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Sample records for hypoglycaemic agents apollo

  1. Oral hypoglycaemic agents in 118 diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, E; Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To assess maternal and neonatal complications in pregnancies of diabetic women treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents during pregnancy. METHODS: A cohort study including all consecutively registered, orally treated pregnant diabetic patients set in a diabetic obstetrical service at a univer......AIMS: To assess maternal and neonatal complications in pregnancies of diabetic women treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents during pregnancy. METHODS: A cohort study including all consecutively registered, orally treated pregnant diabetic patients set in a diabetic obstetrical service...... compared to women treated with sulphonylurea or insulin (32 vs. 7 vs. 10%, P neonatal morbidity was observed between the orally treated and insulin-treated group; no cases of severe hypoglycaemia or jaundice were seen in the orally treated groups. However, in the group of women...

  2. Once-daily basal insulin glargine versus thrice-daily prandial insulin lispro in people with type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycaemic agents (APOLLO): an open randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretzel, R.G.; Nuber, U.; Landgraf, W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As type 2 diabetes mellitus progresses, oral hypoglycaemic agents often fail to maintain blood glucose control and insulin is needed. We investigated whether the addition of once-daily insulin glargine is non-inferior to three-times daily prandial insulin lispro in overall glycaemic c...

  3. Oral hypoglycaemic agents, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Lund, Søren S; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    This article is a narrative review of the current evidence of the effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) of oral hypoglycaemic agents that increase insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In overweight T2D patients, metformin has been demonstrated to reduce CVD risk, and this......This article is a narrative review of the current evidence of the effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) of oral hypoglycaemic agents that increase insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In overweight T2D patients, metformin has been demonstrated to reduce CVD risk......, and this beneficial effect may be conserved with the combination of metformin and insulin treatment. However, the effect of glitazones on CVD is uncertain. There is conflicting evidence from large randomized trials to support a protective effect against CVD of lowering blood glucose per se but a systematic review...

  4. Cost variation analysis of Oral Hypoglycaemic agents available in Indian market: An Economic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes, a chronic disorder and requires life-long treatment. Cost of drug treatment is a major hurdle related to medication compliance in Type2 Diabetes Mellitus. Objective: To compare the cost and percentage price variation of single and combination therapy of oral hypoglycaemic agents across the different brands available in the Indian market. Methods: India’s medical research body, particularly Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR issue guidelines for the management of T2DM. ICMR guidelines were perused to understand the management of T2DM. Current Index of Medical Specialities (CIMS Oct.-Jan.2015 edition and Indian Drug Review (IDR Issue 1, Jan.2015 were used to capture the price of oral hypoglycaemic agents across the different brands available in the Indian market. Percentage price variations between minimum and maximum cost of drugs were computed. Results: In the single drug therapy sulfonylurea group of drugs like Glipizide 5mg shows maximum variation of 780% followed by Glimepiride 2mg formulation by 682%, while the non-sulfonylurea groups of drug say, Pioglitazone 15mg shows maximum variation of 600%. In combination therapy Glimepiride 1mg + Metformin 500mg shows maximum price variation of 533%. Positive correlation exists between the number of manufacturing companies and percentage price variation of drugs. Conclusion: There is wide variation exist between the minimum and maximum cost among single as well as combination therapy of oral hypoglycaemic agents. A maximum of 9 & 6 fold price variation was reported in single and combination therapy respectively.

  5. ORAL HYPOGLYCAEMIC AGENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Durgaprasad M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a potential epidemic globally. The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014, the rise seen more rapidly in developing and under developed countries. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM being the most common type, accounting for an estimated 85-95% of all diabetes cases. Diabetes remains a major cause of blindness, renal failure, and cardiovascular events including heart attacks, stroke and limb amputations. 1 Being an heterogeneous disorder, many adults with T2DM have difficulty controlling their blood sugar levels and associated complications as most of available antidiabetic agents aim to achieve only normoglycaemia and relieve diabetes symptoms, such as polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss, ketoacidosis while the longterm goals to prevent the development of or slow the progression of longterm complications of the disease is often unaddressed, therefore, there remains, a significant unmet demand for new agents that will help diabetic patients achieve treatment targets without increasing the risk for weight gain or hypoglycaemia. Among the new classes of oral agents, SGLT-2 inhibitors and mTOT insulin sensitisers appear to hold some good promise. However, recent articles published describing its adverse effect profile of SGLT-2 inhibitors had put a question mark on its utility. In this article, we have reviewed the plethora of available OHAs along with the newer OHAs for managing T2DM optimally.

  6. Effect of oral hypoglycaemic agents on bone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Siddhartha Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporosis are the two important public health problems in India. The burden of both these conditions is expected to increase in the near future in view of changing lifestyle habits and ageing population. Indians are at risk of osteoporosis due to their low body mass index (BMI, genetic predisposition and nutritional factors. The diseases type 1 DM and type 2 DM (T2DM are associated with increased fracture risk in the disease population, in spite of difference in the bone mineral density (BMD. An increase in fracture risk is also reported among older patients with T2DM despite frequently reported normal or increased BMD. Administration of insulin stimulates osteoblast activity and bone mineral apposition rates. The impact of endogenous insulin production, insulin sensitivity, and exogenous insulin administration as an anabolic agent for bone in T2DM has not been clarified. Biguanides and sulphonylureas do not appear to have adverse effects on BMD. Preclinical evidence suggests that incretin-based drugs may be beneficial for bone, but clinical evidence to support this hypothesis is not yet available. Thiazolidinedione (TZD group of agents have been implicated in causing osteoporosis in various animal studies and some human studies available till date. The debate regarding this is issue is still ongoing. Randomized controlled studies with larger sample size preferably involving multiple centres, multiple ethnicities are required to answer these queries.

  7. 沿海和内地两家医院口服降糖药利用分析%Analysis on the Durg Utilization of Oral Hypoglycaemic Agents in an Inland Hospital and a Coastal Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫斌斌; 符成海

    2001-01-01

    To get information about the status of use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in an inland and coastal hospitals,the ordes of total cost and DDDs were employed to compare the use of oral hypoglycaemic agents in an inland hospital and a coastal hospital.Our results showed that the much less biguanides were used in the coastal hospital as compared with the inland hospital.It is conclinical practice included dimethyl biguanide,glipizide,gliclazide and glibenclamide.%目的:了解口服降糖药在沿海和内地两家医院的用药情况。方法:应用总金额排序法及用药频度(DDDs)排序法对1998~1999年沿海和内地两家医院口服降糖药的利用情况进行比较分析。结果:沿海地区使用双胍类降糖药的患者远远少于内地。结论:沿海地区肥胖型糖尿病患者少于内地。二甲双胍、格列吡嗪、格列齐特、格列本脲等目前用药活跃,仍为主要降糖药。

  8. Efficacy of Some Combination Regimens of Oral Hypoglycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights ... Hypoglycaemic Agents in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients ... levels induced by several OHA cobmination regimens were documented. ... highlighting the important benefits conferred by the use of multiple OHAs.

  9. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  10. Apollo raamatupood = Apollo bookstore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2009. a. kaupluse interjööri preemia pälvinud Apollo raamatukauplusest Solarise keskuses Tallinnas Estonia pst. 9. Sisekujunduse autorid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla ja Urmo Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio), loetletud nende töid

  11. Self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östenson, C G; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P; Lahtela, J

    2014-01-01

    routine appointments. CONCLUSION: Non-severe hypoglycaemic events are common amongst people with Type 1 diabetes and insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes in real-world settings. Many rarely or never inform their general practitioner/specialist about their hypoglycaemia and the real burden of hypoglycaemia may...

  12. Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Leptadenia hastata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and effective of such agent is insulin. A good number of .... degeneration of the adipocytes and muscle tissues to make up for ... actions of lipolytic hormones on the fat depots. Although an ... "Reversal of multidrug resistance in KB cells with tea.

  13. Apollo Surface Panoramas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Apollo Surface Panoramas is a digital library of photographic panoramas that the Apollo astronauts took while exploring the Moon's surface. These images provide a...

  14. Hypoglycaemic activity of an HMG-containing flavonoid glucoside, chamaemeloside, from Chamaemelum nobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, G M; Wright, A D; Keller, W J; Judd, R L; Bates, S; Day, C

    1998-10-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid (HMG) containing flavonoid glucoside chamaemeloside, has been determined to have in vivo hypoglycaemic activity comparable to that of free HMG. An improved isolation scheme for obtaining chamaemeloside from Chamaemelum nobile is presented.

  15. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...... of Apollo the nature god. Furthermore, Pater is engaging in a complex geopolitical argument, playing out German, French and English culture against each other, as he traces the survival of the pagan gods after the onset of Christianity. The myth of the Hyperborean Apollo is a myth about the North: where...... does it begin? Where does it end? Is it a place of light or of darkness? Pater’s dark Apollo challenges conventional notions of the sun god and testifies to the strong presence of paganism in Pater’s late writings....

  16. Study of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of Inula viscosa L. aqueous extract in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeggwagh, N-A; Ouahidi, M-L; Lemhadri, A; Eddouks, M

    2006-11-24

    The present study was designed to examine the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic activity of Inula viscsa aqueous extract on normal and diabetic rats. In normal rats, a significant reduction in blood glucose levels 2 h was observed after a single oral administration (pInula viscosa possess a hypoglycaemic but not hypolipidemic activity in normal and diabetic rats. The observed hypoglycaemic activity seems to be independent of insulin secretion.

  17. Bioavailability, tissue distribution and hypoglycaemic effect of vanadium in magnesium-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Cristina; Torres, Miguel; Bermúdez-Peña, María C; Aranda, Pilar; Montes-Bayón, María; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Llopis, Juan

    2011-12-01

    Vanadium is an element whose role as a micronutrient and hypoglycaemic drug has yet to be fully clarified. The present study was undertaken to investigate the bioavailability and tissue distribution of vanadium and its interactions with magnesium in healthy and in magnesium-deficient rats, in order to determine its role as a micronutrient and antidiabetic agent. Four groups were used: control (456.4 mg magnesium and 0.06 mg vanadium/kg food); control treated with 1mg vanadium/day; magnesium-deficient (164.4 mg magnesium/kg food and 0.06 mg vanadium/kg food); and magnesium-deficient treated with 1 mg vanadium/day. The vanadium was supplied in the drinking water as bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV). The experiment had a duration of five weeks. We measured vanadium and magnesium in excreta, serum, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver, adipose tissue and femur. Fasting glucose, insulin and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were studied. The vanadium treatment applied to the control rats reduced the absorption, retention, serum level and femur content of magnesium. Magnesium deficiency increased the retention and serum level of vanadium, the content of vanadium in the kidney, liver and femur (organs where magnesium had been depleted), serum glycaemia and insulin, and reduced TAS. V treatment given to magnesium-deficient rats corrected magnesium content in muscle, kidney and liver and levels of serum glucose, insulin and TAS. In conclusion, our results show interactions between magnesium and vanadium in the digestive and renal systems. Treatment with vanadium to magnesium-deficient rats corrected many of the alterations that had been generated by the magnesium deficiency.

  18. Apollo 15 Logo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is the Apollo 15 Moon landing mission logo. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. It was the first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions. The mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn Five rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  20. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    with Victorian science, mythography and folklore in the texts, in an attempt to map the topicality of his fiction. Although he chose historical settings in medieval France and eighteenth-century Germany for his tales, they reflect recent debates about the disappearance of the sun and the folkloristic animalism......Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...

  1. Reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) in daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, T; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Thorsteinsson, B

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Continuous glucose monitoring may reveal episodes of unrecognized hypoglycaemia. We evaluated reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded in daily life by the Medtronic MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). METHODS: Twenty-nine adult patients with Type 1...

  2. Apollo premeeris lugejate lemmikautoreid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Raamatupood Apollo kuulutas välja lugejate lemmikraamatud 2010: Mihkel Raua romaan "Sinine on sinu taevas", tõlketeostest Mika Waltari "Sinuhe : egiptlane", aja- ja elulooraamatutest Mart Laari "101 Eesti ajaloo sündmust", lasteraamatutest Andrus Kivirähki "Kaka ja kevad" ning luuleraamatutest Asko Künnapi, Jürgen Rooste ja Karl Martin Sinijärve "Eesti haiku"

  3. Apollo The Definitive Sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Orloff, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    On 25 May 1961, John F Kennedy announced the goal of landing an American man on the Moon by the end of the decade. This challenge forced NASA to review the planned lunar landing of a three-man spaceship named Apollo in the mid-1970s. In 1962, it was decided that a specialized vehicle would accompany the main spacecraft, to make the lunar landing while the mothership remained in lunar orbit. To send these vehicles to the Moon would require the development of an enormous rocket. Development was protracted, but in December 1968 Apollo 8 was launched on a pioneering mission to perform an initial reconnaissance in lunar orbit. When Apollo 17 lifted off from the Moon in December 1972, the program was concluded. Now, at long last, there is a real prospect of a resumption of human exploration of the Moon. This book provides an overview of the origins of the Apollo program and descriptions of the ground facilities, launch vehicles and spacecraft that will serve as an invaluable single-volume sourcebook for space enthu...

  4. Apollo 15 Crew Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is the official three-member crew portrait of the Apollo 15 (SA-510). Pictured from left to right are: David R. Scott, Mission Commander; Alfred M. Worden Jr., Command Module pilot; and James B. Irwin, Lunar Module pilot. The fifth marned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. The astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

  5. Apollo Lightcraft Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.; Smith, Wayne L. (Editor); Decusatis, Casimer; Frazier, Scott R.; Garrison, James L., Jr.; Meltzer, Jonathan S.; Minucci, Marco A.; Moder, Jeffrey P.; Morales, Ciro; Mueller, Mark T.

    1988-01-01

    This second year of the NASA/USRA-sponsored Advanced Aeronautical Design effort focused on systems integration and analysis of the Apollo Lightcraft. This beam-powered, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is envisioned as the shuttlecraft of the 21st century. The five person vehicle was inspired largely by the Apollo Command Module, then reconfigured to include a new front seat with dual cockpit controls for the pilot and co-pilot, while still retaining the 3-abreast crew accommodations in the rear seat. The gross liftoff mass is 5550 kg, of which 500 kg is the payload and 300 kg is the LH2 propellant. The round trip cost to orbit is projected to be three orders of magnitude lower than the current space shuttle orbiter. The advanced laser-driven 5-speed combined-cycle engine has shiftpoints at Mach 1, 5, 11 and 25+. The Apollo Lightcraft can climb into low Earth orbit in three minutes, or fly to any spot on the globe in less than 45 minutes. Detailed investigations of the Apollo Lightcraft Project this second year further evolved the propulsion system design, while focusing on the following areas: (1) man/machine interface; (2) flight control systems; (3) power beaming system architecture; (4) re-entry aerodynamics; (5) shroud structural dynamics; and (6) optimal trajectory analysis. The principal new findings are documented. Advanced design efforts for the next academic year (1988/1989) will center on a one meter+ diameter spacecraft: the Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD). Detailed engineering design and analyses, as well as critical proof-of-concept experiments, will be carried out on this small, near-term machine. As presently conceived, the LTD could be constructed using state of the art components derived from existing liquid chemical rocket engine technology, advanced composite materials, and high power laser optics.

  6. Neonatal hypoglycaemic encephalopathy: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Yeon; Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Lim, Keun Ho; Kim, Sang Tae [Asan Institute for Life Science, NMR Laboratory, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Ki Soo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neonatology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-02-01

    We report two infants with neonatal hypoglycaemic encephalopathy who were evaluated with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) as well as conventional MR. As in conventional MR, DWI and proton MRS revealed a predominance of abnormalities in the parieto-occipital lobes and underlying white matter including the splenium of the corpus callosum. In the acute phase of the disease, lesions on DWI showed restricted water diffusion and on DWI the characteristic lesions seemed to be more readily discernible than on conventional MRI. In the chronic phase, DWI demonstrated increased water diffusion in the affected areas showing atrophy on conventional MRI. Proton MRS revealed an increased lactate-lipid peak and a decreased NAA peak in the involved areas. DWI and proton MRS findings appear helpful in evaluating the extent and the presence of neuronal damage early in the course of neonatal hypoglycaemic encephalopathy. (orig.)

  7. Apollo 15 Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The fifth marned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander David R. Scott, Lunar Module pilot James B. Irwin, and Command Module pilot Alfred M. Worden Jr., lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle, or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. Astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

  8. Design and Synthesis of Pyrazole-3-one Derivatives as Hypoglycaemic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna A. Datar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrazole-3-one compounds were designed on the basis of docking studies of previously reported antidiabetic pyrazole compounds. The amino acid residues found during docking studies were used as guidelines for the modification of aromatic substitutions on pyrazole-3-one structure. Depending on the docking score, the designed compounds were selectively prioritized for synthesis. The synthesized compounds were subjected to in vivo hypoglycemic activity using alloxan induced diabetic rats and metformin as a standard. Compound 4 having sulphonamide derivative was found to be the most potent compound among the series.

  9. APOLLO 15 Galileo's Gravity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 15: A demonstration of a classic experiment. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 15 'The mountains of the Moon''', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 15: Fourth manned lunar landing with David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden, and James B. Irwin. Landed at Hadley rilleon July 30, 1971;performed EVA with Lunar Roving Vehicle; deployed experiments. P& F Subsattelite spring-launched from SM in lunar orbit. Mission Duration 295 hrs 11 min 53sec

  10. Hypoglycaemic effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of Ajuga iva in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hilaly, Jaouad; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypoglycaemic effect of the lyophilised aqueous extract of the whole plant of Ajuga iva (L.) Schreber (Labiatae) in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Single and repeated oral administration of the extract of Ajuga iva L (AI) at a dose of 10 mg/kg produced a slight and significant decrease in plasma glucose levels in normal rats 6 h after administration and after 3 weeks of treatment. AI reduced plasma glucose levels of streptozotocin diabetic rats from 337+/-9.3 to 102.2+/-17.7 mg/dl after 6 h of oral administration (P<0.001). Repeated oral administration of AI to streptozotocin diabetic rats significantly decreased the plasma glucose levels after 1 week of treatment (112+/-14.4 mg/dl at 1 week vs 337+/-9.3 mg/dl at the baseline values, (P<0.001). It continuously decreased thereafter and showed a rapid normalisation after 1 week of AI treatment. It is concluded that these results demonstrated that the water extract of the whole plant of AI possess a strong hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic rats, and support therefore, its traditional use in diabetes mellitus control.

  11. Hypoglycaemic activity of extracts from soft corals of Andaman and Nicobar coasts in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, S; Satyavati, D; Rao, D V

    2000-02-01

    The ethylacetate extract of soft corals collected from Andaman and Nicobar Coasts were screened for hypoglycaemic activity in fasting rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups. Group I received 0.5 ml of 5% gum acacia suspension (control). Group II received the extract of Cladiella australis (CAS), at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Group III received the extract of Sinularia new species (SNS), at a dose of 75 mg/kg. Group IV received the extract of Lamnalia new species (LNS), at a dose of 400 mg/kg and Group V received the extract of 250MF-CBR-13 at a dose of 250 mg/kg. All extracts were administered orally. Blood samples, collected before the administration of test extracts and also at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr after treatment, were analysed for glucose content. The percentage blood glucose reduction from that of control was also calculated. A very promising hypoglycaemic activity was observed in rats with CAS at 8 hr (42.3%), with SNS at 4 hr (28.34%) and 6 hr (40.6%), with LNS at 6 hr (32.38%) and with MF-CBR-13 at 6 hr (20.25%).

  12. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  13. Chelating, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. bulb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibition of Muscari comosum extracts have been investigated. M. comosum bulbs contain a total amount of the phenols with a value of 56.6 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a flavonoid content of 23.4 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. In order to evaluate the non-polar constituents, n-hexane extract was obtained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids and ethyl esters as major constituents, with different aldehydes and alkanes as minor components. Ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (66.7 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC₅₀) value of 40.9 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited a good hypoglycaemic activity with IC₅₀ values of 81.3 and 112.8 μg/ml for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. In conclusion, M. comosum bulbs show promising antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from a functional point of view and for the revalorization of this ancient non-cultivated vegetable of Mediterranean traditional gastronomy.

  14. Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. Tracking Apollo to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Lindsay, Hamish

    2001-01-01

    This is perhaps the most complete, detailed and readable story of manned space-flight ever published Beginning with the historical origins of the dream of walking on the Moon, Tracking Apollo to the Moon is the complete story of manned spaceflight, from the earliest Mercury and Gemini flights through to the end of the Apollo era In readable, fascinating detail, Hamish Lindsay - who was directly involved in all three programs - chronicles mankind's greatest adventure with a great narrative, interviews, quotes and masses of photographs, including some previously unpublished As well as bringing the history of these missions to life Tracking Apollo to the Moon serves as a detailed reference for space enthusiasts and students Having seen the manuscript, the Smithsonian requested two copies of the finished book, and Buzz Aldrin asked for five!

  16. Non-cell autonomous influence of the astrocyte system xc− on hypoglycaemic neuronal cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Hewett

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite longstanding evidence that hypoglycaemic neuronal injury is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that the excitotoxic neuronal death that follows GD (glucose deprivation is initiated by glutamate extruded from astrocytes via system xc− – an amino acid transporter that imports l-cystine and exports l-glutamate. Specifically, we find that depriving mixed cortical cell cultures of glucose for up to 8 h injures neurons, but not astrocytes. Neuronal death is prevented by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonism and is partially sensitive to tetanus toxin. Removal of amino acids during the deprivation period prevents – whereas addition of l-cystine restores – GD-induced neuronal death, implicating the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc−. Indeed, drugs known to inhibit system xc− ameliorate GD-induced neuronal death. Further, a dramatic reduction in neuronal death is observed in chimaeric cultures consisting of neurons derived from WT (wild-type mice plated on top of astrocytes derived from sut mice, which harbour a naturally occurring null mutation in the gene (Slc7a11 that encodes the substrate-specific light chain of system xc− (xCT. Finally, enhancement of astrocytic system xc− expression and function via IL-1β (interleukin-1β exposure potentiates hypoglycaemic neuronal death, the process of which is prevented by removal of l-cystine and/or addition of system xc− inhibitors. Thus, under the conditions of GD, our studies demonstrate that astrocytes, via system xc−, have a direct, non-cell autonomous effect on cortical neuron survival.

  17. Non-cell autonomous influence of the astrocyte system xc- on hypoglycaemic neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Nicole A; Melchior, Shannon E; Hewett, James A; Hewett, Sandra J

    2012-02-08

    Despite longstanding evidence that hypoglycaemic neuronal injury is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that the excitotoxic neuronal death that follows GD (glucose deprivation) is initiated by glutamate extruded from astrocytes via system xc---an amino acid transporter that imports L-cystine and exports L-glutamate. Specifically, we find that depriving mixed cortical cell cultures of glucose for up to 8 h injures neurons, but not astrocytes. Neuronal death is prevented by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonism and is partially sensitive to tetanus toxin. Removal of amino acids during the deprivation period prevents--whereas addition of L-cystine restores--GD-induced neuronal death, implicating the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc-. Indeed, drugs known to inhibit system xc- ameliorate GD-induced neuronal death. Further, a dramatic reduction in neuronal death is observed in chimaeric cultures consisting of neurons derived from WT (wild-type) mice plated on top of astrocytes derived from sut mice, which harbour a naturally occurring null mutation in the gene (Slc7a11) that encodes the substrate-specific light chain of system xc- (xCT). Finally, enhancement of astrocytic system xc- expression and function via IL-1β (interleukin-1β) exposure potentiates hypoglycaemic neuronal death, the process of which is prevented by removal of l-cystine and/or addition of system xc- inhibitors. Thus, under the conditions of GD, our studies demonstrate that astrocytes, via system xc-, have a direct, non-cell autonomous effect on cortical neuron survival.

  18. Non-Cell Autonomous Influence of the Astrocyte System xc − on Hypoglycaemic Neuronal Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Jackman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite longstanding evidence that hypoglycaemic neuronal injury is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that the excitotoxic neuronal death that follows GD (glucose deprivation is initiated by glutamate extruded from astrocytes via system xc −– – an amino acid transporter that imports L-cystine and exports L-glutamate. Specifically, we find that depriving mixed cortical cell cultures of glucose for up to 8 h injures neurons, but not astrocytes. Neuronal death is prevented by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonism and is partially sensitive to tetanus toxin. Removal of amino acids during the deprivation period prevents – whereas addition of L-cystine restores – GD-induced neuronal death, implicating the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc−–. Indeed, drugs known to inhibit system xc −– ameliorate GD-induced neuronal death. Further, a dramatic reduction in neuronal death is observed in chimaeric cultures consisting of neurons derived from WT (wild-type mice plated on top of astrocytes derived from sut mice, which harbour a naturally occurring null mutation in the gene (Slc7a11 that encodes the substrate-specific light chain of system xc −– (xCT. Finally, enhancement of astrocytic system xc −– expression and function via IL-1β (interleukin-1β exposure potentiates hypoglycaemic neuronal death, the process of which is prevented by removal of L-cystine and/or addition of system xc −– inhibitors. Thus, under the conditions of GD, our studies demonstrate that astrocytes, via system xc −–, have a direct, non-cell autonomous effect on cortical neuron survival.

