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Sample records for hypoosmotic medium-induced release

  1. Two distinct modes of hypoosmotic medium-induced release of excitatory amino acids and taurine in the rat brain in vivo.

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    Renée E Haskew-Layton

    Full Text Available A variety of physiological and pathological factors induce cellular swelling in the brain. Changes in cell volume activate several types of ion channels, which mediate the release of inorganic and organic osmolytes and allow for compensatory cell volume decrease. Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC are thought to be responsible for the release of some of organic osmolytes, including the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate. In the present study, we compared the in vivo properties of the swelling-activated release of glutamate, aspartate, and another major brain osmolyte taurine. Cell swelling was induced by perfusion of hypoosmotic (low [NaCl] medium via a microdialysis probe placed in the rat cortex. The hypoosmotic medium produced several-fold increases in the extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate and taurine. However, the release of the excitatory amino acids differed from the release of taurine in several respects including: (i kinetic properties, (ii sensitivity to isoosmotic changes in [NaCl], and (iii sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, which is known to modulate VRAC. Consistent with the involvement of VRAC, hypoosmotic medium-induced release of the excitatory amino acids was inhibited by the anion channel blocker DNDS, but not by the glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA or Cd2+, which inhibits exocytosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to taurine release, we studied its release properties in cultured astrocytes and cortical synaptosomes. Similarities between the results obtained in vivo and in synaptosomes suggest that the swelling-activated release of taurine in vivo may be of neuronal origin. Taken together, our findings indicate that different transport mechanisms and/or distinct cellular sources mediate hypoosmotic medium-induced release of the excitatory amino acids and taurine in vivo.

  2. Hypo-osmotic test in cat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comercio, E A; Monachesi, N E; Loza, M E; Gambarotta, M; Wanke, M M

    2013-10-01

    The hypo-osmotic (HOS) test has been used in other species as an indicator of the fertilising capacity of spermatozoa. The aims of this study were to assess the response of domestic cat spermatozoa to the hypo-osmotic test, to determine the type of solution, concentration and time of incubation needed to obtain a maximum percentage of swelling, to correlate the selected combination with the percentages of progressive motility and to evaluate whether dilution of the ejaculate alters the results. Incubation for 30 and 45 min in solutions of fructose and of citrate of 50 and 100 mOsmol kg⁻¹ was evaluated. The highest percentage of swelling was obtained using the 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ solution, and no significant differences were observed between the times of exposure to the solutions. A positive correlation was observed between the percentage of individual progressive motility and the percentage of sperm swelling in a 50 mOsmol kg⁻¹ fructose solution, with no significant differences being observed between raw and diluted semen samples. The results of this study suggest that the HOS test could be useful for evaluating membrane function in domestic cat spermatozoa, both in raw semen and in samples diluted in the EZ Mixin® commercial extender, and thus could be incorporated into routine semen evaluation protocols.

  3. Medium-induced multi-photon radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hao; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectrum of multi-photon radiation off a fast quark in medium in the BDMPS/ASW approach. We reproduce the medium-induced one-photon radiation spectrum in dipole approximation, and go on to calculate the two-photon radiation in the Moli\\`{e}re limit. We find that in this limit the LPM effect holds for medium-induced two-photon ladder emission.

  4. Interference Phenomena in Medium Induced Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    We consider the interference pattern for the medium-induced gluon radiation produced by a color singlet quark-antiquark antenna embedded in a QCD medium with size $L$ and `jet quenching' parameter $\\hat q$. Within the BDMPS-Z regime, we demonstrate that, for a dipole opening angle $\\theta_{q\\bar q} \\gg\\theta_c\\equiv {2}/{\\sqrt{\\hat q L^3}}$, the interference between the medium--induced gluon emissions by the quark and the antiquark is suppressed with respect to the direct emissions. This is so since direct emissions are delocalized throughout the medium and thus yield contributions proportional to $L$ while interference occurs only between emissions at early times, when both sources remain coherent. Thus, for $\\tqq \\gg\\theta_c$, the medium-induced radiation is the sum of the two spectra individually produced by the quark and the antiquark, without coherence effects like angular ordering. For $\\tqq \\ll\\theta_c$, the medium--induced radiation vanishes.

  5. Medium-induced color flow softens hadronization

    CERN Document Server

    Beraudo, A; Wiedemann, U A

    2012-01-01

    Medium-induced parton energy loss, resulting from gluon exchanges between the QCD matter and partonic projectiles, is expected to underly the strong suppression of jets and high-$p_T$ hadron spectra observed in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Here, we present the first color-differential calculation of parton energy loss. We find that color exchange between medium and projectile enhances the invariant mass of energetic color singlet clusters in the parton shower by a parametrically large factor proportional to the square root of the projectile energy. This effect is seen in more than half of the most energetic color-singlet fragments of medium-modified parton branchings. Applying a standard cluster hadronization model, we find that it leads to a characteristic additional softening of hadronic spectra. A fair description of the nuclear modification factor measured at the LHC may then be obtained for relatively low momentum transfers from the medium.

  6. Hypo-osmotic challenge stimulates transepithelial K+ secretion and activates apical IsK channel in vestibular dark cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangemann, P; Liu, J; Shen, Z; Shipley, A; Marcus, D C

    1995-10-01

    Volume regulation of vestibular dark cells from the gerbilline inner ear in response to a hypo-osmotic challenge depends on the presence of cytosolic K+ and Cl-. The present study addresses the questions: (i) whether and by what mechanism K+ is released during volume regulation, (ii) whether the osmolarity of the basolateral medium has an effect on the steady-state rate of transepithelial K+ transport and (iii) whether there is cross-talk between the basolateral membrane responsible for K+ uptake and the apical membrane responsible for K+ release. K+ secretion (JK+,probe) and current density (Isc,probe) were measured with vibrating probes in the vicinity of the apical membrane and the transepithelial potential (Vt) and resistance (Rt) were measured in a micro-Ussing chamber. The equivalent short-circuit current (Isc) was calculated. The current (IIsK), conductance (gIsK) and inactivation time constant (tau IsK) of the IsK channel and the apparent reversal potential of the apical membrane (Vr) were obtained with the cell-attached macropatch technique. Vr was corrected (Vrc) for the membrane voltage (Vm) measured separately with microelectrodes. A hypo-osmotic challenge (294 to 154 mosM by removal of 150 mM mannitol) on the basolateral side of the epithelium increased JK+,probe and Isc,probe by a factor of 2.7 and 1.6. When this hypo-osmotic challenge was applied to both sides of the epithelium Vt and Isc increased from 5 to 14 mV and from 189 to 824 microA/cm2 whereas Rt decreased from 27 to 19 omega-cm2. With 3.6 mM K+ in the pipette IIsK was outwardly directed, tau IsK was 267 msec and the hypo-osmotic challenge caused IIsK and gIsK to increase from 14 to 37 pA and from 292 to 732 pS. Vrc hyperpolarized from -44 to -76 mV. With 150 mM K+ in the pipette IIsK was inwardly directed, tau IsK was 208 msec and the hypo-osmotic challenge caused IIsK and gIsK to increase in magnitude from 0 to -21 pA and from 107 to 1101 pS. Vrc remained unchanged (-2 vs. 1 mV). These

  7. Hypoosmotic shock induces a stateⅠtransition of photosynthetic apparatus in Dunaliella salina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiande; SHEN Yungang

    2004-01-01

    The effects of hypoosmotic shock on statetransition in darkness in Dunaliella salina were studied.When the concentration of NaCl in culture medium wasdropped from 1.5 to 0.5 mol/L abruptly, the photosyntheticrate of D. salina declined, but the respiratory rate and in-tracellular ATP content increased in the dark. The FPSⅡ/FPSⅠratio at 77 K of D. salina cells exposed to hypoosmotic shockwas higher than that of control cells, indicating that moreexcitation energy was distributed to PSⅡ in stressedD. salina cells upon illumination. A decrease in LHCⅡ pho-sphorylation level was also observed when D. salina was exposed to hypoosmotic shock. Thus a stateⅠtransition ofphotosynthetic apparatus occurs when D. salina suffershypoosmotic shock in darkness, which is supposed to berelated to an enhancement of respiration and an increase inATP content in stressed D. salina cells.

  8. Hypoosmotic cell swelling as a novel mechanism for modulation of cloned HCN2 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Elmedyb, Pernille; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    This work demonstrates cell swelling as a new regulatory mechanism for the cloned hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 2 (HCN2). HCN2 channels were coexpressed with aquaporin1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and currents were monitored using a two-electrode voltage-clamp. HCN2...... channels were activated by hyperpolarization to -100 mV and the currents were measured before and during hypoosmotic cell swelling. Cell swelling increased HCN2 currents by 30% without changing the kinetics of the currents. Injection of 50 nl intracellular solution resulted in a current increase of 20......%, indicating that an increase in cell volume also under isoosmotic conditions may lead to activation of HCN2. In the absence of aquaporin1 only negligible changes in oocyte cell volume occur during exposure to hypoosmotic media and no significant change in HCN2 channel activity was observed during perfusion...

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY WITH MURRAH BUFFALO AND INDIGENOUS GIR SPERMATOZOA TO HYPO-OSMOTIC SWELLING TEST

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    Sumit Chowdhury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test (HOST is a simple but authentic test to measure the integrity of sperm membrane. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the HOST value in Murrah buffalo and indigenous Gir bull in 150 mosm/l tri-sodium citrate and D-fructose HOST solution. Murrah buffalo was having more HOST (49±0.39 % reacted spermatozoa than indigenous Gir (42±0.57 % bulls suggesting lesser membrane damage during cryo-preservation and higher fertility rate in Murrah buffalo than Gir cattle.

  10. Volume regulation in rat pheochromocytoma cultured cells submitted to hypoosmotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpire, E; Cornet, M; Gilles, R

    1991-02-01

    The mechanisms at work in cell volume regulation have been studied in PC12 cultured cells. Results show, for the first time to our knowledge, that the volume readjustment process occurring after application of a hypoosmotic saline is sensitive to amiloride, IBMX and forskoline. The process is also inhibited by quinine hydrochloride and trifluoperazine. Volume readjustment is concomtant with a decrease in K+ and Cl- intracellular levels. The decrease in K+ level can be related to an assymetrical change in the fluxes in and out of the ion as shown by flux kinetics studies using Rb86. These results are interpreted considering that the control of the activity of the ion channel pathways associated with volume readjustment in PC12 cells may implicate the Ca(2+)-calmodulin - cAMP system.

  11. The Water Permeability Reduction After Successive Hypo-Osmotic Shocks in Kidney Principal Cells is Apically Regulated

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    Liubov E. Katkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renal principal cells maintain their intracellular water and electrolyte content despite significant fluctuations of the extracellular water and salt concentrations. Their water permeability decreases rapidly (within a few seconds after successive hypo-osmotic shocks. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of the apical and basolateral surface to this effect and the potential influence of fast reduction in AQP-2, -3 or -4 plasma membrane content. Methods: Rat principal cells of kidney collecting duct fragments underwent hypo-osmotic challenge applied apically or basolaterally and the regulatory volume decrease (RVD was measured by the calcein quenching method. The AQP -2, -3 and -4 content of the plasma membrane fraction was quantified by Western blotting. Results: The hypo-osmotic shock applied apically causes rapid swelling with high apparent water permeability and fast RVD. An identical successive shock after 15-20 sec causes significantly lower swelling rate with 3-fold reduction in apparent water permeability. This reaction is accompanied by AQP2 decrease in the plasma membrane while AQP3 and AQP4 are unaffected. The contribution of the basolateral cell surface to RVD is significantly lower than the apical. Conclusion: These results indicate that in principal cells the effective mechanism of RVD is mainly regulated by the apical cell plasma membrane.

  12. Predictive value of hypo-osmotic swelling test to identify viable non-motile sperm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WilliamM.Bucker

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To determine the predictive value of the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test to identify viable, non-motile sperm. Methods: Semen samples from 20 men with severe asthenozoospermia underwent traditional seminal analysis, eosin-nigrosin (EN) staining and the HOS test. A further EN stain was then pexformed on a HOS pre-treated aliquot and a total of 2000 further sperm examined. Results: The median sperm density was 5.1 million/mL (IQR 4.3-13.1) and the median motility was 3.0 % (IQR 0-7). Seven samples showed complete asthenozoospermia. Initial EN staining showed 59 % viability (range 48-69) despite the poor standard parameters and 47 % (range 33-61) in thecomplete asthenozoospermia subgroup. The HOS test showed 49.9 % reacted overall (range 40-59) and 41.7 %(range 22-61) in the complete asthenozoospermia subgroup. The combined HOSfEN stain showed the positive pre-dictive value of the HOS test to identify viable sperm was 84.2 % overall and 79.7 % in the complete asthenozoospermia subgroup. Conclusion: The HOS test can effectively predict sperm viability in patients with severe and complete asthenozoospermia. ( Asian J Andro12003 Sep; 5: 209-212)

  13. Correlation between Different Patterns of Hypo-Osmotic Swelling and Sperm Functional Tests

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    Farzaneh Bassiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sperm membrane integrity is not only important as a barrier between intraandextra-cellular spaces, but also it can be considered as a sign of DNA integrity. Hypoosmoticswelling test reflects membrane integrity and has been used to evaluate spermquality. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in adjunct with hypo-osmotic swellingtest (HOST has been used for treatment of males with asthenozoospermia. Therefore,this study aims to evaluate correlation of different pattern of HOST with sperm parameters,protamine deficiency and apoptosis.Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, sixteen semen samples were randomlycollected from infertile normozospermic men. Semen samples were divided intotwo portions as follows: one portion was assessed for sperm parameters according toWorldHealth Organization (WHO-2010, while the other portion, after applying HOSTprocedure, was used for assessment of sperm morphology, protamine deficiency and lateor early apoptosis. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package forthe Social Studies (SPSS 11.5.Results: Our results showed that, the lowest odds ratio (OR of abnormal sperm headmorphology and abnormal acrosome was in d-sperm as compared to a-pattern or nonviablespermatozoa (p=0.00, p=0.01. In addition, a significant correlation was observedbetween d-sperm with sperm concentration and percentage of DNA damage (p=0.03and p=0.04, respectively. A significant correlation was observed between percentageof sperm motility and DNA fragmentation (r=-0.56; p=0.01. Furthermore, significantcorrelations were observed between percentages of early apoptotic sperm with protaminedeficiency and sperm concentration (p=0.009 and p=0.01, respectively.Conclusion: Significant correlations exist between d-pattern and sperm DNA integrity.Semen samples with low sperm concentration have low percentage of d-sperm which aremature and intact sperms.

  14. Importance of Seminal Hyaluronidase Activity and Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test in Male Infertility

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    A.S. Tambe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional seminal parameters like sperm density, motility, morphology, etc. are not perfect indicators of seminal functional quality. Hence, Seminal Hyaluronidase Activity (SHA and Hypo-osmotic Swelling (HOS score of sperms that evaluate healthy sperms of fertilizing potential, were studied in male partners of infertile couples. The semen samples were obtained, by masturbation after 4 days of abstinence, from recently Fertility Proven Males (Group-I, n=30 and Male Partners of Infertile Couples Normozoospermic (Group-II, n=30 and Oligozoospermic (Group-III, n=30]. After performing routine seminal analysis, the semen samples were subjected for SHA and HOS score assessment. The mean  standard deviation values of SHA (mm of ring diameter were 9.901.65, 8.771.87 and 6.501.33 in Group-I, Group-II and Group-III, respectively. Similarly, the mean  standard deviation values of HOS score (% were 65.508.69, 58.7715.95 and 39.009.78 in Group-I, Group-II and Group-III, respectively. The difference in values of SHA and HOS score amongst different Groups was very highly significant statistically (p0.001. Also, we found significant correlation of SHA and HOS score with sperm density, % motility and % normal morphology. This study shows that Normozoospermic Infertile Males, although having normal conventional seminal parameters, have lower SHA and HOS score than Fertility Proven Males. Thus, it emphasizes the importance of SHA and HOS score assessment in infertile males.

  15. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2017-04-21

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  16. Groomed jets in heavy-ion collisions: sensitivity to medium-induced bremsstrahlung

    CERN Document Server

    Mehtar-Tani, Yacine

    2016-01-01

    We argue that contemporary jet substructure techniques might facilitate a more direct measurement of hard medium-induced gluon bremsstrahlung in heavy-ion collisions, and focus specifically on the "soft drop declustering" procedure that singles out the two leading jet substructures. Assuming coherent jet energy loss, we find an enhancement of the distribution of the energy fractions shared by the two substructures at small subjet energy caused by hard medium-induced gluon radiation. Departures from this approximation are discussed, in particular, the effects of colour decoherence and the contamination of the grooming procedure by soft background. Finally, we propose a complementary observable, that is the ratio of the two-pronged probability in Pb-Pb to proton-proton collisions and discuss its sensitivity to various energy loss mechanisms.

  17. Associations of hypoosmotic swelling test, relative sperm volume shift, aquaporin7 mRNA abundance and bull fertility estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R K; Kasimanickam, V R; Arangasamy, A; Kastelic, J P

    2017-02-01

    Mammalian sperm are exposed to a natural hypoosmotic environment during male-to-female reproductive tract transition; although this activates sperm motility in vivo, excessive swelling can harm sperm structure and function. Aquaporins (AQPs) is a family of membrane-channel proteins implicated in sperm osmoregulation. The objective was to determine associations among relative sperm volume shift, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm aquaporin (AQP) 7 mRNA abundances, and sire conception rate (SCR; fertility estimate) in Holstein bulls at a commercial artificial insemination center. Three or four sires for each full point SCR score from -4 to +4 were included. Each SCR estimate for study bulls (N = 30) was based on > 500 services (mean ± SEM) of 725 ± 13 services/sire). Sperm from a single collection day (two ejaculates) from these commercial Holstein bulls were used. Relative mRNA expression of AQP7 in sperm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Mean relative sperm volume shift and percentage of sperm reacted in a HOST (% HOST) were determined (400 sperm per bull) after incubating in isoosmotic (300 mOsm/kg) and hypoosmotic (100 mOsm/kg) solutions for 30 min. There was no correlation between %HOST and SCR (r = 0.28 P > 0.1). However, there was a positive correlation between relative sperm volume shift and SCR (r = 0.65, P 2) fertility sire groups. In conclusion, bulls with higher SCR had significantly greater AQP7 mRNA abundance in frozen-thawed sperm. This plausibly contributed to greater regulation of sperm volume shift, which apparently conferred protection from detrimental swelling and impaired functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypoosmotic stress in the mussel Perna perna (Linnaeus, 1758): Is ecological history a determinant for organismal responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rola, Regina Coimbra; Souza, Marta Marques; Sandrini, Juliana Zomer

    2017-04-01

    Ecological history of organisms may be related to different responses and adaptations to stressors. This study aims to evaluate whether marine brown mussels (Perna perna Linnaeus, 1758) collected from sites with distinct histories of fluctuations in abiotic parameters, including salinity, respond differently to hypoosmotic stress. Mussels were collected at different sites (a marine site, with no history of salinity variation, and an estuarine site, with usual salinity variations) and exposed in laboratory for 14 days to hypoosmotic stress (salinities 25 and 20). It was observed that mussels collected at the marine site showed increased oxygen consumption (VO2), reduced haemolymph osmolality and concentrations of Na+, Cl-, and K+; increased levels of ninhydrin-positive substances in the haemolymph, and no changes in gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, as expected for osmoconforming organisms. For animals collected at the estuarine site, except for VO2, this same pattern was only observed on day 1 of hypoosmotic stress. Unexpectedly, on days 4 and 14, VO2 decreased, the osmolality and ionic concentration returned to near baseline values, and mussels gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased at day 4. This long-term response detected for estuarine mussels is similar to that observed for osmoregulating organisms, which is very unexpected for marine bivalves. Despite being novel in the relevant literature, these results suggest that in some situations mussels could adopt osmoregulating behavior, such as increasing Na+/K+-ATPase activity and thereby probably reducing water circulating inside valves. In conclusion, these results indicate that ecological history, shown here by differences in organismal origin, influence physiological parameters of mussels in response to a stressful situation.

  19. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2012-01-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine...... by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low-sodium...

  20. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our...... aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan......-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient...

  1. Event-by-event fluctuations in the medium-induced jet evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Escobedo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    We develop the event-by-event picture of the gluon distribution produced via medium-induced gluon branching by an energetic jet which propagates through a dense QCD medium. A typical event is characterized by the production of a large number of soft gluons which propagate at large angles with respect to the jet axis and which collectively carry a substantial amount of energy. By explicitly computing 2-gluon correlations, we demonstrate the existence of large event-by-event fluctuations, which reflect the stochastic nature of the branching process. For the two quantities that we have investigated -- the energy loss at large angles and the soft gluon multiplicity --, the dispersion is parametrically as large as the respective expectation value. We identify interesting scaling laws, which suggest that the multiplicity distribution should exhibit KNO (Koba-Nielsen-Olesen) scaling. A similar scaling is known to hold for a jet branching in the vacuum, but the medium-induced distribution is found to be considerably ...

  2. Mass effect and coherence in medium-induced QCD radiation off a $q {\\bar q}$ antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Armesto, Néstor; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine; Salgado, Carlos A; Tywoniuk, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    The medium-induced one-gluon radiation spectrum off a massive quark-antiquark ($q {\\bar q}$) antenna traversing a colored QCD medium is calculated in this contribution. The gluon spectrum off the antenna computed at first order in the opacity expansion is collinear finite but infrared divergent, which is different from the result obtained from an independent emitter which is both infrared and collinear finite. The interference between emitters dominates the soft gluon radiation when the antenna opening angle is small and the emitted gluon is soft, whereas the antenna behaves like a superposition of independent emitters when the opening angle is large and the radiated gluon is hard. As a phenomenological consequence, we investigate the energy lost by the projectiles due to the radiation. In general, the size of the mass effects is similar in both cases.

  3. Intracellular calcium was involved in muscarinic currents increased by hypoosmotic membrane stretch in gastric myocytes of guinea pig%胞内钙参与低渗性膜牵张引起豚鼠胃窦环行肌细胞毒蕈碱受体门控电流增加的过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹永春; 郭慧淑; 朴琳; 李林; 李在琉; 许文燮

    2002-01-01

    目的:研究在低渗性膜牵张引起豚鼠胃窦环行肌细胞卡巴胆碱诱发的毒蕈碱受体门控电流(Icch)增加过程中胞内钙的作用.方法:采用传统全细胞膜片箝技术,对以胶原酶急性分离的单细胞进行低渗灌流,观察Icch的变化.结果:低渗性膜牵张明显增强Icch;Icch阻断剂奎尼丁3μmol/L完全抑制Icch和低渗膜牵张引起的Icch增强效应;胞外无钙状态下低渗膜牵张引起的Icch增强效应完全被抑制,但是单纯钙通道阻断剂尼卡地平5μmol/L或牵张刺激敏感阳离子通道阻断剂氯化钆100nmol/L不能阻断;同时用尼卡地平和氯化钆处理能够完全阻断低渗膜牵张引起的Icch增强效应;用钙引发钙释放受体激动剂ryanodine处理也完全阻断低渗膜牵张引起的Icch增强效应.结论:低渗性膜牵张增强Icch,这种增强效应与胞外钙进入胞内并诱发钙引起的钙库释放有关.%AIM: To investigate the role of intracellular calcium in muscarinic currents increased by hypoosmotic membranestretch in gastric antral circular myocytes of the guinea pig. METHODS: The whole cell patch-clamp techniquewas used, and the myocytes were isolated by collagenase. Cells were swelled by hypoosmotic solution (200Osmmol/kg). RESULTS: The hypoosmotic membrane stretch markedly increased carbachol-induced muscariniccurrents (Icch). The Icch and the increase of Icch were completely blocked by quinidine 3μmol/L, a specific musca-rinic current blocker. In external calcium-free solution hypoosmotic membrane stretch could not increaseICCh, butin the presence of nicadipine 5 μmol/L, a L-type calcium channel blocker or gadolinium chloride 100 nmol/L, astretch-activated cation channel blocker, theIcch was still increased by hypoosmotic membrane stretch. When bothnicardipine and gadolinium chloride were added into external solution,Icch were not increased by hypoosmoticmembrane stretch any more. Ryanodine, a calcium-induced calcium release (CICR

  4. Multi-particle correlations and KNO scaling in the medium-induced jet evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Escobedo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    We study the gluon distribution produced via successive medium-induced branchings by an energetic jet propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. We show that under suitable approximations the evolution of the jet can be described as a classical stochastic process, which is exactly solvable. For this process, we construct exact analytic solutions for all the n-point correlation functions (the n-body densities in the space of energy). The corresponding results for the one-point and the two-point functions were already known, but those for the higher-point functions are new. These results demonstrate strong correlations associated with the existence of common ancestors in the branching process. By integrating these n-point functions over the gluon energies, we deduce the mean gluon multiplicity $\\langle N\\rangle$ as well as the higher moments $\\langle N^p\\rangle$ with $p\\ge 2$. We find that the multiplicities of the soft gluons are parametrically large and show a remarkable regularity, known as Kob...

  5. Breviscapine attenuatted contrast medium-induced nephropathy via PKC/Akt/MAPK signalling in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenbin; Li, Zhengwei; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Hao; Wu, Youyang; Wang, Yi; Shen, Zhida; He, Jialin; Chen, Shengyu; Zhang, Jiefang; Fu, Guosheng

    2016-01-01

    Contrast medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a major cause of iatrogenic, drug-induced renal injury. Recent studies reveal that Breviscapine can ameliorate diabetic nephropathy in mice. Yet it remains unknown if Breviscapine could reduce CIN in diabetic mice. In this study, male C57/BL6J mice were randomly divided into 7 groups: control, diabetes mellitus, CIN, diabetes mellitus+CIN, diabetes mellitus+Breviscapine, CIN+Breviscapine and diabetes mellitus+CIN+Breviscapine. Model of CIN was induced by tail intravenous administration of iopromide and model of diabetes mellitus was induced by Streptozotocin intraperitoneally. Breviscapine was administered intragastrically for 4 weeks. Renal function parameters, kidney histology, markers of renal fibrosis, phosphorylation of protein kinase C/Akt/mitogen activated protein kinases were measured by western blot. We found out that diabetes mellitus aggravated CIN damage. Renal histological analysis showed Breviscapine reduced of renal fibrosis and tubular damage. Breviscapine was also shown markedly to ameliorate CIN fibrotic markers expression, reduced proteinuria and serum creatinine. Furthermore, Breviscapine decreased phosphorylation of PKCβII, Akt, JNK1/2 and p38. Therefore, Breviscapine treatment could ameliorate the development of CIN in diabetic mice, which was partly attributed to its suppression of renal fibrosis via phosphorylation of PKCβII/Akt/JNK1/2/p38 signalling.

  6. Multi-particle correlations and KNO scaling in the medium-induced jet evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, Miguel A.; Iancu, Edmond

    2016-12-01

    We study the gluon distribution produced via successive medium-induced branchings by an energetic jet propagating through a weakly-coupled quark-gluon plasma. We show that under suitable approximations the evolution of the jet can be described as a classical stochastic process, which is exactly solvable. For this process, we construct exact analytic solutions for all the n-point correlation functions (the n-body densities in the space of energy). The corresponding results for the one-point and the two-point functions were already known, but those for the higher-point functions are new. These results demonstrate strong correlations associated with the existence of common ancestors in the branching process. By integrating these n-point functions over the gluon energies, we deduce the mean gluon multiplicity as well as the higher moments with p ≥ 2. We find that the multiplicities of the soft gluons are parametrically large and show a remarkable regularity, known as Koba-Nielsen-Olesen (KNO) scaling: the reduced moments / p are pure numbers, independent of any of the physical parameters of the problem. We recognize a special negative binomial distribution which is characterized by large statistical fluctuations. These predictions can be tested in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC, via event-by-event measurements of the di-jet asymmetry.

  7. Selection of Sperm Based on Hypo-Osmotic Swelling May Improve ICSI Outcome: A Preliminary Prospective Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Charehjooy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique selects sperm according to morphology and motility. However, these parameters cannot predict the chromatin integrity of sperm. Considering the detrimental effects of DNA-damaged sperm on reproductive outcomes, novel sperm selection procedures have been proposed to circumvent the possibility of inseminating DNA-damaged sperm. It has been shown that different potential hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST patterns possess the potential to differentiate between sperm that have intact or damaged chromatin. Therefore, for the first time, this preliminary study evaluates the role of HOST as a sperm selection procedure in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods: In this preliminary prospective clinical trial study, we divided infertile couples diagnosed with male infertility into two groups. In the treatment group (n=39, half of the oocytes were inseminated by sperm selected following density gradient centrifugation (DGC group. The remaining oocytes from the treatment group were inseminated by sperm chosen according to HOST pattern (c, d or e following DGC processing (HOST group. In the control group (n=63, all oocytes were inseminated by sperm chosen after DGC. Results: There was a significantly higher percentage of embryos that had good quality, implantation, and chemical pregnancy rates in the HOST group compared to the DGC group (p≤0.05. Conclusion: This study has shown that selecting sperm according to membrane functionality (HOST pattern rather morphology and viability may open a new window in our approach for determining the appropriate sperm for ICSI, particularly in individuals with severe male infertility (Registration Number: IRCT201307087223N2.

  8. The cell wall sensor Wsc1p is involved in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in response to hypo-osmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Tania; Ragni, Enrico; Mizzi, Luca; Fascio, Umberto; Popolo, Laura

    2004-10-15

    The cell wall is essential to preserve osmotic integrity of yeast cells. Some phenotypic traits of cell wall mutants suggest that, as a result of a weakening of the cell wall, hypo-osmotic stress-like conditions are created. Consequent expansion of the cell wall and stretching of the plasma membrane trigger a complex response to prevent cell lysis. In this work we examined two conditions that generate a cell wall and membrane stress: one is represented by the cell wall mutant gas1Delta and the other by a hypo-osmotic shock. We examined the actin cytoskeleton and the role of the cell wall sensors Wsc1p and Mid2p in these stress conditions. In the gas1 null mutant cells, which lack a beta(1,3)-glucanosyltransferase activity required for cell wall assembly, a constitutive marked depolarization of actin cytoskeleton was found. In a hypo-osmotic shock wild-type cells showed a transient depolarization of actin cytoskeleton. The percentage of depolarized cells was maximal at 30 min after the shift and then progressively decreased until cells reached a new steady-state condition. The maximal response was proportional to the magnitude of the difference in the external osmolarity before and after the shift within a given range of osmolarities. Loss of Wsc1p specifically delayed the repolarization of the actin cytoskeleton, whereas Wsc1p and Mid2p were essential for the maintenance of cell integrity in gas1Delta cells. The control of actin cytoskeleton is an important element in the context of the compensatory response to cell wall weakening. Wsc1p appears to be an important regulator of the actin network rearrangements in conditions of cell wall expansion and membrane stretching.

  9. [Mass-transfer, utilization, and diffusion of oxygen in skeletal muscles of the stenohaline goby Gobius cobitus Pallas under conditions of hypoosmotic medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, A A

    2012-01-01

    Effect of hypoosmotic conditions of medium on oxygen regime of skeletal muscles of the stenohalin goby Gobius cobitus Pallas was studied under conditions of experiment. The control fish group was maintained at 12-14 %o, the experimental one - at 4.8-5.6 per thousand. Duration of the experiment - 44-45 days, water temperature - 15 +/- 1 degrees C, photoperiod - 12 day/12 night. It was established that under conditions of external hypoosmia there occurred hydration of the goby skeletal muscles and a decrease of their diffusion capability with respect to oxygen. The latter was accompanied by the tissue P(O2) decrease, which is indicated by low values of P(O2) in the venous blood outflowing from muscles. For the first 14-16 days of adaptation to the hypoosmotic medium there were restricted processes of mass transfer and oxygen utilization, which was associated with a decrease of the voluminous tissue blood flow and the blood oxygen concentration. These changes occurred on the background of the blood plasma hydration and a decrease of the number of circulated erythrocytes, and then they were completely compensated.

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN HYPO-OSMOTIC SWELLING TEST AND VARIOUS CONVENTIONAL SEMEN EVALUATION PARAMETERS IN FRESH NILI-RAVI BUFFALO AND SAHIWAL COW BULL SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. LODHI, M. ZUBAIR, Z. I. QURESHI, I. AHMAD AND H. JAMIL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the correlation of hypo-osmotic swelling test with conventional semen evaluation parameters of fresh semen collected from two Nili-Ravi buffalo and two Sahiwal cow bulls. A total of 10 pooled samples (each comprising two consecutive ejaculates from each bull were collected. Each semen sample was divided into two parts. One part was used for the evaluation of semen by conventional method, while the other part was subjected to hypo-osmotic swelling test by using 150 mOsm/L sodium citrate fructose solution. The mean sperm positive to HOS test was 85.25% both in Nili-Ravi buffalo and Sahiwal cow bull semen. Statistical analysis of the data revealed a significant (P<0.05 positive correlation between progressive motility, morphologically normal spermatozoa, sperm viability and percentage of HOS test positive spermatozoa for both species. It was inferred that HOS test could be a valuable method for routine evaluation of semen for artificial insemination.

  11. Atorvastatin ameliorates contrast medium-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic rats via suppression of Rho-kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinzi; Zou, Wenbo; Cai, Wenqin; Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Fangbing; Li, Shuizhu; Ma, Wenwen; Cao, Yangming

    2014-01-15

    Contrast medium-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) remains a leading cause of iatrogenic, drug-induced acute renal failure. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of atorvastatin against renal tubular cell apoptosis in diabetic rats and the related mechanisms. CI-AKI was induced by intravenous administration of iopromide (12ml/kg) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Atorvastatin (ATO) was administered intragastrically at the dose of 5, 10 and 30mg/kg/d in different groups, respectively, for 5 days before iopromide injection. Renal function parameters, kidney histology, renal tubular cell apoptosis, the expression of apoptosis regulatory proteins, caspase-3 and Rho-associated protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1), and the phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit -1 (MYPT-1), were determined. Atorvastatin was shown to notably ameliorate contrast medium induced medullary damage, restore renal function, and suppress renal tubular apoptosis. Meanwhile, atorvastatin up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2, down-regulated the expression of Bax, caspase-3 and ROCK-1, restored the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MYPT-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, atorvastatin pretreatment could dose-dependently ameliorate the development of CI-AKI, which was partly attributed to its suppression of renal tubular cell apoptosis by inhibiting the Rho/ROCK pathway.

  12. Recent progress on the understanding of the medium-induced jet evolution and energy loss in pQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the striking modifications of jets observed both at RHIC and the LHC, significant progress towards the understanding of jet dynamics within QGP has occurred over the last few years. In this talk, I review the recent theoretical developments in the study of medium-induced jet evolution and energy loss within a perturbative framework. The main mechanisms of energy loss and broadening will be firstly addressed with focus on leading particle calculations beyond the eikonal approximation. Then, I will provide an overview of the modifications of the interference pattern between the different parton emitters that build up the parton shower when propagating through an extended coloured medium. I will show that the interplay between color coherence/decoherence that arises from such effects is the main mechanism for the modification of the jet core angular structure. Finally, I discuss the possibility of a probabilistic picture of the parton shower evolution in the limit of a very dense or infinite medium.

  13. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  14. The heparin-glutathione test: an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test to select viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrell, F J; Rubio, C; Tarín, J J

    1998-12-01

    To evaluate the heparin-glutathione test (HEGLUT) for the selection of viable sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A prospective study. Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Valencia and Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Semen samples from healthy donors and patients with infertility. Sperm samples were kept in culture for different periods in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented or not supplemented with heparin, reduced glutathione (GSH), or a heparin-GSH mixture. Control and heparin-GSH-treated spermatozoa were injected into hamster oocytes. The HEGLUT and ICSI were performed. Sperm nuclear decondensation, progressive and nonprogressive motility, and male pronucleus formation. The maximum proportion of sperm nuclear decondensation (28.7%+/-2.1% versus 2.6%+/-0.5% in the control group) was reached after 60 minutes of incubation in the presence of a heparin-GSH mixture. Differences in the percentages of progressive and nonprogressive motility among treatments and times of incubation, although statistically significant, were biologically negligible. No statistically significant differences were observed in the rate of sperm head decondensation (8.2% [4/49] versus 11.1% [6/54]) and male pronucleus formation (18.4% [9/49] versus 22.2% [12/541) after the injection of control and treated spermatozoa into hamster oocytes. The HEGLUT may offer an alternative to the hypo-osmotic swelling test for the selection of viable sperm for ICSI.

  15. Human Umbilical Cord Wharton's Jelly Stem Cell Conditioned Medium Induces Tumoricidal Effects on Lymphoma Cells Through Hydrogen Peroxide Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao Daniel; Fong, Chui-Yee; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh; Bongso, Ariff

    2016-09-01

    Several groups have reported that human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) possess unique tumoricidal properties against many cancers. However, the exact mechanisms as to how hWJSCs inhibit tumor growth are not known. Recent evidence suggests that exposure of cancer cells to high hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels from H2 O2 -releasing drugs causes their death. We therefore explored whether the tumoricidal effect of hWJSCs on lymphoma cells was mediated via H2 O2 . We first exposed lymphoma cells to six different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) concentrates of hWJSC-conditioned medium (hWJSC-CM) (3, 5, 10, 30, 50, 100 kDa) for 48 h. Since, the 3 kDa-MWCO concentrate showed the greatest cell inhibition we then investigated whether the tumoricidal effect of the specific 3 kDa-MWCO concentrate on two different lymphoma cell lines (Ramos and Toledo) was mediated via accumulation of H2 O2 . We used a battery of assays (MTT, propidium iodide, mitochondria membrane potential, apoptosis, cell cycle, oxidative stress enzymes, hydrogen peroxide, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrile anion, and lipid peroxidation) to test this mechanism. The hWJSC-CM-3 kDa MWCO concentrate significantly decreased cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential and increased cell death and apoptosis in both lymphoma cell lines. There were significant increases in superoxide dismutase with concomitant decreases in glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and thioredoxin peroxidase activities. H2 O2 levels, mitochondrial superoxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxynitrile anion, and lipid peroxidation were also significantly increased in both lymphoma cell lines. The results suggested that the hWJSC-CM-3 kDa MWCO concentrate regulates cellular H2 O2 leading to a tumoricidal effect and may thus be a promising anti-lymphoma agent. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2045-2055, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 对比剂致患者胰腺炎的临床分析%Analysis of contrast medium induced pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利新; 石赟; 董智慧; 唐骁; 李炜淼; 王玉琦; 符伟国; 郭大乔; 徐欣; 陈斌; 蒋俊豪; 杨珏; 史振宇; 竺挺

    2010-01-01

    Objective To report the contrast medium induced pancreatitis after angiography or endovascular therapy, analyze the possible cause of this complication, the treatment specialty and the prognosis. Method The patients suffered from contrast medium induced pancreatitis after angiography or endovascular therapy during last 10 years were retrospectively analyzed. The patients' comorbidity, the onset time of the pancreatitis, the specialty of the pancreatitis, the treatment method and the prognosis were documented. The relative literature was retrieved and reviewed. The clinical data was compared with the relative literature and analyzed. Results Three cases of contrast medium induced pancreatitis were documented. One case was a young man, received angiography because of renal artery stenosis. He was suffered from moderate abdominal pain 2 hours after the procedure. Pancreatitis of edema type was confirmed by CT scan. He recovered thoroughly after the medical treatment. One case was an old man, underwent angiography for renal artery stenosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm. He was suffered from acute abdominal pain during the procedure. The CT scan revealed as edema pancreatitis. He died from cardiac infarction during the treatment. The last case was an old female, suffered from sustained abdominal distension after endovascular treatment of endoleak post AAA EVAR. Edema pancreatitis was confirmed by CT scan. The symptom was not alleviated well after the treatment. Finally she was died from MOSF. Conclusion The incidence of contrast medium induced pancreatitis is relatively low. It's not easy to detect in early stage.Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to improve the therapeutic effect. The prognosis of patient with multiple comorbidity is poor.%目的 探讨血管造影和腔内治疗过程中对比剂所致胰腺炎的原因及治疗方法.方法 回顾性分析上海中山医院血管外科2000年12月至2010年1月10年来进行血管造影和腔内治疗后发生

  17. Risk of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients undergoing MDCT - A pooled analysis of two randomized trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Henrik S. [University of Copenhagen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, and Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [University of Sheffield, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The incidence of contrast-medium-induced nephropathy (CIN) following intravenous (IV) CM administration of contrast media to renally impaired patients undergoing multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is not well characterized. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of CIN in patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min undergoing contrast-enhanced MDCT examinations and to compare the rates of CIN following the IV administration of low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM, iopamidol and iomeprol) and an iso-osmolar contrast medium (IOCM, iodixanol). A total of 301 adult patients with moderate-to-severe renal failure received a similar IV contrast dose (40 gI). Serum creatinine (SCr) was measured at screening, baseline and 48-72 {+-} 6 h after the MDCT examination. Primary CIN outcome was an increase in SCr {>=}0.5 mg/dl ({>=}44.2 {mu}mol/l) from baseline. The CIN rates were 2.3% in the total population, 0.6% when GFR >40 ml/min, 4.6% when GFR <40 ml/min and 7.8% in patients with GFR <30 ml/min. The incidence of CIN was significantly higher after iodixanol than after LOCM (seven patients, 4.7% following IOCM, no CIN cases following the LOCM; p = 0.007). Significant differences in favor of the LOCM were also observed in patients with GFR <40 ml/min and GFR <30 ml/min. Following the IV administration of nonionic contrast agents in patients with moderate-to-severe renal insufficiency, the risk of significant CIN seems to be low. The IOCM iodixanol caused a higher rate of CIN than the LOCM iopamidol and iomeprol, especially in high-risk patients. Differences in osmolality between these LOCM and iodixanol do not play a role in the genesis of CIN. (orig.)

  18. LRRC8A protein is indispensable for swelling-activated and ATP-induced release of excitatory amino acids in rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzinski-García, María C; Rudkouskaya, Alena; Mongin, Alexander A

    2014-11-15

    In mammals, cellular swelling activates release of small organic osmolytes, including the excitatory amino acids (EAA) glutamate and aspartate, via a ubiquitously expressed volume-regulated chloride/anion channel (VRAC). Pharmacological evidence suggests that VRAC plays plural physiological and pathological roles, including excitotoxic release of glutamate in stroke. However, the molecular identity of this pathway was unknown. Two recent studies discovered that LRRC8 gene family members encode heteromeric VRAC composed of LRRC8A plus LRRC8B-E, which mediate swelling-activated Cl(-) currents and taurine release in human non-neural cells (Z. Qiu et al. Cell 157: 447, 2014; F.K. Voss et al. Science 344: 634, 2014). Here, we tested the contribution of LRRC8A to the EAA release in brain glia. We detected and quantified expression levels of LRRC8A-E in primary rat astrocytes with quantitative RT-PCR and then downregulated LRRC8A with gene-specific siRNAs. In astrocytes exposed to hypo-osmotic media, LRRC8A knockdown dramatically reduced swelling-activated release of the EAA tracer D-[(3)H]aspartate. In parallel HPLC assays, LRRC8A siRNA prevented hypo-osmotic media-induced loss of the endogenous intracellular L-glutamate and taurine. Furthermore, downregulation of LRRC8A completely ablated the ATP-stimulated release of D-[(3)H]aspartate and [(14)C]taurine from non-swollen astrocytes. Overall, these data indicate that LRRC8A is an indispensable component of a permeability pathway that mediates both swelling-activated and agonist-induced amino acid release in brain glial cells. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Maxi-anion channel as a candidate pathway for osmosensitive ATP release from mouse astrocytes in primary culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Tao Liu; Abduqodir H Toychiev; Nobuyuki Takahashi; Ravshan Z Sabirov; Yasunobu Okada

    2008-01-01

    In the present study,we aimed to evaluate the pathways contributing to ATP release from mouse astrocytes during hypoosmotic stress.We first examined the expression of mRNAs for proteins constituting possible ATPreleasing pathways that have been suggested over the past several years.In RT-PCR analysis using both control and osmotically swollen astrocytes,amplification of cDNA fragments of expected size was seen for connexins (Cx32,Cx37,Cx43),pannexin 1 (Pxl),the P2X7 receptor,MRP1 and MDRI,but not CFTR.Inhibitors of exocytotie vesicular release,gap junction hemi-channels,CFTR,MRPI,MDR1,the P2X7 receptor,and volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying chloride channels had no significant effects on the massive ATP release from astrocytes.In contrast,the hypotonicity-induced ATP release from astrocytes was most effectively inhibited by gadolinium release from several other cell types.Thus,we propose that the maxi-anion channel constitutes a major pathway for swelling-induced ATP release from cultured mouse astrocytes as well.

  20. The effect of human sperm hypoosmotic swelling patterns on sprem motility and men fertile capacity%低渗肿胀精子类型对精子活动率及男性生育能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱跃; 朱杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨低渗肿胀精子类型对精子活动率及男性不育的影响.方法收集2009年8月至2010年12月就诊不育男性和正常已育男性精液标本各100份,常规精液分析后,按精子活动率分正常组(A≥25%或A+B ≥50%)、低活动率组(0<A+B<50%且A <25%)和无活动率组(A+B+C=0%),行精子低渗膨胀实验(HOST),根据精子尾部肿胀类型分为b~g6型结果正常组和低活动率组的精子总肿胀率分别显著高于无活动率组(P <0.0167),且正常组和低活动率组所有肿胀类型率分高于无活动率组(P< 0.0167).正常组与低活动率组之间差异不显著(P>0.0167).在正常男性以及不育男性间,低渗肿胀精率类型无显著差异(P>0.05).结论精子肿胀类型的差异可能与活动率有关,然而排除活动率的因素,精子的肿胀率与精子的胀类型并不能有效判断男性生育能力.%Objective To investigate the effect of hypoosmotic swelling patterns on sprem motility and male infertility. Methods From August 2009 to December 2010, semen specimens from 100 fertile males and 100 infertile males were conllected. After routine semen analysis, patients were divided into three groups by sperm motility, including normal sperm motility (A ≥25% or A + B≥50% ), lower sperm motility (0% 0.0167). Conclusion Sprem swelling patterns may related with motility ratio, however exclusive the factor of motility ratio, sperm swelling ratio and swelling patterns cant effectively judgment males fertility.

  1. Renin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweda, Frank; Friis, Ulla; Wagner, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is mainly produced and released into circulation by the so-called juxtaglomerular epithelioid cells, located......, salt, and volume overload. In contrast, the events controlling the function of renin-secreting cells at the organ and cellular level are markedly less clear and remain mysterious in certain aspects. The unravelling of these mysteries has led to new and interesting insights into the process of renin...

  2. Contrast medium-induced nephropathy: the pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, P B; Tepel, Martin

    2006-01-01

    haemodynamics, regional hypoxia, auto-, and paracrine factors (adenosine, endothelin, reactive oxygen species) to direct cytotoxic effects. Although these potential mediators of CIN will be discussed separately, several factors may act in concert to perturb kidney function after exposure to contrast media. From...... ducts will decrease and enhance fluid excretion. Hence, CM in the distal portions of the tubular system is diluted, which implies reduced fluid viscosity and a lower risk of obstruction....

