advantage that tools afford. Patients with Alzheimer's disease not only have conceptual apraxia (CA) but can dissociate CA from language deficits and from praxis production deficits (ideomotor apraxia). These findings suggests that knowledge about tools (action semantics) is independent of verbal semantics as well as movement representations. To learn if conceptual praxis knowledge is stored in one hemisphere (right or left) and if associative and mechanical conceptual praxis knowledge can be dissociated, we studied 29 right-handed subjects with unilateral strokes. Ten had left-hemisphere damage with no ideomotor apraxia. Eleven had left-hemisphere damage with ideomotor apraxia. There were eight right-hemisphere-damaged controls and 10 normal controls. These subjects were given tests for conceptual apraxia. There was a significant difference between groups, the left-hemisphere group with ideomotor apraxia being most impaired on both the associative and mechanical CA tests. There was a trend for associative and mechanical knowledge to be dissociated. Although conceptual praxis representations are stored in the left hemisphere, analysis of lesion sites did not reveal where in the left hemisphere they may be stored.

  20. Cerebral CT of ischaemic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulich, A.

    1981-11-25

    The diagnosis of stroke must first be established by clinical examination. CT has proved useful for confirmation of the diagnosis and provides a global intracranial picture of morphological changes in cerebral vascular diseases. A hemorrhage can be recognized with certainty at the first CT examination as the cause of the stroke, but in the detection of a lesion due to ischemia an important role is played by the correct choice of the time of examination, and in some cases also of the check-up with contrast medium. The differential diagnosis between infarct in the acute stage and encephalitis or gliomas of low-grade malignity can be difficult. A decision can often only be made after a series of examinations. Postmalacial conditions are often difficult to differentiate from defects due to other causes, such as hemorrhage, head injury, postoperative states and after encephalitis. A knowledge of the anamnesis and the clinical findings is indispensable for CT evaluation. In assessing the prognosis before vascular surgery on the extracranial brain-supplying vessels the performance of a CT examination should be advised. A warning is given against the use of CT as a screening method.

  1. Traumatic brain lesions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nícollas Nunes Rabelo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The neonatal period is a highly vulnerable time for an infant. The high neonatal morbidity and mortality rates attest to the fragility of life during this period. The incidence of birth trauma is 0.8%, varying from 0.2-2 per 1,000 births. The aim of this study is to describe brain traumas, and their mechanism, anatomy considerations, and physiopathology of the newborn traumatic brain injury. Methods A literature review using the PubMed data base, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, The Cochrane Database, Google Scholar, and clinical trials. Selected papers from 1922 to 2016 were studied. We selected 109 papers, through key-words, with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Discussion This paper discusses the risk factors for birth trauma, the anatomy of the occipito-anterior and vertex presentation, and traumatic brain lesions. Conclusion Birth-related traumatic brain injury may cause serious complications in newborn infants. Its successful management includes special training, teamwork, and an individual approach.

  2. Principal component analysis of psoriasis lesions images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A set of RGB images of psoriasis lesions is used. By visual examination of these images, there seem to be no common pattern that could be used to find and align the lesions within and between sessions. It is expected that the principal components of the original images could be useful during future...

  3. Functional optical coherence tomography of pigmented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, R; de Bruin, D M; Relyveld, G N; Faber, D J; Vincent, A D; Sanders, J; van Leeuwen, T G; Ruers, T J M

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous melanomas are diagnosed worldwide in 231,130 patients per year. The sensitivity and specificity of melanoma diagnosis expresses the need for an additional diagnostic method. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has shown that it allows morphological (qualitative) description of image features and quantitative analysis of pathology related light scattering by means of the attenuation coefficient (μoct ). We hypothesize that OCT images of nevi will differ qualitatively and quantitatively from melanomas. Forty lesions from 33 consecutive patients were imaged with OCT. After data acquisition, excision was performed. Epidermal layer thickness was measured and values of μoct were extracted from 200 OCT images of pigmented lesions. Morphologically, absence of the lower border of the lesion was characteristic for melanoma (P = 0.02). Also, the μoct was different between benign and malignant lesions (P = 0.02). There were no differences in epidermal layer thickness of benign lesions and melanoma. Although this preliminary study comprised a small number of patients, quantitative analysis of OCT images in pigmented skin lesions give valuable additional information about lesions characteristics. When using the attenuation coefficient, it might be possible to distinguish between benign lesions and melanomas. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  4. Detection and monitoring of early caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pretty, I A; Ekstrand, K R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the current evidence base of detecting and monitoring early carious lesions in children and adolescents and a rationale proposed to ensure that such lesions are identified and appropriately managed. METHODS: The systematic literature search identified initially a review by Gomez an...

  5. Chronic Adult Scurvy with Uncommon Skin Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Singh

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Scorbutic features as isolated deficiency were seen in an uneducated food faddist female. Unusual, sclerodermatous and discolored lesions on both legs we I re accompanied by typical perifollicular haemorrhages, follicular hyporkeratosis, corkscrew hairs, hypertrophic spongy bleeding gums and arthritis. Lesions were reversible on administration of 1000 mg ascorbic acid a day.

  6. Cystic lesions of the pterygoid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amri, G; Malinvaud, D; Laccourreye, O; Bonfils, P

    2014-02-01

    Cystic lesions of the pterygoid process are rare: there are only four case reports in PubMed. Two new cases (one schwannoma and one cystic lymphangioma) are reported, with clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspects. A literature review presents the semiology, radiology and treatment of cystic lesions of the pterygoid process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Oral Lesions in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, I; Pejcic, A; Kostic, M; Krunic, N; Mirkovic, D; Igic, M

    2016-02-09

    Geriatric dentistry refers to dealing with oral diseases including prevention and treatment in old individuals. The aim of this investigation was to examine the types and frequency of oral lesions in the elderly. The study involved 75 elderly persons. The clinical diagnosis was established by correlating the aetiological factor associated with the lesion and by systematic examination of the oral mucosa and classifying those alterations according to the epidemiological guidelines for the diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases. During the clinical examination, the following elements were analysed: features of the lesion, anatomical location, extension, aetiological factors or related factors, dental status, alcohol, tobacco, trauma, use of prosthesis and if such were well adapted. Sixty lesions were diagnosed in 75 patients. These were classified according to clinical, histopathological and microbiological diagnosis and were distributed into 15 different clinical entities. The more prevalent pathologies were inflammatory, reactive and associated with long-term use of prostheses or ill-adapted prostheses, since 67% of the patients with lesions were using prostheses. Of the lesions related to prosthesis use, denture stomatitis was the most common one, representing 20 cases (33.3%). The second most frequent lesion was erythematous candidiasis (10%). The other most frequent lesions in this study were lingua plicata, xerostomia and pseudomembranous candidiasis. Oral and perioral tissues undergo different functional and structural changes with ageing. The role of the dentist and stomatologist includes the management of systemic, nutritional and pharmacological oral manifestations in order to establish an early diagnosis and subsequent accurate treatment.

  8. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  9. Imaging granulomatous lesions with optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzhaf, Christina; Jemec, Gregor B E

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors.......To investigate and compare the presentation of granulomatous lesions in optical coherence tomography (OCT) images and compare this to previous studies of nonmelanoma skin tumors....

  10. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology.

  11. The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenthaler, Martin; Buchholz, Noor; Farin, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The Post-Ureteroscopic Lesion Scale (PULS) offers a simple grading system for the description of ureteral lesions after ureteroscopy. In this article, we present the results of a video-based multicenter evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of clinically important PULS grades 0-3....

  12. Ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein access: Comparison between short axis and long axis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek F Tammam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of real-time ultrasound (US is advantageous in the insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs in adults, especially in whom difficulties are anticipated for various reasons. The aim of the present study was to compare two different real-time 2-dimensional US-guided techniques [short axis view/out-of-plane approach (SAX OOP approach versus long axis view/in-plane approach (LAX IP approach] for internal jugular vein (IJV cannulation. In this prospective study, 90 critical care and hemodialysis patients were assigned for insertion of CVCs using either the real-time US-guided (SAX OOP approach or LAX IP approach or landmark technique (control group. Failed catheter placement, risk of complications from placement, failure on first attempt at placement, number of attempts until successful catheterization, time to successful catheterization, incidence of central line-associated blood stream infection (CLA-BSI and demographics of each patient were recorded. There were no significant differences in patient′s demographic characteristics, side of cannulation (right or left or presence of risk factors for difficult venous cannulation between the three groups of patients. Cannulation of the IJV was achieved in all patients by using US (SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches and in 27 of the patients (90% by using the landmark technique (P = 0.045. Average access time (skin to vein and number of attempts were comparable between the SAX OOP and the LAX IP approaches while significantly reduced in both US groups of patients compared with the landmark group (P <0.001. In the landmark group, puncture of the carotid artery occurred in 16.7% of the patients, hematoma in 23.3% of the patients, pneumothorax in 3.3% of the patients and CLA-BSI in 20% of the patients, which were all significantly increased compared with the US group (P <0.05. The findings of this study suggest that the SAX OOP and LAX IP approaches were comparable for cannulation of IJV in critical

  13. Diamond Machining of an Off-Axis Biconic Aspherical Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Preuss, Werner; Sohn, Alex; MacKenty, John

    2009-01-01

    Two diamond-machining methods have been developed as part of an effort to design and fabricate an off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal, concave aluminum mirror for an infrared spectrometer at the Kitt Peak National Observatory. Beyond this initial application, the methods can be expected to enable satisfaction of requirements for future instrument mirrors having increasingly complex (including asymmetrical), precise shapes that, heretofore, could not readily be fabricated by diamond machining or, in some cases, could not be fabricated at all. In the initial application, the mirror is prescribed, in terms of Cartesian coordinates x and y, by aperture dimensions of 94 by 76 mm, placements of -2 mm off axis in x and 227 mm off axis in y, an x radius of curvature of 377 mm, a y radius of curvature of 407 mm, an x conic constant of 0.078, and a y conic constant of 0.127. The aspect ratio of the mirror blank is about 6. One common, "diamond machining" process uses single-point diamond turning (SPDT). However, it is impossible to generate the required off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal shape by conventional SPDT because (1) rotational symmetry is an essential element of conventional SPDT and (2) the present off-axis biconic mirror shape lacks rotational symmetry. Following conventional practice, it would be necessary to make this mirror from a glass blank by computer-controlled polishing, which costs more than diamond machining and yields a mirror that is more difficult to mount to a metal bench. One of the two present diamond machining methods involves the use of an SPDT machine equipped with a fast tool servo (FTS). The SPDT machine is programmed to follow the rotationally symmetric asphere that best fits the desired off-axis, biconic ellipsoidal surface. The FTS is actuated in synchronism with the rotation of the SPDT machine to generate the difference between the desired surface and the best-fit rotationally symmetric asphere. In order to minimize the required stroke of the FTS

  14. [Tracking axis of the body tracking test(BTT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomoe; Ikemiyagi, Fuyuko; Ikemiyagi, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Toshitake; Takanami, Taro; Tamura, Yuya; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya

    2013-12-01

    We report herein on the use of the body tracking test (BTT), which is a method for quantitatively evaluating dynamic body balancing function, and how the body center moves during tracking by healthy subjects. We investigated 779 healthy subjects with no history of vertigo or balance disorder and a mean age of 37.9 years. Breakdown is as follows. Under 10 years old is 81 (37 boy and 44 girl), 10 years of age is 162 (73 boy and 89 girl), 20 years of age is 110 (43 men and 67 women), 30 years of age is 73 (44 male, 29 female), 40 years of age is 79 (49 men and 30 women), 50 years of age is 77 (40 men and 37 women), 60 years of age is 100 (53 men and 47 women), 70 years of age is 73 (27 men and 46 women), 80 years of age is 24 (15 men and 9 women). For the visual stimulus, we used a constant-speed antero-posterior (A-P) stimulus BTT and a constant-speed lateral BTT. BTT analysis involved principal axis analysis, in which the principal axis was the first principal component according to a principal component analysis technique. The axis tilt in the principal axis direction was assessed by calculating the coordinate Y-axis and X-axis tilt. In the anteroposterior (A-P) BTT, subjects of all ages exhibited an angle of tilt in the clockwise direction (the "plus" direction), together with the position vector and velocity vector. In the lateral BTT, we observed that the subjects tracked with a tilt in the counter-clockwise direction (the "minus" direction), together with the position vector and velocity vector. In terms of the subjects' ages, the angle of tilt from 0 degree in the antero-posterior (A-P) BTT showed the clockwise direction (the "plus" direction). In the lateral BTT, subjects 10 to 30 years of age exhibited tracking along the X-axis, with no observable tilt. Movement of the center of gravity may be a major acquired ability (practice) with respect to the direction of tilt of the tracking axis. Spatial sensory ability primarily involves the right parietal lobe of

  15. Early new diffusion-weighted imaging lesions appear more often in stroke patients with a multiple territory lesion pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braemswig, Tim Bastian; Usnich, Tatiana; Albach, Fredrik N; Brunecker, Peter; Grittner, Ulrike; Scheitz, Jan F; Fiebach, Jochen B; Nolte, Christian H

    2013-08-01

    New diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions are common in patients with acute ischemic stroke. They are associated with an initial nonsingle lesion pattern. Previous studies have not analyzed this association in detail. We differentiated nonsingle lesions in 1 vascular supply territory only (scattered lesion pattern) from nonsingle lesions in ≥2 vascular supply territory (multiple territory lesion -pattern). Patients with an acute ischemic stroke underwent 3 MRI (3T) examinations: on admission, on the following day, and 4 to 7 days after symptom onset. First, DWI lesions were delineated manually by raters blinded to clinical details. Second, DWI images were coregistered and analyzed visually for new hyperintensities. The initial lesion pattern was categorized as single, scattered, or multiple territory. Of 340 patients enrolled, 43% had a single lesion pattern, 40% had a scattered lesion pattern, and 17% had a multiple territory lesion pattern. In multivariable analysis, the categorical variable lesion pattern was independently associated with new DWI lesions (odds ratio multiple territory lesion pattern, 3.64 [95% confidence interval, 1.75-7.58]; odds ratio scattered lesion pattern, 1.96 [95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.56]). Patients with multiple territory lesion pattern had significantly more often diabetes mellitus, and their new lesions were more often located remotely from the initial area of hypoperfusion compared with patients with scattered lesion pattern. Lesion pattern on initial image is an independent risk factor for new DWI lesions. The risk for new DWI lesions is highest in patients with multiple territory lesion pattern.

  16. Breast lesion co-localisation between X-ray and MR images using finite element modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Angela W C; Rajagopal, Vijayaraghavan; Babarenda Gamage, Thiranja P; Doyle, Anthony J; Nielsen, Poul M F; Nash, Martyn P

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel X-ray and MR image registration technique based on individual-specific biomechanical finite element (FE) models of the breasts. Information from 3D magnetic resonance (MR) images was registered to X-ray mammographic images using non-linear FE models subject to contact mechanics constraints to simulate the large compressive deformations between the two imaging modalities. A physics-based perspective ray-casting algorithm was used to generate 2D pseudo-X-ray projections of the FE-warped 3D MR images. Unknown input parameters to the FE models, such as the location and orientation of the compression plates, were optimised to provide the best match between the pseudo and clinical X-ray images. The methods were validated using images taken before and during compression of a breast-shaped phantom, for which 12 inclusions were tracked between imaging modalities. These methods were then applied to X-ray and MR images from six breast cancer patients. Error measures (such as centroid and surface distances) of segmented tumours in simulated and actual X-ray mammograms were used to assess the accuracy of the methods. Sensitivity analysis of the lesion co-localisation accuracy to rotation about the anterior-posterior axis was then performed. For 10 of the 12 X-ray mammograms, lesion localisation accuracies of 14 mm and less were achieved. This analysis on the rotation about the anterior-posterior axis indicated that, in cases where the lesion lies in the plane parallel to the mammographic compression plates, that cuts through the nipple, such rotations have relatively minor effects.This has important implications for clinical applicability of this multi-modality lesion registration technique, which will aid in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic axis alignment and the Poisson alignment reference system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lee V.; Schenz, Richard F.; Sommargren, Gary E.

    1989-01-01

    Three distinct metrological operations are necessary to align a free-electron laser (FEL): the magnetic axis must be located, a straight line reference (SLR) must be generated, and the magnetic axis must be related to the SLR. This paper begins with a review of the motivation for developing an alignment system that will assure better than 100 micrometer accuracy in the alignment of the magnetic axis throughout an FEL. The paper describes techniques for identifying the magnetic axis of solenoids, quadrupoles, and wiggler poles. Propagation of a laser beam is described to the extent of revealing sources of nonlinearity in the beam. Development and use of the Poisson line, a diffraction effect, is described in detail. Spheres in a large-diameter laser beam create Poisson lines and thus provide a necessary mechanism for gauging between the magnetic axis and the SLR. Procedures for installing FEL components and calibrating alignment fiducials to the magnetic axes of the components are also described. An error budget shows that the Poisson alignment reference system will make it possible to meet the alignment tolerances for an FEL.

  18. Pelvic axis-based gait analysis for ataxic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Naoki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Mizutani, Kenmei; Tomita, Yutaka; Nagao, Shizuko; Suzuki, Shoichi; Orand, Abbas; Takahashi, Hisahide; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-09-30

    Although different gait analysis methods such as Walking Track Analysis exist, they cannot be used to demonstrate the physical condition of mice with specific gait disorder characteristic. Therefore, we developed a new method for the gait analysis of such mice to accurately assess hind limb angle based on the pelvic axis. We established and verified a gait analysis method capable of pelvic axis-based limb angle measurement by video-recording the gait of a control mice group (C57BL/6J(B6)) and three ataxic mice (ataxic B6-wob/t, Parkinson's disease model (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine treated (MPTP)), and cerebellum hypoplasia (cytosine-β-d-arabinofuranoside treated)) from the ventral side. The assessed hind limb angles of B6-wob/t and MPTP-treated mice were significantly wider than B6 mice (panalysis of the hind limb angles of B6 and B6-wob/t mice. In the nose-tail method, since the whole body axis of the trunk varies while the trunk of the mouse is laterally bent changing the hind limb angle, B6 and B6-wob/t mice could not be differentiated. However, the two mice groups could be differentiated by the pelvic axis-based gait analysis method. The pelvic axis-based gait analysis method is promising and valid for mice with gait disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An FGF3-BMP Signaling Axis Regulates Caudal Neural Tube Closure, Neural Crest Specification and Anterior-Posterior Axis Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Schimmang, Thomas; Lewandoski, Mark

    2016-05-01

    During vertebrate axis extension, adjacent tissue layers undergo profound morphological changes: within the neuroepithelium, neural tube closure and neural crest formation are occurring, while within the paraxial mesoderm somites are segmenting from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). Little is known about the signals between these tissues that regulate their coordinated morphogenesis. Here, we analyze the posterior axis truncation of mouse Fgf3 null homozygotes and demonstrate that the earliest role of PSM-derived FGF3 is to regulate BMP signals in the adjacent neuroepithelium. FGF3 loss causes elevated BMP signals leading to increased neuroepithelium proliferation, delay in neural tube closure and premature neural crest specification. We demonstrate that elevated BMP4 depletes PSM progenitors in vitro, phenocopying the Fgf3 mutant, suggesting that excessive BMP signals cause the Fgf3 axis defect. To test this in vivo we increased BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants by removing one copy of Noggin, which encodes a BMP antagonist. In such mutants, all parameters of the Fgf3 phenotype were exacerbated: neural tube closure delay, premature neural crest specification, and premature axis termination. Conversely, genetically decreasing BMP signaling in Fgf3 mutants, via loss of BMP receptor activity, alleviates morphological defects. Aberrant apoptosis is observed in the Fgf3 mutant tailbud. However, we demonstrate that cell death does not cause the Fgf3 phenotype: blocking apoptosis via deletion of pro-apoptotic genes surprisingly increases all Fgf3 defects including causing spina bifida. We demonstrate that this counterintuitive consequence of blocking apoptosis is caused by the increased survival of BMP-producing cells in the neuroepithelium. Thus, we show that FGF3 in the caudal vertebrate embryo regulates BMP signaling in the neuroepithelium, which in turn regulates neural tube closure, neural crest specification and axis termination. Uncovering this FGF3-BMP signaling axis is

  20. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  1. Subtle Cardiovascular Dysfunction in the Unilateral 6-Hydroxydopamine-Lesioned Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Slack

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease produces autonomic deficits. Autonomic parameters were assessed by implanting a small radiofrequency telemetry device which measured heart rate variability (HRV, diurnal rhythms of heart rate (HR, core body temperature (cBT and locomotor activity (LA. Rats then received 6-OHDA lesion or sham surgery. 6-OHDA lesioned rats exhibited head and body axis biases, defective sensorimotor function (“disengage” test, and prominent apomorphine rotation (all P<.05 versus controls. Diurnal rhythm of HR was lower for 6-OHDA lesioned rats (n=8 versus controls (n=6; P<.05. Whilst HR decreased similarly in both groups during the day, there was a greater decrease in HR for the 6-OHDA lesioned rats at night (by 38 b.p.m. relative to 17 b.p.m. for controls. LA and cBT did not differ between surgery groups. This study indicates the unilateral 6-OHDA model of PD shows subtle signs of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction.

  2. Targeting the HER-kinase axis in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Mitchell E; Shazer, Ronald L; Agus, David B

    2004-02-01

    The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases controls critical pathways involved in the differentiation, growth, division, and motility of normal epithelial cells. Most human solid tumors are of epithelial origin. The process of malignant transformation and progression in many cancers may depend on activation of ligands and receptors that function as part of the HER-kinase pathway. This signaling axis has earned increased attention because of the development of antibodies and small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that specifically target components of the HER-kinase axis for cancer therapy. This review focuses on the basic biology underlying HER-kinase pathway activation and the current state of development for agents that target this axis. In particular, the importance of pan-HER inhibitors is discussed.

  3. Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines: aerodynamics and starting behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia DUMITRESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In urban areas the wind is very turbulent and unstable with fast changes in direction andvelocity. In these environments, the use of small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT becomesincreasingly attractive due to several advantages over horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT.However, such designs have received much less attention than the more common propeller-typedesigns and the understanding of same aspects of their operation remains, to this day, incomplete.This is particularly true of their starting characteristics. Indeed, same authors heuristically maintainthat they cannot start without external assistance. This paper reviews the cause of the inability of thelow solidity fixed pitch vertical axis wind turbines to self-start, and investigates the way ofovercoming this draw back.

  4. Subquadratic medial-axis approximation in $\\mathbb{R}^3$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Scheffer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an algorithm that approximates the medial axis of a smooth manifold in $\\mathbb{R}^3$ which is given by a sufficiently dense point sample. The resulting, non-discrete approximation is shown to converge to the medial axis as the sampling density approaches infinity. While all previous algorithms guaranteeing convergence have a running time quadratic in the size $n$ of the point sample, we achieve a running time of at most $\\mathcal{O}(n\\log^3 n$. While there is no subquadratic upper bound on the output complexity of previous algorithms for non-discrete medial axis approximation, the output of our algorithm is guaranteed to be of linear size.

  5. Spin axis offset calibration on THEMIS using mirror modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Frühauff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed method for determining spin axis offsets of magnetic field instruments on spacecraft is applied to THEMIS. The formerly used determination method, relying on solar wind Alfvénic fluctuations, was rarely applicable due to the orbital restrictions of the mission. With the new procedure, based on magnetic field observation of mirror modes in the magnetosheath, updated spin axis offsets can be estimated approximately once per year. Retrospective calibration of all THEMIS magnetic field measurements is thereby made possible. Since, up to this point, spin axis offsets could hardly ever be calculated due to the mission's orbits, this update represents a substantial improvement to the data. The approximate offset stability is estimated to be < 0.75 nT year−1 for the complete course of the mission.

  6. The microbiota-gut-brain axis in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Giada; Collins, Stephen M; Bercik, Premysl

    2014-01-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are highly prevalent and pose a significant burden on health care and society, and impact patients' quality of life. FGIDs comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, with unclear underlying pathophysiology. They are considered to result from the interaction of altered gut physiology and psychological factors via the gut-brain axis, where brain and gut symptoms are reciprocally influencing each other's expression. Intestinal microbiota, as a part of the gut-brain axis, plays a central role in FGIDs. Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a prototype of FGIDs, display altered composition of the gut microbiota compared with healthy controls and benefit, at the gastrointestinal and psychological levels, from the use of probiotics and antibiotics. This review aims to recapitulate the available literature on FGIDs and microbiota-gut-brain axis.