  19. Apollo Director Phillips Monitors Apollo 11 Pre-Launch Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    From the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) control room, Apollo Program Director Lieutenant General Samuel C. Phillips monitors pre-launch activities for Apollo 11. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the KSC in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  20. How to find the Apollo landing sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2014-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to be able to connect the history of lunar exploration to the Moon visible above. It addresses what Apollo equipment and experiments were left behind and what the Apollo landings sites look like now. Each Apollo mission is examined in detail, with photos that progressively zoom-in to guide the reader in locating the Apollo landing sites. Guided by official NASA photographs from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the original Apollo missions, the reader can view the Moon with a new appreciation of the accomplishment of landing astronauts on its surface.  Countless people have gazed at the Moon in the night sky knowing the successes of the Apollo Program in landing men on the Moon. After the information in this guide, casual and serious observers can actually point out where the Apollo landings occurred as well as knowing why those sites were chosen.

  1. The prologue - A look at Apollo and Apollo/Soyuz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.; Lyman, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of man to the success of the Apollo missions is considered, giving attention to man's capabilities to provide rapid response to emergencies, the ability to carry out self-contained operations in the absence of communication with the ground, and the ability for rapid sensing, reaction, and vehicle control. In the upcoming Shuttle era the capabilities possessed by man are to be further utilized. The concern for the safety of men in space is one of the major reasons for the flight of the Apollo/Soyuz test project. Details regarding this project are discussed, taking into account the mission profile, hardware, program organization, mission communication modes, tracking, the participating astronauts and cosmonauts, and scientific studies.

  2. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  3. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, John A O

    2006-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of Zingiber officinale dried rhizomes ethanol extract (ZOE) in mice and rats. The analgesic effect of ZOE was evaluated by 'hot-plate' and 'acetic acid' analgesic test methods in mice; while the antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of the plant extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced pedal oedema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus models. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg) and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) were used as reference drugs for comparison. ZOE (50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent, significant (p diabetic rats. The findings of this experimental animal study indicate that Zingiber officinale rhizomes ethanol extract possesses analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic properties; and thus lend pharmacological support to folkloric, ethnomedical uses of ginger in the treatment and/or management of painful, arthritic inflammatory conditions, as well as in the management and/or control of type 2 diabetes mellitus in some rural Africa communities.

  4. APOLLO 13: The Spirit that Built America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: Nixon commends the crew of APOLLO 13 From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  5. Apollo Telescope Mount Spar Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard the Skylab. The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image shows the ATM spar assembly. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the 10-foot long canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into the rack, a complex frame, and was protected by the solar shield.

  6. Pituitary Adenlylate Cyclase Activating Peptide Protects Adult Neural Stem Cells from a Hypoglycaemic milieu.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mansouri

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemia is a common side-effect of glucose-lowering therapies for type-2 diabetic patients, which may cause cognitive/neurological impairment. Although the effects of hypoglycaemia in the brain have been extensively studied in neurons, how hypoglycaemia impacts the viability of adult neural stem cells (NSCs has been poorly investigated. In addition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of how hypoglycaemia regulates NSCs survival have not been characterized. Recent work others and us have shown that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 stimulate NSCs survival against glucolipoapoptosis. The aim of this study was to establish an in vitro system where to study the effects of hypoglycaemia on NSC survival. Furthermore, we determine the potential role of PACAP and Exendin-4 in counteracting the effect of hypoglycaemia. A hypoglycaemic in vitro milieu was mimicked by exposing subventricular zone-derived NSC to low levels of glucose. Moreover, we studied the potential involvement of apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress by quantifying protein levels of Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mRNA levels of CHOP. We show that PACAP via PAC-1 receptor and PKA activation counteracts impaired NSC viability induced by hypoglycaemia. The protective effect induced by PACAP correlated with endoplasmic reticulum stress, Exendin-4 was ineffective. The results show that hypoglycaemia decreases NSC viability and that this effect can be substantially counteracted by PACAP via PAC-1 receptor activation. The data supports a potential therapeutic role of PAC-1 receptor agonists for the treatment of neurological complications, based on neurogenesis impairment by hypoglycaemia.

  7. Hypoglycaemic activity of Gentiana olivieri and isolation of the active constituent through bioassay-directed fractionation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezik, Ekrem; Aslan, Mustafa; Yesilada, Erdem; Ito, Shigeru

    2005-01-28

    Hypoglycemic effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on oral administration were studied using in vivo models in normal, glucose-hyperglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Through in vivo bioassay-guided fractionation processes isoorientin, a known C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the ethylacetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography as the main active ingredient from the plant. Isoorientin exhibited significant hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects at 15 mg/kg b.w.dose. Isoorientin concentration of the extracts and fractions were determined by HPLC in order to establish a correlation between the hypoglycaemic activity.

  8. Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A; Wali, Adil F; Malik, Akhtar H; Dar, Mohammad Y; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.

  9. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong talks with a former Apollo team member during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  10. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  11. APOLLO 13: A News Bulletin from ABC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: ABC breaks the news of a mishap aboard the spacecraft From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  12. APOLLO 13: The crew beats the odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: The world holds its breath as the astronauts try to survive the final moments of their voyage From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  13. APOLLO 13: The Crew Makes Emergency Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: Support on the ground design emergency equipment for the crew of Aquarius, and then radio instructions From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  14. Apollo for Adobe Flex Developers Pocket Guide A Developer's Reference for Apollo's Alpha Release

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Swartz, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Now you can build and deploy Flash-based Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) to the desktop using Adobe's Flex framework. Written by members of the Apollo product team, this is the official guide to the Alpha release of Adobe Apollo, the new cross platform desktop runtime from Adobe Labs. Numerous examples illustrate how Apollo works so you can start building RIAs for the desktop right away.

  15. Paraneoplastic Recurrent Hypoglycaemic Seizures: An Initial Presentation of Hepatoblastoma in an Adolescent Male—A Rare Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irappa Madabhavi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoblastoma (HB is a rare malignant tumour of the liver and usually occurs in the first three years of life. Hepatoblastoma in adolescents and young adults is extremely rare; nevertheless the prognosis is much worse than in childhood, because these kinds of tumours are usually diagnosed late. Characteristic imaging and histopathological and AFP levels help in the diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. Paraneoplastic features of hepatoblastoma are not uncommon at presentation and include erythrocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypocalcaemia, isosexual precocious puberty, and rarely hypoglycaemia. Even though hypoglycaemia is commonly seen in hepatocellular carcinoma, its association with hepatoblastoma is very rare. We present a case of 15-year-old male patient presenting with complaints of recurrent hypoglycaemic seizures ultimately leading to diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. Managed successfully with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy with adriamycin and cisplatin based regimens. An extensive review of literature in the PubMed and MEDLINE did not reveal much data on paraneoplastic recurrent hypoglycaemic seizures as an initial presentation of hepatoblastomas in adolescents and young adults.

  16. The aqueous extract of Asparagus officinalis L. by-product exerts hypoglycaemic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Wen; Zhu, Xinglei; Zhao, Di; Wang, Ke; Wang, Ruipo; Qu, Weijing

    2011-08-30

    The inedible bottom part of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears, around one-third to one-half of the total length, is always discarded as by-product. Since it still contains various bioactive substances, this by-product might have potential usage in food supplements for its therapeutic effects. In this study the hypoglycaemic effect of the aqueous extract of asparagus by-product (AEA) was evaluated in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model. Continuous administration of AEA for 21 days significantly decreased fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels but markedly increased body weight and hepatic glycogen level in diabetic rats. In an oral glucose tolerance test, both the blood glucose level measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after glucose loading and the area under the glucose curve showed a significant decrease after AEA treatment. The results of this study demonstrate that AEA has hypoglycaemic and hypotriglyceridaemic functions, suggesting that it might be useful in preventing diabetic complications associated with hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  18. The Apollo passive seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  19. Apollo scientific experiments data handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelman, W. F. (Editor); Lauderdale, W. W. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A brief description of each of the Apollo scientific experiments was described, together with its operational history, the data content and formats, and the availability of the data. The lunar surface experiments described are the passive seismic, active seismic, lunar surface magnetometer, solar wind spectrometer, suprathermal ion detector, heat flow, charged particle, cold cathode gage, lunar geology, laser ranging retroreflector, cosmic ray detector, lunar portable magnetometer, traverse gravimeter, soil mechanics, far UV camera (lunar surface), lunar ejecta and meteorites, surface electrical properties, lunar atmospheric composition, lunar surface gravimeter, lunar seismic profiling, neutron flux, and dust detector. The orbital experiments described are the gamma-ray spectrometer, X-ray fluorescence, alpha-particle spectrometer, S-band transponder, mass spectrometer, far UV spectrometer, bistatic radar, IR scanning radiometer, particle shadows, magnetometer, lunar sounder, and laser altimeter. A brief listing of the mapping products available and information on the sample program were also included.

  20. Origin of Apollo 17 rocks and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, S.; Kouns, C. W.; Lum, R. K. L.; Winzer, S.

    1974-01-01

    Lithophile trace element abundances have been determined by mass spectrometric isotope dilution for a suite of Apollo 17 samples. The six mare basalts have generally similar relative trace element abundances; they are also similar to Apollo 11 trace element poor basalts. It is suggested that these basalts were derived by partial fusion of cumulates. The Apollo 17 highland breccias show an order of magnitude range in trace element abundances although there is a clustering of KREEP-rich samples which are interpreted as mixtures. The Apollo 17 soils show only a limited range of trace element abundances. They are mixtures of highland breccias, mare basalts, and orange-black 'soil'. There appear to be two groups of soils, Light Mantle and the rest. Both groups seem to have the same basalt component, which is similar to Station 4 basalt from Shorty Crater and probably is the uppermost basalt unit throughout the Taurus-Littrow valley.

  1. Hypoglycaemic activity of culinary Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus mushrooms in healthy volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients on diet control and the possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, W J A Banukie N; Wanigatunge, Chandanie A; Fernando, Gita H; Abeytunga, D Thusitha U; Suresh, T Sugandhika

    2015-02-01

    This study determined the oral hypoglycaemic effect of suspensions of freeze dried and powdered (SFDP) Pleurotus ostreatus (P.o) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (P.c), using healthy human volunteers and Type 2 diabetic patients on diet control at a dose of 50 mg/kg/body weight, followed by a glucose load. The possible hypoglycaemic mechanisms were evaluated using rats, by examining intestinal glucose absorption and serum levels of insulin, glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK). The P.o and P.c showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels of healthy volunteers and reduced the postprandial serum glucose levels and increased the serum insulin levels (P < 0.05) of Type 2 diabetic patients. The P.o and P.c increased the intestinal absorption of glucose but simultaneously reduced the serum glucose levels (P < 0.05) in rats. Both mushrooms reduced the serum GSK and promoted insulin secretion while P.c increased serum GK (P < 0.05). The hypoglycaemic activity of P.o and P.c makes mushrooms beneficial functional foods in diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of hypoglycaemic activity of P.o and P.c is possibly by increasing GK activity and promoting insulin secretion and thereby increasing the utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, inhibiting GSK and promoting glycogen synthesis.

  2. Use of household ingredients as Complementary medicines for perceived hypoglycaemic benefit among Sri Lankan diabetic patients; a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna Bandara Medagama

    2015-06-01

    The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored with regard to their hypoglycaemic potential. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 138-142

  3. Vertical view Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed by Apollo 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An almost vertical view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed from the Apollo 14 spacecraft. Overlays are provided to point out extravehicular activity (EVA), Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) travers routes and the nicknames of features. The Roman numerals indicate the EVA numbers and the Arabic numbers point out stations or traverse stops.

  4. APOLLO_NG – a probabilistic interpretation of the APOLLO legacy for AVHRR heritage channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Klüser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The cloud processing scheme APOLLO (Avhrr Processing scheme Over cLouds, Land and Ocean has been in use for cloud detection and cloud property retrieval since the late 1980s. The physics of the APOLLO scheme still build the backbone of a range of cloud detection algorithms for AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer heritage instruments. The APOLLO_NG (APOLLO_NextGeneration cloud processing scheme is a probabilistic interpretation of the original APOLLO method. While building upon the physical principles having served well in the original APOLLO a couple of additional variables have been introduced in APOLLO_NG. Cloud detection is not performed as a binary yes/no decision based on these physical principals but is expressed as cloud probability for each satellite pixel. Consequently the outcome of the algorithm can be tuned from clear confident to cloud confident depending on the purpose. The probabilistic approach allows to retrieving not only the cloud properties (optical depth, effective radius, cloud top temperature and cloud water path but also their uncertainties. APOLLO_NG is designed as a standalone cloud retrieval method robust enough for operational near-realtime use and for the application with large amounts of historical satellite data. Thus the radiative transfer solution is approximated by the same two stream approach which also had been used for the original APOLLO. This allows the algorithm to be robust enough for being applied to a wide range of sensors without the necessity of sensor-specific tuning. Moreover it allows for online calculation of the radiative transfer (i.e. within the retrieval algorithm giving rise to a detailed probabilistic treatment of cloud variables. This study presents the algorithm for cloud detection and cloud property retrieval together with the physical principles from the APOLLO legacy it is based on. Furthermore a couple of example results from on NOAA-18 are presented.

  5. Potent hypoglycaemic activity of the aqueous extract of Chamaemelum nobile in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddouks, M; Lemhadri, A; Zeggwagh, N A; Michel, J-B

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of both a single dose and daily oral administration for 15 days of the aqueous extract of the aerial part of Chamaemelum nobile (C. nobile) at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight on blood glucose concentrations and basal insulin levels in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ). Single oral administration of C. nobile aqueous extract reduced blood glucose levels from 6.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/l to 4.9 +/- 0.09 mmol/l (P nobile exhibits a significant hypoglycaemic effect in normal and STZ diabetic rats without affecting basal plasma insulin concentrations and support, therefore, its traditional use by the Moroccan population.

  6. Hypoglycaemic Effects of Dietary Intake of Ripe and Unripe Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomatoes on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Akinnuga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and unripe tomatoes have been implicated in prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer probably due to their antioxidant, antibiotic, antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties. Problem statement: This study was designed to investigate whether ripe and unripe tomatoes will have hypoglycaemic effect in a chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus that has been characterized with hyperglycaemia. Approach: Twenty albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (2 control and 2 test groups of 5 rats each. The normal and diabetic control groups were given citrate buffer (intraperitoneally and normal rat chow and 65 mg kg-1 streptozotocin (intraperitoneally and normal rat chow respectively. The test groups were given 65 mg kg-1 streptozotocin via intraperitoneal route and either a mixture of ripe or unripe tomato and normal rat chow. In all groups, the blood samples were obtained at the tail vein of the animals and the fasting blood glucose level were monitored and determined on the 1st, 3rd and 14th day of consumption of different feed combinations. Results: There was significant difference in blood glucose level in animals fed on ripe and unripe Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato compared to the normal and diabetic control groups on the 3rd and 14th day without significant difference on the 1st day. Conclusion: Both high-lycopene ripe tomato and high-tomatine unripe tomato have hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic mellitus at short period of dietary intake therefore this suggest that consumers may benefit by not only eating high-lycopene ripe tomatoes, but also high-tomatine unripe tomatoes.

  7. Studies on phytochemical, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic and antiproliferative activities of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarland, Rayn Clarenc; Bañuelos-Hernández, Angel Ernesto; Fragoso-Serrano, Mabel; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar Del Carmen; Díaz de León-Sánchez, Fernando; Pérez-Flores, Laura Josefina; Rivera-Cabrera, Fernando; Mendoza-Espinoza, José Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Echinacea (Asteraceae) is used because of its pharmacological properties. However, there are few studies that integrate phytochemical analyses with pharmacological effects. Evaluate the chemical profile and biological activity of hydroalcoholic Echinacea extracts. Density, dry matter, phenols (Folin-Ciocalteu method), flavonoids (AlCl3 method), alkylamides (GC-MS analysis), antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS methods), antiproliferative effect (SRB assay), anti-inflammatory effect (paw oedema assay, 11 days/Wistar rats; 0.4 mL/kg) and hypoglycaemic effect (33 days/Wistar rats; 0.4 mL/kg) were determined in three Echinacea extracts which were labelled as A, B and C (A, roots of Echinacea purpurea L. Moench; B, roots, leaves, flowers and seeds of Echinacea purpurea; C, aerial parts and roots of Echinacea purpurea and roots of Echinacea angustifolia DC). Extract C showed higher density (0.97 g/mL), dry matter (0.23 g/mL), phenols (137.5 ± 2.3 mEAG/mL), flavonoids (0.62 ± 0.02 mEQ/mL), and caffeic acid (0.048 mg/L) compared to A and B. A, B presented 11 alkylamides, whereas C presented those 11 and three more. B decreased the oedema (40%) on day 2 similar to indomethacin. A and C showed hypoglycaemic activity similar to glibenclamide. Antiproliferative effect was only detected for C (IC50 270 μg/mL; 8171 μg/mL; 9338 μg/mL in HeLa, MCF-7, HCT-15, respectively). The difference in the chemical and pharmacological properties among extracts highlights the need to consider strategies and policies for standardization of commercial herbal extracts in order to guarantee the safety and identity of this type of products.

  8. Apollo2Go: a web service adapter for the Apollo genome viewer to enable distributed genome annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Klaus FX

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apollo, a genome annotation viewer and editor, has become a widely used genome annotation and visualization tool for distributed genome annotation projects. When using Apollo for annotation, database updates are carried out by uploading intermediate annotation files into the respective database. This non-direct database upload is laborious and evokes problems of data synchronicity. Results To overcome these limitations we extended the Apollo data adapter with a generic, configurable web service client that is able to retrieve annotation data in a GAME-XML-formatted string and pass it on to Apollo's internal input routine. Conclusion This Apollo web service adapter, Apollo2Go, simplifies the data exchange in distributed projects and aims to render the annotation process more comfortable. The Apollo2Go software is freely available from ftp://ftpmips.gsf.de/plants/apollo_webservice.

  9. Apollo 12 - On the Ocean of Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David

    2011-01-01

    With its two moonwalks, deployment of a geophysical station and geological sampling, Apollo 12 did what many had hoped would be achieved by the first men to land on the Moon. It spectacularly demonstrated the precision landing capability required for the success of future lunar surface explorations. Apollo 12 - On the Ocean of Storms contains over 30 page of color images, including high-resolution scans recently produced by NASA from the original Hasselblad film; covers the mission from its planning through to completion; includes conversations among the crew in the spacecraft that were not transmitted; in the definitive 'popular' account of this mission. This is the first time in 40 years that the story of the Apollo 12 mission to the Moon has bene told in its entirety, using official documents, flight transcripts, and post-mission debriefing to recreate the drama.

  10. Apollo Program Summary Report: Synopsis of the Apollo Program Activities and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Overall program activities and the technology developed to accomplish lunar exploration are discussed. A summary of the flights conducted over an 11-year period is presented along with specific aspects of the overall program, including lunar science, vehicle development and performance, lunar module development program, spacecraft development testing, flight crew summary, mission operations, biomedical data, spacecraft manufacturing and testing, launch site facilities, equipment, and prelaunch operations, and the lunar receiving laboratory. Appendixes provide data on each of the Apollo missions, mission type designations, spacecraft weights, records achieved by Apollo crewmen, vehicle histories, and a listing of anomalous hardware conditions noted during each flight beginning with Apollo 4.

  11. The code APOLLO. A general description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, A.

    1971-01-15

    The code APOLLO, written in Saclay at the Service de Physique Mathematique, makes it possible to calculate the space and energy dependent direct or adjoint flux for a one dimensional medium, by the solution of the integral form of the transport equation, in the multigroup approximation. In particular, the properties of a reactor cell and of a group of interacting cells can be obtained with APOLLO. The code can be used in plane, cylindrical or sperical geometries. The fluxes can be calculated with the following approximations: isotropic collision, transprot correction, and linearly anisotropic collision (B{sub 1} method).

  12. Apollo 11 Celebration at Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    NASA and Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) officials join the flight controllers in celebrating the conclusion of the Apollo 11 mission. From left foreground Dr. Maxime A. Faget, MSC Director of Engineering and Development; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director; Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director fo Flight Operations; Julian Scheer (in back), Assistant Adminstrator, Office of Public Affairs, NASA HQ.; George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director; and Charles W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ.

  13. Apollo raamatupood = Apollo bookstore / Urmo Vaikla, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla ; intervjueerinud Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaikla, Urmo, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Solarise Keskuses (Estonia pst. 9) paikneva Apollo raamatukaupluse sisekujundusest. Sisearhitektid Urmo Vaikla ja Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio OÜ). Arhitekt Raivo Puusepp (AB Raivo Puusepp OÜ)

  14. The Apollo fallacy and its effect on US energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Peter Z. [Butler University, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2009-10-15

    US Policy makers have made continual references to the Apollo Program as a model for development of alternative energy technologies. This model, however, is inappropriate for energy policy, and its use is termed the Apollo fallacy. The goal of the Apollo Program was the demonstration of engineering prowess while any alternative energy technology must succeed in the marketplace. Several Apollo-like energy programs have been tried and all have failed at high cost. It is argued that the use of Apollo has political benefits but that it is detrimental to the adoption of potentially effective energy policies. (author)

  15. Lunar cartography with the Apollo 17 ALSE radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiernan, M.; Roth, L.; Thompson, T. W.; Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar position differences between thirteen craters in Mare Serenitatis were computed from VHF radar-imagery obtained by the Lunar Sounder instrument flown on the Apollo 17 command module. The radar-derived position differences agree with those obtained by conventional photogrammetric reductions of Apollo metric photography. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the Apollo Lunar Sounder data to determine the positions of lunar features along the Apollo 17 orbital tracks. This will be particularly useful for western limb and farside areas, where no Apollo metric camera pictures are available.

  16. APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  17. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, W David

    2011-01-01

    This new and expanded edition of the bestselling How Apollo Flew to the Moon tells the exciting story of how the Apollo missions were conducted and follows a virtual flight to the Moon and back. New material includes: - the exploration of the lunar surface; - more illustrations; - more technical explanations and anecdotes. From launch to splashdown, hitch a ride in the incredible Apollo spaceships, the most sophisticated machines of their time. Explore each step of the journey and glimpse the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. Although the tremendous technological accomplishments are well documented, the human dimension is not forgotten, and the book calls on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. A wealth of fascinating and accessible material is provided, including: the role of the powerful Saturn V; the reasoning  behind trajectories; the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health; the triumphs and difficulties of working in...

  18. Apollo experience report environmental acceptance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, C. H. M.

    1976-01-01

    Environmental acceptance testing was used extensively to screen selected spacecraft hardware for workmanship defects and manufacturing flaws. The minimum acceptance levels and durations and methods for their establishment are described. Component selection and test monitoring, as well as test implementation requirements, are included. Apollo spacecraft environmental acceptance test results are summarized, and recommendations for future programs are presented.

  19. Paving the Way for Apollo 11

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2009-01-01

    In 'Paving the Way for Apollo 11' David Harland explains the lure of the Moon to classical philosophers, astronomers, and geologists, and how NASA set out to investigate the Moon in preparation for a manned lunar landing mission. It focuses particularly on the Lunar Orbiter and Surveyor missions.

  20. Apollo 14 mission circuit breaker anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Continuity through the circuit breaker in the mechanically closed condition was prevented by a foreign substance on the contact surface onboard Apollo 14. It was concluded that this was the only failure of this type in over 3400 units that were flown, and since no circuit breaker is a single-point failure for crew safety or mission success, no corrective action was taken.

  1. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  2. Glycaemic control and prevalence of hypoglycaemic events in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavšić Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An ideal insulin regimen for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM should be physiological, flexibile and predictable, protecting against hypoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of insulin analogues on glycaemic control and the occurrence of hypoglycaemic episodes in children and adolescents with T1DM. Methods. The study group consisted of 151 children and adolescents (90 boys, 61 girls treated with human insulins for at least 12 months before introducing insulin analogues. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I consisted of 72 (47.7% patients treated with three injections of regular human insulin before meals and long-acting analogue (RHI/LA, and the group II of 79 (52.3% patients treated with a combination of rapid-acting and long-acting analogue (RA/LA. The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes were assessed at the beginning of therapy with insulin analogues, and after 6 and 12 months. Results. The mean HbA1c was significantly lower in the group I (RHI/LA after 6 months (9.15% vs 8.20%, p < 0.001 and after 12 months (9.15% vs 8.13%, p < 0.001 as well as in the group II (RA/LA after 6 months (9.40% vs 8.24%, p < 0.001 and after 12 months of insulin analogues treatment (9.40% vs 8.38%, p < 0.001. The frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly lower in both groups after 6 months (in the group I from 61.1% to 4.2% and in the group II from 54.4% to 1.3%, p < 0.001, and after 12 months (in the group I from 61.1% to 1.4% and in the group II from 54.4% to 1.3%, p < 0.001. Conclusion. Significantly better HbA1c values and lower risk of severe hypoglycaemia were established in children and adolescents with T1DM treated with insulin analogues.

  3. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Mushtaq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001; this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05, while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.

  4. Effects of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) as a co-emulsifier on the preparation and hypoglycaemic activity of insulin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S L; Xie, S Y; Zhu, L Y; Wang, F H; Zhou, W Z

    2009-12-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) was used as a co-emulsifier in the preparation of insulin-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) with hydrogenated castor oil as lipid matrix and lecithin as surfactant by double-emulsion technique. The effects of PLGA on the preparation and hypoglycaemic activity of insulin-loaded SLN were studied. The results showed that with the supplement of PLGA, the encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were increased significantly from 79.08 +/- 1.62 to 85.57 +/- 3.21% and 1.58 +/- 0.03 to 1.71 +/- 0.06%, whereas the surface charge and particle size were changed insignificantly from -25.87 +/- 2.65 to -22.67 +/- 1.19 mv and 431.0 +/- 16.1 to 397.0 +/- 68.0 nm, respectively. In vivo studies demonstrated that PLGA increased the sustained hypoglycaemic activity from 12 to 36 h and 24 to 120 h in normal and steptozotocin-induced diabetic mice after a single intramuscular injection of the insulin-loaded SLN. These results demonstrated that PLGA could enhance the entrapment of insulin in the nanoparticles, and more importantly, prolong the time of hypoglycaemic activity of the insulin-loaded SLN.