  3. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  4. Transient increase in neuronal chloride concentration by neuroactive amino acids released from glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBertollini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i is known to be dynamically modulated and alterations in Cl- homeostasis may occur in the brain at physiological and pathological conditions, being also likely involved in glioma-related seizures. However, the mechanism leading to changes in neuronal [Cl-]i during glioma invasion are still unclear. To characterize the potential effect of glioma released soluble factors on neuronal [Cl-]i, we used genetically encoded CFP/YFP-based ratiometric Cl-Sensor transiently expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Exposition of neurons to glioma conditioned medium (GCM caused rapid and transient elevation of [Cl-]i, resulting in the increase of fluorescence ratio, which was strongly reduced by blockers of ionotropic glutamate receptors APV and NBQX. Furthermore, in HEK cells expressing GluR1-AMPA receptors, GCM activated ionic current with efficacy similar to those caused by glutamate, supporting the notion that GCM contains glutamate or glutamatergic agonists, which cause neuronal depolarization, activation of NMDA and AMPA/KA receptors leading to elevation of [Cl-]i. Chromatographic analysis of the GCM showed that it contained several aminoacids, including glutamate, whose release from glioma cells did not occur via the most common glial mechanisms of transport, or in response to hypoosmotic stress. GCM also contained glycine, whose action contrasted the glutamate effect. Indeed, strychnine application significantly increased GCM-induced depolarization and [Cl-]i rise. GCM-evoked [Cl-]i elevation was not inhibited by antagonists of Cl- transporters and significantly reduced in the presence of anion channels blocker NPPB, suggesting that Cl-selective channels are a major route for GCM-induced Cl- influx. Altogether, these data show that glioma released aminoacids may dynamically alter Cl- equilibrium in surrounding neurons, deeply interfering with their inhibitory balance, likely leading to physiological and

  5. Properties and glial origin of osmotic-dependent release of taurine from the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleuze, C; Duvoid, A; Hussy, N

    1998-03-01

    1. Taurine, prominently concentrated in glial cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), is probably involved in the inhibition of SON vasopressin neurones by peripheral hypotonic stimulus, via activation of neuronal glycine receptors. We report here the properties and origin of the osmolarity-dependent release of preloaded [3H]taurine from isolated whole SO nuclei. 2. Hyposmotic medium induced a rapid, reversible and dose-dependent increase in taurine release. Release showed a high sensitivity to osmotic change, with a significant enhancement with less than a 5% decrease in osmolarity. Hyperosmotic stimulus decreased basal release. 3. Evoked release was independent of extracellular Ca2+ and Na+, and was blocked by the Cl- channel blockers DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) and DPC (N-phenylanthranilic acid), suggesting a diffusion process through volume-sensitive Cl- channels. 4. Evoked release was transient for large osmotic reductions (> or = 15%), probably reflecting regulatory volume decrease (RVD). However, it was sustained for smaller changes, suggesting that taurine release induced by physiological variations in osmolarity is not linked to RVD. 5. Basal and evoked release were strongly inhibited by an incubation of the tissue with the glia-specific toxin fluorocitrate, but were unaffected by a neurotoxic-treatment with NMDA, demonstrating the glial origin of the release of taurine in the SON. 6. The high osmosensitivity of taurine release suggests an important role in the osmoregulation of the SON function. These results strengthen the notion of an implication of taurine and glial cells in the regulation of the whole-body fluid balance through the modulation of vasopressin release.

  6. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC RELEASE MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, C.

    1960-09-13

    An electromagnetic release mechanism is offered that may be used, for example, for supporting a safety rod for a nuclear reactor. The release mechanism is designed to have a large excess holding force and a rapid, uniform, and dependable release. The fast release is accomplished by providing the electromagnet with slotttd polts separated by an insulating potting resin, and by constructing the poles with a ferro-nickel alloy. The combination of these two features materially reduces the eddy current power density whenever the magnetic field changes during a release operation. In addition to these features, the design of the armature is such as to provide ready entrance of fluid into any void that might tend to form during release of the armature. This also improves the release time for the mechanism. The large holding force for the mechanism is accomplished by providing a small, selected, uniform air gap between the inner pole piece and the armature.

  8. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Martha Goff

    1998-01-01

    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  9. Intracellular drug release nanosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Meng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to elicit therapeutic effects, many drugs including small molecule anticancer drugs, proteins, siRNA, and DNA have to be delivered and released into the specific cellular compartments typically the cytoplasm or nucleus of target cells. Intracellular environment-responsive nanosystems that exhibit good extracellular stability while rapidly releasing drugs inside cancer cells have been actively pursued for effective cancer therapy. Here, we highlight novel designs of smart nanosystems that release drugs in response to an intracellular biological signal of cancer cells such as acidic pH in endo/lysosomal compartments, enzymes in lysosomes, and redox potential in cytoplasm and the cell nucleus.

  10. Miniature Release Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to design, build and functionally test a miniature release mechanism for CubeSats and other small satellites. The WFF 6U satellite structure will be...

  11. A fluoride release-adsorption-release system applied to fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suljak, J P; Hatibovic-Kofman, S

    1996-09-01

    This investigation compared the initial fluoride release and release following refluoridation of three resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (Photac-Fil Applicap, Vitremer, and Fuji II LC) and a new polyacid-modified resin composite material (Dyract). After daily flouride release was measured for 8 days, specimens were refluoridated in 1,000-ppm solutions of fluoride ion for 10 minutes and fluoride release was measured for 5 days. Two further 5-day refluoridation-release periods were carried out. All materials released fluoride initially. Photac released the most; Dyract released the least. Initial release was greatest over the first few days. All materials released significantly more fluoride for 24 to 48 hours after refluoridation. Less fluoride was released with each successive refluoridation for the three glass-ionomer cements. The release from the Dyract compomer remained at a comparatively constant and significantly lower level following each refluoridation.

  12. [Complications of injections of hypoosmotic solutes in an underage patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjoar, M-D; Lepage, C; Hivelin, M; Lantieri, L

    2009-04-01

    Liposuction represents the standard surgical treatment of localized fat excess. Some non-plastic-surgery-board-certified practitioners are likely to offer non-invasive alternatives treatments. We report the clinical case of a 14-year-old female patient who followed a Lipectomy treatment. The Lipectomy technique consists in a hypodermic injection of hypotonic solutions in order to obtain an adipocytes lysis by osmotic shock. No PubMed referenced scientific publication is related to the efficacy or the tolerance of this technique. Postoperative evolution was marked by a polymicrobial subcutaneous abscess that needed two surgical evacuations and 10 days of overnight stay in our department. Through this clinical case, we evoke the possible dangers linked to the application of a non-evaluated medical technique and the necessity of establishing an official validation agency related to innovative techniques in aesthetic medicine and surgery.

  13. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  14. Controlled-release microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  15. Release of OLe peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLe is a high oleic Spanish-type peanut that has excellent yield and enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot resistance when compared to other high oleic Spanish cultivars. The purpose for releasing OLe is to provide peanut producers with a true Spanish peanut that is high oleic and has enhanced yi...

  16. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...

  17. Carpal tunnel release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Sørensen, A I; Crone, K L;

    2013-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done to compare the results of carpal tunnel release using classic incision, short incision, or endoscopic technique. In total, 90 consecutive cases were included. Follow-up was 24 weeks. We found a significantly shorter sick leave in the endoscopi...... incision could be found. There were no serious complications in either group. The results indicate that the endoscopic procedure is safe and has the benefit of faster rehabilitation and return to work....

  18. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  19. EIA new releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students.

  20. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  1. Mechanisms of HSP72 release

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexzander Asea

    2007-04-01

    Currently two mechanisms are recognized by which heat shock proteins (HSP) are released from cells; a passive release mechanism, including necrotic cell death, severe blunt trauma, surgery and following infection with lytic viruses, and an active release mechanism which involves the non classical protein release pathway. HSPs are released both as free HSP and within exosomes. This review covers recent findings on the mechanism by which stress induces the release of HSP72 into the circulation and the biological significance of circulating HSP72 to host defense against disease.

  2. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  3. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  4. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  5. Heat release mechanism of energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, N. [Third Research Center, Technical Research and development Institute (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Determination of the heat release mechanism of energetic materials is a major subject of combustion study. In order to elucidate the combustion process of various types of energetic materials a generalized combustion wave structure was proposed and the heat release process was discussed. The heat release process was significantly different between the physical structures of the materials: homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. The thermal structure of an azide polymer was evaluated to demonstrate the heat release mechanism. (author) 6 refs.

  6. Is bioexsiccation releasing dioxins?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benfenati, E.; Mariani, G.; Lodi, M.; Reitano, G.; Fanelli, R. [' ' Mario Negri' ' Institute for Pharmacological Research, Milan (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Bioexsiccation is a relatively new process to treat urban solid wastes. We studied the possible release of dioxins from this process, measuring dioxin concentration in the emissions from a bioexsiccation plant. As a comparison, we measured atmospheric levels nearby the plant. The biofilter treating gaseous emissions was also evaluated to assess its efficiency. Dioxin concentrations in the biofilter effluent were lower than both those before the biofilter and the nearby atmosphere. In the last years the management and treatment of solid urban wastes produced some improved processes, in a general attempt to cope with the problem of the huge amount of wastes produced by the modern society. Bio-exsiccation of waste aims at affording a much more biologically inert and manageable material compared to the original waste. In this process the urban solid waste is kept under an air stream for about two weeks. The waste undergoes biological transformation, due to fermentation, which produces an increase of the temperature up to 60-70 C. At the end of the process the weight waste is typically reduced by one third, due to the loss of water and to the degradation of putrescible compounds. Since this is a relatively new industrial process, we studied the possible release of dioxins in the atmospheric emissions of the bioexsiccation plant.

  7. Attentional priming releases crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Arni; Heimisson, Pétur Rúnar; Róbertsson, Gunnar Freyr; Whitney, David

    2013-10-01

    Views of natural scenes unfold over time, and objects of interest that were present a moment ago tend to remain present. While visual crowding places a fundamental limit on object recognition in cluttered scenes, most studies of crowding have suffered from the limitation that they typically involved static scenes. The role of temporal continuity in crowding has therefore been unaddressed. We investigated intertrial effects upon crowding in visual scenes, showing that crowding is considerably diminished when objects remain constant on consecutive visual search trials. Repetition of both the target and distractors decreases the critical distance for crowding from flankers. More generally, our results show how object continuity through between-trial priming releases objects that would otherwise be unidentifiable due to crowding. Crowding, although it is a significant bottleneck on object recognition, can be mitigated by statistically likely temporal continuity of the objects. Crowding therefore depends not only on what is momentarily present, but also on what was previously attended.

  8. Optogenetic control of ATP release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew A.; Joshi, Bipin; Gu, Ling; Feranchak, Andrew; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Controlled release of ATP can be used for understanding extracellular purinergic signaling. While coarse mechanical forces and hypotonic stimulation have been utilized in the past to initiate ATP release from cells, these methods are neither spatially accurate nor temporally precise. Further, these methods cannot be utilized in a highly effective cell-specific manner. To mitigate the uncertainties regarding cellular-specificity and spatio-temporal release of ATP, we herein demonstrate use of optogenetics for ATP release. ATP release in response to optogenetic stimulation was monitored by Luciferin-Luciferase assay (North American firefly, photinus pyralis) using luminometer as well as mesoscopic bioluminescence imaging. Our result demonstrates repetitive release of ATP subsequent to optogenetic stimulation. It is thus feasible that purinergic signaling can be directly detected via imaging if the stimulus can be confined to single cell or in a spatially-defined group of cells. This study opens up new avenue to interrogate the mechanisms of purinergic signaling.

  9. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to study 354 consumer items using the cobalt spot test. Cobalt release was assessed to obtain a risk estimate of cobalt allergy and dermatitis in consumers who would wear the jewellery. Methods: The cobalt spot test was used to assess cobalt release from all items....... Microstructural characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Cobalt release was found in 4 (1.1%) of 354 items. All these had a dark appearance. SEM/EDS was performed on the four dark appearing items which showed tin-cobalt plating on these....... Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future...

  10. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  11. Medium-induced gluon radiation beyond the eikonal approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apolinário, Liliana, E-mail: lilianamarisa.cunha@usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, Néstor [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Milhano, Guilherme [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Salgado, Carlos A. [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    In this work we improve existing calculations of radiative energy loss by computing corrections that implement energy–momentum conservation, previously only implemented a posteriori, in a rigorous way. Using the path-integral formalism, we compute in-medium splittings allowing transverse motion of all particles in the emission process, thus relaxing the assumption that only the softest particle is permitted such movement. This work constitutes the extension of the computation carried out for x→1 in L. Apolinario et al. (2012) [5], to all values of x, the momentum fraction of the energy of the parent parton carried by the emitted gluon. In order to accomplish a general description of the whole in-medium showering process, in this work we allow for arbitrary formation times for the emitted gluon (the limit of small formation times was previously employed in J.-P. Blaizot et al., 2013 [6], for the g→gg splitting). We provide general expressions and their realisation in the path integral formalism within the harmonic oscillator approximation.

  12. Medium-induced gluon radiation beyond the eikonal approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Apolinário, Liliana; Milhano, Guilherme; Salgado, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    In this work we improve existing calculations of radiative energy loss by computing corrections that implement energy-momentum conservation, previously only implemented a posteriori, in a rigorous way. Using the path-integral formalism, we compute in-medium splittings allowing transverse motion of all particles in the emission process, thus relaxing the assumption that only the softest particle is permitted such movement. This work constitutes the extension of the computation carried out for x$\\rightarrow$1 in Phys. Lett. B718 (2012) 160-168, to all values of x, the momentum fraction of the energy of the parent parton carried by the emitted gluon. In order to accomplish a general description of the whole in-medium showering process, in this work we allow for arbitrary formation times for the emitted gluon. We provide general expressions and their realisation in the path integral formalism within the harmonic oscillator approximation.

  13. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNA is released from EBV-infected cells and activates signaling from Toll-like receptor 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakiri, Dai; Zhou, Li; Samanta, Mrinal; Matsumoto, Misako; Ebihara, Takashi; Seya, Tsukasa; Imai, Shosuke; Fujieda, Mikiya; Kawa, Keisei; Takada, Kenzo

    2009-09-28

    Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER) is nonpolyadenylated, noncoding RNA that forms stem-loop structure by intermolecular base-pairing, giving rise to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-like molecules, and exists abundantly in EBV-infected cells. Here, we report that EBER induces signaling from the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is a sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and induces type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. A substantial amount of EBER, which was sufficient to induce signaling from TLR3, was released from EBV-infected cells, and the majority of the released EBER existed as a complex with a cellular EBER-binding protein La, suggesting that EBER was released from the cells by active secretion of La. Sera from patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM), chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV), and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH), whose general symptoms are caused by proinflammatory cytokines contained EBER, and addition of RNA purified from the sera into culture medium induced signaling from TLR3 in EBV-transformed lymphocytes and peripheral mononuclear cells. Furthermore, DCs treated with EBER showed mature phenotype and antigen presentation capacity. These findings suggest that EBER, which is released from EBV-infected cells, is responsible for immune activation by EBV, inducing type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. EBER-induced activation of innate immunity would account for immunopathologic diseases caused by active EBV infection.

  14. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  15. Press Oil Final Release Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey Jay [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruedig, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-11

    There are forty-eight 55 gallon barrels filled with hydraulic oil that are candidates for release and recycle. This oil needs to be characterized prior to release. Principles of sampling as provided in MARSAME/MARSSIM approaches were used as guidance for sampling.

  16. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  17. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.;

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo......A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer......, the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  18. Nitrogen release during coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.; Mitchell, R.E.; Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.

    1995-02-01

    Experiments in entrained flow reactors at combustion temperatures are performed to resolve the rank dependence of nitrogen release on an elemental basis for a suite of 15 U.S. coals ranging from lignite to low-volatile bituminous. Data were obtained as a function of particle conversion, with overall mass loss up to 99% on a dry, ash-free basis. Nitrogen release rates are presented relative to both carbon loss and overall mass loss. During devolatilization, fractional nitrogen release from low-rank coals is much slower than fractional mass release and noticeably slower than fractional carbon release. As coal rank increases, fractional nitrogen release rate relative to that of carbon and mass increases, with fractional nitrogen release rates exceeding fractional mass and fractional carbon release rates during devolatilization for high-rank (low-volatile bituminous) coals. At the onset of combustion, nitrogen release rates increase significantly. For all coals investigated, cumulative fractional nitrogen loss rates relative to those of mass and carbon passes through a maximum during the earliest stages of oxidation. The mechanism for generating this maximum is postulated to involve nascent thermal rupture of nitrogen-containing compounds and possible preferential oxidation of nitrogen sites. During later stages of oxidation, the cumulative fractional loss of nitrogen approaches that of carbon for all coals. Changes in the relative release rates of nitrogen compared to those of both overall mass and carbon during all stages of combustion are attributed to a combination of the chemical structure of coals, temperature histories during combustion, and char chemistry.

  19. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  20. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. These ...

  1. Turbulent lock release gravity current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The time evolution of a turbulent lock release gravity current, formed by a finite volume ofhomogeneous fluid released instantaneously into another fluid of slightly lower density, was studied byexperimental measurements of the density structure via elaborate digital image processing and by a nu-merical simulation of the flow and mixing using a two-equation turbulence model. The essential fact thatthe gravity current passes through an initial slumping phase in which the current head advances steadilyand a second self-similar phase in which the front velocity decreases like the negative third power of thetime after release is satisfactorily presented by the laboratory observation. An overall entrainment ratioproportional to the distance from the release point is found by the numerical simulation. The renormal-ization group (RNG) k- ε model for Reynolds-stress closure is validated to characterize the gravitycurrent with transitional and localized turbulence.

  2. Reduced levels of intracellular calcium releasing in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Juan F

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthenozoospermia is one of the most common findings present in infertile males characterized by reduced or absent sperm motility, but its aetiology remains unknown in most cases. In addition, calcium is one of the most important ions regulating sperm motility. In this study we have investigated the progesterone-evoked intracellular calcium signal in ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normospermia or asthenozoospermia. Methods Human ejaculates were obtained from healthy volunteers and asthenospermic men by masturbation after 4–5 days of abstinence. For determination of cytosolic free calcium concentration, spermatozoa were loaded with the fluorescent ratiometric calcium indicator Fura-2. Results Treatment of spermatozoa from normospermic men with 20 micromolar progesterone plus 1 micromolar thapsigargin in a calcium free medium induced a typical transient increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration due to calcium release from internal stores. Similar results were obtained when spermatozoa were stimulated with progesterone alone. Subsequent addition of calcium to the external medium evoked a sustained elevation in cytosolic free calcium concentration indicative of capacitative calcium entry. However, when progesterone plus thapsigargin were administered to spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia, calcium signal and subsequent calcium entry was much smaller compared to normospermic patients. As expected, pretreatment of normospermic spermatozoa with both the anti-progesterone receptor c262 antibody and with progesterone receptor antagonist RU-38486 decreased the calcium release induced by progesterone. Treatment of spermatozoa with cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide decreased the calcium entry evoked by depletion of internal calcium stores in normospermic patients, whereas these treatments proved to be ineffective at modifying the calcium entry in patients with asthenozoospermia. Conclusion Our results suggest

  3. PCDD/PCDF release inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, H. [UNEP Chemicals, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2004-09-15

    The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) entered into force on 17 May 2004 with 50 Parties. In May 2004, 59 countries had ratified or acceded the Convention. The objective of the Convention is ''to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants''. For intentionally produced POPs, e.g., pesticides and industrial chemicals such as hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls, this will be achieved by stop of production and use. For unintentionally generated POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), measures have to be taken to ''reduce the total releases derived from anthropogenic sources''; the final goal is ultimate elimination, where feasible. Under the Convention, Parties have to establish and maintain release inventories to prove the continuous release reduction. Since many countries do not have the technical and financial capacity to measure all releases from all potential PCDD/PCDF sources, UNEP Chemicals has developed the ''Standardized Toolkit for the Identification of Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases'' (''Toolkit'' for short), a methodology to estimate annual releases from a number of sources. With this methodology, annual releases can be estimated by multiplying process-specific default emission factors provided in the Toolkit with national activity data. At the seventh session of the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee, the Toolkit was recommended to be used by countries when reporting national release data to the Conference of the Parties. The Toolkit is especially used by developing countries and countries with economies in transition where no measured data are available. Results from Uruguay, Thailand, Jordan, Philippines, and Brunei Darussalam have been published.

  4. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  5. Controlled release from recombinant polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Robert; Poursaid, Azadeh; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-09-28

    Recombinant polymers provide a high degree of molecular definition for correlating structure with function in controlled release. The wide array of amino acids available as building blocks for these materials lend many advantages including biorecognition, biodegradability, potential biocompatibility, and control over mechanical properties among other attributes. Genetic engineering and DNA manipulation techniques enable the optimization of structure for precise control over spatial and temporal release. Unlike the majority of chemical synthetic strategies used, recombinant DNA technology has allowed for the production of monodisperse polymers with specifically defined sequences. Several classes of recombinant polymers have been used for controlled drug delivery. These include, but are not limited to, elastin-like, silk-like, and silk-elastinlike proteins, as well as emerging cationic polymers for gene delivery. In this article, progress and prospects of recombinant polymers used in controlled release will be reviewed.

  6. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng; Tsang, M B; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy released by splitting Uranium and Thorium isotopes into two, three, four, up to eight fragments with nearly equal size are studied. We found that the energy released come from equally splitting the $^{235,238}$U and $^{230,232}$Th nuclei into to three fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model is employed to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for the excited nuclei. Weighing the the probability distributions of fragments multiplicity at different excitation energies for the $^{238}$U nucleus, we found that an excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u is optimal for the $^{235}$U, $^{238}$U, $^{230}$Th and $^{232}$Th nuclei to release nuclear energy of about 0.7-0.75 MeV/u.

  7. Training Materials for Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wake, Jo Dugstad; Hansen, Cecilie; Debus, Kolja;

    This document, D7.4 – training materials for release 3, provides an overview of the training material for version 3 of the NEXT-TELL tools and methods. Previous documents submitted as part of work package 7, which is about teacher training, are D7.1 – Training Concept, D7.2 – Training Materials...... for Release 1 and D7.3 – Training Materials for Release 2. D7.4 builds on D7.1 and D7.2 and D7.3. D7.4 contains further development of previous work within WP7, essentially a revised theoretical approach to the teacher training, and expansion of the notion of tool training. The media in use have been expanded...

  8. 7 CFR 550.29 - Press releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Press releases. 550.29 Section 550.29 Agriculture... Program Management § 550.29 Press releases. Press releases or other forms of public notification will be... opportunity to review, in advance, all written press releases and any other written information to be...

  9. 28 CFR 2.83 - Release planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release planning. 2.83 Section 2.83... Release planning. (a) All grants of parole shall be conditioned on the development of a suitable release... parole date for purposes of release planning for up to 120 days without a hearing. If efforts to...

  10. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  11. Heparin release from thermosensitive hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutowska, Anna; Bae, You Han; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Thermosensitive hydrogels (TSH) were synthesized and investigated as heparin releasing polymers for the prevention of surface induced thrombosis. TSH were synthesized with N-isopropyl acrylamide (NiPAAm) copolymerized with butyl methacrylate (BMA) (hydrophobic) or acrylic acid (AAc) (hydrophilic) co

  12. Flavor Release from French Fries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, W.A.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Boelrijk, A.E.M.; Burgering, M.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Flavor release from French fries was measured with the MS-NOSE using both panelists and a mouth-model system. The identity of several volatiles measured with the MS-NOSE was verified with MS-MS. The effect of frying time and the effect of adding salt on I-max (maximum intensity of compounds) and on

  13. Spatial release from informational masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakerd, Brad; Aaronson, Neil L.

    2001-05-01

    A new method for investigating spatial release from informational masking was developed and employed in two experiments. The new method is computer controlled and efficient. It employs the versatile coordinate response measure speech stimulus set [Bolia et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1065 (2000)]. The experiments were conducted in an anechoic room, with a primary loudspeaker in front of the listener and a secondary loudspeaker at 60 deg to the right. Target messages were presented from the primary speaker only. For a standard, distractor messages, simultaneous with the target, were also presented from the primary speaker only. Spatial release was measured by presenting the distractors from both primary and secondary speakers with a temporal offset. Experiment 1 fixed the offset (secondary leading, +4 ms) and varied the number of distractors (1 to 3) and the target-to-distractor ratio (-12 to +4 dB). Masking release, sometimes as large as 10 dB, was found for all combinations of these variables. Experiment 2 varied the offset over a wide range of values. Substantial release from masking was found for both positive and negative offsets, but only in the range in which speech echoes are suppressed (<50 ms). [Work supported by NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  14. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating

  15. Lignin based controlled release coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Eastham, D.

    2011-01-01

    Urea is a commonly used fertilizer. Due to its high water-solubility, misuse easily leads to excess nitrogen levels in the soil. The aim of this research was to develop an economically feasible and biodegradable slow-release coating for urea. For this purpose, lignin was selected as coating material

  16. Modelling and simulations of controlled release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Sayed Ameenuddin; Razali, Radzuan; Shaari, Ku Zilati Ku; Mansor, Nurlidia

    2016-11-01

    The recent advancement in controlled release fertilizer has provided an alternative solution to the conventional urea, controlled release fertilizer has a good plant nutrient uptake they are environment friendly. To have an optimum plant intake of nutrients from controlled release fertilizer it is very essential to understand the release characteristics. A mathematical model is developed to predict the release characteristics from polymer coated granule. Numerical simulations are performed by varying the parameters radius of granule, soil water content and soil porosity to study their effect on fertilizer release. Understanding these parameters helps in the better design and improve the efficiency of controlled release fertilizer.

  17. 14 CFR 125.373 - Original flight release or amendment of flight release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original flight release or amendment of flight release. 125.373 Section 125.373 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Flight Release Rules § 125.373 Original flight release or amendment of flight release. (a) A...

  18. Microwave Activation of Drug Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónasson, Sævar Þór

    Due to current limitations in control of pharmaceutical drug release in the body along with increasing medicine use, methods of externally-controlled drug release are of high interest. In this thesis, the use of microwaves is proposed as a technique with the purpose of externally activating...... setup, called the microwave activation system has been developed and tested on a body phantom that emulates the human torso. The system presented in this thesis, operates unobtrusively, i.e. without physically interfering with the target (patient). The torso phantom is a simple dual-layered cylindrical...... the phantom is of interest for disclosing essential information about the limitations of the concept, the phantom and the system. For these purposes, a twofold operation of the microwave activation system was performed, which are reciprocal of each other. In the first operation phase, named mapping...

  19. Zegerid--immediate-release omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-11

    The FDA has approved marketing of Zegerid powder for oral suspension (Santarus), an immediate-release formulation of the proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole (Prilosec, and others). All other oral PPIs are delayed-release, enteric-coated formulations designed to prevent degradation of the drug by gastric acid. Each 20- or 40-mg packet of Zegerid contains 1680 mg sodium bicarbonate, which protects the drug from gastric acid degradation. A dose of Zegerid contains 460 mg of sodium, which may be excessive for some patients. Zegerid is the first oral PPI to be approved by the FDA for reduction of risk of upper GI bleeding in critically ill patients. The drug may be useful for patients who are unable to swallow and have nasogastric (NG) tubes in place. Zegerid cost $70.00 for 14 days' treatment, compared to less than $10 for 14 tablets of Prilosec OTC.

  20. Neutron-absorber release device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Erp, Jan B.; Kimont, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    A resettable device is provided for supporting an object, sensing when an environment reaches a critical temperature and releasing the object when the critical temperature is reached. It includes a flexible container having a material inside with a melting point at the critical temperature. The object's weight is supported by the solid material which gives rigidity to the container until the critical temperature is reached at which point the material in the container melts. The flexible container with the now fluid material inside has insufficient strength to support the object which is thereby released. Biasing means forces the container back to its original shape so that when the temperature falls below the melting temperature the material again solidifies, and the object may again be supported by the device.

  1. China's First Luxury Brands Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China now has its own luxury brands.The four brands Feitian (Moutai spirit), Yong-Qi Zitan (furniture), Rongbaozhai (works of art) and Dongding Oolong (tea) were released as the first Chinese luxury brands by the China Luxury Institute on Nov.11.Based on the Institute's investigation of over 500 enterprises and brands within over 30 kinds of industries like garments, tea, wine, china and jade, in combination with market questionnaire, the first four brands have made their debut.

  2. The Effect of Ethanol on the Release of Opioids from Oral Prolonged-Release Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Walden, Malcolm; Nicholls, Fiona A.; Smith, Kevin J.; Tucker, Geoffrey T

    2007-01-01

    Recent experience has prompted the US FDA to consider whether ethanol ingestion may modify the release characteristics of prolonged-release formulations, where dose dumping may be an issue for patient safety. The influence of ethanol on the in vitro release of opioid drugs from some prolonged-release formulations utilizing different release technologies was examined. Results indicated that the prolonged-release mechanisms remained intact under the testing conditions, although one product show...

  3. Toxic Release Inventory Chemicals by Groupings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) makes available information for more than 600 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released...

  4. Section 9: Ground Water - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    HRS training. the ground water pathway likelihood of release factor category reflects the likelihood that there has been, or will be, a release of hazardous substances in any of the aquifers underlying the site.

  5. Mars Express releases Beagle 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    At 9:31 CET, the crucial sequence started to separate the Beagle 2 lander from Mars Express. As data from Mars Express confirm, the pyrotechnic device was fired to slowly release a loaded spring, which gently pushed Beagle 2 away from the mother spacecraft. An image from the onboard visual monitoring camera (VMC) showing the lander drifting away is expected to be available later today. Since the Beagle 2 lander has no propulsion system of its own, it had to be put on the correct course for its descent before it was released. For this reason, on 16 December the trajectory of the whole Mars Express spacecraft had to be adjusted to ensure that Beagle 2 would be on course to enter the atmosphere of Mars. This manoeuvre, called "retargeting'' was critical: if the entry angle is too steep, the lander could overheat and burn up in the atmosphere; if the angle is too shallow, the lander might skim like a pebble on the surface of a lake and miss its target. This fine targeting and today's release were crucial manoeuvres for which ESA's Ground Control Team at ESOC (European Space Operations Centre) had trained over the past several months. The next major milestone for Mars Express will be the manoeuvre to enter into orbit around Mars. This will happen at 3:52 CET on Christmas morning, when Beagle 2 is expected to land on the surface of Mars. "Good teamwork by everybody - ESA, industry and the Beagle 2 team - has got one more critical step accomplished. Mars, here comes Europe!" said David Southwood, ESA Director of Science.

  6. DVD With High Gapacity Released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    After two years of research and development, the Center for International Cultural Exchange under the Ministry of Culture of China has recently released a new type of DVD which is double-faced, double-system and bears ten languages. Teststatistics show that all its indicators come up withthose of its foreign counterparts. Now it has beenput into mass production.This new type of DVD features the following performances. It is a high-clarity one, with the horizontal clarity more than 500. It has a superb sound effect, capable of recording various stereo signals such as DOLBY DIGITAL and DTS. It can record dubbing in eight languages and subtitles

  7. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  8. 28 CFR 2.33 - Release plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.33 Release plans. (a) A grant of parole is conditioned upon the approval of release plans by the Regional Commissioner. In general...

  9. Prisoners' Perspectives on Strategies for Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Mika'il A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines questions regarding the perceptions of New York State prisoners (N=263), their chances of an early release, and their strategies to expedite the release process. Findings suggest that inmates view all activities thought to expedite release as important. Many prisoners wished to eliminate the "game playing" thought associated…

  10. Data release of the LAMOST pilot survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A-Li Luo; Jian-Nan Zhang; Shi-Hai Yang; Zheng-Qiu Yao; Yong Yu; Hui Yuan; Chao Zhai; En-Peng Zhang; Jing Zhang; Li-Ping Zhang; Wei Zhang; Yong Zhang; Zhong-Rui Bai; Zhen-Chao Zhang; Ming Zhao; Fang Zhou; Yong-Tian Zhu; Jie Zhu; Si-Cheng Zou; Xiao-Yan Chen; Feng-Fei Wang; Yan-Xin Guo; Jian-Jun Chen; Bing Du; Xiao Kong; Ya-Juan Lei; Yin-Bi Li; Hao-Tong Zhang; Yi-Han Song; Yue Wu; Yan-Xia Zhang; Xin-Lin Zhou; Fang Zuo; Peng Du; Lin He; Wen Hou; Yi-Qiao Dong; Jian Li; Yong-Heng Zhao; Guang-Wei Li; Shuang Li; Jing Song; Yuan Tian; Meng-Xin Wang; Ke-Fei Wu; Hui-Qin Yang; Hai-Long Yuan; Shu-Yun Cao; Hai-Yuan Chen; Gang Zhao; Kun-Xin Chen; Ying Chen; Jia-Ru Chu; Lei Feng; Xue-Fei Gong; Bo-Zhong Gu; Yong-Hui Hou; Zhi-Ying Huo; Hong-Zhuan Hu; Ning-Sheng Hu; Xiang-Qun Cui; Zhong-Wen Hu; Lei Jia; Fang-Hua Jiang; Xiang Jiang; Zi-Bo Jiang; Ge Jin; Ai-Hua Li; Qi Li; Xin-Nan Li; Yan Li; Guo-Ping Li; Ye-Ping Li; Gen-Rong Liu; Guan-Qun Liu; Zhi-Gang Liu; Qi-Shuai Lu; Wen-Zhi Lu; Yu Luo; Yin-Dun Mao; Li Men; Ji-Jun Ni; Yao-Quan Chu; Yong-Jun Qi; Zhao-Xiang Qi; Huo-Ming Shi; Ding-Qiang Su; Shi-Wei Sun; Hong-Jun Su; Zheng-Hong Tang; Qing-Sheng Tao; Liang-Ping Tu; Da-Qing Wang; Jian-Rong Shi; Dan Wang; Guo-Min Wang; Hai Wang; Jia-Ning Wang; Jian Wang; Jian-Ling Wang; Jian-Ping Wang; Lei Wang; Shou-Guan Wang; Shu-Qing Wang; Gang Wang; Ya-Nan Wang; You Wang; Yue-Fei Wang; Ming-Zhi Wei; Xiang-Xiang Xue; Xiao-Zheng Xing; Ling-Zhe Xu; Xin-Qi Xu; Yan Xu; De-Hua Yang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the data release of the LAMOST pilot survey,which includes data reduction,calibration,spectral analysis,data products and data access.The accuracy of the released data and the information about the FITS headers of spectra are also introduced.The released data set includes 319 000 spectra and a catalog of these objects.

  11. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  12. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  13. Nanoparticle release from dental composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landuyt, K L; Hellack, B; Van Meerbeek, B; Peumans, M; Hoet, P; Wiemann, M; Kuhlbusch, T A J; Asbach, C

    2014-01-01

    Dental composites typically contain high amounts (up to 60 vol.%) of nanosized filler particles. There is a current concern that dental personnel (and patients) may inhale nanosized dust particles (composite dust was analyzed in real work conditions. Exposure measurements of dust in a dental clinic revealed high peak concentrations of nanoparticles in the breathing zone of both dentist and patient, especially during aesthetic treatments or treatments of worn teeth with composite build-ups. Further laboratory assessment confirmed that all tested composites released very high concentrations of airborne particles in the nanorange (>10(6)cm(-3)). The median diameter of airborne composite dust varied between 38 and 70 nm. Electron microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed that the airborne particles originated from the composite, and revealed that the dust particles consisted of filler particles or resin or both. Though composite dust exhibited no significant oxidative reactivity, more toxicological research is needed. To conclude, on manipulation with the bur, dental composites release high concentrations of nanoparticles that may enter deeply into the lungs. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories

    1997-10-01

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  15. Flouride release from various restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, O; Uçtaşli, M; Can, H; Türköz, E; Can, M

    1997-09-01

    Fluoride release from six light-activated restorative materials, including two resinmodified glass-ionomers, two composites, and two compomers, was evaluated and compared with one conventional acid-based glass-ionomer cement. The amount and rate of release varied among the tested materials. Both resin-modified glass-ionomers and the conventional acid-base glass-ionomer cements released more fluoride then the composites and compomers (p < 0.05). Additionally, composite materials released less fluoride than compomer materials (p < 0.05). Release of fluoride by the tested materials showed a significant decrease after all the tested time intervals.

  16. Control of noradrenaline release from hippocampal synaptosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, D.P.; Fillenz, M.

    1981-10-01

    Potassium-evoked tritiated noradrenaline (NA) release from hippocampal synaptosomes was measured with a superfusion method. A single 2-min high-K+ pulse released 39% of the vesicular NA by a Ca2+-dependent mechanism: the Ca2+-independent release was negligible. After changing the vesicular NA store size by pretreating rats with either alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, 500 mg/kg, or tranylcypromine, 10 mg/kg, a single K+ pulse released a constant percentage of the vesicular NA. With two K+ pulses, however, there was a reduction in the percentage of vesicular NA released in response to the second pulse.

  17. The 2013 Release of Cloudy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferland, G J; van Hoof, P A M; Williams, R J R; Abel, N P; Lykins, M L; Shaw, Gargi; Henney, W J; Stancil, P C

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of the 2013 release of the plasma simulation code Cloudy. Cloudy models the ionization, chemical, and thermal state of material that may be exposed to an external radiation field or other source of heating, and predicts observables such as emission and absorption spectra. It works in terms of elementary processes, so is not limited to any particular temperature or density regime. This paper summarizes advances made since the last major review in 1998. Much of the recent development has emphasized dusty molecular environments, improvements to the ionization / chemistry solvers, and how atomic and molecular data are used. We present two types of simulations to demonstrate the capability of the code. We consider a molecular cloud irradiated by an X-ray source such as an Active Nucleus and show how treating EUV recombination lines and the full SED affects the observed spectrum. A second example illustrates the very wide range of particle and radiation density that can be considered.

  18. Release of RANKERN 16A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bird Adam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RANKERN 16 is the latest version of the point-kernel gamma radiation transport Monte Carlo code from AMEC Foster Wheeler’s ANSWERS Software Service. RANKERN is well established in the UK shielding community for radiation shielding and dosimetry assessments. Many important developments have been made available to users in this latest release of RANKERN. The existing general 3D geometry capability has been extended to include import of CAD files in the IGES format providing efficient full CAD modelling capability without geometric approximation. Import of tetrahedral mesh and polygon surface formats has also been provided. An efficient voxel geometry type has been added suitable for representing CT data. There have been numerous input syntax enhancements and an extended actinide gamma source library. This paper describes some of the new features and compares the performance of the new geometry capabilities.

  19. Biomediated continuous release phosphate fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Alan H.; Rogers, Robert D.

    1999-01-01

    A composition is disclosed for providing phosphate fertilizer to the root zone of plants. The composition comprises a microorganism capable of producing and secreting a solubilization agent, a carbon source for providing raw material for the microorganism to convert into the solubilization agent, and rock phosphate ore for providing a source of insoluble phosphate that is solubilized by the solubilization agent and released as soluble phosphate. The composition is provided in a physical form, such as a granule, that retains the microorganism, carbon source, and rock phosphate ore, but permits water and soluble phosphate to diffuse into the soil. A method of using the composition for providing phosphate fertilizer to plants is also disclosed.

  20. Release of RANKERN 16A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Adam; Murphy, Christophe; Dobson, Geoff

    2017-09-01

    RANKERN 16 is the latest version of the point-kernel gamma radiation transport Monte Carlo code from AMEC Foster Wheeler's ANSWERS Software Service. RANKERN is well established in the UK shielding community for radiation shielding and dosimetry assessments. Many important developments have been made available to users in this latest release of RANKERN. The existing general 3D geometry capability has been extended to include import of CAD files in the IGES format providing efficient full CAD modelling capability without geometric approximation. Import of tetrahedral mesh and polygon surface formats has also been provided. An efficient voxel geometry type has been added suitable for representing CT data. There have been numerous input syntax enhancements and an extended actinide gamma source library. This paper describes some of the new features and compares the performance of the new geometry capabilities.

  1. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  2. Fluoride release from newly marketed fluoride varnishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonowski, Beth L; Bartoloni, Joseph A; Hensley, Donna M; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2012-03-01

    New fluoride varnishes have been marketed that reportedly release more fluoride (Enamel Pro) or release fluoride more slowly (Vanish XT). The purpose of this study was to compare the amount and rate of fluoride release of new fluoride varnishes with other traditional fluoride varnishes. Extracted molars were cut into block sections. The enamel surfaces of the sections were painted with Enamel Pro, Duraphat, Vanish, or Vanish XT fluoride varnishes. One group was not treated and served as a negative control. The tooth sections were immersed in artificial saliva. The concentration of fluoride in parts per million was measured after the first 30 minutes, daily for the first week, and weekly until the level was below the limit of detection. Fluoride release was plotted over time. Cumulative fluoride release and rate of release (slope) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA/Tukey (α = .05). Enamel Pro had the greatest cumulative fluoride release. There was no significant difference between Duraphat and Vanish. Vanish XT had the lowest cumulative fluoride release. The rate of fluoride release from 1 week to limit of detection was Enamel Pro > Vanish > Duraphat > Vanish XT. The two newly marketed fluoride varnishes (Enamel Pro and Vanish XT) had significantly different fluoride release from the two conventional fluoride varnishes (Duraphat and Vanish).

  3. Evaluation of glibenclamide microspheres for sustained release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambham Venkateswarlu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sustained release drug delivery systems are more preferred than the conventional drug delivery systems due to its enhanced bioavailability and patient compliance. Earlier studies reported on glibenclamide (GBCM were not clear and hence, the step has been taken to explore the sustained release drug delivery system of GBCM. Aims: To evaluate the sustained release microspheres obtained of GBCM. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by ionic gelation method using the polymers like Eudragit RS 100 and xanthan gum. Polymers can sustain the drug release from microspheres. The prepared microspheres were subjected to micromeritic studies like Carr’s index, Hausner’s ratio and angle of repose. Results: Micromeritic studies confirmed that the microspheres possessing acceptable flow properties. It was observed from the in vitro release studies, formulations F8 and F9 showed sustained drug release for desired time of 12 h and when compared to F9, formulation F8 showed maximum drug release for 12 h. Conclusions: Results confirmed the formulation F8 consist of the polymers such as Eudragit RS 100 about 150 mg and xanthan gum about 100 mg showed desired sustained release of 12 h with 96.07% and kinetic studies confirmed that the release from microspheres followed non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Due to its sustained release property, it could enhance the bioavailability of drug thereby improves the patient compliance and expect better treatment than conventional dosage forms.

  4. Release Data Package for Hanford Site Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.; Engel, David W.

    2006-07-01

    Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support a Hanford assessment. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 through 2005 to support the Release Module of the System Assessment Capability (SAC) for the updated composite analysis. This work was completed as part of the Characterization of Systems Project, part of the Remediation and Closure Science Project, the Hanford Assessments Project, and the Characterization of Systems Project managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Related characterization activities and data packages for the vadose zone and groundwater are being developed under the remediation Decision Support Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc. The Release Module applies release models to waste inventory data from the Inventory Module and accounts for site remediation activities as a function of time. The resulting releases to the vadose zone, expressed as time profiles of annual rates, become source terms for the Vadose Zone Module. Radioactive decay is accounted for in all inputs and outputs of the Release Module. The Release Module is implemented as the VADER (Vadose zone Environmental Release) computer code. Key components of the Release Module are numerical models (i.e., liquid, soil-debris, cement, saltcake, and reactor block) that simulate contaminant release from the different waste source types found at the Hanford Site. The Release Module also handles remediation transfers to onsite and offsite repositories.

  5. The effect of ethanol on the release of opioids from oral prolonged-release preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Malcolm; Nicholls, Fiona A; Smith, Kevin J; Tucker, Geoffrey T

    2007-10-01

    Recent experience has prompted the US FDA to consider whether ethanol ingestion may modify the release characteristics of prolonged-release formulations, where dose dumping may be an issue for patient safety. The influence of ethanol on the in vitro release of opioid drugs from some prolonged-release formulations utilizing different release technologies was examined. Results indicated that the prolonged-release mechanisms remained intact under the testing conditions, although one product showed initial sensitivity to ethanol in its release characteristics. Nevertheless, in this case, extrapolation of the findings to likely outcome in vivo indicated no risk of dose-dumping. It is proposed that prolonged-release medicinal products should be tested during development to ensure robustness to the effects of ethanol on drug release.

  6. Recent patents in flavor controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been directed toward the preparation of flavoring materials specifically, flavor materials have been sought that provide greater flavor intensity coupled with controlled flavor release for long periods of time. Here, some recent patents related to controlled flavor release are reviewed from the angle of its application field, its mechanism and its determination method. It is found that controlled flavor release often depends not only on materials' chemical and physical properties, such as melting point, solution properties and so on, but also on flavors' chemical and physical properties, such as diffusion capacity, its stability in different media etc. Meanwhile, flavor release is also controlled by an electric reducing device according to the flavor generation condition. It might be also known that flavor release rate could be determined by using a purge-and-trap/gas chromatographic procedure. In future, it's necessary to use mathematical model to study the kinetic behavior of controlled flavor release.

  7. Helium release during shale deformation: Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Gardner, W. Payton; Heath, Jason E.

    2016-07-01

    This work describes initial experimental results of helium tracer release monitoring during deformation of shale. Naturally occurring radiogenic 4He is present in high concentration in most shales. During rock deformation, accumulated helium could be released as fractures are created and new transport pathways are created. We present the results of an experimental study in which confined reservoir shale samples, cored parallel and perpendicular to bedding, which were initially saturated with helium to simulate reservoir conditions, are subjected to triaxial compressive deformation. During the deformation experiment, differential stress, axial, and radial strains are systematically tracked. Release of helium is dynamically measured using a helium mass spectrometer leak detector. Helium released during deformation is observable at the laboratory scale and the release is tightly coupled to the shale deformation. These first measurements of dynamic helium release from rocks undergoing deformation show that helium provides information on the evolution of microstructure as a function of changes in stress and strain.

  8. CO-releasing molecule (CORM) conjugate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Anna Christin; Kunz, Peter C; Janiak, Christoph

    2016-11-15

    The development of CORMs (CO-releasing molecules) as a prodrug for CO administration in living organisms has attracted significant attention. CORMs offer the promising possibility of a safe and controllable release of CO in low amounts triggered by light, ligands, enzymes, etc. For the targeting of specific tissues or diseases and to prevent possible side effects from metals and other residues after CO release, these CORMs are attached to biocompatible systems, like peptides, polymers, nanoparticles, dendrimers, protein cages, non-wovens, tablets, and metal-organic frameworks. We discuss in this review the known CORM carrier conjugates, in short CORM conjugates, with covalently-bound or incorporated CORMs for medicinal and therapeutic applications. Most conjugates are nontoxic, show increasing half-lives of CO release, and make use of the EPR-effect, but still show problems because of a continuous background of CO release and the absence of an on/off-switch for the CO release.

  9. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    OpenAIRE

    Jia-Jia Li; Man Dong; Yan-Long Liu; Lu-Lu Zhang; Yan Zhang; Zi-Yu Yang; Jing-Nan Ren; Si-Yi Pan; Gang Fan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying d...