  7. Steroids, stress and the gut microbiome-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetel, M J; de Vries, G J; Melcangi, R C; Panzica, G; O'Mahony, S M

    2018-02-01

    It is becoming well established that the gut microbiome has a profound impact on human health and disease. In this review, we explore how steroids can influence the gut microbiota and, in turn, how the gut microbiota can influence hormone levels. Within the context of the gut microbiome-brain axis, we discuss how perturbations in the gut microbiota can alter the stress axis and behaviour. In addition, human studies on the possible role of gut microbiota in depression and anxiety are examined. Finally, we present some of the challenges and important questions that need to be addressed by future research in this exciting new area at the intersection of steroids, stress, gut-brain axis and human health. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  8. QRS axis deviation in Nigerian women during normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwobi, N N; Dapper, D V

    2002-01-01

    The effect of pregnancy on the heart rate, respiratory rate, QRS axis and QRS complex duration of the ECG was investigated in 41 pregnant compared to 39 non pregnant age and height matched Nigerian subjects. Results obtained show that pregnancy had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on heart rate, respiratory rite and QRS complex duration of the ECG. However, the QRS axis showed significant (p left ward deviation in pregnant subjects compared to non-pregnant subjects. The magnitude of the deviation apparently increases as pregnancy progresses. In addition, chi-squared analysis revealed significant association (p left axis deviation in pregnant subjects compared to non-pregnant subjects. Our findings highlight the need for caution in the interpretation of the ECG during the antenatal period.

  9. Role of Met Axis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yiru, E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu; Fisher, Gary J., E-mail: xuyiru@umich.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2013-11-26

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of cancer worldwide. Despite advances in aggressive multidisciplinary treatments, the 5-year survival rate for this dreadful disease is only 50%, mostly due to high rate of recurrence and early involvement of regional lymph nodes and subsequent metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for invasion and metastasis is one of the most pressing goals in the field of head and neck cancer. Met, also known as hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR), is a member of the receptor protein tyrosine kinase (RPTK) family. There is compelling evidence that Met axis is dysregulated and plays important roles in tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis, angiogenesis, and drug resistance in head and neck cancer. We describe in this review current understanding of Met axis in head and neck cancer biology and development of therapeutic inhibitors targeting Met axis.

  10. Characterizing lesions in corals from American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T. M.; Rameyer, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    The study of coral disease has suffered from an absence of systematic approaches that are commonly used to determine causes of diseases in animals. There is a critical need to develop a standardized and portable nomenclature for coral lesions in the field and to incorporate more commonly available biomedical tools in coral disease surveys to determine the potential causes of lesions in corals. We characterized lesions in corals from American Samoa based on gross and microscopic morphology and classified them as discoloration, growth anomalies, or tissue loss. The most common microscopic finding in corals manifesting discoloration was the depletion of zooxanthellae, followed by necrosis, sometimes associated with invasive algae or fungi. The most common microscopic lesion in corals manifesting tissue loss was cell necrosis often associated with algae, fungi, or protozoa. Corals with growth anomaly had microscopic evidence of hyperplasia of gastrovascular canals, followed by necrosis associated with algae or metazoa (polychaete worms). Several species of apparently normal corals also had microscopic changes, including the presence of bacterial aggregates or crustacea in tissues. A single type of gross lesion (e.g., discoloration) could have different microscopic manifestations. This phenomenon underlines the importance of using microscopy to provide a more systematic description of coral lesions and to detect potential pathogens associated with these lesions.

  11. Oral lesions in kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebjamee, Mahnaz; Shakur Shahabi, Maryam; Nikoobakht, Mohammad Reza; Momen Beitollahi, Jalil; Mansourian, Arash

    2010-07-01

    Oral hygiene in kidney transplant recipients contributes to maintenance of the transplanted organ and its function. Thus, an investigation of oral lesions could be counted as a notable work. These patients have the potential to be involved with lesions developed as a result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs. The aim of this study was to investigate oral lesions in a group of kidney transplant recipients. The present study was a cross-sectional research on 100 patients with a kidney transplant for at least 3 months. Oral mucosa was assessed clinically for any lesion. Additional data on systemic diseases, transplant duration, and medications were recorded. Twenty-four percent of the patients had at least 1 oral lesion. The most common lesion was oral candidiasis in 16% of the participants (13 cases of acute pseudomembranous and 3 cases of chronic oral candidiasis). Gingival enlargement was seen in 7% of the kidney transplant recipients, and 2% had a coated tongue. Elimination of oral fungal lesions in kidney transplant recipients is highly recommended. We hope this study can shed light on this particular aspect of healthcare in kidney transplant recipients.

  12. Three-axis force actuator for a magnetic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondhalekar, Vijay (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    This invention features a three-axis force actuator that axially, radially and rotatably supports a bearing member for frictionless rotation about an axis of rotation generally coincident with a Z-axis. Also featured is a magnetic bearing having such an actuator. The actuator includes an inner member, a magnetic member and a pole assembly having a ring member and four pole extending therefrom. The poles are equi-angular spaced from each other and radially spaced about the Z-axis. The inner member extends along the Z-axis and is a highly magnetic permeable material. The magnetic member is formed about the inner member outer surface, extends along the Z-axis and is configured so one magnetic pole polarity is located at its outer surface and the other polarity pole is located at its inner surface. Preferably, the magnetic member is a radially magnetized permanent magnet. The inner surface of the ring member is magnetically coupled to the magnetic member and a face of each pole is coupled to the bearing member. The magnetic member, the pole assembly, the inner member and the bearing member cooperate to generate a magnetic field that radially and rotatably supports a rotating member secured to the bearing member. The actuator further includes a plurality of electromagnetic coils. Preferably, a coil is formed about each pole and at least 2 coils are formed about the inner member. When energized, the electromagnetic coils generate a modulated magnetic field that stabilizes the rotating member in the desired operational position.

  13. Sport lesions caused by athletics practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernandes Feitoza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Being a highly physical demanding sports, athletics depends on efficient training to overcome all physical demands without lesions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the types of lesions and their causes. The sample was constituted by forty-three athletes, sixteen males and twenty-seven females, 23.2 years of average age. A questionnaire containing five open questions and five closed questions was used as an instrument to determine the major lesions caused by athletics practice. The results showed that 84% of the athletes had already had some kind of lesions: 77% of which occurred during training and 23% during contest. The most frequent lesions were distension, tendinitis, twisting, contraction and inflammation. Legs were the most affected parts: 85% for jumpers, 85% for runners and 60% for throwers. When the lesions occurred, 76% of the jumpers, 84% of the runners and 85% of the throwers had no other health problem, but 52.7% of the athletes were in a state of anxiety before the contest and 13.8% had difficulties in concentrating on the contest. As for treatment 55.5% went to see a physiotherapist, and 16.6% went to see the medical doctor and the physiotherapist. The consequences of the lesions for the athletes’ performance were the following: 75% missed important contest events and 70% missed training for several months while they recuperated from their lesions. The results led to the conclusion that the best means to prevent lesions is to use adequate sites and equipments, efficient and individualized training coached by qualified specialists.

  14. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17 received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL. Group 2 (n = 12 only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested.

  15. The properties of on-axis coupled structure RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Koike, H; Tanabe, E

    2000-01-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. (KHI) has developed the compact IR FEL device, which adopts a combination of a newly designed RF gun with a thermionic cathode and an alpha-magnet as an injector. The accelerating mode of the S-band RF gun is a pi/2 standing wave mode. The coupling cell is located on the beam axis, the so-called on-axis coupled structure (OCS). The cavity shape was designed by using electromagnetic field analytical codes. The OCS RF gun was manufactured and the electromagnetic properties were measured. The results show good agreement with the simulations.

  16. ATX-LPA receptor axis in inflammation and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuying; Murph, Mandi; Panupinthu, Nattapon; Mills, Gordon B

    2009-11-15

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, 1- or 2-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) mediates a plethora of physiological and pathological activities via interactions with a series of high affinity G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Both LPA receptor family members and autotaxin (ATX/LysoPLD), the primary LPA-producing enzyme, are aberrantly expressed in many human breast cancers and several other cancer lineages. Using transgenic mice expressing either an LPA receptor or ATX, we recently demonstrated that the ATX-LPA receptor axis plays a causal role in breast tumorigenesis and cancer-related inflammation, further validating the ATX-LPA receptor axis as a rich therapeutic target in cancer.

  17. Research on electromechanical resonance of two-axis tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhi-ming; Xue, Ying-jie; Zeng, Shu-qin; Li, Zhi-guo

    2017-02-01

    The multi-axes synchronous system about the spatial two-axis turntable is the key equipment for semi-physical simulation and test in aerospace. In this paper, the whole structure design of the turntable is created by using Solidworks, then putting the three-dimensional solid model into ANSYS to build the finite element model. The software ANSYS is used to do the simulation about the static and dynamic analysis of two-axis turntable. Based on the modal analysis, we can forecast the inherent frequencies and the mode of vibration during the launch conditions which is very important to the design and safety of the structure.

  18. Research on Parameter Design of Multi - axis Hydrostatic Transmission Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain reasonable parameters in the design of driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission vehicle, the working principle of single-side drive of hydrostatic transmission vehicle is introduced. The matching and control of engine and hydraulic pump are analyzed. According to the driving equation of vehicle, The driving force required for driving system is determined, and the parameters of hydraulic motor, hydraulic pump, system working pressure and braking system are designed and calculated, which provides the parameter design for driving system of multi-axis hydrostatic transmission Reliable theoretical basis.

  19. A three-axis ultrasensitive accelerometer for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A.

    A three-axis ultrasensitive accelerometer ASTRE (Accelerometre Spatial Triaxial Electrostatique) is a simplified version of the GRADIO accelerometer designed for the ARISTOTELES mission, which operates by measuring the force provided by a three-axis electrostatic suspension of the proof-mass. It covers the g-spectrum from 10 exp -8 to 10 exp -4 in the frequency range dc to 5 Hz. A dedicated test bench was developed in order to preserve the accelerometer from the seismic noise. The paper presents the performance parameters of the ASTRE accelerometer and some of the design schemes.

  20. Microbiota-gut-brain axis and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiqun; Han, Yong; Du, Jing; Liu, Renzhong; Jin, Ketao; Yi, Wei

    2017-08-08

    The gut and brain form the gut-brain axis through bidirectional nervous, endocrine, and immune communications. Changes in one of the organs will affect the other organs. Disorders in the composition and quantity of gut microorganisms can affect both the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system (CNS), thereby indicating the existence of a microbiota-gut-brain axis. Due to the intricate interactions between the gut and the brain, gut symbiotic microorganisms are closely associated with various CNS diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In this paper, we will review the latest advances of studies on the correlation between gut microorganisms and CNS functions & diseases.

  1. The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-03-01

    Gut microbes are capable of producing most neurotransmitters found in the human brain. Evidence is accumulating to support the view that gut microbes influence central neurochemistry and behavior. Irritable bowel syndrome is regarded as the prototypic disorder of the brain-gut-microbiota axis that can be responsive to probiotic therapy. Translational studies indicate that certain bacteria may have an impact on stress responses and cognitive functioning. Manipulating the gut microbiota with psychobiotics, prebiotics, or even antibiotics offers a novel approach to altering brain function and treating gut-brain axis disorders, such as depression and autism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  3. Tibial cortical lesions: A multimodality pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, P.A., E-mail: philippa.tyler@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Mohaghegh, P., E-mail: pegah1000@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Foley, J., E-mail: jfoley1@nhs.net [Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, 16 Alexandra Parade, Glasgow G31 2ES (United Kingdom); Isaac, A., E-mail: amandaisaac@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, King' s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS (United Kingdom); Zavareh, A., E-mail: ali.zavareh@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, North Bristol NHS Trust, Frenchay, Bristol BS16 1LE (United Kingdom); Thorning, C., E-mail: cthorning@doctors.org.uk [Department of Radiology, East Surrey Hospital, Canada Avenue, Redhill, Surrey RH1 5RH (United Kingdom); Kirwadi, A., E-mail: anandkirwadi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9WL (United Kingdom); Pressney, I., E-mail: ipressney@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Amary, F., E-mail: fernanda.amary@rnoh.nhs.uk [Department of Histopathology, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore HA7 4LP (United Kingdom); Rajeswaran, G., E-mail: grajeswaran@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London SW10 9NH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Multimodality imaging plays an important role in the investigation and diagnosis of shin pain. • We review the multimodality imaging findings of common cortically based tibial lesions. • We also describe the rarer pathologies of tibial cortical lesions. - Abstract: Shin pain is a common complaint, particularly in young and active patients, with a wide range of potential diagnoses and resulting implications. We review the natural history and multimodality imaging findings of the more common causes of cortically-based tibial lesions, as well as the rarer pathologies less frequently encountered in a general radiology department.

  4. Computed tomography of sacral and presacral lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soye, I.; Levine, E.; Batnitzky, S.; Price, H.I.

    1982-11-01

    Forty-two patients with various sacral and presacral lesions were examined by computed tomography (CT). CT was sensitive in detecting intraosseous neoplasms and presacral soft tissue masses and in seven cases identified lesions not visible on plain films. The total extent of each lesion was readily determined using CT. However, CT is diagnostically nonspecific and differentiation between primary and secondary tumors of the sacrum is generally not possible from the CT appearance alone. CT is also of considerable use in the evaluation of several non-neoplastic conditions of the sacrum, including spinal dystrophism, anterior and internal meningocele and trauma.

  5. Lesion Contrast Enhancement in Medical Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Sommer, F.G.; Macovski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of low-contrast lesions in medical ultrasound imaging are described. Differences in the frequency spectra and amplitude distributions of the lesion and its surroundings can be used to increase the CNR of the lesion relative to the background....... Automated graylevel mapping is used in combination with a contrast-weighted form of frequency-diversity speckle reduction. In clinical studies, the techniques have yielded mean CNR improvements of 3.2 dB above ordinary frequency-diversity imaging and 5.6 dB over sharper conventional images, with no post...

  6. Extended sealing of interproximal caries lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardu, Stefano; Perroud, Reymond; Krejci, Ivo

    2006-06-01

    In recent years the concept of minimally invasive dentistry has offered a more conservative approach to restoration of teeth with caries lesions. Several techniques have been suggested for treatment of proximal lesions, but their results have been less than ideal. The aim of this article is to present a new technique for ultraconservative restoration of small interproximal caries lesions that avoids the disadvantages of both the tunnel and the proximal slot restorative techniques. Two cases, of patients with high and low caries risk, are presented to illustrate the technique. The proposed technique can be considered the most conservative alternative to conventional Class 2 or slot-cavity treatment approaches.

  7. Accurate GM atrophy quantification in MS using lesion-filling with co-registered 2D lesion masks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popescu, V.; Ran, N.C.G.; Barkhof, F.; Chard, D.T.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.M.; Vrenken, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In multiple sclerosis (MS), brain atrophy quantification is affected by white matter lesions. LEAP and FSL-lesion-filling, replace lesion voxels with white matter intensities; however, they require precise lesion identification on 3DT1-images. Aim To determine whether 2DT2 lesion masks

  8. Vertical-axis wind turbines -- The current status of an old technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    Vertical-axis wind turbine technology is not well understood, even though the earliest wind machines rotated about a vertical axis. The operating environment of a vertical-axis wind turbine is quite complex, but detailed analysis capabilities have been developed and verified over the last 30 years. Although vertical-axis technology has not been widely commercialized, it exhibits both advantages and disadvantages compared to horizontal-axis technology, and in some applications, it appears to offer significant advantages.

  9. PERONEAL TENDON LESIONS IN ATHLETES (REVIEW)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. E. Achkasov; A. P. Sereda; A. D. Repetyuk

    2016-01-01

    .... Peroneal tendons pathology is not the major but the underestimated cause of pain in lateral and hindfoot as well as of foot dysfunction which is difficult to distinguish from lesions of lateral...

  10. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Das, A L; Vaishampayan, S S; Vaidya, Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  11. Randomized Clinical Trials on Deep Carious Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars; Fransson, Helena; Bruun, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    nonselective carious removal to hard dentin with or without pulp exposure. The aim of this article was to report the 5-y outcome on these previously treated patients having radiographically well-defined carious lesions extending into the pulpal quarter of the dentin but with a well-defined radiodense zone...... between the carious lesion and the pulp. In this long-term study, 239 of 314 (76.2%) patients were analyzed. The stepwise removal group had a significantly higher proportion of success (60.2%) at 5-y follow-up compared with the nonselective carious removal to hard dentin group (46.3%) (P = 0.031) when......) in deep carious lesions in adults. In conclusion, the stepwise carious removal group had a significantly higher proportion of pulps with sustained vitality without apical radiolucency versus nonselective carious removal of deep carious lesions in adult teeth at 5-y follow-up (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT...

  12. Assessing Elementary Lesions in Gout by Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terslev, Lene; Gutierrez, Marwin; Christensen, Robin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability of the consensus-based ultrasound (US) definitions of elementary gout lesions in patients. METHODS: Eight patients with microscopically proven gout were evaluated by 16 sonographers for signs of double contour (DC), aggregates, erosions, and tophi in the first...... metatarsophalangeal joint and the knee bilaterally. The patients were examined twice using B-mode US to test agreement and inter- and intraobserver reliability of the elementary components. RESULTS: The prevalence of the lesions were DC 52.8%, tophus 61.1%, aggregates 29.8%, and erosions 32.4%. The intraobserver...... reliability was good for all lesions except DC, where it was moderate. The best reliability per lesion was seen for tophus (κ 0.73, 95% CI 0.61-0.85) and lowest for DC (κ 0.53, 95% CI 0.38-0.67). The interobserver reliability was good for tophus and erosions, but fair to moderate for aggregates and DC...

  13. Longitudinal multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation data resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Carass

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article is related to the research article entitled “Longitudinal multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation: Resource and challenge” (Carass et al., 2017 [1]. In conjunction with the 2015 International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging, we organized a longitudinal multiple sclerosis (MS lesion segmentation challenge providing training and test data to registered participants. The training data consists of five subjects with a mean of 4.4 (±0.55 time-points, and test data of fourteen subjects with a mean of 4.4 (±0.67 time-points. All 82 data sets had the white matter lesions associated with multiple sclerosis delineated by two human expert raters. The training data including multi-modal scans and manually delineated lesion masks is available for download. In addition, the testing data is also being made available in conjunction with a website for evaluating the automated analysis of the testing data.

  14. Fractal analysis of tumoral lesions in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Landrove, Miguel; Pereira, Demian; Caldeira, María E; Itriago, Salvador; Juliac, María

    2007-01-01

    In this work, it is proposed a method for supervised characterization and classification of tumoral lesions in brain, based on the analysis of irregularities at the lesion contour on T2-weighted MR images. After the choice of a specific image, a segmentation procedure with a threshold selected from the histogram of intensity levels is applied to isolate the lesion, the contour is detected through the application of a gradient operator followed by a conversion to a "time series" using a chain code procedure. The correlation dimension is calculated and analyzed to discriminate between normal or malignant structures. The results found showed that it is possible to detect a differentiation between benign (cysts) and malignant (gliomas) lesions suggesting the potential of this method as a diagnostic tool.

  15. PERONEAL TENDON LESIONS IN ATHLETES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Achkasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyzed scientific literature in respect of various issues in treatment of athletes with peroneal muscles lesions starting from 1987 till 2016. Key search and publications selection was made in PubMed and russian national electronic scientific library eLIBRARY. Peroneal tendons pathology is not the major but the underestimated cause of pain in lateral and hindfoot as well as of foot dysfunction which is difficult to distinguish from lesions of lateral ligaments of the ankle joint. Untreated lesions of peroneal tendons can result in chronic ankle pain and significant functional disorders. The purpose of the present paper is to improve the current comprehension of anatomy, to identify factors contributing to pathology, to perform diagnostic evaluation of peroneal tendons and to review current treatment options of such lesions.

  16. Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    were collected and re-evaluated using a monoclonal antimitochondrial antibody (MU213-UC). Clinical data were registered. Immunohistochemical characterization was performed with a panel of anti-CK antibodies. Results: A total of 34 oncocytic lesions were identified and reviewed. The incidence......–brown, cystic and slow-growing. The antimitochondrial antibody MU213-UC produced a distinct and intense immunostaining of all oncocytic lesions and was found to be useful in substantiating oncocytic differentiation. Twenty-six of the lesions originated in the caruncle, three in the conjunctiva, two...... expression. Basal-type oncocytic cells reacted with antibodies against CK 5/6, CK 7, CK 8, CK 13, CK 14, CK 17, CK 18 and CK 19, and suprabasal cells with CK 4, CK 7, CK 8, CK 18 and CK 19. Antibodies against CK 1+10 and CK 20 showed no reaction. Conclusions: Oncocytic lesions of the ophthalmic region most...

  17. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Rajesh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale (GF is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathological findings. She failed to respond to oral dapsone 100 mg daily administered for 3 months. Local infiltration of triamcinolone combined with cryotherapy led to only partial flattening of the lesions. All the skin lesions were excised surgically followed by flap transfer grafting on both cheeks. The cosmetic outcome was highly satisfactory.

  18. White Matter Lesion Progression in LADIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Reinhold; Berghold, Andrea; Jokinen, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: White matter lesion (WML) progression has been advocated as a surrogate marker in intervention trials on cerebral small vessel disease. We assessed the rate of visually rated WML progression, studied correlations between lesion progression and cognition, and estimated sample...... grade on the Rotterdam Progression Scale. RESULTS: WML progression related to deterioration in cognitive functioning. This relationship was less pronounced in subjects with early confluent and confluent lesions. Consequently, studies in which the outcome is cognitive change resulting from treatment...... effects on lesion progression will need between 1809 subjects per treatment arm when using executive tests and up to 18 853 subjects when using the Vascular Dementia Assessment Scale score. Studies having WML progression as the sole outcome will need only 58 or 70 individuals per treatment arm...

  19. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...... proximal lesions identified radiographically around the enamel-dentin junction to the outer third of the dentin, were included. Lesions were randomly allocated for treatment to test-A (Infiltration: ICON-pre-product; DMG), test-B (Sealing: Prime-Bond-NT; Dentsply), or control-C (Placebo). Primary outcome...

  20. Autofluorescence and Raman microspectroscopy of tissue sections of oral lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Veld, DCG; Schut, TCB; Skurichina, M; Witjes, MJH; Van der Wal, JE; Roodenburg, JLN; Sterenborg, HJCM

    Autofluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been suggested for lesion diagnostics. We investigate the information contained in autofluorescence and Raman spectra recorded from oral tissue slices of various lesion types. Thirty-seven human oral mucosa lesions were biopsied and

  1. Automated skin lesion segmentation with kernel density estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, A.; Real, E.; Fernandez-Barreras, G.; Madruga, F. J.; López-Higuera, J. M.; Conde, O. M.

    2017-07-01

    Skin lesion segmentation is a complex step for dermoscopy pathological diagnosis. Kernel density estimation is proposed as a segmentation technique based on the statistic distribution of color intensities in the lesion and non-lesion regions.

  2. Dermatitis, herpetiformis - close-up of lesion (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herpetiformis is a chronic inflammatory disease that produces lesions that burn and itch intensely. This is a close-up of dermatitis herpetiformis lesions. The lesions are red (erythematous) and may be ...