  5. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  6. Neuroprotective potential of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside A against dopamine receptor dysfunction in the cerebral cortex of neonatal hypoglycaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roshni Baby; Joy, Shilpa; Ajayan, M S; Paulose, C S

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal hypoglycaemia initiates a series of events leading to neuronal death, even if glucose and glycogen stores return to normal. Disturbances in the cortical dopaminergic function affect memory and cognition. We recommend Bacopa monnieri extract or Bacoside A to treat neonatal hypoglycaemia. We investigated the alterations in dopaminergic functions by studying the Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. Receptor-binding studies revealed a significant decrease (p Bacoside A ameliorated the dopaminergic and cAMP imbalance as effectively as the glucose therapy. The upregulated Bax expression in the present study indicates the high cell death in hypoglycaemic neonatal rats. Enzyme assay of SOD confirmed cortical cell death due to free radical accumulation. The gene expression of SOD in the cortex was significantly downregulated (p < 0.001). Bacopa treatment showed a significant reversal in the altered gene expression parameters (p < 0.001) of Bax and SOD. Our results suggest that in the rat experimental model of neonatal hypoglycaemia, Bacopa extract improved alterations in D1, D2 receptor expression, cAMP signalling and cell death resulting from oxidative stress. This is an important area of study given the significant motor and cognitive impairment that may arise from neonatal hypoglycaemia if proper treatment is not implemented.

  7. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity. PMID:22174560

  8. Ethiopian Emperor Attends Apollo 11 Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    During a Kennedy Space Center (KSC) briefing on the next day's Apollo 11 launch, Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia (with raised hand) asks a question of Rocco A. Petrone, director of launch operations at KSC. To the right of the emperor is astronaut Gordon Cooper and to his left is Dr. Kurt Debus, director of KSC. The first manned lunar launch occurred at 9:32 am on July 16, 1969. The crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. After 21/2 hours of collecting samples on the lunar surface, the crew safely splashed down into the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  9. Chemistry of the Apollo 11 highland component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Shearer, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight Apollo 11 lunar highland fragments from coarse fines 10085 have been subjected to petrologic and chemical study. Six major chemical groups are identified: (a) high-K KREEP; (b) anorthosite with a 10X chondrite positive Eu anomaly and anorthosite with 30X positive Eu anomaly; (c) ANT; (d) LKFM; (e) anorthositic gabbro with no Eu anomaly, with a positive Eu anomaly, and with a negative Eu anomaly; and (f) dominant Highland component, 2X-10X chondrite with a positive 10X-14X Eu anomaly. Newly recognized groups are presented based on the REE patterns: (a) ANT group with 5X La and a 22X positive Eu anomaly; (b) 10X flat with 14X positive Eu anomaly; and (c) 2-3X flat with a 10X positive Eu anomaly. The highland suite is very low in K and REE, and is overall quite similar to the Apollo 16 suite.

  10. Apollo Anniversary: Moon Landing "Inspired World"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Roach; 李然

    2004-01-01

    @@ On July 20, 1969, at 10:56 p.m. ET, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped onto the surface of the moon and said, "That' s one small step for man,one giant leap for mankind." Thirty-five years later, Steven Dick, NASA's chief historian at the space agency's headquarters in Washington, D.C. , said that a thousand years from now, that step may be considered the crowning① achievement of the 20th century.

  11. Geologic setting of the apollo 14 samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, G.A.; Trask, N.J.; Hait, M.H.; Sutton, R.L.

    1971-01-01

    The apollo 14 lunar module landed in a region of the lunar highlands that is part of a widespread blanket of ejecta surrounding the Mare Imbrium basin. Samples were collected from the regolith developed on a nearly level plain, a ridge 100 meters high, and a blacky ejecta deposit around a young crater. Large boulders in the vicinity of the landing site are coherent fragmental rocks as are some of the returned samples.

  12. Reliability history of the Apollo guidance computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo guidance computer was designed to provide the computation necessary for guidance, navigation and control of the command module and the lunar landing module of the Apollo spacecraft. The computer was designed using the technology of the early 1960's and the production was completed by 1969. During the development, production, and operational phase of the program, the computer has accumulated a very interesting history which is valuable for evaluating the technology, production methods, system integration, and the reliability of the hardware. The operational experience in the Apollo guidance systems includes 17 computers which flew missions and another 26 flight type computers which are still in various phases of prelaunch activity including storage, system checkout, prelaunch spacecraft checkout, etc. These computers were manufactured and maintained under very strict quality control procedures with requirements for reporting and analyzing all indications of failure. Probably no other computer or electronic equipment with equivalent complexity has been as well documented and monitored. Since it has demonstrated a unique reliability history, it is important to evaluate the techniques and methods which have contributed to the high reliability of this computer.

  13. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong is the center of attention at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  14. LUNAR TERRAIN AND ALBEDO RECONSTRUCTION FROM APOLLO IMAGERY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LUNAR TERRAIN AND ALBEDO RECONSTRUCTION FROM APOLLO IMAGERY ARA V NEFIAN*, TAEMIN KIM, MICHAEL BROXTON, AND ZACH MORATTO Abstract. Generating accurate three...

  15. The nuclease hSNM1B/Apollo is linked to the Fanconi anemia pathway via its interaction with FANCP/SLX4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salewsky, Bastian; Schmiester, Maren; Schindler, Detlev; Digweed, Martin; Demuth, Ilja

    2012-11-15

    The recessive genetic disorder Fanconi anemia (FA) is clinically characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure and an increased incidence of cancer. Cells derived from FA patients exhibit hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL)-inducing agents. We have earlier reported a similar cellular phenotype for human cells depleted of hSNM1B/Apollo (siRNA). In fact, hSNM1B/Apollo has a dual role in the DNA damage response and in generation and maintenance of telomeres, the latter function involving interaction with the shelterin protein TRF2. Here we find that ectopically expressed hSNM1B/Apollo co-immunoprecipitates with SLX4, a protein recently identified as a new FA protein, FANCP, and known to interact with several structure-specific nucleases. As shown by immunofluorescence analysis, FANCP/SLX4 depletion (siRNA) resulted in a significant reduction of hSNM1B/Apollo nuclear foci, supporting the functional relevance of this new protein interaction. Interestingly, as an additional consequence of FANCP/SLX4 depletion, we found a reduction of cellular TRF2, in line with its telomere-related function. Finally, analysis of human cells following double knockdown of hSNM1B/Apollo and FANCP/SLX4 indicated that they function epistatically. These findings further substantiate the role of hSNM1B/Apollo in a downstream step of the FA pathway during the repair of DNA ICLs.

  16. Optimised extraction of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis and hypoglycaemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiu-Yue; Fang, Ming; Zheng, Jia-Hui; Ren, Di-Feng; Lu, Jun

    2016-03-30

    Spirulina platensis is rich in β-carotene, which possesses many important biological activities. This study investigated the ultrasound-assisted extraction and purification of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis by using response surface methodology (RSM), determined its antioxidant capacity in vitro and explored its hypoglycaemic effect in diabetic mice. The raw β-carotene extract with a concentration of 1942.14 ± 10.03 µg mL(-1) was obtained at the optimised condition by RSM (0.40 of the solid-liquid ratio, 51% of the extraction power, and 17 min of the extraction time), and the purity of evaporated β-carotene extract reached 816.32 ± 10.57 mg g(-1) after purified by a NKA-9 resin with a sampling and elution rate of 1 mL min(-1) . The β-carotene extract scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radicals with the highest ratios of 44 ± 0.26% and 35 ± 0.45% respectively, and exhibited strong inhibiting capacity on anti-lipid peroxidation. The blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice was significantly reduced from 15.81 ± 1.71 mmol L(-1) to 8.10 ± 0.88 mmol L(-1) after 10 d administration of the β-carotene extract [100 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)], and the increased food and water intakes in the diabetic mice were also significantly relieved after β-carotene treatment. Our results suggested that extraction of β-carotene from Spirulina platensis had potential prospects in scaled-up industrialisation and healthcare applications. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Clinical Presentation Of The Abuse Of Insulin: Hypoglycaemic Coma And Aspiration Pneumonia In Non-Professional Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Ivica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of medications that improve the physical performance of an individual represents a very serious worldwide health problem. The abuse of these medications is increasing. Herein, we describe a patient, at the age of 20, who was hospitalized due to loss of consciousness and difficulty breathing. At admission, the patient was unconsciousness, tahi-dyspnoic, and had a pale complexion and an athletic build. In gas analyses, extremely low saturation was observed, followed by acidosis, heavy hypoxia with normocapnia, higher lactates, hypocalcaemia and severe hypoglycaemia. The patient was treated with a hypertonic solution of glucose and intubated, with the aspiration of sanious content from the respiratory tract. After treatment, the patient woke from coma but was very confused. In the first 6 hours of hospitalization, severe hypoglycaemia occurred several times, despite the continuous administration of glucose. Due to the growth of inflammatory syndrome since the first day of hospitalization, the patient was kept in the hospital for treatment along with the administration of antibiotic treatment. On the fourth day of hospitalization, the patient stated that for the last year, he had been taking testosterone at a dose of 1 g a week, as well as tamoxifen pills and 15 i.j. of fast-acting human insulin (Actrapid® daily for their combined anabolic effect. Hypoglycaemic coma, caused by the abuse of insulin, represents a severe complication in patients, which can be followed by confusion, a slowed thinking process, the weakening of cognitive functions and even death. It is necessary to invest great efforts into the prevention of the purchase of these medications via the Internet or on the black market for purposes of abuse in order to prevent such serious and life-threatening complications.

  18. Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 5: The Earth from Orbit. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

    This booklet is the fifth in a series of nine that describe the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for high school and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method,…

  19. Medical microbiological analysis of Apollo-Soyuz test project crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.; Zaloguev, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    The procedures and results of the Microbial Exchange Experiment (AR-002) of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project are described. Included in the discussion of procedural aspects are methods and materials, in-flight microbial specimen collection, and preliminary analysis of microbial specimens. Medically important microorganisms recovered from both Apollo and Soyuz crewmen are evaluated.

  20. President Nixon and Apollo 13 crewmen at Hickam AFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., A U.S. Navy captain and Apollo 13 mission commander, salutes the U.S. flag during ceremonies with President Richard M. Nixon at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. The Apollo 13 crewmen, Astronauts Lovell, John L. Swigert Jr. (right) and Fred W. Haise Jr. were presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom by the Chief Executive.

  1. 33 CFR 110.74b - Apollo Beach, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Apollo Beach, Fla. 110.74b Section 110.74b Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.74b Apollo Beach, Fla. Beginning at a...

  2. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  3. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  4. Apollo soil mechanics experiment S-200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are indicated. A model for lunar soil behavior is described which considers soil characteristics, density and porosity, strength, compressibility, and trafficability parameters. Lunar history and processes are considered, and a comparison is made of lunar and terrestrial soil behavior. The impact of the findings on future exploration and development of the moon are discussed, and publications resulting from lunar research by the soil mechanics team members are listed.

  5. APOLLO 14: Docking trouble (pt 1/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The crew are having problems docking the command module to the lunar module: the locking mechanism will not engage. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  6. APOLLO 14: Docking trouble (pt 2/2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: At last the crew is able to mate the command and lunar modules. But the hitch has raised some serious issues.. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  7. APOLLO 15: Commander Scott on those who gave all

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 15: A demonstration of a classic experiment. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 15: 'The mountains of the Moon'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 15: Fourth manned lunar landing with David R. Scott, Alfred M. Worden, and James B. Irwin. Landed at Hadley rilleon July 30, 1971;performed EVA with Lunar Roving Vehicle; deployed experiments. P& F Subsattelite spring-launched from SM in lunar orbit. Mission Duration 295 hrs 11 min 53sec

  8. Effects of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide on ATP-sensitive potassium-channels and cytosolic calcium levels in beta TC3 cells and rat pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromada, J; Dissing, S; Kofod, Hans

    1995-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the action of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide in cultured newborn rat islet cells and mouse beta TC3 cells. In cell-attached membrane patches of newborn rat islet cells repaglinide (10 nmol/l) and glibenclamide (20 nmol/l) decrease the open pro...

  9. On the Moon the apollo journals

    CERN Document Server

    Heiken, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Public interest in the first lunar landing transcended political, economic and social borders – the world was briefly united by the courage of the crew, and the wonder of the accomplishment. Prompted by the rivalry of the Cold War, Apollo 11 and the five missions that subsequently landed on the Moon were arguably the finest feats of exploration in human history. But these were more than exercises in ‘flags and footprints’, because the missions involved the crews making geological field trips on a low gravity site while wearing pressure suits, carrying life-support systems on their backs and working against an unforgiving time line. The missions delivered not only samples of moonrock, but also hard-learned lessons for how to work on the surface of another planet, and this experience will be crucial to planning the resumption of the human exploration of the Moon and going on to Mars.

  10. Lunar atmospheric composition results from Apollo 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J. H.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Johnson, F. S.; Evans, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer has confirmed the existence of helium, neon, argon, and possibly molecular hydrogen in the lunar atmosphere. Helium and neon concentrations are in agreement with model predictions based on the solar wind as a source and their being noncondensable gases. Ar-40 and Ar-36 both exhibit a predawn enhancement which indicates that they are condensable gases on the nightside and are re-released into the atmosphere at the sunrise terminator. Hydrogen probably exists in the lunar atmosphere in the molecular rather than atomic state, having been released from the surface in the molecular form. Total nighttime gas concentration of known species in the lunar atmosphere is 200,000 molecules/cu cm.

  11. A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

  12. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  13. Sedimentology of Apollo 11 and 12 lunar soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1971-01-01

    Differences in the modal composition of samples from an Apollo 11 core tube (10005) suggest the presence of at least three depositional units. The double-drive-tube core sample from the Apollo 12 site shows evidence of at least 16 depositional episodes. The earliest recognizable event at the Apollo 12 site carried light-colored soil rich in feldspathic-rock fragments into the area and may be related to ejection of ray material from Copernicus. Prior to the formation of Surveyor Crater at least 11 depositional episodes took place. Unit 7-8, the thickest unit intersected by the core tube, is tentatively identified as the Surveyor Crater ejecta blanket. Most of the soil at the Apollo 11 and 12 sites was probably generated locally with a smaller contribution coming from a more distant source possibly in the lunar highlands.

  14. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  15. Apollo 14 and 15 missions: Intermittent steerable antenna operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the cause of antenna tracking interruptions during Apollo 14 and Apollo 15 missions prior to powered descent, and after ascent from the lunar surface but before rendezvous. Probable causes examined include: (1) amplitude modulation on the uplink radio frequency carrier, (2) noise capacitively or inductively coupled into the track error line, and (3) hardware problems resulting in tracking loop instabilities. It was determined that amplitude modulation caused the antenna oscillations. The corrective procedures taken are given.

  16. Lunar electrical conductivity, permeability and temperature from Apollo magnetometer experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. The measured lunar remanent fields range from 3 gammas minimum at the Apollo 15 site to 327 gammas maximum at the Apollo 16 site. Simultaneous magnetic field and solar plasma pressure measurements show that the remanent fields at the Apollo 12 and 16 sites interact with, and are compressed by, the solar wind. Remanent fields at Apollo 12 and Apollo 16 are increased 16 gammas and 32 gammas, respectively, by a solar plasma bulk pressure increase of 1.5 X 10 to the -7th power dynes/sq cm. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon. From nightside magnetometer data in the solar wind it was found that deeper than 170 km into the moon the conductivity rises from .0003 mhos/m to .10 mhos/m at 100 km depth. Recent analysis of data obtained in the geomagnetic tail, in regions free of complicating plasma effects, yields results consistent with nightside values.

  17. No increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes during 48 h of subcutaneous glucagon-like-peptide-1 administration in fasting healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Susanne; Soendergaard, Liselotte; Rungby, Joergen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is uncertain whether the ability to avoid hypoglycaemia during fasting is preserved, and the risk of reactive hypoglycaemia after an oral glucose stimulus following a prolonged fasting period is increased at augmented glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. DESIGN: A randomized...... of insulin and C-peptide were higher with GLP-1 infusion. However, PG was similar during GLP-1 vs. placebo infusions. GLP-1 infusion increased norepinephrine and cortisol levels during OGTT. CONCLUSION: The counter-regulatory response during 48 h of subcutaneous GLP-1 infusion was preserved despite long......-term fasting with no apparent increased risk of hypoglycaemic episodes. No reactive hypoglycaemia was observed when the fast was followed by an OGTT. Thus use of long-acting GLP-1 analogues may not increase the risk of hypoglycaemia....

  18. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 12 landing site: Part A: Geology of the Apollo 12 Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, E.M.; Batson, R.M.; Bean, A.L.; Conrad, C.; Dahlem, D.H.; Goddard, E.N.; Hait, M.H.; Larson, K.B.; Schaber, G.G.; Schleicher, D.L.; Sutton, R.L.; Swann, G.A.; Waters, A.C.

    1970-01-01

    This report provides a preliminary description of the geologic setting of the lunar samples returned fromt he Apollo 12 mission. A more complete interpretation of the geology of the site will be prepared after thorough analysis of the data.

  19. Apollo 17 Soil Characterization for Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Patchen, A.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.; Wentworth, S.; McKay, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    in nanophase FeO in smaller size fractions is significantly greater than the increase in agglutinitic glass content, with its single-domain FeO component. This would seem to indicate that at least some of the FeO is surface correlated. To illustrate this effect, if it is assumed that the nanophase FeO is entirely surface correlated, then equal masses of 15-micron and 6-micron spheres should have about 3x as much FeO in the finer fraction. The recent findings of Kelleret al. of the major role of vapor-deposited, nanophase FeO-containing patinas on most soil particles is a major breakthrough in our understanding of the distribution of FeO within agglutinitic glass and upon grain surfaces. Bidirectional reflectance spectra for a representative Apollo 17 soil (70181) are shown. The size separates all have similar albedo in the blue and follow a regular sequence in which the continuum slope increases, ferrous bands weaken, and albedo, increases with decreasing particle size. The bulk <45-micron soil is typically close to the 10-20 micron spectrum. It is important to note that although the finest fraction (<10 micron) is close in composition to the abundant agglutinitic glass in each size fraction, this size fraction is relatively featureless and does not dominate the spectrum of the bulk <45-micron soil. It has long been suspected that agglutinitic glass, to a large extent, is the product of melting of the finest fraction of the soils, with a dominance of plagioclase. Given the low abundance of pyroxene in the finest fractions of each soil the source of the FeO in these Apollo 17 agglutinitic glasses is not fully identified. We suspect the abundant volcanic glass in these samples may be a significant contributor and this hypothesis will be tested with the suite under study from other Apollo sites.

  20. Apollo 15 Onboard Photo: Earth's Crest Over the Lunar Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This view of the Earth's crest over the lunar horizon was taken during the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission. Apollo 15 launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  2. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11, 12, and 15 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections. It uses software that duplicates many of the functions of a petrological microscope.

  3. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets Neil Armstrong at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Neil A. Armstrong (left) shakes the hand of Judy Goldin (center), wife of NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right). The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

  4. Lessons learned during Apollo lunar sample quarantine and sample curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Bagby, J. R.; Stabekis, P. D.

    During fast-paced Apollo, three responsibilities often competed: 1) landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely, 2) prevention of back contamination, and 3) sample curation. Coordination of U.S. agency back contamination requirements was done by the Interagency Committee on Back Contamination (ICBC). The most severe constraint to proper implementation of flight requirements was lack of time. Preservation, examination and distribution of samples was overseen by the Lunar Sample Analysis Planning Team (LSAPT) which did not feel the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was suitable for sample curation and moved the samples to another facility at the conclusion of Apollo 17. The Apollo experience emphasizes the need for 1) early back contamination and sample curation planning, 2) adequate time to implement requirements and 3) high level management responsibility. Building mutual respect for quarantine and sample curation is highly desirable.

  5. What's the Big Idea? Seeking to Top Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Human space flight has struggled to find its soul since Apollo. The astounding achievements of human space programs over the 40 years since Apollo have failed to be as iconic or central to society as in the 1960s. The paper proffers a way human space flight could again be associated with a societal Big Idea. It describes eight societal factors that have irrevocably changed since Apollo; then analyzes eight other factors that a forward HSF Big Idea would have to fit. The paper closes by assessing the four principal options for HSF futures against those eight factors. Robotic and human industrialization of geosynchronous orbit to provide unlimited, sustainable electrical power to Earth is found to be the best candidate for the next Big Idea.

  6. Photogrammetric Processing of Apollo 15 Metric Camera Oblique Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmundson, K. L.; Alexandrov, O.; Archinal, B. A.; Becker, K. J.; Becker, T. L.; Kirk, R. L.; Moratto, Z. M.; Nefian, A. V.; Richie, J. O.; Robinson, M. S.

    2016-06-01

    The integrated photogrammetric mapping system flown on the last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) in the early 1970s incorporated a Metric (mapping) Camera, a high-resolution Panoramic Camera, and a star camera and laser altimeter to provide support data. In an ongoing collaboration, the U.S. Geological Survey's Astrogeology Science Center, the Intelligent Robotics Group of the NASA Ames Research Center, and Arizona State University are working to achieve the most complete cartographic development of Apollo mapping system data into versatile digital map products. These will enable a variety of scientific/engineering uses of the data including mission planning, geologic mapping, geophysical process modelling, slope dependent correction of spectral data, and change detection. Here we describe efforts to control the oblique images acquired from the Apollo 15 Metric Camera.

  7. President Nixon on deck of U.S.S. Hornet awaiting Apollo 11 crew arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon photographed on the deck of the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, awaiting the Apollo 11 crew arrival. swimmer. All four men are wearing biological isolation garments. Apollo 11 splashed down at 11:40 a.m., July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii.

  8. Rock and Roll at the Apollo 17 Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt collected 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock and regolith samples during 22 hours working on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972, while Astronaut Ronald Evans orbited in the command module. The field observations, audio descriptions, and photographs coupled with orbital data and detailed, laboratory analyses of Apollo samples provided unprecedented information about the Moon and its geologic history. The Apollo samples continue to inspire new questions and answers about the Moon. Debra Hurwitz and David Kring (Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute; Hurwitz now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) were particularly interested in solving the mystery of where the boulders came from at the base of the North Massif (station 6) and at the base of the South Massif (station 2) from which Apollo 17 astronauts collected samples of impact melt breccias. The breccias were unequivocally formed by impact processes, but forty years of analyses had not yet determined unambiguously which impact event was responsible. Was it the basin-forming event of the landing site's neighbor Serenitatis (possibly Nectarian age); the larger, nearby Imbrium basin (Imbrian age and one of the last large basins to form); a combination of these impacts or an impact event older or younger than all of the above. Tracking down the origin of the boulders would ideally unravel details of the formation age of the breccias and, ultimately, help with the historical record of basin formation on the Moon. Hurwitz and Kring verified the boulders rolled down from massif walls - Apollo 17 impact melt breccias originated in massif material, not from the Sculptured Hills, an overlying geologic unit. But the relative geologic context is easier to explain than the absolute age, at least until some discrepancies are resolved in existing Ar-Ar and U-Pb radiometric ages of the Apollo 17

  9. Managing the Moon Program: Lessons Learned from Project Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    There have been many detailed historical studies of the process of deciding on and executing the Apollo lunar landing during the 1960s and early 1970s. From the announcement of President John F Kennedy on May 25, 1961, of his decision to land an American on the Moon by the end of the decade, through the first lunar landing on July 20, 1969, on to the last of six successful Moon landings with Apollo 17 in December 1972, NASA carried out Project Apollo with enthusiasm and aplomb. While there have been many studies recounting the history of Apollo, at the time of the 30th anniversary of the first lunar landing by Apollo 11, it seems appropriate to revisit the process of large-scale technological management as it related to the lunar mission. Consequently, the NASA History Office has chosen to publish this monograph containing the recollections of key partcipants in the management process. The collective oral history presented here was recorded in 1989 at the Johnson Space Center's Gilruth Recreation Center in Houston, Texas. It includes the recollections of key participants in Apollo's administration, addressing issues such as communication between field centers, the prioritization of technological goals, and the delegation of responsibility. The following people participated: George E. Muller, Owen W. Morris, Maxime A. Faget, Robert R. Gilruth, Christopher C. Kraft, and Howard W. (Bill) Tindall. The valuable perspectives of these individuals deepen and expand our understanding of this important historical event. This is the 14th in a series of special studies prepared by the NASA History Office. The Monographs in Aerospace History series is designed to provide a wide variety of investigations relative to the history of aeronautics and space. These publications are intended to be tightly focused in terms of subject, relatively short in length, and reproduced in an inexpensive format to allow timely and broad dissemination to researchers in aerospace history.