  10. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  11. Environmental releases for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, L.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1995 from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). WHC provides effluent monitoring services for BHI, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate,comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  12. SYNTHESIS AND DRUG RELEASE OF CROSSLINKING POLYPHOSPHATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoYi; ZhuoRenxi; 等

    1995-01-01

    A new class of crosslinking polyphosphates were synthesized and characterized by IR 1HNMR,31PNMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis.In vitro degradation of the polyphosphates obtained and the release of antineoplastic drug Methotrexate(MTX) and contraceptive Levonorgestrel(LNG) by using these polymers as matrix were studied.Zero order release rate was observed in the case of LNG release.

  13. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  14. Release Control of Dye from Agar Ball

    OpenAIRE

    板屋, 智之; 山村, 俊貴; 唐澤, 有太朗

    2013-01-01

    Agar is a special product of Nagano prefecture. To utilize agar gel as adsorbing or releasing material of dyes or drugs, spherical agar gel “agar ball” was prepared by dropping aqueous agar solution into salad oil. And releasing behavior of a dye (rhodamine B) from agar ball was studied. The dye is released easily from agar ball, but the release can be controlled by hybiridazation of agar and galatin. In addition, it was found that agar ball could extract the dye from oil phase containing the...

  15. RELEASE OF TONGUE-TIE IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Raveenthiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arguably, release of tongue tie is the oldest surgical procedure and it is perhaps older than circumcision. According to the Old Testament, the Lord released the tied tongue of Moses and made him speak well. Tongue-tie is pedantically known as ankyloglossia inferior minor. Simplicity of its treatment has earned this malady several etiological attributions such as difficulty of speech and breast feeding. All over the world, lactation consultants refer neonates for release of tongue tie as they believe it to be the cause of maternal nipple pain.Perhaps this is the only indication of tongue tie release in neonates.

  16. IDSA releases updated coccidioidomycosis guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA has released updated Guidelines for the Treatment of Coccidioidomycosis, also known as cocci or Valley Fever (1. Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States and a common cause of pneumonia and pulmonary nodules in this area. However, the infection can disseminate systemically especially in immunocompromised hosts and certain ethnic populations resulting in a variety of pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications. In addition to recommendations for these complications, the new guidelines address management of special at-risk populations, preemptive management strategies in at-risk populations and after unintentional laboratory exposure. The guidelines also suggest shorter courses of antibiotics for hospitalized patients and more ambulatory treatment for most individuals who have contracted Valley Fever. The panel was led by John N. Galgiani, MD, director of the Valley Fever Center for Excellence at the University of Arizona Health Sciences. Galgiani led a panel of 16 ...

  17. Quick-release medical tape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulicht, Bryan; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Medical tape that provides secure fixation of life-sustaining and -monitoring devices with quick, easy, damage-free removal represents a longstanding unmet medical need in neonatal care. During removal of current medical tapes, crack propagation occurs at the adhesive–skin interface, which is also the interface responsible for device fixation. By designing quick-release medical tape to undergo crack propagation between the backing and adhesive layers, we decouple removal and device fixation, enabling dual functionality. We created an ordered adhesive/antiadhesive composite intermediary layer between the medical tape backing and adhesive for which we achieve tunable peel removal force, while maintaining high shear adhesion to secure medical devices. We elucidate the relationship between the spatial ordering of adhesive and antiadhesive regions to create a fully tunable system that achieves strong device fixation and quick, easy, damage-free device removal. We also described ways of neutralizing the residual adhesive on the skin and have observed that thick continuous films of adhesive are easier to remove than the thin islands associated with residual adhesive left by current medical tapes. PMID:23112196

  18. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  19. Ten Ways to Get Attention with Your Press Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kooten, Valerie

    1994-01-01

    Recommends 10 steps that can increase chances of having press release published. Advises readers to use required format; determine what constitutes news; keep release short; include contact person in release; incorporate good quotes; send releases to right person; understand that release will be edited; time arrival of release; follow up with…

  20. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  1. Serum release boosts sweetness intensity in gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Stieger, M.A.; Velde, van de F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of serum release on sweetness intensity in mixed whey protein isolate/gellan gum gels. The impact of gellan gum and sugar concentration on microstructure, permeability, serum release and large deformation properties of the gels was determined. With increasing gellan

  2. 27 CFR 27.185 - Customs release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs release. 27.185... Distilled Spirits From Customs Custody Free of Tax for Use of the United States § 27.185 Customs release. (a) Upon receipt of appropriate customs entry and a photocopy of a permit, Form 5150.33 or...

  3. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  4. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti Freire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  5. 49 CFR 236.790 - Release, time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release, time. 236.790 Section 236.790... Release, time. A device used to prevent the operation of an operative unit until after the expiration of a predetermined time interval after the device has been actuated....

  6. In the Stocks: Perilous Press Releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Linda P.; Loving, Bill

    1994-01-01

    Reviews some of the legal responsibilities of public relations practitioners in the preparation of press releases. Discusses legal criteria for judging the fraudulence of press releases and discusses the timeframe for fraudulent action. Concludes with lessons that practitioners need to understand. (SR)

  7. Shape-Memory-Alloy Release Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnis, Darin

    1993-01-01

    Release-nut mechanism activated by electric current applied to shape-memory alloy. Separates attached objects quickly by remote control. Does not create hazard or cause damage. Shape-memory release-nut mechanism unaffected by moisture or vacuum. Requires sustained current lasting 5 seconds or longer, and insensitive to electromagnetic interference. Mechanism can be reused.

  8. Fluoride and chlorhexidine release from filled resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C; Zhang, N-Z; Anusavice, K J

    2010-09-01

    Resin-based materials that release either fluoride or chlorhexidine have been formulated for inhibiting caries activity. It is not known if the two agents, when incorporated into one material, would interact and affect their release potential. We hypothesized that the ratio of fluoride to chlorhexidine incorporated into a resin, and the pH of the storage medium, will affect their releases from the material. The material investigated contained 23 wt% of filler, and the ratios of calcium fluoride to chlorhexidine diacetate were 8/2, 5/5, and 2/8. The release was conducted in pH 4, 5, and 6 acetate buffers. The results showed that release of either agent increased as the pH of the medium decreased. The presence of fluoride salt substantially reduced the chlorhexidine release, while the presence of a specific quantity of chlorhexidine significantly increased fluoride release. This interaction can be utilized to optimize the release of either agent for therapeutic purposes.

  9. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  10. Calcium release from experimental dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. ATP Release and Effects in Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Amstrup, Jan; Henriksen, Katrine Lütken

    2003-01-01

    ATP and other nucleotides are released from various cells, but the pathway and physiological stimulus for ATP release are often unclear. The focus of our studies is the understanding of ATP release and signaling in rat exocrine pancreas. In acinar suspension mechanical stimulation, hypotonic shock...... and, most importantly, cholinergic stimulation released 5-20nM ATP into the medium, as monitored by luminescence of the luciferin/luciferase reaction. ATP release was visualized at the single acinus level as luciferin consumption detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The estimated ATP...... concentrations were higher, about 10µM, around acinar cells after cholinergic stimulation. Fluorescence of quinacrine and MANT-ATP indicated that some ATP is stored in secretory granules. Pancreatic acini have transcripts for P2X1, P2X4, P2Y2, and P2Y4 receptors, but measurements of Ca2+ signals in isolated...

  12. "Sustained release formulation of Metoclopramide Hydrochloride "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabbagh MA

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, several formulations containing, an anti emetic agent (Metoclopramide hydrochloride, a hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and a hydrophobic polymer (ethylcellulose 10 cP were prepared by direct compression. Different factors such as: the effect of different ratios of the polymers, particle size, pressure force and differences of release in acidic and distilled water as media were investigated. After developing the ideal formulation, the effect of changing the ratio of drug in core: coating on the formulation was investigated. Coating of tablets with ethylcellulose, changed the release mechanism of drug and shifted it to near zero order release. The results showed that except when matrices were coated with ethylcellulose, drug release was proportioned to the square root of time, which might be due to the change of release pattern from matrix to reservoir system.

  13. Environmental release summary (ERS) database CY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1998-07-01

    This report discusses the Environmental Release Summary (ERS) database. The current needs of the Effluent and Environmental database is continually modified to fulfill monitoring (EEM) program (managed by Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Incorporated, Air and Water Services Organization). Changes are made to accurately calculate current releases, to affect how past releases are calculated. This document serves as a snap-shot of the database and software for the CY-1997 data and releases. This document contains all of the relevant data for calculating radioactive-airborne and liquid effluent. The ERS database is the official repository for the CY-1997 ERS release reports and the settings used to generate those reports. As part of the Tri-Party Agreement, FDH is committed to provide a hard copy of the ERS database for Washington State Department of Ecology, upon request. This document also serves as that hard copy for the last complete calendar year.

  14. Insulin release by glucagon and secretin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Andreu, D; Thams, P

    1988-01-01

    Secretin and glucagon potentiate glucose-induced insulin release. We have compared the effects of secretin and glucagon with that of four hybrid molecules of the two hormones on insulin release and formation of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in isolated mouse pancreatic islets. All six peptides potentiated...... the release of insulin at 10 mM D-glucose, and their effects were indistinguishable with respect to the dynamics of release, dose-response relationship, and glucose dependency. However, measurements of cAMP accumulation in the presence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (10(-4) M...... potentiating effects of secretin and glucagon on glucose-induced insulin release, their modes of action may be different....

  15. Drug release from non-aqueous suspensions. II. The release of methylxanthines from paraffin suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Fokkens, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The release of 3 methylxanthines, i.e. caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, from suspensions in liquid paraffin to an aqueous phase was determined in an in vitro apparatus. The release rates were determined as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase. It was proved that the release process was n

  16. Thermoresponsive latexes for fragrance encapsulation and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popadyuk, N; Popadyuk, A; Kohut, A; Voronov, A

    2016-04-01

    To synthesize cross-linked latex particles protecting the encapsulated fragrance at ambient temperatures and facilitating the release of cargo at the temperature of the surface of the skin that varies in different regions of the body between 33.5 and 36.9°C. Poly(stearyl acrylate) (PSA), a polymer with long crystallizable alkyl side chains (undergoes order-disorder transitions at 45°C), was chosen as the main component of the polymer particles. As a result, new thermoresponsive polymer particles for fragrance encapsulation were synthesized and characterized, including assessing the performance of particles in triggered release by elevated temperature. To obtain network domains of various crystallinity, stearyl acrylate was copolymerized with dipropylene glycol acrylate caprylate (DGAC) (comonomer) in the presence of a dipropylene glycol diacrylate sebacate (cross-linker) using the miniemulsion process. Comonomers and a cross-linker were mixed directly in a fragrance during polymerization. Fragrance release was evaluated at 25, 31, 35 and 39°C to demonstrate a new material potential in personal/health care skin-related applications. Particles protect the fragrance from evaporation at 25°C. The fragrance release rate gradually increases at 31, 35 and 39°C. Two slopes were found on release plots. The first slope corresponds to a rapid fragrance release. The second slope indicates a subsequent reduction in the release rate. Crystalline-to-amorphous transition of PSA triggers the release of fragrances from cross-linked latex particles at elevated temperatures. The presence of the encapsulated fragrance, as well as the inclusion of amorphous fragments in the polymer network, reduces the particle crystallinity and enhances the release. Release profiles can be tuned by temperature and controlled by the amount of loaded fragrance and the ratio of comonomers in the feed mixture. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  17. Lack of CB1 receptors increases noradrenaline release in vas deferens without affecting atrial noradrenaline release or cortical acetylcholine release

    OpenAIRE

    Schlicker, Eberhard; Redmer, Agnes; Werner, André; Kathmann, Markus

    2003-01-01

    We studied whether cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene disruption (to yield CB1−/− mice) affects the electrically evoked tritium overflow from vas deferens and atrial pieces preincubated with [3H]-noradrenaline (NA) (‘noradrenaline release') and from cerebral cortex slices preincubated with [3H]-choline (‘acetylcholine release').NA release was higher by 37% in vas deferens from CB1−/− mice than in vas deferens from CB1+/+ mice. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 inhibited, and the CB1 re...

  18. Bioavailability of sustained-release theophylline formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora Regazzi, M; Rondanelli, R; Vidale, E; Cristiani, D

    1983-05-01

    Sustained-release formulations of theophylline as well as of other drugs are designed to effect a delayed but constant release of the active principle in the gastrointestinal tract, thus ensuring more prolonged blood level curves. This study was made to assess the bioavailability of two sustained-release microencapsulated formulations and one sustained-release Diffucaps formulation, in comparison with an equivalent dose of theophylline solution. As regards bioavailability, none of the three formulations differed significantly from the reference formulation. The blood levels at steady state were estimated on the basis of data obtained after a single-dose study. All three sustained release formulations showed good results after prolonged administration in terms of peaks and troughs. The time duration at which the theophylline plasma levels remain higher than 75% of the maximum steady-state levels, following 12-h dosing interval, was evaluated: for the sustained-release microencapsulated formulations this time duration reaches 100% of the dosing interval. A multiple-dose administration of the sustained-release formulations used in this study should guarantee almost complete time coverage, with blood levels sharply exceeding the minimum threshold level of the theophylline therapeutic range.

  19. Rechargeable calcium phosphate orthodontic cement with sustained ion release and re-release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Weir, Michael D.; Chow, Laurence C.; Reynolds, Mark A.; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2016-11-01

    White spot lesions (WSL) due to enamel demineralization are major complications for orthodontic treatments. Calcium phosphate (CaP) dental resins with Ca and P ion releases are promising for remineralization. However, previous Ca and P releases lasted for only weeks. Experimental orthodontic cements were developed using pyromellitic glycerol dimethacrylate (PMGDM) and ethoxylated bisphenol A dimethacrylate (EBPADMA) at mass ratio of 1:1 (PE); and PE plus 10% of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 5% of bisphenol A glycidyl dimethacrylate (BisGMA) (PEHB). Particles of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) were incorporated into PE and PEHB at 40% filler level. Specimens were tested for bracket-enamel shear bond strength, water sorption, CaP release, and ion recharge and re-release. PEHB+40ACP had higher bracket-enamel bond strength and ion release and rechargeability than PE+40ACP. ACP incorporation into the novel orthodontic cement did not adversely affect the bracket-enamel bond strength. Ion release and re-release from the novel ACP orthodontic cement indicated favorable release and re-release patterns. The recharged orthodontic cement could release CaP ions continuously for four weeks without further recharge. Novel rechargeable orthodontic cement containing ACP was developed with a high bracket-enamel bond strength and the ability to be repeatedly recharged to maintain long-term high levels of CaP ion releases.

  20. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal and the bath (serosal solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M and indomethacin (10-5 M were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in

  1. COLLOID RELEASE FROM DIFFERENT SOIL DEPTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring clay colloidal particles are heavily involved in sediment processes in the subsurface soil. Due to the import ance of these processes in the subsurface environment, the transport of clay colloidal particles has been studied in several disciplines, including soil sciences, petr ology, hydrology, etc. Specifically, in environmental engineering, clay colloid re lease and transport in the sediments have been extensively investigated, which are motiv ated by environmental concerns such as colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in groundwater and the subsurface soil. Clay colloid release is resulted from physical alteration of subsurface sediments. Despite the potential importance of clay colloid activiti es, the detailed mechanisms of release and transport of clay colloidal particles with in natural sediments are poorly understood. Pore medium structure, properties and flow dynamics, etc. are factors that affect clay colloid generation, mobilization, and subse quent transport. Possible mechanisms of clay colloid generation in the sediments in clude precipitation, erosion and mobilization by changes in pore water chemistry and clay colloid release depends on a balance of applied hydrodynamic and resisting adhesive torques and forces. The coupled role of pore water chemistry and fluid hydrodynamics thus play key roles in controlling clay colloid release and transport in the sediment s. This paper investigated clay colloidal particle release and transport, especially th e colloidal particle release mechanisms as well as the process modeling in the sediments. In this research, colloidal particle release from intact sediment columns with variable length was examined and colloidal particle release curves were simulated using an im plicit, finite-difference scheme. Colloidal particle release rate coefficient was found to be an exponential function of the sediment depth. The simulated results demonstrated that transport parameters were

  2. [Nutrient release characteristics and use efficiency of slow- and controlled release fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Min; Liu, Gang; Shang, Zhao-Cong; Yang, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Water extraction method and soil incubation method were used to study the nutrient release characteristics of four slow- and controlled release fertilizers (CRF1, CRF2, SCU, and IBDU), and pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of the release characteristics on the nutrient requirements of canola (Brassica napus L.). The nutrient release curves of test fertilizers in water were S pattern for CRF1 and CRF2, burst pattern for SCU, and reverse L pattern for IBDU. The nutrient release characteristics of the four fertilizers in water and in soil all fitted binomial equations, suggesting that there existed some similarities in the nutrient release in the two media. The nutrient uptake and biomass of canola plants treated with CRF1 and CRF2 were significantly higher than those treated with SCU and IBDU, and CRF2 had the greatest effect. The nutrient release curves of CRF1 and CRF2 accorded more closely with the nutrient requirements of canola.

  3. Glutathione-triggered drug release from nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    The delivery of drugs can be improved with the use of different carriers, such as those based on nanoparticles. The nanostructures loaded with the therapeutic molecules should be able to reach the target cells and, what is more, release the drugs efficiently. Ideally, the drugs should be delivered only in the target cells, and not along their way to the cells. For these reasons several approaches have been developed to control the release of the drugs at the desired sites. In this review article we have summarized the reports that describe the use of glutathione to trigger the release of the therapeutic molecules from different nanostructures.

  4. Establishing the hypoosmotic swelling test for sperm analysis in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A.A. Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soluções hiposmóticas com diferentes concentrações (0, 50, 100, 150, 200mOsm/L foram testadas para a avaliação funcional da membrana espermática de catetos (n=13. Foi verificado que o número de espermatozoides reagidos diminuía (P<0,05 de acordo com o aumento da osmolaridade do meio. A maior porcentagem (71,8% de espermatozoides reagidos, bem como a menor variação nas respostas osmóticas, foi detectada com o uso de água destilada (0mOsm/L (P<0,05, a qual também apresentou a menor variação nos resultados, de acordo com os erros padrão verificados. Em conclusão, a água destilada aparenta ser uma solução adequada para o uso no teste hiposmótico para sêmen de catetos.

  5. Glycine betaine fluxes in Lactobacillus plantarum during osmostasis and hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaasker, E; Konings, W.N; Poolman, B.

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria respond to changes in medium osmolarity by varying the concentrations of specific solutes in order to maintain constant turgor. The primary response of Lactobacillus plantarum to an osmotic upshock involves the accumulation of compatible solutes such as glycine betaine, proline, and glutama

  6. Glycine betaine fluxes in Lactobacillus plantarum during osmostasis and hyper- and hypo-osmotic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaasker, E; Konings, W.N; Poolman, B.

    1996-01-01

    Bacteria respond to changes in medium osmolarity by varying the concentrations of specific solutes in order to maintain constant turgor. The primary response of Lactobacillus plantarum to an osmotic upshock involves the accumulation of compatible solutes such as glycine betaine, proline, and

  7. Environmentally friendly slow-release nitrogen fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Boli; Liu, Mingzhu; Lü, Shaoyu; Xie, Lihua; Wang, Yanfang

    2011-09-28

    To sustain the further world population, more fertilizers are required, which may become an environmental hazard, unless adequate technical and socioeconomic impacts are addressed. In the current study, slow-release formulations of nitrogen fertilizer were developed on the basis of natural attapulgite (APT) clay, ethylcellulose (EC) film, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxyethylcellulose (CMC/HEC) hydrogel. The structural and chemical characteristics of the product were examined. The release profiles of urea, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium chloride as nitrogen fertilizer substrates were determined in soil. To further compare the release profiles of nitrogen from different fertilizer substrates, a mathematical model for nutrient release from the coated fertilizer was applied to calculate the diffusion coefficient D. The influence of the product on water-holding and water-retention capacities of soil was determined. The experimental data indicated that the product can effectively reduce nutrient loss, improve use efficiency of water, and prolong irrigation cycles in drought-prone environments.

  8. 40 CFR 281.33 - Release detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designed to allow the contents of the pipe to drain back into the storage tank if the suction is released... tests conducted. (2) If suction lines are used: (i) Tightness tests must be conducted at least...

  9. Post-Release Success among Paroled Lifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.A.; Garcin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that social relations, in particular the forming of family ties and employment (social factors), self-efficacy (personal factors), and therapeutic interventions (institutional factors) constitute main contributors in post-release success. These studies, however, have large

  10. MOFCOM Released Report on China Foreign Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ On May 17, 2007, the Report on China Foreign Trade was released by MOFCOM, which reviewed China's foreign trade development and characteristic in 2006 and in the first quarter in 2007, and preview its future development in 2007.

  11. Investigators find hundreds of intentional nuclear releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-10-24

    Investigators with the federal Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments have said that the category of intentional releases is now known to be larger, in variety and quantity, than the 13 releases identified prior to the committee`s formation in January 1994 by President Clinton. The committee is now aware of hundreds of additional intentional releases. In addition to the intentional releases, the committee said it had compiled documents on 400 biomedical experiments involving radiation prior to 1975, and had at least fragmentary evidence of more than 1,000 more. The committee also discovered a top secret 1953 Defense Department policy statement on human experimentation that was based on the World War II-era Nuremberg Code. The committee said it was looking into how or whether the policy was implemented. The committee is expected to issue a final report, including recommendations on possible compensation for victims by April 1995.

  12. Post-Release Success among Paroled Lifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, M.C.A.; Garcin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that social relations, in particular the forming of family ties and employment (social factors), self-efficacy (personal factors), and therapeutic interventions (institutional factors) constitute main contributors in post-release success. These studies, however, have

  13. Ruthenium release from fuel in accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, G.; Marchetto, C.; Plumecocq, W. [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DPAM, SEMIC, LETR and LIMSI, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2010-07-01

    During a hypothetical nuclear power plant accident, fission products may be released from the fuel matrix and then reach the containment building and the environment. Ruthenium is a very hazardous fission product that can be highly and rapidly released in some accident scenarios. The impact of the atmosphere redox properties, temperature, and fuel burn-up on the ruthenium release is discussed. In order to improve the evaluation of the radiological impact by accident codes, a model of the ruthenium release from fuel is proposed using thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. In addition, a model of fuel oxidation under air is described. Finally, these models have been integrated in the ASTEC accident code and validation calculations have been performed on several experimental tests. (orig.)

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2015; 14(10): 1749-1754 ... prolonged drug release and improvement in motor activity after spinal injuries. Methods: Matrix .... The friability test was performed using a Roche friabilator ...

  15. Environmental Releases Report for Calendar Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    1999-08-27

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. It presents summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents released to the environment as well as nonroutine releases during calendar-year 1998 from facilities and activities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), and Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). Besides the summaries, the report also has extensive data on those releases and the radioactive and hazardous substances they contained. These data were obtained from direct sampling and analysis and from estimations deriving from approved release factors. This report further serves as a supplemental resource to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (HSER, PNNL-12088), which gives a yearly accounting of the major activities and environmental status of the Hanford Site. The HSER documents the Hanford Site's state of compliance with applicable environmental regulations as well as describing the impacts of activities on the Site to the surrounding populace and environment.

  16. Electromyography of arrow release in archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M P; Parker, A W

    1990-01-01

    An electronic arrow movement detector was used to accurately locate the muscle activity associated with release of the arrow during shooting in archery. Digital computer analysis of the electromyograms from thirty shots for two archers facilitated an examination of the relationship between the measured activity of the muscles and their function during release. Changes present in the direct and integrated electromyograms of muscles acting at the wrist and elbow joints of the bow arm and the shoulder of the draw arm tended to anticipate the moment of arrow release. These changes would produce muscular force to reduce unwanted movement at this critical phase of the shot in the bow arm and initiate release of the bow string by the fingers. This study provides a detailed quantitative analysis of the muscular action of the technique and identifies possibilities for prevention of injury by improving the understanding of muscle action in shooting.

  17. CERCLA and EPCRA Continuous Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress established reportable quantities for Superfund hazardous substances. A continuous release of a hazardous substance is defined as being without interruption or abatement and stable in quantity and rate.

  18. Member end releases in framed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, J. M.

    1993-02-01

    Discontinuities such as internal hinges are commonly encountered in framed structures. A general method of including discontinuities in stiffness method analyses of planar frames by the release of member end forces is developed. Modifications are made to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector to account for the released end forces. A FORTRAN algorithm is given that makes the necessary modifications to the member stiffness matrix and equivalent joint load vector for the standard planar frame member. The algorithm allows combinations of up to three member end forces to be released (specified at zero or nonzero values). An algorithm is also given that calculates the unknown member end displacements at the released member end forces. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the uses and capabilities of the algorithms.

  19. VAP Development: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M; Collis, Fast, J; Flynn, C; Mather, J; McFarlane, S; Monroe, J; Sivaraman, C; Xie, S

    2011-02-23

    This white paper provides a plan to formalize the evaluation of newly developed VAPs and a framework for the development of value-added products through four different stages: Initiation, Development, Evaluation, and Release.

  20. Arsenic Release from Foodstuffs upon Food Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyns, Karlien; Waegeneers, Nadia; Van de Wiele, Tom; Ruttens, Ann

    2017-03-22

    In this study the concentration of total arsenic (As) and arsenic species (inorganic As, arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinate, and methylarsonate) was monitored in different foodstuffs (rice, vegetables, algae, fish, crustacean, molluscs) before and after preparation using common kitchen practices. By measuring the water content of the foodstuff and by reporting arsenic concentrations on a dry weight base, we were able to distinguish between As release effects due to food preparation and As decrease due to changes in moisture content upon food preparation. Arsenic species were released to the broth during boiling, steaming, frying, or soaking of the food. Concentrations declined with maxima of 57% for total arsenic, 65% for inorganic As, and 32% for arsenobetaine. On the basis of a combination of our own results and literature data, we conclude that the extent of this release of arsenic species is species specific, with inorganic arsenic species being released most easily, followed by the small organic As species and the large organic As species.

  1. Radioactivity released from burning gas lantern mantles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetzelschwab, J W; Googins, S W

    1984-04-01

    Gas lantern mantles contain thorium to produce incandescence when lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. Although only thorium is initially present on the mantle, the thorium daughters build up, some over a period of weeks and some over a period of years, and significant quantities of these daughters are present when the mantle is used. Some of these daughters are released when the lantern fuel is burned on the mantle. The amounts of radioactivity released during burning is studied by measuring the gamma radiation emitted by the daughters. Results of this study show that some of the radium (224Ra and 228Ra) and more than half the 212Pb and 212Bi is released during the first hour of a burn. The actual amounts release depend on the age of the mantle.

  2. Depolarization by K*O+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in gabaergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of gaba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, Bo; Hansen, G.H.; Schousboe, Arne

    1993-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release, gaba release, membrane transporter, vesicles, intracellular CA*OH, neuron cultures......Neurotransmitter release, gaba release, membrane transporter, vesicles, intracellular CA*OH, neuron cultures...

  3. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Technology Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin; Robinson, Corissia; Null, Jody R.

    2013-01-01

    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows which may be subject to constraints that create localized demand-capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves use of a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center TMC to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that uses this technology to improve tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions to the

  4. Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelland, Shawn A.; Capps, Richard; Day, Kevin Brian; Kistler, Matthew Stephen; Gaither, Frank; Juro, Greg

    2013-01-01

    After takeoff, aircraft must merge into en route (Center) airspace traffic flows that may be subject to constraints that create localized demand/capacity imbalances. When demand exceeds capacity, Traffic Management Coordinators (TMCs) and Frontline Managers (FLMs) often use tactical departure scheduling to manage the flow of departures into the constrained Center traffic flow. Tactical departure scheduling usually involves a Call for Release (CFR) procedure wherein the Tower must call the Center to coordinate a release time prior to allowing the flight to depart. In present-day operations release times are computed by the Center Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) decision support tool, based upon manual estimates of aircraft ready time verbally communicated from the Tower to the Center. The TMA-computed release time is verbally communicated from the Center back to the Tower where it is relayed to the Local controller as a release window that is typically three minutes wide. The Local controller will manage the departure to meet the coordinated release time window. Manual ready time prediction and verbal release time coordination are labor intensive and prone to inaccuracy. Also, use of release time windows adds uncertainty to the tactical departure process. Analysis of more than one million flights from January 2011 indicates that a significant number of tactically scheduled aircraft missed their en route slot due to ready time prediction uncertainty. Uncertainty in ready time estimates may result in missed opportunities to merge into constrained en route flows and lead to lost throughput. Next Generation Air Transportation System plans call for development of Tower automation systems capable of computing surface trajectory-based ready time estimates. NASA has developed the Precision Departure Release Capability (PDRC) concept that improves tactical departure scheduling by automatically communicating surface trajectory-based ready time predictions and departure

  5. Nickel may be released from laptop computers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2012-01-01

    Consumer nickel sensitization and dermatitis is caused by prolonged or repeated skin exposure to items that release nickel, for example jewellery, belts, buttons, watches, and mobile phones (1–3). We recently described a patient in whom primary nickel contact sensitization and dermatitis develope...... following the use of an Apple laptop computer (4). To estimate nickel release from Apple laptop computers, we investigated a random sample of 20 devices....

  6. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  7. The Role of Neurotrophins in Neurotransmitter Release

    OpenAIRE

    William J Tyler; Perrett, Stephen P.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas D.

    2002-01-01

    The neurotrophins (NTs) have recently been shown to elicit pronounced effects on quantal neurotransmitter release at both central and peripheral nervous system synapses. Due to their activity-dependent release, as well as the subcellular localization of both protein and receptor, NTs are ideally suited to modify the strength of neuronal connections by “fine-tuning” synaptic activity through direct actions at presynaptic terminals. Here, using BDNF as a prototypical example, the authors provid...

  8. Expansion of ARAC for chemical releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskett, R.L.; Blair, M.D.; Foster, C.S.; Taylor, A.G.

    1997-07-01

    In 1996 the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) completed an effort to expand its national emergency response modeling system for chemical releases. Key components of the new capability include the integration of (1) an extensive chemical property database, (2) source modeling for tanks and evaporating pools, (3) denser-than-air dispersion, (4) public exposure guidelines, and (5) an interactive graphical user interface (GUI). Recent use and the future of the new capability are also discussed.

  9. Study of LPG Release & Dispersion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Shanjun; Peng Xiangwei

    2003-01-01

    The current applicable release & dispersion models are reviewed. A typical model is developed on the basis of LPG storage conditions in China and the authors' research. The study is focused on the relationship between LPG composition and release rate, and on the influence of buildings or structures located in the surrounding area on the dispersion of gas plume. The established model is compared with existing models by the use of published field test data.

  10. Tritium release from neutron irradiated beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaffidi-Argentina, F.; Werle, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reactortechnik

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important open issues related to beryllium for fusion applications refers to the kinetics of the tritium release as a function of neutron fluence and temperature. The EXOTIC-7 as well as the `Beryllium` experiments carried out in the HFR reactor in Petten are considered as the most detailed and significant tests for investigating the beryllium response under neutron irradiation. This paper reviews the present status of beryllium post-irradiation examinations performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe with samples from the above mentioned irradiation experiments, trying to elucidate the tritium release controlling processes. In agreement with previous studies it has been found that release starts at about 500-550degC and achieves a maximum at about 700-750degC. The observed release at about 500-550degC is probably due to tritium escaping from chemical traps, while the maximum release at about 700-750degC is due to tritium escaping from physical traps. The consequences of a direct contact between beryllium and ceramics during irradiation, causing tritium implanting in a surface layer of beryllium up to a depth of about 40 mm and leading to an additional inventory which is usually several times larger than the neutron-produced one, are also presented and the effects on the tritium release are discussed. (author)

  11. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jia Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  12. Effect of Food Emulsifiers on Aroma Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Jia; Dong, Man; Liu, Yan-Long; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Zi-Yu; Ren, Jing-Nan; Pan, Si-Yi; Fan, Gang

    2016-04-22

    This study aimed to determine the influence of different emulsifiers or xanthan-emulsifier systems on the release of aroma compounds. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and GC-MS were used to study the effects of varying concentrations of xanthan gum, sucrose fatty acid ester, Tween 80 and soybean lecithin on the release of seven aroma compounds. The effects of the emulsifier systems supplemented with xanthan gum on aroma release were also studied in the same way. The results showed varying degrees of influence of sucrose fatty acid ester, soybean lecithin, Tween 80 and xanthan gum on the release of aroma compounds. Compared with other aroma compounds, ethyl acetate was more likely to be conserved in the solution system, while the amount of limonene released was the highest among these seven aroma compounds. In conclusion, different emulsifiers and complexes showed different surface properties that tend to interact with different aroma molecules. The present studies showed that the composition and structure of emulsifiers and specific interactions between emulsifiers and aroma molecules have significant effects on aroma release.

  13. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Siwetz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in placental fractalkine at term, compared to first trimester. Fractalkine expression and release were detected in the trophoblast cell line BeWo, in primary term trophoblasts and placental explants. Incubation of BeWo cells and placental explants with metalloprotease inhibitor Batimastat inhibited the release of soluble fractalkine and at the same time increased the membrane-bound form. These results demonstrate that human placenta is a source for fractalkine, which is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast and can be released into the maternal circulation by constitutive metalloprotease dependent shedding. Increased expression and release of placental fractalkine may contribute to low grade systemic inflammatory responses in third trimester of normal pregnancy. Aberrant placental metalloprotease activity may not only affect the release of placenta derived fractalkine but may at the same time affect the abundance of the membrane-bound form of the chemokine.

  14. SUSTAINED RELEASE ITOPRIDE HYDROCHLORIDE MATRIX TABLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BHUPENDRA, PRAJAPATI, NIKLESH PATEL, HITESH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oral route gets the highest priority for thedelivery of the drug as well as better patient compliance incase of self delivery dosage formulation. The aim ofpresent investigation was undertaken with the objective offormulating sustain release formulation of Itopridehydrochloride for oral drug delivery. Itopride hydrochlorideis highly water soluble prokinetic drug.Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose K4M (lower viscositygrade and K100M (higher viscosity grade were used as amatrix forming agents to control the release of drug. HPMCK4M and HPMC K100M were used individually as well asin combination with different proportion in the preparationof the Sustained release formulation. 32 factorial designswere applied to the polymer concentration that affects thedrug release profile. Reduced equation for drug release at2hr,6hr,and10hrwere22 1 2 1 Q 37.644 5.41X 3.25X 2.017X ,26 1 2 1 Q 72.367 8.05X 4.4X 3.75X ,and10 1 1 2 90.844 5.8 2.633 2.8 2 Q X X X Xrespectively. Optimized batch F019 shows good tabletproperties like hardness(7-9kg/cm2, thickness(4.48mm,friability(0.024%,assay(99.3% and nearly similar drugrelease profile to the targeted reference drug release profileand it was indicated by similarity factor (f2=86.04.

  15. Electrosprayed nanoparticle delivery system for controlled release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eltayeb, Megdi, E-mail: megdi.eltayeb@sustech.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, PO Box 407, Khartoum (Sudan); Stride, Eleanor, E-mail: eleanor.stride@eng.ox.ac.uk [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Old Road Campus Research Building, Headington OX3 7DQ (United Kingdom); Edirisinghe, Mohan, E-mail: m.edirisinghe@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Harker, Anthony, E-mail: a.harker@ucl.ac.uk [London Centre for Nanotechnology, Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    This study utilises an electrohydrodynamic technique to prepare core-shell lipid nanoparticles with a tunable size and high active ingredient loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and controlled release. Using stearic acid and ethylvanillin as model shell and active ingredients respectively, we identify the processing conditions and ratios of lipid:ethylvanillin required to form nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with a mean size ranging from 60 to 70 nm at the rate of 1.37 × 10{sup 9} nanoparticles per minute were prepared with different lipid:ethylvanillin ratios. The polydispersity index was ≈ 21% and the encapsulation efficiency ≈ 70%. It was found that the rate of ethylvanillin release was a function of the nanoparticle size, and lipid:ethylvanillin ratio. The internal structure of the lipid nanoparticles was studied by transmission electron microscopy which confirmed that the ethylvanillin was encapsulated within a stearic acid shell. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that the ethylvanillin had not been affected. Extensive analysis of the release of ethylvanillin was performed using several existing models and a new diffusive release model incorporating a tanh function. The results were consistent with a core-shell structure. - Highlights: • Electrohydrodynamic spraying is used to produce lipid-coated nanoparticles. • A new model is proposed for the release rates of active components from nanoparticles. • The technique has potential applications in food science and medicine. • Electrohydrodynamic processing controlled release lipid nanoparticles.

  16. Analytical solution of diffusion model for nutrient release from controlled release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameenuddin Irfan, Sayed; Razali, Radzuan; KuShaari, KuZilati; Mansor, Nurlidia; Azeem, Babar

    2017-09-01

    An analytical method has been developed to solve the initial value problem which arises from Fick’s diffusion equation encountered in the modelling of the Controlled Release Fertilizers. The proposed analytical solution is developed using the modified Adomian decomposition method. This method does not require the discretization method, reliability and efficiency of this method is more and it also reduces the calculation time. The model has predicted the effect of granule radius and diffusion coefficient on the nutrient release and total release time of Controlled Release Fertilizer. Model has predicted that increase in the radius of granule reduces the release and vice versa in case of diffusion coefficient. Detailed understanding of these parameters helps in improved designing of Controlled Release Fertilizer.

  17. Oral suspensions of morphine hydrochloride for controlled release: rheological properties and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, M E; López, G; Gallardo, V; Ruiz, M A

    2011-04-04

    Recent developments in pharmaceutical technology have facilitated the design and production of modified release formulas for drugs whose physical, chemical or biological properties impede release and thus might compromise their efficacy or safety. One such drug is morphine, whose short half-life requires repeated doses at short intervals. The use of biocompatible polymers such as ethylcellulose has made it possible to develop microencapsulated formulations which facilitate liquid, sustained-release pharmaceutical formulas for oral administration. We developed a stable final formulation of morphine with an acceptable release profile by comparing the rheological properties and stability of formulations with different thickeners (xanthan gum, Carbopol, and carboxymethylcellulose with microcrystalline cellulose) at different concentrations from 0.25% to 1.0%. Release assays in a Franz-type cell were done to determine the most suitable release profile for the formulation.

  18. Free boundary problems in controlled release pharmaceuticals: II. swelling-controlled release

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Donald S.; Erneux, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    A problem in controlled release pharmaceutical systems is formulated and studied. The device modeled is a polymer matrix containing an initially immobilized drug. The release of the drug is achieved by countercurrent diffusion through a penetrant solvent with the release rate being determined by the rate of diffusion of the solvent in the polymer. The mathematical theory yields a free boundary problem which is studied in various asymptotic regimes.

  19. Guar gum, xanthan gum, and HPMC can define release mechanisms and sustain release of propranolol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Muhammad Akhlaq; Iqbal, Zafar; Neau, Steven Henry

    2011-03-01

    The objectives were to characterize propranolol hydrochloride-loaded matrix tablets using guar gum, xanthan gum, and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as rate-retarding polymers. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation using these polymers alone and in combination, and physical properties of the granules and tablets were studied. Drug release was evaluated in simulated gastric and intestinal media. Rugged tablets with appropriate physical properties were obtained. Empirical and semi-empirical models were fit to release data to elucidate release mechanisms. Guar gum alone was unable to control drug release until a 1:3 drug/gum ratio, where the release pattern matched a Higuchi profile. Matrix tablets incorporating HPMC provided near zero-order release over 12 h and erosion was a contributing mechanism. Combinations of HPMC with guar or xanthan gum resulted in a Higuchi release profile, revealing the dominance of the high viscosity gel formed by HPMC. As the single rate-retarding polymer, xanthan gum retarded release over 24 h and the Higuchi model best fit the data. When mixed with guar gum, at 10% or 20% xanthan levels, xanthan gum was unable to control release. However, tablets containing 30% guar gum and 30% xanthan gum behaved as if xanthan gum was the sole rate-retarding gum and drug was released by Fickian diffusion. Release profiles from certain tablets match 12-h literature profiles and the 24-h profile of Inderal(®) LA. The results confirm that guar gum, xanthan gum, and HPMC can be used for the successful preparation of sustained release oral propranolol hydrochoride tablets.

  20. Effect of different polymers on release of ranolazine from extended release tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, T. E. G. K.; Bhukya Swapna

    2013-01-01

    An extended release tablet provides prolonged release of drug, maintains the desired concentration of drug in plasma and thereby reduce dosing frequency, improve patient compliance and reduce the dose-related side-effects. Ranolazine is indicated for the chronic treatment of angina in patients who have not achieved an adequate response with other anti-anginal agent. The present investigation was undertaken to design the extended release tablets of ranolazine employing different polymers as ma...

  1. Preparation and characterization of slow release formulations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    characterize the resulting slow release formulations (SRFs) using scanning electron microscopy. (SEM), and Fourier ... used for controlled release of N-P-K compound fertilizer9 and of ..... fertilizer with controlled release and water retention,.

  2. Radionuclide release calculations for SAR-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Gavin; Miller, Alex; Smith, Graham; Jackson, Duncan (Enviros Consulting Ltd, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom))

    2008-04-15

    Following a review by the Swedish regulatory authorities of the post-closure safety assessment of the SFR 1 disposal facility for low and intermediate waste (L/ILW), SAFE, the SKB has prepared an updated assessment called SAR-08. This report describes the radionuclide release calculations that have been undertaken as part of SAR-08. The information, assumptions and data used in the calculations are reported and the results are presented. The calculations address issues raised in the regulatory review, but also take account of new information including revised inventory data. The scenarios considered include the main case of expected behaviour of the system, with variants; low probability releases, and so-called residual scenarios. Apart from these scenario uncertainties, data uncertainties have been examined using a probabilistic approach. Calculations have been made using the AMBER software. This allows all the component features of the assessment model to be included in one place. AMBER has been previously used to reproduce results the corresponding calculations in the SAFE assessment. It is also used in demonstration of the IAEA's near surface disposal assessment methodology ISAM and has been subject to very substantial verification tests and has been used in verifying other assessment codes. Results are presented as a function of time for the release of radionuclides from the near field, and then from the far field into the biosphere. Radiological impacts of the releases are reported elsewhere. Consideration is given to each radionuclide and to each component part of the repository. The releases from the entire repository are also presented. The peak releases rates are, for most scenarios, due to organic C-14. Other radionuclides which contribute to peak release rates include inorganic C-14, Ni-59 and Ni-63. (author)

  3. Drug release mechanisms of compressed lipid implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreye, F; Siepmann, F; Siepmann, J

    2011-02-14

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mass transport mechanisms controlling drug release from compressed lipid implants. The latter steadily gain in importance as parenteral controlled release dosage forms, especially for acid-labile drugs. A variety of lipid powders were blended with theophylline and propranolol hydrochloride as sparingly and freely water-soluble model drugs. Cylindrical implants were prepared by direct compression and thoroughly characterized before and after exposure to phosphate buffer pH 7.4. Based on the experimental results, an appropriate mathematical theory was identified in order to quantitatively describe the resulting drug release patterns. Importantly, broad release spectra and release periods ranging from 1 d to several weeks could easily be achieved by varying the type of lipid, irrespective of the type of drug. Interestingly, diffusion with constant diffusivities was found to be the dominant mass transport mechanism, if the amount of water within the implant was sufficient to dissolve all of the drug. In these cases an analytical solution of Fick's second law could successfully describe the experimentally measured theophylline and propranolol hydrochloride release profiles, even if varying formulation and processing parameters, e.g. the type of lipid, initial drug loading, drug particles size as well as compression force and time. However, based on the available data it was not possible to distinguish between drug diffusion control and water diffusion control. The obtained new knowledge can nevertheless significantly help facilitating the optimization of this type of advanced drug delivery systems, in particular if long release periods are targeted, which require time consuming experimental trials.

  4. The illustris simulation: Public data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D.; Pillepich, A.; Genel, S.; Vogelsberger, M.; Springel, V.; Torrey, P.; Rodriguez-Gomez, V.; Sijacki, D.; Snyder, G. F.; Griffen, B.; Marinacci, F.; Blecha, L.; Sales, L.; Xu, D.; Hernquist, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present the full public release of all data from the Illustris simulation project. Illustris is a suite of large volume, cosmological hydrodynamical simulations run with the moving-mesh code AREPO and including a comprehensive set of physical models critical for following the formation and evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Each simulates a volume of (106.5 Mpc)3 and self-consistently evolves five different types of resolution elements from a starting redshift of z = 127 to the present day, z = 0. These components are: dark matter particles, gas cells, passive gas tracers, stars and stellar wind particles, and supermassive black holes. This data release includes the snapshots at all 136 available redshifts, halo and subhalo catalogs at each snapshot, and two distinct merger trees. Six primary realizations of the Illustris volume are released, including the flagship Illustris-1 run. These include three resolution levels with the fiducial "full" baryonic physics model, and a dark matter only analog for each. In addition, we provide four distinct, high time resolution, smaller volume "subboxes". The total data volume is ∼265 TB, including ∼800 full volume snapshots and ∼30,000 subbox snapshots. We describe the released data products as well as tools we have developed for their analysis. All data may be directly downloaded in its native HDF5 format. Additionally, we release a comprehensive, web-based API which allows programmatic access to search and data processing tasks. In both cases we provide example scripts and a getting-started guide in several languages: currently, IDL, Python, and Matlab. This paper addresses scientific issues relevant for the interpretation of the simulations, serves as a pointer to published and on-line documentation of the project, describes planned future additional data releases, and discusses technical aspects of the release.

  5. Growth hormone-releasing hormone stimulates cAMP release in superfused rat pituitary cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, J E; Groot, K. de; Schally, A V

    1995-01-01

    The release of growth hormone (GH) and cAMP was studied in superfused rat pituitary cells by infusing growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) at different doses or a combination of GHRH and somatostatin 14 (SS-14). Three-minute pulses of GHRH caused a dose-dependent GH and cAMP release (effective concentration of 50% of the maximal biological effect is 0.21 nM and 52.5 nM, respectively). The lowest effective doses of GHRH in the superfusion system were 0.03 nM for GH release and 0.3 nM for cA...

  6. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part I. Method description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aven, Terje; Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik

    2006-09-21

    Investigations of major accidents show that technical, human, operational, as well as organisational factors influence the accident sequences. In spite of these facts, quantitative risk analyses of offshore oil and gas production platforms have focused on technical safety systems. This paper presents a method (called BORA-Release) for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis of the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequency. By using BORA-Release it is possible to analyse the effect of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and how platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors influence the barrier performance. BORA-Release comprises the following main steps: (1) development of a basic risk model including release scenarios, (2) modelling the performance of safety barriers, (3) assignment of industry average probabilities/frequencies and risk quantification based on these probabilities/frequencies, (4) development of risk influence diagrams, (5) scoring of risk influencing factors, (6) weighting of risk influencing factors, (7) adjustment of industry average probabilities/frequencies, and (8) recalculation of the risk in order to determine the platform specific risk related to hydrocarbon release. The various steps in BORA-Release are presented and discussed. Part II of the paper presents results from a case study where BORA-Release is applied.