  3. CT EVALUATION OF THE HEPATIC MASS LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Basu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic mass lesions represent a spectrum of disorders congenital, infective, neoplastic, and otherwise. The use of non-contrast and contrast enhanced CT enables to detect the liver lesions more adequately and detects other associated effects if any. CT delineates affected segments in the disease process and the extent of involvement. AIMS To study of effectiveness of CT in studying the CT patterns of different hepatic mass lesions and to correlate CT findings in hepatic mass lesions in various patients with FNAC and HPE findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 cases of clinically suspected hepatic mass lesions were scanned by Philips 16 slice CT MX-16 EVO within the period of July 2015 - 1 st week of July 2016 in JMCH, Jorhat. All OPD and indoor patients of both sexes and patients in whom hepatic mass lesions were detected with other modalities of imaging were included. Hydatid cyst and haemangioma cases were excluded due to risk of anaphylaxis and haemorrhage during FNAC. All the patients were scanned pre and post IV contrast administration and data was recorded FNAC of the lesions were done by 20 G Chiba or 18 G Tru-Cut needle. The scans were viewed by two senior radiologists to minimise interpretative errors. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS In the 50 cases studied, 25 patients (50% had metastatic lesions, 10 patients (20% had hepatocellular carcinoma, 3 patients (6% had hepatoblastoma, 11 patients (22% had liver abscesses, 1 patient (2% had polycystic liver disease. These correlated well with CT-guided FNAC findings where FNAC was positive in cases as follows: Metastatic lesions 23 patients (46%, hepatocellular carcinoma 8 patients (16%, hepatoblastoma 3 patients (6%, liver abscesses 9 patients (18%, 1 patient (2% polycystic liver disease. CONCLUSION In this study, CT proved to be the diagnostic tool of choice for hepatic mass lesions. CT-guided FNAC and HPE findings correlated well with the CT diagnosis of hepatic masses. CT proved to be a fast imaging

  4. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Del Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI, to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted.

  5. Clinicomorphological Spectrum of Ovarian Cystic Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, R; Makaju, R; Bastakoti, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Ovarian cysts, which present as neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, are the most common gynaecological cause of hospital admissions. Early diagnosis is difficult due to asymptomatic nature. Clinical, radiological and gross examination alone cannot distinguish benign from malignant lesions, hence, histopathological examination is important for diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approach. Objective The objective of the study is to analyze the spectrum of ovarian cystic lesions with their clinico-morphorgical features. Method This is a prospective study done in between July 2014 and July 2015 in Dhulikhel Hospital-Kathmandu University Hospital. Clinical data of patients were obtained from hospital records and requisition submitted along with the tissue specimens received in the department. Result A total 84 cases of ovarian cystic lesions were studied. Among these, 47 (55.9%) were non-neoplastic lesions, 33 (39.3%) were benign neoplasms, two (2.4%) were borderline and two (2.4%) were malignant neoplasms. The most common nonneoplastic lesions were follicular cysts, 26 (55.3%) followed by simple cysts 14 (29.8%), hemorrhagic cysts five (10.6%) and corpus luteal cysts two (4.3%). Among all neoplasms, 19 (51.4%) were mature cystic teratoma followed by 10 (27.0%) cases of mucinous cystadenoma and four (10.8%) cases of serous cystadenoma. Between two (5.4%) malignant cases, one was immature cystic teratoma and the other was mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Besides these, two (5.4%) cases of borderline mucinous cystadenoma were also present. Conclusion Ovarian cystic lesions are difficult to categorize on the basis of clinical and radiological findings. Histopathological examination plays a significant role to differentiate benign lesion from malignant as well as for the proper management.

  6. The enigma of reversible spinal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalendra Kumar Misser

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Focal reversible lesions of the splenium of the corpus callosum have been described in a number of clinical paradigms. Epilepsy and related conditions are the most commonly reported underlying clinical association. Sudden anti-epileptic therapy withdrawal or seizure activity may be presumed to be the predisposing cause, however an individual susceptibility must also be considered. Herein, we present the findings in two patients with similar, completely reversible splenial lesions.

  7. Acute hepatic encephalopathy with diffuse cortical lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.M.; Spreer, J.; Schumacher, M. [Section of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Freiburg (Germany); Els, T. [Dept. of Neurology, University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Acute hepatic encephalopathy is a poorly defined syndrome of heterogeneous aetiology. We report a 49-year-old woman with alcoholic cirrhosis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who developed acute hepatic coma induced by severe gastrointestinal bleeding. Laboratory analysis revealed excessively elevated blood ammonia. MRI showed lesions compatible with chronic hepatic encephalopathy and widespread cortical signal change sparing the perirolandic and occipital cortex. The cortical lesions resembled those of hypoxic brain damage and were interpreted as acute toxic cortical laminar necrosis. (orig.)

  8. Box Lesion with Single Radiofrequency Clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhrezai, Kasra; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Hunter, Steven

    2017-04-12

    We introduce a maneuver to perform the box lesion as a part of Cox maze IV procedure with single radiofrequency clamp. The maneuver entails engaging the right pulmonary veins with the clamp, then advancing the clamp jaws underneath the superior vena cava through the transverse sinus to include the roof and the left pulmonary veins in the clamp. We regularly use this technique for box lesion with desirable transmurality. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Intraventricular CNS lesions: A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jane; Yap, Kelvin K; Ou, Daniel; Tartaglia, Con; Trost, Nicholas; Sutherland, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Intraventricular lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) can present a diagnostic challenge due to a range of differential diagnoses and radiological appearances. Both CT and MRI imaging findings, in combination with location and patient's age, can help limit the differentials. This pictorial essay presents the salient radiological features, location and demographics of the more common intraventricular lesions of the brain. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  10. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology. PMID:27828637

  11. Lesions in the external auditory canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyank S Chatra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The external auditory canal is an S- shaped osseo-cartilaginous structure that extends from the auricle to the tympanic membrane. Congenital, inflammatory, neoplastic, and traumatic lesions can affect the EAC. High-resolution CT is well suited for the evaluation of the temporal bone, which has a complex anatomy with multiple small structures. In this study, we describe the various lesions affecting the EAC.

  12. Factors associated with active white enamel lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M A F; Mendes, N S

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the factors associated with the presence of active white enamel lesions among public school students in the city of Natal, Brazil. A convenience sample of 300 boys and girls aged between 7 and 12 years was selected among the pupils attending public schools in the city of Natal. Only those children presenting with opaque and rough-surface white lesions in a region of biofilm accumulation on the vestibular surface of permanent upper incisors were included. The investigation took the form of a cross-sectional study. A chart containing individual data was used, and a clinical examination was performed to determine the oral health status of the children, including caries (DMF-s(1), DMF-s(2), DMFdmf, dmf and total number of teeth with caries) and oral hygiene status (Gingival Bleeding Index and Visible Plaque Index). Data underwent descriptive analysis and analysis of variance, and chi-square tests were used for the comparison of continuous and dichotomous variables between groups with one, two, or three or more white lesions. On average, each child presented with 2.3 teeth affected by white lesions, relatively high indices of dental caries and poor oral hygiene, with an 85% rate of localized plaque on the surfaces of teeth with lesions. The presence of visible plaque was statistically significant between the three groups, based on the number of lesions (P = 0.006), indicating a positive association between the number of lesions and the presence of biofilm. There is a strong association between the presence of dental biofilm, high indices of caries and active white enamel lesions. Full professional effort is needed in order to motivate children to carry out oral hygiene sufficient for the adequate control of dental biofilm.

  13. Immediate and prolonged effects of alcohol exposure on the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult and adolescent rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALLEN, Camryn D.; LEE, Soon; KOOB, George F.; RIVIER, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Part of this influence is likely exerted directly at the level of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) gene, but intermediates may also play a role. Here we review the effect of alcohol on this axis, provide new data on the effects of binge drinking during adolescence, and argue for a role of catecholaminergic circuits. Indeed, acute injection of this drug activates brain stem adrenergic and noradrenergic circuits, and their lesion, or blockade of α1 adrenergic receptors significantly blunts alcohol-induced ACTH release. As alcohol can influence the HPA axis even once discontinued, and alcohol consumption in young people is associated with increased adult drug abuse (a phenomenon possibly mediated by the HPA axis), we determined whether alcohol consumption during adolescence modified this axis. The number of CRF-immunoreactive (ir) cells/section was significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of adolescent self-administering binge-drinking animals, compared to controls. When another group of adolescent binge-drinking rats was administered alcohol in adulthood, the number of colocalized c-fos-ir and PNMT-ir cells/brain stem section in the C3 area was significantly decreased, compared to controls. As the HPA axis response to alcohol is blunted in adult rats exposed to alcohol vapors during adolescence, a phenomenon which was not observed in our model of self-administration, it is possible that the blood alcohol levels achieved in various models play a role in the long-term consequences of exposure to alcohol early in life. Collectively, these results suggest an important role of brain catecholamines in modulating the short- and long-term consequences of alcohol administration. PMID:21300146

  14. Analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade using CFD | Nigam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blade is very essential part of HAWT (horizontal axis wind turbine). Forces for Lift and drag on the blade has an important role in the wind turbine performance. The main purpose of this work is to perform CFD analysis of a blade and airfoil of wind turbine using k-ω SST model. In this present study NACA 634 -221 airfoil ...

  15. Local charge measurement using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Gontard, L.C.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.0E.

    2016-01-01

    A model-independent approach based on Gauss’ theorem for measuring the local charge in a specimen from an electron-optical phase image recorded using off-axis electron holography was recently proposed. Here, we show that such a charge measurement is reliable when it is applied to determine the to...

  16. Effects of kisspeptin on parameters of the HPA axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yathindar S; Mott, Natasha N; Pak, Toni R

    2011-06-01

    The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes have an intricate cross talk that results in the inhibition of reproductive functions during periods of chronic physiological or psychological stress. Recent studies have shown that kisspeptin neurons have projections to many non-reproductive areas of the brain including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, thereby providing evidence of an anatomical framework for kisspeptin to regulate the HPA axis. In this study, we tested as to whether kisspeptin modulates the HPA axis at three potential levels of regulation: (1) transcription of stress-related genes CRH, AVP, and oxytocin (OXY); (2) release of neuropeptides from PVN-derived neuronal cells via mobilization of intracellular calcium stores; and (3) in vivo regulation of the HPA axis under basal and stress-induced conditions in adult male rats. Overall, our data showed that kisspeptin did not alter basal, or stress-induced HPA axis activity (plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)) in adult male rats and had modest, yet significant effects on CRH, AVP, and OXY gene expressions.

  17. Analysis of off-axis tension test of wood specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen Y. Liu

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a stress analysis of the off-axis tension test of clear wood specimens based on orthotropic elasticity theory. The effects of Poisson's ratio and shear coupling coefficient on stress distribution are analyzed in detail. The analysis also provides a theoretical foundation for the selection of a 10° grain angle in wood specimens for the...

  18. Local charge measurement using off-axis electron holography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beleggia, Marco; Gontard, L.C.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.0E.

    2016-01-01

    A model-independent approach based on Gauss’ theorem for measuring the local charge in a specimen from an electron-optical phase image recorded using off-axis electron holography was recently proposed. Here, we show that such a charge measurement is reliable when it is applied to determine...

  19. Analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blade using CFD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Pareto optimal multi-objective optimization for a horizontal axis wind turbine blade airfoil sections utilizing exergy analysis and neural networks. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial. Aerodynamics, Vol. 136, pp.62–72. Rajakumar S., Ravindran D. 2011 Iterative approach for optimising coefficient of power, coefficient ...

  20. The immunomodulatory role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segner, Helmut; Kemenade, van Lidy; Chadzinska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the communication between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis and the immune system of vertebrates, attempting to situate the HPG-immune interaction into the context of life history trade-offs between reproductive and immune functions. More specifically, (i)

  1. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Barone, M.; Roscher, B.; Deglaire, P.; Arduin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multiple

  2. The Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Mushotzky, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite (AXIS) will follow in the footsteps of the spectacularly successful Chandra X-ray Observatory with similar or higher angular resolution and an order of magnitude more collecting area in the 0.3-10keV band. These capabilities will enable major advances in many of the most active areas of astrophysics, including (i) mapping event horizon scale structure in AGN accretion disks and the determination of supermassive black hole (SMBH) spins through monitoring of gravitationally-microlensed quasars; (ii) dramatically deepening our understanding of AGN feedback in galaxies and galaxy clusters out to high-z through the direct imaging of AGN winds and the interaction of jets with the hot interstellar/intracluster medium; (iii) understanding the fueling of AGN by probing hot flows inside of the SMBH sphere of influence; (iv) obtaining geometric distance measurements using dust scattering halos. With a nominal 2028 launch, AXIS will be enormously synergistic with LSST, ALMA, WFIRST and ATHENA, and will be a valuable precursor to Lynx. AXIS is enabled by breakthroughs in the construction of light-weight X-ray optics from mono-crystalline silicon blocks, building on recent developments in the semiconductor industry. Here, we describe the straw-man concept for AXIS, some of the high profile science that this observatory will address, and how you can become involved.

  3. Super earth explorer: a coronagraphic off-axis space telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, D.; Keller, C.U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824550

    2009-01-01

    The Super-Earth Explorer is an Off-Axis Space Telescope (SEE-COAST) designed for high contrast imaging. Its scientific objective is to make the physico-chemical characterization of exoplanets possibly down to 2 Earth radii. For that purpose it will analyze the spectral and polarimetric properties of

  4. Targeting the gut-liver axis in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjørn S; Havelund, Troels; Krag, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    The gut-liver axis in cirrhosis and portal hypertension is gaining increasing attention as a key pathophysiological mechanism responsible for progression of liver failure and development of complications such as spontaneous infections and hepatocellular carcinoma. Antibiotics and non-selective β...

  5. Kennedy Axis V: Clinimetric properties assessed by mental health nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Gooskens; R. van de Sande; Th.B. Hafsteinsdóttir; M.D.M. Faay

    2013-01-01

    The Kennedy Axis V is a routine outcome measurement instrument which can assist the assessment of the short-term risk for violence and other adverse patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interrater reliability and clinical utility of the instrument when used by mental

  6. Genetic loci mapping for ear axis weight using recombinant inbred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ear axis weight (EAW) is one of the important agronomic traits in maize (Zea mays L.), related to yield. To understand its genetic basis, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, derived from the cross Mo17 × Huangzao4, was used for quantitative trait locus mapping (QTL) for EAW under high and low nitrogen (N) regimes.

  7. Brain-gut-microbiota axis in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-10-07

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by alpha-synucleinopathy that affects all levels of the brain-gut axis including the central, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Recently, it has been recognized that the brain-gut axis interactions are significantly modulated by the gut microbiota via immunological, neuroendocrine, and direct neural mechanisms. Dysregulation of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in PD may be associated with gastrointestinal manifestations frequently preceding motor symptoms, as well as with the pathogenesis of PD itself, supporting the hypothesis that the pathological process is spread from the gut to the brain. Excessive stimulation of the innate immune system resulting from gut dysbiosis and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability may induce systemic inflammation, while activation of enteric neurons and enteric glial cells may contribute to the initiation of alpha-synuclein misfolding. Additionally, the adaptive immune system may be disturbed by bacterial proteins cross-reacting with human antigens. A better understanding of the brain-gut-microbiota axis interactions should bring a new insight in the pathophysiology of PD and permit an earlier diagnosis with a focus on peripheral biomarkers within the enteric nervous system. Novel therapeutic options aimed at modifying the gut microbiota composition and enhancing the intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in PD patients could influence the initial step of the following cascade of neurodegeneration in PD.

  8. Microbiota-Brain-Gut Axis and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2017-10-17

    The purposes of this review were as follows: first, to provide an overview of the gut microbiota and its interactions with the gut and the central nervous system (the microbiota-gut-brain axis) in health, second, to review the relevance of this axis to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, and, finally, to assess the potential for microbiota-targeted therapies. Work on animal models has established the microbiota-gut-brain axis as a real phenomenon; to date, the evidence for its operation in man has been limited and has been confronted by considerable logistical challenges. Animal and translational models have incriminated a disturbed gut microbiota in a number of CNS disorders, including Parkinson's disease; data from human studies is scanty. While a theoretical basis can be developed for the use of microbiota-directed therapies in neurodegenerative disorders, support is yet to come from high-quality clinical trials. In theory, a role for the microbiota-gut-brain axis is highly plausible; clinical confirmation is awaited.

  9. Microbiota regulation of the Mammalian gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burokas, Aurelijus; Moloney, Rachel D; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2015-01-01

    The realization that the microbiota-gut-brain axis plays a critical role in health and disease has emerged over the past decade. The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal tract. Regulation of the microbiota-brain-gut axis is essential for maintaining homeostasis, including that of the CNS. The routes of this communication are not fully elucidated but include neural, humoral, immune, and metabolic pathways. A number of approaches have been used to interrogate this axis including the use of germ-free animals, probiotic agents, antibiotics, or animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections. Together, it is clear that the gut microbiota can be a key regulator of mood, cognition, pain, and obesity. Understanding microbiota-brain interactions is an exciting area of research which may contribute new insights into individual variations in cognition, personality, mood, sleep, and eating behavior, and how they contribute to a range of neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from affective disorders to autism and schizophrenia. Finally, the concept of psychobiotics, bacterial-based interventions with mental health benefit, is also emerging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. design and implementation of a microcontroller based dual axis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Federal University of Petroleum Resources, Effurun, Nigeria and results showed that the power output of the photovoltaic (PV) system had 58.4 % improvement when compared with the traditional method of fixed solar panel. The dual axis system also has the benefit of reduction in the number of solar panels to be deployed ...

  11. Cellulose and the twofold screw axis: Modeling and experimental arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystallography indicates that molecules in crystalline cellulose either have 2-fold screw-axis (21) symmetry or closely approximate it, leading to short distances between H4 and H1' across the glycosidic linkage. Therefore, modeling studies of cellobiose often show elevated energies for 21 structur...

  12. E4: The 2-Axis Diffractometer at BER II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Prokes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The double-axis diffractometer E4 is operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin. It is suited for magnetic structure determinations and parametric studies on single crystals in a wide range of external conditions. Pyrolytic graphite and germanium focusing monochromators offer two fixed neutron incident wavelengths of about 1.0*106 ncm-2s-1.

  13. Comparison of aerodynamic models for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, C. Simão; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barone, M.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-megawatt Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) are experiencing an increased interest for floating offshore applications. However, VAWT development is hindered by the lack of fast, accurate and validated simulation models. This work compares six different numerical models for VAWTS: a multipl...

  14. Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and prolactin abnormalities in suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Palermo, Mario; Seretti, Maria Elena; Stefani, Henry; Angeletti, Gloria; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity measured with the dexamethasone suppression test and the dexamethesone/CRH test may have some predictive power for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders. Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be related both to physiological and pathological conditions. HPA-axis abnormalities and increased levels of PRL may coexist, and common neuroendocrine changes may activate both HPA axis and PRL release. HPA-axis hyperactivity is presumably present in a large subpopulation of depressed subjects. Suicidal behavior is considered to be a form of inward-directed aggression, and aggressive behavior has been connected to high androgen levels. However, lower plasma total testosterone levels have also been reported in subjects with depression and higher suicidality. Lipid/immune dysregulations, the increased ratio of blood fatty acids, and increased PRL levels may each be associated with the increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which have been reported in patients with major depression and patients engaging in suicidal behavior. Although no studies have been done to determine whether ante-mortem physical stress may be detected by raised post-mortem PRL, this would be of great interest for physicians.

  15. Experimental characterization of individual pitch controlled vertical axis wind turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Simao Ferreira, C.

    2017-01-01

    Research into the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) has been progressing over the last few years due to
    the large shift in design constraints for large floating offshore wind turbines by leveraging tools and experience
    from research beginning in the 1970s and lasting until the HAWT

  16. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  17. Generative adversarial networks for brain lesion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Varghese; Safwan, K. P. Mohammed; Chennamsetty, Sai Saketh; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy

    2017-02-01

    Manual segmentation of brain lesions from Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) is cumbersome and introduces errors due to inter-rater variability. This paper introduces a semi-supervised technique for detection of brain lesion from MRI using Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). GANs comprises of a Generator network and a Discriminator network which are trained simultaneously with the objective of one bettering the other. The networks were trained using non lesion patches (n=13,000) from 4 different MR sequences. The network was trained on BraTS dataset and patches were extracted from regions excluding tumor region. The Generator network generates data by modeling the underlying probability distribution of the training data, (PData). The Discriminator learns the posterior probability P (Label Data) by classifying training data and generated data as "Real" or "Fake" respectively. The Generator upon learning the joint distribution, produces images/patches such that the performance of the Discriminator on them are random, i.e. P (Label Data = GeneratedData) = 0.5. During testing, the Discriminator assigns posterior probability values close to 0.5 for patches from non lesion regions, while patches centered on lesion arise from a different distribution (PLesion) and hence are assigned lower posterior probability value by the Discriminator. On the test set (n=14), the proposed technique achieves whole tumor dice score of 0.69, sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 59%. Additionally the generator network was capable of generating non lesion patches from various MR sequences.

  18. Multifocal Mass Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Suzumura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old male patient with jaundice was referred to our hospital because of mass lesions in the pancreatic head and tail. An immunological examination revealed an elevated serum IgG4 level. Computed tomography showed two clear boundary mass lesions in the pancreatic head and tail. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the mass lesions exhibited low intensity on T1-weighted images and iso-intensity on T2-weighted images. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed an obstruction of the main pancreatic duct in the pancreatic head and tail. The possibility of malignant tumors could not be ruled out; therefore, we performed total pancreatectomy. A histopathological examination of the nodular lesions revealed severe lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and inflammatory change around the pancreatic ducts. Immunohistochemistry revealed diffuse infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the nodules. According to these pathological findings, we diagnosed the patient with IgG4-related multifocal mass lesions of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP. It is difficult to distinguish between focal type AIP and pancreatic cancer. We herein report a rare case of multifocal mass lesions in AIP and include bibliographical comments.

  19. Traumatic lesions of the posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde-Ramos, L; Gómez-Illanes, R; Campos-Juanatey, F; Portillo-Martín, J A

    2016-11-01

    The posterior urethral lesions are associated with pelvis fractures in 5-10% of cases. The posterior urethra is attached to the pelvis bone by puboprostatic ligaments and the perineal membrane, which explains why disruption of the pelvic ring can injure the urethra at this level. To identify suspected cases of posterior urethral trauma and to perform the diagnosis and its immediate or deferred management. Search in PubMed of articles related to traumatic posterior urethral lesions, written in English or Spanish. We reviewed the relevant publications including literature reviews and chapters from books related to the topic. With patients with pelvis fractures, we must always rule out posterior urethral lesions. The diagnostic examination of choice is retrograde urethrography, which, along with the severity of the condition, will determine the management in the acute phase and whether the treatment will be performed immediately or deferred. Early diagnosis and proper acute management decrease the associated complications, such as strictures, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Despite the classical association between posterior urethral lesions and pelvic fractures, the management of those lesions (whether immediate or deferred) remains controversial. Thanks to the growing interest in urethral disease, there are an increasing number of studies that help us achieve better management of these lesions. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Tobacco-associated lesions of the oral cavity: Part I. Nonmalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, S M; Ahing, S I

    2000-05-01

    The excessive use of tobacco products has been associated with various lesions in the oral cavity. Tobacco-associated lesions include tooth stains, abrasions, smoker's melanosis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and other periodontal conditions, burns and keratotic patches, black hairy tongue, nicotinic stomatitis, palatal erosions, leukoplakia, epithelial dysplasia and squamous-cell carcinoma. A routine intraoral examination by a dental health professional can reveal most of these lesions at an early stage, and early intervention may prevent serious sequelae. Thus, detection of tobacco-associated lesions in conjunction with tobacco-use counselling by dental professionals has become the standard of care. The significance and treatment of nonmalignant tobacco-associated lesions are addressed in the first part of this two-part series. Malignant lesions, basic biopsy principles and prevention and intervention strategies are discussed in the subsequent part.

  1. The manufacturing and metrology of off-axis mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzkofer, Karlheinz; Rascher, Rolf; Küpper, Lutz; Liebl, Johannes

    2015-10-01

    Especially in the area of the large mirror manufacturing only a few manufacturers are capable to produce optical surfaces of high quality. Therefore a deterministic process should be developed in the project IFasO. In the field of telescope optics off-axis optical systems are becoming increasingly important. These systems try to avoid an obstructing of the incoming light by moving the secondary mirror out of the primary mirror's optical axis. This advantage leads to an increasing market for this type of optical surface. Until now off-axis mirrors were difficult or almost impossible to produce. With the processes developed in IFasO, high quality mirrors become possible. For this reason, this paper describes the manufacturing of off-axis surfaces and its problems. The mirror production used in the project IFasO is based on the specific design of the CNC center developed by the company Optotech. This center UPG2000 is capable of grinding, polishing, sagitta measurement and interferometric measurement in one mounting of the specimen. Usually a large optics has to be transported during their manufacturing after every individual process step. There is always a risk of damage of the specimen. The exact orientation of the surface relatively to the tool position is also required. This takes a huge amount of time and makes up most of the production time. In this presentation the use of UPG2000 and the next steps within the process development are described. In the current status the manufacturing of large off-axis elements with a PV < λ/10 rms is reproducible.