  10. Hypoglycaemic activity of Mathurameha, a Thai traditional herbal formula aqueous extract, and its effect on biochemical profiles of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayarop, Kullacha; Peungvicha, Penchom; Temsiririrkkul, Rungravi; Wongkrajang, Yuvadee; Chuakul, Wongsatit; Rojsanga, Piyanuch

    2017-06-29

    The Thai traditional herbal formula-Mathurameha, consisting of 26 medicinal plants, has been used as an alternative and complementary medicine for diabetes treatment in Wangnamyen Hospital, Thailand. To provide scientific evidences on the efficacy and safety of this herbal formula, in vivo hypoglycaemic activity, effect on serum biochemical profiles and acute toxicity were investigated. Experimental type 2 diabetes was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide 15 min prior to intravenous injection of streptozotocin. The most effective extract from the oral glucose tolerant test (OGTT) was administered daily via the oral route to diabetic rats for 2 weeks. Two-hour postprandial plasma glucose (2h-PPG) levels were measured on days 0, 7, and 14. Biochemical data were measured at the end of daily oral administration experiment. Aqueous extract of the herbal formula was the most potent extract for improving glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats after single oral administration. After 2 weeks of daily oral administration, the aqueous extract showed a dose-dependent glucose lowering effect. At doses of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, the 2h-PPG level of diabetic rats decreased by 3.32%, 15.78%, and 17.94%, respectively. Most of the biochemical profiles of diabetic rats were improved, including the total cholesterol (TC), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, and uric acid levels. The significantly increased triglyceride (TG) level observed in treated diabetic rats indicated a lack of a beneficial effect of the extract on lipid homeostasis. Nevertheless, there were no signs or symptoms of acute toxicity observed after oral administration of aqueous extract (5 g/kg) to both male and female rats. The results revealed that the herbal formula aqueous extract has hypoglycaemic activity, beneficial effects on biochemical profiles and a lack of acute toxicity. This study

  11. The Apollo experiment for document delivery via satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Dutch participation possibilities in the Apollo document delivery project, wishes and idea's of potential user and tender groups, and plans and activities of Dutch institutes and companies, are surveyed. The Apollo storage and transport system, demand and administration network, potential markets, and subject areas of the documents are investigated. Utilization areas (scientific, technical, administration, and business information) are listed. High tariffs and the lack of necessary provision make a direct participation strategy impossible. However, in the experimental phase, Dutch companies must be allowed to contribute in technical developments and availability of organizational and technical facilities must be stimulated.

  12. The spectral code Apollo2: from lattice to 2D core calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste-Delclaux, M.; Santandrea, S.; Damian, F.; Blanc-Tranchant, P.; Zmijarevic, I. [CEA Saclay (DEN/DANS/SERMA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Santamarina, A. [CEA Cadarache (CEA/DEN/DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Apollo2 is a powerful code dedicated to neutron transport, it is a highly qualified tool for a wide range of applications from research and development studies to industrial applications. Today Apollo2 is part of several advanced 3-dimensional nuclear code packages dedicated to reactor physics, fuel cycle, criticality and safety analysis. The presentations have been organized into 7 topics: -) an introduction to Apollo2, -) cross-sections, -) flux calculation, -) advanced applications, -) Apollo2 users, specialized packages, -) qualification program, and -) the future of Apollo2. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  13. [327] Biomedical Research Deferred in the Aftermath of the Apollo Fire: Impact to Progress in Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Before Apollo fire, early Apollo missions were expected to continue pattern established in Gemini program of accommodating significant scientific and biological experimentation, including human biomedical studies, during flights. Apollo1 and Apollo2, both 2-week engineering test flights, were to carry almost as many biomedical studies as Gemini 7, a 2-week medical test mission.

  14. Nutritional composition of Stevia rebaudiana, a sweet herb, and its hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect on patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritu, Mathur; Nandini, Johri

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. India shelters the highest number of diabetics and is thus known as the 'Diabetes Capital of the World'. The chemical management of diabetes has side effects and hence the present study was undertaken to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect of Stevia rebaudiana in patients with type 2 diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Its nutritional composition and use as a sweetener substitute were also assessed. Chemical analysis of dried Stevia leaf powder revealed it to be a nutritious herb with a good iron and fibre content. Intervention trials in diabetics revealed that it significantly lowered fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels. The serum triglycerides and VLDL-C levels were also significantly reduced. Hence it can be said that Stevia can safely be used as an anti-diabetic herb, as a sweetener substitute and may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases in patients with long-standing diabetes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The use of a portable breath analysis device in monitoring type 1 diabetes patients in a hypoglycaemic clamp: validation with SIFT-MS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, C; Patel, M; Pitts, D; Knight, P; Hoashi, S; Evans, M; Turner, C

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring blood glucose concentrations is a necessary but tedious task for people suffering from diabetes. It has been noted that breath in people suffering with diabetes has a different odour and thus it may be possible to use breath analysis to monitor the blood glucose concentration. Here, we evaluate the analysis of breath using a portable device containing a single mixed metal oxide sensor during hypoglycaemic glucose clamps and compare that with the use of SIFT-MS described in previously published work on the same set of patients. Outputs from both devices have been correlated with the concentration of blood glucose in eight volunteers suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus. The results demonstrate that acetone as measured by SIFT-MS and the sensor output from the breath sensing device both correlate linearly with blood glucose; however, the sensor response and acetone concentrations differ greatly between patients with the same blood glucose. It is therefore unlikely that breath analysis can entirely replace blood glucose testing.

  16. Sustained Liver Glucose Release in Response to Adrenaline Can Improve Hypoglycaemic Episodes in Rats under Food Restriction Subjected to Acute Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas K. R. Babata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As the liver is important for blood glucose regulation, this study aimed at relating liver glucose release stimulated by glucagon and adrenaline to in vivo episodes of hypoglycaemia. Methods. The blood glucose profile during an episode of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in exercised and nonexercised male Wistar control (GC and food-restricted (GR, 50% rats and liver glucose release stimulated by glucagon and adrenaline were investigated. Results. In the GR, the hypoglycaemic episodes showed severe decreases in blood glucose, persistent hypoglycaemia, and less complete glycaemic recovery. An exercise session prior to the episode of hypoglycaemia raised the basal blood glucose, reduced the magnitude of the hypoglycaemia, and improved the recovery of blood glucose. In fed animals of both groups, liver glucose release was activated by glucagon and adrenaline. In fasted GR rats, liver glycogenolysis activated by glucagon was impaired, despite a significant basal glycogenolysis, while an adrenaline-stimulated liver glucose release was recorded. Conclusions. The lack of liver response to glucagon in the GR rats could be partially responsible for the more severe episodes of hypoglycaemia observed in vivo in nonexercised animals. The preserved liver response to adrenaline can partially account for the less severe hypoglycaemia in the food-restricted animals after acute exercise.

  17. Reporters Interview Family of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Newsmen talked with the wife and sons of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong after the successful launch of Apollo 11 on its trajectory to the moon. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  18. Public Attitudes toward the Apollo Space Program, 1965-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Herbert E.

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes the decline in public support for the Apollo Space Program from 1965 to 1975 in spite of generally positive media coverage. Using data from 31 telephone surveys during the period, concludes that the Moon landing polarized both opponents and proponents and increased opposition because "there was nothing more to be done." (JMF)

  19. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  20. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREWS ADDRESS PERSONNEL IN LCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Soviet and American crews for the July Apollo Soyuz Test Project [standing, center] addressed personnel assembled in a firing room at KSC on February 10. The crews for the joint manned space mission toured the Center during their three-day visit which also included inspection of ASTP equipment and facilities and a trip to Disney World.

  1. Apollo raamatupoel on sünnipäev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    12. dets. saab Apollo raamatupood 3-aastaseks; tõlkija Kalle Kurg esitleb: Himanen, Pekka. Himeros / tõlkinud Kalle Kurg. Tallinn : Valgus, 2003; üritustest võtavad osa ka Henno Käo, Sülli-Reet Vaino, Kerttu Soans, autogramme annab Kaur Kender; vt. ka Eesti Ekspress, 11. dets., lk. B6

  2. Searchlights Illuminate Apollo 8 on Pad 39-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Searchlights penetrate the darkness surrounding Apollo 8 on Pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center. This mission was the first manned flight using the Saturn V. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  3. Measurements of vertical displacements Apollo bridge in Bratislava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Staněk

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Apollo bridge across the Danube river in Bratislava - description of construction parts. Reference network and long-termmeasurements of displacements. Measurements of vertical displacements of bridge pillars using levelling instruments DiNi 12and Ni 007 and stability testing of the reference points.

  4. Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 2: X-Rays, Gamma-Rays. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

    This booklet is the second in a series of nine that describe the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for high school and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method,…

  5. Hypoglycaemic effect of Croton cuneatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats Efeito hipoglicêmico de Croton cuneatus em ratos diabéticos induzido por estreptozotocina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Torrico

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extract of the stem barks of Croton cuneatus Klotz (Euphorbiaceae was investigated for hypoglycaemic activity in streptozotocin(STZ-induced diabetic rats. Increasing doses of aqueous extract (6.5, 13, 26 and 52 mg/kg i.p. were separately administered to groups of fasted normal and diabetic rats. Plasma glucose concentration, cholesterol and changes in body weight were evaluated. The chronic intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of the extract for 22 days was found to induce significant reduction in blood glucose level. A comparison was made between the action of the aqueous extract of C. cuneatus and the reference standard drug glibenclamide. The results of this experimental animal study indicate that this plant has an antidiabetic activity in hiperglycaemic rat models.A ação hipoglicemiante do extrato aquoso das cascas do caule de Croton cuneatus Klotz (Euphorbiaceae foi investigada em ratos com diabetes induzida pela estreptozotocina (STZ. Doses crescentes do extrato aquoso (6,5, 13, 26 e 52 mg/kg i.p. foram administradas separadamente a grupos de animais normais e diabéticos em jejum. Foram avaliadas as concentrações plasmáticas de glicose e colesterol, assim como mudanças no peso corporal. A administração crônica intraperitoneal (i.p. do extrato durante 22 dias induziu uma redução significativa nos níveis de glicose sanguínea. Foi feita uma comparação entre o extrato aquoso de C. cuneatus e a droga de referência glibenclamida. Os resultados desse experimento indicam que esta planta possui atividade antidiabética em modelo com animais hiperglicêmicos.

  6. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  7. Estimation of Apollo lunar dust transport using optical extinction measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, John E

    2015-01-01

    A technique to estimate mass erosion rate of surface soil during landing of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) and total mass ejected due to the rocket plume interaction is proposed and tested. The erosion rate is proportional to the product of the second moment of the lofted particle size distribution N(D), and third moment of the normalized soil size distribution S(D), divided by the integral of S(D)D^2/v(D), where D is particle diameter and v(D) is the vertical component of particle velocity. The second moment of N(D) is estimated by optical extinction analysis of the Apollo cockpit video. Because of the similarity between mass erosion rate of soil as measured by optical extinction and rainfall rate as measured by radar reflectivity, traditional NWS radar/rainfall correlation methodology can be applied to the lunar soil case where various S(D) models are assumed corresponding to specific lunar sites.

  8. Apollo experience report: Protection of life and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooley, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    The development, implementation, and effectiveness of the Apollo Lunar Quarantine Program and the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program are discussed as part of the broad program required for the protection of the life and health of U.S. astronauts. Because the goal of the Apollo Program has been the safe transport of men to the moon and back to earth, protection of the astronauts and of the biosphere from potentially harmful lunar contaminants has been required. Also, to ensure mission success, the continuing good health of the astronauts before and during a mission has been necessary. Potential applications of specific aspects of the health and quarantine programs to possible manned missions to other planets are discussed.

  9. Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 15 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, G. A.; Bailey, N. G.; Batson, R. M.; Freeman, V. L.; Hait, M. H.; Head, J. W.; Holt, H. E.; Howard, K. A.; Irwin, J. B.; Larson, K. B.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 15 lunar module (LM) landed on the mare surface of Palus Putredinis on the eastern edge of the Imbrium Basin. The site is between the Apennine Mountain front and Hadley Rille. The objectives of the mission, in order of decreasing priority, were description and sampling of three major geologic features-the Apennine Front, Hadley Rille, and the mare. The greater number of periods of extravehicular activity (EVA) and the mobility provided by the lunar roving vehicle (ROVER) allowed much more geologic information to be obtained from a much larger area than those explored by previous Apollo crews. A total of 5 hours was spent at traverse station stops, and the astronauts transmitted excellent descriptions of the lunar surface while in transit between stations.

  10. Using Apollo to browse and edit genome annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sima; Harris, Nomi

    2006-01-01

    An annotation is any feature that can be tied to genomic sequence, such as an exon, transcript, promoter, or transposable element. As biological knowledge increases, annotations of different types need to be added and modified, and links to other sources of information need to be incorporated, to allow biologists to easily access all of the available sequence analysis data and design appropriate experiments. The Apollo genome browser and editor offers biologists these capabilities. Apollo can display many different types of computational evidence, such as alignments and similarities based on BLAST searches (UNITS 3.3 & 3.4), and enables biologists to utilize computational evidence to create and edit gene models and other genomic features, e.g., using experimental evidence to refine exon-intron structures predicted by gene prediction algorithms. This protocol describes simple ways to browse genome annotation data, as well as techniques for editing annotations and loading data from different sources.

  11. Lunar glass compositions - Apollo 16 core sections 60002 and 60004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, H. O. A.; Tsai, H.-M.

    1975-01-01

    Approximately 500 glasses between 1 mm and 125 microns in size have been analyzed from fourteen samples from the Apollo 16 core sections 60002 and 60004. The majority of glasses have compositions comparable to those found in previous studies of lunar surface soils; however, two new and distinct glass compositions that are probably derived in part from mare material occur in the core samples. The major glass composition in all samples is that of Highland Basalt glass, but it also appears that high-K Fra Mauro Basalt (KREEP) glass is more common at the Apollo 16 site than was previously thought. The relative abundance of glasses within the core samples is random in distribution: each sample is characterized by a particular assemblage and distribution of the constituent glass compositions.

  12. Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the question of "Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?" Was money really flowing freely all through Apollo? Are we wallowing in nostalgia and comparing current circumstances to a managerial time which did not exist? This talk discusses these and other questions as background for you as today s project managers. There are slides showing the timelines from before the speech that Kennedy gave promising to land a man on the moon, to the early 60's, when the manned space center prepared the preliminary lunar landing mission design, an NASA organization chart from 1970, various photos of the rockets, and the astronauts are presented. The next slides discuss the budgets from the 1960's to the early 1970's. Also the results of a survey of 62 managers, who were asked "What problems pose the greatest obstacles to successful project performance?"

  13. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  14. Apollo 11 ilmenite revisited. [lunar resources of oxygen and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the problems associated with beneficiation of the high-Ti regolith represented by Apollo 11's ilmenite sample. Magnetic and electrostatic separation, combined with sizing to reject all but the best fractions of the lunar regolith, will be essential; the production of high-grade ilmenite concentrates on the scale required for lunar oxygen production may still, however, be unachievable. These findings suggest that ilmenite production directly from high-Ti-content basalt may be a superior alternative.

  15. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  16. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong looks over flight plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong is looking over flight plans while being assisted by a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  17. Apollo 11 Cmdr Neil Armstrong watches STS-83 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  18. Physical properties of Aten, Apollo and Amor asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, Lucy-Ann; Tholen, David J.; Veeder, Glenn J.

    1989-01-01

    Data available on the physical properties of a group of planet-crossing asteroids, the Aten, Apollo, and Amor objects (AAAO) (include data on the taxonomy, mineralogical surface composition, diameter, rotation rate, shape, and surface texture) are presented together with the type of observations used for obtaining these data. These data show that the population of the AAAO is diverse in all of their physical characteristics. This diversity implies that the AAAO come from multiple sources and had different evolutionary histories.

  19. Geochemistry of apollo 15 basalt 15555 and soil 15531.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetzler, C C; Philpotts, J A; Nava, D F; Schuhmann, S; Thomas, H H

    1972-01-28

    Major and trace element concentrations have been determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, colorimetry, and isotope dilution in Apollo 15 mare basalt 15555 from the Hadley Rille area; trace element concentrations have also been determined in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from basalt 15555 and in soil 15531 from the same area. Basalt 15555 most closely resembles in composition the Apollo 12 olivine-rich basalts. The concentrations of lithium, potassium, rubidium, barium, rare-earth elements, and zirconium in basalt 15555 are the lowest, and the negative europium anomaly is the smallest, reported for lunar basalts; this basalt might be the least differentiated material yet returned from the moon. Crystallization and removal of about 6 percent of plagioclase similar to that contained in the basalt would account for the observed europium anomaly; if plagioclase is not on the liquidus of this basalt, a multistage origin is indicated. Mineral data indicate that plagioclase and pyroxene approached quasi-equilibrium. Most of the chemical differences between basalt 15555 and soil 15531 would be accounted for if the soil were a mixture of 88 percent basalt, 6 percent KREEP (a component, identified in other Apollo soils, rich in potassium, rare-earth elements, and phosphorus) and 6 percent plagioclase (anorthosite?).

  20. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  1. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  2. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  3. Former astronauts Armstrong and Cernan talk at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan talk about their experiences. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  4. Neil Armstrong gets round of applaus at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong stands to a round of applause after being introduced at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  5. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt looks at 'orange' soil brought back by Apollo 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. 'Jack' Schmitt (facing camera), Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, was one of the first to look at the sample of 'orange' soil brought back from the Taurus-Littrow landing site by the Apollo 17 crewmen.

  6. Parnassiana nova : XLVII. Neue Unterarten von Parnassius apollo L. und Parnassius mnemosyne L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1974-01-01

    1. DREI NEUE PARNASSIUS APOLLO L. UNTERARTEN AUS SPANIEN Die Herren P. Capdeville und P. C. Rougeot haben in den letzten Jahren die verschiedenen Flugplätze von Parnassius apollo L. in Spanien aufgesucht und eine Anzahl neuer Unterarten aufgestellt. Die Kenntnis wird ergänzt durch die Beschreibung v

  7. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREW INSPECT SPACE SUITS DURING KSC TOUR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Cosmonaut Training Chief Vladimir Shatalov [left, looking down] examines an Apollo spacesuit during a visit to KSC. With Shatalov are Astronaut Donald Slayton [center] and Cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov. The Apollo Soyuz Test Project astronauts and cosmonauts spent three days in the KSC area during which time they inspected equipment and facilities, toured the Center and visited Disney World.

  8. Artist's concept of eastward view of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating an eastward view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site. The white overlay indicates the scheduled tranverses by the Apollo 16 astronauts in the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals are the extravehicular activities (EVA's); and the Arabic numbers are the station stops along the traverse.

  9. Apollo 14 - Nature and origin of rock types in soil from the Fra Mauro formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, F. K.; Anderson, D. H.; Bass, M. N.; Brown, R. W.; Butler, P., Jr.; Heiken, G.; Jakes, P.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Takeda, H.

    1971-01-01

    Compositions of glasses in the Apollo 14 soil correspond to four types of Fra Mauro basalts, to mare basalts and soils, and, in minor amounts, to gabbroic anorthosite and potash granite. The Fra Mauro basalts can be related by simple low pressure crystal-liquid fractionation that implies a parent composition like that of Apollo 14 sample 14310.

  10. Parnassiana nova : XLVII. Neue Unterarten von Parnassius apollo L. und Parnassius mnemosyne L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1974-01-01

    1. DREI NEUE PARNASSIUS APOLLO L. UNTERARTEN AUS SPANIEN Die Herren P. Capdeville und P. C. Rougeot haben in den letzten Jahren die verschiedenen Flugplätze von Parnassius apollo L. in Spanien aufgesucht und eine Anzahl neuer Unterarten aufgestellt. Die Kenntnis wird ergänzt durch die Beschreibung

  11. Lunar Eclipse Observations Reveal Anomalous Thermal Performance of Apollo Reflectors

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, T W; Johnson, N H; Goodrow, S D

    2013-01-01

    Laser ranging measurements during the total lunar eclipse on 2010 December 21 verify previously suspected thermal lensing in the retroreflectors left on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts. Signal levels during the eclipse far exceeded those historically seen at full moon, and varied over an order of magnitude as the eclipse progressed. These variations can be understood via a straightforward thermal scenario involving solar absorption by a ~50% covering of dust that has accumulated on the front surfaces of the reflectors. The same mechanism can explain the long-term degradation of signal from the reflectors as well as the acute signal deficit observed near full moon.

  12. Apollo 16 exploration of Descartes - A geologic summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Cayley Plains at the Apollo 16 landing site consist of crudely stratified breccias to a depth of at least 200 meters, overlain by a regolith 10 to 15 meters thick. Samples, photographs, and observations by the astronauts indicate that most of the rocks are impact breccias derived from an anorthosite-gabbro complex. The least brecciated members of the suite include coarse-grained anorthosite and finer-grained, more mafic rocks, some with igneous and some with metamorphic textures. Much of the transverse area is covered by ejecta from North Ray and South Ray craters, but the abundance of rock fragments increases to the south toward the younger South Ray crater.

  13. Lunar eclipse observations reveal anomalous thermal performance of Apollo reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T. W.; McMillan, R. J.; Johnson, N. H.; Goodrow, S. D.

    2014-03-01

    Laser ranging measurements during the total lunar eclipse on 2010 December 21 verify previously suspected thermal lensing in the retroreflectors left on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts. Signal levels during the eclipse far exceeded those historically seen at full moon, and varied over an order of magnitude as the eclipse progressed. These variations can be understood via a straightforward thermal scenario involving solar absorption by a ∼50% covering of dust that has accumulated on the front surfaces of the reflectors. The same mechanism can explain the long-term degradation of signal from the reflectors as well as the acute signal deficit observed near full moon.

  14. Searching for nonlocal lithologies in the Apollo 12 regolith: a geochemical and petrological study of basaltic coarse fines from the Apollo lunar soil sample 12023,155

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Crawford, Ian; Joy, K. H.; Downes, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    New data from a petrological and geochemical examination of 12 coarse basaltic fines from the Apollo 12 soil sample 12023,155 provide evidence of additional geochemical diversity at the landing site. In addition to the bulk chemical composition, major, minor, and trace element analyses of mineral phases are employed to ascertain how these samples relate to the Apollo 12 lithological basalt groups, thereby overcoming the problems of representativeness of small samples. All of the samples studi...

  15. Testing the Origins of Basalt Fragments fro Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, P. H.; Stevens, R. E.; Neal, C. R.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Several 2-4 mm regolith fragments of basalt from the Apollo 16 site were recently described by [1]. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric basalts (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline basalt (65703,9-13). As Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria, identification of basaltic samples at the site indicates input from remote sites via impact processes [1]. However, distinguishing between impact melt and pristine basalt can be notoriously difficult and requires significant sample material [2-6]. The crystal stratigraphy method utilizes essentially non-destructive methods to make these distinctions [7,8]. Crystal stratigraphy combines quantitative petrography in the form of crystal size distributions (CSDs) coupled with mineral geochemistry to reveal the petrogenetic history of samples. The classic CSD plot of crystal size versus population density can reveal insights on growth/cooling rates, residence times, and magma history which in turn can be used to evaluate basaltic vs impact melt origin [7-9]. Electron microprobe (EMP) and laser ablation (LA)-ICP-MS analyses of mineral phases complement textural investigations. Trace element variations document subtle changes occurring during the formation of the samples, and are key in the interpretation and preservation of this rare lunar sample collection.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of the APOLLO Lunar Laser Ranging Data

    CERN Document Server

    Reasenberg, R D; Colmenares, N R; Johnson, N H; Murphy, T W; Shapiro, I I

    2016-01-01

    The Earth-Moon-Sun system has traditionally provided the best laboratory for testing the strong equivalence principle. For a decade, the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) has been producing the world's best lunar laser ranging data. At present, a single observing session of about an hour yields a distance measurement with uncertainty of about 2~mm, an order of magnitude advance over the best pre-APOLLO lunar laser ranging data. However, these superb data have not yet yielded scientific results commensurate with their accuracy, number, and temporal distribution. There are two reasons for this. First, even in the relatively clean environment of the Earth-Moon system, a large number of effects modify the measured distance importantly and thus need to be included in the analysis model. The second reason is more complicated. The traditional problem with the analysis of solar-system metric data is that the physical model must be truncated to avoid extra parameters that would increase t...

  17. Operational Assessment of Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; Claybrook, Austin; Greenlund, Suraj; Marquez, Jessica J.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the operational variability of extravehicular activity (EVA) execution is critical to help design and build future support systems to enable astronauts to monitor and manage operations in deep-space, where ground support operators will no longer be able to react instantly and manage execution deviations due to the significant communication latency. This study quantifies the operational variability exhibited during Apollo 14-17 lunar surface EVA operations to better understand the challenges and natural tendencies of timeline execution and life support system performance involved in surface operations. Each EVA (11 in total) is individually summarized as well as aggregated to provide descriptive trends exhibited throughout the Apollo missions. This work extends previous EVA task analyses by calculating deviations between planned and as-performed timelines as well as examining metabolic rate and consumables usage throughout the execution of each EVA. The intent of this work is to convey the natural variability of EVA operations and to provide operational context for coping with the variability inherent to EVA execution as a means to support future concepts of operations.