  7. Light activated nitric oxide releasing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muizzi Casanas, Dayana Andreina

    The ability to control the location and dosage of biologically active molecules inside the human body can be critical to maximizing effective treatment of cardiovascular diseases like angina. The current standard of treatment relies on the metabolism of organonitrate drugs into nitric oxide (NO), which are not specific, and also show problems with densitization with long-term use. There is a need then to create a treatment method that gives targeted release of NO. Metal-nitrosyl (M-NO) complexes can be used for delivery of NO since the release of NO can be controlled with light. However, the NO-releasing drug must be activated with red light to ensure maximum penetration of light through tissue. However, the release of NO from M-NO complexes with red-light activation is a significant challenge since the energy required to break the metal-NO bond is usually larger than the energy provided by red light. The goal of this project was to create red- sensitive, NO-releasing materials based on Ru-salen-nitrosyl compounds. Our approach was to first modify Ru salen complexes to sensitize the photochemistry for release of NO after red light irradiation. Next, we pursued polymerization of the Ru-salen complexes. We report the synthesis and quantitative photochemical characterization of a series of ruthenium salen nitrosyl complexes. These complexes were modified by incorporating electron donating groups in the salen ligand structure at key locations to increase electron density on the Ru. Complexes with either an --OH or --OCH3 substituent showed an improvement in the quantum yield of release of NO upon blue light irradiation compared to the unmodified salen. These --OH and --OCH3 complexes were also sensitized for NO release after red light activation, however the red-sensitive complexes were unstable and showed ligand substitution on the order of minutes. The substituted complexes remained sensitive for NO release, but only after blue light irradiation. The Ru

  8. Arthroscopic release of the deltoid contracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-jun; YAN Hui; CUI Guo-qing; AO Ying-fang

    2010-01-01

    Background The deltoid contracture is an uncommon disorder. Long-standing contracture produces winged scapula,abduction and extension contracture of the shoulder. Surgical release has been considered the treatment of choice.However, the method of approach has not been well defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of arthroscopic release of the deltoid contracture.Methods A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate the results of arthroscopic release in six patients (seven shoulders) who had a contracture of the deltoid muscle. All patients had arthroscopic release. The abduction-contracture and horizontal-adduction angle was measured after operation. The average duration of follow-up was 16 months (range,from 4 to 41 months).Results The preoperative abduction contracture resolved completely in three shoulders. Two had a residual abduction contracture of 5° to 7° and two had a poor result with 15° abduction-contracture angle. The average postoperative abduction-contracture angle was 6° (range, 0° to 15°). The preoperative horizontal-adduction contracture was corrected,permitting at least 130° of adduction, in five shoulders. The remaining two shoulders had a postoperative horizontal-adduction angle of 120° and 110°. Overall, the average postoperative horizontai-adduction angle was 130°(range, 110° to 140°).Conclusion Arthroscopic release is an effective surgical technique to treat the deltoid contracture.

  9. Evaluation of three approaches to meniscal release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, B; Montgomery, R D; Wright, J; Bellah, J R; Tonks, C

    2007-01-01

    Three approaches to medial meniscal release (MMR) were compared using 48 canine cadaver stifles. The approaches included a caudomedial arthrotomy approach, a blind stab incision based on anatomic landmarks, and an arthroscopic guided approach. The cranial cruciate ligament was intact in all specimens. The time required to perform the meniscal release and joint capsule closure was recorded, as well as completeness and location of the meniscal transection. Damage to the caudal cruciate ligament, femoral cartilage, and medial collateral ligament were recorded. The mini-arthrotomy was 81% successful in accomplishment of MMR with a 4% rate of iatrogenic damage. The blind technique was 56% successful in the accomplishment of MMR with a 4% rate of iatrogenic damage. The arthroscopic guided approach was 62.5% successful in accomplishment of MMR, with a 10% rate of iatrogenic damage. Accomplishment and iatrogenic damage rates were not significantly different among procedures (p > 0.05). Significantly less time was required to perform the blind technique, and significantly greater time was required to perform the arthroscopic guided technique (p > 0.05). Significant differences were not noted among the procedures regarding the ability to accomplish the meniscal release or damage surrounding structures. None of the evaluated approaches for meniscal release resulted in a complete and accurate meniscal release for over 81% of the time.

  10. Helium release from radioisotope heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.E.; Early, J.W.; Starzynski, J.S.; Land, C.C.

    1984-05-01

    Diffusion of helium in /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ fuel was characterized as a function of the heating rate and the fuel microstructure. The samples were thermally ramped in an induction furnace and the helium release rates measured with an automated mass spectrometer. The diffusion constants and activation energies were obtained from the data using a simple diffusion model. The release rates of helium were correlated with the fuel microstructure by metallographic examination of fuel samples. The release mechanism consists of four regimes, which are dependent upon the temperature. Initially, the release is controlled by movement of point defects combined with trapping along grain boundaries. This regime is followed by a process dominated by formation and growth of helium bubbles along grain boundaries. The third regime involves volume diffusion controlled by movement of oxygen vacancies. Finally, the release at the highest temperatures follows the diffusion rate of intragranular bubbles. The tendency for helium to be trapped within the grain boundaries diminishes with small grain sizes, slow thermal pulses, and older fuel.

  11. Gas Release as a Deformation Signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Radiogenic noble gases are contained in crustal rock at inter and intra granular sites. The gas composition depends on lithology, geologic history, fluid phases, and the aging effect by decay of U, Th, and K. The isotopic signature of noble gases found in rocks is vastly different than that of the atmosphere which is contributed by a variety of sources. When rock is subjected to stress conditions exceeding about half its yield strength, micro-cracks begin to form. As rock deformation progresses a fracture network evolves, releasing trapped noble gases and changing the transport properties to gas migration. Thus, changes in gas emanation and noble gas composition from rocks could be used to infer changes in stress-state and deformation. The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the effect of deformation/strain rate upon noble gas release. Four triaxial experiments were attempted for a strain rate range of %7E10-8 /s (180,000s) to %7E 10-4/s (500s); the three fully successful experiments (at the faster strain rates) imply the following: (1) helium is measurably released for all strain rates during deformation, this release is in amounts 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than that present in the air, and (2) helium gas release increases with decreasing strain rate.

  12. Superhydrophobic nitric oxide-releasing xerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Wesley L; Youn, Jonghae; Reighard, Katelyn P; Worley, Brittany V; Lodaya, Hetali M; Shin, Jae Ho; Schoenfisch, Mark H

    2014-08-01

    Superhydrophobic nitric oxide (NO)-releasing xerogels were prepared by spray-coating a fluorinated silane/silica composite onto N-diazeniumdiolate NO donor-modified xerogels. The thickness of the superhydrophobic layer was used to extend NO release durations from 59 to 105h. The resulting xerogels were stable, maintaining superhydrophobicity for up to 1month (the longest duration tested) when immersed in solution, with no leaching of silica or undesirable fragmentation detected. The combination of superhydrophobicity and NO release reduced viable Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion by >2-logs. The killing effect of NO was demonstrated at longer bacterial contact times, with superhydrophobic NO-releasing xerogels resulting in 3.8-log reductions in adhered viable bacteria vs. controls. With no observed toxicity to L929 murine fibroblasts, NO-releasing superhydrophobic membranes may be valuable antibacterial coatings for implants as they both reduce adhesion and kill bacteria that do adhere. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Releases for Calendar Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYEKMAN, D L

    2002-08-01

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. The report contains tabular data summaries on air emissions and liquid effluents released to the environment as well as nonroutine releases during calendar year (CY) 2001. These releases, bearing radioactive and hazardous substances, were from Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI), CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG), and Fluor Hanford (FH) managed facilities and activities. These data were obtained from direct sampling and analysis and from estimates based upon approved release factors. This report further serves as a supplemental resource to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (HSER PNNL-13910), published by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. HSER includes a yearly accounting of the impacts on the surrounding populace and environment from major activities at the Hanford Site. HSER also summarizes the regulatory compliance status of the Hanford Site. Tables ES-1 through ES-5 display comprehensive data summaries of CY2001 air emission and liquid effluent releases. The data displayed in these tables compiles the following: Radionuclide air emissions; Nonradioactive air emissions; Radionuclides in liquid effluents discharged to ground; Total volumes and flow rates of radioactive liquid effluents discharged to ground; and Radionuclides discharged to the Columbia River.

  14. Local control of striatal dopamine release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger eCachope

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine (DA systems play a key role in the physiology of reward seeking, motivation and motor control. Importantly, they are also involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease, schizophrenia and addiction. Control of DA release in the striatum is tightly linked to firing of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the substantia nigra (SN. However, local influences in the striatum affect release by exerting their action directly on axon terminals. For example, endogenous glutamatergic and cholinergic activity is sufficient to trigger striatal DA release independently of cell body firing. Recent developments involving genetic manipulation, pharmacological selectivity or selective stimulation have allowed for better characterization of these phenomena. Such termino-terminal forms of control of DA release transform considerably our understanding of the mesolimbic and nigrostriatal systems, and have strong implications as potential mechanisms to modify impaired control of DA release in the diseased brain. Here, we review these and related mechanisms and their implications in the physiology of ascending DA systems.

  15. SkyMapper Early Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian; Onken, Christopher; Schmidt, Brian; Bessell, Michael; Da Costa, Gary; Luvaul, Lance; Mackey, Dougal; Murphy, Simon; White, Marc; SkyMapper Team

    2016-05-01

    The SkyMapper Early Data Release (EDR) is the initial data release from the SkyMapper Southern Survey, which aims to create a deep, multi-epoch, multi-band photometric data set for the entire southern sky. EDR covers approximately 6700 sq. deg. (one-third) of the southern sky as obtained by the Short Survey component of the project. All included fields have at least two visits in good conditions in all six SkyMapper filters (uvgriz). Object catalogues are complete to magnitude 17-18, depending on filter. IVOA-complaint table access protocol (TAP), cone search and simple image access protocol (SIAP) services are available from the SkyMapper website (http://skymapper.anu.edu.au/), as well as through tools such as TOPCAT. Data are restricted to Australian astronomers and their collaborators for twelve months from the release date. Further details on the reduction of SkyMapper data, along with data quality improvements, will be released in late 2016 as part of SkyMapper Data Release 1 (DR1).

  16. Fluoride release and uptake capacities of fluoride-releasing restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Nuray; Turgut, Melek D

    2003-01-01

    Many fluoride-releasing dental materials are being sold on the basis of their cariostatic properties. However, the amount fluoride release of these materials is still uncertain. This study investigated the fluoride release and uptake characteristics of four flowable resin composites (Heliomolar Flow, Tetric Flow, Wave, Perma Flo), one flowable compomer (Dyract flow), one conventional glass ionomer cement mixed with two different powder/liquid ratios (ChemFlex Syringeable and ChemFlex Condensable), one packable resin composite (SureFil), one ion-releasing composite (Ariston pHc) and one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer). Seven discs (6-mm diameter and 1.5-mm height) were prepared for each material. Each disc was immersed in 3.5 ml of deionized water within a plastic vial and stored at 37 degrees C. The deionized water was changed every 24 hours and the release of fluoride was measured for 30 days. At the end of this period, the samples were recharged with 2 ml of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel for four minutes. Then, all samples were reassessed for an additional 10 days. The fluoride release of all samples was measured with a specific fluoride electrode and an ionanalyzer. Statistical analyses were conducted using two-way repeated measure ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range tests. For all tested materials, the greatest fluoride release was observed after the first day of the study (p0.05). Ariston pHc released the highest amount of fluoride, followed by ChemFlex Syringeable, Vitremer and ChemFlex Condensable. There were statistically significant differences among these materials (p<0.05). Fluoride release of all materials were significantly increased after the first day following refluoridation and Ariston pHc released the greatest among all materials (p<0.01). At the end of two days of refluoridation, the fluoride release rate for each material dropped quickly and stabilized within three days.

  17. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma......Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  18. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) resins are extensively used as binder in fouling-release coatings due to the low critical surface energy and low elastic modulus of PDMS. These properties result in poor adhesion of the fouling organisms, which are therefore detached by hydrodynamic forces during...... navigation [1,2,3]. Other compounds are usually mixed together with the binder (e.g. silica and pigments) in order to improve the mechanical, thixotropic and visual properties of the coatings. It has ben shown, however, that these ingredients have a negative effect on the fouling-release properties...... of the coatings [1,2,4]. Together with the PDMS-system, non-reactive polymers have been used to improve the fouling-release properties of the coatings. Initially, hydrophobic siloxane-based polymers were used, which aimed to increase the hydrophobicity of the PDMS surface [5,6]. However, copolymers comprising...

  19. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 micro Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly <15 nm and are released as composite colloids attached to the organic binders of the paint. Microscopic results indicate that the Ag-NP are likely transformed to considerably less toxic forms such as Ag2S.

  20. Sustained-release from nanocarriers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Jayaganesh V; Nugraha, Chandra; Ng, Xu Wen; Venkatraman, Subbu

    2014-11-10

    Nanocarriers have been explored for delivering drugs and other bioactive molecules for well over 35years. Since the introduction of Doxil®, a nanoliposomal delivery system for the cancer drug doxorubicin, several products have been approved worldwide. The majority of these products focus on cancer chemotherapy, and utilize the size advantage of nanocarriers to obtain a favourable distribution of the drug carrier in the human body. In general, such carriers do not sustain drug release over more than a few days at best. In this review, we explore the reasons for this, and present an overview of successful research that is capable of generating sustained-release products in non-cancer applications. A variety of nanocarriers have been studied, and their advantages and shortcomings are highlighted in this review. The achievement of sustained release of bioactive molecules opens new doors in nanotherapeutics.

  1. Active compounds release from semisolid dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Anna; Goscianska, Joanna; Nowak, Izabela

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to review all the aspects of the in vitro release testing (IVRT) from semisolid dosage forms. Although none of the official dissolution methods has been specified for use with semisolid dosage forms, their utility for assessing release rates of drugs from semisolid dosage forms has become a topic of considerable interest. One can expect to overcome such complexity in the future, when the official "Topical and Transdermal Drug Products-Product Performance Tests" will be published in an issue of the Pharmacopeial Forum. Many factors such as type of the dissolution medium, membrane, temperature, and speed have an influence on the mechanism and kinetics of the release testing from gels, creams, and ointments; therefore, those parameters have been widely discussed.

  2. MEASUREMENT OF AMMONIA RELEASE FROM SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamecnik, J; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-01-15

    SRNL was requested by WSRC Waste Solidification Engineering to characterize the release of ammonia from saltstone curing at 95 C by performing experimental testing. These tests were performed with an MCU-type Tank 50H salt simulant containing 0, 50, and 200 mg/L ammonia. The testing program showed that above saltstone made from the 200 mg/L ammonia simulant, the vapor space ammonia concentration was about 2.7 mg/L vapor at 95 C. An upper 95% confidence value for this concentration was found to be 3.9 mg/L. Testing also showed that ammonia was chemically generated from curing saltstone at 95 C; the amount of ammonia generated was estimated to be equivalent to 121 mg/L additional ammonia in the salt solution feed. Even with chemical generation, the ammonia release from saltstone was found to be lower than its release from salt solution only with 200 mg/L ammonia.

  3. Environmental releases for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report. The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the entire Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance of the Hanford Site with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public about the impact of Hanford operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1994 from these facilities.

  4. Multiplexed programmable release of captured DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Holden, Matthew T; Shortreed, Michael R; Smith, Lloyd M

    2014-11-03

    Nucleic-acid hybridization is widely used for the specific capture of complementary sequences from complex samples. It is useful for both analytical methodologies, such as array hybridization (e.g. transcriptome analysis, genetic-variation analysis), and preparative strategies such as exome sequencing and sequence-specific proteome capture and analysis (PICh, HyCCAPP). It has not generally been possible to selectively elute particular captured subsequences, however, as the conditions employed for disruption of a duplex can lack the specificity needed to discriminate between different sequences. We show here that it is possible to bind and selectively release multiple sets of sequences by using toehold-mediated DNA branch migration. The strategy is illustrated for simple mixtures of oligonucleotides, for the sequence-specific capture and specific release of crosslinked yeast chromatin, and for the specific release of oligonucleotides hybridized to DNA microarrays. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Environmental Release Prevention and Control Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamatey, A.; Arnett, M.

    1997-10-01

    During the history of SRS, continual improvements in facilities, process, and operations, and changes in the site`s mission have reduced the amount of radioactive liquid releases. In the early years of SRS (1958 to 1965), the amount of tritium discharged to the Savannah River averaged approximately 61,000 curies a year. During the mid-1980`s (1983 to 1988), liquid releases of tritium averaged 27,000 curies a year. By 1996, liquid releases of tritium are projected to be just 3000 curies for the year. This large projected decrease is the result of the planned shut-down of all reactors and the anticipated significant decline in the amount of tritium migrating from the site seepage basins and the Solid Waste Disposal Facility.

  6. Modelling and analysis of impulsive releases of sterile mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingzhan; Song, Xinyu; Li, Jia

    2017-12-01

    To study the impact of releasing sterile mosquitoes on mosquito-borne disease transmissions, we propose two mathematical models with impulsive releases of sterile mosquitoes. We consider periodic impulsive releases in the first model and obtain the existence, uniqueness, and globally stability of a wild-mosquito-eradication periodic solution. We also establish thresholds for the control of the wild mosquito population by selecting the release rate and the release period. In the second model, the impulsive releases are determined by the closely monitored wild mosquito density, or the state feedback. We prove the existence of an order one periodic solution and find a relatively small attraction region, which ensures the wild mosquito population is under control. We provide numerical analysis which shows that a smaller release rate and more frequent releases are more efficient in controlling the wild mosquito population for the periodic releases, but an early release of sterile mosquitoes is more effective for the state feedback releases.

  7. Stimulatory effects of neuronally released norepinephrine on renin release in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Yasuo; Kawazoe, Shinka; Ichihara, Toshio; Shinyama, Hiroshi; Kageyama, Masaaki; Morimoto, Shiro (Osaka Univ. of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan))

    1988-10-01

    Extracellular high potassium inhibits renin release in vitro by increasing calcium concentrations in the juxtaglomerular cells. The authors found that the decreased response of renin release from rat kidney cortical slices in high potassium solution changed to a strikingly increased one in the presence of nifedipine at doses over 10{sup {minus}6} M. They then examined the stimulatory effect of extracellular high potassium in the presence of nifedipine on renin release. The enhancement of release was significantly suppressed either by propranolol or by metoprolol but not by prazosin. High potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release was markedly attenuated by renal denervation. The enhancing effect was not observed when the slices were incubated in calcium-free medium. Divalent cations such as Cd{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} blocked this enhancement in a concentration-dependent manner. High potassium elicited an increase in {sup 3}H efflux from the slices preloaded with ({sup 3}H)-norepinephrine. The increasing effect was not influenced by nifedipine but was abolished by the removal of extracellular calcium or by the addition of divalent cations. These observations suggest to us that the high potassium plus nifedipine-induced increase in renin release from the slices is mediated by norepinephrine derived from renal sympathetic nerves and that this neuronally released norepinephrine stimulates renin release via activation of {beta}-adrenoceptors.

  8. Treatment-Continuity of ADHD Compared Using Immediate-Release and Extended-Release MPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of methylphenidate (MPH therapy for ADHD in young Medicaid beneficiaries (ages 6 to 17 years treated with immediate-release (IR or extended-release (ER MPH formulations was compared in an analysis of statewide California Medicaid claims (2000-2003 conducted at Columbia University, New York; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and McNeil Pharmaceuticals, Fort Washington, PA.

  9. Effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers on release kinetics of metoprolol succinate extended release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani Gade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present work is to design and evaluate extended release matrix tablets of metoprolol succinate to reduce the dosing frequency and to improve patient compliance. The matrix tablets were prepared by the combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, using methocel 10000 Cps in combination with ethyl cellulose 7 Cps, Eudragit® RS100, Eudragit® S100, and Eudragit® L100.The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Prepared formulations were evaluated for various parameters like weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, and % drug content. Tablets were subjected to in vitro drug release studies. The formulations containing methocel 10000 Cps, Eudragit® L100 showed good release retardation. All the prepared formulations showed first-order release kinetics with matrix diffusion mechanism of release. The formulation containing 52.06% w/w of methocel 10000 Cps, 8.75% Eudragit® L100 offered the required release rate according to USP Pharmacopoeial guidelines. The combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers can effectively control the drug release for freely water-soluble drugs in case of extended release formulations which are the upcoming dosage forms for patient compliance in all aspects.

  10. Hydrogen Release Studies of Alkali Metal Amidoboranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedtke, Avery T.; Autrey, Thomas

    2010-04-19

    A series of metal amido boranes LiNH2BH3 (LAB), NaNH2BH3 (SAB), LiNH(Me)BH3 (LMAB), NaNH(Me)BH3 (SMAB), KNH(Me)BH3 (PMAB), and KNH(tBu)BH3 (PBAB) were synthesized, by solution phase methods, and the thermal release of H2 in the solid state was studied. Based on the observed trends in reaction rates of H > Me > tBu and the kinetic isotope effect, the mechanism of hydrogen release from MAB compounds was found to proceed through a bimolecular mechanism involving the intermediacy of a MH (M = Li, Na, or K). The mechanism of hydrogen release from metal amidoboranes, a metal ion assisted hydride transfer, is very different than the mechanism of hydrogen release from the parent compound ammonia borane (AB). The non-volatile products formed from MAB’s are significantly different than the products formed after hydrogen release from AB. The boron containing resulting from the release of one equivalent of hydrogen from the metal amidoboranes were characterized by MAS 11B NMR spectroscopy and found to contain both BH3 and sp2 hybridized BH groups, consistent with a general structural feature MN(R)=BHN(R)MBH3. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy as part of the Chemical Hydrogen Storage CoE at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the U.S. DOE by Battelle. MAS NMR studies were performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research located at PNNL.

  11. Release of monomers from composite dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokic, S M; Duca, R C; Godderis, L; Hoet, P H; Seo, J W; Van Meerbeek, B; Van Landuyt, K L

    2017-05-01

    Dental personnel are more at risk to develop asthmatic disease, but the exact reason is so far unknown. During abrasive procedures, dental personnel are exposed to nano-sized dust particles released from dental composite. The aim of this study was to investigate whether respirable composite dust may also release monomers. Respirable (composite dust was collected and the release of methacrylate monomers and Bisphenol A (BPA) in water and ethanol was evaluated by liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The dust was ultra-morphologically and chemically analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that, irrespective of the type of composite, the respirable fraction of composite dust may release relatively high concentrations of unpolymerized methacrylate monomers, both in water and ethanol. Higher release was observed in ethanol. The endocrine disruptor BPA also emanated from the composite dust particles. TEM showed that most particles were nano-sized, although particle size ranged between 6nm and 5μm with a mode value between 12 and 39nm. Most particles consisted of several filler particles in resin matrix, although single nano-filler particles could also be observed. Elemental analysis by TEM-EDS proved that the particles collected on the filters originated from the dental composites. Theoretically, composite dust may function as a vehicle to transport monomers deeply into the respiratory system. The results of this study may shed another light on the increasing incidence of respiratory disease among dental personnel, and more care should be taken to prevent inhalation of composite dust. Special care should be taken to prevent inhalation of composite dust, as the dust particles may release methacrylate monomers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Do sympathetic nerves release noradrenaline in "quanta"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjärne, L

    2000-07-01

    The discovery of excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) in guinea-pig vas deferens by Burnstock and Holman (1960) showed for the first time that a sympathetic transmitter, now known to be ATP, is secreted in "quanta". As it was assumed at the time that EJPS are triggered by noradrenaline, this discovery led to attempts to use the fractional overflow of noradrenaline from sympathetically innervated tissues to assess, indirectly, the number of noradrenaline molecules in the average "quantum". The basic finding was that each pulse released 1/50000 of the tissue content of noradrenaline, when reuptake was blocked and prejunctional alpha(2)-adrenoceptors were intact. This provided the constraints, two extreme alternatives: (i) each pulse releases 0.2-3% of the content of a vesicle from all varicosities, or (ii) each pulse releases the whole content of a vesicle from 0.2 to 3% of the varicosities. New techniques have made it possible to address questions about the release probability in individual sites, or the "quantal" size, more directly. Results by optical (comparison of the labelling of SV2 and synaptotagmin, proteins in the membrane of transmitter vesicles), electrophysiological (excitatory junction currents, EJCs, at single visualized varicosities) and amperometric (the noradrenaline oxidation current at a carbon fibre electrode) methods reveal that transmitter exocytosis in varicosities is intermittent. The EJC and noradrenaline oxidation current responses (in rat arteries) to a train of single pulses were observed to be similar in intermittency and amplitude fluctuation. This suggests that they are caused by exocytosis of single or very few "quanta" of ATP and noradrenaline, respectively, equal to the contents of single vesicles, from a small population of release sites. These findings support, but do not conclusively prove the validity of the "intermittent" model of noradrenaline release. The question if noradrenaline is always secreted in packets of preset size

  13. Faster Algorithms for Privately Releasing Marginals

    OpenAIRE

    Thaler, Justin R; Ullman, Jonathan Robert; Vadhan, Salil P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of releasing $k$-way marginals of a database $D \\in (\\{0,1\\}^d)^n$, while preserving differential privacy. The answer to a $k$-way marginal query is the fraction of $D$'s records $x \\in \\{0,1\\}^d$ with a given value in each of a given set of up to $k$ columns. Marginal queries enable a rich class of statistical analyses of a dataset, and designing efficient algorithms for privately releasing marginal queries has been identified as an important open problem in private data...

  14. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  15. Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-17-10 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release...N) Energy /Work/Power electron volt (eV) 1.602 177 × 10 –19 joule (J) erg 1 × 10 –7 joule (J) kiloton (kt) (TNT equivalent) 4.184 × 10 12...customary unit. Grant #  HDTRA 1-12-1-0044 Intense Terahertz Fields for Fast Energy Release Final Report PI: Keith A. Nelson 617-253-1423 kanelson

  16. Bacteria‐Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen‐Chi; Tolker‐Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics...... in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  17. Bacteria-Triggered Release of Antimicrobial Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komnatnyy, Vitaly V.; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Medical devices employed in healthcare practice are often susceptible to microbial contamination. Pathogenic bacteria may attach themselves to device surfaces of catheters or implants by formation of chemically complex biofilms, which may be the direct cause of device failure. Extracellular...... material is demonstrated by the bacteria‐triggered release of antibiotics to control bacterial populations and signaling molecules to modulate quorum sensing. The self‐regulating system provides the basis for the development of device‐relevant polymeric materials, which only release antibiotics...... in dependency of the titer of bacteria surrounding the medical device....

  18. Mechanisms of renin release from juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Salomonsson, Max; Sellerup Persson, Anja;

    1991-01-01

    In microdissected, nonperfused afferent arterioles changes in intravascular pressure did not affect renin secretion. On the contrary, renin release from isolated afferent arterioles perfused in a free-flow system has been reported to be sensitive to simultaneous changes in luminal pressure and flow....... Hence local blood flow may be involved in the baroreceptor control of renin release. If flow is sensed, the sensor is likely to be located near the endothelial cell layer, where ion channels have been shown to be influenced by variations in shear stress....

  19. Myofascial release of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, B M

    1993-01-01

    Current treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome may be ineffective or associated with complications or recurrence. In the case reported here, a myofascial release by the physician combined with the patient's self-stretch reduced pain and numbness and improved electromyographic results. The manipulative approach releases the transverse carpal ligament,-and "opens" or dilates the canal. The patient stretches the wrist, digits, and thumb, including myofascial components. An aggressive, conservative approach lessens the need for surgery in mild to moderate cases. Studies with magnetic resonance imaging may be helpful to document canal size before and after treatment.

  20. EPICS release 3.11 specific documentation -- EPICS release notes for 3.11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-01-19

    EPICS release 3.11 is now ready for user testing. A person who wants to set up a simplified application environment to boot an IOC and create databases using R3.11 should follow the directions in Appendix B, page 27, of the EPICS Source/Release Control Manual, Sept. 20, 1993. The R3.11 EPICS path at ANL/APS is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11 so the command to get the new release is /net/phebos/epics/R3.11/Unix/share/bin/getrel /net/phebos/epics/R3.11. An existing R3.8 short form report can be copied to this new directory and used to create a database. ANL/APS is currently testing an Application Developers Source/Release control system. It is not yet ready for general distribution. Attached are the EPICS R3.11 release notes.

  1. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release). Part II: Results from a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje

    2006-09-21

    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures.

  2. Histamine release from cord blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Windelborg; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Herlin, Troels

    1990-01-01

    The histamine release (HR) after challenge with anti-IgE, concanavalin A, N-formyl-met-leu-phe and the calcium ionophore A23187 from 97 cord blood samples was determined by a microfiber-based assay. Maximum HR with anti-IgE showed great inter-individual variation (median: 20.5; range: 1-104 ng...

  3. Eicosanoid release as laboratory indicator of biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiout, A; Jörres, A; Schultze, G; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M

    1989-06-01

    Biocompatibility evaluation of extracorporeal devices requires the establishment of sensitive indicators of blood cells/surface interactions. Among others, arachidonic acid derivatives, such as prostaglandins and thromboxanes, play an important role in the cell control systems. Hence, the release of eicosanoids during blood exposure to dialyzer membranes was investigated. Experiments included in vitro incubation of human blood with flat membranes (FM), as well as ex vivo perfusion of hollow fiber membranes (HFM) with blood from healthy volunteers in single-pass fashion. In both models, a significant release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) was detected. In addition, the amount of eicosanoid release depended on the type of membrane tested. After a 10-min FM incubation with fresh blood, plasma concentrations of TXB2 and PGE2 were pronounced by polycarbonate when compared to Cuprophan and polyacrylonitrile. During 10 min of open loop perfusion of HFM, polymethylmethacrylate was the most active biomaterial, whereas the reactivity of Cuprophan was significantly lower. Among HFM, Hemophan was by far the less active. These results indicate that the release of eicosanoids represents a sensitive parameter of blood cells/membrane reactivity. Thus, the question arises as to whether or not the extracorporeal process of cyclooxygenase activity could contribute to the clinical side effects of chronical hemodialysis.

  4. Meticulous Overview on the Controlled Release Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siafu Ibahati Sempeho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the high demand for fertilizer formulations that will exhaust the possibilities of nutrient use efficiency (NUE, regulate fertilizer consumption, and lessen agrophysicochemical properties and environmental adverse effects instigated by conventional nutrient supply to crops, this review recapitulates controlled release fertilizers (CRFs as a cutting-edge and safe way to supply crops’ nutrients over the conventional ways. Essentially, CRFs entail fertilizer particles intercalated within excipients aiming at reducing the frequency of fertilizer application thereby abating potential adverse effects linked with conventional fertilizer use. Application of nanotechnology and materials engineering in agriculture particularly in the design of CRFs, the distinctions and classification of CRFs, and the economical, agronomical, and environmental aspects of CRFs has been revised putting into account the development and synthesis of CRFs, laboratory CRFs syntheses and testing, and both linear and sigmoid release features of CRF formulations. Methodical account on the mechanism of nutrient release centring on the empirical and mechanistic approaches of predicting nutrient release is given in view of selected mathematical models. Compositions and laboratory preparations of CRFs basing on in situ and graft polymerization are provided alongside the physical methods used in CRFs encapsulation, with an emphasis on the natural polymers, modified clays, and superabsorbent nanocomposite excipients.

  5. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  6. Studies of release properties of ISOLDE targets

    CERN Document Server

    Peräjärvi, K; Fedosseev, V; Joinet, A; Köster, U; Lau, C; Lettry, Jacques; Ravn, H L; Santana-Leitner, M

    2003-01-01

    Off-line release rates of Be, Mg, S, Mn and Kr from refractory materials were studied. Mn yields were determined from a ZrO2 target and Kr yields from a SrO and ZrO2 targets. A Monte Carlo code to optimize ISOLDE targets was introduced.

  7. Pan-STARRS Data Release 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, Heather

    2017-01-01

    We present an overview of the first and second Pan-STARRS data release (DR1 and DR2), and how to use the Published Science Products Subsystem (PSPS) and the Pan-STARRS Science Interface (PSI) to access the images and the catalogs. The data will be available from the STScI MAST archive. The PSPS is an SQLServer database that can be queried via script or web interface. This database has relative photometry and astrometry and object associations, making it easy to do searches across the entire sky as well as tools to generate lightcurves of individual objects as a function of time. Both releases of data use the 3pi survey, which has 5 filters (g,r,i,z,y), roughly 60 epochs (12 per filter) and covers 3/4 of the sky and everything north of -30 degrees declination. The first release of data (DR1) will contain stack images, mean attribute catalogs and static sky catalogs based off of the stacks. The second release of data (DR2) will contain the time domain data. For the images, this will include single exposures that have been detrended and warped. For the catalogs, this will include catalogs of all exposures as well as forced photometry.

  8. Endoscopic iliotibial band release in snapping hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Raul; Munegato, Daniele; De Benedetto, Massimo; Carraro, Andrea; Bigoni, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Several open surgical techniques have been used to treat recalcitrant cases of snapping iliotibial band with varying results. Recently, endoscopic techniques have become available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of a modified endoscopic iliotibial band release using a longitudinal retrospective case series.
 Fifteen patients (three men and 12 women) with symptomatic external snapping hip were treated with an endoscopic release of the iliotibial band. The average age was 25 years (range 16-37 years). The procedure was performed in the lateral decubitus position using two portals; the iliotibial band was transversally released using a radiofrequency hook probe. The mean follow-up period was 33.8 months (range 12-84 months).
 The snapping phenomenon was overcome in all the patients. The mean pre-op pain VAS score was 5.5 mm (range 5-7 mm) and the mean post-op pain VAS score was 0.53 mm (range 0-2 mm) with a statistically significant reduction with respect to the preoperative value (piliotibial band release is a safe and reproducible technique with excellent results in terms of snapping phenomenon resolution, patient satisfaction, and return to previous level of activity. After strenuous sporting activities 40% of patients complained of very slight pain.

  9. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Early Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J T; Konstantopoulos, I S; Bryant, J J; Sharp, R; Cecil, G N; Fogarty, L M R; Foster, C; Green, A W; Ho, I -T; Owers, M S; Schaefer, A L; Scott, N; Bauer, A E; Baldry, I; Barnes, L A; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bloom, J V; Brough, S; Colless, M; Cortese, L; Couch, W J; Drinkwater, M J; Driver, S P; Goodwin, M; Gunawardhana, M L P; Hampton, E J; Hopkins, A M; Kewley, L J; Lawrence, J S; Leon-Saval, S G; Liske, J; López-Sánchez, Á R; Lorente, N P F; Medling, A M; Mould, J; Norberg, P; Parker, Q A; Power, C; Pracy, M B; Richards, S N; Robotham, A S G; Sweet, S M; Taylor, E N; Thomas, A D; Tonini, C; Walcher, C J

    2014-01-01

    We present the Early Data Release of the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. The SAMI Galaxy Survey is an ongoing integral field spectroscopic survey of ~3400 low-redshift (z<0.12) galaxies, covering galaxies in the field and in groups within the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey regions, and a sample of galaxies in clusters. In the Early Data Release, we publicly release the fully calibrated datacubes for a representative selection of 107 galaxies drawn from the GAMA regions, along with information about these galaxies from the GAMA catalogues. All datacubes for the Early Data Release galaxies can be downloaded individually or as a set from the SAMI Galaxy Survey website. In this paper we also assess the quality of the pipeline used to reduce the SAMI data, giving metrics that quantify its performance at all stages in processing the raw data into calibrated datacubes. The pipeline gives excellent results throughout, with typical sky subtraction residuals of 0.9-1...

  10. Post-Release Success among Paroled Lifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Liem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research suggests that social relations, in particular the forming of family ties and employment (social factors, self-efficacy (personal factors, and therapeutic interventions (institutional factors constitute main contributors in post-release success. These studies, however, have largely been based on general delinquents serving relatively short prison terms. This study aims to shed light on the influence of social, personal, and institutional factors on post-release success versus failure among paroled lifers. We conducted in-depth life-history interviews with 64 individuals who had served a life sentence, who were either re-incarcerated for another crime or parole violation, or were currently out on parole. The role of social factors in desistance among long-term incarcerated offenders was minimal. Rather, self-efficacy appeared to be a key element in post-release success. These findings suggest that research based on short-term incarcerated offenders cannot be directly translated to long-term incarcerated offenders. This group does not experience the same traditional turning points, such as establishing family ties and employment. Accordingly, long-term prisoners may go through a different process post-release that determines their success versus failure compared to general delinquents who serve shorter sentences.

  11. Release and attenuation of fluorocarbons in landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    Several halocarbons with very high global warming and ozone depleting potentials have been used as blowing agent for insulation foam in refrigerators and freezers. Many appliances are shredded after the end of their useful life. Release experiments carried out in the laboratory on insulation foam...

  12. Histamine release from cord blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bent Windelborg; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg; Herlin, Troels

    1990-01-01

    The histamine release (HR) after challenge with anti-IgE, concanavalin A, N-formyl-met-leu-phe and the calcium ionophore A23187 from 97 cord blood samples was determined by a microfiber-based assay. Maximum HR with anti-IgE showed great inter-individual variation (median: 20.5; range: 1-104 ng...

  13. Detecting ATP release by a biosensor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Seiji; Hazama, Akihiro; Dutta, Amal K; Sabirov, Ravshan Z; Okada, Yasunobu

    2004-11-09

    Cells release adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space in response to various stimuli. This released ATP plays an important physiological role in cell-to-cell signal transduction. The bulk ATP concentration can be detected using a conventional luciferin-luciferase assay. However, the ATP concentration in the vicinity of the cell surface is often different from the bulk concentration because of its rapid degradation by ecto-ATPases and because of delayed diffusion due to unstirred layer effects. Here, we describe a simple biosensor method to measure the local ATP concentration on the cell surface in real time. The method is based on the ATP-dependent opening of ligand-gated cation channels of purinergic P2X receptors expressed in undifferentiated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells or in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably transfected with recombinant P2X2 purinergic receptors. Under the whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp, a sensor PC12 cell or HEK293 is positioned within the proximity of a target cell, and the P2X-mediated currents induced by ATP released from a given site on the target cell surface is measured. The ATP release is quantified by a calibration procedure utilizing local puff applications of ATP at preset concentrations.

  14. Anticipation and Controversy Surround "Superman" Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    Well in advance of its official release, the education film "Waiting For Superman" has attracted a level of attention that could make it one of the year's most-watched documentaries--and one of the most controversial among educators, some of whom question its depictions of the American school system and how to improve it. Made by…

  15. Trismus release in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Lee, Jing-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Trismus is a common problem among oral cancer patients. This report aimed to study the inciting factors of trismus and to find out the rationale of trismus release. Between 1996 and 2008, 61 oral cancer patients with retrievable records of interincisor distance (IID) were analyzed by retrospective chart review. The IID decreased from 31.4 (12.4) to 24.9 (12.0) mm in 36 patients undergoing cancer ablation only (P = 0.001). Other variables prompting trismus include buccal cancer (P = 0.017), radiotherapy (P = 0.008), and recurrence (P = 0.001). In contrast, the IID improved from 11.7 (7.1) to 22.7 (11.9) mm in 25 patients receiving cancer ablative and trismus releasing surgeries (P = 0.000). The improvement fared better in individuals with IID less than 15 mm than the others (P = 0.037). In conclusion, involvement of buccal region, ablative surgery, radiotherapy, and recurrence are provocative factors of trismus. Patients with IID less than 15 mm will benefit from releasing surgery significantly. Others may better be handled with conservative managements firstly, and enrolled as candidates of surgical release only until the patients entertained a 28-month period of disease-free interval, by which time the risk of recurrence would be markedly reduced.

  16. Slow-Release Fertilizers For Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic mineral provides growing plants with nutrients, including micronutrients. Dissolves slowly in moist soil or in hydroponic solution, releasing constituents. Mineral synthetic apatite into which nutrients calcium, phosphorous, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, and sulfur incorporated in form of various salts. Each pellet has homogeneous inorganic composition. Composition readily adjusted to meet precise needs of plant.

  17. Transcriptome of extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Royo

    Full Text Available The discovery that the cells communicate through emission of vesicles has opened new opportunities for better understanding of physiological and pathological mechanisms. This discovery also provides a novel source for non-invasive disease biomarker research. Our group has previously reported that hepatocytes release extracellular vesicles with protein content reflecting the cell-type of origin. Here, we show that the extracellular vesicles released by hepatocytes also carry RNA. We report the messenger RNA composition of extracellular vesicles released in two non-tumoral hepatic models: primary culture of rat hepatocytes and a progenitor cell line obtained from a mouse foetal liver. We describe different subpopulations of extracellular vesicles with different densities and protein and RNA content. We also show that the RNA cargo of extracellular vesicles released by primary hepatocytes can be transferred to rat liver stellate-like cells and promote their activation. Finally, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that liver-damaging drugs galactosamine, acetaminophen, and diclofenac modify the RNA content of these vesicles. To summarize, we show that the extracellular vesicles secreted by hepatocytes contain various RNAs. These vesicles, likely to be involved in the activation of stellate cells, might become a new source for non-invasive identification of the liver toxicity markers.

  18. Delayed-release lansoprazole plus naproxen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Monique P; Wellington, Keri

    2004-01-01

    A combination package containing delayed-release capsules of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole (15 mg once daily) and tablets of the NSAID naproxen (375 or 500 mg twice daily) has been approved for reducing the risk of NSAID-associated gastric ulcers in NSAID-requiring patients with a documented history of gastric ulcer. In a large, 12-week trial in NSAID (including naproxen)-requiring patients with a documented history of gastric ulcer, significantly more recipients of delayed-release lansoprazole 15 mg once daily than placebo recipients were free from gastric ulcer (p ulcer were 80% with lansoprazole 15 mg and 51% with placebo. In a subgroup analysis of recipients of naproxen (89% received 750-1000 mg/day), the percentage of patients free from gastric ulcer after 12 weeks of treatment was significantly higher with delayed-release lansoprazole 15 mg than with placebo (89% vs 33%; p ulcer, the incidence of treatment-related adverse events in recipients of delayed-release lansoprazole 15 mg once daily was low (7%), and similar to that in recipients of placebo (10%).

  19. Sulphur release from alternative fuel firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortada Mut, Maria del Mar; Nørskov, Linda Kaare; Glarborg, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    The cement industry has long been dependent on the use of fossil fuels, although a recent trend in replacing fossil fuels with alternative fuels has arisen. 1, 2 However, when unconverted or partly converted alternative fuels are admitted directly in the rotary kiln inlet, the volatiles released...

  20. RELEASED IN ETHIOPIA FROM 1949 TO 1987

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minimized by using fungicides to control foliar diseases, nets to prevent lodging, and periodic hand weeding to control .... Origin, selection site, and year of release of 13 bread wheat cultivars included in the yield study .... Adequate fertilizer was applied, a prophylactic ... incorporated as urea and triple superphosphate,.

  1. Sulphate release from building rubble of WWII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekiffer, Beate; Wessolek, Gerd; Vogeler, Iris; Brettholle, Mareike

    2010-05-01

    Sulphate concentration in the upper aquifer of Berlin, Germany is increasing continuously since 40 years. In downtown Berlin they particular exceed the precaution values of drinking water ordinance. We assume that the main source of sulphate in the groundwater is technogenic material, which is part of building rubble from WW II bombing. Nearly 115 Mio t of this material have been deposited in Berlin. Our aim is, ­ to identify rubble components which contain S and to quantify the S-pool of this material ­ to identify factors, influencing the release of SO4 and ­ to predict sulphate release from building rubble of WW II We analyzed total and water soluble S of various components and the fine earth fraction of the soils containing the rubble. We investigated the influence of physical and chemical parameters on the release of SO4 using unsaturated column experiments (With an automatic percolation system). Thereby, the particle size, the flow rate and the pH of the solution has been varied. Among the components, slag shows the highest total S-contents of up to 0,7% . Lignite Coal-ashes from Lusatia, Germany are also rich in SO4. The total S of brick varies between 0,01% and 0,3%. Mortar shows S-Values between 0,08 and 0,12%. In 75% of all samples show total S of less than 0,14%. There was no significant correlation between total S-amount and water-soluble SO4, which is caused by different chemical compounds in the samples. In the percolation experiments technogenic components with grain size <2mm cause a higher density, resulting in a lower percolation velocity. The concentration of ions in the according leachate is higher than in the leachate of coarse fraction (2 - 20mm). Gypsum-rich material (10%) released constant SO4 -concentration over the whole experiment. Slag-rich material released high initial SO4-concentrations which then fastly decreased. We concluded, that the kind of technogenic component and its grain size strongly influences the release of SO4 to the

  2. Effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydrogenated castor oil on naproxen release from sustained-release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, M H; Lobo, J M; Ferreira, D C

    2001-04-09

    The effect of the concentration of hydrophilic (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose [HPMC]) and hydrophobic (hydrogenated castor oil [HCO]) products, fillers (lactose and dibasic calcium phosphate), and buffers (sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, and sodium citrate) on naproxen release rate was studied. Matrix tablets were prepared by double compression, and in vitro dissolution tests were performed. The dissolution results showed that an increased amount of HPMC or hydrogenated castor oil resulted in reduced drug release. The inclusion of buffers in the HPMC matrix tablets enhanced naproxen release. For HCO tablets, only sodium bicarbonate enhanced naproxen release. The presence of lactose on HPMC matrix tablets did not show a significantly different result from that obtained with the formulation containing dibasic calcium phosphate as a filler. However, for the tablets containing HCO, the presence of lactose significantly enhanced the naproxen release rate. The matrix-forming materials in this study were suitable for use in sustained-release tablets containing naproxen. The drug release can be modulated by adding suitable amounts of diluents and buffers.

  3. Modeling controlled nutrient release from polymer coated fertilizers: diffusion release from single granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A comprehensive model describing the complex and "non-Fickian" (mathematically nonlinear) nature of the release from single granules of membrane coated, controlled release fertilizers (CRFs) is proposed consisting of three stages: i. a lag period during which water penetrates the coating of the granule dissolving part of the solid fertilizer in it ii. a period of linear release during which water penetration into and release out occur concomitantly while the total volume of the granules remains practically constant; and iii. a period of "decaying release", starting as the concentration inside the granule starts to decrease. A mathematical model was developed based on vapor and nutrient diffusion equations. The model predicts the release stages in terms of measurable geometrical and chemophysical parameters such as the following: the product of granule radius and coating thickness, water and solute permeability, saturation concentration of the fertilizer, and its density. The model successfully predicts the complex and "sigmoidal" pattern of release that is essential for matching plant temporal demand to ensure high agronomic and environmental effectiveness. It also lends itself to more complex statistical formulations which account for the large variability within large populations of coated CRFs and can serve for further improving CRF production and performance.

  4. Effect of different polymers on release of ranolazine from extended release tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. G. K. Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extended release tablet provides prolonged release of drug, maintains the desired concentration of drug in plasma and thereby reduce dosing frequency, improve patient compliance and reduce the dose-related side-effects. Ranolazine is indicated for the chronic treatment of angina in patients who have not achieved an adequate response with other anti-anginal agent. The present investigation was undertaken to design the extended release tablets of ranolazine employing different polymers as matrix forming agents using direct compression technique. Formulated tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, swelling index and in vitro release studies. The drug release followed first order kinetics and controlled by both erosion and diffusion mechanism. It is concluded that the desired drug release pattern can be obtained from the formulation containing 9.8% w/w eudragit and 39.2% w/w metallose offered relatively much slow release of ranolazine compared with other formulations. The selected formulation showed a similarity factor 76 when comparing in vitro dissolution data of the commercial formulation ranozex 500.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Study on Lovastatin Sustained-release Tablet and Sustained-release Capsule in Begal Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付琳; 代宗顺; 侯淑贤; 万元胜

    2004-01-01

    This study pharmacokinetically examined the lovastatin sustained-release tablet and sustained release capsule in Beagle dogs. An reversed-phase HPLC method was established for the determination of lovastatin in Beagle dog plasma. Pharmacokinetic findings were compared among three preparation(lovastatin sustained-release tablet, TP; sustained-release capsule, TJ and conventional capsule). Our results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters in 6 dogs after single-dose oral administration of three perparations were calculated. Tmax , Cmax and MRT revealed significant difference (P<0.05). Relative bioavailability was 111. 5 ± 16. 9 % (TP) and 110.4% ± 9.6%(TJ). The pharmacokinetic parameters in the 6 dogs after multiple-dose oral administration of three perparations, Tmax Cmax MRT and DF had significant difference (P<0. 05); Cav, Cmin and AUC0-24 h displayed no significant difference (P>0.05). It is concluded that the lovastatin sustained-release tablet and sustained-release capsule are able to maintain a sustained-release for 24 h.