  2. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, S M; Clarke, G; Borre, Y E; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-01-15

    The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission. The developing serotonergic system may be vulnerable to differential microbial colonisation patterns prior to the emergence of a stable adult-like gut microbiota. At the other extreme of life, the decreased diversity and stability of the gut microbiota may dictate serotonin-related health problems in the elderly. The mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk require further elaboration but may be related to the ability of the gut microbiota to control host tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway, thereby simultaneously reducing the fraction available for serotonin synthesis and increasing the production of neuroactive metabolites. The enzymes of this pathway are immune and stress-responsive, both systems which buttress the brain-gut axis. In addition, there are neural processes in the gastrointestinal tract which can be influenced by local alterations in serotonin concentrations with subsequent relay of signals along the scaffolding of the brain-gut axis to influence CNS neurotransmission. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota might be a viable treatment strategy for serotonin-related brain-gut axis disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing cotton cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xiaochun; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Fan, Yunliu; Wang, Lei; Singh, Surinder P; Liu, Qing

    2013-01-01

    As a by product of higher value cotton fibre, cotton seed has been increasingly recognised to have excellent potential as a source of additional food, feed, biofuel stock and even a renewable platform for the production of many diverse biological molecules for agriculture and industrial enterprises. The large size difference between cotyledon and embryo axis that make up a cotton seed results in the under-representation of embryo axis gene transcript levels in whole seed embryo samples. Therefore, the determination of gene transcript levels in the cotyledons and embryo axes separately should lead to a better understanding of metabolism in these two developmentally diverse tissues. A comparative study of transcriptome changes between cotton developing cotyledon and embryo axis has been carried out. 17,384 unigenes (20.74% of all the unigenes) were differentially expressed in the two adjacent embryo tissues, and among them, 7,727 unigenes (44.45%) were down-regulated and 9,657 unigenes (55.55%) were up-regulated in cotyledon. Our study has provided a comprehensive dataset that documents the dynamics of the transcriptome at the mid-maturity of cotton seed development and in discrete seed tissues, including embryo axis and cotyledon tissues. The results showed that cotton seed is subject to many transcriptome variations in these two tissue types and the differential gene expression between cotton embryo axis and cotyledon uncovered in our study should provide an important starting point for understanding how gene activity is coordinated during seed development to make a seed. Further, the identification of genes involved in rapid metabolite accumulation stage of seed development will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in these developmental processes and provide a foundation for future studies on the metabolism, embryo differentiation of cotton and other dicot oilseed crops.

  4. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of developing cotton cotyledons and embryo axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Jiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As a by product of higher value cotton fibre, cotton seed has been increasingly recognised to have excellent potential as a source of additional food, feed, biofuel stock and even a renewable platform for the production of many diverse biological molecules for agriculture and industrial enterprises. The large size difference between cotyledon and embryo axis that make up a cotton seed results in the under-representation of embryo axis gene transcript levels in whole seed embryo samples. Therefore, the determination of gene transcript levels in the cotyledons and embryo axes separately should lead to a better understanding of metabolism in these two developmentally diverse tissues. RESULTS: A comparative study of transcriptome changes between cotton developing cotyledon and embryo axis has been carried out. 17,384 unigenes (20.74% of all the unigenes were differentially expressed in the two adjacent embryo tissues, and among them, 7,727 unigenes (44.45% were down-regulated and 9,657 unigenes (55.55% were up-regulated in cotyledon. CONCLUSIONS: Our study has provided a comprehensive dataset that documents the dynamics of the transcriptome at the mid-maturity of cotton seed development and in discrete seed tissues, including embryo axis and cotyledon tissues. The results showed that cotton seed is subject to many transcriptome variations in these two tissue types and the differential gene expression between cotton embryo axis and cotyledon uncovered in our study should provide an important starting point for understanding how gene activity is coordinated during seed development to make a seed. Further, the identification of genes involved in rapid metabolite accumulation stage of seed development will extend our understanding of the complex molecular and cellular events in these developmental processes and provide a foundation for future studies on the metabolism, embryo differentiation of cotton and other dicot oilseed crops.

  5. DARHT Axis-I Diode Simulations II: Geometrical Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl A. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-14

    Flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a venerable diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. Many of the largest hydrodynamic experiments study mockups of nuclear weapons, and are often called hydrotests for short. The dual-axis radiography for hydrodynamic testing (DARHT) facility uses two electron linear-induction accelerators (LIA) to produce the radiographic source spots for perpendicular views of a hydrotest. The first of these LIAs produces a single pulse, with a fixed {approx}60-ns pulsewidth. The second axis LIA produces as many as four pulses within 1.6-{micro}s, with variable pulsewidths and separation. There are a wide variety of hydrotest geometries, each with a unique radiographic requirement, so there is a need to adjust the radiographic dose for the best images. This can be accomplished on the second axis by simply adjusting the pulsewidths, but is more problematic on the first axis. Changing the beam energy or introducing radiation attenuation also changes the spectrum, which is undesirable. Moreover, using radiation attenuation introduces significant blur, increasing the effective spot size. The dose can also be adjusted by changing the beam kinetic energy. This is a very sensitive method, because the dose scales as the {approx}2.8 power of the energy, but it would require retuning the accelerator. This leaves manipulating the beam current as the best means for adjusting the dose, and one way to do this is to change the size of the cathode. This method has been proposed, and is being tested. This article describes simulations undertaken to develop scaling laws for use as design tools in changing the Axis-1 beam current by changing the cathode size.

  6. Inter-algorithm lesion volumetry comparison of real and 3D simulated lung lesions in CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Marthony; Solomon, Justin; Hoye, Jocelyn; Smith, Taylor; Ebner, Lukas; Samei, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish volumetric exchangeability between real and computational lung lesions in CT. We compared the overall relative volume estimation performance of segmentation tools when used to measure real lesions in actual patient CT images and computational lesions virtually inserted into the same patient images (i.e., hybrid datasets). Pathologically confirmed malignancies from 30 thoracic patient cases from Reference Image Database to Evaluate Therapy Response (RIDER) were modeled and used as the basis for the comparison. Lesions included isolated nodules as well as those attached to the pleura or other lung structures. Patient images were acquired using a 16 detector row or 64 detector row CT scanner (Lightspeed 16 or VCT; GE Healthcare). Scans were acquired using standard chest protocols during a single breath-hold. Virtual 3D lesion models based on real lesions were developed in Duke Lesion Tool (Duke University), and inserted using a validated image-domain insertion program. Nodule volumes were estimated using multiple commercial segmentation tools (iNtuition, TeraRecon, Inc., Syngo.via, Siemens Healthcare, and IntelliSpace, Philips Healthcare). Consensus based volume comparison showed consistent trends in volume measurement between real and virtual lesions across all software. The average percent bias (+/- standard error) shows -9.2+/-3.2% for real lesions versus -6.7+/-1.2% for virtual lesions with tool A, 3.9+/-2.5% and 5.0+/-0.9% for tool B, and 5.3+/-2.3% and 1.8+/-0.8% for tool C, respectively. Virtual lesion volumes were statistically similar to those of real lesions (.05 in most cases. Results suggest that hybrid datasets had similar inter-algorithm variability compared to real datasets.

  7. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  8. Encapsulated Fat Necrosis Lesion Caused by Morel-Lavallée Lesion in a Professional Ice Hockey Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopat, Bryan G; Wong, Jeffrey E; Hazzard, Sean; Golijanin, Petar; Palmar, William E; Asnis, Peter D

    Morel-Lavallée (ML) lesions occur when subcutaneous tissue is stripped from fascia and replaced with hematoma or necrotic fat. Encapsulated fat necrosis lesions, which are rare, can occur with disruption of the blood supply in the subcutaneous area, which occurs with ML lesions. In this article, we report the case of a professional ice hockey player with an ML lesion that caused a symptomatic encapsulated fat necrosis lesion to develop. The encapsulated lesion required surgical removal.

  9. Dermatoscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschandl, P; Rosendahl, C; Kittler, H

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of flat pigmented lesions on the face is challenging because of the morphologic overlap of biologically different lesions and the unknown significance of dermatoscopic patterns. To better characterize dermatoscopic patterns of various types of flat pigmented facial lesions and to analyse their significance by calculating their relative risks and diagnostic values. We prospectively analysed dermatoscopic images of 240 flat pigmented facial skin lesions collected consecutively from 195 patients (41.5% females, mean age: 61 ± 14 years) between 2007 and March 2012 in a primary skin cancer practice situated in Queensland, Australia. Histopathologically 114 (47.5%) lesions were malignant (24 lentigo maligna, 21 basal cell carcinomas and 69 pigmented actinic keratoses). Compared with all other patterns the positive predictive value for lentigo maligna was highest for a pattern of circles (31.3%, 95% CI: 11.1-58.6%). A pattern of clods was associated with basal cell carcinoma. If grey structures were present the relative risk for malignancy was 2.2 (95%CI: 1.4-3.4). The best clues to differentiate pigmented actinic keratosis from other lesions were the presence of scale (positive predictive value: 72.2%, specificity: 94.2%), white circles (positive predictive value: 68.8%, specificity: 94.2%) and a sharply demarcated border (positive predictive value: 44.2%, specificity: 86.0%). In flat lesions a pattern of circles bears the highest risk for facial melanoma but other patterns do not exclude it. Scale, white circles and a sharply demarcated border are clues to pigmented actinic keratoses. The presence of grey colour is a clue to malignancy regardless of pattern. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  10. The axis of orientation of the synlophe in the Heligmosomoidea (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina: a new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durette-Desset M.C.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the axis of orientation of the synlophe is modified for the Heligmosomoidea so that one or two axes may be recognized. When two axes are present, their inclinations to the sagittal axis are different on the right and left sides, and we propose to name them right axis and left axis, respectively. During the course of evolution, starting from a single oblique axis (plesiomorphic state, an independent rotation of this axis on the right and left sides may bring about a double-axis state with a different inclination on both sides (derived state. When the rotation reaches 90° for both sides, the axis becomes simple once again and is superimposed to the frontal axis (most derived state.

  11. Radiologic appearance of primary jaw lesions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Malini; Kaste, Sue C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Hopkins, Kenneth P. [Department of Surgery, Division of Dentistry, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2002-03-01

    Background: The jaw (an unusual site of primary tumors in children and adolescents) has lesions often found incidentally by dentists on routine panoramic radiographs or during examination of a child who has swelling or tooth pain. Objective: This pictorial seeks to familiarize pediatric radiologists with the radiographic appearance of a variety of primary jaw lesions. Materials and methods: We retrospectively searched institutional records for cases of primary jaw lesions in children and adolescents. Jaw lesions were characterized as: I, well-circumscribed radiolucent lesions; II, lesions with mixed or variable appearance; III, poorly circumscribed radiolucent lesions; and IV, radiopaque lesions. Results: Although most oral and maxillofacial lesions in children are benign, a broad spectrum of tumors was identified; lesions may occur in patients with unrelated prior malignancy. Conclusion: Because radiologic studies may identify jaw lesions and direct further care, familiarity with the appearance of these entities is prudent. (orig.)

  12. Accurate GM atrophy quantification in MS using lesion-filling with co-registered 2D lesion masks☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, V.; Ran, N.C.G.; Barkhof, F.; Chard, D.T.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Vrenken, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background In multiple sclerosis (MS), brain atrophy quantification is affected by white matter lesions. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling, replace lesion voxels with white matter intensities; however, they require precise lesion identification on 3DT1-images. Aim To determine whether 2DT2 lesion masks co-registered to 3DT1 images, yield grey and white matter volumes comparable to precise lesion masks. Methods 2DT2 lesion masks were linearly co-registered to 20 3DT1-images of MS patients, with nearest-neighbor (NNI), and tri-linear interpolation. As gold-standard, lesion masks were manually outlined on 3DT1-images. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling were applied with each lesion mask. Grey (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes were quantified with FSL-FAST, and deep gray matter (DGM) volumes using FSL-FIRST. Volumes were compared between lesion mask types using paired Wilcoxon tests. Results Lesion-filling with gold-standard lesion masks compared to native images reduced GM overestimation by 1.93 mL (p lesion_filling. Similar effects were achieved with NNI lesion masks from 2DT2. Global WM underestimation was not significantly influenced. GM and WM volumes from NNI, did not differ significantly from gold-standard. GM segmentation differed between lesion masks in the lesion area, and also elsewhere. Using the gold-standard, FSL-FAST quantified as GM on average 0.4% of the lesion area with LEAP and 24.5% with FSL-lesion_filling. Lesion-filling did not influence DGM volumes from FSL-FIRST. Discussion These results demonstrate that for global GM volumetry, precise lesion masks on 3DT1 images can be replaced by co-registered 2DT2 lesion masks. This makes lesion-filling a feasible method for GM atrophy measurements in MS. PMID:24567908

  13. Multiple variations of the coeliac axis, hepatic and renal vasculature as incidental findings illustrated by MDCTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafailidis, Vasileios; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Kouskouras, Konstantinos; Chryssogonidis, Ioannis; Velnidou, Anastasia; Kalogera-Fountzila, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Vascular anatomical variations are not uncommon and may affect any organ's arterial or venous vasculature. The coexistence of variations in different organic systems is less commonly found, but of great clinical significance in a series of clinical conditions like organ transplantation and surgical preoperative planning. Multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) has emerged as a valuable alternative to the conventional angiography for accurate evaluation of vascular anatomy and pathology. Radiologists should be familiar with each organ's vascular variations and always report them to the clinician, even if they represent an incidental finding. This case report presents a 52-year-old female patient undergoing abdominal MDCTA for characterization of a renal lesion. This examination revealed the presence of three hilar arteries on the left kidney, a main renal vein in combination with an additional renal vein in both sides along with a replaced right hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. Moreover, both inferior phrenic arteries were found originating from the coeliac axis. 3D volume rendering technique images were used in the evaluation of vascular anatomy as illustrated in this case report.

  14. A Hepatic GAbp-AMPK Axis Links Inflammatory Signaling to Systemic Vascular Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Niopek

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased pro-inflammatory signaling is a hallmark of metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Although both inflammatory and energy substrate handling processes represent critical layers of metabolic control, their molecular integration sites remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the heterodimerization interface between the α and β subunits of transcription factor GA-binding protein (GAbp as a negative target of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α signaling. TNF-α prevented GAbpα and β complex formation via reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to the non-energy-dependent transcriptional inactivation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β1, which was identified as a direct hepatic GAbp target. Impairment of AMPKβ1, in turn, elevated downstream cellular cholesterol biosynthesis, and hepatocyte-specific ablation of GAbpα induced systemic hypercholesterolemia and early macro-vascular lesion formation in mice. As GAbpα and AMPKβ1 levels were also found to correlate in obese human patients, the ROS-GAbp-AMPK pathway may represent a key component of a hepato-vascular axis in diabetic long-term complications.

  15. Petrous apex lesions outcome in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Petrous apex lesions of temporal bone progress slowly. Most of the time not only destruct this area but also involve neighbouring element. The symptoms of the neighbouring neuro-vasculare involvement we can recognize these lesions. The most common symptoms of involvement of the petrous apex are: headache, conductive hearing loss or sensorineural type, paresthesia and anesthesia of the trigeminal nerve, paresia and paralysis of the facial nerve, abducent nerve. In retrospective study which has been in the ENT and HNS wards of Amiralam hospital, 148 patients have been operated due to temporal bone tumor; from these numbers, 21 (13.6% patients had petrous apex lesions of temporal bone. Eleven (52.9% patients of these 21 persons were men and the remaining 10 (47-6% were women. The average age of the patients was 37 years. The common pathology of these patients were glomus jugulare tumors, hemangioma, schwannoma, meningioma, congenital cholesteatoma, giant cell granuloma. The kind of operations that have been done on these patients were: infratemporal, translabyrinthine and middle fossa approaches. The conclusion of this study shows that petrous apex area is an occult site. The symptoms of this lesion are not characteristic, meticulous attention to the history and physical examination are very helpful to recognition of these lesions and it's extention.

  16. Iliopsoas compartment lesions: a radiologic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leao, Alberto Ribeiro de Souza; Amaral, Raquel Portugal Guimaraes; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Demarchi, Guilherme Tadeu Sauaia; Freire Filho, Edison de Oliveira; Novack, Paulo Rogerio; Campos, Flavio do Amaral; Shigueoka, David Carlos; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Szejnfeld, Jacob; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: ar.leao@uol.com.br; Santos, Jose Eduardo Mourao [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-15

    The iliopsoas compartment, a posterior boundary of the retroperitoneum, is comprised of the psoas major, psoas minor and iliac muscles. The symptoms picture in patients presenting with pathological involvement of this compartment may show a wide range of nonspecific clinical presentations that may lead to delayed diagnosis. However, in the search of an etiological diagnosis, it is already known that inflammation, tumors, and hemorrhages account for almost all the lesions affecting the iliopsoas compartment. By means of a retrospective analysis of radiological studies in patients with iliopsoas compartment lesions whose diagnosis was confirmed by anatomopathological evaluation or clinical follow-up, we have reviewed its anatomy as well as the main forms of involvement, with the purpose of identifying radiological signs that may help to narrow down the potential differential diagnoses. As each lesion is approached we will discuss the main radiological findings such as presence of gas in pyogenic abscesses, bone destruction and other bone changes of vertebral bodies in lesions secondary to tuberculosis, involvement of fascial planes in cases of neoplasms, and differences in signal density and intensity of hematomas secondary to hemoglobin degradation, among others. So, we have tried to present cases depicting the most frequent lesions involving the iliopsoas compartment, with emphasis on those signs that can lead us to a more specific etiological diagnosis. (author)

  17. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  18. Cystic ovarian lesions in SSFP diffusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaji, Yasushi; Matsuo, Michimasa [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan); Matsuki, Mitsuru [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-12-01

    MR assessments of ovarian cystic lesions are usually based on morphological features, signal intensities and enhancement with contrast media. This study was performed to evaluate the usefulness of the steady-state free precession (SSFP) diffusion imaging of cystic ovarian lesions for analyzing cystic contents. Sixty-one ovarian cystic lesions in 37 patients were examined. The diffusion-related coefficient (DRC) and the ratio of the relative apparent diffusion coefficient of the lesion to that of subcutaneous fat tissue (rADC{sub L}/rADC{sub F}) were calculated from SSFP diffusion images. The DRCs and the rADC{sub L} /rADC{sub F} ratios in endometrial cysts and in the fatty parts of dermoid cysts were significantly lower than in other cystic tumors. SSFP diffusion imaging can be included in clinical practice to analyze ovarian cystic lesions within a short scan time; the DRC and the rADC{sub L} /rADC{sub F} ratio are useful for evaluating cystic contents. (author)

  19. Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Gadodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a portal of entry to various smoking and smokeless tobacco products, oral cavity is prone to deleterious effects. Present study consist of epidemiological survey to elucidate oral lesions in pan vendors. Aims and objectives: To detect oral lesions in pan vendors and compare it with controls. To detect habit pattern and prevalence of OSMF and other lesions in pan vendors as compared to controls- To identify, recognize and evaluate the possible etiology for OSMF, encompassing various chewing and smoking habits. Materials and methods: Study population consist of 170 pan vendors with age ranging from 15 to 55 years and equal number of sex matched controls selected randomly. Results: Prevalence of oral lesions in pan vendors is statistically significantly higher as compared to controls. The habit of arecanut chewing in various forms was present in all cases. The habit of smoking and smokeless tobacco products was present in all cases. Conclusion: Pan vendors are at higher risk for oral lesions than controls. There is increase in relative risk with increase in duration and frequency of habit.

  20. Venocentric lesions: an MRI marker of MS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Quinn

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available From the earliest descriptions of MS, the venocentric characteristic of plaques was noted. Recently, numerous MRI studies have proposed this finding as a prospective biomarker for MS, which might aid in differentiating MS from other diseases with similar MRI findings. High field MRI studies have shown that penetrating veins can be detected in most MS lesions using T2* weighted or susceptibility weighted imaging. Future studies must address the feasibility of imaging such veins in a clinically practical context. The specificity of this biomarker has been studied only in a limited capacity. Results in microangiopathic lesions are conflicting, whereas asymptomatic white matter hyperintensities as well as lesions of NMO are less frequently venocentric compared to MS plaques. Prospective studies have shown that the presence of venocentric lesions at an early clinical presentation is highly predictive of future MS diagnosis. This is very promising, but work remains to be done to confirm or exclude lesions of common MS mimics, such as ADEM, as venocentric. A number of technical challenges must be addressed before the introduction of this technique as a complementary tool in current diagnostic procedures.

  1. Malignant Lesions as Mammographically Appearing Intramammary Ganglia; Lesiones malignas con apariencia mamografica de ganglios intramamarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Miraveta, P.; Pons, M. J.; Pina, L. J.; Zornoza, G. [Clinica Universitaria de Navarra. Pamplona (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Intramammary ganglia are frequent mammographic findings of no pathological importance. We present two cases of malignant breast lesions whose mammographic appearance could resemble that of intramammary ganglia. Although the mammographic appearance of a lesion is similar to that of intramammary ganglia, it should be carefully studied, especially if it presents a poorly defined border or is palpable. (Author)

  2. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D. B.; Breunig, Thomas; Le, Charles Q.

    2002-06-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence and for resolving the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the resolution of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and secondary caries around composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of lesion progression established a strong correlation (p<0.001) between the reflected light from the lesion area and the square root of time indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  3. The Weird Side of the Universe: Preferred Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wen; Santos, Larissa

    In both WMAP and Planck observations on the temperature anisotropy of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation a number of large-scale anomalies were discovered in the past years, including the CMB parity asymmetry in the low multipoles. By defining a directional statistics, we find that the CMB parity asymmetry is directional dependent, and the preferred axis is stable, which means that it is independent of the chosen CMB map, the definition of the statistic, or the CMB masks. Meanwhile, we find that this preferred axis strongly aligns with those of the CMB quadrupole, octopole, as well as those of other large-scale observations. In addition, all of them aligns with the CMB kinematic dipole, which hints to the non-cosmological origin of these directional anomalies in cosmological observations.

  4. The on axis coupled structure type RF gun

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Tanabe, E

    1999-01-01

    The fundamental design of this newly developed RF gun with a thermionic cathode is the pi/2 mode standing wave structure. It has two accelerating cells and a coupling cell located on the beam axis, a so-called on axis coupled structure (OCS). This structure offers a stable operation for high beam current, owing to high group velocity and wide bandwidth. It is important to reduce damage onto the cathode caused by back bombardment, especially for long macropulse operation, such as in an FEL injector. Back bombardment, as well as output beam profile was simulated by using the electromagnetic field analytical codes 'EMSYS'(2D) and 'MAFIA'(3D). The cavity shape was optimized to reduce back bombardment power without sacrificing beam emittance.

  5. Psychiatric Axis I Comorbidities among Patients with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mazaheri Meybodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Cooccurring psychiatric disorders influence the outcome and prognosis of gender dysphoria. The aim of this study is to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a group of patients. Methods. Eighty-three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS were recruited and assessed through the Persian Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I. Results. Fifty-seven (62.7% patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Major depressive disorder (33.7%, specific phobia (20.5%, and adjustment disorder (15.7% were the three most prevalent disorders. Conclusion. Consistent with most earlier researches, the majority of patients with gender dysphoria had psychiatric Axis I comorbidity.

  6. The Minimal Model of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank; Andersen, Morten; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns ODE modeling of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalaxis (HPA axis) using an analytical and numerical approach, combined with biological knowledge regarding physiological mechanisms and parameters. The three hormones, CRH, ACTH, and cortisol, which interact in the HPA axis are m...... thereof. The second part of the paper concerns a specific realization of the minimal model in which feedback functions are built explicitly using receptor dynamics. Using physiologically reasonable parameter values, along with the results of the general case, it is demonstrated that un......-physiological values of the parameters are needed in order to achieve local instability of the fixed point. Small changes inphysiologically relevant parameters cause the system to be globally stable using the analytical criteria. All simulations show a globally stable fixed point, ruling out periodic solutions even...