  18. OMEGA APOLLO 11超霸腕表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    人类登月40周年之际,欧米茄推出了OMEGA APOLLO 11超霸限量腕表。OMEGA APOLLO 11超霸限量腕表搭载了当年的超霸专业月球表原型所使用的著名欧米茄1861型机芯。表壳和表链都采用精钢材质,表链得以进一步改进,配置了欧米茄专利链针系统。小秒针表盘上采用了徽章图案,由著名的阿波罗11号任务徽章演变而来:老鹰飞至月球表面,鹰爪抓有代表和平的橄榄枝;月球水平线之上,遥远的地球清晰可见。腕表的时针、分针和带有红色尖端的计时秒针覆有夜光涂层。

  19. Soil mechanical properties at the Apollo 14 site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Bromwell, L. G.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Scott, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 14 lunar landing provided a greater amount of information on the mechanical properties of the lunar soil than previous missions. Measurements on core-tube samples and the results of transporter track analyses indicate that the average density of the soil in the Fra Mauro region is in the range from 1.45 to 1.60 g/cu cm. The soil strength appears to be higher in the vicinity of the site of the Apollo 14 lunar surface experiments package, and trench data suggest that strength increases with depth. Lower-bound estimates of soil cohesion give values of 0.03 to 0.10 kN/sq m, which are lower than values of 0.35 to 0.70 kN/sq m estimated for soils encountered in previous missions. The in situ modulus of elasticity, deduced from the measured seismic-wave velocity, is compatible with that to be expected for a terrestrial silty fine sand in the lunar gravitational field.

  20. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  1. Base flow investigation of the Apollo AS-202 Command Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpot, Louis M. G.; Wright, Michael J.; Noeding, Peter; Schrijer, Ferry

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the overall vehicle mass of re-entry vehicles is the afterbody thermal protection system. This is due to the large acreage (equal or bigger than that of the forebody) to be protected. The present predictive capabilities for base flows are comparatively lower than those for windward flowfields and offer therefore a substantial potential for improving the design of future re-entry vehicles. To that end, it is essential to address the accuracy of high fidelity CFD tools exercised in the US and EU, which motivates a thorough investigation of the present status of hypersonic flight afterbody heating. This paper addresses the predictive capabilities of afterbody flow fields of re-entry vehicles investigated in the frame of the NATO/RTO-RTG-043 task group. First, the verification of base flow topologies on the basis of available wind-tunnel results performed under controlled supersonic conditions (i.e. cold flows devoid of reactive effects) is performed. Such tests address the detailed characterization of the base flow with particular emphasis on separation/reattachment and their relation to Mach number effects. The tests have been performed on an Apollo-like re-entry capsule configuration. Second, the tools validated in the frame of the previous effort are exercised and appraised against flight-test data collected during the Apollo AS-202 re-entry.

  2. Success Factors in Human Space Programs - Why Did Apollo Succeed Better Than Later Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    The Apollo Program reached the moon, but the Constellation Program (CxP) that planned to return to the moon and go on to Mars was cancelled. Apollo is NASA's greatest achievement but its success is poorly understood. The usual explanation is that President Kennedy announced we were going to the moon, the scientific community and the public strongly supported it, and Congress provided the necessary funding. This is partially incorrect and does not actually explain Apollo's success. The scientific community and the public did not support Apollo. Like Apollo, Constellation was announced by a president and funded by Congress, with elements that continued on even after it was cancelled. Two other factors account for Apollo's success. Initially, the surprise event of Uri Gagarin's first human space flight created political distress and a strong desire for the government to dramatically demonstrate American space capability. Options were considered and Apollo was found to be most effective and technically feasible. Political necessity overrode both the lack of popular and scientific support and the extremely high cost and risk. Other NASA human space programs were either canceled, such as the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), repeatedly threatened with cancellation, such as International Space Station (ISS), or terminated while still operational, such as the space shuttle and even Apollo itself. Large crash programs such as Apollo are initiated and continued if and only if urgent political necessity produces the necessary political will. They succeed if and only if they are technically feasible within the provided resources. Future human space missions will probably require gradual step-by-step development in a more normal environment.

  3. Effects of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide on ATP-sensitive potassium-channels and cytosolic calcium levels in beta TC3 cells and rat pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromada, J; Dissing, S; Kofod, Hans

    1995-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the action of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide in cultured newborn rat islet cells and mouse beta TC3 cells. In cell-attached membrane patches of newborn rat islet cells repaglinide (10 nmol/l) and glibenclamide (20 nmol/l) decrease the open...... probability of single ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels to approximately 10% of the activity prior to addition of the drugs in short-term experiments (cell patch clamp configuration. A half......-maximal steady-state inhibition of the ATP-sensitive K+ currents is observed at 89 pmol/l repaglinide and at 47 pmol/l glibenclamide in whole-cell experiments of longer duration (30 min). Applying digital Ca2+ imaging on single beta TC3 cells we found that repaglinide and glibenclamide induced a concentration...

  4. The link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcat, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Made in the frame of a French master on political history of USA in Paris IV La Sorbonne University, this subject is the third part of " The Economy of Apollo during the 60s". Nicolas Turcat is actually preparing his PhD in History of Innovation (DEA—Paris IV La Sorbonne). Our actual subject is " the link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years". This speech will highlight on some aspects of the link between NASA and aerospace industry. NASA could achieve the Apollo mission safely and under heavy financial pressure during the sixties due to a new type of organization for a civil agency; the contractor system. In fact, Military used it since the 1950s. And we will see how the development of this type of contract permitted a better interaction between the two parts. NASA would make another type of link with universities and technical institutes; a real brain trust was created, and between 1961 and 1967, 10,000 students worked and more than 200 universities on Apollo program. We will try to study briefly the procurement plan and process during the Apollo years. Without entering the " spin-offs debate", we will try to watch different aspects of the impacts and realities of the contractor and subcontractor system. We will see that would create a political debate inside USA when presidents Johnson and Nixon would decide to reduce Apollo program. Which states will benefit Apollo program? Or questions like how the debate at the end of the 1960s will become more and more political? Actually, almost 60% of the country's R&D was focused on Apollo, economical and moreover, political impacts would be great. We will try to study this under the light of different example: and particularly in California. The industrial and military complex was a part of the Apollo program. Apollo reoriented the aim of this complex for making it the first aerospace industry. Since this time, USA had not only acquired space ambition but real space capabilities. But more than

  5. Neil Armstrong talks of his experiences at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Neil Armstrong, former Apollo 11 astronaut, and first man to walk on the moon, talks about his experiences for an enthusiastic audience at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. The occasion was a banquet celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Gene Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon.

  6. Apollo 12 mission report: Descent, propulsion system final flight evaluation (supplement 5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, R. K. M.; Barrows, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the postflight analysis of the Descent propulsion system (DPS) performance during the Apollo 12 Mission. The primary objective of the analysis was to determine the steady-state performance of the DPS during the descent phase of the manned lunar landing. This is a supplement ot the Apollo 12 Mission Report. In addition to further analysis of the DPS, this report brings together information from other reports and memorandums analyzing specific anomalies and performance in order to present a comprehensive description of the DPS operation during the Apollo 12 Mission.

  7. Changes in Iron Metabolism and Oxidative Status in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with Bis(maltolato Oxovanadium (IV as an Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Sánchez-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of vanadium as a micronutrient and hypoglycaemic agent has yet to be fully clarified. The present study was undertaken to investigate changes in the metabolism of iron and in antioxidant defences of diabetic STZ rats following treatment with vanadium. Four groups were examined: control; diabetic; diabetic treated with 1 mgV/day; and Diabetic treated with 3 mgV/day. The vanadium was supplied in drinking water as bis(maltolato oxovanadium (IV (BMOV. The experiment had a duration of five weeks. Iron was measured in food, faeces, urine, serum, muscle, kidney, liver, spleen, and femur. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, NAD(PH: quinone-oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1 activity, and protein carbonyl group levels in the liver were determined. In the diabetic rats, higher levels of Fe absorbed, Fe content in kidney, muscle, and femur, and NQO1 activity were recorded, together with decreased catalase activity, in comparison with the control rats. In the rats treated with 3 mgV/day, there was a significant decrease in fasting glycaemia, Fe content in the liver, spleen, and heart, catalase activity, and levels of protein carbonyl groups in comparison with the diabetic group. In conclusion BMOV was a dose-dependent hypoglycaemic agent. Treatment with 3 mgV/day provoked increased Fe deposits in the tissues, which promoted a protein oxidative damage in the liver.

  8. 3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

    2009-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

  9. Light and dark soils at the Apollo 16 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Walton, J. R.; Jordan, J. L.; Lakatos, S.; Yaniv, A.

    1975-01-01

    Lunar soils are discussed within the framework of a three-group classification scheme. Group I comprises North Ray Crater soils, group II contains light soils, and group III is made up of dark soils. It is suggested that group I soils originated from the light friable unit, one of the three units inside North Ray Crater. Group II soils were probably derived from the light matrix breccia unit; group II soils are mixtures of materials from all three units. It is concluded that soils with group III properties have been at the surface continuously for long periods. Group II soils show a record of solar wind exposure in the distant past (i.e., they have large (Ar-40/Ar-36)T ratios). Thus the regolith at the Apollo 16 site, which was observed to have marked layers of dark against light soils, contains sizeable 'pockets' or horizons at depth which are the sources of the group II soils.

  10. Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount Spar and Sun End

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and served as the primary scientific instrument unit aboard Skylab (1973-1979). The ATM contained eight complex astronomical instruments designed to observe the Sun over a wide spectrum from visible light to x-rays. This image depicts the sun end and spar of the ATM flight unit showing individual telescopes. All solar telescopes, the fine Sun sensors, and some auxiliary systems are mounted on the spar, a cruciform lightweight perforated metal mounting panel that divides the canister lengthwise into four equal compartments. The spar assembly was nested inside a cylindrical canister that fit into a complex frame named the rack, and was protected by the solar shield.

  11. Major element composition of glasses in three Apollo 15 soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 180 glasses in each of three Apollo 15 soils have been analyzed for nine elements. Cluster analysis techniques allow the recognition of preferred glass compositions that are equated with parent rock compositions. Green glass rich in Fe and Mg, poor in Al and Ti may be derived from deep-seated pyroxenitic material now present at the Apennine Front. Fra Mauro basalt (KREEP) is most abundant in the LM soil and is tentatively identified as ray material from the Aristillus-Autolycus area. Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro), believed to be derived from the lunar highlands, has the same composition as at other landing sites, but is less abundant. The Apennine Front is probably not true highland material but may contain a substantial amount of material with the composition of Fra Mauro basalt, but lacking the high-K content.

  12. Apollo 15 green glass - Relationships between texture and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Alison M.

    1992-01-01

    A suite of 365 Apollo 15 green-glass particles was analyzed by INAA and then described petrographically so that comparisons between composition and physical characteristics could be made. Nonuniform compositional distributions of crystalline and elongate particles were evident, although differences in the distribution of volatile-element coatings and extent of particle breakage were not as striking. A binomial evaluation of these textures on an intergroup basis supports the previously proposed hypothesis that the green-glass groups formed during discrete eruptive events because the groups that were defined compositionally also show significant differences in the average texture and structure of particles. Furthermore, in at least one case (Group D), intragroup differences in the distribution of vitrophyric and vitric particles were apparent. An extension of previous models for pyroclastic volcanism suggests that this feature may indicate that a systematic change in the composition of ejecta occurred as eruption progressed.

  13. Spaceflight revolution: NASA Langley Research Center from Sputnik to Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James R.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the transition to the broad research scope of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) starting in the late 1950's, the Langley Research Center underwent many changes in program content, organization and management, and areas of personnel expertise. This book describes and evaluates the evolution and activities of the Langley Research Center during the seventeen-year period from 1958 to 1975. The book was based on the analysis of hundreds of written records, both published and unpublished, as well as numerous personal interviews with many of the key individuals involved in the transition of Langley. Some of the projects and research areas covered include Project Echo, magnetoplasmadynamics research, Scout Rocket Program, lunar-orbit rendezvous research, manned space laboratory development, and Apollo and the Lunar Orbiter Project.

  14. The Legacy of Apollo: a Thirty Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2002-01-01

    John F. Kennedy's challenge in 1961 for an American commitment toward "achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth" stimulated a remarkable coincidence of many truly American characteristics. It can be argued that American's do truly great things for humanity and themselves when five societal conditions are in coincidence - a sufficient base of technology to serve as a foundation for the effort, a reservoir of young engineers and skilled workers to draw up on, a pervasive environment of national unease about the way things are, a catalytic event that begins to focus attention on a potential goal worth the Nation's effort, and an articulate and trusted President. Kennedy fully deserves the credit for recognizing the needed response to the Soviet challenge and thus formally initiating the U.S. effort that first put men, in particular, Americans on the Moon. Much of the conceptual and political heavy lifting, however, necessary to give policy makers the confidence that such an effort could be successful, had been undertaken in the last few years of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Administration. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had been created in 1958, NASA and industry studies of manned lunar missions were well advanced, and Eisenhower had initiated the development of rockets capable of such missions. Apollo also gave all human beings a new evolutionary status in the universe as well as a new foundation of know-how for life on Earth. With Apollo, humankind demonstrated that it had the intellect and the will to go into space and stay there permanently. As a consequence, young people alive today will live on the Moon and Mars and will help their home planet survive itself as America helped former homelands in Europe and Asia in recent centuries. race to the Moon. Both Americans and Russians can be proud of the eventual results of their competition.

  15. Michelangelo's Apollo and pathos: an anatomical and anthropometric interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2010-06-01

    Michelangelo was a complex personality with strong conflicting emotions. Most prevalent, in both his life and subsequently his work, were the contrasting feelings of grandeur (Apollo) and pathos. He used his extensive knowledge of anatomy to convey expressions of justice, power and awe in works like David, Moses, and Christ in the Last Judgment. In his more mature years he gravitates to works depicting suffering (pathos) and the physical decline of the human body as seen in the captives for the tomb of Pope Julius II and the female subjects in the Medici Chapel. The Renaissance belief in humanism, influenced by the study of antiquity, put man at the centre of the universe. Michelangelo, more than any other artist of the time, was an ardent exponent of this trend. His interest in the human body, though paramount, ranged far beyond the mere depiction of anatomical details or naturalism in art. The human body, which no artist since the ancient Greeks held in such high esteem, was the vehicle through which he sought to portray the inner life of the spirit. He was more interested in the universal spirit shining through the individual. It is this quality that enables him to speak to us across the boundaries of time and space. He never says, "I want you to recognize this man." Instead, he says, "I want you to recognize yourself and through yourself all mankind". Some of the outward manifestations of the life of the spirit were, to Michelangelo and to men of his time, beauty, justice, noble courage and awe-inspiring righteousness. It is not surprising, therefore, that two of the most important themes expressed in his art are Apollo (beauty and justice) and pathos (the spiritual struggle of man on earth) and that the sole form he deemed appropriate for embodiment of these lofty ideas was the human nude.

  16. [Uricosuric agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Iwao

    2008-04-01

    Urate lowering treatment is indicated in patients with recurrent acute attacks, tophi, gouty arthropathy, radiographic changes of gout, multiple joint involvement, or associated uric acid nephrolithiasis. Uricosuric agents like benzbromarone and probenecid are very useful to treat hyperuricemia as well as allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor). Uricosuric agents act the urate lowering effect through blocking the URAT1, an urate transporter, in brush border of renal proximal tubular cells. In order to avoid the nephrotoxicity and urolithiasis due to increasing of urinary urate excretion by using uricosuric agents, the proper urinary tract management (enough urine volume and correction of aciduria) should be performed.

  17. Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing mission in his space suit, with his helmet on the table in front of him. Behind him is a large photograph of the lunar surface.

  18. View of Mission Control Center celebrating conclusion of Apollo 11 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), at the conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The television monitor shows President Richard M. Nixon greeting the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet in the Pacific recovery area (40301); NASA and MSC Officials join the flight controllers in celebrating the conclusion of the Apollo 11 mission. From left foreground Dr. Maxime A. Faget, MSC Director of Engineering and Development; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director; Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director fo Flight Operations; Julian Scheer (in back), Assistant Adminstrator, Offic of Public Affairs, NASA HQ.; George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director; and Charles W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ (40302).

  19. The Foundation of the Oracle at Delphi in the Homeric Hymn to Apollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni Strolonga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A central theme of the Hymn to Apollo is the importance of reciprocity between the god and mankind, involving benefactions that accrue to both in the founding and the continuance of the cult.

  20. Vasoactive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Husedzinovic, Ino; Bradic, Nikola; Goranovic, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    This article is a short review of vasoactive drugs which are in use in todays clinical practice. In the past century, development of vasoactive drugs went through several phases. All of these drugs are today divided into several groups, depending on their place of action, pharmacological pathways and/or effects on target organ or organ system. Hence, many different agents are today in clinical practice, we have shown comparison between them. These agents provide new directions in the treatmen...

  1. Flight feeding systems design and evaluation. Supplement 1: Production guides. [for the Apollo food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for processing, packaging, testing, and shipment of foods selected for use in the Apollo food system are presented. Specific foodstuffs chosen from the following categories are discussed: (1) soups; (2) juices; (3) breads; (4) meat and poultry products; (5) fruits and nuts; (6) desserts; and (7) beverages. Food procurement for the mobile quarantine facility and for Apollo preflight and postflight activities is also discussed.

  2. Engineering aspects of the experiment and results of animal tests. [Apollo 17 Biological Cosmic Ray Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, B. C.; Tremor, J. W.; Barrows, W. F.; Zabower, H. R.; Suri, K.; Park, E. G., Jr.; Durso, J. A.; Leon, H. A.; Haymaker, W.; Lindberg, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A closed passive system independent of support from the spacecraft or its crew was developed to house five pocket mice for their flight on Apollo XVII. The reaction of potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor to produce oxygen provided a habitable atmosphere within the experiment package. The performance of the system and the ability of the mice to survive the key preflight tests gave reasonable assurance that the mice would also withstand the Apollo flight.-

  3. Werner von Braun relaxes after successful Apollo 11 Saturn V launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama, relaxes after the successful launch of Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins and Edwin Aldrin Jr. today. Their historic lunar landing mission began at 9:32 a.m. EDT, July 16, 1969, when an Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle lifted off from the spaceport's Launch Complex 39A.

  4. Restoration and Reexamination of Apollo Lunar Dust Detector Data from Original Telemetry Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent

    2012-01-01

    We are recovering the original telemetry (Figure I) from the Apollo Dust, Thermal, Radiation Environment Monitor (DTREM) experiment, more commonly known as the Dust Detector, and producing full time resolution (54 second) data sets for release through the Planetary Data System (PDS). The primary objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of dust deposition, temperature, and radiation damage on solar cells on the lunar surface. The monitor was a small box consisting of three solar cells and thermistors mounted on the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) central station. The Dust Detector was carried on Apollo's 11, 12, 14 and 15. The Apollo 11 DTREM was powered by solar cells and only operated for a few months as planned. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 detectors operated for 5 to 7 years, returning data every 54 seconds, consisting of voltage outputs from the three solar cells and temperatures measured by the three thermistors. The telemetry was received at ground stations and held on the Apollo Housekeeping (known as "Word 33") tapes. made available to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) by Yosio Nakamura (University of Texas Institute for Geophysics). We have converted selected parts of the telemetry into uncalibrated and calibrated output voltages and temperatures.

  5. [Inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Shigetake

    2003-05-01

    Depression of myocardial contractility plays an important role in the development of heart failure and many inotropic agents were developed to improve the contractile function of the failing heart. Agents that increase cyclic AMP, either by increasing its synthesis or reducing its degradation, exerted dramatic short-term hemodynamic benefits, but these acute effects were not extrapolated into long-term improvement of the clinical outcome of heart failure patients. Administration of these agents to an energy starved failing heart would be expected to increase myocardial energy use and could accelerate disease progression. The role of digitalis in the management of heart failure has been controversial, however, the recent large scale clinical trial has ironically proved that digoxin reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. More recently, attention was paid to other inotropic agents that have a complex and diversified mechanism. These agents have some phosphodiesterase-inhibitory action but also possess additional effects, including cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulators, or calcium sensitizers. In the Western Societies these agents were again shown to increase mortality of patients with severe heart failure in a dose dependent manner with the long-term administration. However, it may not be the case in the Japanese population in whom mortality is relatively low. Chronic treatment with inotropic agent may be justified in Japanese, as it allows optimal care in the context of relief of symptoms and an improved quality of life. Therefore, each racial group should obtain specific evidence aimed at developing its own guidelines for therapy rather than translating major guidelines developed for other populations.

  6. Sunscreening Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  7. A thermophysical analysis of the (1862) Apollo Yarkovsky and YORP effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozitis, B.; Duddy, S. R.; Green, S. F.; Lowry, S. C.

    2013-07-01

    Context. The Yarkovsky effect, which causes orbital drift, and the YORP effect, which causes changes in rotation rate and pole orientation, play important roles in the dynamical and physical evolution of asteroids. Near-Earth asteroid (1862) Apollo has strong detections of both orbital semimajor axis drift and rotational acceleration. Aims: We produce a unified model that can accurately match both observed effects using a single set of thermophysical properties derived from ground-based observations, and we determine Apollo's long term evolution. Methods: We use light-curve shape inversion techniques and the advanced thermophysical model (ATPM) on published light-curve, thermal-infrared, and radar observations to constrain Apollo's thermophysical properties. The derived properties are used to make detailed predictions of Apollo's Yarkovsky and YORP effects, which are then compared with published measurements of orbital drift and rotational acceleration. The ATPM explicitly incorporates 1D heat conduction, shadowing, multiple scattering of sunlight, global self-heating, and rough surface thermal-infrared beaming in the model predictions. Results: We find that ATPM can accurately reproduce the light-curve, thermal-infrared, and radar observations of Apollo, and simultaneously match the observed orbital drift and rotational acceleration using: a shape model with axis ratios of 1.94:1.65:1.00, an effective diameter of 1.55 ± 0.07 km, a geometric albedo of 0.20 ± 0.02, a thermal inertia of 140-100+140 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, a highly rough surface, and a bulk density of 2850-680+480 kg m-3. Using these properties we predict that Apollo's obliquity is increasing towards the 180° YORP asymptotic state at a rate of 1.5 -0.5+0.3 degrees per 105 yr. Conclusions: The derived thermal inertia suggests that Apollo has loose regolith material resting on its surface, which is consistent with Apollo undergoing a recent resurfacing event based on its observed Q-type spectrum. The

  8. Lunar Dust Effects on Spacesuit Systems: Insights from the Apollo Spacesuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Roy; Lindsay, John R.; Noble, Sarah K.; Meador, Mary Ann; Kosmo, Joseph J.; Lawrence, J. Anneliese; Brostoff, Lynn; Young, Amanda; McCue, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Systems and components of selected Apollo A7L/A7LB flight-article spacesuits that were worn on the lunar surface have been studied to determine the degree to which they suffered contamination, abrasion and wear or loss of function due to effects from lunar soil particles. Filter materials from the lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters from the Apollo Command Module were also studied to determine the amount and type of any lunar dust particles they may have captured from the spacecraft atmosphere. The specific spacesuit study materials include the outermost soft fabric layers on Apollo 12 and 17 integrated thermal micrometeorite garment assemblies and outermost fabrics on Apollo 17 extravehicular pressure gloves. In addition, the degree of surface wear in the sealed wrist rotation bearing from Apollo 16 extravehicular and intravehicular pressure gloves was evaluated and compared. Scanning electron microscope examination of the Apollo 12 T-164 woven TeflonO fabric confirms the presence of lunar soil particles and the ability of these particles to cause separation and fraying of the Teflon fibers. Optical imaging, chemical analysis and particle sampling applied to the outer fabric of the Apollo 17 spacesuit has identified Ti as a potentially useful chemical marker for comparing the amount of lunar soil retained on different areas of the spacesuit outer fabric. High-yield particle sampling from the Apollo 17 fabric surfaces using adhesive tape found 80% of particles on the fabric are lunar soil particles averaging 10.5 m in diameter, with the rest being intrinsic fabric materials or environmental contaminants. Analysis of the mineralogical composition of the lunar particles found that on a grain-count basis the particle population is dominated by plagioclase feldspar and various types of glassy particles derived mostly from soil agglutinates, with a subordinate amount of pyroxene. On a grain size basis, however, the pyroxene grains are generally a factor of 2 larger than

  9. Mobile Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    Mobile agents are autonomous programs that can travel from computer to computer in a network, at times and to places of their own choosing. The state of the running program is saved, by being transmitted to the destination. The program is resumed at the destination continuing its processing with the saved state. They can provide a convenient, efficient, and robust framework for implementing distributed applications and smart environments for several reasons, including improvements to the latency and bandwidth of client-server applications and reducing vulnerability to network disconnection. In fact, mobile agents have several advantages in the development of various services in smart environments in addition to distributed applications.

  10. Antibiotic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... agents. A recent survey reported that 76% of liquid soaps from 10 states in the US contained triclosan ... regulated depends upon its intended use and its effectiveness. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates antibacterial soaps and antibacterial substances that will either be used ...

  11. The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of

  12. Remembering Apollo 11: The 30th Anniversary Data Archive CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, Edgar M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, the human race accomplished its single greatest technological achievement of all time when a human first set foot on another celestial body. Six hours after landing at 4:17 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (with less than thirty seconds of fuel remaining), Neil A. Armstrong took the "small step" into our greater future when he stepped off the Lunar Module, named Eagle, onto the surface of the Moon, from which he could look up and see Earth in the heavens as no one had done before him. He was shortly joined by Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and the two astronauts spent twenty-one hours on the lunar surface and returned forty-six pounds of lunar rocks. After their historic walks on the Moon, they successfully docked with Michael Collins, patiently orbiting the cold but no longer lifeless Moon alone in the Command module Columbia. This CR-ROM is intended as a collection of hard to find technical data and other interesting information about the Apollo 11 mission, as well as the apollo program in general. It includes basic overviews, such as a retrospective analysis, an annotated bibliography, and history of the lunar-orbit rendezvous concept. It also contains technical data, such as mission operations reports, press kits, and news references for all of the Apollo missions, the Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn V launch vehicle. Rounding out this CD-ROM are extensive histories of the lunar Orbiter program (the robotic predecessor to Apollo, biographies of the Apollo astronauts and other key individuals, and interesting audio-visual materials, such as video and audio clips, photo galleries, and blueprint-like diagrams of the Apollo spacecraft.