  6. The ALICE Software Release Validation cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzano, D.; Krzewicki, M.

    2015-12-01

    One of the most important steps of software lifecycle is Quality Assurance: this process comprehends both automatic tests and manual reviews, and all of them must pass successfully before the software is approved for production. Some tests, such as source code static analysis, are executed on a single dedicated service: in High Energy Physics, a full simulation and reconstruction chain on a distributed computing environment, backed with a sample “golden” dataset, is also necessary for the quality sign off. The ALICE experiment uses dedicated and virtualized computing infrastructures for the Release Validation in order not to taint the production environment (i.e. CVMFS and the Grid) with non-validated software and validation jobs: the ALICE Release Validation cluster is a disposable virtual cluster appliance based on CernVM and the Virtual Analysis Facility, capable of deploying on demand, and with a single command, a dedicated virtual HTCondor cluster with an automatically scalable number of virtual workers on any cloud supporting the standard EC2 interface. Input and output data are externally stored on EOS, and a dedicated CVMFS service is used to provide the software to be validated. We will show how the Release Validation Cluster deployment and disposal are completely transparent for the Release Manager, who simply triggers the validation from the ALICE build system's web interface. CernVM 3, based entirely on CVMFS, permits to boot any snapshot of the operating system in time: we will show how this allows us to certify each ALICE software release for an exact CernVM snapshot, addressing the problem of Long Term Data Preservation by ensuring a consistent environment for software execution and data reprocessing in the future.

  7. Dissolved organic carbon release by marine macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Barrón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC release by marine macrophyte communities (seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds were obtained experimentally using in situ benthic chambers. The effect of light availability on DOC release by macrophyte communities was examined in two communities both by comparing net DOC release under light and dark, and by examining the response of net DOC release to longer-term (days experimental shading of the communities. All most 85% of the seagrass communities and almost all of macroalgal communities examined acted as net sources of DOC. There was a weak tendency for higher DOC fluxes under light than under dark conditions in seagrass meadow. There is no relationship between net DOC fluxes and gross primary production (GPP and net community production (NCP, however, this relationship is positive between net DOC fluxes and community respiration. Net DOC fluxes were not affected by shading of a T. testudinum community in Florida for 5 days, however, shading of a mixed seagrass meadow in the Philippines led to a significant reduction on the net DOC release when shading was maintained for 6 days compared to only 2 days of shading. Based on published and unpublished results we also estimate the global net DOC production by marine macrophytes. The estimated global net DOC flux, and hence export, from marine macrophyte is about 0.197 ± 0.015 Pg C yr−1 or 0.212 ± 0.016 Pg C yr−1 depending if net DOC flux by seagrass meadows was estimated by taking into account the low or high global seagrass area, respectively.

  8. Hybridization and Selective Release of DNA Microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, N R; Baker, B; Piggott, T; Maberry, S; Hara, C M; DeOtte, J; Benett, W; Mukerjee, E; Dzenitis, J; Wheeler, E K

    2011-11-29

    DNA microarrays contain sequence specific probes arrayed in distinct spots numbering from 10,000 to over 1,000,000, depending on the platform. This tremendous degree of multiplexing gives microarrays great potential for environmental background sampling, broad-spectrum clinical monitoring, and continuous biological threat detection. In practice, their use in these applications is not common due to limited information content, long processing times, and high cost. The work focused on characterizing the phenomena of microarray hybridization and selective release that will allow these limitations to be addressed. This will revolutionize the ways that microarrays can be used for LLNL's Global Security missions. The goals of this project were two-fold: automated faster hybridizations and selective release of hybridized features. The first study area involves hybridization kinetics and mass-transfer effects. the standard hybridization protocol uses an overnight incubation to achieve the best possible signal for any sample type, as well as for convenience in manual processing. There is potential to significantly shorten this time based on better understanding and control of the rate-limiting processes and knowledge of the progress of the hybridization. In the hybridization work, a custom microarray flow cell was used to manipulate the chemical and thermal environment of the array and autonomously image the changes over time during hybridization. The second study area is selective release. Microarrays easily generate hybridization patterns and signatures, but there is still an unmet need for methodologies enabling rapid and selective analysis of these patterns and signatures. Detailed analysis of individual spots by subsequent sequencing could potentially yield significant information for rapidly mutating and emerging (or deliberately engineered) pathogens. In the selective release work, optical energy deposition with coherent light quickly provides the thermal energy

  9. Sustained release choline theophyllinate in nocturnal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, G B; Connaughton, J J; McFie, J; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D C

    1985-12-07

    Nocturnal wheeze is common in patients with asthma, and slow release theophyllines may reduce symptoms. As theophyllines are stimulants of the central nervous system the effect of 10 days' twice daily treatment with sustained release choline theophyllinate or placebo on symptoms, overnight bronchoconstriction, nocturnal oxygen saturation, and quality of sleep were studied in a double blind crossover study in nine stable patients with nocturnal asthma (five men, four women, age range 23-64 years; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 0.85-3.8 1; vital capacity 1.95-6.1 1). When treated with the active drug all patients had plasma theophylline concentrations of at least 28 mmol/l (5 micrograms/ml) (peak plasma theophylline concentrations 50-144 mmol/l (9-26 micrograms/ml]. Morning FEV1 was higher when treated with sustained release choline theophyllinate (2.7 (SEM 0.3) 1) than placebo (2.1 (0.3) 1) (p less than 0.01). Both daytime and nocturnal symptoms were reduced when the patients were treated with sustained release choline theophyllinate and subjective quality of sleep was improved (p less than 0.002). When treated with the active drug, however, quality of sleep determined by electroencephalography deteriorated with an increase in wakefulness and drowsiness (p less than 0.05) and a reduction in non-rapid eye movement sleep (p less than 0.005). Treatment with choline theophyllinate had no effect on either the occurrence or the severity of transient nocturnal hypoxaemic episodes or apnoeas or hypopnoeas. In conclusion, sustained release choline theophyllinate prevents overnight bronchoconstriction, but impairs quality of sleep defined by electroencephalography.

  10. Polymer micelles for delayed release of therapeutics from drug-releasing surfaces with nanotubular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn Aw, Moom; Addai-Mensah, Jonas; Losic, Dusan

    2012-08-01

    A new approach to engineer a local drug delivery system with delayed release using nanostructured surface with nanotube arrays is presented. TNT arrays electrochemically generated on a titanium surface are used as a model substrate. Polymer micelles as drug carriers encapsulated with drug are loaded at the bottom of the TNT structure and their delayed release is obtained by loading blank micelles (without drug) on the top. The delayed and time-controlled drug release is successfully demonstrated by controlling the ratio of blank and drug loaded-micelles. The concept is verified using four different polymer micelles (regular and inverted) loaded with water-insoluble (indomethacin) and water-soluble drugs (gentamicin).

  11. Enhanced Neurohypophyseal Vasopressin Release is Associated with Increased Opioid Inhibition of Oxytocin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijning, B J; Herik, I K; Rots, N Y; Greidanus, T B

    1991-02-01

    Abstract We tested the hypothesis of a cross-inhibition of oxytocin (OT) release by endogenous opioid peptides co-released with vasopressin (VP). This opioid cross-inhibition resulted in a selective block of OT release and hence in preferential release of VP. The effects of the opiate receptor antagonist naloxone were tested on neurohypophyseal VP release during dehydration, ethanol administration and sulphated cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8S) application, assuming that the inhibition of pituitary OT release by endogenous opioids increases as neurohypophyseal VP output increases. A high VP output was found to coincide with increased inhibition of OT release: Subcutaneous injection of graded doses of naloxone (30 min prior to decapitation), augmented OT plasma levels significantly more in 24 h water-deprived male rats than in normally hydrated rats. Naloxone had no effect on VP release. Ethanol (10% in saline) administered intragastrically 50 min prior to decapitation and 20 min before subcutaneous naloxone (5 mg/kg) resulted in the inhibition of VP output. The ethanol treatment resulted in a rise in plasma OT levels that was additional to the effect of naloxone. These features were present in normally hydrated as well as in 24 h water-deprived animals, but were more pronounced in the latter group. Peripheral CCK-8S administration induces an abrupt and selective secretion of OT. Blocking the opioid inhibition of OT release with naloxone resulted in a significant rise of OT compared to that with CCK-8S alone. The magnitude of the opioid inhibition coincided with the activity of the VP system, and a higher dose of naloxone was needed to potentiate the CCK-8S effect on OT release in the water-deprived group than in euhydrated rats. No effect of CCK-8S and/or naloxone was found on VP plasma levels. The data indicate that opioid peptides co-released with VP (like dynorphin) may be responsible for cross-inhibition of OT release during dehydration. This suggests that

  12. Epinephrine in the heart: uptake and release, but no facilitation of norepinephrine release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Th.W. Lameris (Thomas); P.A. de Zeeuw (Sandra); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); W. Tietge; G. Alberts; F. Boomsma (Frans); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter); A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that epinephrine augments the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals through stimulation of presynaptic receptors, but evidence pertaining to this mechanism in the heart is scarce and conflicting. Using the

  13. Nutrients Release from a Novel Gel-Based Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, H.; Y. S. Zhang; Li, W. H.; Zheng, X. Z.; Wang, M. K.; Tang, L. N.; Chen, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    A novel gel-based slow/controlled release fertilizer (G-CRF) was developed, which was produced by combining various natural, seminatural, and/or synthetic organic macromolecule materials and natural inorganic mineral with conventional NPK fertilizers. Its nutrient release characteristics were studied to compare with conventional fertilizers through the soil column leaching method. The influences of soil factors, including temperature, pH, water, and nutrient contents in the G-CRF on nutrient ...

  14. Development of dose-based release limits for unrestricted release of a radiochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rima, Steven D

    2003-02-01

    Current regulations for unrestricted release are based on annual dose equivalent. Unless one desires to use very conservative "screening levels," dose modeling must be accomplished to derive an areal or volumetric limit or concentration value for release purposes. Such derived limits are referred to as "Derived Concentration Guideline Levels" (DCGL). This paper describes the process employed to derive DCGLs for building surfaces contaminated with uranium and its decay progeny based on annual dose equivalent and the innovative means employed during the derivation.

  15. Electrospinning nanofibers for controlled drug release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banik, Indrani

    Electrospinning is the most widely studied technique for the synthesis of nanofibers. Electrospinning is considered as one of the technologies that can produce nanosized drugs incorporated in polymeric nanofibers. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the release rates of drugs from these nanofiber formulations are enhanced compared to those from original drug substance. This technology has the potential for enhancing the oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs. The electrospun mats were made using Polycaprolactone/PCL, Poly(DL-lactide)/PDL 05 and Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide)/PLGA. The drugs incorporated in the electrospun fibers were 5-Fluorouracil and Rapamycin. The evidence of the drugs being embedded in the polymers was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and infrared spectroscopy. The release of 5-Fluorouracil and Rapamycin were followed by UV-VIS spectroscopy.

  16. Flare Ribbon Expansion and Energy Release

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayumi Asai; Takaaki Yokoyama; Masumi Shimojo; Satoshi Masuda; Kazunari Shibata

    2006-06-01

    We report a detailed examination about the relationship between the evolution of the H flare ribbons and the released magnetic energy during the April 10 2001 flare. In the H images, several bright kernels are observed in the flare ribbons. We identified the conjugated footpoints, by analyzing the lightcurves at each H kernels, and showed their connectivities during the flare. Then, based on the magnetic reconnection model, we calculated quantitatively the released energy by using the photospheric magnetic field strengths and separation speeds of the H flare ribbons. Finally, we examined the downward motions which are observed at the H kernels. We found that the stronger the red-asymmetry tends to be associated with the brighter the H kernel.

  17. GASPAR2. Evaluation of Atmospheric Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Bander, T.J.; Soldat, J.K [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-06-01

    GASPAR implements the air released dose models of the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 for noble gases (semi-infinite plume only) and the radioiodine and particulate emissions (specifically 1.109-10 through 1.109-13 and a portion of 1.109-14). GASPAR computes both population (ALARA-As Low As Reasonably Achievable and NEPA-National Environmental Policy Act) and individual doses. Site data, meteorological data, radionuclide release source terms, and location meteorological data for selected individuals are specified as input data. The site data include population data and milk, meat, and vegetation production. The meteorological data include dispersion X/Q, X/Q decayed, X/Q decayed and depleted, and deposition. Population doses, individual doses, and cost benefit tables are calculated.

  18. GASPAR2. Evaluation of Atmospheric Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strenge, D.L.; Bander, T.J.; Soldat, J.K [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1980-06-01

    GASPAR implements the air released dose models of the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 for noble gases (semi-infinite plume only) and the radioiodine and particulate emissions (specifically 1.109-10 through 1.109-13 and a portion of 1.109-14). GASPAR computes both population (ALARA-As Low As Reasonably Achievable and NEPA-National Environmental Policy Act) and individual doses. Site data, meteorological data, radionuclide release source terms, and location meteorological data for selected individuals are specified as input data. The site data include population data and milk, meat, and vegetation production. The meteorological data include dispersion X/Q, X/Q decayed, X/Q decayed and depleted, and deposition. Population doses, individual doses, and cost benefit tables are calculated.

  19. Release of Steroids from Plastibase Semisolid Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Hassan-Zadeh S.Kararayar

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research is carried out in order to study the possibility of replacing the classic semisolid bases in steroidal commercial products with Plastibase."nAs regard to its high lipophilic properties, the plastibase alone is not a suitable base for hydrocortisone acetate and f.luocinolone acetonide. Addition of 5 and 7.5% of Propylene glycol to plastibase can increase the rate of drug release from vehicle. This change in drug release is related to decrease in drug-vehicle interaction and consequently increasing its partition coefficient. It seems that these considerations can be applied to betamethasone and clobetasole ointments, which are the most utilized in Iranian commerce .

  20. Dry release of all-polymer structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haefliger, D.; Nordstrøm, M.; Rasmussen, Peter Andreas

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple dry release technique which uses a thin fluorocarbon film for efficient removal of plastic microdevices from a mould or a handling substrate by reducing the adhesion between the two. This fluorocarbon film is deposited on the substrate in an advanced Si dry etch device utilising...... the C4F8 passivation plasma. Micromachined polymer chips made of SU-8 are removed from the handling substrate by lifting them off using mechanical tweezers. Effective release of chips of several mm(2) size within a few seconds and the lift-off of fragile, 5.5-mu m-thin cantilevers at a yield of almost...... 100% were demonstrated on wafer-scale. The fluorocarbon film showed excellent compatibility with metal etch processes and polymer baking and curing steps. It further facilitates demoulding of polydimethylsiloxane stamps suitable for soft-lithography....

  1. Energy release in driven twisted coronal loops

    CERN Document Server

    Bareford, M R; Browning, P K; Hood, A W

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we investigate magnetic reconnection in twisted magnetic fluxtubes with different initial configurations. In all considered cases, energy release is triggered by the ideal kink instability, which is itself the result of applying footpoint rotation to an initially potential field. The main goal of this work is to establish the influence of the field topology and various thermodynamic effects on the energy release process. Specifically, we investigate convergence of the magnetic field at the loop footpoints, atmospheric stratification, as well as thermal conduction. In all cases, the application of vortical driving at the footpoints of an initally potential field leads to an internal kink instability. With the exception of the curved loop with high footpoint convergence, the global geometry of the loop change little during the simulation. Footpoint convergence, curvature and atmospheric structure clearly influences the rapidity with which a loop achieves instability as well as the size of t...

  2. Targeting latent TGFβ release in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceco, Ermelinda; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Gardner, Brandon; Miller, Tamari; DeJesus, Adam; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Smith, Lucas R; Barton, Elisabeth R; Molkentin, Jeffery D; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2014-10-22

    Latent transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) binding proteins (LTBPs) bind to inactive TGFβ in the extracellular matrix. In mice, muscular dystrophy symptoms are intensified by a genetic polymorphism that changes the hinge region of LTBP, leading to increased proteolytic susceptibility and TGFβ release. We have found that the hinge region of human LTBP4 was also readily proteolysed and that proteolysis could be blocked by an antibody to the hinge region. Transgenic mice were generated to carry a bacterial artificial chromosome encoding the human LTBP4 gene. These transgenic mice displayed larger myofibers, increased damage after muscle injury, and enhanced TGFβ signaling. In the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the human LTBP4 transgene exacerbated muscular dystrophy symptoms and resulted in weaker muscles with an increased inflammatory infiltrate and greater LTBP4 cleavage in vivo. Blocking LTBP4 cleavage may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce TGFβ release and activity and decrease inflammation and muscle damage in muscular dystrophy.

  3. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A; Pant, Aditya B

    2012-09-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies have clearly identified that these components of restorative composite resins are toxic. But there is a large gap between the results published by research laboratories and clinical reports. The objective of this manuscript was to review the literature on release phenomenon as well as in vitro and in vivo toxicity of dental resin composite. Interpretation made from the recent data was also outlined.

  4. Iliopsoas Tendon Reformation after Psoas Tendon Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Garala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

  5. Iliopsoas tendon reformation after psoas tendon release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garala, K; Power, R A

    2013-01-01

    Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.

  6. Surgical release of the 'snapping iliopsoas tendon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G R; Clarke, N M

    1995-11-01

    We report 22 patients (19 women and three men) of mean age 20.8 years who had painful snapping sensations in the groin. Most were able to reproduce the click by extending the affected hip from a flexed, abducted and externally rotated position and most were tender in the adductor triangle. Plain radiographs and an arthrogram were normal. A clinical diagnosis of subluxation of the iliopsoas tendon was made. Conservative management failed in 14 patients, two of whom had bilateral pain. All 14 had surgical release of the iliopsoas tendon through a medial approach. At follow-up (mean 17 months) the click had resolved in ten hips, was occasional but painless in five and unchanged in one. The syndrome of a painful 'snapping' psoas may result in disproportionately disabling symptoms. It may be diagnosed on clinical grounds and effectively treated, when severe, by release of the iliopsoas tendon.

  7. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-08-15

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, "Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge"). The purpose of this technical

  8. Preventing and controlling accidental gas releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.; Kalb, P. D.

    1988-07-01

    Toxic, flammable, and explosive gases may be used in photovoltaic cell research laboratories and in commercial manufacturing facilities. Accidental release of these materials can present hazards to life and property. Accidents can arise from a variety of mechanical and human related failures. These can occur from the time materials are received at the loading dock of the facility to the time treated gases are discharged to the atmosphere through a stack. Each type of initiating event may require a different control approach. These may range from the training and certification of plant workers charged with the handling of gas cylinder hookups to installation of emergency pollution control systems. Since engineering options for controlling released materials are limited, emphasis should be placed on administrative and engineering approaches for preventing such accidents. These are likely to be the most effective approaches for protecting life and property.

  9. Development of controlled release tablet by optimizing HPMC: consideration of theoretical release and RSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Nihar R; Nath, Lila K

    2014-04-15

    The objective of the study was to develop controlled release tablets of nateglinide, a meglitinide derivative anti-diabetic drug, considering theoretical release profile and response surface methodology (RSM). 3(2) factorial design was utilized to optimize concentration of hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) K15M and K100M to obtain the desired responses (drug release at one and six hours). Theoretical release profile of drug for controlled release formulation was calculated and considered as reference for the determination of similarity factor (f2) and desimilarity factor (f1). RSM, f2 and f1 were used to select the optimum formulation. Formulation containing HPMC K15M (5%) and HPMC K100M (15%) was found optimum with desired responses with f2=86.05 and drug release profile followed zero order kinetics. Excipients used were compatible with drug, confirmed initially through DSC and IST study. The optimization of experiments was validated and optimum formulation was passed the stability study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of propranolol HCl release kinetics from press coated sustained release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Adel Ahmed; Ali, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Press-coated sustained release tablets offer a valuable, cheap and easy manufacture alternative to the highly expensive, multi-step manufacture and filling of coated beads. In this study, propranolol HCl press-coated tablets were prepared using hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as tablet coating material together with carbopol 971P and compressol as release modifiers. The prepared formulations were optimized for zero-order release using artificial neural network program (INForm, Intelligensys Ltd, North Yorkshire, UK). Typical zero-order release kinetics with extended release profile for more than 12 h was obtained. The most important variables considered by the program in optimizing formulations were type and proportion of polymer mixture in the coat layer and distribution ratio of drug between core and coat. The key elements found were; incorporation of 31-38 % of the drug in the coat, fixing the amount of polymer in coat to be not less than 50 % of coat layer. Optimum zero-order release kinetics (linear regression r2 = 0.997 and Peppas model n value > 0.80) were obtained when 2.5-10 % carbopol and 25-42.5% compressol were incorporated into the 50 % HPMC coat layer.

  11. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery--drug release and release mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Mühlen, A; Schwarz, C; Mehnert, W

    1998-03-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are particulate systems for parenteral drug administration with mean particle diameters ranging from 50 up to 1000 nm. The model drugs tetracaine, etomidate and prednisolone were incorporated (1, 5 and 10%) to study the drug load, effect of drug incorporation on the structure of the lipid matrix and the release profiles and mechanism. SLN were produced by high pressure homogenization of aqueous surfactant solutions containing the drug-loaded lipids in the melted or in the solid state (500/1500 bar, 3/10 cycles). In case of tetracaine and etomidate, high drug loadings up to 10% could be achieved when using Compritol 888 ATO and Dynasan 112 as matrix material. The melting behavior of the drug loaded particles revealed that little or no interactions between drug and lipid occurred. A burst drug release (100% release < 1 min) was observed with tetracaine and etomidate SLN, which was attributed to the large surface area of the nanoparticles and drug enrichment in the outer shell of the particles. In contrast, prednisolone loaded SLN showed a distinctly prolonged release over a monitored period of 5 weeks. Depending on the chemical nature of the lipid matrix, 83.8 and 37.1% drug were released (cholesterol and compritol, respectively). These results demonstrate the principle suitability of SLN as a prolonged release formulation for lipophilic drugs.

  12. Release mechanisms behind polysaccharides-based famotidine controlled release matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmowafy, Enas M; Awad, Gehanne A S; Mansour, Samar; El-Shamy, Abd El-Hamid A

    2008-01-01

    Polysaccharides, which have been explored to possess gelling properties and a wide margin of safety, were used to formulate single-unit floating matrix tablets by a direct compression technique. This work has the aim to allow continuous slow release of famotidine above its site of absorption. The floating approach was achieved by the use of the low density polypropylene foam powder. Polysaccharides (kappa-carrageenan, gellan gum, xyloglucan, and pectin) and blends of polysaccharides (kappa-carrageenan and gellan gum) and cellulose ethers (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose) were tried to modulate the release characteristics. The prepared floating tablets were evaluated for their floating behavior, matrix integrity, swelling studies, in vitro drug release studies, and kinetic analysis of the release data. The differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that changing the polymer matrix system by formulation of polymers blends resulted in formation of molecular interactions which may have implications on drug release characteristics. This was obvious from the retardation in drug release and change in its mechanistics.

  13. Fabrics China Trends Released in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ During April 8th-14th, China Textiles Development center, along with China Textile Information Center, released their newly developed "Fabrics China Trends 10 S/S" in China Fabrics & Accessories Center in the city of Guangzhou, aiming to improve the fashion style of China Fabrics & Accessories Center, upgrade the integration of fabrics and fashion trend development, attract more buyers and talent designers, and enhance the quality competitiveness of the trade center significantly.

  14. GENIE Production Release 2.10.0

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, M; Athar, M; Bodek, A; Christy, E; Coopersmith, B; Dennis, S; Dytman, S; Gallagher, H; Geary, N; Golan, T; Hatcher, R; Hoshina, K; Liu, J; Mahn, K; Marshall, C; Morrison, J; Nirkko, M; Nowak, J; Perdue, G N; Yarba, J

    2015-01-01

    GENIE is a neutrino Monte Carlo event generator that simulates the primary interaction of a neutrino with a nuclear target, along with the subsequent propagation of the reaction products through the nuclear medium. It additionally contains libraries for fully-featured detector geometries and for managing various types of neutrino flux. This note details recent updates to GENIE, in particular changes introduced into the newest production release, version 2.10.0.

  15. Polysaccharides As Safer Release Systems For Agrochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Campos E.V.R.; de Oliveira J.L.; Fraceto L.F.; Singh B

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Agrochemicals are used to improve the production of crops. Conventional formulations of agrochemicals can contaminate the environment, in particular in the case of intensive cropping. Hence, there is a need for controlled-release formulations of agrochemicals such as polysaccharides to reduce pollution and health hazards. Natural polysaccharides are hydrophilic, biodegradable polymers. This article reviews the use of polysaccharides in the form of micro- and nanopartic...

  16. EIA new releases, November--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-09

    Thus publication contains information compiled by the Energy information administration (EIA) on the following topics: heating fuel supplies; alternative fuel vehicles; natural gas production; clean air laws and coal transportation; EIA`s world Wide Web Site; EIA`s CD-ROM; Press Releases; Microfiched products; electronic publishing; new reports; machine-readable files; how to order EIA publications; and Energy Data Information Contracts.

  17. Herwig++ 2.5 release note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieseke, S.; Roehr, C.A.; Siodmok, A. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik] (and others)

    2011-02-15

    A new release of the Monte Carlo program Herwig++ (version 2.5) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: new next-to-leading order matrix elements, including weak boson pair production; a colour reconnection model; diffractive processes; additional models of physics beyond the Standard Model; new leading-order matrix elements for hadron-hadron and lepton-lepton collisions as well as photon-initiated processes. (orig.)

  18. Mechanisms of Methane Release From Lake Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas that can be produced in bottom sediments of lakes and reservoirs and released through ebullition and other properties. Many studies have quantified ebullition rates, however, the detailed mechanisms remain incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to better understand, through in situ and laboratory measurements, the mechanisms of gas ebullition from lake sediment. Four sites on Lake Elsinore, CA with different properties were evaluated through th...

  19. Release and toxicity of dental resin composite

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh K Gupta; Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana A.; Pant, Aditya B.

    2012-01-01

    Dental resin composite that are tooth-colored materials have been considered as possible substitutes to mercury-containing silver amalgam filling. Despite the fact that dental resin composites have improved their physico-chemical properties, the concern for its intrinsic toxicity remains high. Some components of restorative composite resins are released in the oral environment initially during polymerization reaction and later due to degradation of the material. In vitro and in vivo studies h...

  20. EIA new releases, July--August, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-02

    This publication identifies energy related publications of the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. The topics and articles in this issue include data on residential energy use available on diskettes and Internet, natural gas price predictions, coal deliveries to electric utilities, growth in the US uranium industry, microfiche products, features and press releases, EIA`s electronic publishing system, new reports, machine-readable files, how to order EIA publications and energy data information contacts.

  1. Herwig++ 2.2 Release Note

    CERN Document Server

    Bahr, M; Gigg, M; Grellscheid, D; Hamilton, K; Latunde-Dada, O; Platzer, S; Richardson, P; Seymour, M H; Sherstnev, AUniversity of Cambridge; Webber, Bryan R

    2008-01-01

    A new release of the Monte Carlo program Herwig++ (version 2.2) is now available. This version includes a number of improvements including: matrix elements for the production of an electroweak gauge boson, W and Z, in association with a jet; several new processes for Higgs production in association with an electroweak gauge boson; and the matrix element correction for QCD radiation in Higgs production via gluon fusion.

  2. Metalloprotease Dependent Release of Placenta Derived Fractalkine

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Siwetz; Astrid Blaschitz; Julia Kremshofer; Jelena Bilic; Gernot Desoye; Berthold Huppertz; Martin Gauster

    2014-01-01

    The chemokine fractalkine is considered as unique since it exists both as membrane-bound adhesion molecule and as shed soluble chemoattractant. Here the hypothesis was tested whether placental fractalkine can be shed and released into the maternal circulation. Immunohistochemical staining of human first trimester and term placenta sections localized fractalkine at the apical microvillous plasma membrane of the syncytiotrophoblast. Gene expression analysis revealed abundant upregulation in pla...

  3. Organization and management of ATLAS software releases

    OpenAIRE

    S. Albrand; J. Collot; Fulachier, J.; Lambert, F.; Arnault, C.; Garonne, V.; Schaffer, A.; Nzuobontane, E.; Sherwood, P.; Simmons, B.; George, S.; Rybkine, G.; Holloway, R; Lloyd, S; E. Obreshkov, .

    2006-01-01

    International audience; ATLAS is one of the largest collaborations ever undertaken in the physical sciences. This paper explains how the software infrastructure is organized to manage collaborative code development by around 300 developers with varying degrees of expertise, situated in 30 different countries. We will describe how the succeeding releases of the software are built, validated and subsequently deployed to remote sites. Several software management tools have been used, the majorit...

  4. Amphiphilic copolymers for fouling-release coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren; Kiil, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) resins are extensively used as binder in fouling-release coatings due to the low critical surface energy and low elastic modulus of PDMS. These properties result in poor adhesion of the fouling organisms, which are therefore detached by hydrodynamic forces during navigation [1,2,3]. Other compounds are usually mixed together with the binder (e.g. silica and pigments) in order to improve the mechanical, thixotropic and visual properties of the coatings. It has ben s...

  5. Event reconstruction for line source releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, Dragan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williams, Michael D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The goal of source inversion, also called event reconstruction, is the calculation of source parameters from information obtained by network of concentration (or dosage) and meteorological sensors. Source parameters include source location and strength, but in certain cases there could be more than one source so the inversion procedure could deal with determination of number of sources, as well. In a case of limited time period pollutant emission events, as for example during accidents or intentional releases, it is of great use to estimate starting and ending times of the event. This kind of research is very useful for estimating the source parameters of industrial pollutants since it provides important information for regulation purposes. Also it provides information to fast responders in a case of accidental pollutant releases or for homeland security needs when chemical, biological or radiological agent is deliberately released. Development of faster and more accurate algorithms is very important since it could help reduce the populace's exposure to dangerous airborne contaminants, plan evacuation routes, and help assess the magnitude of clean up. During the last decade, the large number of research papers in area of source inversion was published where many different approaches were used. Most of the source inversion work publish to date apply to point source releases. The forward dispersion models used range from fast Gaussian plume and puff codes that enable almost instantaneous calculations of concentrations and dosages to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes that provide more detailed and precise calculation but at the same time are expensive with respect to time and computer resources. The optimization methods were often used and examples are simulated annealing and genetic algorithms.

  6. Heat release in clusterization of nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Karasevskii, A. I.; Lubashenko, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the effect of size dependence of the melting temperature of nanocrystals may be used to govern anomalies of thermodynamic properties of nanocrystals in the premelting range. For example, if temperature of nanocrystals is near the melting point, their mechanical contact should result in a change of the temperature and release of some heat. We discuss fundamental possibility of construction of a "heat pump" to extract thermal energy from a low-temperature medium.

  7. GENIE Production Release 2.10.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Physics; Andreopoulos, C. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Athar, M. [Aligarh Muslim Univ., Aligarh (India). Dept. of Physics; Bodek, A. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Christy, E. [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Coopersmith, B. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dennis, S. [Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept .of Physics; Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Gallagher, H. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Geary, N. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Golan, T. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hatcher, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hoshina, K. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics. Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center; Liu, J. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mahn, K. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Marshall, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Morrison, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Nirkko, M. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland). Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics. Lab. for High Energy Physics (LHEP); Nowak, J. [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Perdue, G. N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yarba, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-12-25

    GENIE is a neutrino Monte Carlo event generator that simulates the primary interaction of a neutrino with a nuclear target, along with the subsequent propagation of the reaction products through the nuclear medium. It additionally contains libraries for fully-featured detector geometries and for managing various types of neutrino flux. This note details recent updates to GENIE, in particular, changes introduced into the newest production release, version 2.10.0.

  8. Surgical Treatment of Trigger Finger: Open Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, open A1 pulley release results were evaluated in patients with a trigger finger diagnosis. 45 patients (29 females, 16 males, mean age 50.7 ± 11.9; range (24-79, 45 trigger fingers were released via open surgical technique. On the 25 of 45 cases were involved in the right hand and 16 of them were at the thumb, 2 at index, 6 at the middle and 1 at ring finger. Similarly, at the left hand, 15 of 20 cases were at the thumb, 1 at the index finger, 2 at middle finger and 2 at ring finger. Average follow-up time was 10.2 ± 2.7 (range, 6-15 months. Comorbidities in patients were; diabetes mellitus at 6 cases (13.3%, hypertension at 11 cases (24.4%, hyperthyroidism at 2 cases (4.4%, dyslipidemia at 2 cases (4.4% and lastly 2 cases had carpal tunnel syndrome operation. The mean time between the onset of symptoms to surgery was 6.9 ± 4.8 (range, 2-24 months. Patient satisfaction was very good in 34 cases (75.4% and good in 11 (24.6% patients. The distance between the pulpa of the operated finger and the palm was normal in every case postoperatively. We have not encountered any postoperative complications. We can recommend that; A1 pulley release via open incision is an effective and reliable method in trigger finger surgery.

  9. The Role of Neurotrophins in Neurotransmitter Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Perrett, Stephen P.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas D.

    2009-01-01

    The neurotrophins (NTs) have recently been shown to elicit pronounced effects on quantal neurotransmitter release at both central and peripheral nervous system synapses. Due to their activity-dependent release, as well as the subcellular localization of both protein and receptor, NTs are ideally suited to modify the strength of neuronal connections by “fine-tuning” synaptic activity through direct actions at presynaptic terminals. Here, using BDNF as a prototypical example, the authors provide an update of recent evidence demonstrating that NTs enhance quantal neurotransmitter release at synapses through presynaptic mechanisms. The authors further propose that a potential target for NT actions at presynaptic terminals is the mechanism by which terminals retrieve synaptic vesicles after exocytosis. Depending on the temporal demands placed on synapses during high-frequency synaptic transmission, synapses may use two alternative modes of synaptic vesicle retrieval, the conventional slow endosomal recycling or a faster rapid retrieval at the active zone, referred to as “kiss-and-run.” By modulating Ca2+ microdomains associated with voltage-gated Ca2+ channels at active zones, NTs may elicit a switch from the slow to the fast mode of endocytosis of vesicles at presynaptic terminals during high-frequency synaptic transmission, allowing more reliable information transfer and neuronal signaling in the central nervous system. PMID:12467374

  10. POLYURETHANE COMPOSITES AS DRUG CARRIERS:: RELEASE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Grigoreva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polyurethanes attract interest of those developing composite materials for biomedical applications. One of their features is their ability to serve as carriers, or matrixes, for medicines and other bioactive compounds to produce a therapeutic effect in body through targeted and/or prolonged delivery of these compounds in the process of their controlled release from matrix. The review presents polyurethane composites as matrices for a number of drugs. The relation between structure of the composites and their degradability both in vitro and in vivo and the dependence of drug release kinetics on physicochemical properties of polyurethane matrix are highlighted. The release of drugs (cefazolin, naltrexone and piroxicam from the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes (synthesized from laprols, Mw between 1,500 and 2,000 Da and toluylene diisocyanate demonstrated more or less the same pattern (about 10 days in vitro and three to five days in vivo. In contrast, the composites with dioxydine based on a linear polyurethanes (synthesized from oligotetramethilene glycol, Mw 1,000 Da, diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol retained their antimicrobial activity at least 30 days. They also showed a significantly higher breaking strength as compared to that of the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes.

  11. Timing crisis information release via television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora

    2010-10-01

    When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information.

  12. The Illustris Simulation: Public Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Vogelsberger, Mark; Springel, Volker; Torrey, Paul; Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente; Sijacki, Debora; Snyder, Gregory F; Griffen, Brendan; Marinacci, Federico; Blecha, Laura; Sales, Laura; Xu, Dandan; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present the full public release of all data from the Illustris simulation project. Illustris is a suite of large volume, cosmological hydrodynamical simulations run with the moving-mesh code Arepo and including a comprehensive set of physical models critical for following the formation and evolution of galaxies across cosmic time. Each simulates a volume of (106.5 Mpc)^3 and self-consistently evolves five different types of resolution elements from a starting redshift of z=127 to the present day, z=0. These components are: dark matter particles, gas cells, passive gas tracers, stars and stellar wind particles, and supermassive black holes. This data release includes the snapshots at all 136 available redshifts, halo and subhalo catalogs at each snapshot, and two distinct merger trees. Six primary realizations of the Illustris volume are released, including the flagship Illustris-1 run. These include three resolution levels with the fiducial "full" baryonic physics model, and a dark matter only analog for e...

  13. Film coatings for oral pulsatile release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Alessandra; Zema, Lucia; Loreti, Giulia; Palugan, Luca; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2013-12-05

    Pulsatile delivery is generally intended as a release of the active ingredient that is delayed for a programmable period of time to meet particular chronotherapeutic needs and, in the case of oral administration, also target distal intestinal regions, such as the colon. Most oral pulsatile delivery platforms consist in coated formulations wherein the applied polymer serves as the release-controlling agent. When exposed to aqueous media, the coating initially performs as a protective barrier and, subsequently, undergoes a timely failure based on diverse mechanisms depending on its physico-chemical and formulation characteristics. Indeed, it may be ruptured because of the gradual expansion of the core, swell and/or erode due to the glassy-rubbery polymer transition or become permeable thus allowing the drug molecules to diffuse outwards. Otherwise, when the coating is a semipermeable membrane provided with one or more orifices, the drug is released through the latter as a result of an osmotic water influx. The vast majority of pulsatile delivery systems described so far have been prepared by spray-coating, which offers important versatility and feasibility advantages over other techniques such as press- and dip-coating. In the present article, the design, manufacturing and performance of spray-coated pulsatile delivery platforms is thus reviewed.

  14. Diborane release and structure distortion in borohydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callini, Elsa; Borgschulte, Andreas; Ramirez-Cuesta, Anibal Javier; Züttel, Andreas

    2013-01-21

    Hydrogen desorption from borohydrides is often accompanied by the release of diborane. The amount of diborane released as a byproduct during the decomposition of borohydrides scales inversely with the borohydride stability, which in turn depends on the electronegativity of the corresponding cation. We present a model based on the difference between the symmetric and asymmetric assembly of B(2)H(6) units at the surface. The origin of this reaction is the degree of distortion of the BH(4)(-) anions in the bulk, hitherto depending on the degree of ionization of the cation. A practical measure of the distortion is the range in which the stretching vibration modes appear, which is the difference in the energy of the stretching vibrations of hydrogen atoms with maximum different bonding lengths (Badger's rule). We propose from this relation that the diborane released from the surface of the relatively unstable LiZn(2)(BH(4))(5) is formed from a recombination of BH(2)(δ+) and BH(4)(δ-) units. Ultra high vacuum mass spectroscopy measurements support the presented model and clarify the decomposition of stable borohydrides, such as LiBH(4). The sublimation of borohydrides in UHV competes with their decomposition.

  15. Hydrogen release from deposited beryllium layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shestakov, V.P.; Klepikov, A.Kh.; Chikhray, Y.V.; Tazhibaeva, I.L. [NIIETF of Al Farabi Kazakh State Univ., Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2000-04-01

    The analysis of hydrogen retained in deposited beryllium layers deposited by magnetron sputtering was carried out by means of thermodesorption (TDS) technique. Two hydrogen release peaks were clearly seen on the thermodesorption curves at the temperatures 760-800 K and 920-970 K. Hydrogen concentrations in the deposited beryllium layers were calculated from the gas release curves corresponding to the number of Be atoms in the beryllium layer of 100% theoretical density. Average hydrogen concentration in the beryllium samples loaded in the process of magnetron sputtering was equal to 3800{+-}200 appm. The experiments with beryllium layers, enriched with carbon, revealed the increase of retained hydrogen concentration up to 9600{+-}200 appm. Assuming that gas release can be described within the framework of model of diffusion from layer system BeO-Be-BeO, hydrogen diffusion coefficient in BeO and the trapping and detrapping constants for the traps appearing in beryllium in the process of deposition were evaluated. (orig.)

  16. Arthroscopic release of first metatarsophalangeal arthrofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun H

    2006-08-01

    Various degrees of first metatarsophalangeal joint arthrofibrosis frequently occur in patients with bunion surgery or big toe trauma. In those patients with functional limitation who fail to respond to conservative treatment, surgery is indicated. We describe here an arthroscopic approach to first metatarsophalangeal release that is designed to improve functional results. Dorsomedial and dorsolateral portals are established at the medial and lateral sides of the extensor hallucis longus tendon. Through these 2 portals, the dorsal capsule is released and the medial and lateral joint gutters can be cleared up. The metatarsosesamoid compartment is approached through the straight medial portal and the working portal, the latter of which is located 4 cm proximal to the joint line between the abductor hallucis tendon and the medial head of the flexor hallucis brevis. Under visualization through the medial portal, adhesions around the sesamoid apparatus can be debrided with a shaver through the working portal. This completes the release of joint circumference and improves the motion range of the joint.

  17. Chlorhexidine-releasing methacrylate dental composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny; Spratt, David A; Pratten, Jonathan; Gulabivala, Kishor; Mordan, Nicola J; Young, Anne M

    2005-12-01

    Light curable antibacterial, dental composite restoration materials, consisting of 80 wt% of a strontium fluoroaluminosilicate glass dispersed in methacrylate monomers have been produced. The monomers contained 40-100 wt% of a 10 wt% chlorhexidine diacetate (CHXA) in hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) solution and 60-0 wt% of a 50/50 mix of urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA). On raising HEMA content, light cure polymerisation rates decreased. Conversely, water sorption induced swelling and rates of diffusion controlled CHXA release from the set materials increased. Experimental composites with 50 and 90 wt% of the CHXA in HEMA solution in the monomer were shown, within a constant depth film fermentor (CDFF), to have slower rates of biofilm growth on their surfaces between 1 and 7 days than the commercial dental composite Z250 or fluoride-releasing dental cements, Fuji II LC and Fuji IX. When an excavated bovine dentine cylinder re-filled with Z250 was placed for 10 weeks in the CDFF, both bacteria and polymers from the artificial saliva penetrated between the material and dentine. With the 50 wt% experimental HEMA/CHXA formulation, this bacterial microleakage was substantially reduced. Polymer leakage, however, still occurred. Both polymer and bacterial microleakage were prevented with a 90 wt% HEMA/CHXA restoration in the bovine dentine due to swelling compensation for polymerisation shrinkage in combination with antibacterial release.

  18. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, R.M. [ed.

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC`s Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across` the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  19. Controlled release fertilizer workshop, 1991: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, R.M. (ed.)

    1991-11-01

    Over the last 20 years the Tennessee Valley Authority's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has carried out a number of programs to develop controlled release fertilizers. They pioneered the development and commercialization of sulfur coated urea and conducted extensive research in an attempt to develop an economical synthesis for oxamide. In recent years there has developed an increasing interest in the environmental impact of fertilizers, particularly on the potential for ground water contamination by nitrate derived from fertilizer materials. In response to this interest NFERC's Chemical Research Department organized a five member Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF) Team to reassess the potential for controlled release materials in agriculture with a view to minimizing any adverse environmental impact and increasing the efficiency of nutrient utilization by the crop. This workshop was part of that reassessment program. The workshop goals were: To determine the present status of CRF research, production and use; to assess the future needs of CRF producers and consumers; and to promote communication and exchange of information. To accomplish these goals the team invited speakers from across' the United States representing academics, experimental station researchers, fertilizer producers, environmentalists, and marketing experts to present papers.

  20. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor.

  1. Release-ability of nano fillers from different nanomaterials (toward the acceptability of nanoproduct)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanski, L.; Guiot, A.; Pras, M.; Malarde, M.; Tardif, F.

    2012-07-01

    It is of great interest to set up a reproducible and sensitive method able to qualify nanomaterials before their market introduction in terms of their constitutive nanoparticle release-ability in usage. Abrasion was performed on polycarbonate, epoxy, and PA11 polymers containing carbone nanotubes (CNT) up to 4 %wt. Using Taber linear standard tool and standard abrasion conditions no release from polymer coatings containing CNT was measured. In this study, new practical tools inducing non-standardized stresses able to compete with van der Waals forces were developed and tested on model polymers, showing controlled CNT dispersion. These stresses are still realistic, corresponding to scratching, instantaneous mechanical shocks, and abrasion of the surface. They offer an efficient way to quantify if release is possible from nanomaterials under different mechanical stresses and therefore give an idea about the mechanisms that favors it. Release under mechanical shocks and hard abrasion was obtained using these tools but only when nanomaterials present a bad dispersion of CNT within the epoxy matrix. Under the same conditions no release was obtained from the same material presenting a good dispersion. The CNT used in this study showed an external diameter Dext = 12 nm, an internal diameter Din = 5 nm, and a mean length of 1 μm. Release from paints under hard abrasion using a standard rotative Taber tool was obtained from a intentionaly non-optimized paint containing SiO2 nanoparticles up to 35 %wt. The primary diameter of the SiO2 was estimated to be around 12 nm. A metallic rake was efficient to remove nanoparticles from a non-woven fabric nanomaterial.

  2. Release-ability of nano fillers from different nanomaterials (toward the acceptability of nanoproduct)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golanski, L., E-mail: luana.golanski@cea.fr; Guiot, A. [CEA-Grenoble, LITEN (France); Pras, M. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Laboratoire des Materiaux Macromoleculaires (France); Malarde, M.; Tardif, F. [CEA-Grenoble, LITEN (France)

    2012-07-15

    It is of great interest to set up a reproducible and sensitive method able to qualify nanomaterials before their market introduction in terms of their constitutive nanoparticle release-ability in usage. Abrasion was performed on polycarbonate, epoxy, and PA11 polymers containing carbone nanotubes (CNT) up to 4 %wt. Using Taber linear standard tool and standard abrasion conditions no release from polymer coatings containing CNT was measured. In this study, new practical tools inducing non-standardized stresses able to compete with van der Waals forces were developed and tested on model polymers, showing controlled CNT dispersion. These stresses are still realistic, corresponding to scratching, instantaneous mechanical shocks, and abrasion of the surface. They offer an efficient way to quantify if release is possible from nanomaterials under different mechanical stresses and therefore give an idea about the mechanisms that favors it. Release under mechanical shocks and hard abrasion was obtained using these tools but only when nanomaterials present a bad dispersion of CNT within the epoxy matrix. Under the same conditions no release was obtained from the same material presenting a good dispersion. The CNT used in this study showed an external diameter Dext = 12 nm, an internal diameter Din = 5 nm, and a mean length of 1 {mu}m. Release from paints under hard abrasion using a standard rotative Taber tool was obtained from a intentionaly non-optimized paint containing SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles up to 35 %wt. The primary diameter of the SiO{sub 2} was estimated to be around 12 nm. A metallic rake was efficient to remove nanoparticles from a non-woven fabric nanomaterial.