  7. Development of the adrenal axis in the neonatal rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, Ronnie [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Plasma corticosterone and ACTH concentrations were determined in neonatal rats 1, 7, 14, and 21 days old, under a variety of experimental conditions, to obtain more information on the postnatal development of the rat hypothalamo-adrenal (HHA) axis. The results indicate that: (1) there is a diminution followed by an increase in responsiveness of the adrenal gland, but the pituitary response to direct hormonal stimulation is unchanged during the first three postnatal weeks; (2) continued stimulation of the adrenal by ACTH or of the central nervous system (CNS) or hypothalamus by corticosterone is necessary during early postnatal development to allow normal maturation of the HHA axis; and (3) feedback inhibition is operative by birth, at least to a moderate degree. Taken together, the studies suggest that both the adrenal and pituitary glands are potentially functional at birth, but that the hypothalamic and CNS mediators of the stress response are not mature until at least the second or third postnatal week. (ERB)

  8. Axis-switching of a micro-jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleiro, Juan Martin; Aider, Jean-Luc

    2014-03-01

    In this study, it is shown that free microjets can undergo complex transitions similar to large-scale free jets despite relatively low Reynolds numbers. Using an original experimental method allowing for the 3D reconstruction of the instantaneous spatial organization of the microjet, the axis-switching of a micro-jet is observed for the first time. This is the first experimental evidence of such complex phenomena for free micro-jets. Combining these experimental results with Direct Numerical Simulations it is shown that the mechanism responsible for the axis-switching is the deformation of a micro-vortex ring due to induction by the corner vortices, as it occurs in large scale non-circular jets.

  9. Efficiency of the DOMUS 750 vertical-axis wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Kyle; Rasch, Tyler; Ju, Guoqiang; Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some preliminary results on the efficiency of a wind turbine for an off-grid housing unit. To generate power, the unit uses a photovoltaic solar array and a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). The existing VAWT was analysed to improve efficiency and increase power generation. There were found to be two main sources of inefficiency: 1. the 750W DC epicyclic generator performed poorly in low winds, and 2. the turbine blades wobbled, allowing for energy loss due to off-axis rotation. A 12V DC permanent magnet alternator was chosen that met the power requirements of the housing unit and would generate power at lower wind speeds. A support bracket was designed to prevent the turbine blades from wobbling.

  10. Averaging scheme for atomic resolution off-axis electron holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niermann, T; Lehmann, M

    2014-08-01

    All micrographs are limited by shot-noise, which is intrinsic to the detection process of electrons. For beam insensitive specimen this limitation can in principle easily be circumvented by prolonged exposure times. However, in the high-resolution regime several instrumental instabilities limit the applicable exposure time. Particularly in the case of off-axis holography the holograms are highly sensitive to the position and voltage of the electron-optical biprism. We present a novel reconstruction algorithm to average series of off-axis holograms while compensating for specimen drift, biprism drift, drift of biprism voltage, and drift of defocus, which all might cause problematic changes from exposure to exposure. We show an application of the algorithm utilizing also the possibilities of double biprism holography, which results in a high quality exit-wave reconstruction with 75 pm resolution at a very high signal-to-noise ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Flow-blade interaction in a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Roberto; Piedra, Saul; Ramos, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    We present an analysis of the interaction between an incoming wind and three airfoils symmetrically located, and free to rotate around a common axis. The geometrical configuration considered is a two dimensional model of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. The model is based in the conservation equations of the fluid coupled with the Newton-Lagrange equations for the interaction with the airfoils. The presence of the rigid body in the fluid is simulated using immersed boundary conditions. The interaction of the wind with the airfoil located further upstream generates a force on the airfoil and vortices that are swept downstream and collide with the other airfoils. This effect generates a complex interplay of dynamical forces whose resultant is a torque that sets the system in motion. We describe the flow around the airfoils and examine the efficiency of the system as a function of geometric variables. Our conclusions are potentially useful for the design of VAWT's.

  12. A new vertical axis wind turbine design for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frunzulica, Florin; Cismilianu, Alexandru; Boros, Alexandru; Dumitrache, Alexandru; Suatean, Bogdan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we aim at developing the model of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with the short-term goal of physically realising this turbine to operate at a maximmum power of 5 kW. The turbine is designed for household users in the urban or rural areas and remote or isolated residential areas (hardly accsessible). The proposed model has a biplane configuration on each arm of the VAWT (3 × 2 = 6 blades), allowing for increased performance of the turbine at TSR between 2 and 2.5 (urban area operation) compared to the classic vertical axis turbines. Results that validate the proposed configuration as well as passive control methods to increase the performance of the classic VAWTs are presented.

  13. Locating an axis-parallel rectangle on a Manhattan plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Körner, Mark-Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of locating an axis-parallel rectangle in the plane such that the sum of distances between the rectangle and a finite point set is minimized, where the distance is measured by the Manhattan norm 1. In this way we solve an extension of the Weber problem to ext...... to extensive facility location. As......In this paper we consider the problem of locating an axis-parallel rectangle in the plane such that the sum of distances between the rectangle and a finite point set is minimized, where the distance is measured by the Manhattan norm 1. In this way we solve an extension of the Weber problem...

  14. APS-U LATTICE DESIGN FOR OFF-AXIS ACCUMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng; Borland, M.; Lindberg, R.; Sajaev, V.

    2017-06-25

    A 67-pm hybrid-seven-bend achromat (H7BA) lattice is being proposed for a future Advanced Photon Source (APS) multi-bend-achromat (MBA) upgrade project. This lattice design pushes for smaller emittance and requires use of a swap-out (on-axis) injection scheme due to limited dynamic acceptance. Alternate lattice design work has also been performed for the APS upgrade to achieve better beam dynamics performance than the nominal APS MBA lattice, in order to allow off-axis accumulation. Two such alternate H7BA lattice designs, which target a still-low emittance of 90 pm, are discussed in detail in this paper. Although the single-particle-dynamics performance is good, simulations of collective effects indicate that surprising difficulty would be expected accumulating high single-bunch charge in this lattice. The brightness of the 90-pm lattice is also a factor of two lower than the 67-pm H7BA lattice.

  15. Sparsity based terahertz reflective off-axis digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Min; Muniraj, Inbarasan; Malallah, Ra'ed; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Rong, Lu; Healy, John J.; Wang, Dayong; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-05-01

    Terahertz radiation lies between the microwave and infrared regions in the electromagnetic spectrum. Emitted frequencies range from 0.1 to 10 THz with corresponding wavelengths ranging from 30 μm to 3 mm. In this paper, a continuous-wave Terahertz off-axis digital holographic system is described. A Gaussian fitting method and image normalisation techniques were employed on the recorded hologram to improve the image resolution. A synthesised contrast enhanced hologram is then digitally constructed. Numerical reconstruction is achieved using the angular spectrum method of the filtered off-axis hologram. A sparsity based compression technique is introduced before numerical data reconstruction in order to reduce the dataset required for hologram reconstruction. Results prove that a tiny amount of sparse dataset is sufficient in order to reconstruct the hologram with good image quality.

  16. Genetic Approaches to Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Melinda G; Muglia, Lisa M; Laryea, Gloria; Muglia, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    The normal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and resultant glucocorticoid (GC) secretion, is essential for human health. Disruption of GC regulation is associated with pathologic, psychological, and physiological disease states such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, hypertension, diabetes, and osteopenia, among others. As such, understanding the mechanisms by which HPA output is tightly regulated in its responses to environmental stressors and circadian cues has been an active area of investigation for decades. Over the last 20 years, however, advances in gene targeting and genome modification in rodent models have allowed the detailed dissection of roles for key molecular mediators and brain regions responsible for this control in vivo to emerge. Here, we summarize work done to elucidate the function of critical neuropeptide systems, GC-signaling targets, and inflammation-associated pathways in HPA axis regulation and behavior, and highlight areas for future investigation. PMID:26189452

  17. Off-axis excitation of hydrogenlike atoms by twisted photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Mukherjee, Asmita

    2013-09-01

    We show that the twisted-photon states, or photon states with large (>ℏ) angular momentum projection (mγ) in the direction of motion, can photoexcite atomic levels for a hydrogenlike atom that are novel and distinct and are not restricted by mγ, when the symmetry axis of the twisted-photon beam does not coincide with the center of the atomic target. Selection rules are given and interesting implications and observables for the above process are pointed out.

  18. The GH/IGF-1 axis in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcopinto, Michele; Bobbio, Emanuele; Bossone, Eduardo; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale; Napoli, Raffaele; Sacca, Luigi; Cittadini, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    The classic model of Chronic Heart Failure (CHF) is rooted in the overexpression of neurohormonal molecules. To complement this paradigm, increasing evidence indicates that a variety of hormones may be down-regulated in CHF patients. The list includes growth hormone (GH) and its tissue effector insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The GH/IGF-1 axis regulates cardiac growth, stimulates myocardial contractility, and influences the vascular system. The relationship between the GH/IGF-1 axis and the cardiovascular system has been extensively demonstrated in numerous studies in animals models and confirmed by the cardiac derangements secondary to both GH excess and deficiency in humans. Impaired activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis in CHF has been described by several independent groups and includes a wide array of abnormalities, including low IGF-1 levels, GH deficiency (GHD), and GH resistance that may be related to the severity of heart disease. According to several observations, these derangements are associated with poor clinical status and outcome. Since the first study of GH therapy in CHF in 1996, several placebo-controlled trials have been conducted with conflicting results. These discordant findings are likely explained by the degree of CHF-associated GH/IGF-1 impairment that may impact on individual responsiveness to GH administration. Biological actions of GH and IGF-1, cardiovascular implication of GH deficiency and GH excess, relation between somatotrophic axis and CHF are discussed. Results from trials of GH therapy, emerging therapeutic strategies, safety issues, and lack in evidence are also reported.

  19. Experimental and theoretical study of horizontal-axis wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Michael Broughton

    1981-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical study of horizontal-axis wind turbines is undertaken. The theoretical analyses cover the four major areas of aerodynamics, turbulence. aeroelasticity and blade optimisation. EXisting aerodynamic theories based on blade-element theory for predicting the loads on a wind turbine blade are reviewed and extended to include non-uniform flow, tip losses and the 'turbulent wake' state. A theoretical model based on a free vortex representation of a ...

  20. Three-axis orthogonal transceiver coil for eddy current sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, D.; Zavyalova, K.; Goncharik, M.

    2017-08-01

    We propose the new structure of three-axis transceiver magnetic-induction coil for eddy current probing. Due to the orientation of the coils, the direct signal from the transmitting coil to the receiving coil is minimized, which provided a high dynamic range. Sensitivity in all directions is provided by combining coils of different orientations. Numerical simulation and experimental studies of such a system have been carried out and confirmed the applicability of the proposed method and the mathematical model.

  1. Gut-Brain Axis in Gastric Mucosal Damage and Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgambato, Dolores; Capuano, Annalisa; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Miranda, Agnese; Federico, Alessandro; Romano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The gut-brain axis plays a potential role in numerous physiological and pathological conditions. Several substances link stomach with central nervous system. In particular, hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, thyrotropinreleasing factor-containing nerve fibers and capsaicin-sensitive nerves are principal mediators of the harmful and protective central nervous system-mediated effects on gastric mucosa. Also, existing evidence indicates that nitric oxide, prostaglandins and calcitonin gene-related peptide play a role as final effectors of gastric protection. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for peerreviewed research literature with the aim of focusing on the role of gut-brain axis in gastric damage and protection. In particular, we examined manuscripts dealing with the role of steroids, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, prostaglandins, melatonin, hydrogen sulfide and peptides influencing food intake (i.e. leptin, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, central glucagon-like peptide-1, and ghrelin). Also, the role of GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways in gastric mucosal protection have been examined. We found and reviewed 61 peer-reviewed papers dealing with the major aspects related to the role of gut brain axis in gastric mucosal damage and protection. A dense neuronal network links stomach with central nervous system and a number of neurotransmitters and peptides functionally and anatomically related to central nervous system play a major role in contributing to gastric mucosal integrity. Exploiting the mechanisms underlying the connection between brain and gut may lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of gastric mucosal injury and to an improvement in the prevention and, eventually, management of gastric damage.

  2. Intestinal barrier function and the brain-gut axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Vicario, María; Pigrau, Marc; Lobo, Beatriz; Santos, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The luminal-mucosal interface of the intestinal tract is the first relevant location where microorganism-derived antigens and all other potentially immunogenic particles face the scrutiny of the powerful mammalian immune system. Upon regular functioning conditions, the intestinal barrier is able to effectively prevent most environmental and external antigens to interact openly with the numerous and versatile elements that compose the mucosal-associated immune system. This evolutionary super system is capable of processing an astonishing amount of antigens and non-immunogenic particles, approximately 100 tons in one individual lifetime, only considering food-derived components. Most important, to develop oral tolerance and proper active immune responses needed to prevent disease and inflammation, this giant immunogenic load has to be managed in a way that physiological inflammatory balance is constantly preserved. Adequate functioning of the intestinal barrier involves local and distant regulatory networks integrating the so-called brain-gut axis. Along this complex axis both brain and gut structures participate in the processing and execution of response signals to external and internal changes coming from the digestive tract, using multidirectional pathways to communicate. Dysfunction of brain-gut axis facilitates malfunctioning of the intestinal barrier, and vice versa, increasing the risk of uncontrolled immunological reactions that may trigger mucosal and brain low-grade inflammation, a putative first step to the initiation of more permanent gut disorders. In this chapter, we describe the structure, function and interactions of intestinal barrier, microbiota and brain-gut axis in both healthy and pathological conditions.

  3. Neuropeptides and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Peter; Farzi, Aitak

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptides are important mediators both within the nervous system and between neurons and other cell types. Neuropeptides such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin and corticotropin-releasing factor are also likely to play a role in the bidirectional gut-brain communication. In this capacity they may influence the activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its interaction with the gut-brain axis. Current efforts in elucidating the implication of neuropeptides in the microbiota-gut-brain axis address four information carriers from the gut to the brain (vagal and spinal afferent neurons; immune mediators such as cytokines; gut hormones; gut microbiota-derived signalling molecules) and four information carriers from the central nervous system to the gut (sympathetic efferent neurons; parasympathetic efferent neurons; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine factors involving the adrenal cortex). Apart from operating as neurotransmitters, many biologically active peptides also function as gut hormones. Given that neuropeptides and gut hormones target the same cell membrane receptors (typically G protein-coupled receptors), the two messenger roles often converge in the same or similar biological implications. This is exemplified by NPY and peptide YY (PYY), two members of the PP-fold peptide family. While PYY is almost exclusively expressed by enteroendocrine cells, NPY is found at all levels of the gut-brain and brain-gut axis. The function of PYY-releasing enteroendocrine cells is directly influenced by short chain fatty acids generated by the intestinal microbiota from indigestible fibre, while NPY may control the impact of the gut microbiota on inflammatory processes, pain, brain function and behaviour. Although the impact of neuropeptides on the interaction between the gut microbiota and brain awaits to be analysed, biologically active peptides

  4. Dual-axis MEMS force sensors for gecko adhesion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ginel Corina

    Dual-axis piezoresistive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) force sensors were used to investigate the effects of orientation angle on the adhesion of gecko hairs, called setae. These hairs are part of a fantastic, robust dry adhesive. Their adhesion is highly angle-dependent, with both the "pitch" and "roll" orientation angles playing a role. This anisotropy in adhesion properties is critical for locomotion, as it enables detachment of the gecko's foot with limited pull-off force. Many synthetic mimics of the gecko adhesive are isotropic. This work on the anisotropy of natural setae will inform future work on synthetic dry adhesives. A dual-axis microscale force sensor was needed to study single seta adhesive forces, which are stronger parallel to a substrate than perpendicular. Piezoresistive silicon cantilevers that separately detect lateral and normal forces applied at the tip were used. The fabrication process and rigorous characterization of new devices are reported. A novel calibration method was developed that uses resonant frequency measurements in concert with finite element models to correct for the expected variability of critical dimensions. These corrected models were used to predict the stiffnesses of each cantilever, and thus improve the accuracy of force measurements made with these sensors. This calibration technique was also validated by direct measurement of the dual-axis cantilever stiffnesses using a reference cantilever. The adhesion force of a single gecko seta is dramatically enhanced by proper orientation. The dual-axis cantilevers were used to measure two components of force between a substrate and a Gekko gecko seta. Lateral adhesion was highest with the stalk oriented parallel to the surface at 0° pitch. Adhesion decreased smoothly as the pitch angle of the stalk was increased, until detachment or no adhesion occurred at approximately 30°. To display enhanced adhesion, the splayed tuft at the end of the seta needed to be only

  5. Small-Scale Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Design

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo Tudela, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The thesis focuses on the design of a small vertical axis wind turbine rotor with solid wood as a construction material. The aerodynamic analysis is performed implementing a momentum based model on a mathematical computer program. A three bladed wind turbine is proposed as candidate for further prototype testing after evaluating the effect of several parameters in turbine efficiency, torque and acceleration. The results obtained indicate that wood is a suitable material for rotor cons...

  6. Wind tunnel investigation of a 14 foot vertical axis windmill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraca, R. J.; Guillotte, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    A full scale wind tunnel investigation was made to determine the performance characteristics of a 14 ft diameter vertical axis windmill. The parameters measured were wind velocity, shaft torque, shaft rotation rate, along with the drag and yawing moment. A velocity survey of the flow field downstream of the windmill was also made. The results of these tests along with some analytically predicted data are presented in the form of generalized data as a function of tip speed ratio.

  7. Early programming of the IGF-I axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larnkjær, Anni; Ingstrup, Helga Kristensen; Schack-Nielsen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IGF-I is a major regulator of growth, influenced primarily by diet in infancy and primarily by GH in childhood. Breastfed infants have lower IGF-I levels compared to formula fed and tend to be shorter. The higher protein content of infant formula has a stimulatory effect on IGF-I prod......=-0.26, P=0.043, and n=109). CONCLUSION: The results support the hypothesis that the IGF-I axis can be programmed early in life....

  8. Device for passive flow control around vertical axis marine turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşoiu, C. I.; Georgescu, A. M.; Degeratu, M.; Haşegan, L.; Hlevca, D.

    2012-11-01

    The power supplied by a turbine with the rotor placed in a free stream flow may be increased by augmenting the velocity in the rotor area. The energy of the free flow is dispersed and it may be concentrated by placing a profiled structure around the bare turbine in order to concentrate more energy in the rotor zone. At the Aerodynamic and Wind Engineering Laboratory (LAIV) of the Technical University of Civil Engineering of Bucharest (UTCB) it was developed a concentrating housing to be used for hydro or aeolian horizontal axis wind turbines, in order to increase the available energy in the active section of turbine rotor. The shape of the concentrating housing results by superposing several aero/hydro dynamic effects, the most important being the one generated by the passive flow control devices that were included in the housing structure. Those concentrating housings may be also adapted for hydro or aeolian turbines with vertical axis. The present paper details the numerical research effectuated at the LAIV to determine the performances of a vertical axis marine turbine equipped with such a concentrating device, in order to increase the energy quantity extracted from the main flow. The turbine is a Darrieus type one with three vertical straight blades, symmetric with respect to the axis of rotation, generated using a NACA4518 airfoil. The global performances of the turbine equipped with the concentrating housing were compared to the same characteristics of the bare turbine. In order to validate the numerical approach used in this paper, test cases from the literature resulting from experimental and numerical simulations for similar situations, were used.

  9. Morgellons Disease Presenting As an Eyelid Lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rasanamar K; Steele, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease is characterized by complaints of uncomfortable skin sensations and fibers emanating from nonhealing skin lesions. Morgellons disease is well-known in the dermatology and psychiatry literature, where it is typically considered a subtype of delusional parasitosis, but it has not yet been described in the ophthalmology literature. A patient with self-reported Morgellons disease is presented, who was referred for evaluation of left lower eyelid ectropion. She reported that her skin was infested with fibers that were "trying to get down into the eyelid." On examination, she had ectropion of the left lower eyelid, broken cilia, and an ulcerated left upper eyelid lesion concerning for carcinoma. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with excoriation. Treatment of her ectropion was deferred out of concern for wound dehiscence, given the patient's aggressive excoriation behavior. This case is presented to make the ophthalmologist aware of this disorder and to highlight the appropriate clinical management.

  10. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular genetics of premalignant oral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, S K; Mydlarz, W K; Grumbine, F L; Smith, I M; Califano, J A

    2007-03-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by cellular and subcellular alterations that are associated with a progression towards dedifferentiation and growth. There are several histologically distinct lesions of the oral cavity which have malignant potential. These are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, lichen planus, and submucous fibrosis. These are characterized by a spectrum of chromosomal, genetic, and molecular alterations that they share with each other as well as with the malignant lesions that develop from them. In this review we summarize the investigation of the molecular genetics of each of these lesions and relate them to the alterations, which have been demonstrated in OSCC, to define their location on the continuum of changes, which lead to malignant transformation.

  12. International Consensus for ultrasound lesions in gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Schmidt, Wolfgang A; Thiele, Ralf G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based definitions of the US elementary lesions in gout and to test their reliability in a web-based exercise. METHODS: The process consisted of two steps. In the first step a written Delphi questionnaire was developed from a systematic literature review and expert....... The second step tested the reliability by a web-exercise. US images of both normal and gouty elementary lesions were collected by the participants. A facilitator then constructed an electronic database of 110 images. The database was sent to the participants, who evaluated the presence/absence of US...... elementary lesions. A group of 20 images was displayed twice to evaluate intra-reader reliability. RESULTS: A total of 32 participants responded to the questionnaires. Good agreement (>80%) was obtained for US definitions on DC, tophus, aggregates and erosion in the Delphi exercise after three rounds...

  13. Morphology of melanocytic lesions in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balois, Thibaut; Amar, Martine Ben

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a solid tumour with its own specificity from the biological and morphological viewpoint. On one hand, numerous mutations are already known affecting different pathways. They usually concern proliferation rate, apoptosis, cell senescence and cell behaviour. On the other hand, several visual criteria at the tissue level are used by physicians in order to diagnose skin lesions. Nevertheless, the mechanisms between the changes from the mutations at the cell level to the morphology exhibited at the tissue level are still not fully understood. Using physical tools, we develop a simple model. We demonstrate analytically that it contains the necessary ingredients to understand several specificities of melanoma such as the presence of microstructures inside a skin lesion or the absence of a necrotic core. We also explain the importance of senescence for growth arrest in benign skin lesions. Thanks to numerical simulations, we successfully compare this model to biological data.

  14. Pigmented Skin Lesions Classification Using Dermatoscopic Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdehourat, Germán; Corez, Andrés; Bazzano, Anabella; Musé, Pablo

    In this paper we propose a machine learning approach to classify melanocytic lesions in malignant and benign from dermatoscopic images. The image database is composed of 433 benign lesions and 80 malignant melanoma. After an image pre-processing stage that includes hair removal filtering, each image is automatically segmented using well known image segmentation algorithms. Then, each lesion is characterized by a feature vector that contains shape, color and texture information, as well as local and global parameters that try to reflect structures used in medical diagnosis. The learning and classification stage is performed using AdaBoost.M1 with C4.5 decision trees. For the automatically segmented database, classification delivered a false positive rate of 8.75% for a sensitivity of 95%. The same classification procedure applied to manually segmented images by an experienced dermatologist yielded a false positive rate of 4.62% for a sensitivity of 95%.

  15. Imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions: an update. Part 1: enhancing extra-axial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonneville, Fabrice; Chiras, Jacques [Pitie-Salpetriere Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Savatovsky, Julien [Adolphe de Rothschild Fondation, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2007-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging reliably demonstrate typical features of vestibular schwannomas or meningiomas in the vast majority of mass lesions in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). However, a large variety of unusual lesions can also be encountered in the CPA. Covering the entire spectrum of lesions potentially found in the CPA, these articles explain the pertinent neuroimaging features that radiologists need to know to make clinically relevant diagnoses in these cases, including data from diffusion and perfusion-weighted imaging or MR spectroscopy, when available. A diagnostic algorithm based on the lesion's site of origin, shape and margins, density, signal intensity and contrast material uptake is also proposed. Part 1 describes the different enhancing extra-axial CPA masses primarily arising from the cerebellopontine cistern and its contents, including vestibular and non-vestibular schwannomas, meningioma, metastasis, aneurysm, tuberculosis and other miscellaneous meningeal lesions. (orig.)