  13. Indigenous Carbon Embedded in Apollo 17 Black Volcanic Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. The levels of such organic material were expected to be and found to be small. Previous work on this topic includes Murphy et al. [1] who reported the presence of anthropogenic organics with sub-ppm concentrations in Apollo 11 fines. In Apollo 12 samples, Preti et al. [2] detected low levels, < 10 ppb or below, of more complex organic material that may have been synthesized by abrupt heating during analysis. Kvenvolden et al. [3] detected porphyrin-like pigments at the ng to pg level in an Apollo 11 bulk sample. Hodgson et al. [4] and Ponnamperuma et al. [5] suggested that most if not all porphyrins were synthesized from rocket fuel during module landing. Chang et al. [6] reported indigenous carbon ranging from 5-20 g/g in the form of metal carbides in Apollo 11 fines. Hare et al. [7] reported amino acids at he 50 ng/g level in Apollo 11 samples but suggested the results may be explained as contamination. More recently, Clemett et al. [8] reported simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at concentrations of < 1ppm in an Apollo 16 soil. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity, but also its heterogeneous distribution. If the sample size required for a measurement is large relative to the localization of organics, detection is limited not by ultimate sensitivity but rather by the ability to distinguish an indigenous signature from background contamination [9].

  14. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  15. Armstrong Retrieves Equipment From Apollo 11 Storage Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Astronauts onboard included Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Armstrong is removing scientific equipment from a storage bay of the LM. The brilliant sunlight emphasizes the U. S. Flag to the left. The object near the flag is the Solar Wind Composition Experiment deployed by Aldrin earlier.

  16. A Systematic Spectroscopic Study of Four Apollo Lunar Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongcheng Ling; Alian Wang; Bradley L Jolliff

    2011-01-01

    A systematic spectroscopic study including Raman,Mid-IR,NIR,and VIS-NIR,is used to investigate four endmember lunar soils.Apollo soils (<45 μm) 14163,15271,67511,and 71501 were selected as endmembers to study,based on their soil chemistry,maturity against space weathering,and the sampling locations.These endmembers include an anorthositic highlands soil (67511),a low-Ti basaltic soil (15271),a high-Ti basaltic soil (71501),and a mafic,KREEPy,impact-melt-rich soil (14163).We used a laser Raman point-counting procedure to derive mineral modes of the soils and the compositional distributions of major mineral phases,which in turn reflect characteristics of the main source materials for these soils.The Mid-lR,NIR,and VIS-NIR spectroscopic properties also yield distinct information on mineralogy,geochemistry,and maturity among the four soils.Knowledge of the mineralogy resulting from the Raman point-counting procedure corresponds well with bulk mineralogy and soil properties based on Mid-IR,NIR,and VIS-NIR spectroscopy.The future synergistic application of these spectroscopy methods on the Moon will provide a linkage between the results from in situ surface exploration and those from orbital remote- sensing observations.

  17. Apollo Video Photogrammetry Estimation Of Plume Impingement Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip T.; Clements, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Project's planned return to the moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the Lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. Much work is needed to understand the physics of plume impingement during landing in order to protect hardware surrounding the landing sites. While mostly qualitative in nature, the Apollo Lunar Module landing videos can provide a wealth of quantitative information using modem photogrammetry techniques. The authors have used the digitized videos to quantify plume impingement effects of the landing exhaust on the lunar surface. The dust ejection angle from the plume is estimated at 1-3 degrees. The lofted particle density is estimated at 10(exp 8)- 10(exp 13) particles per cubic meter. Additionally, evidence for ejection of large 10-15 cm sized objects and a dependence of ejection angle on thrust are presented. Further work is ongoing to continue quantitative analysis of the landing videos.

  18. Radioprotective Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    claimed to be effective are gallic acid derivatives, eg, sodium gallate 12053-21-61 (295-297) and propyl gallate 1121-79-91 (298). p...inhibition of a-adrenergic receptors can be achieved through the use of the antiradiation agents 2-(5-aminopentylamino)ethanephos- phorothioic acid ...tissue was ap- preciated immediately as a potential medical set, and they were put to use en- thusiastically. Early workers did notice an erythematous

  19. Rocket ranch the nuts and bolts of the Apollo Moon program at Kennedy Space Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Jonathan Ward takes the reader deep into the facilities at Kennedy Space Center to describe NASA’s first computer systems used for spacecraft and rocket checkout and explain how tests and launches proceeded. Descriptions of early operations include a harrowing account of the heroic efforts of pad workers during the Apollo 1 fire. A companion to the author’s book Countdown to a Moon Launch: Preparing Apollo for Its Historic Journey, this explores every facet of the facilities that served as the base for the Apollo/Saturn missions. Hundreds of illustrations complement the firsthand accounts of more than 70 Apollo program managers and engineers. The era of the Apollo/Saturn missions was perhaps the most exciting period in American space exploration history. Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center were buzzing with activity. Thousands of workers came to town to build the facilities and launch the missions needed to put an American on the Moon before the end of the decade. Work at KSC involved much more than j...

  20. Searching for neuKREEP: An EMP study of Apollo 11 Group A basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Eric A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1993-01-01

    The Apollo 11 and 17 landing sites are characterized by the presence of high-Ti basalts (TiO2 greater than 6 percent). The Group A basalts of Apollo 11 have elevated K compositions (greater than 2000 ppm); and are enriched in incompatible trace elements relative to the other types of high-Ti basalt found in the region. These unique basalts also are the youngest of all high-Ti basalts, with an age of 3.56 +/- 0.02 Ga. Recent modelling of the Apollo 11 Group A basalts by Jerde et al. has demonstrated that this unique variety of high-Ti basalt may have formed through fractionation of a liquid with the composition of the Apollo 11 orange glass, coupled with assimilation of evolved material (dubbed neuKREEP and having similarities to lunar quartz monzodiorite). Assimilation of this material would impart its REE signature on the liquid, resulting in the elevated REE abundances observed. Minerals such as whitlockite which contain a large portion of the REE budget can be expected to reflect the REE characteristics of the assimilant. To this end, an examination of the whitlockite present in the Apollo 11 Group A basalts was undertaken to search for evidence of the neuKREEP material assimilated.

  1. Qualification of the APOLLO2 lattice physics code of the NURISP platform for VVER hexagonal lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegyi, Gyoergy; Kereszturi, Andras; Tota, Adam [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Reactor Analysis Dept.

    2012-08-15

    The experiments performed at the ZR-6 zero power critical reactor by the Temporary International Collective (TIC) and a burnup benchmark specified for depletion calculation of a VVER-440 assembly containing Gd burnable poison were used to qualify the APOLLO2.8-3.E (APOLLO2) code as a part of its ongoing validation activity. The work is part of the NURISP project, where KFKI AEKI undertook to develop and qualify some calculation schemes for hexagonal problems. Concerning the ZR-6 measurements, single cell, macro-cell and 2D calculations of selected regular and perturbed experiments are used for the validation. In the 2D cases, the radial leakage is also taken into account by the axial leakage represented by the measured axial buckling. Criticality parameter and reaction rate comparisons are presented. Although various sets of the experiments have been selected for the validation, good agreement of the measured and calculated parameters could be found by using the various options offered by APOLLO2. An additional mathematical benchmark - presented in the paper - also attests for the reliability of APOLLO2. All the test results prove the reliability of APOLLO2 for VVER core calculations. (orig.)

  2. Unusual Microtopography on an Apollo 12 Soil Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Keprta, N. T.; Clemett, S. J.; Berger, E. L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the presence of a previously undescribed microtopography in several regions on the surface of a lunar grain from Apollo regolith sample 12070,29. This microtopography consists of flattened triangular prisms, henceforth referred to as denticles, set in an orderly arrangement. We propose three possible processes to describe the presence of these structures: (1) radiation; (2) aqueous activity; or (3) impact. Radiation—the surface of the Earth’s moon is subject to energetic ion and photon irradiation which can produce a multitude of morphological effects on grain surfaces including erosion/sputtering, vesicle formation, and amorphization of crystalline phases. Under certain conditions surface erosion can result in the formation of well-ordered nanostructures including mounds, dots, wave-shaped, rippled or corrugated features typically <10s nm in size and organized into pattered arrays. However larger pyramid-shaped features up to approx. 300 nm at the base, similar in shape to lunar denticles, were produced on Cu substrates ex-posed to ion beam sputtering.. Aqueous alteration—recent reports of purported water on the Moon imply the possibility of brief, limited exposure of surface materials to aqueous fluids. Aqueous corrosion of silicates can result in the formation of crystallographically controlled denticulated features, up to 10s of micron at the base, arranged in a patterned formation. Impact—the surface of the moon is impacted by meteorites, particularly by micron-size particles, resulting in the formation of a variety of crater types. While it is difficult to envision a scenario in which a patterned array could be formed by impact, fracturing along planes of crystallographic structural weakness due to external stress could explain these features.

  3. A Monazite-bearing clast in Apollo 17 melt breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.

    1993-01-01

    A phosphate-rich clast in a pigeonite-plagioclase mineral assemblage occurs in Apollo 17 impact-melt breccia 76503,7025. The clast, measuring 0.9 x 0.4 mm in thin section, contains 3.3 percent (volume) apatite (Ca5P3O12(F,Cl)), 0.8 percent whitlockite (Ca16(Mg,Fe)2REE2P14O56), and trace monazite ((LREE)PO4). Major minerals include 26 percent pigeonite, En53-57FS34-35W08-13, and 69 percent plagioclase, An84-92Ab7-15Oro.6-1.1. Troilite, ilmenite, and other accessory minerals constitute less than 1 percent of the assemblage and Fe-metal occurs along fractures. Also present in the melt breccia as a separate clast is a fragment of felsite. Based on the association of these clasts and their assemblages, a parent lithology of alkali-anorthositic monzogabbro is postulated. Monazite occurs in the phosphate-bearing clast as two less than 10 micron grains intergrown with whitlockite. The concentration of combined REE oxides in monazite is 63.5 percent and the chondrite-normalized REE pattern is strongly enriched in LREE, similar to lunar monazite in 10047,68 and terrestrial monazite. Thorium concentration was not measured in monazite, but based on oxide analyses of approximately 100 percent (including interpolated values for REE not measured), substantial Th concentration is not indicated, similar to monazite in 10047,68. Measured monazite/whitlockite REE ratios are La: 11, Ce: 8, Sm: 3.6, Y: 0.9, and Yb: 0.5. Compositions of monazite and coexisting whitlockite and apatite are given.

  4. Carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wszolek, P. C.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    The carbon chemistry of the Apollo 15 and 16 deep drill cores is a function of the surface exposure plus the chemical and mineralogical composition of the individual samples. The depth profiles of carbide and methane yields in the Apollo 15 core show a general decline with depth and correlate with the solar wind noble gas content, percentage agglutinates, track densities, and metallic iron. All horizons examined were exposed for a considerable time on the lunar surface. The Apollo 16 core samples show that chemical and mineralogical composition plays an important role in determining the nature of carbide-like material present in the fines. The higher aluminum and calcium contents and lower iron contents of highlands material result in carbide-like material yielding less CD4 and more C2D2 (deuteroacetylene) upon DF acid dissolution.

  5. President Richard Nixon visits MSC to award Apollo 13 Mission Operations team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon introduces Sigurd A. Sjoberg (far right), Director of Flight Operations at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and the four Apollo 13 Flight Directors during the Presidnet's post-mission visit to MSC. The Flight Directors are (l.-r.) Glynn S. Lunney, Eugene A. Kranz, Gerald D. Griffin and Milton L. Windler. Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, is seated at left. President Nixon was on the site to present the Presidential Medal of Freedom -- the nation's highest civilian honor -- to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team (35600); A wide-angle, overall view of the large crowd that was on hand to see President Richard M. Nixon present the Presidnetial Medal of Freedom to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team. A temporary speaker's platform was erected beside bldg 1 for the occasion (35601).

  6. Shadowing on Apollo 12 Solar Cells and Possible Movement of the ALSEP Central Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Paul A.; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    A fortuitous arrangement of a west-facing solar cell and a bracket on the Apollo 12 ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) has allowed us to precisely determine the relative position of the Sun near sunset relative to the Apollo 12 central station over a period of nearly 8 years. The small bracket, mounted on the central station due west of the cell, casts a shadow on the cell near sunset, decreasing the output of the cell proportional to the area of shadow covering the cell. The pattern of shadowing by the bracket gives good agreement with the known change of solar azimuth on a yearly timescale, but the pattern gradually but constantly changed from year-to-year, in a manner inconsistent with the known and changing position of the Sun.

  7. Restoration of APOLLO Data by the NSSDC and PDS Lunar Data Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie J.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), suites of instruments deployed by the Apollo 12. 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts on the lunar surface, still represent the only in-situ measurements of the Moon's environment taken over long time periods, Much of these data are housed at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center but are in forms that are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, obsolete formats. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. The LDN has prioritized the restoration of these data based on their scientific and engineering value and the level of effort required. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  8. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  9. First-Time Analysis of Completely Restored DTREM Instrument Data from Apollo 14 and 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Marie J.; Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Turner, Niescja

    2013-01-01

    The Dust, Thermal and Radiation Engineering Measurement (DTREM) packages (figure 1) mounted on the central stations of the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 ALSEPs (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages) measured the outputs of exposed solar cells and thermistors over time. The goal of the experiment, also commonly known as the dust detector, was to study the long-term effects of dust, radiation, and temperature at the lunar surface on solar cells. The monitors returned data for up to almost 8 years from the lunar surface.

  10. Indigenous Carbonaceous Phases Embedded Within Surface Deposits on Apollo 17 Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. Prior studies of Apollo samples have shown the total amount of organic matter to be in the range of approx 50 to 250 ppm. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity but also its heterogeneous distribution. Several processes should have contributed to the lunar organic inventory including exogenous carbonaceous accretion from meteoroids and interplanetary dust particles, and endogenous synthesis driven by early planetary volcanism and cosmic and solar radiation.

  11. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  12. Early Impacts on the Moon: Crystallization Ages of Apollo 16 Melt Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Taylor, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of the early impact history of the terrestrial planets has been identified one of the highest priority science goals for solar system exploration. Crystallization ages of impact melt breccias from the Apollo 16 site in the central nearside lunar highlands show a pronounced clustering of ages from 3.75-3.95 Ga, with several impact events being recognized by the association of textural groups and distinct ages. Here we present new geochemical and petrologic data for Apollo 16 crystalline breccia 67955 that document a much older impact event with an age of 4.2 Ga.

  13. Thorium and uranium variations in Apollo 17 basalts, and K-U systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laul, J. C.; Fruchter, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    It is found that Apollo 11 low-K and in particular Apollo 17 mare basalts show a wide range of Th/U ratios unlike other rocks; such variations cannot be explained by near surface crystal fractionation. A two-stage fractional crystallization-partial melting model involving a clinopyroxene cumulate as the major phase can explain the variations in Th/U ratios. Due to the Sm-Nd systematics constraint, several source cumulates are invoked to explain the observed Th/U continuum.

  14. Radioactivity observed in the sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer returned on the Apollo 17 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Eller, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain information on radioactive background induced in the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers (7 cm x 7 cm NaI) by particle irradiation during spaceflight, and identical detector was flown and returned to earth on the Apollo 17 mission. The induced radioactivity was monitored both internally and externally from one and a half hours after splashdown. When used in conjunction with a computation scheme for estimating induced activation from calculated trapped proton and cosmic-ray fluences, these results show an important contribution resulting from both thermal and energetic neutrons produced in the heavy spacecraft by cosmic-ray interactions.

  15. APOLLO: the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation: Instrument Description and First Detections

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, T W Jr; Battat, J B R; Carey, L N; Hoyle, C D; LeBlanc, P; Michelsen, E L; Nordtvedt, K; Orin, A E; Strasburg, J D; Stubbs, C W; Swanson, H E; Williams, E

    2007-01-01

    A next-generation lunar laser ranging apparatus using the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory in southern New Mexico has begun science operation. APOLLO (the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation) has achieved one-millimeter range precision to the moon which should lead to approximately one-order-of-magnitude improvements in the precision of several tests of fundamental properties of gravity. We briefly motivate the scientific goals, and then give a detailed discussion of the APOLLO instrumentation.

  16. Mosaic of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site taken from TV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A 360 degree field of view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site area composed of individual scenes taken from a color transmission made by the color RCA TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. This panorama was made while the LRV was parked at the rim of Flag Crater (Station 1) during the first Apollo 16 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-1) by Astronauts John W. Young and Charles M. Duke Jr. The overlay identifies the directions and the key lunar terrain features. The camera panned across the rear portion of the LRV in its 360 degree sweep.

  17. Apollo 16 stratigraphy - The ANT hills, the Cayley Plains, and a pre-Imbrian regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Drake, M. J.; Hallam, M. E.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 645 particles in the 1 to 2 mm size range has been classified in the Apollo 16 soil samples 60602,3, 61242,7, 66042,4, 67602,13, and 69942,13. Five major categories of lithic fragments recognized in these samples include (1) an anorthositic/noritic/troctolitic, or ANT suite, (2) light-matrix breccias, (3) poikiloblastic noritic/anorthositic fragments, (4) spinel-troctolites, and (5) feldspathic basalts. The petrography and phase chemistry of the lithic fragments are discussed along with results of the fragment census and the stratigraphy of the Apollo 16 site.

  18. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  19. Lesions in the wingless gene of the Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings, coming from the isolated population in Pieniny (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-02-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is a butterfly species which was common in Europe in 19th century, but now it is considered as near threatened. Various programs devoted to protect and save P. apollo have been established, between others the one in Pieniny National Park (Poland). An isolated population of this butterfly has been restored there from a small group of 20-30 individuals in early 1990s. However, deformations or reductions of wings occur in this population in a relatively large number of insects, and the cause of this phenomenon is not known. In this report, the occurrence of lesions in the wingless (wg) gene is demonstrated in most of tested butterflies with deformed or reduced wings, but not in normal insects. Although the analyses indicated that wg lesion(s) cannot be the sole cause of the deformed or reduced wings in the population of P. apollo from Pieniny, the discovery that this genetic defect occurs in most of malformed individuals, can be considered as an important step in understanding this phenomenon.

  20. A lack of Wolbachia-specific DNA in samples from apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    Various insects contain maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria which can cause reproductive alterations, modulation of some physiological responses (like immunity, heat shock response, and oxidative stress response), and resistance to viral infections. In butterflies, Wolbachia sp. is the most frequent endosymbiont from this group, occurring in about 30 % of species tested to date. In this report, the presence of Wolbachia-specific DNA has been detected in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo). In the isolated population of this insect occurring in Pieniny National Park (Poland), malformed individuals with deformed or reduced wings appear with an exceptionally high frequency. Interestingly, while total DNA isolated from most (about 85 %) normal insects contained Wolbachia-specific sequences detected by PCR, such sequences were absent in a large fraction (70 %) of individuals with deformed wings and in all tested individuals with reduced wings. These results indicate for the first time the correlation between malformation of wings and the absence of Wolbachia sp. in insects. Although the lack of the endosymbiotic bacteria cannot be considered as the sole cause of the deformation or reduction of wings, one might suggest that Wolbachia sp. could play a protective role in the ontogenetic development of apollo butterfly.

  1. Evaluation of Drogue Parachute Damping Effects Utilizing the Apollo Legacy Parachute Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, Kelly M.; Gamble, Joe D.; Matz, Daniel A.; Bretz, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Drogue parachute damping is required to dampen the Orion Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) crew module (CM) oscillations prior to deployment of the main parachutes. During the Apollo program, drogue parachute damping was modeled on the premise that the drogue parachute force vector aligns with the resultant velocity of the parachute attach point on the CM. Equivalent Cm(sub q) and Cm(sub alpha) equations for drogue parachute damping resulting from the Apollo legacy parachute damping model premise have recently been developed. The MPCV computer simulations ANTARES and Osiris have implemented high fidelity two-body parachute damping models. However, high-fidelity model-based damping motion predictions do not match the damping observed during wind tunnel and full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion. This paper will present the methodology for comparing and contrasting the Apollo legacy parachute damping model with full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion. The analysis shows an agreement between the Apollo legacy parachute damping model and full-scale free-flight oscillatory motion.

  2. Apollo telescope mount. A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations, supplement 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) are presented. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) journal publications, (2) journal publications submitted, (3) other publications, (4) presentations - national and international meetings; and (5) other presentations.

  3. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission recovery. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  4. President Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    President Richard M. Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot.

  5. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). In this photograph, the U.S.S. Hornet crew looks on as the quarantined Apollo 11 crew is addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon via microphone and intercom. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  6. Engineering support activities for the Apollo 17 Surface Electrical Properties Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubley, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the engineering support activities which were required to ensure fulfillment of objectives specified for the Apollo 17 SEP (Surface Electrical Properties) Experiment. Attention is given to procedural steps involving verification of hardware acceptability to the astronauts, computer simulation of the experiment hardware, field trials, receiver antenna pattern measurements, and the qualification test program.

  7. Testing gravity with Lunar Laser Ranging: An update on the APOLLO experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battat, James; Colmenares, Nick; Davis, Rodney; Ruixue, Louisa Huang; Murphy, Thomas W., Jr.; Apollo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The mystery of dark energy and the incompatibility of quantum mechanics and General Relativity indicate the need for precision experimental probes of gravitational physics. The Earth-Moon-Sun system is a fertile laboratory for such tests. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) makes optical range measurements to retro-reflectors on the Moon with one millimeter precision. These measurements of the lunar orbit enable incisive constraints on gravitational phenomena such as the Strong Equivalence Principle and dG / dt (among others). Until now, the APOLLO team had not been able to assess the accuracy of our data, in large part because known limitations to lunar range models ensure data-model residuals at the centimeter scale. To directly measure the APOLLO system timing accuracy, we have built an Absolute timing Calibration System (ACS) that delivers photons to our detector at known, stable time intervals using a pulsed fiber laser locked to a cesium frequency standard. This scheme provides real-time calibration of the APOLLO system timing, synchronous with the range measurements. We installed the calibration system in August, 2016. In this talk, we will describe the ACS design, and present present preliminary results from the ACS calibration campaign. We acknowledge the support of both NSF and NASA

  8. Interviews with Apollo Lunar Surface Astronauts in Support of EVA Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean

    2010-01-01

    A 3-person team interviewed 8 of the 11 surviving Apollo crewmembers in a series of focused interviews to discuss their experiences on the lunar surface. Eppler presented the results of these interviews, along with recommendations for the design of future lunar surface systems.

  9. An evaluation of flight data for the Apollo thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, E. P.; Curry, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    A study was conducted to correlate Apollo ablation and thermal response flight data using advanced state-of-the-art analytical procedures. The agreement between flight data and predictions is consistently excellent for in-depth temperature distributions, char density profiles, and surface ablation, thus validating the analytical procedures.

  10. Apollo lunar orbital sciences program alpha and X-ray spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The development of the alpha and X-ray spectrometers which were used on the Apollo 15 and 16 flights is discussed. Specific subjects presented are: (1) lunar program management, (2) scientific and technical approach, (3) major test programs, (4) reliability, quality assurance, and safety, and (5) subcontract management.

  11. Apollo külastajate lemmikuks on Jan Kausi ja David Mitchelli raamatud / Jaak Urmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urmet, Jaak, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Apollo kaupluse koduleheküljel valiti parimaks ilukirjandusteoseks Jan Kausi "Tema", tõlgitud ilukirjanduse osas David Mitchelli "Pilveatlas", luuleraamatutest Ott Arderi "Luule sünnib kus sünnib kui sünnib" ja lasteraamatutest Christopher Paolini "Vanem"

  12. Apollo külastajate lemmikuks on Jan Kausi ja David Mitchelli raamatud / Jaak Urmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urmet, Jaak, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Apollo kaupluse koduleheküljel valiti parimaks ilukirjandusteoseks Jan Kausi "Tema", tõlgitud ilukirjanduse osas David Mitchelli "Pilveatlas", luuleraamatutest Ott Arderi "Luule sünnib kus sünnib kui sünnib" ja lasteraamatutest Christopher Paolini "Vanem"

  13. On the Moon with Apollo 16. A Guidebook to the Descartes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Gene

    The Apollo 16 guidebook describes and illustrates (with artist concepts) the physical appearance of the lunar region visited. Maps show the planned traverses (trips on the lunar surface via Lunar Rover); the plans for scientific experiments are described in depth; and timelines for all activities are included. A section on "The Crew" is…

  14. Stratigraphy of the Descartes region /Apollo 16/ - Implications for the origin of samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of terrain in the Apollo 16 Descartes landing region shows a series of features that form a stratigraphic sequence which dominates the history and petrogenesis at the site. An ancient 150-km diam crater centered on the Apollo 16 site is one of the earliest recognizable major structures. Nectaris ejecta was concentrated in a regional low at the base of the back slope of the Nectaris basin to form the Descartes Mountains. Subsequently, a 60-km diam crater formed in the Descartes Mountains centered about 25 km to the west of the site. This crater dominates the geology and petrogenetic history of the site. Stone and Smoky Mountains represent the degraded terraced crater walls, and the dark matrix breccias and metaclastic rocks derived from North and South Ray craters represent floor fallback breccias from this cratering event. The interpretation is developed that the stratigraphy of the Cayley and Descartes, and thus the historical record of the Apollo 16 region, documents the complex interaction of deposits and morphology of local and regional impact cratering events. Large local 60- to 150-km diam craters have had a dramatic and previously unrecognized effect on the history and petrology of the Apollo 16 site.