  3. Controlled Release Formulations of Auxinic Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Witold J.; Siłowiecki, Andrzej.; Romanowska, Iwona; Glazek, Mariola; Bajor, Justyna; Cieciwa, Katarzyna; Rychter, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    Controlled release formulations are applied extensively for the release of active ingredients such as plant protection agents and fertilizers in response to growing concern for ecological problems associated with increased use of plant protection chemicals required for intensive agricultural practices [1]. We synthesized oligomeric mixtures of (R,S)-3-hydroxy butyric acid chemically bonded with 2,4-D, Dicamba and MCPA herbicides (HBA) respectively, and determined their molecular structure and molecular weight dispersion by the size exclusion chromatography, proton magnetic resonance spectrometry and electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry. Further we carried out bioassays of herbicidal effectiveness of the HBA herbicides vs. series of dicotyledonous weeds and crop injury tests [2, 3, 4]. Field bioassays were accomplished according to the EPPO standards [5]. Groups of representative weeds (the development stages in the BCCH scale: 10 - 30) were selected as targets. Statistical variabilities were assessed by the Fisher LSD test for plants treated with the studied herbicides in form of HBA oligomers, the reference herbicides in form of dimethyl ammonium salts (DMA), and untreated plants. No statistically significant differences in the crop injuries caused by the HBA vs. the DMA reference formulation were observed. The effectiveness of the HBA herbicides was lower through the initial period (ca. 2 weeks) relative to the DMA salts, but a significant increase in the effectiveness of the HBA systems followed during the remaining fraction of each assay. After 6 weeks all observed efficiencies approached 100%. The death of weeds treated with the HBA herbicides was delayed when compared with the DMA reference herbicides. The delayed uptake observed for the HBA oligomers relative to the DMA salts was due to controlled release phenomena. In case of the DMA salts the total amount of active ingredients was available at the target site. By contrast, the amount of an active

  4. Tumor-associated fibroblast-conditioned medium induces CDDP resistance in HNSCC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbichler, Teresa Bernadette; Metzler, Veronika; Pritz, Christian; Riechelmann, Herbert; Dudas, Jozsef

    2016-01-19

    EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition) contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. We aimed to investigate the effects of EMT on CDDP resistance in HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma)-cells. EMT was induced using conditioned medium from a tumor cell/fibroblast co-culture. HNSCC cells were alternatively treated with TGF-β1. The response to CDDP was evaluated with viability and clonogenic assays. Treatment of SCC-25/ Detroit 562 cells with conditioned medium increased viability of the tumor cells. Moreover, it doubled the IC50 of CDDP of SCC-25 cells from 6.2 μM to 13.1 μM (p cells was increased following treatment with conditioned medium from 13.1 μM to 26.8 μM (p cells treated with co-culture conditioned medium than in controls (p 0.1). Cell free medium from a co-culture was able to induce EMT in HNSCC cells. Co-culture treated HNSCC cells revealed increased viability and were less sensitive to CDDP treatment. TGF-β1 also induced a mesenchymal phenotype, but did not alter resistance to CDDP in HNSCC cells.

  5. Contrast medium-induced nephropathy: a more practical approach to prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDULKARIM JA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: we read with interest the good review article by Drs Sterner and Nyman [1] concerning the safe use of intravascular contrast medium for both coronary interventions and multi-channel detector computed tomography. see the full text of the article

  6. Nutrients Release from a Novel Gel-Based Slow/Controlled Release Fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel gel-based slow/controlled release fertilizer (G-CRF was developed, which was produced by combining various natural, seminatural, and/or synthetic organic macromolecule materials and natural inorganic mineral with conventional NPK fertilizers. Its nutrient release characteristics were studied to compare with conventional fertilizers through the soil column leaching method. The influences of soil factors, including temperature, pH, water, and nutrient contents in the G-CRF on nutrient release, were also investigated through soil-water incubation method. These results indicated that the G-CRF had better effect on controlling release of N, P, and K nutrients, and the effect was more efficient when soil-water content was lower than 45% (w/w, temperature was below 35°C, and soil pH was in the range from weak acid to neutral. In addition, considering the effect of controlling nutrient release and cost of the materials in the G-CRF, it is recommended that the most feasible NPK nutrient contents in the G-CRF ranged from 30 to 35%.

  7. Polymeric nanoparticles containing diazepam: preparation, optimization, characterization, in-vitro drug release and release kinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrey, Sarvesh; Chourasiya, Vibha; Pandey, Archna

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles formulated from biodegradable polymers like poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are being extensively investigated as drug delivery systems due to their two important properties such as biocompatibility and controlled drug release characteristics. The aim of this work to formulated diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles by using emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is used as stabilizing agent. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine derivative drug, and widely used as an anticonvulsant in the treatment of various types of epilepsy, insomnia and anxiety. This work investigates the effects of some preparation variables on the size and shape of nanoparticles prepared by emulsion solvent evaporation method. These nanoparticles were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Zeta potential study was also performed to understand the surface charge of nanoparticles. The drug release from drug loaded nanoparticles was studied by dialysis bag method and the in vitro drug release data was also studied by various kinetic models. The results show that sonication time, polymer content, surfactant concentration, ratio of organic to aqueous phase volume, and the amount of drug have an important effect on the size of nanoparticles. Hopefully we produced spherical shape Diazepam loaded PLGA nanoparticles with a size range under 250 nm with zeta potential -23.3 mV. The in vitro drug release analysis shows sustained release of drug from nanoparticles and follow Korsmeyer-Peppas model.

  8. Timed Release of Valsartan from Programmable Release Capsules: Importance of Plasticizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Yogendra Nayak*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different plasticizers on the ethylcellulose coatings of capsules and its timed release characteristics. Various plasticizers such as dibutyl phthalate (DBP, triacetin (TA, glycerol, triethyl citrate (TEC, polyethylene glycol-4000 and polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG were studied. The physicochemical properties of the casted polymeric films such as mechanical resistance, water uptake and dry weight loss were determined. Also the type and concentration of plasticizer on timed release of the capsule was studied. The drug release was found to be strongly dependent on the type of plasticizer and was in the order of GY>TA>PEG 6000>PEG 4000>TEC>DBP. Capsules coated with hydrophobic DBP (5% showed good release with a lag time of 6 ± 0.5 h. DBP provided mechanically resistant coatings on the capsule and remained within the polymeric films without leaching upon exposure to the release media which helped in maintaining the lag time.

  9. Post-release monitoring of Antillean manatees: an assessment of the Brazilian rehabilitation and release programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normande, Iran C.; Malhado, Ana C. M.; Reid, James P.; Viana Junior, P.C.; Savaget, P. V. S.; Correia, R. A.; Luna, F. O.; R. J. Ladle,

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian reintroduction programmes frequently aim to reconnect isolated sub-populations and restore population viability. However, these long-term objectives are rarely evaluated due to the inadequacy of post-release monitoring. Here, we report the results of a unique long term telemetry-based monitoring programme for rehabilitated Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) reintroduced into selected sites in northeast Brazil with the aim of reconnecting isolated relict populations. Twenty-one satellite-tagged rehabilitated manatees, 13 males and 8 females, were released into the wild from two sites between November 2008 and June 2013. Individual accumulation curves were plotted and home ranges were calculated through the fixed kernel method using 95% of the utilization distribution. The number and size of the Centres of Activity (COAs) were calculated using 50% of the utilization distribution. Manatees displayed a dichotomous pattern of movement, with individuals either characterized by sedentary habits or by much more extensive movements. Moreover, home range size was not significantly influenced by gender, age at release or release site. COAs were strongly associated with sheltered conditions within reefs and estuaries, and also by the presence of freshwater and feeding sites. Our data confirm that manatee reintroductions in Brazil have the potential to reconnect distant sub-populations. However, pre-release identification of potential long-distance migrants is currently unfeasible, and further analysis would be required to confirm genetic mixing of distant sub-populations.

  10. Biological control of weeds release sites : Kulm Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table of release sites of insects for biological control of invasive plants at Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD). Insects were released on Kulm WMD to...

  11. Compounding of slow-release niacinamide capsules: feasibility and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojkovic, Branko; Milić, Jela; Calija, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of extemporaneous compounding of slow-release oral dosage form of niacinamide and to evaluate its release kinetics. The model formulation (preparation) was developed in the form of powder-filled hard gelatin capsules. Two slow-release preparations with different ratios of hypromellose have been prepared and evaluated in comparison with an immediate-release preparation. The dissolution tests were performed as per United States Pharmacopoeia requirements: Type I Apparatus, over 7 hours. Both slow-release preparations, containing 40% and 60% v/v hypromellose, respectively, have showed slow release kinetics. The dissolution profiles were significantly different, with similarity factor f2niacinamide capsules can be successfully compounded using hypromellose as a sole release rate modifier, and that the release mechanism is comparable to hydrophilic polymer matrix-based systems.

  12. 28 CFR 549.66 - Release from treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MEDICAL SERVICES Hunger Strikes, Inmate § 549.66 Release from treatment. Only the physician may order that an inmate be released from hunger strike evaluation and treatment. This order shall be documented...

  13. Section 11: Surface Water Pathway - Likelihood of Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface water releases can include the threat to targets from overland flow of hazardous substances and from flooding or the threat from the release of hazardous substances to ground water and the subsequent discharge of contaminated ground w

  14. 3D Printed Programmable Release Capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Maneesh K; Meng, Fanben; Johnson, Blake N; Kong, Yong Lin; Tian, Limei; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Masters, Nina; Singamaneni, Srikanth; McAlpine, Michael C

    2015-08-12

    The development of methods for achieving precise spatiotemporal control over chemical and biomolecular gradients could enable significant advances in areas such as synthetic tissue engineering, biotic-abiotic interfaces, and bionanotechnology. Living organisms guide tissue development through highly orchestrated gradients of biomolecules that direct cell growth, migration, and differentiation. While numerous methods have been developed to manipulate and implement biomolecular gradients, integrating gradients into multiplexed, three-dimensional (3D) matrices remains a critical challenge. Here we present a method to 3D print stimuli-responsive core/shell capsules for programmable release of multiplexed gradients within hydrogel matrices. These capsules are composed of an aqueous core, which can be formulated to maintain the activity of payload biomolecules, and a poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA, an FDA approved polymer) shell. Importantly, the shell can be loaded with plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNRs), which permits selective rupturing of the capsule when irradiated with a laser wavelength specifically determined by the lengths of the nanorods. This precise control over space, time, and selectivity allows for the ability to pattern 2D and 3D multiplexed arrays of enzyme-loaded capsules along with tunable laser-triggered rupture and release of active enzymes into a hydrogel ambient. The advantages of this 3D printing-based method include (1) highly monodisperse capsules, (2) efficient encapsulation of biomolecular payloads, (3) precise spatial patterning of capsule arrays, (4) "on the fly" programmable reconfiguration of gradients, and (5) versatility for incorporation in hierarchical architectures. Indeed, 3D printing of programmable release capsules may represent a powerful new tool to enable spatiotemporal control over biomolecular gradients.

  15. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  16. Arsenic release during managed aquifer recharge (MAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, T.; Lazareva, O.; Druschel, G.

    2013-12-01

    The mobilization and addition of geogenic trace metals to groundwater is typically caused by anthropogenic perturbations of the physicochemical conditions in the aquifer. This can add dangerously high levels of toxins to groundwater, thus compromising its use as a source of drinking water. In several regions world-wide, aquifer storage and recovery (ASR), a form of managed aquifer recharge (MAR), faces the problem of arsenic release due to the injection of oxygenated storage water. To better understand this process we coupled geochemical reactive transport modeling to bench-scale leaching experiments to investigate and verify the mobilization of geogenic arsenic (As) under a range of redox conditions from an arsenic-rich pyrite bearing limestone aquifer in Central Florida. Modeling and experimental observations showed similar results and confirmed the following: (1) native groundwater and aquifer matrix, including pyrite, were in chemical equilibrium, thus preventing the release of As due to pyrite dissolution under ambient conditions; (2) mixing of oxygen-rich surface water with oxygen-depleted native groundwater changed the redox conditions and promoted the dissolution of pyrite, and (3) the behavior of As along a flow path was controlled by a complex series of interconnected reactions. This included the oxidative dissolution of pyrite and simultaneous sorption of As onto neo-formed hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), followed by the reductive dissolution of HFO and secondary release of adsorbed As under reducing conditions. Arsenic contamination of drinking water in these systems is thus controlled by the re-equilibration of the system to more reducing conditions rather than a purely oxidative process.

  17. Pneumatic release of focal vitreomacular traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, M G; Feron, E; Veckeneer, M

    2017-03-01

    PurposeTo study the efficacy of a single intravitreal injection of expansile gas as a valuable alternative to current treatment options (conservative, pharmacological, and surgical) in patients with symptomatic, focal vitreomacular traction (VMT).Patients and methodsThis study comprises a retrospective, interventional case series of patients. Twenty eyes in seventeen patients with symptomatic and persisting focal VMT were treated in an outpatient setting with an intravitreal gas injection of 0.2 ml. In 19 eyes, 100% hexafluoroethane (C2F6) was used. One eye received sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). To all but three patients posturing advice was given. Patients were reviewed with a full-eye examination and ocular coherence tomography (OCT) after 14 days and later. The primary outcome measure was the release of VMT on OCT.ResultsIn 17 of the 20 (85.0%) treated eyes, a release of VMT was achieved as documented on OCT. The release of VMT was diagnosed during the first month after injection in 11 eyes of 11 patients and within 3 months in 16 eyes of 15 patients. In all but five of our patients, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) remained stable or improved. In four patients, the progression or development of cataract was the probable cause of the decrease in BCVA. One patient developed a stage II macular hole after injection and needed vitrectomy. None of the treated patients developed retinal breaks.ConclusionIntravitreal expansile gas injection could offer a minimally invasive, low-cost alternative treatment in patients with symptomatic, persisting VMT. Additional studies on a larger number of patients are required.

  18. Efficient reconstruction of contaminant release history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alezander, Francis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anghel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gulbahce, Natali [NON LANL; Tartakovsky, Daniel [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We present a generalized hybrid Monte Carlo (GHMC) method for fast, statistically optimal reconstruction of release histories of reactive contaminants. The approach is applicable to large-scale, strongly nonlinear systems with parametric uncertainties and data corrupted by measurement errors. The use of discrete adjoint equations facilitates numerical implementation of GHMC, without putting any restrictions on the degree of nonlinearity of advection-dispersion-reaction equations that are used to described contaminant transport in the subsurface. To demonstrate the salient features of the proposed algorithm, we identify the spatial extent of a distributed source of contamination from concentration measurements of a reactive solute.

  19. Flavor release measurement from gum model system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovejero-López, I.; Haahr, Anne-Mette; van den Berg, Frans W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Flavor release from a mint-flavored chewing gum model system was measured by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectroscopy (APCI-MS) and sensory time-intensity (TI). A data analysis method for handling the individual curves from both methods is presented. The APCI-MS data are ratio...... composition can be measured by both instrumental and sensory techniques, providing comparable information. The peppermint oil level (0.5-2% w/w) in the gum influenced both the retronasal concentration and the perceived peppermint flavor. The sweeteners' (sorbitol or xylitol) effect is less apparent. Sensory...

  20. Release of metals from anoxic sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jacobsen, Gitte

    The Bornholm Deep is anoxic every summer, and samples were collected in the fall 2012 and stored dark and cold (4°C in climate room), degassing regularly with Ar(g) to keep the overlying water column anoxic. Nine sediments columns were selected and divided into three groups, (1) where the water w...... without crabs, but cloudy, indicating re-suspension in the group with crabs. The metal release from sediments will be discussed in the context of re-oxygenation of anoxic or low-oxic sediments and the effect of organism that digs into the sediment in recently re-oxidised bottom waters....

  1. INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULOSKELETAL RELEASE. CONCEPTIONS AND PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Domingues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrated neuromusculoskeletal release (INR is an osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT technique that has been formalized by Robert C. Ward. INR using a segmental anterior/posterior approach is an osteopathic manipulative treatment technique that is easily learned and applied (Danto, 2003.This approach focuses on both the anterior and posterior connectivity of the body through the neuromusculoskeletal system and uses this connectivity to effectively treat somatic dysfunctions. The whole of OMT has been concerned, purposefully or not, with manipulation of the fascia.Objectives: The principles of INR are discussed, as well as the role of INR in the diagnosis and treatment of somatic dysfunctions.

  2. Proposed Release Guides to Protect Aquatic Biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marter, W.L.

    2001-03-28

    At the request of South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) and the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Laboratory was assigned the task of developing the release guides to protect aquatic biota. A review of aquatic radioecology literature by two leading experts in the field of radioecology concludes that exposure of aquatic biota at one rad per day or less will not produce detectable deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. On the basis of this report, DOE recommends the use of one rad per day as an interim dose standard to protect aquatic biota.

  3. FORTE antenna element and release mechanism design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohweller, D.J. [Astro Aerospace Corp., Carpinteria, CA (United States); Butler, T.Af. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite being built by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has as its most prominent feature a large deployable (11 m by 5 m) log periodic antenna to monitor emissions from electrical storms on the Earth. This paper describes the antenna and the design for the long elements and explains the dynamics of their deployment and the damping system employed. It also describes the unique paraffin-actuated reusable tie-down and release mechanism employed in the system.

  4. Herwig++ 2.7 Release Note

    CERN Document Server

    Bellm, J; Grellscheid, D; Papaefstathiou, A; Platzer, S; Richardson, P; Rohr, C; Schuh, T; Seymour, M H; Siodmok, A; Wilcock, A; Zimmermann, B

    2013-01-01

    A new release of the Monte Carlo event generator Herwig++ (version 2.7) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: an interface to the Universal FeynRules Output (UFO) format allowing the simulation of a wide range of new-physics models; developments of the Matchbox framework for next-to-leading order (NLO) simulations; better treatment of QCD radiation in heavy particle decays in new-physics models; a new tune of underlying event and colour connection parameters that allows a good simultaneous description of both Tevatron and LHC underlying event data and the effective cross-section parameter for double-parton scattering.

  5. Financial Development Report Released in New York

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ New York,USA,on 8 October 2009 - The world's largest economies took the biggest hit in the World Economic Forum's second annual Financial Development Report released today.Traditional global financial centres still lead in the report's Index,but the effects of financial instability have pulled down their scores compared to last year.The United Kingdom,buoyed by the relative strength of its banking and non-banking financial activities,claimed the Index's top spot from the United States,which slipped to third position behind Australia largely due to poorer financial stability scores and a weakened banking sector.

  6. CMS releases data on drug spending

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2016-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Yesterday (11/14/16) the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released data on spending for drugs under Medicare and Medicaid (1,2). Medicare paid $137.4 billion on drugs covered by its prescription drug benefit in 2015. About $8.7 billion of that spending occurred on drugs that had "large" price hikes, defined as a more than 25 percent increase between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, Medicaid paid $57.3 billion about $5.1 billion of ...

  7. CMS releases data on drug spending

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Yesterday (11/14/16) the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) released data on spending for drugs under Medicare and Medicaid (1,2). Medicare paid $137.4 billion on drugs covered by its prescription drug benefit in 2015. About $8.7 billion of that spending occurred on drugs that had "large" price hikes, defined as a more than 25 percent increase between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, Medicaid paid $57.3 billion about $5.1 billion of ...

  8. Capsules with external navigation and triggered release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukin, Dmitry G; Shchukina, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Encapsulation is an important technology for pharmaceutical industry, food production, et cetera. Its current level of development requires capsule functionalization. One of the interesting ideas to provide new functionality to the microcapsule and nanocapsule is layer-by-layer deposition of functional species. This technique provides step-by-step adsorption of various species (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, proteins) when the layer growth is controlled by electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic forces and forming multilayer shells with nanometer precision. This review article introduces recent achievements of layer-by-layer technique attaining external navigation ability and release properties the capsule shell.

  9. Press-coating of immediate release powders onto coated controlled release tablets with adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Kenneth C; Fergione, Michael B

    2003-05-20

    A novel adhesive coating was developed that allows even small quantities of immediate-release (IR) powders to be press-coated onto controlled-release (CR), coated dosage forms without damaging the CR coating. The process was exemplified using a pseudoephedrine osmotic tablet (asymmetric membrane technology, AMT) where a powder weighing less than 25% of the core was pressed onto the osmotic tablet providing a final combination tablet with low friability. The dosage form with the adhesive plus the press-coated powder showed comparable sustained drug release rates to the untreated dosage form after an initial 2-h lag. The adhesive layer consisted of an approximately 100- microm coating of Eudragit RL, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and triethyl citrate (TEC) at a ratio of 5:3:1.2. This coating provides a practical balance between handleability before press-coating and good adhesion.

  10. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2011-01-01

    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  11. Kinetics of Cd Release from Some Contaminated Calcareous Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi Tabar, S.; Jalali, M., E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Contamination of soils with heavy metals may pose long-term risk to groundwater quality leading to health implications. Bioavailability of heavy metals, like cadmium (Cd) is strongly affected by sorption and desorption processes. The release of heavy metals from contaminated soils is a major contamination risks to natural waters. The release of Cd from contaminated soils is strongly influenced by its mobility and bioavailability. In this study, the kinetics of Cd desorption from ten samples of contaminated calcareous soils, with widely varying physicochemical properties, were studied using 0.01 M EDTA extraction. The median percentage of Cd released was about 27.7% of the total extractable Cd in the soils. The release of Cd was characterized by an initial fast release rate (of labile fractions) followed by a slower release rate (of less labile fractions) and a model of two first-order reactions adequately describes the observed release of Cd from the studied soil samples. There was positive correlation between the amount of Cd released at first phase of release and Cd in exchangeable fraction, indicating that this fraction of Cd is the main fraction controlling the Cd in the kinetic experiments. There was strongly negative correlation between the amount of Cd released at first and second phases of release and residual fraction, suggesting that this fraction did not contribute in Cd release in the kinetic experiments. The results can be used to provide information for evaluation of Cd potential toxicity and ecological risk from contaminated calcareous soils.

  12. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  13. Suppression of Pest Lepidoptera by Releasing Partially Sterile Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipling. E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Uses population growth models to calculate the theoretical suppression of reproduction achieved by releasing irradiated male moths carrying genetic sterility factors. Shows that releasing partially sterile males should be more effective than releasing fully sterile males. Discusses the costs and advantages of applying this approach to the control…

  14. 40 CFR 721.90 - Release to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release to water. 721.90 Section 721... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Certain Significant New Uses § 721.90 Release to water. Whenever a... predict the surface water concentration which will result from the intended release of the substance,...

  15. 14 CFR 125.363 - Flight release over water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight release over water. 125.363 Section 125.363 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Flight release over water. (a) No person may release an airplane for a flight that involves...

  16. Molecularly imprinted nanotubes for enantioselective drug delivery and controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junfa; Cui, Yue; Yang, Gengliang; Wang, Hailin

    2010-11-07

    Molecularly imprinted nanotubes for enantioselective drug delivery and controlled release are fabricated by the combination of template synthesis and ATRP grafting. The release of R-propranolol from the imprinted nanotubes in rats is restricted while the release of pharmacologically active S-enantiomer is greatly promoted.

  17. Design and evaluation of nicorandil extended-release tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and evaluate extended-release formulations of a model drug, nicorandil, in order to achieve the desired steady-state plasma concentration of drug in vivo. Simulation was employed to estimate optimum dissolution and absorption rate of nicorandil. The dissolution test was employed using pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 buffer solution, or water, to measure the in vitro release behaviors of nicorandil formulations. A single dose (15 mg of each formulation was orally administered to four beagle dogs under fasted conditions, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The in vitro/in vivo relationship of the extended-release formulation was confirmed using in vitro dissolution profiles and plasma concentrations of drug in beagle dogs. Nicorandil was released completely within 30 min from the immediate-release tablets and released for 24 h from the extended-release tablets. The nicorandil plasma concentration could be modified by adjusting the drug release rate from the extended-release formulation. The release rate of nicorandil was the rate-limiting step in the overall absorption of drug from the extended-release formulations. These results highlight the potential of a nicorandil extended-release formulation in the treatment of angina pectoris.

  18. 27 CFR 40.236 - Release from customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release from customs... on Tobacco Products § 40.236 Release from customs custody. The release of tobacco products from customs custody, in bond, for transfer to the premises of a tobacco products factory, shall be...

  19. 19 CFR 4.38 - Release of cargo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of cargo. 4.38 Section 4.38 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Landing and Delivery of Cargo § 4.38 Release of cargo. (a) No... report which lists those shipments which have been authorized for release. This alternative cargo...

  20. Disestablishing Sex: The Case for Released-Time Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2011-01-01

    Allowing nonschool organizations to provide sex education in a released-time format would disestablish state-funded sex education and give families a choice in the sex education that would be provided for their children. Released-time programs, as originally conceived and currently practiced, allow students to be released for a period of time…

  1. 8 CFR 236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 236.3... Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release. Juveniles for whom bond has been posted,...

  2. 8 CFR 1236.3 - Detention and release of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detention and release of juveniles. 1236.3... ORDERED REMOVED Detention of Aliens Prior to Order of Removal § 1236.3 Detention and release of juveniles. (a) Juveniles. A juvenile is defined as an alien under the age of 18 years. (b) Release....

  3. 50 CFR 600.425 - Release of statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of statistics. 600.425 Section 600... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Confidentiality of Statistics § 600.425 Release of statistics. (a) The Assistant Administrator will not release to the public any...

  4. 77 FR 13061 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... the online reporting software application known as the Toxics Release Inventory-Made Easy Web or... Software TRI-MEweb--Toxics Release Inventory-Made Easy Internet-based Software Application U.S.C.--United... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data AGENCY:...

  5. 78 FR 52860 - Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... to report non- trade-secret Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) forms to EPA using electronic software... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 372 RIN 2025-AA30 Electronic Reporting of Toxics Release Inventory Data AGENCY..., Toxics Release Inventory Program Division, Mailcode 2844T, OEI, Environmental Protection Agency,...

  6. Analyzing Living Surveys: Visualization Beyond the Data Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddelmeijer, H.; Noorishad, P.; Williams, D.; Ivanova, M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Valentijn, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys need to provide more than periodic data releases. Science often requires data that is not captured in such releases. This mismatch between the constraints set by a fixed data release and the needs of the scientists is solved in the Astro-WISE information system by extending its request-drive

  7. Analyzing Living Surveys : Visualization Beyond the Data Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddelmeijer, H.; Noorishad, P.; Williams, D.; Ivanova, M.; Roerdink, J. B. T. M.; Valentijn, E. A.; Taylor, A.R.; Rosolowski, E.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys need to provide more than periodic data releases. Science often requires data that is not captured in such releases. This mismatch between the constraints set by a fixed data release and the needs of the scientists is solved in the Astro-WISE information system by extending its request-drive

  8. 7 CFR 1951.154 - Satisfaction and release of documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Satisfaction and release of documents. 1951.154... Loans § 1951.154 Satisfaction and release of documents. (a) Authorization. FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 is authorized to execute the necessary releases and satisfactions and...

  9. 30 CFR 77.304 - Explosion release vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Explosion release vents. 77.304 Section 77.304... Dryers § 77.304 Explosion release vents. Drying chambers, dry-dust collectors, ductwork connecting dryers... explosion release vents which open directly to the outside atmosphere, and all such vents shall be:...

  10. 78 FR 44188 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at Sioux..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  11. 78 FR 48926 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Ottumwa..., MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed,...

  12. 76 FR 78967 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent To Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Liberal... Room 364, Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release...

  13. 78 FR 65417 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Kearney..., (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed, by...

  14. 76 FR 66352 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Halifax... Park, GA 30337. The request to release property may be reviewed, by appointment, in person at this...

  15. 78 FR 16911 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ankeny..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  16. 77 FR 58438 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Meade..., Kansas City, MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may...

  17. 78 FR 49790 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ottumwa..., MO 64106, (816) 329-2644, lynn.martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed,...

  18. 78 FR 48217 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to rule on request to release airport property at the Ottumwa Regional Airport (OTM), Ottumwa....martin@faa.gov . The request to release property may be reviewed, by appointment, in person at this...

  19. Effect of angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid on corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-induced ACTH release in pituitary cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami,Kazuharu

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid on CRF-induced ACTH release were examined using rat anterior pituitary cells in monolayer culture. Synthetic ovine CRF induced a significant ACTH release in this system. Angiotensin II produced an additive effect on CRF-induced ACTH release. The ACTH releasing activity of CRF was potentiated by epinephrine and norepinephrine. Dopamine itself at 0.03-30 ng/ml did not show any significant effect on ACTH release, but it inhibited CRF-induced ACTH release. Corticosterone at 10(-7 and 10(-6M inhibited CRF-induced ACTH release. These results indicate that angiotensin II, catecholamines and glucocorticoid modulate ACTH release at the pituitary level.

  20. Calcium release channel RyR2 regulates insulin release and glucose homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Santulli, Gaetano; Pagano, Gennaro; Sardu, Celestino; Xie, Wenjun; Reiken, Steven; D’Ascia, Salvatore Luca; Cannone, Michele; Marziliano, Nicola; Trimarco, Bruno; Guise, Theresa A.; Lacampagne, Alain; Marks, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    The type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is a Ca2+ release channel on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of several types of cells, including cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β cells. In cardiomyocytes, RyR2-dependent Ca2+ release is critical for excitation-contraction coupling; however, a functional role for RyR2 in β cell insulin secretion and diabetes mellitus remains controversial. Here, we took advantage of rare RyR2 mutations that were identified in patients with a genetic form of exercise-induced...

  1. Fast dispersible/slow releasing ibuprofen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fini, Adamo; Bergamante, Valentina; Ceschel, Gian Carlo; Ronchi, Celestino; de Moraes, Carlos Alberto Fonseca

    2008-05-01

    Eight formulations were developed containing ibuprofen in the form of orally disintegrating tablets. To prevent bitter taste and side effects of the drug, the drug was associated with Phospholipon 80H, a saturated lecithin, by wet granulation. The granules were then coated using different film forming agents (Kollicoat SR 30, Amprac 01, Kollidon 90F, Eudragit RD 100) obtaining four lots 1-4. Coated granules were then formulated with a sweetener (Aspartame), a mannitol-based diluent (Pearlitol SD 200) and Kollidon CL (1-4K) or Explotab (1-4E) were added as superdisintegrants and compacted under low compression force. The eight lots of tablets, 1-4K and 1-4E, were assessed if suitable as oral disintegrating tablets by determination of a range of technological parameters. Wetting and disintegregation time matched with the requirements of EP IV Ed., for almost all these formulations. Dissolution profiles suggested that the combined action of the hydrophobic lecithin and the coating delay the release of the drug from tablets with respect to when it is free or in the form of simple granules. By an appropriate combination of excipients it was thus possible to obtain orally disintegrating tablets and a delayed release of ibuprofen using simple and conventional techniques.

  2. Detection of contaminant plumes released from landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigül, N. B.; Hendsbergen, A. T.; Elfeki, A. M. M.; Dekking, F. M.

    2006-06-01

    Contaminant leaks released from landfills are a significant threat to groundwater quality. The groundwater detection monitoring systems installed in the vicinity of such facilities are vital. In this study the detection probability of a contaminant plume released from a landfill has been investigated by means of both a simulation and an analytical model for both homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifer conditions. The results of the two models are compared for homogeneous aquifer conditions to illustrate the errors that might be encountered with the simulation model. For heterogeneous aquifer conditions contaminant transport is modelled by an analytical model using effective (macro) dispersivities. The results of the analysis show that the simulation model gives the concentration values correctly over most of the plume length for homogeneous aquifer conditions, and that the detection probability of a contaminant plume at given monitoring well locations match quite well. For heterogeneous aquifer conditions the approximating analytical model based on effective (macro) dispersivities yields the average concentration distribution satisfactorily. However, it is insufficient in monitoring system design since the discrepancy between the detection probabilities of contaminant plumes at given monitoring well locations computed by the two models is significant, particularly with high dispersivity and heterogeneity.

  3. Sunspot waves and flare energy release

    CERN Document Server

    Sych, R; Altyntsev, A; Dudík, J; Kashapova, L

    2014-01-01

    We address a possibility of the flare process initiation and further maintenance of its energy release due to a transformation of sunspot longitudinal waves into transverse magnetic loop oscillations with initiation of reconnection. This leads to heating maintaining after the energy release peak and formation of a flat stage on the X-ray profile. We applied the time-distance plots and pixel wavelet filtration (PWF) methods to obtain spatio-temporal distribution of wave power variations in SDO/AIA data. To find magnetic waveguides, we used magnetic field extrapolation of SDO/HMI magnetograms. The propagation velocity of wave fronts was measured from their spatial locations at specific times. In correlation curves of the 17 GHz (NoRH) radio emission we found a monotonous energy amplification of 3-min waves in the sunspot umbra before the 2012 June 7 flare. This dynamics agrees with an increase in the wave-train length in coronal loops (SDO/AIA, 171 {\\AA}) reaching the maximum 30 minutes prior to the flare onset...

  4. Magnetic Energy Release in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Terry G.

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares are the result of a rapid release of magnetic energy stored in the solar corona. An ideal-MHD process, such as a loss of magnetic equilibrium, most likely initiates the flare, but the non-ideal process of magnetic reconnection quickly becomes the dominant mechanism by which energy is released. Within the last few years EUV and X-ray instruments have directly observed the kind of plasma flows and heating indicative of magnetic reconnection. Relatively cool plasma is observed moving slowly into the reconnection region where it is transformed into two high-temperature, high-speed outflow jets moving in opposite directions. Observations of the flow in these jets suggest that they are accelerated to the ambient Alfvén speed in a manner that resembles the reconnection process first proposed by H. E. Petschek in 1964. This result is somewhat surprising because Petschek-type reconnection does not occur in most numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection. The apparent contradiction between the observations and the simulations can be understood by the fact that most simulations assume a uniform resistivity model that is unlikely to occur in reality. Recently, we have developed a theory that shows how the type of reconnection is related to the plasma resistivity. The theory is based on a form of the time-dependent, MHD-nozzle equations that incorporate the plasma resistivity. These equations are very similar to the equations used to describe magnetized plasma flow in astrophysical jets.

  5. New mitotic regulators released from chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eYokoyama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faithful action of the mitotic spindle segregates duplicated chromosomes into daughter cells. Perturbations of this process result in chromosome mis-segregation, leading to chromosomal instability and cancer development. Chromosomes are not simply passengers segregated by spindle microtubules but rather play a major active role in spindle assembly. The GTP bound form of the Ran GTPase (RanGTP, produced around chromosomes, locally activates spindle assembly factors. Recent studies have uncovered that chromosomes organize mitosis beyond spindle formation. They distinctly regulate other mitotic events, such as spindle maintenance in anaphase, which is essential for chromosome segregation. Furthermore, the direct function of chromosomes is not only to produce RanGTP but, in addition, to release key mitotic regulators from chromatin. Chromatin-remodeling factors and nuclear pore complex proteins, which have established functions on chromatin in interphase, dissociate from mitotic chromatin and function in spindle assembly or maintenance. Thus, chromosomes actively organize their own segregation using chromatin-releasing mitotic regulators as well as RanGTP.

  6. The Reshock and Release Waves in PTFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanov, S. M.; Bordzilovsky, S. A.

    1999-06-01

    To study the deformation and destruction of PTFE polymer the specimens were loaded by the complex wave structure: shock, reshock and release wave. The transmitted stress-time profiles were recorded with the manganin gages. The Lagrange analysis of stress histories gave the stress-volume paths during reshock loading and unloading of PTFE in the stress range of 10 to 35 GPa. The data revealed the viscoelastic behavior typical for polymers. For a single shock loading the relaxation zone with the duration of about 0.3 μs was noticeable behind the first stress jump. The reshock-release stress pulse that started from the state behind the first shock attenuated with the rate greater than in hydrodynamic approximation. The correlation was noticed between the stress-time and electrical resistivity-time profiles in the relaxation zone. The reloading-unloading stress hysteresis gave the possibility to measure the critical shear stress (τ) in a shocked state. The data showed the decrease in τ at higher stresses. The authors suggested that the most probable mechanism of destruction of PTFE in the studied region of pressures and temperatures is thermodestruction of a polymer chain by the thermal fluctuations under load.

  7. Geant4 - Towards major release 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmo, G.; Geant4 Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Geant4 simulation toolkit has reached maturity in the middle of the previous decade, providing a wide variety of established features coherently aggregated in a software product, which has become the standard for detector simulation in HEP and is used in a variety of other application domains. We review the most recent capabilities introduced in the kernel, highlighting those, which are being prepared for the next major release (version 10.0) that is scheduled for the end of 2013. A significant new feature contained in this release will be the integration of multi-threading processing, aiming at targeting efficient use of modern many-cores system architectures and minimization of the memory footprint for exploiting event-level parallelism. We discuss its design features and impact on the existing API and user-interface of Geant4. Revisions are made to balance the need for preserving backwards compatibility and to consolidate and improve the interfaces; taking into account requirements from the multithreaded extensions and from the evolution of the data processing models of the LHC experiments.

  8. Release Notes for Whisper-1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Whisper is a statistical analysis package developed in 2014 to support nuclear criticality safety (NCS) validation [1-3]. It uses the sensitivity profile data for an application as computed by MCNP6 [4-6] along with covariance files [7,8] for the nuclear data to determine a baseline upper-subcritical-limit (USL) for the application. Whisper version 1.0 was first developed and used at LANL in 2014 [3]. During 2015-2016, Whisper was updated to version 1.1 [9] and is to be included with the upcoming release of MCNP6.2. This document describes the Whisper-1.1 package that will be included with the MCNP6.2 release during 2017. Specific details are provided on the computer systems supported, the software quality assurance (SQA) procedures, installation, and testing. This document does not address other important topics, such as the importance of sensitivity-uncertainty (SU) methods to NCS validation, the theory underlying SU methodology, tutorials on the usage of MCNP-Whisper, practical approaches to using SU methodology to support and extend traditional validation, etc. There are over 50 documents included with Whisper-1.1 and available in the MCNP Reference Collection on the MCNP website (mcnp.lanl.gov) that address all of those topics and more. In this document, however, a complete bibliography of relevant MCNP-Whisper references is provided.

  9. Pramipexole extended release: in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwieduk, Claudine M; Curran, Monique P

    2010-04-01

    Pramipexole extended release (ER) is a non-ergolinic dopamine receptor agonist available for use as a once-daily oral treatment for the signs and symptoms of early and advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Once-daily pramipexole ER and three times-daily pramipexole immediate release (IR) have similar exposure over 24 hours. The ER formulation is associated with fewer fluctuations in plasma pramipexole concentrations over this period. Pramipexole ER improved the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in three well designed trials in adults with early or advanced disease, as measured by changes from baseline in the sum of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II and III subtotal scores. In a 9-week study, the majority of patients with early Parkinson's disease who were receiving stable pramipexole IR treatment were successfully switched to pramipexole ER. Relative to placebo at week 18, pramipexole ER 0.375-4.5 mg (of the salt) once daily significantly decreased the sum of the UPDRS parts II and III subtotal scores from baseline in two trials in patients with early or advanced Parkinson's disease, and also reduced the percentage of off-time during waking hours in patients with advanced disease. The efficacy of pramipexole ER was maintained after 33 weeks of treatment in the trials in patients with early or advanced Parkinson's disease. Pramipexole ER was generally well tolerated in patients with Parkinson's disease, with the rate of adverse events being generally similar to that with pramipexole IR.

  10. Pramipexole extended release in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hametner, Eva-Maria; Seppi, Klaus; Poewe, Werner

    2011-09-01

    Pramipexole extended release (ER) is a new once-daily formulation of pramipexole, a nonergot dopamine agonist, which is available in five dosage strengths: 0.26 (0.375) mg, 0.52 (0.75) mg, 1.05 (1.5) mg, 2.1 (3) mg and 3.15 (4.5) mg (all doses are expressed in terms of pramipexole base and the corresponding dose strengths of pramipexole salt are given in brackets). Pramipexole ER is currently approved as monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as an adjunct therapy to levodopa in advanced PD. Compared with the immediate release (IR) formulation, the ER formulation offers several advantages, including the potential for improved compliance owing to its simple once-daily dosing regimen and steadier plasma levels over 24 h. Double-blind, randomized, placebo and active comparator controlled trials in early, as well as advanced PD, established the superiority of both pramipexole ER and IR over placebo. The overnight switch from pramipexole IR three times a day to ER once-daily in early PD has been shown to be successful in more than 80% of patients. Pramipexole ER is well tolerated, with a similar adverse event profile to pramipexole IR. The aim of this article is to provide a short review of the most relevant pharmacological and clinical data on pramipexole ER.

  11. Particle Release Experiment (PRex) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keillor, Martin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arrigo, Leah M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Detwiler, Rebecca S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kernan, Warnick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kirkham, Randy R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); MacDougall, Matthew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chipman, Veraun D. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Milbrath, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Allen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Seifert, Carolyn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smart, John E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Emer, Dudley [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-09-30

    An experiment to release radioactive particles representative of small-scale venting from an underground nuclear test was conducted to gather data in support of treaty verification and monitoring activities. For this experiment, a CO2-driven “air cannon” was used to release La-140 at ambient temperatures. Lanthanum-140 was chosen to represent the fission fragments because of its short half-life and prominent gamma-ray emissions; the choice was also influenced by the successful production and use of La-140 with low levels of radioactive contaminants in a Defence Research and Development Canada Field Trial. The source was created through activation of high-purity natural lanthanum oxide at the reactor of Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Multiple varieties of witness plates and air samplers were laid in an irregular grid covering the area over which the plume was modeled to deposit. Aerial survey, a NaI(Tl) mobile spectrometer, and handheld and backpack instruments ranging from polyvinyl toluene to high-purity germanium were used to survey the plume. Additionally, three varieties of soil sampling were investigated. The relative sensitivity and utility of sampling and survey methods are discussed in the context of On-Site Inspection. The measurements and samples show a high degree of correlation and form a valuable set of test data.

  12. Tritium release during nuclear power operation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D J; Chen, X Q; Li, B

    2012-06-01

    Overviews were evaluated of tritium releases and related doses to the public from airborne and liquid effluents from nuclear power plants on the mainland of China before 2009. The differences between tritium releases from various nuclear power plants were also evaluated. The tritium releases are mainly from liquid pathways for pressurised water reactors, but tritium releases between airborne and liquid effluents are comparable for heavy water reactors. The airborne release from a heavy water reactor is obviously higher than that from a pressurised water reactor.

  13. Acetylcholine-releasing effect of primycin, a highly active antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám-Vizi, V; Horváth, I; Vizi, E S

    1980-01-01

    The effect of primycin, an antibiotic known to inhibit potassium conductance, was studied on acetylcholine (ACh) release from the nerve terminals of the Auerbach plexus and cortical slice of the rat. Primycin enhanced the resting release of ACh; however, it failed to affect the amount of ACh released by a single shock. It has no effect on Na+K+-activated ATPase. Its effect on Ach release was prevented by tetrodotoxin and by Ca removal. It is concluded that its effect on potassium conductance might account for its ACh-releasing effect: it produces depolarization and spontaneous firing.

  14. [Preparation and drug releasing property of curcumin nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhan-jun; Han, Gang; Yu, Jiu-gao; Dai, Hong-guang

    2009-02-01

    To prepare curcumin nanoparticles and evaluate the in vitro release of curcumin. The chitosan-graft-vinyl acetate copolymers were synthesized by free radical polymerization. Curcumin nanoparticles were synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation. The encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles and the in vitro release of curcumin were studied. The nanoparticles were discrete and uniform spheres, covered with positive charges. The encapsulation efficiency of nanoparticles was up to 91.6%. The in vitro release profile showed the slower release rate of curcumin. The methods is simple. The nanoparticles possess good physical performance and sustained release character in vitro.

  15. A retrospective mathematical analysis of controlled release design and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Sam N; Kay, Jennifer E; Schopfer, Francisco J; Freeman, Bruce A; Little, Steven R

    2012-11-01

    The development and performance evaluation of new biodegradable polymer controlled release formulations relies on successful interpretation and evaluation of in vitro release data. However, depending upon the extent of empirical characterization, release data may be open to more than one qualitative interpretation. In this work, a predictive model for release from degradable polymer matrices was applied to a number of published release data in order to extend the characterization of release behavior. Where possible, the model was also used to interpolate and extrapolate upon collected released data to clarify the overall duration of release and also kinetics of release between widely spaced data points. In each case examined, mathematical predictions of release coincide well with experimental results, offering a more definitive description of each formulation's performance than was previously available. This information may prove particularly helpful in the design of future studies, such as when calculating proper dosing levels or determining experimental end points in order to more comprehensively evaluate a controlled release system's performance.

  16. Fast Drug Release Using Rotational Motion of Magnetic Gel Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ichi Takimoto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated drug release has been achieved by means of the fast rotation of magnetic gel beads. The magnetic gel bead consists of sodium alginate crosslinked by calcium chlorides, which contains barium ferrite of ferrimagnetic particles, and ketoprofen as a drug. The bead underwent rotational motion in response to rotational magnetic fields. In the case of bead without rotation, the amount of drug release into a phosphate buffer solution obeyed non-Fickian diffusion. The spontaneous drug release reached a saturation value of 0.90 mg at 25 minutes, which corresponds to 92% of the perfect release. The drug release was accelerated with increasing the rotation speed. The shortest time achieving the perfect release was approximately 3 minutes, which corresponds to 1/8 of the case without rotation. Simultaneous with the fast release, the bead collapsed probably due to the strong water flow surrounding the bead. The beads with high elasticity were hard to collapse and the fast release was not observed. Hence, the fast release of ketoprofen is triggered by the collapse of beads. Photographs of the collapse of beads, time profiles of the drug release, and a pulsatile release modulated by magnetic fields were presented.

  17. Investigation on formaldehyde release from preservatives in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, C; Hou, J; Xie, W; Cheng, H

    2015-10-01

    To understand formaldehyde residue in cosmetics, an investigation on formaldehyde release from eight preservatives (methenamine - MA, paraformaldehyde - PF, poly(p-toluenesulfonamide-co-formaldehyde) -PTSAF, quaternium-15 - QU, imidazolidinyl urea - IU, diazolidinyl urea - DU, dimethyloldimethyl hydantoin - DMDM and bronopol - BP) under various conditions was performed. The concentration of released formaldehyde was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The amounts of formaldehyde release were in the order of PF > DU > DMDM ≈ QU ≈ IU > MA > BP > PTSAF. The releasing amounts of formaldehyde were the highest in the presence of aqueous matrices for the releasers except QU and IU, and the releasing effect was also relative to pH. More formaldehyde was released with longer storage time and higher temperature. Furthermore, all preservatives in cosmetic matrices released fewer amounts of formaldehyde than in pure aqueous or organic matrices, and the formaldehyde-releasing amounts were also cosmetic specific. Formaldehyde release was dependent on the matrix, pH, time and mainly temperature, and the releasing effect was also cosmetic specific. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  18. Sustain-release of various drugs from leucaena leucocephala polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, S; Sekar, M; Dhachinamoorthi, D; Muthukumaran, M; Sriram, N; Joysaruby, J

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the sustained release behavior of both water-soluble (acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline and salicylic acid) and water-insoluble (indomethacin) drugs from Leucaena leucocephala seed Gum isolated from Leucaena leucocephala kernel powder. It further investigates the effect of incorporation of diluents like microcrystalline cellulose and lactose on release of caffeine and partial cross-linking of the gum (polysaccharide) on release of acetaminophen. Applying exponential equation, the mechanism of release of soluble drugs was found to be anomalous. The insoluble drug showed near case II or zero-order release mechanism. The rate of release was in the decreasing order of caffeine, acetaminophen, theophylline, salicylic acid and indomethacin. An increase in release kinetics of drug was observed on blending with diluents. However, the rate of release varied with type and amount of blend in the matrix. The mechanism of release due to effect of diluents was found to be anomalous. The rate of release of drug decreased on partial cross-linking and the mechanism of release was found to be super case II.