  16. 21 CFR 882.4400 - Radiofrequency lesion generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiofrequency lesion generator. 882.4400 Section... lesion generator. (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion generator is a device used to produce lesions in the nervous system or other tissue by the direct application of radiofrequency currents to...

  17. 21 CFR 884.2990 - Breast lesion documentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breast lesion documentation system. 884.2990... Devices § 884.2990 Breast lesion documentation system. (a) Identification. A breast lesion documentation... lesions identified during a clinical breast examination. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls...

  18. Development of a three-dimensional surface imaging system for melanocytic skin lesion evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Androniki; Kokolakis, Athanasios; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Zacharopoulos, Athanasios; Zabulis, Xenophon; Marnelakis, Ioannis; Ripoll, Jorge; Stephanidis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    Even though surface morphology is always taken into account when assessing clinically pigmented skin lesions, it is not captured by most modern imaging systems using digital imaging. Our aim is to develop a novel three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to record detailed information of the surface anatomy of melanocytic lesions that will enable improved classification through digital imaging. The apparatus consists of three high-resolution cameras, a light source, and accompanying software. Volume measurements of specific phantoms using volumetric tubes render slightly lower values than those obtained by our 3D imaging system (mean%±SD, 3.8%±0.98, Plesions is carried out. The mean%±SD differences of area, major axis length, volume, and maximum height are 2.1%±1.1, 0.9%±0.8, 3.8%±2.9, and 2.5%±3.5, respectively. Thirty melanocytic lesions are assessed, including common and dysplastic nevi and melanomas. There is a significant difference between nevi and melanomas in terms of variance in height and boundary asymmetry (Ppigment density values than common nevi (Plesions. However, these findings should be confirmed in larger-scale studies.

  19. A New, Adaptable, Optical High-Resolution 3-Axis Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Buchhold

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new optical, multi-functional, high-resolution 3-axis sensor which serves to navigate and can, for example, replace standard joysticks in medical devices such as electric wheelchairs, surgical robots or medical diagnosis devices. A light source, e.g., a laser diode, is affixed to a movable axis and projects a random geometric shape on an image sensor (CMOS or CCD. The downstream microcontroller’s software identifies the geometric shape’s center, distortion and size, and then calculates x, y, and z coordinates, which can be processed in attached devices. Depending on the image sensor in use (e.g., 6.41 megapixels, the 3-axis sensor features a resolution of 1544 digits from right to left and 1038 digits up and down. Through interpolation, these values rise by a factor of 100. A unique feature is the exact reproducibility (deflection to coordinates and its precise ability to return to its neutral position. Moreover, optical signal processing provides a high level of protection against electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The sensor is adaptive and adjustable to fit a user’s range of motion (stroke and force. This recommendation aims to optimize sensor systems such as joysticks in medical devices in terms of safety, ease of use, and adaptability.

  20. Glycation & the RAGE axis: targeting signal transduction through DIAPH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhtman, Alexander; Ramasamy, Ravichandran; Schmidt, Ann Marie

    2017-02-01

    The consequences of chronic disease are vast and unremitting; hence, understanding the pathogenic mechanisms mediating such disorders holds promise to identify therapeutics and diminish the consequences. The ligands of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) accumulate in chronic diseases, particularly those characterized by inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Although first discovered and reported as a receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGEs), the expansion of the repertoire of RAGE ligands implicates the receptor in diverse milieus, such as autoimmunity, chronic inflammation, obesity, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. Areas covered: This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the ligand families of RAGE and data from human subjects and animal models on the role of the RAGE axis in chronic diseases. The recent discovery that the cytoplasmic domain of RAGE binds to the formin homology 1 (FH1) domain, DIAPH1, and that this interaction is essential for RAGE ligand-stimulated signal transduction, is discussed. Finally, we review therapeutic opportunities targeting the RAGE axis as a means to mitigate chronic diseases. Expert commentary: With the aging of the population and the epidemic of cardiometabolic disease, therapeutic strategies to target molecular pathways that contribute to the sequelae of these chronic diseases are urgently needed. In this review, we propose that the ligand/RAGE axis and its signaling nexus is a key factor in the pathogenesis of chronic disease and that therapeutic interruption of this pathway may improve quality and duration of life.

  1. [Relationships between refractive parameters: sphere, cylinder and axis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzeau, O; Gaujoux, T; Bullet, J; Allouch, C; Borderie, V; Laroche, L

    2012-10-01

    To analyze the relationships between refractive parameters as well as the relationship between fellow eyes in a normal population. Both subjective refraction and auto-refractometry data of 500 patients were prospectively recorded. Refraction data were analyzed on three rectangular coordinates in a dioptric space. WTR/ATR ratio of axis was quantified by the Cos2axis function. Enantiomorphism (mirror-image symmetry) between fellow eye axes was quantified by the absolute value of the difference between 180° and the sum of both axes. Mean refraction and mean cylinder were -1.74D (+0.28D × 91.5°) and 0.81 ± 0.89D respectively. The spherical component had no significant influence on refractive astigmatism (r(s)≤ 0.07, P ≥ 0.07) except for high spherical ametropia. Eyes with spherical equivalent greater than 4D (in absolute value) demonstrated higher cylinder (1.15D vs 0.84D, Pspherical equivalent (r(s)=0.96, P0.12) except for spherical equivalent (relative hyperopia of +0.17D, P=0.04 in females). The spherical component of the refraction appears to be independent of the refractive astigmatism except for high spherical ametropia. Cylinder influences somewhat the WTR/ATR ratio of axis and the enantiomorphism. Relationships between refractive parameters are weak in comparison to the fellow eye relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A Dual-Axis Electrostatically Driven MEMS Microgripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Jia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a new monolithic two-axis electrostatically actuated MEMS microgripper with integrated capacitive position and force sensors working at the micro-scale level. Each of the two jaws of the microgripper possesses two degrees-of-freedom (DOF and is capable of positioning in both x-and y-axes. Unlike existing works, where one gripper arm is actuated and other one is sensed, both arms of the proposed microgripper are actuated and sensed independently. A sensing scheme is constructed to provide the position and force signals in the noncontact and contact phases, respectively. By applying a 120V driving voltage, the jaw can provide 70 μm x-axis and 18 μm y-axis displacements with the force of 190 μN. By this design, the real-time position and grasping force information can be obtained in the dual sensing mode. Both analytical calculation and finite-element analysis (FEA were performed to verify the performance of the proposed design. A scaled-up prototype is designed, fabricated and tested through the experiment to verify the structure design of the microgripper.

  3. MARRT: Medial Axis biased rapidly-exploring random trees

    KAUST Repository

    Denny, Jory

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Motion planning is a difficult and widely studied problem in robotics. Current research aims not only to find feasible paths, but to ensure paths have certain properties, e.g., shortest or safest paths. This is difficult for current state-of-the-art sampling-based techniques as they typically focus on simply finding any path. Despite this difficulty, sampling-based techniques have shown great success in planning for a wide range of applications. Among such planners, Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) search the planning space by biasing exploration toward unexplored regions. This paper introduces a novel RRT variant, Medial Axis RRT (MARRT), which biases tree exploration to the medial axis of free space by pushing all configurations from expansion steps towards the medial axis. We prove that this biasing increases the tree\\'s clearance from obstacles. Improving obstacle clearance is useful where path safety is important, e.g., path planning for robots performing tasks in close proximity to the elderly. Finally, we experimentally analyze MARRT, emphasizing its ability to effectively map difficult passages while increasing obstacle clearance, and compare it to contemporary RRT techniques.

  4. Blade pitch optimization methods for vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Peter

    Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWTs) offer an inherently simpler design than horizontal-axis machines, while their lower blade speed mitigates safety and noise concerns, potentially allowing for installation closer to populated and ecologically sensitive areas. While VAWTs do offer significant operational advantages, development has been hampered by the difficulty of modeling the aerodynamics involved, further complicated by their rotating geometry. This thesis presents results from a simulation of a baseline VAWT computed using Star-CCM+, a commercial finite-volume (FVM) code. VAWT aerodynamics are shown to be dominated at low tip-speed ratios by dynamic stall phenomena and at high tip-speed ratios by wake-blade interactions. Several optimization techniques have been developed for the adjustment of blade pitch based on finite-volume simulations and streamtube models. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is evaluated and the basic architecture for a feedback control system is proposed. Implementation of variable blade pitch is shown to increase a baseline turbine's power output between 40%-100%, depending on the optimization technique, improving the turbine's competitiveness when compared with a commercially-available horizontal-axis turbine.

  5. Searching for cosmological preferred axis using cosmographic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Amin; Setare, Mohammad Reza

    2017-12-01

    Recent released Planck data and other astronomical observations show that the universe may be anisotropic on large scales. This hints a cosmological privileged axis in our anisotropic expanding universe. This paper proceeds a modified redshift in anisotropic cosmological model as 1+\\tilde{z}(t,\\hat{{p})=a(t_{0)}/a(t)(1-A(\\hat{n}.\\hat{p})) (where A is the magnitude of anisotropy, \\hat{n} is the direction of privileged axis, and \\hat{p} is the direction of each SNe Ia sample to galactic coordinates) along with anisotropic parameter δ =A(\\hat{n}.\\hat{p})/1+A(\\hat{n.\\hat{p})}. The luminosity distance is expanded with model-independent cosmographic parameters as a function of modified redshift \\tilde{z}. As the transformation matrix M(n× n) is obtained to convert the Taylor series coefficients of isotropic luminosity distance to corresponding anisotropic parameters. These results culminate the magnitude of anisotropy about \\mid A\\mid ˜eq 10^{-3} and the direction of preferred axis as (l,b)=( 297^{-34}_{+34},3^{-28}_{+28}) , which are consistent with other studies in 1-σ confidence level.

  6. Lesiones bucales relacionadas con las enfermedades digestivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Pacho Saavedra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Muchas de las lesiones de la mucosa en la cavidad bucal están relacionadas con trastornos anatómicos y funcionales de los órganos del aparato digestivo; algunas forman parte del cuadro clínico de la entidad y otras aparecen como complicaciones de estas. Generalmente son de orígenes inmunológicos, nutricionales o carenciales. Estas lesiones son difíciles de tratar, por lo que es importante conocer las características clínicas que faciliten una adecuada interpretación y al mismo tiempo ofrecer una conducta terapéutica correcta. Se presenta una revisión actualizada de las características semiológicas de las lesiones bucales que forman parte del cuadro clínico de diversas enfermedades digestivas, con el fin de que los médicos generales, clínicos, estomatólogos y gastroenterólogos puedan diagnosticarlas y brindar mejor orientación y tratamiento a los pacientes.Many of the lesions of the mucosa in the oral cavity are related to anatomical and functional disorders of the organs of the digestive system. Some of them are part of the clinical picture of the entity and others appear as complications of them. Generally, they have an immunological, nutritional, or deficiency origin. These lesions are difficult to be treated and that's why it is important to know the clinical characteristics making easy an adequate interpretation, and to follow a suitable therapeutic conduct at the same time. An updated review of the semiological features of the oral lesions corresponding to the clinical picture of diverse digestive diseases is presented, so that the general physicians, clinicians, stomatologists and gastroenterologists be able to diagnose and give a better guidance and treatment to the patients.

  7. Periapical implant lesion: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya-Tárraga, J-A; Cervera-Ballester, J; Peñarrocha-Oltra, D; Peñarrocha-Diago, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence for periapical implant lesion, which makes a patient more susceptible to the periapical lesion, frequency, symptoms, signs (including radiological findings) and possible treatment options. A systematic literature review and analysis of publications included in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane; articles published until March 2016; with a populations, exposures and outcomes (PEO) search strategy was performed, focused on the issue: "In patients with periapical lesion to the implant during the osseointegration, what symptoms, signs, and changes in complementary examination manifested, for according to that stage, be intervened with the appropriate approach?". The set criteria for inclusion were peer-reviewed articles. From a total of 212 papers identified, 36 studies were included in this systematic review, with 15461 implants evaluated and 183 periapical implant lesions. Which 8 papers included more than 5 cases and 28 included equal or less than 5 cases. Analysis of the papers revealed that periapical implant lesion is classified according to evolution stages into acute (non-suppurated and suppurated) and subacute (or suppurated-fistulized). In the acute stage and in the subacute if there is no loss of implant stability, the correct treatment approach is implant periapical surgery. In the subacute stage associated with implant mobility the implant must be removed. Evidence on the subject is very limited, there are few studies with small sample, without homogeneity of criteria for diagnosing the disease and without design of scientific evidence. Currently etiology lacks consensus. The early diagnosis of periapical implant periapical lesions during the osseointegration phase and early treatment, will lead to a higher survival rate of implants treated, hence preventing the need for implant extraction.

  8. CAMERON LESIONS: LITERATURE REVIEW AND CASE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vasilenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cameron syndrome is the ulcerative or erosive lesions of mucosal layer at the sac of hiatal hernia which can cause chronic occult or overt bleeding and iron-deficiency anemia. Hiatal hernia is a relatively frequent finding, which is in most cases asymptomatic or manifested by dyspeptic symptoms of varying severity. Despite of being a very important association of hiatal hernia Cameron syndrome is not widely represented in medical literature. That`s the reason of a lack of awareness among physicians, surgeons and endoscopists about that pathology. Cameron lesions are significant pathology because they can become a source of chronic occult as well as an acute life-threatening bleeding. Those lesions of upper gastrointestinal tract are often misinterpreted or overlooked during standard diagnostic procedures. It can lead to the misdiagnosis and false ways of treatment. The review focuses on the pathogenesis, main diagnostic problems and treatment options of that pathology. The diagnostics of the Cameron syndrome is difficult because sometimes the lesions can`t be seen on upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy. The review describes the criteria by which the physician may suspect Cameron syndrome when endoscopy results are not certain. Clinical case represents an important problem which is often faced by the doctors — the severe iron-deficiency anemia refractory to the medication and blood transfusions in the patients with Cameron lesions. It`s very important for doctor to be aware of that complication to include Cameron syndrome into the diagnostic search for the sources of persistent blood loss. Cameron lesions can be asymptomatic as well as be manifested in the form of severe chronic anemia. And that`s the reason why there are an important issue about the proper treatment which have to be provided in each case. The review describes the effectiveness of different treatment options and makes the conclusion about the principles on which doctor can

  9. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soussan Irani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 biopsies diagnosed as oral ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and oral primary lymphoma were selected from the archives of the Pathology Department. Thirty-two samples that were diagnosed as being without any pathological changes were selected as the control group. All the paraffin blocks were cut for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm the diagnoses and then the samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining. Data were collected and analyzed. Results. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between the frequency of H. pylori positivity in normal tissue and the lesions were examined (P=0.000. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the lesions examined (P=0.042. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between H. pylori positivity and different tissue types except inside the muscle layer as follows: in epithelium and in lamina propria (P=0.000, inside the blood vessels (P=0.003, inside the salivary gland duct (P=0.036, and muscle layer (P=0.122. Conclusion. There might be a relation between the presence of H. pylori and oral lesions. Therefore, early detection and eradication of H. pylori in high-risk patients are suggested.

  10. Can Physical Examination Create a Stener Lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankachandra, Manesha; Eggers, John P; Bogener, James W; Hutchison, Richard L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Stener lesion can be created while testing stability of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of the thumb. Testing was performed in a manner that reproduced clinical examination. Six fresh frozen hand and forearm specimens underwent sequential sectioning of the accessory UCL, the proper UCL, and the ulnar sagittal band. Measurements of radial deviation of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint were taken with the thumb in neutral rotation, pronation and supination, both with 0 degrees and with 30 degrees of flexion of the MCP joint. Visual examination was performed to assess the presence of a Stener lesion. No Stener lesion was created in any position as long as the fascial origin of the ulnar sagittal band at the adductor pollicis longus remained intact. After creating a defect in the ulnar sagittal band, a Stener lesion was created in two specimens, but only when the thumb was flexed and supinated. Pronation provided more stability, and supination provided less stability, with one or both components cut, especially when testing at 30° of flexion. Compared to both components cut without flexion or rotation, there was a statistically significant difference in angulation with the 30 degrees of MCP joint flexion in both neutral rotation in supination. Performing a physical examination to assess the amount of instability of an ulnar collateral ligament injury did not create a Stener lesion if the exam was performed in a controlled, gentle manner with the thumb held without rotation. If the thumb is held in neutral rotation during the exam, an iatrogenic Stener lesion should not be created.

  11. Radiofrequency tissue ablation with cooled-tip electrodes:an experimental study in a bovine liver model on variables influencing lesion size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyun Young [Eulgy Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Chong Soo [Chonbuk National Univ. Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of various factors on the extent of thermal coagulation necrosis after radiofrequency (RF) tissue ablation using a cooled-tip electrode in bovine liver. RF ablation was induced by a monopolar 500 KHz-RF generator (CC-1; Radionics, Burlington, Mass., U.S.A.) and an 18-G cooled-tip with single or clustered electrodes. The ablation protocol involved a combination of varying current, ablation time, power output, gradual or abrupt increase of this out-put, and pulsed radiofrequency techniques. The maximum diameter of all thermal lesions which showed a color change was measured perpendicular to the electrode axis by two observers who reached their decisions by consensus. Twenty representative lesions were pathologically examined. With increasing current lesion diameter also increased, but above 1500 mA no further increase was induced. Extending the ablation time to 9 minutes for a single electrode and 15 minutes for a clustered electrode increased lesion diameter until a steady state was reached. Higher power levels caused larger lesions, but above 100 W no increase was observed. Ample exposure time coupled with a stepwise increase in power level induced a lesion larger than that resulting from an abrupt increase. Continuous pulsed RF with a high current led to increased coagulation necrosis diameter. These experimental findings may be useful thermotherapy. The data suggest that all involved factors significantly affect lesion size:if the factors are better understood, cancer thermotherapy can be better controlled.

  12. Visual estimation versus different quantitative coronary angiography methods to assess lesion severity in bifurcation lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundeken, Maik J; Collet, Carlos; Ishibashi, Yuki; Généreux, Philippe; Muramatsu, Takashi; LaSalle, Laura; Kaplan, Aaron V; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Morel, Marie-Angèle; Tijssen, Jan G; de Winter, Robbert J; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Leon, Martin B; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-08-24

    To compare visual estimation with different quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) methods (single-vessel versus bifurcation software) to assess coronary bifurcation lesions. QCA has been developed to overcome the limitations of visual estimation. Conventional QCA however, developed in "straight vessels," has proved to be inaccurate in bifurcation lesions. Therefore, bifurcation QCA was developed. However, the impact of these different modalities on bifurcation lesion severity classification is yet unknown METHODS: From a randomized controlled trial investigating a novel bifurcation stent (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01258972), patients with baseline assessment of lesion severity by means of visual estimation, single-vessel QCA, 2D bifurcation QCA and 3D bifurcation QCA were included. We included 113 bifurcations lesions in which all 5 modalities were assessed. The primary end-point was to evaluate how the different modalities affected the classification of bifurcation lesion severity and extent of disease. On visual estimation, 100% of lesions had side-branch diameter stenosis (%DS) >50%, whereas in 83% with single-vessel QCA, 27% with 2D bifurcation QCA and 26% with 3D bifurcation QCA a side-branch %DS >50% was found (P < 0.0001). With regard to the percentage of "true" bifurcation lesions, there was a significant difference between visual estimate (100%), single-vessel QCA (75%) and bifurcation QCA (17% with 2D bifurcation software and 13% with 3D bifurcation software, P < 0.0001). Our study showed that bifurcation lesion complexity was significantly affected when more advanced bifurcation QCA software were used. "True" bifurcation lesion rate was 100% on visual estimation, but as low as 13% when analyzed with dedicated bifurcation QCA software. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Factores de riesgo y lesiones en guitarristas

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Díaz, Federico Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación se centra en el estudio de las posturas, patologías y factores que pueden conducir a las lesiones de miembro superior, columna y cabeza en guitarristas. Se buscó determinar zonas de dolor, horas y días de ensayo y actividades externas no ligadas al estudio de dicho instrumento. Objetivos: Determinar cuáles son las posturas, patologías y factores que pueden conducir a las lesiones de miembro superior, columna y cabeza más frecuentes en guitarristas de la c...

  14. Multispectral recordings and analysis of psoriasis lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising for furt......An objective method to evaluate the severeness of psoriasis lesions is proposed. In order to obtain objectivity multi-spectral imaging is used. The multi-spectral images give rise to a large p, small n problem which is solved by use of elastic net model selection. The method is promising...

  15. Post-traumatic contrast enhancing brain lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Min Sun; Kim, Deok Ryeong; Cho, Young Kwon; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Only a few studies have been reported on the MR contrast enhancement and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) findings of the post-traumatic lesion of the brain. We report a case of the venous ischemia in the left frontal lobe observed in the MRI obtained one day after the incidence of trauma. Considering the presented slight increase in the ADC, the vasogenic edema was thought to be the major mechanism of the venous ischemia and excitotoxic injury. In spite of a slight increase in the ADC, the hyperintensity in the diffusion weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced areas eventually changed into hemorrhagic lesions.