  15. Spinel from Apollo 12 Olivine Mare Basalts: Chemical Systematics of Selected Major, Minor, and Trace Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papike, J. J.; Karner, J. M.; Shearer, C. K.; Spilde, M. N.

    2002-01-01

    Spinels from Apollo 12 Olivine basalts have been studied by Electron and Ion microprobe techniques. The zoning trends of major, minor and trace elements provide new insights into the conditions under which planetary basalts form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. APOLLO: A new push in solar-system tests of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, T. W.; Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Hoyle, C. D.; McMillan, R. J.; Michelsen, E. L.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) has long provided many of our best measurements on the fundamental nature of gravity, including the strong equivalence principle, time -rate-of-change of the gravitational constant, the inverse square law, geodetic precession, and gravitomagnetism. This paper serves as a brief overview of APOLLO: a recently operational LLR experiment capable of millimeter-level range precision.

  17. Normal point generation and first photon bias correction in APOLLO lunar laser ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Eric Leonard

    2010-11-01

    The APOLLO Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) system studies gravity by tracing out the orbit of the moon to ~1 mm, over many years. LLR in general provides extensive tests of many aspects of gravity, including deviations from General Relativity (GR), and time rate-of-change of the gravitational constant, G. APOLLO's precision is approximately 10x better than previous LLR measurements, enabling about an order of magnitude improvement in tests of gravity over the coming years. APOLLO requires complex data reduction methods to extract the distance so precisely. There are currently three choices for determining the round-trip-time to the moon from the data: the correlation method, the Augmented Calculation method, and the PDF-fit method. The results here suggest the PDF-fit method as preferable, for minimum random uncertainty over the full operating range of conditions, and stable systematic error below ~1 mm. As a second topic, the APOLLO system includes a systematic error called "First Photon Bias," which causes time measurements to be skewed early. An algorithm is presented and simulated, showing that it is inherently capable of achieving < 1 mm systematic error under normal operating conditions. However, the final algorithm requires a correction table calibrated from a more accurate model of shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations. Such a table could be the subject of future investigations.

  18. Preserving the Science Legacy from the Apollo Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.; Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Six Apollo missions landed on the Moon from 1969-72, returning to Earth 382 kg of lunar rock, soil, and core samples—among the best documented and preserved samples on Earth that have supported a robust research program for 45 years. From mission planning through sample collection, preliminary examination, and subsequent research, strict protocols and procedures are followed for handling and allocating Apollo subsamples. Even today, 100s of samples are allocated for research each year, building on the science foundation laid down by the early Apollo sample studies and combining new data from today's instrumentation, lunar remote sensing missions and lunar meteorites. Today's research includes advances in our understanding of lunar volatiles, lunar formation and evolution, and the origin of evolved lunar lithologies. Much sample information is available to researchers at curator.jsc.nasa.gov. Decades of analyses on lunar samples are published in LPSC proceedings volumes and other peer-reviewed journals, and tabulated in lunar sample compendia entries. However, for much of the 1969-1995 period, the processing documentation, individual and consortia analyses, and unpublished results exist only in analog forms or primitive digital formats that are either inaccessible or at risk of being lost forever because critical data from early investigators remain unpublished. We have initiated several new efforts to rescue some of the early Apollo data, including unpublished analytical data. We are scanning NASA documentation that is related to the Apollo missions and sample processing, and we are collaborating with IEDA to establish a geochemical database called Moon DB. To populate this database, we are working with prominent lunar PIs to organize and transcribe years of both published and unpublished data. Other initiatives include micro-CT scanning of complex lunar samples to document their interior structure (e.g. clasts, vesicles); linking high-resolution scans of Apollo

  19. Preserving the Science Legacy from the Apollo Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cindy; Zeigler, Ryan; Lehnert, Kerstin; Todd, Nancy; Blumenfeld, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Six Apollo missions landed on the Moon from 1969-72, returning to Earth 382 kg of lunar rock, soil, and core samples-among the best documented and preserved samples on Earth that have supported a robust research program for 45 years. From mission planning through sample collection, preliminary examination, and subsequent research, strict protocols and procedures are followed for handling and allocating Apollo subsamples. Even today, 100s of samples are allocated for research each year, building on the science foundation laid down by the early Apollo sample studies and combining new data from today's instrumentation, lunar remote sensing missions and lunar meteorites. Today's research includes advances in our understanding of lunar volatiles, lunar formation and evolution, and the origin of evolved lunar lithologies. Much sample information is available to researchers at curator.jsc.nasa.gov. Decades of analyses on lunar samples are published in LPSC proceedings volumes and other peer-reviewed journals, and tabulated in lunar sample compendia entries. However, for much of the 1969-1995 period, the processing documentation, individual and consortia analyses, and unpublished results exist only in analog forms or primitive digital formats that are either inaccessible or at risk of being lost forever because critical data from early investigators remain unpublished. We have initiated several new efforts to rescue some of the early Apollo data, including unpublished analytical data. We are scanning NASA documentation that is related to the Apollo missions and sample processing, and we are collaborating with IEDA to establish a geochemical database called Moon DB. To populate this database, we are working with prominent lunar PIs to organize and transcribe years of both published and unpublished data. Other initiatives include micro-CT scanning of complex lunar samples to document their interior structure (e.g. clasts, vesicles); linking high-resolution scans of Apollo

  20. 新型口服降糖药Ⅲ期临床试验中的护理职责%Nursing duties in phase Ⅲ clinical trials of new oral hypoglycaemic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑蓉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize methods and experiences of nursing in Phase Ⅲ clinical trials of new oral hypoglycaemic drugs.Methods Nurses learned related knowledge of GCP to understand the mechanism of drug effect,research objectives and procedures before trials,use proficient nursing skills and manage drugs strictly during trials,as well as provide patients with good health education and psychological nursing.Results Nurses played an active role in clinical trials,so as to ensure smooth progress of the research project.Conclusions Nurses hold important duties in clinical trials,which can expand their traditional roles and functions to further guarantee the efficacy and safety of clinical trials.%目的 总结护士在口服降糖新药Ⅲ期临床试验工作中的护理职责.方法 临床试验前护士认真学习药品临床试验质量管理规范(GCP)相关知识,了解研究药物作用机制、研究目的、研究程序,在试验过程中熟练运用护理操作技能,严格进行研究药物的管理,做好患者的教育工作及心理护理.结果 积极发挥研究护士在临床试验研究中的作用,保证了研究项目的顺利进行.结论 在临床试验中护士担负重要的工作职责,通过参与临床药物试验拓展了传统护士角色和功能,进一步保障了试验的有效性和安全性.

  1. Apollo 11 Astronauts Share Laughs With U.S. President Nixon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Here the quarantined Apollo 11 crew members (l to r) Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin, and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon share laughs over a comment made by fellow astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 commander. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  2. Re-Evaluation of Ar-39 - Ar-40 Ages for Apollo Lunar Rocks 15415 and 60015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Shih, C.-Y.

    2010-01-01

    We re-analyzed 39Ar-40Ar ages of Apollo lunar highland samples 15415 and 60015, two ferroan anorthosites analyzed previously in the 1970 s, with a more detailed approach and with revised decay constants. From these samples we carefully prepared 100-200 mesh mineral separates for analysis at the Noble Gas Laboratory at NASA-Johnson Space Center. The Ar-39-Ar-40 age spectra for 15415 yielded an age of 3851 +/- 38 Ma with 33-99% of Ar39 release, roughly in agreement with previously reported Ar-Ar ages. For 60015, we obtained an age of 3584 +/- 152 Ma in 23-98% of Ar39 release, also in agreement with previously reported Ar-Ar ages of approximately 3.5 Ga. Highland anorthosites like these are believed by many to be the original crust of the moon, formed by plagioclase floatation atop a magma ocean, however the Ar-Ar ages of 15415 and 60015 are considerably younger than lunar crust formation. By contrast, recently recovered lunar anorthosites such as Dhofar 489, Dhofar 908, and Yamato 86032 yield older Ar-Ar ages, up to 4.35 Ga, much closer to time of formation of the lunar crust. It follows that the Ar-Ar ages of the Apollo samples must have been reset by secondary heating, and that this heating affected highland anorthosites at both the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 landing sites but did not affect lunar highland meteorites. One obvious consideration is that while the Apollo samples were collected from the near side of the moon, these lunar meteorites are thought to have originated from the lunar far side

  3. MOBILE AGENT: EMERGING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    RAJGURU P. V. DR. DESHMUKH S. D

    2011-01-01

    Mobile agent technology has been promoted as an emerging technology that makes it much easier to design, implement, and maintain distributed systems, introduction to basic concepts of mobile agents like agent mobility, agent types and places and agent communication. Then benefits of the usage of mobile agents are summarized and illustrated by selected applications. The next section lists requirements and desirable properties for mobile agent languages and systems. We study the main features, ...

  4. Apollo Field Geology: 45 Years of Digesting Rocks, Field Data, and Future Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve Apollo astronauts participated in the Lunar Field Geological Experiment, overseen by Gene Shoemaker, Gordon Swann, and Bill Muehlberger and their Co-Investigators. In conjunction with geologists and engineers of the Geological Survey and NASA, this team planned, trained and executed the first extraterrestrial field geological investigation. As a result, astronaut sample selection, observations, photo-documentation and experiment deployment underpin 45 years of laboratory analyses and interpretation by thousands of lunar and planetary scientists. --Current hypotheses related to the origin, evolution and nature of the Moon would be far different had Apollo geological explorations not occurred, even assuming that all robotic missions flown before and since Apollo were flown. *Would we have recognized lunar meteorites without the broad suite of Apollo samples to guide us? If we eventually had properly identified such meteorites, would their chemistry and age data give us the same detailed insights about the origin and evolution of the Moon without the highly specific field documentation of samples collected by the astronauts? *Would we recognize that the early history of the Earth and Mars up to 3.8 billion years ago, including the development of life's precursors, was a period of the prolonged violence due to impacts of asteroids and comets? Would we have realized that clay minerals, produced by the alteration of impact-generated glass and debris, would have been dominant components and potential templates for complex organic molecules in the terrestrial and Martian environments? *Would we fully understand the surface environments of asteroids and young terrestrial planets without the detailed dissection and analysis of Apollo's lunar regolith samples? *Would the Moon's near-surface environment, and its mantle and core structure, be as well defined as they are without the ground-truth provided by Apollo samples and the equipment carefully emplaced there by the

  5. Long-lasting Science Returns from the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Apollo astronauts deployed geothermal heat flow instruments at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) in July 1971 and December 1972, respectively. These instruments continuously transmitted data to the Earth until September 1977. Four decades later, the data from the two Apollo sites remain the only set of in-situ heat flow measurements obtained on an extra-terrestrial body. Researchers continue to extract additional knowledge from this dataset by utilizing new analytical techniques and by synthesizing it with data from more recent lunar orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. In addition, lessons learned from the Apollo experiments help contemporary researchers in designing heat flow instruments for future missions to the Moon and other planetary bodies. For example, the data from both Apollo sites showed gradual warming trends in the subsurface from 1971 to 1977. The cause of this warming has been debated in recent years. It may have resulted from fluctuation in insolation associated with the 18.6-year-cycle precession of the Moon, or sudden changes in surface thermal environment/properties resulting from the installation of the instruments and the astronauts' activities. These types of re-analyses of the Apollo data have lead a panel of scientists to recommend that a heat flow probe carried on a future lunar mission reach 3 m into the subsurface, ~0.6 m deeper than the depths reached by the Apollo 17 experiment. This presentation describes the authors' current efforts for (1) restoring a part of the Apollo heat flow data that were left unprocessed by the original investigators and (2) designing a compact heat flow instrument for future robotic missions to the Moon. First, at the conclusion of the ALSEP program in 1977, heat flow data obtained at the two Apollo sites after December 1974 were left unprocessed and not properly archived through NASA. In the following decades, heat flow data

  6. Petrology and chemistry of Apollo 17 regolith breccias - A history of mixing of highland and mare regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Gosselin, D. C.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of petrological and chemical analyses of ten Apollo 17 breccias, showing that two of these consist predominantly of highland material, seven are mare-dominated, and one is a welded volcanic glass deposit; all were formed at or near the Apollo 17 site, and all contain both mare and highland components. The data are indicative of the Apollo 17 breccias formation from immature source regolith. The breccias are considered to be formed locally after an eruption of basalt and orange glass at the site. Since the formation of the breccias, the regolith at the Apollo 17 site has become more mature, and the orange glass abundance has been somewhat decreased by mixing. One of the sample may contain a previously unreported volcanic glass type.

  7. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir FACT SHEET What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  8. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response t

  9. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  10. Wernher von Braun Takes a Close Look at Apollo 15 Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    During the Apollo 15 launch activities in the launch control center's firing room 1 at Kennedy Space Center, Dr. Wernher von Braun, NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for planning, takes a closer look at the launch pad through binoculars. The fifth manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander David R. Scott, Lunar Module pilot James B. Irwin, and Command Module pilot Alfred M. Worden Jr., lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle, or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. Astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

  11. Selenography and selenodesy with Apollo whole-disk lunar photographs I. Selenography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, D.W.G.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo whole-disk lunar photographs, with spacecraft lunar nadirs about 70?? from the center of mean face, have considerable selenodetic potential provided that the requirements of resolution and precision can be met. Uncertainties in the internal camera geometry degrade the precision and make selenodetic applications doubtful, but selenographic work based on the assumption of a rigorously spherical moon makes lesser demands on the data and is still possible with useful accuracy. The selenographic method is fully developed here and applied to photographs 2505 and 2506 of Apollo 8 to produce a catalog of 635 positions. Of these 206 are farside and extend to 130?? East Longitude. A new type of 5-character position word, appropriate for the entire lunar sphere, is used to define sequence in the catalog. ?? 1971.

  12. Planning for the Future, a Look from Apollo to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrera, David

    2008-01-01

    Future missions out of low Earth orbit, returning to the moon and Mars, will be some of the most complicated endeavors ever attempted by mankind. It will require the wealth of nations and the dedicated efforts of thousand of individuals working in a concerted effort to take man to the moon, Mars and beyond. These missions will require new equipment and new approaches to optimize our limited resources and time in space. This daily planning and optimization which currently is being performed by scores of people in MCC Houston and around the world will need to adapt to the challenges faced far from Earth. By studying the processes, methodologies, and tools employed from Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and other programs such as NEEMO, we can learn from the past to plan for the future. This paper will explore the planning process used from Apollo onward and will discuss their relevancy in future applications.

  13. Thermal Analyses of Apollo Lunar Soils Provide Evidence for Water in Permanently Shadowed Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; Smith, M. C.; Gibson, E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Thermally-evolved-gas analyses were performed on the Apollo lunar soils shortly after their return to Earth [1-8]. The analyses revealed the presence of water evolving at temperatures above 200 C. Of particular interest are samples that were collected from permanently-shadowed locations (e.g., under a boulder) with a second sample collected in nearby sunlight, and pairs in which one was taken from the top of a trench, and the second was taken at the base of the trench, where the temperature would have been -10 to -20 C prior to the disturbance [9]. These samples include 63340/63500, 69941/69961, and 76240/76280. At the time that this research was first reported, the idea of hydrated minerals on the lunar surface was somewhat novel. Nevertheless, goethite was observed in lunar breccias from Apollo 14 [10], and it was shown that goethite, hematite and magnetite could originate in an equilibrium assemblage of lunar rocks

  14. The Apollo program and amino acids. [precursors significance in molecular evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. W.

    1973-01-01

    Apollo lunar sample analyses designed to detect the presence of organic compounds are reviewed, and the results are discussed from the viewpoint of relevance to laboratory experiments on the synthesis of amino acids and to theoretical models of cosmochemical processes resulting in the formation of organic compounds. Glycine, alanine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, serine, and threonine have been found repeatedly in the hydrolyzates of hot aqueous extracts of lunar dust. These compounds represent an early step in the sequence of events leading to the rise of living material and were probably deposited by the solar wind. The results of the Apollo program so far suggest that the pathway from cosmic organic matter to life as it evolved on earth could have been pursued on the moon to the stage of amino acid precursors and then may have been terminated for lack of sufficient water.

  15. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  16. Magnesium and Silicon Isotopes in HASP Glasses from Apollo 16 Lunar Soil 61241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, G. F.; Delaney, J. S.; Lindsay, F.; Alexander, C. M. O'D; Chakrabarti, R.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Whattam, S.; Korotev, R.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The high-Al (>28 wt %), silica-poor (<45 wt %) (HASP) feldspathic glasses of Apollo 16 are widely regarded as the evaporative residues of impacts in the lunar regolith [1-3]. By virtue of their small size, apparent homogeneity, and high inferred formation temperatures, the HASP glasses appear to be good samples in which to study fractionation processes that may accompany open system evaporation. Calculations suggest that HASP glasses with present-day Al2O3 concentrations of up to 40 wt% may have lost 19 wt% of their original masses, calculated as the oxides of iron and silicon, via evaporation [4]. We report Mg and Si isotope abundances in 10 HASP glasses and 2 impact-glass spherules from a 64-105 m grain-size fraction taken from Apollo 16 soil sample 61241.

  17. Quenching Effects on Iron Site Partitioning in the Apollo 17 Orange Glass Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    Mare petrogenesis and the structure of the lunar interior were studied. Analyses of the spectral signatures of glasses was useful to remote sensing applications in areas of the moon where glass is in significant proportions in the lunar soil. The studies provided information on Fe site occupancies in glasses, which are used to construe oxygen fugacities at the lunar surface. Data were obtained through work on synthetic analogues of lunar glasses. However, recent Mossbauer studies of an Apollo 15 green glass composition have shown that synthetic glasses are extremely sensitive to variations in quenching media. Glass structure and Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratios are strongly controlled by quenching conditions, which may mask the effects of the original glass' formation temperature or oxygen partial pressure. Synthetic glasses were often run at low fugacities on Pt wires. The effects of quench media on the Apollo 17 orange glass composition are considered.

  18. Electrical conductivity anomaly beneath Mare Serenitatis detected by Lunokhod 2 and Apollo 16 magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanian, L. L.; Vnuchkova, T. A.; Egorov, I. V.; Basilevskii, A. T.; Eroshenko, E. G.; Fainberg, E. B.; Dyal, P.; Daily, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Magnetic fluctuations measured by the Lunokhod 2 magnetometer in the Bay Le Monnier are distinctly anisotropic when compared to simultaneous Apollo 16 magnetometer data measured 1100 km away in the Descartes highlands. This anisotropy can be explained by an anomalous electrical conductivity of the upper mantle beneath Mare Serenitatis. A model is presented of anomalously lower electrical conductivity beneath Serenitatis and the simultaneous magnetic data from the Lunokhod 2 site at the mare edge and the Apollo 16 site are compared to the numerically calculated model solutions. This comparison indicates that the anisotropic fluctuations can be modeled by a nonconducting layer in the lunar lithosphere which is 150 km thick beneath the highlands and 300 km thick beneath Mare Serenitatis. A decreased electrical conductivity in the upper mantle beneath the mare may be due to a lower temperature resulting from heat carried out the magma source regions to the surface during mare flooding.

  19. Artists concept of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation artist's concept depicting mankind's first walk on another celestianl body. Here, Astronaut Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, is making his first step onto the surface of the moon. In the background is the Earth, some 240,000 miles away. Armstrong. They are continuing their postflight debriefings. The three astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  20. Soil mechanics. [characteristics of lunar soil from Apollo 17 flight lunar landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Hovland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    The soil mechanics experiment on the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of the lunar soil at the surface and subsurface in lateral directions. Data obtained on the lunar surface in conjunction with observations of returned samples of lunar soil are used to determine in-place density and porosity profiles and to determine strength characteristics on local and regional scales.

  1. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications and presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) which gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974 is presented. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations - National International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is also included.

  2. Scots scientists dismiss Apollo mission doubts university team deals with the conspiracies

    CERN Multimedia

    Simpson, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists from a Scottish university are going walkabout to combat the sceptics who claim US astronaut Neil Armstrong never set foot on the moon. The conspiracists claim the Apollo moon landings of the 60s and 70s were faked by Nasa in a TV studio in an attempt to help America claim victory in the space race with the former Soviet Union" (1 page)

  3. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Nixon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted by helicopter and taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Shown here are the Apollo 11 crew members (L to R) Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin Aldrin inside the MQF as U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon speaks to them via intercom. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  4. The Apollo Number: space suits, self-support, and the walk-run transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Carr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g, running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The walk-run transition (denoted * correlates with the Froude Number (Fr = v(2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L. Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (approximately 0.5 with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below approximately 0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g or completely (lunar-g support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap = Fr/M as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0 and run (1, yielding Fr* (0.36+/-0.11, mean+/-95% CI and Ap* (0.68+/-0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars.

  5. The Apollo 16 drill core - Modal petrology and characterization of the mineral and lithic component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Lellis, S. F.; Cameron, K. L.; Papike, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    A string of 59 polished thin sections covering the length of the Apollo 16 deep drill core has been examined. A modal analysis, involving the optical classification of 116,000 points was made, and over 500 mineral and lithic fragments from the core were chemically analyzed using an electron microprobe. These data were used to identify and characterize the source areas of the core material and to reconstruct the accumulation history of the core.

  6. Soil mechanics. [characteristics of lunar soil from Apollo 17 flight lunar landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Hovland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    The soil mechanics experiment on the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of the lunar soil at the surface and subsurface in lateral directions. Data obtained on the lunar surface in conjunction with observations of returned samples of lunar soil are used to determine in-place density and porosity profiles and to determine strength characteristics on local and regional scales.

  7. Apollo 14 glasses of impact origin and their parent rock types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Best, J. B.; Minkin, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Eight chemical groups can be recognized on the basis of studies of more than 200 Apollo 14 glass particles of impact origin. It is found that the major rock type of a highland site is dominated by annealed noritic rocks rather than by anorthosites as previously suggested. Both mafic and salic rock types are associated with the noritic rocks. A number of tables are provided showing the chemical composition of the minerals investigated.

  8. Apollo 11 Astronaut Armstrong Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walks to the flight crew training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  9. Countdown to a Moon launch preparing Apollo for its historic journey

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of workers labored at Kennedy Space Center around the clock, seven days a week, for half a year to prepare a mission for the liftoff of Apollo 11. This is the story of what went on during those hectic six months. Countdown to a Moon Launch provides an in-depth look at the carefully choreographed workflow for an Apollo mission at KSC. Using the Apollo 11 mission as an example, readers will learn what went on day by day to transform partially completed stages and crates of parts into a ready-to-fly Saturn V. Firsthand accounts of launch pad accidents, near misses, suspected sabotage, and last-minute changes to hardware are told by more than 70 NASA employees and its contractors. A companion to Rocket Ranch, it includes many diagrams and photographs, some never before published, to illustrate all aspects of the process. NASA’s groundbreaking use of computers for testing and advanced management techniques are also covered in detail. This book will demystify the question of how NASA could build and lau...

  10. Regional chemical setting of the Apollo 16 landing site and the importance of the Kant Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, C. G.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital X-ray data from the Apollo 16 region indicate that physiographic units identified before the lunar mission can be classified as chemical units as well. The Descartes Mountains, however, appear to be an extension of the Kant Plateau composition that is unusually anorthositic and resembles farside terra. The Cayley Plains have closer affinities to basaltic materials than terra materials, physically, spectrally and chemically. The Theophilus impact, 330 km east of the landing site, excavated magnesium-rich basalts from below less-magnesian flows in Mare Nectaris; but, mafic ejecta was substantially blocked from the Apollo 16 site by the Kant Plateau that rises 5 km above the level of the mare. Apollo 16 soil samples from stations selected to collect either Descartes Mountains material or Cayley Plains material were surprisingly similar. However, they do, indeed, show the chemical trends indicative of the two units as defined by the orbiting geochemistry detectors. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains material may be among the rare nearside examples of a plagioclase-rich cumulate of the primordial magma ocean.

  11. NASA Administrator Paine and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Await Apollo 11 Splashdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Thomas Paine, NASA administrator (left) and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon wait aboard the recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, for splashdown of the Apollo 11 in the Pacific Ocean. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. Sedimentology of clastic rocks returned from the moon by Apollo 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A petrographic study of eleven samples of clastic rock returned from the moon by Apollo 15 suggests that two lithologies are present. The distinction between the two lithologies is based on the glass content of the rock matrices and the morphology of the detrital particles. Group I rocks have abundant, glass-rich, porous matrices and glass particles with morphologies comparable to those of glass particles in the lunar soil. The group I rocks were probably formed by welding or sintering of surficial soil deposits by impact-generated base surges of limited extent. Group II rocks have an essentially mineralic matrix and have an abundance of rounded mineral grains. Sample 15455 is the only Apollo 15 sample assigned to this group. In its general textural features, sample 15455 is comparable with the group II rocks from the Fra Mauro Formation at the Apollo 14 site. Textural features such as shock modification and rounding of mineral grains suggest that this sample is the product of a large-scale impact-generated base surge which possibly resulted from the Imbrian event.

  13. APOLLO: A computer program for the calculation of chemical equilibrium and reaction kinetics of chemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H.D.