  19. Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2012-02-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  20. 26 CFR 301.6343-1 - Requirement to release levy and notice of release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... income (such as dues for a trade union or professional organization, or child care payments which allow... release of a levy under this subparagraph, the taxpayer must act in good faith. Examples of failure to act... tangible personal property used in carrying on the trade or business of the taxpayer which when levied...

  1. Retrograde release of endocannabinoids inhibits presynaptic GABA release to second-order baroreceptive neurons in NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Yin; Bonham, Ann C; Dean, Caron; Hopp, Francis A; Hillard, Cecilia J; Seagard, Jeanne L

    2010-12-01

    In prior studies, we found that activation of cannabinoid-1 receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) prolonged baroreflex-induced sympathoinhibition in rats. In many regions of the central nervous system, activation of cannabinoid-1 receptors presynaptically inhibits γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release, disinhibiting postsynaptic neurons. To determine if cannabinoid-1 receptor-mediated presynaptic inhibition of GABA release occurs in the NTS, we recorded miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in anatomically identified second-order baroreceptive NTS neurons in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and tetrodotoxin. The cannabinoid-1 receptor agonists, WIN 55212-2 (0.3-30 μM) and methanandamide (3 μM) decreased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that was blocked by the cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist, N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM 251, 5 μM). Importantly, depolarization of second-order baroreceptive neurons decreased the frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents; an effect which was blocked by the cannabinoid-1 receptor antagonist. The data indicate that depolarization of second-order baroreceptive NTS neurons induces endocannabinoid release from the neurons, leading to activation of presynaptic cannabinoid-1 receptors, inhibition of GABA release and subsequent enhanced baroreflex signaling in the NTS. The data suggest that endocannabinoid signaling in the NTS regulates short-term synaptic plasticity and provide a mechanism for endocannabinoid modulation of central baroreflex control.

  2. Optimal Release Control of Companion Satellite System Using Electromagnetic Forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengwen Xu,Peng Shi; Yushan Zhao∗

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic forces generated by the inter⁃action of component satellites can be used to release companion satellites. Optimal release trajectories for companion satellite system using inter⁃electromagnetic forces were investigated. Firstly, nonlinear relative motion dynamic equations of a two⁃craft electromagnetic companion satellite system were derived in spatial polar coordinates. Then principles of electromagnetic satellite formation flying were introduced. Secondly, the characteristics of the electromagnetic companion satellites release were analyzed and optimal release trajectories of companion satellites using electromagnetic forces were obtained using Gauss pseudospectral method. Three performance criteria were chosen as minimum time, minimum acceleration of the separation distance and minimum control acceleration. Finally, three release examples including expansion along separation distance, rotation in orbital plane and stable formation reconfiguration were given to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Results indicated that the release trajectories can converge to optimal solutions effectively and the concept of release companion satellites using electromagnetic forces is practicable.

  3. Factors controlling alkalisalt deposition in recovery boiler- release mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeough, P.; Kylloenen, H.; Kurkela, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Process Technology Group

    1996-12-01

    As part of a cooperative effort to develop a model to describe the behaviour of inorganic compounds in kraft recovery boilers, an experimental investigation of the release of sulphur during black liquor pyrolysis has been undertaken. Previous to these studies, the mechanisms of sulphur release and the reasons for the observed effects of process conditions on sulphur release were very poorly understood. On the basis of the experimental results, the main reactions leading to sulphur release have been elucidated with a fair degree of certainty. Logical explanations for the variations of sulphur release with temperature and with liquor solids content have been proposed. The influence of pressure has been investigated in order to gain insights into the effects of mass transfer on the sulphur-release rate. In the near future, the research will be aimed at generating the kinetic data necessary for modelling the release of sulphur in the recovery furnace. (author)

  4. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina

    2017-06-01

    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20-30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  5. Patient release criteria for low dose rate brachytherapy implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Dale E; Sheetz, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    A lack of consensus regarding a model governing the release of patients following sealed source brachytherapy has led to a set of patient release policies that vary from institution to institution. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued regulatory guidance on patient release in NUREG 1556, Volume 9, Rev. 2, Appendix U, which allows calculation of release limits following implant brachytherapy. While the formalism presented in NUREG is meaningful for the calculation of release limits in the context of relatively high energy gamma emitters, it does not estimate accurately the effective dose equivalent for the common low dose rate brachytherapy sources Cs, I, and Pd. NUREG 1556 states that patient release may be based on patient-specific calculations as long as the calculation is documented. This work is intended to provide a format for patient-specific calculations to be used for the consideration of patients' release following the implantation of certain low dose rate brachytherapy isotopes.

  6. Release Characteristics of Different N Forms in an Uncoated Slow/Controlled Release Compound Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan; WANG Zheng-yin

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the release characteristics of different N forms in an uncoated slow/controlled-release compound fertilizer (UCRF) and the N uptake and N-use efficiency by rice plants. Water dissolution, soil leaching, and pot experiments were employed. The dynamics of N release from the UCRF could be quantitatively described by three equations: the first-order kinetics equation [Nt = N0 (1-e-kt)], Elovich equation (Nt = a + blnt), and parabola equation (Nt = a + bt0.5), with the best fitting by the first-order kinetics equation for different N (r= 0.9569**-0.9999**). The release potentials (N0 values estimated by the first-order kinetics equation) of different N in the UCRF decreased in the order of total N > DON > urea-N > NH4+-N > NO3--N in water, and total N > NH4+-N > DON > urea-N > NO3--N in soil, respectively,being in accordance with cumulative amounts of N release. The constants of N release rate (k values and b values) for different N forms were in decreasing order of total N > DON > NH4+-N > NO3--N in water, whereas the k values were urea-N >DON > NH4+-N > total N > NO3--N, and the b values were total N > NH4+-N > DON > NO3--N > urea-N in soil. Compared with a common compound fertilizer, the N-use efficiency, N-agronomy efficiency, and N-physiological efficiency of the UCRF were increased by 11.4%, 8.32 kg kg-1, and 5.17 kg kg-1, respectively. The ratios of different N to total N in the UCRF showed significant correlation with N uptake by rice plants. The findings showed that the first-order kinetics equation [Nt=N0(1-e-kt)] could be used to describe the release characteristics of different N forms in the fertilizer. The UCRF containing different N forms was more effective in facilitating N uptake by rice compared with the common compound fertilizer containing single urea-N form.

  7. Measure your septa release ratios: pheromone release ratio variability affected by rubber septa and solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenen, L P S; Siegel, Joel P

    2015-03-01

    The type of solvent and the volume used to load pheromone components onto rubber septa had significant effects on pheromone release ratios, the variability of those release ratios, and the recoverability of the volatile components during subsequent extraction with hexane. Volatile release ratios of synthetic Oriental fruit moth (OFM) pheromone and additional volatile compounds were determined using a gas chromatograph column as a volatile trap for rapid (≤1 hr) analysis from individual rubber septa. Volatile compound solutions were prepared in hexane, pentane, CH2Cl2, and methyl tert-butyl ether, and a 10, 33, or 100 μl aliquot of each solution was applied to rubber septa. Septa loaded with 100 μl of CH2Cl2 emitted significantly (P < 0.05) higher alcohol: acetate (OH:Ac) ratios than septa loaded with the other solvents, which were all similar. Release ratios of the alcohol and acetate components of the OFM pheromone components were assessed over a 3 week period using septa loaded with each solvent. Regardless of loading solvent, the OFM OH:Ac ratios declined logarithmically over 3 weeks; however, the decay slope from septa loaded with CH2Cl2 solutions was different from those of the other three solvents, which were nearly all the same. A high variability in OH:Ac release ratios was measured overall, regardless of the solvent used or the volume it was applied in. Four compounds of near-equal mass: 1-dodecanol, 1-dodecanal, methyl decanoate, and tridecane emitted different release ratios dependent on the solvent, hexane or CH2Cl2, with which a septum was loaded. The more polar and the greater the mass of the test compound, the slower it was emitted from a septum regardless of solvent. These combined results plus comparisons to earlier reports, suggest that researchers should empirically assess the release ratios from septa to be used in bioassays rather than just reporting the type of septum, ratios of compounds applied and solvent used to prepare them.

  8. Sustained-release naltrexone for opioid dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, P; Kornør, H; Kunøe, N; Bjørndal, A

    2008-04-16

    Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist which effectively blocks heroin effects. Since opioid dependence treatment with naltrexone tablets suffers from high dropout rates, several depot injections and implants are under investigation. Sustained-release formulations are claimed to be effective, but a systematic review of the literature is lacking. To evaluate the effectiveness of sustained-release naltrexone for opioid dependence and its adverse effects in different study populations. The following databases were searched from their inception to November 2007: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, trial database at http://clinicaltrials.gov, available NIDA monographs, CPDD and AAAP conference proceedings. The reference lists of identified studies, published reviews and relevant web sides were searched manually. Study authors and drug companies were contacted to obtain any unpublished material or missing data. To evaluate effectiveness only RCTs were included. To evaluate safety, any clinical trial reporting adverse effects was assessed. Treatment condition was extended to include alcohol dependent subjects and healthy volunteers. Reviewers independently evaluated the reports, rated methodological quality and extracted data. Analyses were performed separately for opioid dependent, alcohol dependent and healthy participants. Foe effectiveness, one report met inclusion criteria. Two dosages of naltrexone depot injections (192 and 384 mg) were compared to placebo. High-dose significantly increased days in treatment compared to placebo (WMD 21.00, 95% CI 10.68 to 31.32, p<0.0001). High-dose compared to low-dose significantly increased days in treatment (WMD 12.00, 95% CI 1.69 to 22.31, p=0.02). Number of patients retained in treatment did not show significant differences between groups. For adverse effects, seventeen reports met inclusion criteria analyses, six were RCTs. Side effects were significantly

  9. Interaction between NO and oxytocin: Influence on LHRH release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rettori

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide synthase (NOS-containing neurons have been localized in various parts of the CNS. These neurons occur in the hypothalamus, mostly in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and their axons project to the neural lobe of the pituitary gland. We have found that nitric oxide (NO controls luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH release from the hypothalamus acting as a signal transducer in norepinephrine (NE-induced LHRH release. LHRH not only releases LH from the pituitary but also induces sexual behavior. On the other hand, it is known that oxytocin also stimulates mating behavior and there is some evidence that oxytocin can increase NE release. Therefore, it occurred to us that oxytocin may also stimulate LHRH release via NE and NO. To test this hypothesis, we incubated medial basal hypothalamic (MBH explants from adult male rats in vitro. Following a preincubation period of 30 min, MBH fragments were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer in the presence of various concentrations of oxytocin. Oxytocin released LHRH at concentrations ranging from 0.1 nM to 1 µM with a maximal stimulatory effect (Pa1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, indicating that NE mediated this effect. Oxytocin at the same concentrations also increased the activity of NOS (P<0.01 as measured by the conversion of [14C]arginine to citrulline, which is produced in equimolar amounts with NO by the action of NOS. The release of LHRH induced by oxytocin was also accompanied by a significant (P<0.02 increase in the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a mediator of LHRH release that is released by NO. On the other hand, incubation of neural lobes with various concentrations of sodium nitroprusside (NP (300 or 600 µM, a releaser of NO, revealed that NO acts to suppress (P<0.01 the release of oxytocin. Therefore, our results indicate that oxytocin releases LHRH by stimulating NOS via NE, resulting in an increased release of NO, which increases PGE2 release that

  10. Prediction of modified release pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics from in vitro, immediate release, and intravenous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacova, Viera; Woltosz, Walter S; Bolger, Michael B

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the value of mechanistic simulations in gaining insight into the behaviors of modified release (MR) formulations in vivo and to use the properly calibrated models for prediction of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). GastroPlus (Simulations Plus, Inc.) was used to fit mechanistic models for adinazolam and metoprolol that describe the absorption, PK, and PD after intravenous (i.v.) and immediate release (IR) oral (p.o.) administration. The fitted model for adinazolam was then used to predict the PD profile for a MR formulation and to design a new formulation with desired onset and duration of action. The fitted metoprolol model was used to gain insight and to explain the in vivo behaviors of MR formulations. For each drug, a single absorption/PK model was fitted that provided simulated plasma concentration-time profiles closely matching observed in vivo profiles across several different i.v. and p.o doses. Sedation score profiles of adinazolam were fitted with an indirect PD model. For metoprolol, the fitted absorption/PK model for IR p.o. doses was used to select in vitro dissolution conditions that best matched the in vivo release of MR doses. This model also explained differences in exposure after administration of MR formulations with different release rates. Mechanistic absorption/PK models allow for detailed descriptions of all processes affecting the two drugs' bioavailability, including release/dissolution, absorption, and intestinal and hepatic first pass extraction. The insights gained can be used to design formulations that more effectively overcome identified problems.

  11. Marine Toxins Potently Affecting Neurotransmitter Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Frédéric A.; Mattei, César; Molgó, Jordi

    Synapses are specialised structures where interneuronal communication takes place. Not only brain function is absolutely dependent on synaptic activity, but also most of our organs are intimately controlled by synaptic activity. Synapses re therefore an ideal target to act upon and poisonous species have evolved fascinating neurotoxins capable of shutting down neuronal communication by blocking or activating essential components of the synapse. By hijacking key proteins of the communication machinery, neurotoxins are therefore extremely valuable tools that have, in turn, greatly helped our understanding of synaptic biology. Moreover, analysis and understanding of the molecular strategy used by certain neurotoxins has allowed the design of entirely new classes of drugs acting on specific targets with high selectivity and efficacy. This chapter will discuss the different classes of marine neurotoxins, their effects on neurotransmitter release and how they act to incapacitate key steps in the process leading to synaptic vesicle fusion.

  12. Colloid Release From Differently Managed Loess Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    of the total clay not associated with organic matter. No significant difference in release rate was found for air-dry aggregates. The low-carbon soils initially had a higher content of WSA but were more susceptible to disaggregation than the high-carbon soils. Furthermore, the application of NPK fertilizer had......The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) in a soil can have a major impact on soil functions, such as permeability to water and air, and on soil strength, which can impair soil fertility and workability. In addition, the content of WDC in the soil may increase the risk of nutrient loss...... and of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. In the present study, soils from the Bad Lauchsta¨dt longterm static fertilizer experiment with different management histories were investigated to relate basic soil properties to the content of WDC, the content of water-stable aggregates (WSA...

  13. Acoustic emission and released seismic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gregori

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Intense crises of crustal stress appear to cross large regions, and to precede by several months the eventual occurrence of some strong earthquake within them. The phenomenon is not linear, and the stress control reflects some wide scale-size rather than local effects. The stress propagation through the crust can be effectively monitored by means of acoustic emission (AE techniques (ultrasounds. The correlation is here investigated between crustal stress crises and the total release of seismic energy within some space domain around the AE recording site. Some clear inferences can be envisaged, although a significant diagnosis of the state of the crust within a given region ought to request arrays of simultaneously operated AE recorders. Some case histories are described dealing with the Italian peninsula and with the Cephallonia Island.

  14. LAPACK users` guide: Release 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.; Bai, Z.; Bischof, C.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Du Croz, J.; Greenbaum, A.; Hammarling, S.; McKenney, A.; Ostrouchov, S.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-31

    LAPACK is a transportable library of Fortran 77 subroutines for solving the most common problems in numerical linear algebra: systems of linear equations, linear least squares problems, eigenvalue problems and singular value problems. LAPACK is designed to supersede LINPACK and EISPACK, principally by restructuring the software to achieve much greater efficiency on vector processors, high-performance ``superscalar`` workstations, and shared-memory multi-processors. LAPACK also adds extra functionality, uses some new or improved algorithms, and integrates the two sets of algorithms into a unified package. The LAPACK Users` Guide gives an informal introduction to the design of the algorithms and software, summarizes the contents of the package, describes conventions used in the software and documentation, and includes complete specifications for calling the routines. This edition of the Users` guide describes Release 1.0 of LAPACK.

  15. Open Versus Arthroscopic Tennis Elbow Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Jeff; Clark, Tod; McRae, Sheila; Dubberley, James; MacDonald, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to determine if quality of life and function are different following arthroscopic versus open tennis elbow release surgery. Based on retrospective studies, both approaches have been found to be beneficial, but no prospective randomized comparison has been conducted to date. Methods: Following a minimum six-months of conservative treatment, seventy-one patients (>16 yrs old) were randomized intraoperatively to undergo either arthroscopic or open lateral release. Outcome measures were the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH), a 5-question VAS Pain Scale, and grip strength. Study assessments took place pre-, and 6-week, 3-, 6-, and 12-months post-surgery. Comparisons between groups and within groups over time were conducted using repeated measures ANOVA. A minimal clinically significant difference for the DASH had been previously identified as 15 points, and was used to compare groups as well at 12-months post-operative (Beaton et al. 2001). Results: Fifteen women and 19 men underwent the open procedure with a mean age of 47.1 years (6.7) and 13 women and 21 men were in the arthroscopic group with a mean age of 45.0 (6.9). No pre-surgery differences were found between groups based on age, sex, DASH or VAS scores. Both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in subjective measures and grip strength by 12-months post-surgery, and no significant differences were found between groups at any time point. The DASH, our primary outcome, decreased from a mean (SD) of 47.5 (14.5) pre-surgery to 21.9 (21.8) at 12-months post-surgery in the Open group and from 52.7 (16.0) to 22.6 (21.1) in the Arthroscopic group. VAS-pain scores (%) decreased in the Open group from 62.5 (17.2) pre-operatively to 30.0 (26.5) at 12-months. In the arthroscopic group, scores decreased from 63.7 (15.9) to 26.2 (24.6). Grip strength (kg) increased on the affected side from 23.6 (14.9) to 29.3 (16.3) and 21.4 (15.4) to

  16. On the energy release in solar flares

    CERN Document Server

    Pustil'nik, L A; Beskrovnaya, N G; 10.1063/1.3701351

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution observations show the fine structure of the global equilibrium magnetic field configuration in solar atmosphere to be essentially different from that assumed in the traditional 'potential + force-free' field scenarios. The interacting large-scale structures of fine field elements are separated by numerous non-force-free elements (tangential discontinuities) which are neglected in the traditional field picture. An incorporation of these elements into the model implies a dynamical rather than statical character of equilibrium of the field configuration. A transition of the system into flaring can be triggered by the ballooning mode of flute instability of prominences or/and coronal condensations. Tearing-mode and MHD instabilities as well as the effects of overheating of the turbulent current sheet prevent the field from stationary reconnection as it is adopted in the traditional scenario. We speculate around the assumption that the energy release in active regions is governed by the same scenar...

  17. Nitric oxide-releasing porous silicon nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafshgari, Morteza Hasanzadeh; Cavallaro, Alex; Delalat, Bahman; Harding, Frances J.; McInnes, Steven JP; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Vasilev, Krasimir; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the ability of porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs) to entrap and deliver nitric oxide (NO) as an effective antibacterial agent is tested against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. NO was entrapped inside PSi NPs functionalized by means of the thermal hydrocarbonization (THC) process. Subsequent reduction of nitrite in the presence of d-glucose led to the production of large NO payloads without reducing the biocompatibility of the PSi NPs with mammalian cells. The resulting PSi NPs demonstrated sustained release of NO and showed remarkable antibacterial efficiency and anti-biofilm-forming properties. These results will set the stage to develop antimicrobial nanoparticle formulations for applications in chronic wound treatment.

  18. Hydrogen release from reactor-irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepikov, A.Kh. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Tazhibaeva, I.L. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Shestakov, V.P. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Romanenko, O.G. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Chikhray, Y.V. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Kenzhin, E.A. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Cherepnin, Yu.S. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Tikhomirov, L.N. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Experiments on gas release of reactor-irradiated beryllium samples were carried out and compared to control samples. The simultaneous influence of reactor irradiation and exposure to hydrogen results in more hydrogen retention in beryllium, than if beryllium is initially irradiated and then exposed to hydrogen. Appearance of low temperature peaks at 460 K and 540 K with 0.71 eV/atom and 0.84 eV/atom desorption activation energies, respectively, assessed in a frame of a second order desorption model, is mainly responsible for the increase in hydrogen content. These peaks can be attributed to chemical hydrogen bonds with surface oxide. The simultaneous influence of hydrogen and nuclear reactor irradiation at a temperature of 1150 K was assumed to increase significantly microcrack formation near the surface of beryllium samples, resulting in an increase in low temperature peak intensities. (orig.).

  19. Hidden penis release: adjunctive suprapubic lipectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, C E; Vorstman, B; Teasley, D; Winslow, B

    1987-08-01

    We believe the hidden penis may be caused and concealed by a prominent suprapubic fat pad in addition to the restrictive fibrous bands of the dartos fascia fixing the shaft of the penis proximally while loose skin folds prolapse distally over the phallus. A penis of inadequate length or appearance may affect body image. Patients with this problem often require psychological support. Hidden penis may be distinguished from micropenis by palpating adequate corpora and showing a stretched penile length within 2 SD of normal. Excision of suprapubic fat with sectioning of the tethering dartos bands will release and increase the length of the penis. Suprapubic fat pad resection may also be helpful to elongate a short penis in cases of adult microphallus, or after partial penectomy because of trauma or cancer. Circumcision is contraindicated.

  20. ADSORPTION AND RELEASING PROPERTIES OF BEAD CELLULOSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Morales; E. Bordallo; V. Leon; J. Rieumont

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption of some dyes on samples of bead cellulose obtained in the Unit of Research-Production "Cuba 9"was studied. Methylene blue, alizarin red and congo red fitted the adsorption isotherm of Langmuir. Adsorption kinetics at pH = 6 was linear with the square root of time indicating the diffusion is the controlling step. At pH = 12 a non-Fickian trend was observed and adsorption was higher for the first two dyes. Experiments carried out to release the methylene blue occluded in the cellulose beads gave a kinetic behavior of zero order. The study of cytochrome C adsorption was included to test a proteinic material. Crosslinking of bead cellulose was performed with epichlorohydrin decreasing its adsorption capacity in acidic or alkaline solution.

  1. Punishment, Pharmacological Treatment, and Early Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological treatment may have an impact on aggressive and impulsive behavior. Assuming that these results are correct, would it be morally acceptable to instigate violent criminals to accept pharmacological rehabilitation by offering this treatment in return...... for early release from prison? This paper examines three different reasons for being skeptical with regard to this sort of practice. The first reason concerns the acceptability of the treatment itself. The second reason concerns the ethical legitimacy of making offers under coercive conditions. The third...... relates to the acceptability of the fact that those criminals who accepted the treatment would be exempted from the punishment they rightly deserved. It is argued that none of these reasons succeeds in rejecting this sort of offer....

  2. Organic chemistry. Strain-release amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianatassio, Ryan; Lopchuk, Justin M; Wang, Jie; Pan, Chung-Mao; Malins, Lara R; Prieto, Liher; Brandt, Thomas A; Collins, Michael R; Gallego, Gary M; Sach, Neal W; Spangler, Jillian E; Zhu, Huichin; Zhu, Jinjiang; Baran, Phil S

    2016-01-15

    To optimize drug candidates, modern medicinal chemists are increasingly turning to an unconventional structural motif: small, strained ring systems. However, the difficulty of introducing substituents such as bicyclo[1.1.1]pentanes, azetidines, or cyclobutanes often outweighs the challenge of synthesizing the parent scaffold itself. Thus, there is an urgent need for general methods to rapidly and directly append such groups onto core scaffolds. Here we report a general strategy to harness the embedded potential energy of effectively spring-loaded C-C and C-N bonds with the most oft-encountered nucleophiles in pharmaceutical chemistry, amines. Strain-release amination can diversify a range of substrates with a multitude of desirable bioisosteres at both the early and late stages of a synthesis. The technique has also been applied to peptide labeling and bioconjugation.

  3. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SEDIMENT RELEASE FROM RESERVOIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    For the computation of the sediment quantity released from reservoirs, a vertical two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is combined with a sediment transport model. The hydrodynamic model is based on the equations of mass and momentum conservation along with a k - ε model for closure of the Reynolds stresses. The sediment transport model is based on the convection-diffusion equation of sediment concentration and the sediment continuity equation. Both the hydrodynamic and sediment transport models are developed in a boundary-fitted curvilinear co-ordinate system. Comparison of the predicted mean velocity field with laboratory results indicates that the present model captures most experimental trends with reasonable accuracy. Also good agreement is found in comparison of the sediment transport results for the numerical model and the experimental model.

  4. AMPA receptor inhibition by synaptically released zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalappa, Bopanna I; Anderson, Charles T; Goldberg, Jacob M; Lippard, Stephen J; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-12-22

    The vast amount of fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is mediated by AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs). As a result, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is implicated in nearly all aspects of brain development, function, and plasticity. Despite the central role of AMPARs in neurobiology, the fine-tuning of synaptic AMPA responses by endogenous modulators remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence that endogenous zinc, released by single presynaptic action potentials, inhibits synaptic AMPA currents in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and hippocampus. Exposure to loud sound reduces presynaptic zinc levels in the DCN and abolishes zinc inhibition, implicating zinc in experience-dependent AMPAR synaptic plasticity. Our results establish zinc as an activity-dependent, endogenous modulator of AMPARs that tunes fast excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity in glutamatergic synapses.

  5. The first WASP public data release

    CERN Document Server

    Butters, O W; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Clarkson, W I; Enoch, B; Haswell, C A; Hellier, C; Horne, K; Joshi, Y; Kane, S R; Lister, T A; Maxted, P F L; Parley, N; Pollacco, D; Smalley, B; Street, R A; Todd, I; Wheatley, P J; Wilson, D M; 10.1051/0004-6361/201015655

    2010-01-01

    The WASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) project is an exoplanet transit survey that has been automatically taking wide field images since 2004. Two instruments, one in La Palma and the other in South Africa, continually monitor the night sky, building up light curves of millions of unique objects. These light curves are used to search for the characteristics of exoplanetary transits. This first public data release (DR1) of the WASP archive makes available all the light curve data and images from 2004 up to 2008 in both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. A web interface (www.wasp.le.ac.uk/public/) to the data allows easy access over the Internet. The data set contains 3 631 972 raw images and 17 970 937 light curves. In total the light curves have 119 930 299 362 data points available between them.

  6. Design of the cryogenic hydrogen release laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Ethan S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Zimmerman, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ciotti, Michael [H< sub> 2< /sub> Fueling Engineering Linde, LLC, Murray Hill, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A cooperative research and development agreement was made between Linde, LLC and Sandia to develop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. A three-stage heat exchanger will be used to cool gaseous hydrogen using liquid nitrogen, gaseous helium, and liquid helium. A cryogenic line from the heat exchanger into the lab will allow high-fidelity diagnostics already in place in the lab to be applied to cold hydrogen jets. Data from these experiments will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  7. Optical mapping of release properties in synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ariel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Synapses are important functional units that determine how information flows through the brain. Understanding their biophysical properties and the molecules that underpin them is an important goal of cellular neuroscience. Thus, it is of interest to develop protocols that allow easy measurement of synaptic parameters in model systems that permit molecular manipulations. Here, we used a sensitive and high-time resolution optical approach that allowed us to characterize two functional parameters critical to presynaptic efficacy: vesicle fusion probability (Pv and readily releasable pool size (RRP. We implemented two different approaches to determine the RRP size that were in broad agreement: depletion of the RRP by high frequency stimulation and saturation of the calcium sensor during single action potential stimuli. Our methods are based on reporters that provide a robust, quantitative, purely presynaptic readout and present a new avenue to study molecules that affect synaptic vesicle exocytosis.

  8. ATLAS and CMS Data Release and Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Socher, Felix; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The data collected at the LHC has provided the basis for a vast body of scientific publications and the training of physicists. In light of these benefits it is desirable to also enable people outside the LHC collaborations to profit from the educational opportunities of the LHC data. The goal of the open data initiative is to provide these opportunities by making LHC data available to the general public. This talk will discuss the open data policies of both the ATLAS and CMS document and how these policies are implemented in practice. The open data portal will be presented and the contents made available by the collaborations reviewed emphasising possible use cases. The talk will be concluded with a summary of the plans for upcoming data releases.

  9. Arthroscopic releases for arthrofibrosis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael R; Dragoo, Jason L

    2011-11-01

    Intra-articular inflammation or fibrosis may lead to decreased soft-tissue and capsular compliance, which may result in pain or loss of motion within the knee. Etiology of intra-articular fibrosis may include isolated anterior interval scarring and posterior capsular contracture, as well as fibrosis that involves the suprapatellar pouch or arthrofibrosis that involves the entire synovial space. Initial nonsurgical management, including compression, elevation, and physical therapy, can decrease knee pain and inflammation and maintain range of motion. Surgical management is indicated in the patient who fails conservative treatment. Surgical options include arthroscopic releases of the anterior interval, posterior capsule, and peripatellar and suprapatellar regions. Recent advances in arthroscopic technique have led to improved outcomes in patients with intra-articular fibrosis of the knee.

  10. Endoscopic Release of Master Knot of Henry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    A post-traumatic partial tear of the flexor hallucis longus tendon at the master knot of Henry and the resultant fibrosis of the knot can result in pain at the medial foot arch or posteromedial ankle pain with trigger hallux. Open debridement of the master knot of Henry is indicated if the symptoms do not improve with nonoperative treatment. The open procedure requires extensive soft-tissue dissection because the master knot of Henry is a deep structure. Endoscopic release of the master knot of Henry is an alternative to the open procedure and has the advantage of less surgical trauma and potential for less chance of recurrence of fibrosis of the master knot of Henry.

  11. Capsizing icebergs release earthquake-sized energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-03-01

    A large iceberg can carry a tremendous amount of gravitational potential energy. While all icebergs float with the bulk of their mass submerged beneath the water's surface, some drift around in precarious orientations—they are temporarily stable, but an outside push would send them tumbling over. Large icebergs, like those that split from the Jakobshavn Isbræ glacier in Greenland, can release the energy equivalent to a magnitude 6 or 7 earthquake when they capsize. A 1995 event demonstrated the potential for destruction, as a tsunami spawned from a capsizing iceberg devastated a coastal Greenland community. Measuring how energy is dispersed during capsizing is crucial to understanding the risk associated with these events but is also key to determining their larger role in surface ocean dynamics

  12. Tunnel design considering stress release effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Van-hung DAO

    2009-01-01

    In tunnel design,the determination of installation time and the stiffness of supporting structures is very important to the tunnel stability.This study used the convergence-confinement method to determine the stress and displacement of the tunnel while considering the counter-pressure curve of the ground base,the stress release effect,and the interaction between the tunnel lining and the rock surrounding the tunnel chamber.The results allowed for the determination of the installation time,distribution and strength of supporting structures.This method was applied to the intake tunnel in the Ban Ve Hydroelectric Power Plant,in Nghe An Province,Vietnam.The results show that when a suitable displacement u0 ranging from 0.0865 m to 0.0919 m occurrs,we can install supporting structures that satisfy the stability and economical requirements.

  13. Herwig++ 2.7 release note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellm, J.; Gieseke, S. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Grellscheid, D. [IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    2013-10-15

    A new release of the Monte Carlo event generator Herwig++ (version 2.7) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: an interface to the Universal FeynRules Output (UFO) format allowing the simulation of a wide range of new-physics models; developments of the Matchbox framework for next-to-leading order (NLO) simulations; better treatment of QCD radiation in heavy particle decays in new-physics models; a new tune of underlying event and colour connection parameters that allows a good simultaneous description of both Tevatron and LHC underlying event data and the effective cross-section parameter for double-parton scattering parameter {sigma}{sub eff}.

  14. Toxic chemical considerations for tank farm releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Keuren, J.C.; Davis, J.S., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This topical report contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences of releases of toxic chemical and gases for the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis report (FSAR).It does not provide results for specific accident scenarios but does provide information for use in those calculations including chemicals to be considered, chemical concentrations, chemical limits and a method of summing the fractional contributions of each chemical. Tank farm composites evaluated were liquids and solids for double shell tanks, single shell tanks, all solids,all liquids, headspace gases, and 241-C-106 solids. Emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs) were used as the limits.Where ERPGs were not available for the chemicals of interest, surrogate ERPGs were developed. Revision 2 includes updated sample data, an executive summary, and some editorial revisions.

  15. A Responsive Battery with Controlled Energy Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jian; Cheng, Zhihua; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-11-14

    A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled energy release. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1.3 V), and competitive areal capacity of 1.25 mAh cm(-2) . This work presents an important move towards next-generation intelligent energy storage devices with energy management function. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Arthroscopic capsular release for refractory shoulder stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcos Rassi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the results of the arthroscopic treatment of refractory adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder with two to nine years of follow-up, comparing the pre- and postoperative range of motion. This was an observational study (case series) of 18 patients who underwent arthroscopic capsular release for refractory shoulder stiffness. The mean age was of 53.6 years (range: 39 to 68), with female predominance (77.77%) and nine cases left shoulders. There were 6 primary (33.33%) and 12 secondary cases (66.67%). Arthroscopic capsular release was performed in all patients after a mean of 9.33 months of physical therapy (range: 6 to 20 months) with a minimum follow-up of two years (range: 26 to 110 months). The mean active and passive forward flexion, external rotation and internal rotation increased from 94.4°/103.3°, 11.9°/21.9°, and S1/L5 vertebral level, respectively, to 151.1°/153.8°, 57.2°/64.4°, and T12/T10 vertebral level, respectively. There was a significant difference between the pre- and postoperative range of motion (p < 0.001). According to the Constant-Murley functional score (ROM), the value increased from 14 (preoperative mean) to 30 points (postoperative mean). Postoperatively, all patients showed diminished shoulder pain (none or mild/15 or 10 points in the Constant-Murley score). Arthroscopic treatment is an effective treatment for refractory shoulder stiffness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. On-demand antimicrobial release from a temperature-sensitive polymer - comparison with ad libitum release from central venous catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Jelmer; Dijkstra, Rene J B; Abeln, Caroline; van der Mei, Henny C; van Asseldonk, Dirk; Busscher, Henk J

    2014-08-28

    Antimicrobial releasing biomaterial coatings have found application for instance in the fixation of orthopedic joint prostheses and central venous catheters. Most frequently, the release kinetics is such that antimicrobially-effective concentrations are only reached within the first days to weeks after implantation, leaving no local antimicrobial release available when a biomaterial-associated infection occurs later. Here we compare the ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a central venous catheter with their release from a new, on-demand release coating consisting of a temperature-sensitive copolymer of styrene and n-butyl (meth)acrylate. The copolymer can be loaded with an antimicrobial, which is released when the temperature is raised above its glass transition temperature. Ad libitum release of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine from a commercially-purchased catheter and associated antimicrobial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus was limited to 16days. Consecutive temperature-triggers of our on-demand coating yielded little or no antimicrobial efficacy of silver-acetate release, but antimicrobially-effective chlorhexidine concentrations were observed over a time period of 60-80days. This attests to the clear advantage of on-demand coatings above ad libitum releasing coatings, that may have released their antimicrobial content before it is actually needed. Importantly, glass transition temperature of chlorhexidine loaded copolymers was lower (48°C) than of silver loaded ones (61°C), facilitating their clinical use.

  18. Evaluation of a soil incubation method to characterize nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of slow-release fertilizers (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers, and are product-specific, based on the regulation and analysis of each SRF and CRF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize SRF and CRF materials, no standardized, validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of these materials in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify product claims and material performance. A soil incubation column leaching procedure was evaluated to determine its suitability as a standard method to estimate nitrogen (N) release patterns of SRFs and CRFs during 180 days. The influence of three soil/sand ratios, three incubation temperatures, and four soils on method behavior was assessed using five SRFs and three CRFs. In general, the highest soil/sand ratio increased the N release rate of all materials, but this effect was more marked for the SRFs. Temperature had the greatest influence on N release rates. For CRFs, the initial N release rates and the percentage N released/day increased as temperature increased. For SRFs, raising the temperature from 25 to 35 degreesC increased initial N release rate and the total cumulative N released, and almost doubled the percentage released/day. The percentage N released/day from all products generally increased as the texture of the soil changed from sandy to loamy (lowa>California>Pennsylvania>Florida). The soil incubation technique was demonstrated to be robust and reliable for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and variations in soil/sand ratio, temperature, and soil had little effect on the results.

  19. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose based cephalexin extended release tablets: influence of tablet formulation, hardness and storage on in vitro release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Muniyandy; Sri Nataraj, Kalakonda; Ganesh, Kettavarampalayam Swaminath

    2003-08-01

    The object of this study was to develop hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) based cephalexin extended release tablet, which can release the drug for six hours in predetermined rate. Twenty-one batches of cephalexin tablets were prepared by changing various physical and chemical parameters, in order to get required theoretical release profile. The influences of HPMC, microcrystalline cellulose powder (MCCP), granulation technique, wetting agent and tablet hardness on cephalexin release from HPMC based extended release tablets were studied. The formulated tablets were also characterized by physical and chemical parameters. The dissolution results showed that a higher amount of HPMC in tablet composition resulted in reduced drug release. Addition of MCCP resulted in faster drug release. Tablets prepared by dry granulation was released the drug slowly than the same prepared with a wet granulation technique. Addition of wetting agent in the tablets prepared with dry granulation technique showed slower release. An increase in tablet hardness resulted in faster drug release. Tablets prepared with a wet granulation technique and having a composition of 9.3% w/w HPMC with a hardness of 10-12 kg/cm(2) gave predicted release for 6 h. The in vitro release data was well fit in to Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas model. Physical and chemical parameters of all formulated tablets were within acceptable limits. One batch among formulated twenty-one batches was successful and showed required theoretical release. The effect of storage on in vitro release and physicochemical parameters of successful batch was studied and was found to be in acceptable limits.

  20. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  1. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cespedes, F.F.; Sanchez, M.V.; Garcia, S.P.; Perez, M.F. [University of Almeria, Almeria (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-10-15

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism.

  2. Comparison of release of mercury from three dental amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, C L; Soh, G; Lee, A S; Yeoh, T S

    1989-07-01

    Mercury release from dental amalgams has generated considerable concern in recent years and is the subject of this study. Specimens of one admixed high-copper amalgam (Contour), one lathe-cut low-copper amalgam (SDI), and a new tin- and copper-free amalgam claimed to be non-mercury-releasing (Composil) were evaluated for release of mercury when incubated in purified water at 37 degrees C. Measurement of mercury was done by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and the amount released was expressed as micrograms/cm2/24 hr. Study was conducted over a four-week period. Results show that Contour and SDI released similar insignificant amounts (mean release of less than 0.1 microgram/cm2/24 hr) compared with Composil (mean release of 41.0 micrograms/cm2/24 hr). The difference in release by Composil compared with that by Contour and SDI is highly significant (P less than 0.001). The implications of chronic release of mercury from dental amalgams are discussed. Long-term release studies are in progress.

  3. Interaction of anesthetics with neurotransmitter release machinery proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zheng; McMillan, Kyle; Pike, Carolyn M; Cahill, Anne L; Herring, Bruce E; Wang, Qiang; Fox, Aaron P

    2013-02-01

    General anesthetics produce anesthesia by depressing central nervous system activity. Activation of inhibitory GABA(A) receptors plays a central role in the action of many clinically relevant general anesthetics. Even so, there is growing evidence that anesthetics can act at a presynaptic locus to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our own data identified the neurotransmitter release machinery as a target for anesthetic action. In the present study, we sought to examine the site of anesthetic action more closely. Exocytosis was stimulated by directly elevating the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration at neurotransmitter release sites, thereby bypassing anesthetic effects on channels and receptors, allowing anesthetic effects on the neurotransmitter release machinery to be examined in isolation. Three different PC12 cell lines, which had the expression of different release machinery proteins stably suppressed by RNA interference, were used in these studies. Interestingly, there was still significant neurotransmitter release when these knockdown PC12 cells were stimulated. We have previously shown that etomidate, isoflurane, and propofol all inhibited the neurotransmitter release machinery in wild-type PC12 cells. In the present study, we show that knocking down synaptotagmin I completely prevented etomidate from inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Synaptotagmin I knockdown also diminished the inhibition produced by propofol and isoflurane, but the magnitude of the effect was not as large. Knockdown of SNAP-25 and SNAP-23 expression also changed the ability of these three anesthetics to inhibit neurotransmitter release. Our results suggest that general anesthetics inhibit the neurotransmitter release machinery by interacting with multiple SNARE and SNARE-associated proteins.

  4. Counting Vesicular Release Events Reveals Binomial Release Statistics at Single Glutamatergic Synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagon, Gerardo; Miki, Takafumi; Llano, Isabel; Neher, Erwin; Marty, Alain

    2016-04-06

    Many central glutamatergic synapses contain a single presynaptic active zone and a single postsynaptic density. However, the basic functional properties of such "simple synapses" remain unclear. One important step toward understanding simple synapse function is to analyze the number of synaptic vesicles released in such structures per action potential, but this goal has remained elusive until now. Here, we describe procedures that allow reliable vesicular release counting at simple synapses between parallel fibers and molecular layer interneurons of rat cerebellar slices. Our analysis involves local extracellular stimulation of single parallel fibers and deconvolution of resulting EPSCs using quantal signals as template. We observed a reduction of quantal amplitudes (amplitude occlusion) in pairs of consecutive EPSCs due to receptor saturation. This effect is larger (62%) than previously reported and primarily reflects receptor activation rather than desensitization. In addition to activation-driven amplitude occlusion, each EPSC reduces amplitudes of subsequent events by an estimated 3% due to cumulative desensitization. Vesicular release counts at simple synapses follow binomial statistics with a maximum that varies from 2 to 10 among experiments. This maximum presumably reflects the number of docking sites at a given synapse. These results show striking similarities, as well as significant quantitative differences, with respect to previous results at simple GABAergic synapses. It is generally accepted that the output signal of individual central synapses saturates at high release probability, but it remains unclear whether the source of saturation is presynaptic, postsynaptic, or both presynaptic and postsynaptic. To clarify this and other issues concerning the function of synapses, we have developed new recording and analysis methods at single central glutamatergic synapses. We find that individual release events engage a high proportion of postsynaptic

  5. Normal-release and controlled-release oxycodone: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mellar P; Varga, James; Dickerson, Duke; Walsh, Declan; LeGrand, Susan B; Lagman, Ruth

    2003-02-01

    Oxycodone has become one of the most popular opioids in the United States. It is superior to morphine in oral absorption and bioavailability, and similar in terms of protein binding and lipophilicity. Gender more than age influences oxycodone elimination. Unlike morphine, oxycodone is metabolized by the cytochrome isoenzyme CYP2D6, which is severely impaired by liver dysfunction. Controlled-release (CR) oxycodone has become one of the most frequently utilized sustained-release opioids in the United States. Both its analgesic benefits and its side effects are similar to those of CR morphine. CR oxycodone is similar to morphine and other opioids in its abuse potential. Deaths attributable to oxycodone are usually associated with polysubstance abuse in which oxycodone is combined with psychostimulants, other opioids, benzodiazepines or alcohol. Oxycodone's kappa receptor binding has little role in abuse or addiction. The cost of CR oxycodone is prohibitive for most American hospices.

  6. CMS Partial Releases Model, Tools, and Applications. Online and Framework-Light Releases

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Christopher D; Meschi, Emilio; Shahzad Muzaffar; Andreas Pfeiffer; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Software project CMSSW embraces more than a thousand packages organized in subsystems for analysis, event display, reconstruction, simulation, detector description, data formats, framework, utilities and tools. The release integration process is highly automated by using tools developed or adopted by CMS. Packaging in rpm format is a built-in step in the software build process. For several well-defined applications it is highly desirable to have only a subset of the CMSSW full package bundle. For example, High Level Trigger algorithms that run on the Online farm, and need to be rebuilt in a special way, require no simulation, event display, or analysis packages. Physics analysis applications in Root environment require only a few core libraries and the description of CMS specific data formats. We present a model of CMS Partial Releases, used for preparation of the customized CMS software builds, including description of the tools used, the implementation, and how we deal with technical challenges, suc...

  7. Thermal post-treatment alters nutrient release from a controlled-release fertilizer coated with a waterborne polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijun; Du, Changwen; Li, Ting; Shen, Yazhen; Zhou, Jianmin

    2015-09-01

    Controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) use a controlled-release technology to enhance the nutrient use efficiency of crops. Many factors affect the release of nutrients from the waterborne polymer-coated CRF, but the effects of thermal post-treatments remain unclear. In this study, a waterborne polyacrylate-coated CRF was post-treated at different temperatures (30 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and durations (2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h) after being developed in the Wurster fluidized bed. To characterize the polyacrylate membrane, and hence to analyze the mechanism of nutrient release, Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy were employed. The nutrient-release model of CRF post-treated at 30 °C was the inverse “L” curve, but an increased duration of the post-treatment had no effect. The nutrient-release model was “S” curve and nutrient-release period was enhanced at higher post-treatment temperatures, and increased post-treatment duration lengthened slowed nutrient release due to a more compact membrane and a smoother membrane surface as well as a promoted crosslinking action. CRF equipped with specified nutrient-release behaviors can be achieved by optimizing the thermal post-treatment parameters, which can contribute to the development and application of waterborne polymer-coated CRF and controlled-release technologies.

  8. Interfacial Fast Release Layer in Monodisperse Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) Microspheres Accelerates the Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Yeung, Kelvin W K; To, Michael K T

    2016-01-01

    Understanding microstructural evolutions of drug delivery devices during drug release process is essential for revealing the drug release mechanisms and controlling the drug release profiles. In this study, monodisperse poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres in different diameters were fabricated by microfluidics in order to find out the relationships between the microstructural evolutions and the drug release profiles. It was found that poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres underwent significant size expansion which took place from the periphery to the center, resulting in the formation of interfacial fast release layers. At the same time, inner pores were created and the diffusion rate was increased so that the early stage drug release was accelerated. Due to the different expansion rates, small poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres tendered to follow homogeneous drug release while large poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres tendered to follow heterogeneous drug release. This study suggests that the size expansion and the occurrence of interfacial fast release layer were important mechanisms for early stage drug release of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres.

  9. Release and control of hydrogen sulfide during sludge thermal drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Huanxin; Dai, Zhixin; Ji, Zhongqiang; Gao, Caixia; Liu, Chongxuan

    2015-04-15

    The release of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) during sludge drying is a major environmental problem because of its toxicity to human health. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms and factors controlling the H2S release. Results of this study show that: 1) the biomass and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in sludge were the major factors controlling the amount of H2S release, 2) the sludge drying temperature had an important effect on both the extent and the timing of H2S release from the sludge, and 3) decreasing sludge pH increased the H2S release. Based on the findings from this study, a new system that integrates sludge drying and H2S gas treatment was developed to reduce the amount of H2S released from sludge treatments.