  16. Endoscopic treatment of Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghoon

    2016-05-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a closed degloving soft tissue injury in which subcutaneous tissue is torn from the underlying muscular fascia. The tear leads to venolymphatic leak, and concomitant adipose tissue necrosis from the force of the trauma causes swelling and possible infection at the site of injury. The traditional treatment for the lesion is surgical drainage and debridement. In this report, an endoscopic method is described, which achieves the goal of an open surgical debridement but minimizes surgical morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abfraction lesions: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento MM

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marcelle M Nascimento,1 Deborah A Dilbone,1 Patricia NR Pereira,1 Wagner R Duarte,2,3 Saulo Geraldeli,1 Alex J Delgado1 1Department of Restorative Dental Sciences, Division of Operative Dentistry, 2Department of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Private Practice, Brasilia, DF, Brazil Abstract: Abfraction is a type of noncarious cervical lesion (NCCL characterized by loss of tooth tissues with different clinical appearances. Evidence supports that abfraction lesions, as any NCCLs, have a multifactorial etiology. Particularly, the cervical wear of abfraction can occur as a result of normal and abnormal tooth function and may also be accompanied by pathological wear, such as abrasion and erosion. The interaction between chemical, biological, and behavioral factors is critical and helps to explain why some individuals exhibit more than one type of cervical wear mechanism than others. In an era of personalized dentistry, patient risk factors for NCCLs must be identified and addressed before any treatment is performed. Marked variations exist in dental practice concerning the diagnosis and management of these lesions. The lack of understanding about the prognosis of these lesions with or without intervention may be a major contributor to variations in dentists’ management decisions. This review focuses on the current knowledge and available treatment strategies for abfraction lesions. By recognizing that progressive changes in the cervical area of the tooth are part of a physiologically dynamic process that occurs with aging, premature and unnecessary intervention can be avoided. In cases of asymptomatic teeth, where tooth vitality and function are not compromised, abfraction lesions should be monitored for at least 6 months before any invasive procedure is planned. In cases of abfraction associated with gingival recession, a combined restorative-surgical approach may be performed. Restorative

  18. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions Virus papiloma humano en lesiones orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín V. Gónzalez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases; the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.Crecientes evidencias sugieren que el virus Papiloma humano (HPV tiene un rol en el cáncer oral; sin embargo su participación es todavía controvertida. Este estudio evalúa la frecuencia de ADN de HPV en una variedad de lesiones orales de pacientes de Argentina. Se seleccionaron 77 muestras de tejido oral de 66 pacientes (casos; el diagnóstico histo-patológico correspondió a: 11 lesiones benignas asociadas a HPV, 8 lesiones benignas no asociadas a HPV, 33 lesiones premalignas y 25 cánceres. Como controles se usaron 60 muestras de células exfoliadas de mucosa oral normal. La

  19. Cancer immunotherapy targeting the CD47/SIRPα axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Kipp

    2017-05-01

    The success of cancer immunotherapy has generated tremendous interest in identifying new immunotherapeutic targets. To date, the majority of therapies have focussed on stimulating the adaptive immune system to attack cancer, including agents targeting CTLA-4 and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. However, macrophages and other myeloid immune cells offer much promise as effectors of cancer immunotherapy. The CD47/signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) axis is a critical regulator of myeloid cell activation and serves a broader role as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint. CD47 is highly expressed on many different types of cancer, and it transduces inhibitory signals through SIRPα on macrophages and other myeloid cells. In a diverse range of preclinical models, therapies that block the CD47/SIRPα axis stimulate phagocytosis of cancer cells in vitro and anti-tumour immune responses in vivo. A number of therapeutics that target the CD47/SIRPα axis are under preclinical and clinical investigation. These include anti-CD47 antibodies, engineered receptor decoys, anti-SIRPα antibodies and bispecific agents. These therapeutics differ in their pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Clinical trials are underway for both solid and haematologic malignancies using anti-CD47 antibodies and recombinant SIRPα proteins. Since the CD47/SIRPα axis also limits the efficacy of tumour-opsonising antibodies, additional trials will examine their potential synergy with agents such as rituximab, cetuximab and trastuzumab. Phagocytosis in response to CD47/SIRPα-blocking agents results in antigen uptake and presentation, thereby linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. CD47/SIRPα blocking therapies may therefore synergise with immune checkpoint inhibitors that target the adaptive immune system. As a critical regulator of macrophage phagocytosis and activation, the potential applications of CD47/SIRPα blocking therapies extend beyond human cancer. They may be

  20. The minimal model of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Frank; Andersen, Morten; Ottesen, Johnny T

    2011-10-01

    This paper concerns ODE modeling of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis (HPA axis) using an analytical and numerical approach, combined with biological knowledge regarding physiological mechanisms and parameters. The three hormones, CRH, ACTH, and cortisol, which interact in the HPA axis are modeled as a system of three coupled, nonlinear differential equations. Experimental data shows the circadian as well as the ultradian rhythm. This paper focuses on the ultradian rhythm. The ultradian rhythm can mathematically be explained by oscillating solutions. Oscillating solutions to an ODE emerges from an unstable fixed point with complex eigenvalues with a positive real parts and a non-zero imaginary parts. The first part of the paper describes the general considerations to be obeyed for a mathematical model of the HPA axis. In this paper we only include the most widely accepted mechanisms that influence the dynamics of the HPA axis, i.e. a negative feedback from cortisol on CRH and ACTH. Therefore we term our model the minimal model. The minimal model, encompasses a wide class of different realizations, obeying only a few physiologically reasonable demands. The results include the existence of a trapping region guaranteeing that concentrations do not become negative or tend to infinity. Furthermore, this treatment guarantees the existence of a unique fixed point. A change in local stability of the fixed point, from stable to unstable, implies a Hopf bifurcation; thereby, oscillating solutions may emerge from the model. Sufficient criteria for local stability of the fixed point, and an easily applicable sufficient criteria guaranteeing global stability of the fixed point, is formulated. If the latter is fulfilled, ultradian rhythm is an impossible outcome of the minimal model and all realizations thereof. The second part of the paper concerns a specific realization of the minimal model in which feedback functions are built explicitly using receptor dynamics. Using

  1. Surgical treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Miljko A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder can be divided into benign and malignant categories. Malignant polypoid lesions include carcinomas of the gallbladder, which is the fifth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract and the most common malignancy of the biliary tract. Benign polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are divided into true tumors and pseudotumors. Pseudotumors account for most of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder, and include polyps, hyperplasia, and other miscellaneous lesions. Adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. Cholesterol polyps are the most common pseudotumors of the gallbladder. The polyps can be single or multiple, usually less than 10 mm in size. They have no predilection for any particular gallbladder site, and usually are attached to the gallbladder wall by a delicate, narrow pedicle. No malignant potential has been identified for this type of pseudotumor. Adenomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the gallbladder. They have no predilection site in the gallbladder, and may also be associated with gallstones or cholecystitis. The premalignant nature of adenomas remains controversial. Ultrasonography (US has been demonstrated to be significantly better in detecting polypoid lesions of the gallbladder as compared with computed tomography and cholecystography. A mass fixed to the gallbladder wall of normal thickness, without shadowing, is seen in case of gallbladder polyp. Since gallbladder cancers usually present as polypoid lesions, differentiation between benign polypoid lesion and malignant lesion can be very difficult, even with high-resolution imaging techniques. PATIENTS AND METHODS Retrospectively we have analyzed 38 patients with ultrasonographicaly detected gallbladder polyps during the period from January 1995 to December 2000, who were treated at surgical department of Health Centre in Uzice and at Surgical clinic of Clinical Centre in Nis. We have analyzed

  2. Voluntary Exercise Adapts the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis in Male Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uribe, Rosa María; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Ramírez-Martínez, Candy; García-Vázquez, Arlene; Romero, Fidelia; Cisneros, Miguel; Cote-Vélez, Antonieta; Charli, Jean-Louis; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis modulates energy homeostasis. Its activity decreases in conditions of negative energy balance but the effects of chronic exercise on the axis are controversial and unknown at hypothalamic level...

  3. hOGG1 removes solution-accessible 8-oxoG lesions from globally-substituted nucleosomes except at the dyad region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilotti, Katharina; Tarantino, Mary E; Delaney, Sarah

    2018-01-17

    Persistent DNA damage is responsible for mutagenesis, aging, and disease. Repair of the prototypic oxidatively damaged guanine lesion 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) is initiated by oxoguanine glycosylase (hOGG1 in humans). In this work, we examine hOGG1 activity on DNA packaged as it is in chromatin, in a nucleosome core particle (NCP). We use synthetic methods to generate a population of NCPs with G to 8-oxoG substitutions and evaluate the global profile of hOGG1 repair in packaged DNA. For several turns of the helix, we observe that solution-accessible 8-oxoG are sites of activity for hOGG1. At the dyad axis, however, hOGG1 activity is suppressed, even at lesions predicted to be solution accessible by hydroxyl radical footprinting (HRF). We predict this diminished activity is due to properties of the DNA unique to the dyad axis and/or the local histone environment. In contrast to the dyad axis, the DNA ends reveal hOGG1 activity at sites predicted by HRF to be both solution accessible and inaccessible. We attribute the lack of correlation between hOGG1 activity and solution accessibility at the ends of the DNA to transient unwrapping of the DNA from the protein core, thus exposing the inward-facing lesions.

  4. Accurate GM atrophy quantification in MS using lesion-filling with co-registered 2D lesion masks ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, V.; Ran, N.C.G.; Barkhof, F.; Chard, D.T.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Vrenken, H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), brain atrophy quantification is affected by white matter lesions. LEAP and FSL-lesion_filling, replace lesion voxels with white matter intensities; however, they require precise lesion identification on 3DT1-images. Aim: To determine whether 2DT2 lesion masks co-registered to 3DT1 images, yield grey and white matter volumes comparable to precise lesion masks. Methods: 2DT2 lesion masks were linearly co-registered to 20 3DT1-images of MS patients, ...

  5. Descripción anatómica de los músculos masticadores de un ciervo axis (Axis axis)

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo, A. G.; Sánchez, Hilda Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron realizar una descripción de los músculos masticadores del ciervo axis y compararlos con los del bovino. Se utilizó un ejemplar juvenil hembra, proveniente de la Fundación Mundo Marino, San Clemente del Tuyú, Argentina. La disección en fresco de los músculos masticadores se realizó por planos anatómicos desde la piel. De cada músculo se observó su estructura, origen e inserción. La dirección de las fibras musculares y su grado de inclinación se midieron con...

  6. Imaging caries lesions and lesion progression with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Daniel; Xie, John; Shafi, Sahar; Featherstone, John D B; Breunig, Thomas M; Le, Charles

    2002-10-01

    New diagnostic tools are needed for the characterization of dental caries in the early stages of development. If carious lesions are detected early enough, they can be arrested without the need for surgical intervention. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) can be used for the imaging of early caries lesions and for the monitoring of lesion progression over time. High-resolution polarization resolved images were acquired of natural caries lesions and simulated caries lesions of varying severity created over time periods of 1 to 14 days. Linearly polarized light was incident on the tooth samples and the reflected intensity in both orthogonal polarizations was measured. PS-OCT was invaluable for removing the confounding influence of surface reflections and native birefringence necessary for the enhanced resolution of the surface structure of caries lesions. This study demonstrated that PS-OCT is well suited for the imaging of interproximal and occlusal caries, early root caries, and for imaging decay under composite fillings. Longitudinal measurements of the reflected light intensity in the orthogonal polarization state from the area of simulated caries lesions linearly correlated with the square root of time of demineralization indicating that PS-OCT is well suited for monitoring changes in enamel mineralization over time.

  7. FAMILY HISTORY STUDY OF THE FAMILIAL COAGGREGATION OF BORDERLINE PERSONALITY DISORDER WITH AXIS I AND NON-BORDERLINE DRAMATIC CLUSTER AXIS II DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Zanarini, Mary C.; Barison, Leah K.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Reich, D. Bradford; Hudson, James I.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the familial coaggregation of borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a full array of axis I disorders and four axis II disorders (antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and sadistic personality disorder) in the first-degree relatives of borderline probands and axis II comparison subjects. Four hundred and forty-five inpatients were interviewed about familial psychopathology using the Revi...

  8. Amalgam Contact Hypersensitivity Lesion: An Unusual Presentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Mar-Apr 2015 | Vol 5 | Issue 2 |. Amalgam Contact. Hypersensitivity. Lesion: An Unusual. Presentation‑Report of a. Rare Case ... 1Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine,. 2Ionizing and Non‑ionizing Radiation Protection Research. Center, 3Student Research ...

  9. Ureteritis cystica: A rare benign lesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Ibrahim

    Abstract. Ureteritis cystica is an uncommon benign pathology of the ureter. The etiology is unclear but the diagnosis has become much easier to make with the routine use of ureteroscopy for diagnosis of ureteric lesions. We present a case of a 63 year old Sudanese woman with a history of repeated attacks of right loin pain.

  10. Endo-periodontal lesion--endodontic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jivoinovici, R; Suciu, I; Dimitriu, B; Perlea, P; Bartok, R; Malita, M; Ionescu, C

    2014-01-01

    Endo-perio lesions might be interdependent because of the vascular and anatomic connections between the pulp and the periodontium. The aim of this study is to emphasise that primary endodontic lesion heals after a proper instrumentation, disinfection and sealing of the endodontic space. The primary endodontic lesion with a secondary periodontal involvement first requires an endodontic therapy and, in the second stage, a periodontal therapy. The prognosis is good, with an adequate root canal treatment; it depends on the severity of the periodontal disease, appropriate healing time and the response to the treatment. A correct diagnosis is sometimes difficult; an accurate identification of the etiologic factors is important for an adequate treatment. Primary perio-endo lesion may heal after a proper disinfection and sealing of the endodontic system, the one-year follow-up radiograph showing bonny repair. Invasive periodontal procedures should be avoided at that moment. The microorganisms and by-products from the infected root canal may cross accessory and furcal canals and determine sinus tract and loss of attachment. In both clinical cases presented in this article, successful healing was obtained after a proper disinfection and sealing of the endodontic system.

  11. Utilization Behavior and Frontal Lobe Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1990-01-01

    Utilization behavior was investigated in an adult with an acute behavioral disturbance, memory deficits, and a localized inferior medial bifrontal lesion at the Psychology Department, National Hospital, Queen Square, London; the MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge; and Department of Neurology, Atkinson Morley's Hospital, Wimbledon; and St. Andrews Hospital, Northampton, UK.

  12. Missed Massive Morel-Lavallee Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Takahara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL involves posttraumatic fluid collection around the greater trochanter. Many cases of MLL are missed at the initial evaluation, and the treatment of MLL is not well established. We present two cases in which MLL was missed at the initial evaluation. Case 1. A 65-year-old man was run over by a parade float. There was subcutaneous hematoma around the left greater trochanter, and no fracture was found. We diagnosed this injury as MLL on the 7th day after the trauma. Although we performed percutaneous drainage, the injured area was infected. Case 2. A 57-year-old man was hit by a train in a factory. There was an iliac wing fracture, but an MLL was not initially recognized. On the 6th day after the trauma, when performing open reduction and internal fixation for the iliac fracture, we recognized the lesion and performed percutaneous drainage simultaneously. This lesion also became infected. In these two cases, the wounds finally healed after a long duration of treatment. We suggest that it is important to keep this injury in mind and debride the lesion early and completely in the treatment course.

  13. Missed massive morel-lavallee lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Shunsuke; Oe, Keisuke; Fujita, Hironori; Sakurai, Atsushi; Iwakura, Takashi; Lee, Sang Yang; Niikura, Takahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    A Morel-Lavallee lesion (MLL) involves posttraumatic fluid collection around the greater trochanter. Many cases of MLL are missed at the initial evaluation, and the treatment of MLL is not well established. We present two cases in which MLL was missed at the initial evaluation. Case 1. A 65-year-old man was run over by a parade float. There was subcutaneous hematoma around the left greater trochanter, and no fracture was found. We diagnosed this injury as MLL on the 7th day after the trauma. Although we performed percutaneous drainage, the injured area was infected. Case 2. A 57-year-old man was hit by a train in a factory. There was an iliac wing fracture, but an MLL was not initially recognized. On the 6th day after the trauma, when performing open reduction and internal fixation for the iliac fracture, we recognized the lesion and performed percutaneous drainage simultaneously. This lesion also became infected. In these two cases, the wounds finally healed after a long duration of treatment. We suggest that it is important to keep this injury in mind and debride the lesion early and completely in the treatment course.

  14. Multiple intracerebral lesions in a young male

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CD4T cell count was 22cells/μL. Chest X-ray and ultra- sound of the abdomen were normal. MRI brain (Figure 1) showed multiple ill-defined and nodular enhancing lesions in bilateral supratentorial and infratentorial neuroparenchyma. Involvement of bilat- eral basal ganglia, thalamus and brainstem was noted. Gram stain ...

  15. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: daniela.prayer@meduniwien.ac.at; Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Kasprian, Gregor [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Witzani, Linde [Department of Radiodiagnostics, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Helmer, Hanns [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Dietrich, Wolfgang [Department of Neurosurgery, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Eppel, Wolfgang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Langer, Martin [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  16. Dermoscopic features of facial pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharova, Yana; Attia, Enas A S; Souid, Khawla; Vasilenko, Inna V

    2013-01-01

    Four types of facial pigmented skin lesions (FPSLs) constitute diagnostic challenge to dermatologists; early seborrheic keratosis (SK), pigmented actinic keratosis (AK), lentigo maligna (LM), and solar lentigo (SL). A retrospective analysis of dermoscopic images of histopathologically diagnosed clinically-challenging 64 flat FPSLs was conducted to establish the dermoscopic findings corresponding to each of SK, pigmented AK, LM, and SL. Four main dermoscopic features were evaluated: sharp demarcation, pigment pattern, follicular/epidermal pattern, and vascular pattern. In SK, the most specific dermoscopic features are follicular/epidermal pattern (cerebriform pattern; 100% of lesions, milia-like cysts; 50%, and comedo-like openings; 37.50%), and sharp demarcation (54.17%). AK and LM showed a composite characteristic pattern named "strawberry pattern" in 41.18% and 25% of lesions respectively, characterized by a background erythema and red pseudo-network, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo. However, in LM "strawberry pattern" is widely covered by psewdonetwork (87.5%), homogenous structureless pigmentation (75%) and other vascular patterns. In SL, structureless homogenous pigmentation was recognized in all lesions (100%). From the above mentioned data, we developed an algorithm to guide in dermoscopic features of FPSLs.

  17. In vitro reproduction of noncarious cervical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakovich, John J; Oslak, Robert R

    2008-07-01

    A review of the dental literature indicates that noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs) are formed by erosion, abrasion, and/or abfraction of tooth structure, but their etiology remains scientifically unsubstantiated. The purpose of this study was to reproduce noncarious cervical lesions in vitro. This study was not designed to statistically quantify the amount of lost tooth structure via abrasion, but rather to attempt to create NCCLs in the various shapes and sizes that are clinically observed. Three pairs of toothbrush types (generic and name-brand) with soft, medium, or firm bristles were tested with 3 different toothpastes of varying abrasive potentials (low, medium, and high) or with water only, on mounted human teeth with and without simulated gingival tissues (6 toothbrushes x 4 brushing solutions (L, M, H, dentifrices, or water only) x 2 gingival mask conditions = 48 test/control groups of 4 teeth each = 192). The control sets, brushed in water only, demonstrated no visible loss of tooth structure. Each set brushed with toothpaste, regardless of the degree of abrasiveness or toothbrush bristle firmness, demonstrated visible wear at the level of the CEJ. Significant noncarious cervical lesions were created via horizontal brushing with common commercial toothpaste, while brushing with water only did not create these cervical lesions.

  18. Pleural Mass Lesion Containing Calcium Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kurkcuoglu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available   A 30 year-old man was admitted with of chest pain. Had a x-ray and computed tomography showed calcified pleural mass . Lesions in the white-colored, dense mud was the consistency of the material.

  19. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi Harel

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83% compared to the non chewing individuals (16% (P Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.

  20. Obstetric brachial plexus lesions: CT myelography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steens, S.C.A.; Pondaag, W.; Malessy, M.J.; Verbist, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the value of computed tomographic (CT) myelography in the detection of root damage and differentiation of root avulsions from neurotmesis in a large cohort of patients with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval was

  1. Precancerous Lesions of the Oral Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Gürbüz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review of oral precancerous lesions, leukoplakia, erythroleukoplakia/erythroplakia and the least common variant proliferative verrucous leukoplakia will be focused with their clinical characteristics and their potential to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma and related factors will be discussed.

  2. Differential diagnosis of small solid pancreatic lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph Frank; Sahai, Anand Vasante; D'Onofrio, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is typically diagnosed at a late stage. Little is known about the incidental finding of early-stage PDAC. The aim of the current study was to determine the etiology of small solid pancreatic lesions (≤15 mm) to optimize clinical managem...

  3. Peripheral nerve lesions in Zimbabwe: a retrospective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    throughout Zimbabwe (population 12.3 million, area. 390,000km2). Tests of nerve function carried out in this laboratory ... neurophysiological evaluation, to have lesions of peripheral nerves were retrospectively reviewed .... the arm extending to the shoulder was painful. Nineteen patients complained of additional weakness ...

  4. Oral lichenoid lesions - A review and update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Vishwanath Kamath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. Aims and Objectives: This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included "oral lichen planus", "oral lichenoid lesions", "oral drug reactions", "lichenoid dysplasia", and "adverse effects of dental materials". Review Results: OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Conclusion: Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP.

  5. Oral lichenoid lesions - a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Venkatesh Vishwanath; Setlur, Krishnanand; Yerlagudda, Komali

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichenoid lesions or reactions (OLLs/OLRs) are clinical and histological contemporaries of the classical oral lichen planus (OLP) that have generated a lot of debate in literature. In contrast to the idiopathic nature of OLP, OLLs are often associated with a known identifiable inciting factor. A superficial examination of these lesions clinically and histologically often reveals many similarities with OLP, but recent data indicate that distinguishable features do exist and form the basis of most classifications. This paper attempts to collate available data in English literature on OLLs, highlight distinguishing features clinically and histologically and reflect on the malignant transformation potential and treatment modalities of the condition. A comprehensive search of medical and dental databases including PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane, Pubget, Researchgate, and non-medical search engines were utilized for the review. The search words included "oral lichen planus", "oral lichenoid lesions", "oral drug reactions", "lichenoid dysplasia", and "adverse effects of dental materials". OLLs seem to grossly underrated and most cases were clubbed as OLP. Definite clinical and histological features were uncovered to establish the identity of this lesion. Associations with dental restorative materials, drugs, and medications have been conclusively proven in the etiology of this condition. Specific markers are being utilized to diagnose the condition and monitor its progress. Substantial differentiating features were uncovered to delineate OLLs as a separate entity with definite etiology, pathogenesis, and a high malignant transformation rate compared with OLP.

  6. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  7. Brain lesions several years after eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukes, Annet M.; de Groot, Jan C.; Aarnoudse, Jan G.; Zeeman, Gerda G.

    OBJECTIVE: Eclampsia is thought to have no long-term neurological consequences. We aimed to delineate the neurostructural sequelae of eclampsia, in particular brain white matter lesions, utilizing high-resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). STUDY DESIGN: Formerly eclamptic women were

  8. Morel-Lavallee lesion in pediatric trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Jane; Noritake, Alana; Ortiz, Kenneth; Ricca, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesions (MLL) are closed degloving injuries that have been rarely described in the pediatric literature. These internal degloving injuries can have serious complications and long-term morbidity. Early diagnosis and intervention is imperative. We present the case of a 20-month-old with MLL of the thigh.

  9. Gamma knife radiosurgery for midline lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legat, J.; Mokry, M.; Leber, K.; Schroettner, O.; Pendl, G. [Karl-Franzens Univ., Graz (Austria)

    1998-09-01

    Surgery of midline lesions is difficult in many cases and often only partial removal is possible. Between May 1992 and April 1997, 81 patients with midline lesions were treated radiosurgically. The lesions were located in the hypothalamic region (25), thalamus (20), third ventricle (2), quadrigeminal plate (9), pons (13), fourth ventricle (4), pineal region (4) and other locations (4). Forty-eight patients were male and 33 were female. Histologically, there were 56 benign cases (13 arteriovenous malformations, 11 low grade gliomas, 20 craniopharyngiomas, 5 meningiomas, 3 hamartomas, 4 miscellaneous) and 25 malignant cases (10 metastases, 10 high grade gliomas, 2 medulloblastomas, 3 miscellaneous). Clinical and radiological follow-up was obtained in 71 patients (88%). In all patients the treatment was well tolerated. Radiographic response could be achieved in 39 of 68 tumor patients (57%). A complete obliteration was seen in 6 arteriovenous malformations (60%) 2 years after radiosurgery. A second radiosurgical procedure was necessary in 2 patients because of incomplete obliteration after 3 years. According to our experience, we can conclude that radiosurgery appears to be effective as adjuvant treatment or midline lesions. (author)

  10. Monocanalicular lesions: to reconstruct or not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, T. J.; Mourits, M. P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the success rate of a simple surgical method for the treatment of a monocanalicular lacrimal lesion. DESIGN: Retrospective noncomparative case series. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen consecutive patients with monocanalicular trauma who were seen from August 1995 to March 1998. In six

  11. Roentgenologic diagnostics of capsular ligament lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, C.J.; Jaeger, M.

    1981-10-01

    The X-ray diagnostic is of obvious importance and relevance in the detection of acute or old capsular ligament lesions of the limb joint. On the one hand it serves as the plain radiograph (roentgenogram without contrast medium) for the assessment of osseous secondary lesions, for the documentation of luxationary positions of the joint partners, and in old capsular ligament lesions for the detection of an already existing arthrosis. On the other hand the X-ray images are of main importance, which are made from the hand-held limb in order to permit a comparison of the two sides, and which beyond the clinical detection of a joint instability indicate the extent and the direction of this instability and which also document it, and which allow in adolescents to recognize a separation of the epiphysis as an alternative to the capsular ligament rupture. Only in particular cases arthrography can provide some additional information, so for example in the case of an isolated syndesmosis rupture, ruptures of the rosette of the rotator muscle or of a damaged triangular disk in the hand. Angiography is only required in cases of traumatic luxations of the knee in order to exclude an intimal lesion of the popliteal artery.

  12. Self-inflicted lesions in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gieler, Uwe; Consoli, Sylvie G; Tomás-Aragones, Lucía

    2013-01-01

    at clarifying the terminology related to these disorders. A flow chart and glossary of terms and definitions are presented to facilitate the classification and management of self-inflicted skin lesions. Several terms are critically discussed, including: malingering; factitious disorders; Münchausen's syndrome...

  13. Scoliosis secondary to an unusual rib lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, N G

    2012-04-01

    Tumours of the chest wall are uncommon and are usually malignant. A bone haemangioma is a rare benign vascular neoplasm, which more commonly occurs in middle-aged patients. We present the case of a scoliosis caused by a rib haemangioma in an adolescent male. Other causes of scoliosis secondary to rib lesions are discussed.

  14. Lesiones bucales relacionadas con las enfermedades digestivas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pacho Saavedra, José A; Piñol Jiménez, Felipe N

    2006-01-01

    ... semiológicas de las lesiones bucales que forman parte del cuadro clínico de diversas enfermedades digestivas, con el fin de que los médicos generales, clínicos, estomatólogos y gastroenterólogos puedan diagnosticarlas y brindar mejor orientación y tratamiento a los pacientes.

  15. [Difficulties in routine diagnostics of urothelium lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusková, J; Babjuk, M; Soukup, V

    2008-04-01

    Facing the increasing frequency of urothelial neoplasms and stratified therapeutic strategy pathologists have to meet the demands of urologists for constantly increasing preciseness of the histopathology reports influencing the application of tailored therapeutic schemes. The WHO/ISUP consensus conference in 1998 resulted into adoption of a new classification of the urothelial lesions. Its employment requires considering of features that can be difficult to find in the material provided. parallel typing of more than 200 urothelial neoplasms from the daily routine biopsy samples provided by the faculty of medicine urology clinic according to the previous Mostofi 1973 and the new WHO/ISUP 1998 classification. Realizing the consultation demands we have identified some repetitive problems in the urothelium lesions diagnostics considering typing, grading, and staging of the lesions. Typing was a less frequent source of problems. It appeared in classifying lesions with inverted growth, and mucin producing urothelial neoplasms vs. adenocarcinomas. Less important typing problems are represented by uncommon rare diagnoses, as they manifest from the beginning as a specialty solvable mostly with the help of immunohistochemistry. Grading was experienced as troublesome in the following items: papillary hyperplasia vs. LG papillary ca, PUNLMP vs. LG papillary ca, HG papillary ca with a majority of LG material, monotonous types of HG flat lesions, and combined lesions. Staging difficulties applied mostly in identification of the initial unequivocal invasion and the substaging of pT1 into pT1a and pT1b with learning to find the decisive mucosa structures described in detail as late as 1983 (2). We have implemented reporting the presence/absence of the detrusor muscle in the material as a marker describing the representativness of the sample provided; we consider this approach less confusing than introduction of clinical staging terminology Ta, T1 instead of pTa, pT1. To help the

  16. Atrial fibrillation with intermittent right axis deviation in the presence of complete left bundle branch block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanè, Salvatore; Marte, Filippo; Di Bella, Gianluca; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2008-09-16

    Left bundle branch block is usually associated with normal or left axis deviation. Rarely the ecg shows an LBBB with changing QRS morphology and changing axis deviation. We describe a case of atrial fibrillation with intermittent right axis deviation in the presence of complete left bundle branch block in an 84-year-old Italian woman in the Cardiology Unit.

  17. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in older persons with and without a depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, D.; Korten, N. C. M.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Stek, M. L.; van der Mast, R. C.; Voshaar, R. Oude; Comijs, H. C.

    Background: Altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) has been associated with depression, but findings have been inconsistent. Among older depressed persons, both hyperactivity and hypo-activity of the HPA-axis were demonstrated. However, most studies were

  18. Adversity-driven changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning during adolescence. The trails study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, Odilia M; Nederhof, Esther; van Aken, Marcel A G; Ormel, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed to be a key mechanism underlying the link between adversity and mental health, but longitudinal studies on adversity and HPA-axis functioning are scarce. Here, we studied adversity-driven changes in HPA-axis functioning during

  19. Adolescent Survivors of Hurricane Katrina: A Pilot Study of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Tucker, Phebe; Nitiéma, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis constitutes an important biological component of the stress response commonly studied through the measurement of cortisol. Limited research has examined HPA axis dysregulation in youth exposed to disasters. Objective: This study examined HPA axis activation in adolescent Hurricane Katrina…

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in older persons with and without a depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, D.; Korten, N.C.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Stek, M.L.; van der Mast, R.; Oude Voshaar, R.; Comijs, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) has been associated with depression, but findings have been inconsistent. Among older depressed persons, both hyperactivity and hypo-activity of the HPA-axis were demonstrated. However, most studies were

  1. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in older persons with and without a depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, D.; Korten, N.C.; Penninx, B.W.; Stek, M.L.; Mast, R.C. van der; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Comijs, H.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) has been associated with depression, but findings have been inconsistent. Among older depressed persons, both hyperactivity and hypo-activity of the HPA-axis were demonstrated. However, most studies were

  2. Nonrigid registration of multiple sclerosis brain images using lesion inpainting for morphometry or lesion mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdika, Michaël; Pelletier, Daniel

    2009-04-01

    Morphometric studies of medical images often include a nonrigid registration step from a subject to a common reference. The presence of white matter multiple sclerosis lesions will distort and bias the output of the registration. In this article, we present a method to remove this bias by filling such lesions to make the brain look like a healthy brain before the registration. We finally propose a dedicated method to fill the lesions and present numerical results showing that our method outperforms current state of the art method. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Effect of Relative Marker Movement on the Calculation of the Foot Torsion Axis Using a Combined Cardan Angle and Helical Axis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline S. Graf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The two main movements occurring between the forefoot and rearfoot segment of a human foot are flexion at the metatarsophalangeal joints and torsion in the midfoot. The location of the torsion axis within the foot is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on Cardan angles and the finite helical axis approach to calculate the torsion axis without the effect of flexion. As the finite helical axis method is susceptible to error due to noise with small helical rotations, a minimal amount of rotation was defined in order to accurately determine the torsion axis location. Using simulation, the location of the axis based on data containing noise was compared to the axis location of data without noise with a one-sample t-test and Fisher's combined probability score. When using only data with helical rotation of seven degrees or more, the location of the torsion axis based on the data with noise was within 0.2 mm of the reference location. Therefore, the proposed method allowed an accurate calculation of the foot torsion axis location.

  4. Effect of Relative Marker Movement on the Calculation of the Foot Torsion Axis Using a Combined Cardan Angle and Helical Axis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Eveline S.; Wright, Ian C.; Stefanyshyn, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    The two main movements occurring between the forefoot and rearfoot segment of a human foot are flexion at the metatarsophalangeal joints and torsion in the midfoot. The location of the torsion axis within the foot is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on Cardan angles and the finite helical axis approach to calculate the torsion axis without the effect of flexion. As the finite helical axis method is susceptible to error due to noise with small helical rotations, a minimal amount of rotation was defined in order to accurately determine the torsion axis location. Using simulation, the location of the axis based on data containing noise was compared to the axis location of data without noise with a one-sample t-test and Fisher's combined probability score. When using only data with helical rotation of seven degrees or more, the location of the torsion axis based on the data with noise was within 0.2 mm of the reference location. Therefore, the proposed method allowed an accurate calculation of the foot torsion axis location. PMID:22666303

  5. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  6. Photoacoustic characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Richard; Dana, Nicholas; Di Biase, Luigi; Natale, Andrea; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-02-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) procedures are used to destroy abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that can cause cardiac arrhythmias. Current methods relying on fluoroscopy, echocardiography and electrical conduction mapping are unable to accurately assess ablation lesion size. In an effort to better visualize RFA lesions, photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasonic (US) imaging were utilized to obtain co-registered images of ablated porcine cardiac tissue. The left ventricular free wall of fresh (i.e., never frozen) porcine hearts was harvested within 24 hours of the animals' sacrifice. A THERMOCOOLR Ablation System (Biosense Webster, Inc.) operating at 40 W for 30-60 s was used to induce lesions through the endocardial and epicardial walls of the cardiac samples. Following lesion creation, the ablated tissue samples were placed in 25 °C saline to allow for multi-wavelength PA imaging. Samples were imaged with a VevoR 2100 ultrasound system (VisualSonics, Inc.) using a modified 20-MHz array that could provide laser irradiation to the sample from a pulsed tunable laser (Newport Corp.) to allow for co-registered photoacoustic-ultrasound (PAUS) imaging. PA imaging was conducted from 750-1064 nm, with a surface fluence of approximately 15 mJ/cm2 maintained during imaging. In this preliminary study with PA imaging, the ablated region could be well visualized on the surface of the sample, with contrasts of 6-10 dB achieved at 750 nm. Although imaging penetration depth is a concern, PA imaging shows promise in being able to reliably visualize RF ablation lesions.

  7. Supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions: MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Joo; Son, Young Bo; Choi, Kyu Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    To describe MR findings and differential points of supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the MR findings of 59 patients with supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions, and classified them as follows : tumor-associated cyst, infectious cyst, ex-vacuo type cyst, and congentital/developmental cyst. Among 59 patients, 47 tumor-associated cysts were seen in 17, 42 infectious cysts in 13, 17 ex-vacuo type cysts in 10, and 19 congenital/developmental cysts in 19. In 44 of 47 tumor-associate cysts, increased or inhomogeneous internal signal intensity was seen on T1-weighted image, 37 of 47 showed thick uneven walls ; 37 of 47 had enhancing solid components and there was variable perifocal edema and mass effect. Infectious cysts were multiple (11 of 13). In cases of brain abscess, increased internal signal intensity on T1-weighted image, low signal intensity of abscess wall on T2-weighted image, thick even enhancing wall, and marked perifocal edema (4 of 4) were seen in all four cases. Cysts in cysticercosis were variable in appearance depending on the stage, but were smaller than other cystic lesions. Ex vacuo type cysts were of uniform CSF signal intensity in all pulse sequences and there was no identifiable wall or enhancement associated with enlarged adjacent ventricle and encephalomalacia (17 of 17). Congenital/developmental cysts showed a single lesion (19 of 19), a signal intensity similar to CSF in all pulse sequences (15 of 19), no identifiable wall (16 of 19), no enhancement (17 of 19), and no perifocal edema (19 of 19). MR was used to categorize supratentorial cystic intracranial lesions into four groups on the basis of their number, size, internal homogeneity of signal intensity on T1-weighted image, enhancing pattern, perifocal edema and mass effect, thereby improving diagnostic specificity and patient management.

  8. Penile lesion from gunshot wound: a 43-case experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Andre G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the main aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of 43 patients with gunshot wounds to the penis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The location of the lesion, the presence of associated lesions, the performance of complementary exams, surgical treatment, postoperative complications and long term follow-up of 43 patients with penile lesions from gunshot wounds were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Of 43 cases assessed, 41 were submitted to surgical exploration (95.3% and 2 were submitted to conservative treatment (4.7%. We found penile lesions involving the corpus cavernosum in 37 cases; the remaining 4 patients presented no lesions involving the corpus cavernosum, urethra or testicles but did in the superficial structures. Ten cases presented an association with testicular lesions and 14 cases association with anterior urethral lesions. CONCLUSION: Penile lesions from gunshot wounds should be treated with immediate surgical intervention. In exceptional situations featuring superficial lesions only conservative treatment may be applied.

  9. [Clinicopathological investigations of the dental diseases caused by maxillary lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K

    1998-03-01

    Clinicopathological investigations of five surgery-requiring dental diseases caused by maxillary lesions were conducted. 1) The maxillary lesions were acute maxillary sinusitis and a postoperative maxillary cyst. 2) The clinical symptom was persistent cheek pain, even though the maxillary lesions were improved and there were no lesions in the tooth crown or periodontal tissue. 3) All of the teeth with dental diseases caused by maxillary lesions had percussion pain. 4) The pathological findings of the dental diseases were ascending pulpitis and pulpal necrosis caused by maxillary lesions. 5) When patients complain of persistent cheek pain even though maxillary lesions are improved and there are no lesions of the tooth crown or periodontal tissue, we should doubt the presence of dental diseases caused by maxillary lesions (ascending pulpitis and pulpal necrosis).

  10. Clinical correlations of brain lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vellinga, M M; Geurts, J J G; Rostrup, E

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore relations between spatial distribution of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions, and disability. In MS, the presence of asymptomatic brain lesions challenges the prediction of disability based on conventional brain MRI. Hypothesizing that symptomatology may partly be determined...... by lesion location, this retrospective study explored relations between lesion location and disability using voxelwise analyses in standard space. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using nonparametric permutation-based statistics, voxelwise lesion probability on T2 lesion masks was related to expanded disability...... significantly (P disability and disease duration, and was higher in progressive than in relapsing disease. When controlled for lesion load (LL), no significant clusters survived. Presence and number of spinal cord lesions did not correlate with lesion probability in any location, and did...

  11. Active optics: off axis aspherics generation for high contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugot, E.; Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Vives, S.; Moindrot, S.; El Hadi, K.; Dohlen, K.

    2017-11-01

    Active Optics methods, based on elasticity theory, allow the aspherisation of optical surfaces by stress polishing but also active aspherisation in situ. Researches in this field will impact the final performance and the final cost of any telescope or instrument. The stress polishing method is well suited for the superpolishing of aspheric components for astronomy. Its principle relies on spherical polishing with a full-sized tool of a warped substrate, which becomes aspherical once unwarped. The main advantage of this technique is the very high optical quality obtained either on form or on high spatial frequency errors. Furthermore, the roughness can be decreased down to a few angstroms, thanks the classical polishing with a large pitch tool, providing a substantial gain on the final scientific performance, for instance on the contrast on coronagraphic images, but also on the polishing time and cost. Stress polishing is based on elasticity theory, and requires an optimised deformation system able to provide the right aspherical form on the optical surface during polishing. The optical quality of the deformation is validated using extensive Finite Element Analysis, allowing an estimation of residuals and an optimisation of the warping harness. We describe here the work realised on stress polishing of toric mirrors for VLT-SPHERE and then our actual work on off axis aspherics (OAA) for the ASPIICS-Proba3 mission for solar coronagraphy. The ASPIICS optical design made by Vives et al is a three mirrors anastigmat including a concave off axis hyperboloid and a convex off axis parabola (OAP). We are developing a prototype in order to demonstrate the feasibility of this type of surface, using a multi-mode warping harness (Lemaitre et al). Furthermore, we present our work on variable OAP, meaning the possibility to adjust the shape of a simple OAP in situ with a minimal number of actuators, typically one actuator per optical mode (Focus, Coma and Astigmatism

  12. Mechanical Coupling between Endoderm Invagination and Axis Extension in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Lye

    Full Text Available How genetic programs generate cell-intrinsic forces to shape embryos is actively studied, but less so how tissue-scale physical forces impact morphogenesis. Here we address the role of the latter during axis extension, using Drosophila germband extension (GBE as a model. We found previously that cells elongate in the anteroposterior (AP axis in the extending germband, suggesting that an extrinsic tensile force contributed to body axis extension. Here we further characterized the AP cell elongation patterns during GBE, by tracking cells and quantifying their apical cell deformation over time. AP cell elongation forms a gradient culminating at the posterior of the embryo, consistent with an AP-oriented tensile force propagating from there. To identify the morphogenetic movements that could be the source of this extrinsic force, we mapped gastrulation movements temporally using light sheet microscopy to image whole Drosophila embryos. We found that both mesoderm and endoderm invaginations are synchronous with the onset of GBE. The AP cell elongation gradient remains when mesoderm invagination is blocked but is abolished in the absence of endoderm invagination. This suggested that endoderm invagination is the source of the tensile force. We next looked for evidence of this force in a simplified system without polarized cell intercalation, in acellular embryos. Using Particle Image Velocimetry, we identify posteriorwards Myosin II flows towards the presumptive posterior endoderm, which still undergoes apical constriction in acellular embryos as in wildtype. We probed this posterior region using laser ablation and showed that tension is increased in the AP orientation, compared to dorsoventral orientation or to either orientations more anteriorly in the embryo. We propose that apical constriction leading to endoderm invagination is the source of the extrinsic force contributing to germband extension. This highlights the importance of physical

  13. Stress & the gut-brain axis: Regulation by the microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A. Foster

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the gut–brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of the early life gut microbiota in shaping later health outcomes also is emerging. Results from preclinical studies indicate that alterations of the early microbial composition by way of antibiotic exposure, lack of breastfeeding, birth by Caesarean section, infection, stress exposure, and other environmental influences - coupled with the influence of host genetics - can result in long-term modulation of stress-related physiology and behaviour. The gut microbiota has been implicated in a variety of stress-related conditions including anxiety, depression and irritable bowel syndrome, although this is largely based on animal studies or correlative analysis in patient populations. Additional research in humans is sorely needed to reveal the relative impact and causal contribution of the microbiome to stress-related disorders. In this regard, the concept of psychobiotics is being developed and refined to encompass methods of targeting the microbiota in order to positively impact mental health outcomes. At the 2016 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop in Newport Beach, CA, a group of experts presented the symposium “The Microbiome: Development, Stress, and Disease”. This report summarizes and builds upon some of the key concepts in that symposium within the context of how microbiota might influence the neurobiology of stress.

  14. Kynurenine pathway metabolism and the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2017-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the gut microbiota influences not only gastrointestinal physiology but also central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating signalling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the influence exerted by the gut microbiota on brain function and behaviour has become a key research priority. Microbial regulation of tryptophan metabolism has become a focal point in this regard, with dual emphasis on the regulation of serotonin synthesis and the control of kynurenine pathway metabolism. Here, we focus in detail on the latter pathway and begin by outlining the structural and functional dynamics of the gut microbiota and the signalling pathways of the brain-gut axis. We summarise preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrating that the gut microbiota influences CNS physiology, anxiety, depression, social behaviour, cognition and visceral pain. Pertinent studies are drawn from neurogastroenterology demonstrating the importance of tryptophan and its metabolites in CNS and gastrointestinal function. We outline how kynurenine pathway metabolism may be regulated by microbial control of neuroendocrine function and components of the immune system. Finally, preclinical evidence demonstrating direct and indirect mechanisms by which the gut microbiota can regulate tryptophan availability for kynurenine pathway metabolism, with downstream effects on CNS function, is reviewed. Targeting the gut microbiota represents a tractable target to modulate kynurenine pathway metabolism. Efforts to develop this approach will markedly increase our understanding of how the gut microbiota shapes brain and behaviour and provide new insights towards successful translation of microbiota-gut-brain axis research from bench to bedside. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Kynurenine Pathway in Health and Disease'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lead Toxicity and The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testicular Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia AIT HAMADOUCHE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to toxic levels of lead (Pb occurs in a number of industries with potential adverse effects on the reproductive capacity of exposed men. Clinical and animal studies indicate that abnormalities of spermatogenesis result from toxic lead exposure, but eventual histopathologic alterations involved have not been identified. To explore putative abnormalities in the reproductive gonadotropic axis following lead intoxication, experimental animals when exposed to low levels of lead, 65 days old animals were treated with distilled water containing 0, 0 mg (control, 10 mg lead (Pb/Kg/day and 15 mg lead (Pb/Kg/day intraperitoneally for 20 days. At the end of treatment, the animals were sacrificed and the blood collected for luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone assays. The testis was processed for histological analysis. The results showed a high serum concentration of LH and testosterone in lead-treated animals compared to controls. Histological examination of testis showed deformities in testicular morphology of lead intoxicated animals with gross damage within the somniferous tubules. A strong correlation was established between LH and testosterone suggesting an alteration in the endocrine components of the gonadotropic axis. Histological examination of pituitary gland showed some degenerative changes in endocrine cells of lead group. Changes in LH and testosterone levels suggest that Pb exposure during the critical time of sexual differentiation induces reproductive axis abnormalities in adulthood. In conclusion, lead has a gonadotoxic effect by decreasing LH and testosterone levels and damaging the testis seminiferous tubules. Catalase activity was significantly reduced in the lead group following 65 days of exposure which possibly indicates that lead might had other mechanisms of action, such as increasing oxidative damage.

  16. Multiscale mathematical modeling of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Frédérique

    2016-07-01

    Although the fields of systems and integrative biology are in full expansion, few teams are involved worldwide into the study of reproductive function from the mathematical modeling viewpoint. This may be due to the fact that the reproductive function is not compulsory for individual organism survival, even if it is for species survival. Alternatively, the complexity of reproductive physiology may be discouraging. Indeed, the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis involves not only several organs and tissues but also intricate time (from the neuronal millisecond timescale to circannual rhythmicity) and space (from molecules to organs) scales. Yet, mathematical modeling, and especially multiscale modeling, can renew our approaches of the molecular, cellular, and physiological processes underlying the control of reproductive functions. In turn, the remarkable dynamic features exhibited by the HPG axis raise intriguing and challenging questions to modelers and applied mathematicians. In this article, we draw a panoramic review of some mathematical models designed in the framework of the female HPG, with a special focus on the gonadal and central control of follicular development. On the gonadal side, the modeling of follicular development calls to the generic formalism of structured cell populations, that allows one to make mechanistic links between the control of cell fate (proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis) and that of the follicle fate (ovulation or degeneration) or to investigate how the functional interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding cells shape the follicle morphogenesis. On the central, mainly hypothalamic side, models based on dynamical systems with multiple timescales allow one to represent within a single framework both the pulsatile and surge patterns of the neurohormone GnRH. Beyond their interest in basic research investigations, mathematical models can also be at the source of useful tools to study the encoding and decoding of

  17. Effect of Lesion Baseline Severity and Mineral Distribution on Remineralization and Progression of Human and Bovine Dentin Caries Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Frank; Churchley, David; Lynch, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this laboratory study were to compare the effects of lesion baseline severity, mineral distribution and substrate on remineralization and progression of caries lesions created in root dentin. Lesions were formed in dentin specimens prepared from human and bovine dentin using three protocols, each utilizing three demineralization periods to create lesions of different mineral distributions (subsurface, moderate softening, extreme softening) and severity within each lesion type. Lesions were then either remineralized or demineralized further and analyzed using transverse microradiography. At lesion baseline, no differences were found between human and bovine dentin for integrated mineral loss (x0394;Z). Differences in mineral distribution between lesion types were apparent. Human dentin lesions were more prone to secondary demineralization (x0394;x0394;Z) than bovine dentin lesions, although there were no differences in x0394;L. Likewise, smaller lesions were more susceptible to secondary demineralization than larger ones. Subsurface lesions were more acid-resistant than moderately and extremely softened lesions. After remineralization, differences between human and bovine dentin lesions were not apparent for x0394;x0394;Z although bovine dentin lesions showed greater reduction in lesion depth L. For lesion types, responsiveness to remineralization (x0394;x0394;Z) was in the order extremely softened>moderately softened>subsurface. More demineralized lesions exhibited greater remineralization than shallower ones. In summary, some differences exist between human and bovine dentin and their relative responsiveness to de- and remineralization. These differences, however, were overshadowed by the effects of lesion baseline mineral distribution and severity. Thus, bovine dentin appears to be a suitable substitute for human dentin in mechanistic root caries studies. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The interleukin-20 receptor axis in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Greisen, Stinne Ravn; Nielsen, Morten Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is often characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor, anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, and bone erosions. Current therapies can compromise immunity, leading to risk of infection. The interleukin-20 receptor (IL-20R) axis comprising IL-19, IL-20...... synovial fluid compared with monocytes from both RA and healthy control peripheral blood. The plasma concentrations of IL-20 and IL-24 were increased in rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive compared with negative early RA patients (all P 

  19. The Gut-Liver Axis in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksteen, Bertus

    2016-02-01

    Dysregulation of the key genetic, immunologic, and microbiome compounds of the gut-liver axis is the basis for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). This creates opportunities to accelerate therapies that have been traditionally developed for IBD to be used in PSC to the benefit of both diseases. Shared genetic susceptibility loci has yielded important clues into the pathogenesis of PSC-IBD. Understanding of the critical links between PSC and IBD are essential in designing clinical care pathways for these complex patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-axis solar tracking accomplished through small lateral translations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Justin M; Baker, Katherine A; Karp, Jason H; Tremblay, Eric J; Ford, Joseph E

    2012-09-01

    High-concentration solar-power optics require precise two-axis tracking. The planar micro-optic solar concentrator uses a lenslet array over a planar waveguide with small reflective facets at the focal point of each lenslet to couple incident light into the waveguide. The concentrator can use conventional tracking, tilting the entire assembly, but the system geometry also allows tracking by small lateral translation of the lenslet relative to the waveguide. Here, we experimentally demonstrate such microtracking with the existing concentrator optics and present optimized optical designs for systems with higher efficiency and angle range.