  10. Quantification of the release of inorganic elements from biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Flemming; van Lith, Simone Cornelia; Korbee, Rob

    2007-01-01

    and fuel characterization, global equilibrium analysis, simulating the experimental combustion conditions, was performed. The objective of this work was to compare the lab-scale release data with the results from the fuel characterization techniques and from the equilibrium calculations. Furthermore......, the results from the lab-scale fixed-bed release tests were compared to pilot-scale mass balance tests. While large differences were seen between the lab-scale release data and the release information obtained by the fuel characterization techniques, a good correlation was found between the lab......-scale and pilot-scale fixed-bed release data. In conclusion, it is recommended to perform the described lab-scale tests in order to obtain reliable quantitative data on the release of inorganic elements under grate-firing or suspension-firing conditions. Advanced fuel characterization by use of chemical...

  11. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildesø, J.; Wurtz, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2003-01-01

    of fungal spores was induced by well-defined jets of air impacting from rotating nozzles. The spores and other particles released from the surface were transported by the air flowing from the chamber through a top outlet to a particle counter and sizer. For two of the fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum...... and Trichoderma harzianum ), the number of spores produced on the gypsum board and subsequently released was quantified. Also the relationship between air velocities from 0.3 to 3 m/s over the surface and spore release has been measured. The method was found to give very reproducible results for each fungal...... isolate, whereas the spore release is very different for different fungi under identical conditions. Also, the relationship between air velocity and spore release depends on the fungus. For some fungi a significant number of particles smaller than the spore size were released. The method applied...

  12. Prodigiosin release from an implantable biomedical device: kinetics of localized cancer drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danyuo, Y.; Obayemi, J.D.; Dozie-Nwachukwu, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST), Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Ani, C.J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, African University of Science and Technology (AUST), Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Odusanya, O.S. [Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Advanced Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex (SHESTCO), Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Oni, Y. [Department of Chemistry, Bronx Community College, New York, NY (United States); Anuku, N. [Department of Chemistry, Bronx Community College, New York, NY (United States); Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malatesta, K. [Department of Chemistry, Bronx Community College, New York, NY (United States); Soboyejo, W.O., E-mail: soboyejo@princeton.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology (AUST), Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering 1 Olden Street, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an implantable encapsulated structure that can deliver localized heating (hyperthermia) and controlled concentrations of prodigiosin (a cancer drug) synthesized by bacteria (Serratia marcesce (subsp. marcescens)). Prototypical Poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) packages, containing well-controlled micro-channels and drug storage compartments, were fabricated along with a drug-storing polymer produced by free radical polymerization of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPA) co-monomers of Acrylamide (AM) and Butyl-methacrylate (BMA). The mechanisms of drug diffusion of PNIPA-base gels were elucidated. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was also used to study the heterogeneous porous structure of the PNIPA-based gels. The release exponents, n, of the gels were found to between 0.5 and 0.7. This is in the range expected for Fickian (n = 0.5). Deviation from Fickian diffusion was also observed (n > 0.5) diffusion. The gel diffusion coefficients were shown to vary between 2.1 × 10{sup −12} m{sup 2}/s and 4.8 × 10{sup −6} m{sup 2}/s. The implications of the results are then discussed for the localized treatment of cancer via hyperthermia and the controlled delivery of prodigiosin from encapsulated PNIPA-based devices. - Highlights: • Fabricated thermo-sensitive hydrogels for localized drug release from an implantable biomedical device. • Determined the cancer drug diffusion mechanisms of PNIPA-co-AM copolymer hydrogel. • Encapsulated PNIPA-based hydrogels in PDMS capsules for controlled drug delivery. • Established the kinetics of drug release from gels and channels in an implantable biomedical device. • Demonstrated the potential for the controlled release of prodigiosin (PG) as an anticancer drug.

  13. EPICS release 3.11.6 specific documentation -- Release notes for EPICS 3.11.6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-07

    These notes cover the following: (1) directions for switching to production APS release R3.11.6; (2) unbundling of channel access clients; (3) access security; (4) channel access additions; synchronous time support; and (5) description of major differences between R3.11.3 and R3.11.6 Also included is a list of new and/or updated documentation for the program.

  14. QUEST2: Release 1, SA/Release 1 supporting documents deliverable set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braaten, F.D.

    1995-02-27

    This document contains deliverables which reflect the last of the System Architecture phase analysis for the Quality, Environmental, Safety Tracking System redesign (QUEST2) project. These deliverables are focused on the final insights required to start functional design of the first QUEST2 release. They include the data definitions, conversion rules, standards for design and user interface, performance criteria, and rules to be followed during the prototyping activity described in the Project Management Plan.

  15. Release Early, Release Often: Predicting Change in Versioned Knowledge Organization Systems on the Web

    OpenAIRE

    Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Guéret, Christophe; Schlobach, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The Semantic Web is built on top of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) (vocabularies, ontologies, concept schemes) that provide a structured, interoperable and distributed access to Linked Data on the Web. The maintenance of these KOS over time has produced a number of KOS version chains: subsequent unique version identifiers to unique states of a KOS. However, the release of new KOS versions pose challenges to both KOS publishers and users. For publishers, updating a KOS is a knowledge int...

  16. Release of canine parvovirus from endocytic vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suikkanen, Sanna; Antila, Mia; Jaatinen, Anne; Vihinen-Ranta, Maija; Vuento, Matti

    2003-11-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) is a small nonenveloped virus with a single-stranded DNA genome. CPV enters cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and requires an acidic endosomal step for productive infection. Virion contains a potential nuclear localization signal as well as a phospholipase A(2) like domain in N-terminus of VP1. In this study we characterized the role of PLA(2) activity on CPV entry process. PLA(2) activity of CPV capsids was triggered in vitro by heat or acidic pH. PLA(2) inhibitors inhibited the viral proliferation suggesting that PLA(2) activity is needed for productive infection. The N-terminus of VP1 was exposed during the entry, suggesting that PLA(2) activity might have a role during endocytic entry. The presence of drugs modifying endocytosis (amiloride, bafilomycin A(1), brefeldin A, and monensin) caused viral proteins to remain in endosomal/lysosomal vesicles, even though the drugs were not able to inhibit the exposure of VP1 N-terminal end. These results indicate that the exposure of N-terminus of VP1 alone is not sufficient to allow CPV to proliferate. Some other pH-dependent changes are needed for productive infection. In addition to blocking endocytic entry, amiloride was able to block some postendocytic steps. The ability of CPV to permeabilize endosomal membranes was demonstrated by feeding cells with differently sized rhodamine-conjugated dextrans together with the CPV in the presence or in the absence of amiloride, bafilomycin A(1), brefeldin A, or monensin. Dextran with a molecular weight of 3000 was released from vesicles after 8 h of infection, while dextran with a molecular weight of 10,000 was mainly retained in vesicles. The results suggest that CPV infection does not cause disruption of endosomal vesicles. However, the permeability of endosomal membranes apparently changes during CPV infection, probably due to the PLA(2) activity of the virus. These results suggest that parvoviral PLA(2) activity is essential for productive

  17. Metabolism of growth hormone releasing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andreas; Delahaut, Philippe; Krug, Oliver; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2012-12-04

    New, potentially performance enhancing compounds have frequently been introduced to licit and illicit markets and rapidly distributed via worldwide operating Internet platforms. Developing fast analytical strategies to follow these new trends is one the most challenging issues for modern doping control analysis. Even if reference compounds for the active drugs are readily obtained, their unknown metabolism complicates effective testing strategies. Recently, a new class of small C-terminally amidated peptides comprising four to seven amino acid residues received considerable attention of sports drug testing authorities due to their ability to stimulate growth hormone release from the pituitary. The most promising candidates are the growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP)-1, -2, -4, -5, -6, hexarelin, alexamorelin, and ipamorelin. With the exemption of GHRP-2, the entity of these peptides represents nonapproved pharmaceuticals; however, via Internet providers, all compounds are readily available. To date, only limited information on the metabolism of these substances is available and merely one metabolite for GHRP-2 is established. Therefore, a comprehensive in vivo (po and iv administration in rats) and in vitro (with human serum and recombinant amidase) study was performed in order to generate information on urinary metabolites potentially useful for routine doping controls. The urine samples from the in vivo experiments were purified by mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction and analyzed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) separation followed by high-resolution/high-accuracy mass spectrometry. Combining the high resolution power of a benchtop Orbitrap mass analyzer for the first metabolite screening and the speed of a quadrupole/time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instrument for identification, urinary metabolites were screened by means of a sensitive full scan analysis and subsequently confirmed by high-accuracy product ion scan experiments. Two

  18. Uniformity of Peptide Release Is Maintained by Methylation of Release Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Pierson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Termination of protein synthesis on the ribosome is catalyzed by release factors (RFs, which share a conserved glycine-glycine-glutamine (GGQ motif. The glutamine residue is methylated in vivo, but a mechanistic understanding of its contribution to hydrolysis is lacking. Here, we show that the modification, apart from increasing the overall rate of termination on all dipeptides, substantially increases the rate of peptide release on a subset of amino acids. In the presence of unmethylated RFs, we measure rates of hydrolysis that are exceptionally slow on proline and glycine residues and approximately two orders of magnitude faster in the presence of the methylated factors. Structures of 70S ribosomes bound to methylated RF1 and RF2 reveal that the glutamine side-chain methylation packs against 23S rRNA nucleotide 2451, stabilizing the GGQ motif and placing the side-chain amide of the glutamine toward tRNA. These data provide a framework for understanding how release factor modifications impact termination.

  19. Monomer release from nanofilled and microhybrid dental composites after bleaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Hasani Tabatabaee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of bleaching on elution of monomers from nanofilled and microhybrid composites.80 samples (5mm diameter and 3mm thickness of each composite were prepared. After curing, half of them were randomly polished. Each group was divided into 8 subgroups and immersed in water or 10%, 20% and 30% H2O2 for 3 or 8 hours. Eluted Bis-GMA (Bis-phenol A Glycidyl Dimethacrylate, TEGDMA (Triethyleneglycol Dimethacrylate, UDMA (Urethane Dimethacrylate and BisEMA (Bis-phenol A ethoxylate Dimethacrylate were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and the results were analyzed by univariate ANOVA and t-test (P<0.05.Bleach significantly increased the overall release of monomers (P<0.001; TEGDMA was released more than Bis-GMA (P<0.001. Supreme released more TEGDMA compared to Z250 (P<0.001. Bleaching increased the release of this monomer (P<0.001. Increasing both the concentration of H2O2, and the immersion time, increased the release of TEGDMA (P<0.001. Polishing had no effect on release of this monomer (P=0.952. Supreme released more Bis-GMA than Z250 (P=0.000. The more concentrated H2O2 caused more elution of Bis-GMA (P= 0.003; while the effect of immersion time was not significant (P=0.824. Polishing increased the release of Bis-GMA (P=0.001. Neither the type of composite nor Bleaching had any effect on release of UDMA (P=0.972 and (P=0.811 respectively. Immersion duration increased the release of UDMA (P=0.002, as well as polishing (P=0.024.Bleaching increased the release of monomers. Nanofilled composites released more monomer than the microfilled.

  20. Activated human neutrophils release hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor or scatter factor (HGF\\/SF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has potent angiogenic properties. We have previously demonstrated that neutrophils (PMN) are directly angiogenic by releasing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We hypothesized that the acute inflammatory response can stimulate PMN to release HGF. AIMS: To examine the effects of inflammatory mediators on PMN HGF release and the effect of recombinant human HGF (rhHGF) on PMN adhesion receptor expression and PMN VEGF release. METHODS: In the first experiment, PMN were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Culture supernatants were assayed for HGF using ELISA. In the second experiment, PMN were lysed to measure total HGF release and HGF expression in the PMN was detected by Western immunoblotting. Finally, PMN were stimulated with rhHGF. PMN CD 11a, CD 11b, and CD 18 receptor expression and VEGF release was measured using flow cytometry and ELISA respectively. RESULTS: TNF-alpha, LPS and fMLP stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN HGF (755+\\/-216, 484+\\/-221 and 565+\\/-278 pg\\/ml, respectively) compared to controls (118+\\/-42 pg\\/ml). IL-8 had no effect. Total HGF release following cell lysis and Western blot suggests that HGF is released from intracellular stores. Recombinant human HGF did not alter PMN adhesion receptor expression and had no effect on PMN VEGF release. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that pro-inflammatory mediators can stimulate HGF release from a PMN intracellular store and that activated PMN in addition to secreting VEGF have further angiogenic potential by releasing HGF.

  1. Passive migration barriers using slow release oxygen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, R.D. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Odencrantz, J. [TRI-S Environmental Corp., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes passive barriers for controlling downgradient plume migration in contaminated aquifers. Numerous field studies using migration barriers to control benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes are briefly summarized. The barriers consist of a patented oxygen release compound placed in a row of wells transecting a BTEX plume. Oxygen is slowly released to the saturated zone, thus enhancing natural biodegradation. Migration is controlled by matching the oxygen release rate to the flux and oxygen demand of the dissolved contaminants.

  2. Selling a Story: How to Write a Successful Press Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, E.

    2016-12-01

    Press releases are an important part of communicating new discoveries with the general public. However, if they are confusing or difficult to read then they are unlikely to be picked up by media outlets. This article details how to create a successful press release by addressing a series of points: learning how to identify the audience; writing text that is both eye catching and clear; including multimedia and contact details; getting your press release to the media; and timing.

  3. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of fuel cells: Heat release mechanisms and voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilemski, G.

    1980-01-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics is used to analyze the spatial distribution of heat release mechanisms occurring in fuel cells operating under load in nonisothermal steady states. Novel contributions to heat release in the bulk electrolyte are found which are analogous to Peltier and Thomson effects in metallic conductors. Expresions for the heat release at individual electrodes are presented. An equation for the voltage of these cells is also derived.

  4. IT release management a hands-on guide

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Dave

    2011-01-01

    When implemented correctly, release management can help ensure that quality is integrated throughout the development, implementation, and delivery of services, applications, and infrastructure. This holistic, total cost of ownership approach allows for higher levels of system availability, is more cost effective to maintain, and increases overall stability, maintainability, and reliability. Filled with practical insights, IT Release Management: A Hands-on Guide clearly illustrates the effective implementation of a release process in the real world. It examines the similarities and differences

  5. Circadian Regulation of Cortisol Release in Behaviorally Split Golden Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We sh...

  6. Accelerating protein release from microparticles for regenerative medicine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Lisa J., E-mail: lisa.white@nottingham.ac.uk; Kirby, Giles T.S.; Cox, Helen C.; Qodratnama, Roozbeh; Qutachi, Omar; Rose, Felicity R.A.J.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.

    2013-07-01

    There is a need to control the spatio-temporal release kinetics of growth factors in order to mitigate current usage of high doses. A novel delivery system, capable of providing both structural support and controlled release kinetics, has been developed from PLGA microparticles. The inclusion of a hydrophilic PLGA–PEG–PLGA triblock copolymer altered release kinetics such that they were decoupled from polymer degradation. A quasi zero order release profile over four weeks was produced using 10% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 50:50 PLGA whereas complete and sustained release was achieved over ten days using 30% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 85:15 PLGA and over four days using 30% w/w PLGA–PEG–PLGA with 50:50 PLGA. These three formulations are promising candidates for delivery of growth factors such as BMP-2, PDGF and VEGF. Release profiles were also modified by mixing microparticles of two different formulations providing another route, not previously reported, for controlling release kinetics. This system provides customisable, localised and controlled delivery with adjustable release profiles, which will improve the efficacy and safety of recombinant growth factor delivery. Highlights: ► A new delivery system providing controlled release kinetics has been developed. ► Inclusion of hydrophilic PLGA–PEG–PLGA decoupled release kinetics from degradation. ► Using 10% triblock copolymer produced quasi zero order release over four weeks. ► Mixing microparticle formulations provided another route for controlling release. ► This system provides customisable, localised and controlled delivery of growth factors.

  7. The sixth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman-McCarthy, Jennifer K.; Agüeros, Marcel A.; Allam, Sahar S.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anderson, Kurt S. J.; Anderson, Scott F.; Annis, James; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Baldry, Ivan K.; Barentine, J. C.; Bassett, Bruce A.; Becker, Andrew C.; Beers, Timothy C.; Bell, Eric F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Sixth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. With this data release, the imaging of the northern Galactic cap is now complete. The survey contains images and parameters of roughly 287 million objects over 9583 deg^2, including scans over a large range of Galactic latitudes and longitudes. The survey also includes 1.27 million spectra of stars, galaxies, quasars, and blank sky (for sky subtraction) selected over 7425 deg^2. This release includes much more stella...

  8. Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F; Tringe, J; McMichael, L; Glascoe, L

    2012-02-03

    Many explosives will release additional energy after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional energy release, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation energy release occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn energy release occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying energy release rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn energy release is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here we construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional energy release in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn energy release to represent variations in the energy release rate and an afterburn energy cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.

  9. Lyophilized Oral Sustained Release Polymeric Nanoparticles of Nateglinide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaleemuddin, Mohammad; Srinivas, Prathima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to formulate lyophilized oral sustained release polymeric nanoparticles of nateglinide in order to decrease dosing frequency, minimize side effects, and increase bioavailability...

  10. Determining drug release rates of hydrophobic compounds from nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addio, Suzanne M; Bukari, Abdallah A; Dawoud, Mohammed; Bunjes, Heike; Rinaldi, Carlos; Prud'homme, Robert K

    2016-07-28

    Obtaining meaningful drug release profiles for drug formulations is essential prior to in vivo testing and for ensuring consistent quality. The release kinetics of hydrophobic drugs from nanocarriers (NCs) are not well understood because the standard protocols for maintaining sink conditions and sampling are not valid owing to mass transfer and solubility limitations. In this work, a new in vitroassay protocol based on 'lipid sinks' and magnetic separation produces release conditions that mimic the concentrations of lipid membranes and lipoproteins in vivo, facilitates separation, and thus allows determination of intrinsic release rates of drugs from NCs. The assay protocol is validated by (i) determining the magnetic separation efficiency, (ii) demonstrating that sink condition requirements are met, and (iii) accounting for drug by completing a mass balance. NCs of itraconazole and cyclosporine A (CsA) were prepared and the drug release profiles were determined. This release protocol has been used to compare the drug release from a polymer stabilized NC of CsA to a solid drug NP of CsA alone. These data have led to the finding that stabilizing block copolymer layers have a retarding effect on drug release from NCs, reducing the rate of CsA release fourfold compared with the nanoparticle without a polymer coating.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'.

  11. Post-release survival and feeding in reared turbot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Støttrup, Josianne

    2007-01-01

    was estimated to be restricted to three days after release. The only active predators observed in the area were birds. Besides estimating mortality the diffusion model provides an estimate on the catchability of the released turbot when fished with a juvenile flatfish-trawl. Catchabilities varied between 38...... until day 8, using a juvenile flatfish-trawl to recapture the fish. The catches were analyzed on the basis of a normal distribution approximation method, founded in diffusion theory, from which daily abundance of the released fish and hence post-release mortality could be estimated. The group of Large...

  12. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  13. Metal release from coffee machines and electric kettles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Frederic D; Hackethal, Christin; Schmidt, Roman; Kappenstein, Oliver; Pfaff, Karla; Luch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The release of elemental ions from 8 coffee machines and 11 electric kettles into food simulants was investigated. Three different types of coffee machines were tested: portafilter espresso machines, pod machines and capsule machines. All machines were tested subsequently on 3 days before and on 3 days after decalcification. Decalcification of the machines was performed with agents according to procedures as specified in the respective manufacturer's manuals. The electric kettles showed only a low release of the elements analysed. For the coffee machines decreasing concentrations of elements were found from the first to the last sample taken in the course of 1 day. Metal release on consecutive days showed a decreasing trend as well. After decalcification a large increase in the amounts of elements released was encountered. In addition, the different machine types investigated clearly differed in their extent of element release. By far the highest leaching, both quantitatively and qualitatively, was found for the portafilter machines. With these products releases of Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr and Zn were in the range and beyond the release limits as proposed by the Council of Europe. Therefore, a careful rinsing routine, especially after decalcification, is recommended for these machines. The comparably lower extent of release of one particular portafilter machine demonstrates that metal release at levels above the threshold that triggers health concerns are technically avoidable.

  14. Pramipexole Extended Release: A Novel Treatment Option in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Eisenreich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pramipexole, the most commonly prescribed dopamine agonist worldwide, meanwhile serves as a reference substance for evaluation of new drugs. Based on numerous clinical data and vast experiences, efficacy and safety profiles of this non-ergoline dopamine agonist are well characterized. Since October 2009, an extended-release formulation of pramipexole has been available for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Pramipexole administration can be cut down from three times to once a day due to the newly developed extended-release formulation. This is considerable progress in regard to minimizing pill burden and enhancing compliance. Moreover, the 24 h continuous drug release of the once-daily extended-release formulation results in fewer fluctuations in plasma concentrations over time compared to immediate-release pramipexole, given three times daily. The present study summarizes pharmacokinetics and all essential pharmacological and clinical characteristics of the extended-release formulation. In addition, it provides all study data, available so far, with regard to transition and de-novo administration of extended-release formulation for patients with Parkinson's disease. It further compares efficacy and safety data of immediate-release pramipexole with the extended-release formulation of pramipexole.

  15. Formulation and Evaluation of Nateglinide Sustained Release Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi Gowripattapu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to design suitable sustained release tablet formulation of Nateglinide by using different polymers such as hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K15M, xanthan gum, guar gum as release rate retarding polymers. The tablets were prepared by direct compression technique. Nateglinide is used as anti diabetic drug. The objective of the treatment is to achieve hypoglycemia, by using an ideal dosage regimen. The sustained release formulation provides extend duration of action in therapeutic range without reaching toxic levels as in the case of conventional dosage forms. The real formulation trails are carried from F1 to F9 in which Drug: Polymer ratio was set as 1:9 respectively. The prepared formulations F1 to F9 were evaluated for pre and post compression characteristics, along with the in vitro dissolution Studies. It was found that the release of drug from F1, F2, and F3 gave the better release than other formulations. In these three formulations F2 showing highest release following first order kinetics. From the Higuchi plot good correlation coefficient was observed showing diffusion mechanism. From the peppas plot it was observed that the release model was non fickian anomalous. The release rate was decreased as polymer concentration increased so it shows that increase in diffusion length of polymer decreases the release rate.

  16. Liposomal extended-release bupivacaine for postsurgical analgesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambrechts, Mark; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    ..., inguinal hernia repair, total knee arthroplasty, and augmentation mammoplasty. However, like other bupivacaine formulations, the liposomal extended-release bupivacaine does have some side effects...

  17. Characteristics of tritium release behavior from solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinjyo, T.; Nishikawa, M.; Yamashita, N.; Koyama, T.; Suematsu, K.; Fukada, S. [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Enoeda, M. [Naka Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    A tritium release model has been developed by the present authors. The tritium release curves estimated by this tritium model give good agreement with experimental curves for Li {sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} or LiAlO{sub 2} under various purge gas conditions in our out-of-pile bred tritium release. The characteristics of tritium release behavior from various solid breeder materials carried out by us and in EXOTIC experiments at Petten are discussed in this study. (authors)

  18. Release kinetic study of RHPC coated aspirin microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Y V; Dorle, A K

    1990-01-01

    The present communication deals with the study of the effect of pH on the drug release characteristics and the drug release kinetic from the RHPC (Rosin Hard Paraffin Combination) coated aspirin microcapsules. For the purpose of the present study the aspirin microcapsules were prepared by pan coating method imparting 15 coats using 10 per cent RHPC solution in acetone. A standard coating procedure was used to coat the aspirin granules. Dissolution studies were carried out in media with different pH. To get a clear picture drug release studies were conducted in each media for 3 h. The results showed that the RHPC films were resistant to acidic pH releasing less than 5 per cent and 15 per cent drug in 3 h in pH 1.2 and 3.0 respectively. The T 50% in pH 5.0 media was 163 min. The drug was released very quickly in pH 7.2 and 8.0. The release kinetic study showed that the release followed the classical first order pattern though the coated microcapsules used to be intact during the dissolution process, in case of the acidic pH media. The release kinetic was changed when the pH of the dissolution media was 7.2 and above. It was found that during the dissolution process the granules undergo erosion and the release mechanism does not follow a single process.

  19. Preparation and evaluation of controlled release tablets of carvedilol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahala Setti M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation is to design and evaluate controlled release tablets of carvedilol, employing synthetic polymers like polyethylene oxides, of different molecular weights as release retarding materials and to select the optimized formulation based on the pharmacokinetics of carvedilol. Matrix tablets each containing 80 mg of carvedilol were formulated employing PEO N60 K, PEO 301, and PEO 303 as release-retarding polymers and β Cyclodextrin and HP β cyclodextrin as release modulators from the matrix. Carvedilol release from the formulated tablets was very slow. Hence the release was modulated with the use of cyclodextrins. The dissolution from the matrix tablets was spread over more than 24 hours and depended on the type of polymer, its concentration and the type of cyclodextrin used. All the matrix tablets prepared using polyethylene oxides showed very good controlled release over more than 24 hours. The matrix tablets prepared using HP β cyclodextrin showed a higher dissolution rate and gave a dissolution profile that was comparable to the theoretical sustained release needed for once-a-day administration of carvedilol. The drug release mechanism from the matrix tablets was found to be quasi Fickian mechanism.

  20. Assembly of bio-nanoparticles for double controlled drug release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    Full Text Available A critical limiting factor of chemotherapy is the unacceptably high toxicity. The use of nanoparticle based drug carriers has significantly reduced the side effects and facilitated the delivery of drugs. Source of the remaining side effect includes (1 the broad final in vivo distribution of the administrated nanoparticles, and (2 strong basal drug release from nanoparticles before they could reach the tumor. Despite the advances in pH-triggered release, undesirable basal drug release has been a constant challenge under in vivo conditions. In this study, functionalized single walled carbon nanohorn supported immunoliposomes were assembled for paclitaxel delivery. The immunoliposomes were formulated with polyethylene glycol, thermal stable and pH sensitive phospholipids. Each nanohorn was found to be encapsulated within one immunoliposome. Results showed a highly pH dependent release of paclitaxel in the presence of serum at body temperature with minimal basal release under physiological conditions. Upon acidification, paclitaxel was released at a steady rate over 30 days with a cumulative release of 90% of the loaded drug. The drug release results proved our hypothesized double controlled release mechanism from the nanoparticles. Other results showed the nanoparticles have doubled loading capacity compared to that of traditional liposomes and higher affinity to breast cancer cells overexpressing Her2 receptors. Internalized nanoparticles were found in lysosomes.

  1. Comparison of sequential drug release in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Sharath C; Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Rabek, Cheryl L; Dziubla, Thomas D; Thomas, Mark V; Puleo, David A

    2016-10-01

    Development of drug-delivery devices typically involves characterizing in vitro release performance with the inherent assumption that this will closely approximate in vivo performance. Yet, as delivery devices become more complex, for instance with a sequential drug release pattern, it is important to confirm that in vivo properties correlate with the expected "programming" achieved in vitro. In this work, a systematic comparison between in vitro and in vivo biomaterial erosion and sequential release was performed for a multilayered association polymer system comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127. After assessing the materials during incubation in phosphate-buffered saline, devices were implanted supracalvarially in rats. Devices with two different doses and with different erosion rates were harvested at increasing times post-implantation, and the in vivo thickness loss, mass loss, and the drug release profiles were compared with their in vitro counterparts. The sequential release of four different drugs observed in vitro was successfully translated to in vivo conditions. Results suggest, however, that the total erosion time of the devices was longer and that release rates of the four drugs were different, with drugs initially released more quickly and then more slowly in vivo. Many comparative studies of in vitro and in vivo drug release from biodegradable polymers involved a single drug, whereas this research demonstrated that sequential release of four drugs can be maintained following implantation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1302-1310, 2016.

  2. 6 CFR 7.23 - Emergency release of classified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Classified Information Non-disclosure Form. In emergency situations requiring immediate verbal release of... information through approved communication channels by the most secure and expeditious method possible, or...

  3. Operational indices of power industry in 2009 released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On January 6, the National Energy Administration released the operational indices of Chinese power industry in 2009, including total consumption, capital construction investment and the capacity of retired

  4. CMS releases data on drug spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Yesterday (11/14/16 the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS released data on spending for drugs under Medicare and Medicaid (1,2. Medicare paid $137.4 billion on drugs covered by its prescription drug benefit in 2015. About $8.7 billion of that spending occurred on drugs that had "large" price hikes, defined as a more than 25 percent increase between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, Medicaid paid $57.3 billion about $5.1 billion of which was spent on drugs that had large price increases. The Medicare spending database highlights 11 drugs that doubled in price. The Medicaid database identified 20 drugs that more than doubled in price with 9 of these being old, generic drugs. Medicare drugs were led by Glumetza, a Type 2 diabetes drug which saw its price soar 380 percent and hydroxychloroquine sulfate, a generic malaria drug, which went up 370 percent. Medicaid drugs were led by Ativan, an anti-anxiety ...

  5. Dark Sky Simulations: Early Data Release

    CERN Document Server

    Skillman, Samuel W; Turk, Matthew J; Wechsler, Risa H; Holz, Daniel E; Sutter, P M

    2014-01-01

    The Dark Sky Simulations are an ongoing series of cosmological N-body simulations designed to provide a quantitative and accessible model of the evolution of the large-scale Universe. Such models are essential for many aspects of the study of dark matter and dark energy, since we lack a sufficiently accurate analytic model of non-linear gravitational clustering. In July 2014, we made available to the general community our early data release, consisting of over 55 Terabytes of simulation data products, including our largest simulation to date, which used $1.07 \\times 10^{12}~(10240^3)$ particles in a volume $8h^{-1}\\mathrm{Gpc}$ across. Our simulations were performed with 2HOT, a purely tree-based adaptive N-body method, running on 200,000 processors of the Titan supercomputer, with data analysis enabled by yt. We provide an overview of the derived halo catalogs, mass function, power spectra and light cone data. We show self-consistency in the mass function and mass power spectrum at the 1% level over a range ...

  6. Self-releasing submerged ice maker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.E. Jr.; Greer, M.E.; Stickler, L.A. [Univ. of Missouri-Columbia, Independence, MO (United States)

    1989-03-01

    This study reports the results of a series of experiments which investigated a thermal storage technology whereby slush ice is grown on a submerged cold surface and the resultant growth of slush ice released without auxiliary thermal or mechanical means. The process investigated consists of growing slush ice from an electrolyte solution of low molarity. The cold surface (substrate) upon which the slush ice forms is submerged in the bulk solution. As the buoyancy force on the ice crystals exceeds the adhesion to the cold surface, the slush ice is forced from the substrate and floats away, to the top of the solution. The results of this study reveal the relative insensitivity of the growth rate of ice crystals to solution initial bulk concentration over the range of values tested and to concentration of electrolyte during accumulation of ice crystals. The critical parameter appears to be substrate temperature, which generally cannot be less than approximately 2{degrees}C below the freezing point temperature of the solution, as apparent adhesion increases rapidly with decreasing substrate temperature.

  7. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsell, D E; Karns, L; Buchanan, W T; Johnson, R B

    1996-05-01

    Natural teeth are an invaluable teaching tool for preclinical instruction in operative dentistry and endodontic techniques. Cavity preparation in teeth containing amalgam restorations is a realistic simulation of an often experienced clinical situation. As various pathogens are contained in saliva, teeth must be disinfected before use by students. The purpose of this study is to indirectly evaluate whether mercury vapor is released from amalgam restorations in such teeth during steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor detection, sample mass changes and x-ray fluorescence data were collected from experimental steam autoclave sterilization of amalgam samples sealed in autoclave bags. All of the data showed evidence of mercury vapor generation coincident to steam autoclave sterilization. Mercury vapor levels within the room where amalgam was exposed to steam autoclave sterilization reached levels that constitute an unnecessary health risk to dental personnel. The volume of amalgam tested simulated that contained in 175 amalgam restored teeth. Initial venting of the autoclave chamber produced mercury vapor concentrations significantly in excess of OSHA vapor concentration ceiling levels. Thus, the use of a steam autoclave for sterilization of amalgam containing teeth for use in preclinical laboratory exercises may be harmful to personnel involved.

  8. Fullerene mediated hydrogen release in lithium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheicher, Ralph; Li, Sa; Jena, Puru

    2010-03-01

    Complex metal hydrides possess many properties which make them attractive as a storage medium for hydrogen, but typically, catalysts are required to lower the hydrogen desorption temperature and to facilitate hydrogen uptake in the form of a reversible reaction. The overwhelming focus in the search for catalyzing agents has been on compounds containing titanium, but the precise mechanism of their actions remains somewhat obscure. A recent experiment has now shown that fullerene (C60) can also act as catalysts for the hydrogen uptake and release in lithium borohydride (LiBH4). In an effort to understand the involved mechanism, we have employed density functional theory to carry out a detailed study of the interaction between this complex metal hydride and the carbon nanomaterial. Considering a step-wise reduction of the hydrogen content in LiBH4, we find that the presence of C60 can lead to a substantial reduction of the involved H-removal energies. This catalyzing effect is explained by us as a consequence of the interaction between the BHx^- part and the C60 entity.

  9. Controlling Liquid Release by Compressing Electrospun Nanowebs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Kornev

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun nanowebs with pores ranging from nanometers to micrometers, constitute new materials with enhanced absorbency and ability to retain liquids in pores for a long period of time. These materials can be used as nanofluidic probes collecting minute amount of liquids. However, extraction of liquids from nanofibrous materials presents a problem: menisci in the interfiber pores create very high suction pressure which holds the liquid inside the material. This problem can be resolved if the probe is completely filled with the liquid: menisci at the probe edges become flat to establish a pressure equilibrium with the atmosphere. Therefore, one can take advantage of the nanoweb softness and extract liquid by mechanically deforming the nanowebs. We show that the liquid-saturated nanowebs follow the Voigt-type rheology upon loading. We theoretically explain this behavior and derive the relations between the Voigt phenomenological parameters, nanoweb permeability and compression modulus. We show that the limiting deformations follow the Hooke’s law which assumes linear relation between the extracted volume of liquid and the applied load. Because of this predictable behavior, the nanoweb probes can be engineered to release minute liquid doses upon compression. The developed experimental methodology can be used for characterization of nanostructured materials which otherwise impossible to analyze by using the existing instruments.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallinou, Chryssa; Asimakopoulos, Byron; Schröer, Andreas; Nikolettos, Nikos

    2007-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a pivotal role in the physiology of reproduction in mammals. GnRH acts by binding to the GnRH receptor (GnRHR). In humans, only 1 conventional GnRH receptor subtype (type I GnRH receptor) has been found. In the human genome, 2 forms of GnRH have been identified, GnRH-I (mammal GnRH) and GnRH-II (chicken GnRH II). Both forms and their common receptor are expressed, apart from the hypothalamus, in various compartments of the human ovary. Gonadal steroids, gonadotropins, and GnRH itself controls the regulation of the GnRH/GnRHR system gene expression in the human ovary. The 2 types of GnRH acting paracrinally/autocrinally influence ovarian steroidogenesis, decrease the proliferation, and induce apoptosis of ovarian cells. In this review, the biology of GnRH/GnRHR system in humans, the potential roles of GnRH, and the direct effects of GnRH analogues in ovarian cells are discussed.

  11. Release of Human Creativity within an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Simončič

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: What are the conditions for creativity inthe researched organization?Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine how employees understand the conditions for releasing creative potential in anorganizational unit.Method: The study used a descriptive approach in which the characteristics of creative organizations were defined, the objectivesand policies (expectations of management of the organization were summarized, and a survey among employees was carried out that werestatistically analysed.Results: The results showed to which level conditions for creativityare established, how employees understand organizational policies related to quality, and how employees evaluate the creativity level of management.Organization: The management of organizational units obtain answers related to creativity conditions and influence of leadership. In addition, the research findings will be used to increase individual’s creativity.Society: The research emphasized the importance of the activation process, the promotion and maintenance of creativity within anorganization.Originality: This is the first such study in the researched organization.Limitations/Future Research: The study is based on a questionnaire containing seven statements and was conducted in only one of the organizational units within an organization.

  12. Aroma release from wines under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsachaki, Maroussa; Linforth, Robert S T; Taylor, Andrew J

    2009-08-12

    Aroma release from wines and model ethanolic solutions during dynamic headspace dilution was measured in real time using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Model ethanolic solutions maintained the headspace concentration of volatile compounds close to equilibrium values during gas phase dilution over 10 min. Wine samples (with the same ethanol content) did not maintain the headspace concentration of volatiles to the same extent. Wine components and acidity ((+)-catechin, glycerol; pH 3.6) in model ethanolic solutions (120 mL/L) had no effect on the volatile headspace concentration during dynamic headspace dilution. However, in the presence of certain proteins (beta-lactoglobulin, beta-casein, bovine serum albumin), the model ethanolic solutions failed to maintain their volatile headspace concentration upon headspace dilution, but other proteins (thaumatin, mucin, lysozyme) had no effect. Thermal imaging of the model ethanolic samples (with and without beta-casein) under dynamic headspace dilution conditions showed differences in surface temperatures. This observation suggested perturbation of the ethanol monolayer at the air-liquid interface and disruption of the Marangoni effect, which causes bulk convection within ethanolic solutions. Convection carries volatile compounds and warm liquid from the bulk phase to the air-liquid interface, thus replenishing the interfacial concentration and maintaining the gas phase concentration and interfacial surface temperature during headspace dilution. It is postulated that certain proteins may exert a similar effect in wine.

  13. Hot Melt Extrusion for Sustained Protein Release: Matrix Erosion and In Vitro Release of PLGA-Based Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossé, Anne; König, Corinna; Lamprecht, Alf; Wagner, Karl G

    2017-01-01

    The design of biodegradable implants for sustained release of proteins is a complex challenge optimizing protein polymer interaction in combination with a mini-scale process which is predictive for production. The process of hot melt extrusion (HME) was therefore conducted on 5- and 9-mm mini-scale twin screw extruders. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants were characterized for their erosion properties and the in vitro release of the embedded protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). The release of acidic monomers as well as other parameters (pH value, mass loss) during 16 weeks indicated a delayed onset of matrix erosion in week 3. BSA-loaded implants released 17.0% glycolic and 5.9% lactic acid after a 2-week lag time. Following a low burst release (3.7% BSA), sustained protein release started in week 4. Storage under stress conditions (30°C, 75% rH) revealed a shift of erosion onset of 1 week (BSA-loaded implants: 26.9% glycolic and 9.3% lactic acid). Coherent with the changed erosion profiles, an influence on the protein release was observed. Confocal laser scanning and Raman microscopy showed a homogenous protein distribution throughout the matrix after extrusion and during release studies. Raman spectra indicated a conformational change of the protein structure which could be one reason for incomplete protein release. The study underlined the suitability of the HME process to obtain a solid dispersion of protein inside a polymeric matrix providing sustained protein release. However, the incomplete protein release and the impact by storage conditions require thorough characterization and understanding of erosion and release mechanisms.

  14. Influence of cellulose derivatives and natural polymers on in vitro release kinetics of metoprolol succinate from extended release matrix tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil, R.; Somagoni, Jagan M.; Panakanti, Pavan K.; Ega, Chandra M.; Yamsani, Madhusudan R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, extended release tablets of metoprolol succinate were developed using cellulose derivatives and natural gums as matrix formers and were evaluated for its extended release characteristics. The optimized formulation (F7) was obtained using cellulose derivatives in the ratio of 1:0.5:1drug, HPMC K 100M and Na CMC, respectively. Prepared tablets were subjected to all the Pharmacopeial quality tests and found to be in the limits. The in vitro release studies of prepar...

  15. Development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and pituitary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanowska, Katarzyna M; Burger, Laura L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2014-11-05

    Acquisition of a mature pattern of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the CNS is a hallmark of the pubertal process. Little is known about GnRH release during sexual maturation, but it is assumed to be minimal before later stages of puberty. We studied spontaneous GnRH secretion in brain slices from male mice during perinatal and postnatal development using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to detect directly the oxidation of secreted GnRH. There was good correspondence between the frequency of GnRH release detected by FSCV in the median eminence of slices from adults with previous reports of in vivo luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency. The frequency of GnRH release in the late embryonic stage was surprisingly high, reaching a maximum in newborns and remaining elevated in 1-week-old animals despite low LH levels. Early high-frequency GnRH release was similar in wild-type and kisspeptin knock-out mice indicating that this release is independent of kisspeptin-mediated excitation. In vivo treatment with testosterone or in vitro treatment with gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) reduced GnRH release frequency in slices from 1-week-old mice. RF9, a putative GnIH antagonist, restored GnRH release in slices from testosterone-treated mice, suggesting that testosterone inhibition may be GnIH-dependent. At 2-3 weeks, GnRH release is suppressed before attaining adult patterns. Reduction in early life spontaneous GnRH release frequency coincides with the onset of the ability of exogenous GnRH to induce pituitary LH secretion. These findings suggest that lack of pituitary secretory response, not lack of GnRH release, initially blocks downstream activation of the reproductive system.

  16. Modifying sorbents in controlled release formulations to prevent herbicides pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Céspedes, F; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Pérez García, S; Fernández Pérez, M

    2007-10-01

    The herbicides chloridazon and metribuzin, identified as groundwater pollutants, were incorporated in alginate-based granules to obtain controlled release properties. In this research the effect of incorporation of sorbents such as bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon in alginate basic formulation were not only studied on encapsulation efficiency but also on the release rate of herbicides which was studied using water release kinetic tests. In addition, sorption studies of herbicides with bentonite, anthracite and activated carbon were made. The kinetic experiments of chloridazon and metribuzin release in water have shown that the release rate is higher in metribuzin systems than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, it can be deduced that the use of sorbents reduces the release rate of the chloridazon and metribuzin in comparison to the technical product and to the alginate formulation without sorbents. The highest decrease in release rate corresponds to the formulations prepared with activated carbon as a sorbent. The water uptake, permeability, and time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released into water, T(50), were calculated to compare the formulations. On the basis of a parameter of an empirical equation used to fit the herbicide release data, the release of chloridazon and metribuzin from the various formulations into water is controlled by a diffusion mechanism. Sorption capacity of the sorbents for chloridazon and metribuzin, ranging from 0.53mgkg(-1) for the metribuzin sorption on bentonite to 2.03x10(5)mgkg(-1) for the sorption of chloridazon on the activated carbon, was the most important factor modulating the herbicide release.

  17. Releases of radioactive substances from Swedish nuclear power plants (RAKU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, T.; Bergstroem, C. [ALARA Engineering AB, Skultuna (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    Releases of radioactivity to air and water from Swedish nuclear power plants have been studied and compared with those from foreign reactors. Averaged over the years from commissioning of the reactors to the last year data are available, the release of radioactive noble gas from the Swedish BWRs has been about the same as from comparable foreign reactors. The oldest Swedish BWRs, Oskarshamn 1 and 2 (O1 and O2) and Ringhals 1 (R1), have simple off-gas systems with only one delay volume. All BWRs in US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland are equipped with more sophisticated off-gas systems. It can be expected that O1, O2 and R1 therefore will have the highest release of noble gas activity at an international comparison if they do not modernize their off-gas system. BWRs in US, Germany and Japan are today equipped with recombiners and with one exception also charcoal columns. Japanese BWRs report zero releases to air. Releases of radioactivity to water after commissioning was about the same for most of the studied reactors. Some of the newest German plants have had low annual releases already at commissioning. Improvements of the treatment systems at old German, Swiss and US reactors have significantly lowered the releases. For most of the Swedish plants the annual releases to water have remained at the initial level. Forsmark 3 has succeeded in decreasing the release of radionuclides to water by a factor of almost one hundred compared to other Swedish reactors. Also O3 has managed to decrease the liquid effluents. Japanese plants have zero release of radioactivity excluding tritium to water. The release of tritium is about the same for all reactors of the same type in the world. 35 refs, 31 figs, 24 tabs.

  18. Analysis of LNG import terminal release prevention systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E G

    1982-04-01

    The release prevention systems of liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal were analyzed. A series of potential release scenarios were analyzed to determine the frequency of the release events, the probability these releases are not stopped or isolated by emergency shutdown systems, the estimated release quantities, and the critical components of the system. The two plant areas identified as being most significant with respect to safety are the unloading system and the storage system. Rupture of the main transfer line and gross failure of the storage tanks are the two release scenarios of primary safety interest. Reducing the rate of failure by improved design, better maintenance and testing, or adding redundancy of the critical system components for these plant areas and release scenarios will result in improved safety. Several design alternatives which have the potential to significantly reduce the probability of a large release of LNG occurring at an import terminal are identified. These design alternatives would reduce the probability of a large release of LNG by reducing the expected number of failures which could cause a release or by reducing the magnitude of releases that do occur. All of these alternatives are technically feasible and have been used or considered for use in at least one LNG facility. A more rigorous analysis of the absolute risk of LNG import terminal operation is necessary before the benefits of these design alternatives can be determined. In addition, an economic evaluation of these alternatives must be made so the costs and benefits can be compared. It is concludd that for remotely located facilities many of these alternatives are probably not justified; however, for facilities located in highly populated areas, these alternatives deserve serious consideration.

  19. Modeling controlled nutrient release from a population of polymer coated fertilizers: statistically based model for diffusion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaviv, Avi; Raban, Smadar; Zaidel, Elina

    2003-05-15

    A statistically based model for describing the release from a population of polymer coated controlled release fertilizer (CRF) granules by the diffusion mechanism was constructed. The model is based on a mathematical-mechanistic description of the release from a single granule of a coated CRF accounting for its complex and nonlinear nature. The large variation within populations of coated CRFs poses the need for a statistically based approach to integrate over the release from the individual granules within a given population for which the distribution and range of granule radii and coating thickness are known. The model was constructed and verified using experimentally determined parameters and release curves of polymer-coated CRFs. A sensitivity analysis indicated the importance of water permeability in controlling the lag period and that of solute permeability in governing the rate of linear release and the total duration of the release. Increasing the mean values of normally distributed granule radii or coating thickness, increases the lag period and the period of linear release. The variation of radii and coating thickness, within realistic ranges, affects the release only when the standard deviation is very large or when water permeability is reduced without affecting solute permeability. The model provides an effective tool for designing and improving agronomic and environmental effectiveness of polymer-coated CRFs.

  20. Voltage-Responsive Controlled Release Film with Cargo Release Self-Monitoring Property Based on Hydrophobicity Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Xiangyu; Li, Yanan; Li, Fengyu; Sun, Ruijuan; Wang, Wenqian; Wen, Yongqiang; Song, Yanlin; Zhang, Xueji

    2017-03-16

    Herein, voltage-responsive controlled release film was constructed by grafting ferrocene on the mesoporous inverse opal photonic crystal (mIOPC). The film achieved free-blockage controlled release and realized the monitoring of cargo release without external indicator. Free-blockage was attributed to the voltage switchable nanovalves which undergo hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic transition when applying voltage. Monitoring of cargo release was attributed to the optical property of mIOPC, the bandgap of mIOPC had a red shift when the solution invaded in. The film was hydrophobic enough to stop solution intrusion. Once the voltage was applied, the film became hydrophilic, leading to invasion of the solution. As a result, the cargos were released and the bandgap of mIOPC was red-shifted. Therefore, in this paper both a free-blockage controlled release film and a release sensing system was prepared. The study provides new insights into highly effective controlled release and release sensing without indicator.