    1991-11-01

    Several of the technologies being evaluated for the treatment of waste material involve chemical reactions. Our example is the in situ vitrification (ISV) process where electrical energy is used to melt soil and waste into a ``glass like`` material that immobilizes and encapsulates any residual waste. During the ISV process, various chemical reactions may occur that produce significant amounts of products which must be contained and treated. The APOLLO program was developed to assist in predicting the composition of the gases that are formed. Although the development of this program was directed toward ISV applications, it should be applicable to other technologies where chemical reactions are of interest. This document presents the mathematical methodology of the APOLLO computer code. APOLLO is a computer code that calculates the products of both equilibrium and kinetic chemical reactions. The current version, written in FORTRAN, is readily adaptable to existing transport programs designed for the analysis of chemically reacting flow systems. Separate subroutines EQREACT and KIREACT for equilibrium ad kinetic chemistry respectively have been developed. A full detailed description of the numerical techniques used, which include both Lagrange multiplies and a third-order integrating scheme is presented. Sample test problems are presented and the results are in excellent agreement with those reported in the literature.

  14. APOLLO: A computer program for the calculation of chemical equilibrium and reaction kinetics of chemical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H.D.

    1991-11-01

    Several of the technologies being evaluated for the treatment of waste material involve chemical reactions. Our example is the in situ vitrification (ISV) process where electrical energy is used to melt soil and waste into a glass like'' material that immobilizes and encapsulates any residual waste. During the ISV process, various chemical reactions may occur that produce significant amounts of products which must be contained and treated. The APOLLO program was developed to assist in predicting the composition of the gases that are formed. Although the development of this program was directed toward ISV applications, it should be applicable to other technologies where chemical reactions are of interest. This document presents the mathematical methodology of the APOLLO computer code. APOLLO is a computer code that calculates the products of both equilibrium and kinetic chemical reactions. The current version, written in FORTRAN, is readily adaptable to existing transport programs designed for the analysis of chemically reacting flow systems. Separate subroutines EQREACT and KIREACT for equilibrium ad kinetic chemistry respectively have been developed. A full detailed description of the numerical techniques used, which include both Lagrange multiplies and a third-order integrating scheme is presented. Sample test problems are presented and the results are in excellent agreement with those reported in the literature.

  15. Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins carries his coffee with him as he arrives at the flight crew training building of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  16. Use of Apollo 17 Epoch Neutron Spectrum as a Benchmark in Testing LEND Collimated Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Sagdeev, R.; Milikh, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Apollo 17 neutron experiment LPNE provided a unique set of data on production of neutrons in the Lunar soil bombarded by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR). It serves as valuable "ground-truth" in the age of orbital remote sensing. We used the neutron data attributed to Apollo 17 epoch as a benchmark for testing the LEND's collimated sensor, as introduced by the geometry of collimator and efficiency of He3 counters. The latter is defined by the size of gas counter and pressure inside it. The intensity and energy spectrum of neutrons escaping the lunar surface are dependent on incident flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) whose variability is associated with Solar Cycle and its peculiarities. We obtain first the share of neutrons entering through the field of view of collimator as a fraction of the total neutron flux by using the angular distribution of neutron exiting the Moon described by our Monte Carlo code. We computed next the count rate of the 3He sensor by using the neutron energy spectrum from McKinney et al. [JGR, 2006] and by consider geometry and gas pressure of the LEND sensor. Finally the neutron count rate obtained for the Apollo 17 epoch characterized by intermediate solar activity was adjusted to the LRO epoch characterized by low solar activity. It has been done by taking into account solar modulation potential, which affects the GCR flux, and in turn changes the neutron albedo flux.

  17. Radar observations and physical modeling of binary near-Earth asteroid (1862) Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Thomas F.; Benner, Lance A.; Brozovic, Marina; Leford, Bruce; Nolan, Michael C.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Ostro, Steve J.; Margot, Jean-Luc

    2014-11-01

    Binary asteroid 1862 Apollo has an extensive observational history allowing many of its characteristics to be investigated. Apollo was one of the first objects to show evidence for the YORP effect (Kaasalainen et al. 2007, Nature 446, 420) and its mass has been estimated by detection of the Yarkovsky effect (Nugent et al. 2012, AJ 144, 60; Farnocchia et al. 2013, Icarus 224, 1). We observed Apollo at Arecibo and Goldstone from Oct. 29-Nov. 13, 2005, obtaining a series of echo power spectra and delay-Doppler images that achieved resolutions as high as 7.5 m/pixel. The Arecibo images show that Apollo is a binary system with a rounded primary that has two large protrusions about 120 deg apart in longitude. We used the Arecibo data and published lightcurves to estimate the primary's 3D shape. Our best fit has major axes of ~1.8x1.5x1.3 km and a volume of ~1.6 km^3. The protrusions have lengths of ~300 and 200 m, are on the primary's equator, and give Apollo a distinctly different appearance from the primaries with equatorial ridges seen with other binary near-Earth asteroids. We estimated the pole by starting with the Kaasalainen et al. spin vector of ecliptic (longitude, latitude)=(50 deg, -71 deg) +- 7 deg and letting it float. Our best fit has a pole within 11 deg of (longitude, latitude)=(71, -72). Convex models produced from inversion of lightcurves by Kaasalainen et al. and thermal infrared data by Rozitis et al. (2013, A&A 555, A20) are more oblate than our model, do not show protrusions, and have somewhat different pole directions. The Arecibo images reveal weak but persistent echoes from a satellite on Nov. 1 and 2 but cover only a fraction of its orbit. The images are insufficient to estimate the satellite's shape and yield a rough estimate for its long axis of 190 m. Preliminary fits give an orbital period of ~27.0-27.5 h and a semimajor axis of ~3.5-4.0 km, implying a mass of 2.8-3.9E12 kg and a bulk density of 1.7-2.4 g/cm^3. The density is consistent with

  18. [Hypoglycaemic periodic paralysis in hyperthyroidism patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, J; Masopust, J; Martínková, V; Charvát, J

    2008-11-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare disorder characterised by acute, potentially fatal atacks of muscle weakness or paralysis. Massive shift of potassium into cells is caused by elevated levels of insulin and catecholamines in the blood. Hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia may be also present. Acidobasic status usually is not impaired. HPP occurs as familiar (caused by ion channels inherited defects) or acquired (in patients with hyperthyroidism). On the basis of two clinical cases we present a review of hypokalemic periodic paralysis in hyperthyroid patients. We discuss patogenesis, clinical and laboratory findings as well as the principles of prevention and treatment of this rare disorder.

  19. Comparative antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEYAKS PLC

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... aqueous, ethanol and n-hexane extracts of leaf of Vitex doniana on .... Ankpa, Kogi State, and it was identified and authenticated by the ethnobotanist in the ... glucose solution after 6 h for the next 24 h to prevent severe hypoglycemia. ..... superoxide anions due to their decreased production at the onset of ...

  20. Multifactorial hypoglycaemic coma in female bodybuilder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein Anand, Jacek; Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Wiśniewski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    A 31-year-old female bodybuilder who was admitted to the Clinic because of deep coma and hypoglycaemia was presented. For last six weeks she had been preparing for a competition doing aerobic and anaerobic exercises, ingesting rich-protein and low-carbohydrate diet and administering a low dose of somatotropin every day. Even for the regional competitions there is a need for exact doping check among young athletes. Growth hormone in a small dosage taken together with low-carbohydrate and rich-protein diet can provoke deep hypoglicemia among people who use it for doping purposes.

  1. Hypoglycaemic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanabal, S P; Kokate, C K; Ramanathan, M; Kumar, E P; Suresh, B

    2006-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of various subfractions of the alcohol extract of the bark of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The effect of these extracts on lipid profile and liver function tests were also assessed to evaluate their activity in controlling diabetes related metabolic alterations. The parameters measured were plasma glucose, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT. The results indicate the effective role of Pterocarpus marsupium on the above mentioned parameters indicating that Pterocarpus marsupium can also control the diabetes related metabolic alterations apart from controlling the glucose levels. Among the fractions tested the butanol subfraction was found to be more active in comparison with other subfractions. It can be concluded that the butanol subfraction of the alcohol extract of Pterocarpus marsupium exhibits significant antidiabetic activity and corrects the metabolic alterations in diabetic rats and this activity may resemble insulin-like properties. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Biological warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  3. Validation de schemas de calcul APOLLO3 pour assemblages de type RNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, Simon

    The next generation nuclear reactors are already under construction or under development in the R&D labs around the world. The 3rd and 4th generation nuclear reactors will need a neutronic calculation code able to deal with any kind of technology (FBR or PWR for example). APOLLO3, a new neutronic code developped by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, will receive the heritage of his two predecessors, APOLLO2 (PWR) and ECCO/ERANOS (FBR), and to play a major role in the design of the next nuclear reactors. Validation is an essential step along the development of a deterministic neutronic code. It comes right after implementation and verification and it gives the team in charge of the calculation models in Cadarache the necessary feedbacks on the code's behaviour in various situations. This thesis goal is to suggest a validation (without evolution) of the current APOLLO3 reference calculation route used for FBR. This validation is supposed to be as complete as possible and to cover various configurations. This work will be a preparatory work for the complete validation which will be performed by the APOLLO3 project team in Cadarache. This validation is based on a study of various configurations composed of basic elements like pincells or assemblies. To complete this task, we study different aspects : geometry, sodium void effect, AEMC-RNR-1200 energy mesh, JEFF3.2 nuclear data evaluation for Pu239. We conduct a macroscopical study (multiplication factor, reactivity, neutron flux,...) and an isotopical study (fission and capture rates for Pu239 and U238 for example). We use TRIPOLI4, a Monte-Carlo simulation code, as a reference for all of our APOLLO3 calculations. We consider an infinite lattice (no neutron leakage model keff = kinfinity). This first validation phase led us to several conclusions. First of all, we observed that the geometrical configuration defined for the single pincell used in ASTRID predefinition studies is heterogeneous enough. Indeed, void

  4. Self-shielding phenomenon modelling in multigroup transport code Apollo-2; Modelisation du phenomene d'autoprotection dans le code de transport multigroupe Apollo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste-Delclaux, M

    2006-03-15

    This document describes the improvements carried out for modelling the self-shielding phenomenon in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. They concern the space and energy treatment of the slowing-down equation, the setting up of quadrature formulas to calculate reaction rates, the setting-up of a method that treats directly a resonant mixture and the development of a sub-group method. We validate these improvements either in an elementary or in a global way. Now, we obtain, more accurate multigroup reaction rates and we are able to carry out a reference self-shielding calculation on a very fine multigroup mesh. To end, we draw a conclusion and give some prospects on the remaining work. (author)

  5. Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui: The Apollo of Callimachus in Horace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Tomc

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Augustan poets often modelled their recusationes on Callimachus’ portrayal of Apollo in theAetiaPrologue. The paper discusses parallel passages in Horace’s oeuvre, illustrating some typical characteristics of Horace’s poetry and of his attitude to his poetic models. After a brief introduction, the paper first touches on three poems by Horace where the role of Callimachus’ Apollo is taken over by another deity: the Muse in C. 1.6.10-12, Venus in C. 1.19.9-12, and adeus (presumably Cupid in Epod. 14.6-8. The three examples display similarities to, rather than identity with, the Callimachean situation: instead of supplying a direct quote, Horace merely reports the words of a ῾higher power’ which allegedly prevented him from writing what he wanted or what was expected of him. In the two Odes Horace thus refuses to compose an epic, while Epode 14 is not a typical recusatio: Horace’s polished iambics paradoxically profess his inability to compose iambic poetry, and his preference for erotic lyric poetry. The next section focuses on Satire 1.10.31-35, which portrays the Roman god Quirinus warning the young poet in a dream that writing Greek verse is pointless. An analysis of this complex programmatic satire reveals continual departures from, and approximations to, Callimachean poetic, as Horace interweaves several, at times clearly irreconcilable, traditions. Indeed, Callimachean poetic itself is not unequivocal or monolithic but contains many tensions.  The short fourth section discusses Horace’s prayer to Mercury in Satire 2.6.13-15. Although superficially lacking a ῾programmatic’ dimension, the satire in fact contains several allusions to Callimachus. It serves to show that Horace’s images function at several levels at once, and that his satires closely interweave ethics with aesthetics. The final and longest section focuses on Horace’s last poem, C. 4.15. In the first strophe, Horace is finally given

  6. Sunrise-driven movements of dust on the Moon: Apollo 12 Ground-truth measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.; Hollick, Monique

    2015-12-01

    The first sunrise after Apollo 12 astronauts left the Moon caused dust storms across the site where rocket exhausts had disrupted about 2000 kg of smooth fine dust. The next few sunrises started progressively weaker dust storms, and the Eastern horizon brightened, adding to direct sunlight for half an hour. These Ground truth measurements were made 100 cm above the surface by the 270 g Apollo 12 Dust Detector Experiment we invented in 1966. Dust deposited on the horizontal solar cell during two lunar days after the first sunrise was almost 30% of the total it then measured over 6 years. The vertical east-facing solar cell measured horizon brightening on 14 of the first 17 lunations, with none detected on the following 61 Lunar Days. Based on over 2 million such measurements we propose a new qualitative model of sunrise-driven transport of individual dust particles freed by Apollo 12 activities from strong particle-to-particle cohesive forces. Each sunrise caused sudden surface charging which, during the first few hours, freshly mobilised and lofted the dust remaining free, microscopically smoothing the disrupted local areas. Evidence of reliability of measurements includes consistency among all 6 sensors in measurements throughout an eclipse. We caution Google Lunar XPrize competitors and others planning missions to the Moon and large airless asteroids that, after a spacecraft lands, dust hazards may occur after each of the first few sunrises. Mechanical problems in its first such period stranded Chinese lunar rover Yutu in 2014, although we would not claim yet that the causes were dust. On the other hand, sunrise-driven microscopic smoothing of disturbed areas may offer regular natural mitigations of dust consequences of mining lunar resources and reduce fears that many expeditions might cause excessive fine dust globally around the Moon.

  7. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11 and 12 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicating many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described. Images from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions may be viewed at: www.virtualmicroscope.org/content/apollo. Introduction: During the six NASA missions to the Moon from 1969-72 a total of 382 kilograms of rocks and soils, often referred to as "the legacy of Apollo", were collected and returned to Earth. A unique collection of polished thin sections (PTSs) was made from over 400 rocks by the Lunar Sample Curatorial Facility at the Johnson Spacecraft Center (JSC), Houston. These materials have been available for loan to approved PIs but of course they can't be simultaneously investigated by several researchers unless they are co-located or the sample is passed back and forward between them by mail/hand carrying which is inefficient and very risky for irreplaceable material. When The Open University (OU), the world's largest Distance Learning Higher Education Establishment found itself facing a comparable problem (how to supply thousands of undergraduate students with an interactive petrological microscope and a personal set of thin sections), it decided to develop a software tool called the Virtual Microscope (VM). As a result it is now able to make the unique and precious collection of Apollo specimens universally available as a resource for concurrent study by anybody in the world's Earth and Planetary Sciences community. Herein, we describe the first steps of a collaborative project between OU and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Curatorial Facility to record a PTS for every lunar rock, beginning with those collected by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. Method: Production of a virtual microscope dedicated to a particular theme divides into four main parts - photography, image processing, building and assembly of virtual microscope

  8. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  9. Rhabdom evolution in butterflies: insights from the uniquely tiered and heterogeneous ommatidia of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Atsuko; Awata, Hiroko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Takemura, Shin-ya; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-09-01

    The eye of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis, a 'living fossil' species of the family Papilionidae, contains three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia. Electron microscopy reveals that the Apollo rhabdom is tiered. The distal tier is composed exclusively of photoreceptors expressing opsins of ultraviolet or blue-absorbing visual pigments, and the proximal tier consists of photoreceptors expressing opsins of green or red-absorbing visual pigments. This organization is unique because the distal tier of other known butterflies contains two green-sensitive photoreceptors, which probably function in improving spatial and/or motion vision. Interspecific comparison suggests that the Apollo rhabdom retains an ancestral tiered pattern with some modification to enhance its colour vision towards the long-wavelength region of the spectrum.

  10. The Apollo Accreditation Program: A web-based Joint Commission International standards compliance management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Shaveta; Sibal, Anupam; Uberoi, R S; Kaur, Ishneet; Nayak, Yogamaya; Kar, Sujoy; Loria, Gaurav; Yatheesh, G; Balaji, V

    2014-01-01

    Creating and implementing processes to deliver quality care in compliance with accreditation standards is a challenging task but even more daunting is sustaining these processes and systems. There is need for frequent monitoring of the gap between the expected level of care and the level of care actually delivered so as to achieve consistent level of care. The Apollo Accreditation Program (AAP) was implemented as a web-based single measurable dashboard to display, measure and compare compliance levels for established standards of care in JCI accredited hospitals every quarter and resulted in an overall 15.5% improvement in compliance levels over one year.

  11. Country western singer Teresa entertains at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At the Apollo/Saturn V Center, country music recording artist Teresa performs a song, 'Brave New Girls,' written for astronaut Catherine 'Cady' Coleman, mission specialist on STS-93. She entertains participants and attendees of a women's forum held in the center. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS- 93 at the Banana Creek viewing sight. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  12. Apollo telescope mount: A partial listing of scientific publications, supplement 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, J. M. (Editor); Snoddy, W. C. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reports are compilations of bibliographies from the principal investigator groups of the Apollo Telescope Mount (Skylab solar observatory facility) that gathered data from May 28, 1973, to February 8, 1974. The analysis of these data is presently under way and is expected to continue for several years. The publications listed in this report are divided into the following categories: (1) Journal Publications, (2) Journal Publications Submitted, (3) Other Publications, (4) Presentations--National and International Meetings, and (5) Other Presentations. An author index is included together with errata for the first report.

  13. Applied Proteogenomics OrganizationaL Learning and Outcomes (APOLLO) Network - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the spirit of collaboration inspired by the Vice President’s Cancer Moonshot, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the Department of Defense (DoD), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) are proud to announce a new tri-agency coalition (APOLLO Network — Applied Proteogenomics OrganizationaL Learning and Outcomes) that will help cancer patients by enabling their oncologists to more rapidly and accurately identify effective drugs to treat cancer based on a patient’s unique proteogenomic profile.

  14. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Hischke, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data. This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.

  15. Parimad 2009: maaülikool, Apollo, Baltika, Röa paviljon / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu aastapreemiad. Ajaloolise interjööri preemia: Röa pargipaviljon - autor Leila Pärtelpoeg. Ühiskondliku interjööri preemia: Eesti Maaülikooli spordihoone - autorid Katrin Kaevats ja Jaan Port. Büroo preemia: Baltika büroohoone - autorid AB Studio 3, Kolm Pluss Üks. Kaupluse preemia: Apollo raamatupood Solarise keskuses - autorid Tüüne-Kristin ja Urmo Vaikla. Näitus "Eesti parimad interjöörid" Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis 30. maini 2010

  16. Flammability control in the oxygen environment of the Apollo guidance and navigation equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, M. D.; Bachman, S.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo guidance and navigation (G&N) equipment test program, the redesign philosophy, and the actual equipment modifications that were used to limit burn rates in an environment of 100 percent oxygen at pressures of 6.2 and 16 psia are described. The major approach was a serious basic review of the real function of the nonmetallic materials of concern. The result of this review was that the materials could be replaced, eliminated, or covered by nonflammable metallic materials. Although several low-flammability nonmetallic materials were investigated, the direct approach of cover, eliminate, or replace generally proved to be quicker and more effective.

  17. Infectious Agents and Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these agents on subsequent risk of cancer. There are currently ... tween genetic and environmental factors (that include infectious agents) .... opment of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lym- phoma. However .... Lung cancer i. Skin cancers ...

  18. Restoration and Reexamination of Data from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 Dust, Thermal and Radiation Engineering Measurements Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Marie J.; Williams, David R.; Kent, H.; Turner, Niescja

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort by the Lunar Data Node (LDN) we are restoring data returned by the Apollo Dust, Thermal, and Radiation Engineering Measurements (DTREM) packages emplaced on the lunar surface by the crews of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15. Also commonly known as the Dust Detector experiments, the DTREM packages measured the outputs of exposed solar cells and thermistors over time. They operated on the surface for up to nearly 8 years, returning data every 54 seconds. The Apollo 11 DTREM was part of the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), and operated for a few months as planned following emplacement in July 1969. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 DTREMs were mounted on the central station as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) and operated from deployment until ALSEP shutdown in September 1977. The objective of the DTREM experiments was to determine the effects of lunar and meteoric dust, thermal stresses, and radiation exposure on solar cells. The LDN, part of the Geosciences Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS), operates out of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. The goal of the LDN is to extract lunar data stored on older media and/or in obsolete formats, restore the data into a usable digital format, and archive the data with PDS and NSSDC. For the DTREM data we plan to recover the raw telemetry, translate the raw counts into appropriate output units, and then apply calibrations. The final archived data will include the raw, translated, and calibrated data and the associated conversion tables produced from the microfilm, as well as ancillary supporting data (metadata) packaged in PDS format.

  19. Animal Capture Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  20. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this f

  1. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  2. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  3. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...

  4. Generation and Testing of XS Libraries for VVER Using APOLLO2 and TRIPOLI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleva, Nonka; Petrov, Nikolay; Todorova, Galina; Kolev, Nikola

    2014-06-01

    MOC based calculation schemes with APOLLO2 were used to generate few-group cross-section libraries for VVER-1000 at the nodal and pin level. This paper presents an overview of the testing of the schemes and the libraries, as well as the computational aspects. Two major ameliorations are considered: application of new developments in APOLLO2 and multicore computation for an acceptable trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. Two-level Pij-MOC industrial calculation schemes were tested against TRIPOLI4 reference results. Benchmarking of the schemes shows that the higher-order linear surface method of characteristics (LS MOC) is an efficient option for cross-section library generation. There is a significant potential for further refinement of the MOC energy mesh and the MOC parameters with the progress in distributed computing. A multi-parameter cross-section library for MSLB analysis with homogenized nodes was tested in 2D core simulation with COBAYA3 vs. whole-core TRIPOLI4 solutions on the CEA CCRT HPC system. Pin-by-pin cross-sections and interface discontinuity factors of Black Box Homogenization type were tested in diffusion calculations with COBAYA3 pin-by-pin against transport reference solutions. Good agreement is displayed.

  5. Fragments of quartz monzodiorite and felsite in Apollo 14 soil particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of 'evolved' lithologies, felsite, quartz monzodiorite (QMD), and whitlockite-rich quartz monzodiorite, were identified compositionally and petrographically among 2-4-mm soil particles from Apollo 14. Fragments of QMD were found to be extremely rare in the Apollo 14 samples. Felsite is similar to previously reported samples. QMD 14161,7069 is similar to 15405 QMD and has ITE concentrations in KREEP-like concentration ratios of about twice the ITE concentrations of average high-K KREEP. QMD cumulate has the highest measured REE concentrations of any lunar sample to date with the exception of individual whitlockite grains. Felsite and whitlockite-rich lithologies appear to be petrogenetically related and have complementary compositions representing separated fractions of the QMD or KREEP-like parental melt. Felsite is a silica-rich fraction of the residual liquid or it is a derivative of the silica-rich fraction. Felsite or lunar granite of this type results from residual liquid separation following crystal-liquid separation of a QMD-like parent melt with concentration ratios of ITEs similar to those of KREEP.

  6. Re-evaluation of Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffels, Alexandra; Knapmeyer, Martin; Oberst, Jürgen; Haase, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We re-analyzed Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) data to improve our knowledge of the subsurface structure of this landing site. We use new geometrically accurate 3-D positions of the seismic equipment deployed by the astronauts, which were previously derived using high-resolution images by Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in combination with Apollo astronaut photography. These include coordinates of six Explosive Packages (EPs) and four geophone stations. Re-identified P-wave arrival times are used to calculate two- and three-layer seismic velocity models. A strong increase of seismic velocity with depth can be confirmed, in particular, we suggest a more drastic increase than previously thought. For the three-layer model the P-wave velocities were calculated to 285, 580, and 1825 m/s for the uppermost, second, and third layer, respectively, with the boundaries between the layers being at 96 and 773 m depth. When compared with results obtained with previously published coordinates, we find (1) a slightly higher velocity (+4%) for the uppermost layer, and (2) lower P-wave velocities for the second and third layers, representing a decrease of 34% and 12% for second and third layer, respectively. Using P-wave arrival time readings of previous studies, we confirm that velocities increase when changing over from old to new coordinates. In the three-layer case, this means using new coordinates alone leads to thinned layers, velocities rise slightly for the uppermost layer and decrease significantly for the layers below.

  7. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  8. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (the Apollo method: a new approach to obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontrand López-Nava-Breviere

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many obese patients cannot lose weight or reject conventional obesity management. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (the Apollo method is a pioneering coadjuvant, interventionist technique for the integral management of obesity. Objectives: The goals of this study were to report safety and efficacy results obtained at 6 months in patients undergoing endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. Material and methods: A prospective study was performed in 55 patients (13 males, 42 females who were subjected to the Apollo technique; mean age was 43.5 years (range 25-60 and mean BMI was 37.7 kg/m² (range 30-48. All received multidisciplinary follow-up for weight loss. Weight changes and presence of complications were assessed. Through the endoscope a triangular pattern suture is performed consisting of approximately 3-6 transmural (mucosa to serosa stitches, using a cinch device to bring them nearer and form a plication. Results: A total of 6-8 plications are used to provide a tubular or sleeve-shaped restriction to the gastric cavity. No major complications developed and patients were discharged at 24 hours following the procedure. Endoscopic and radiographic follow-up at 6 months post-procedure showed a well preserved tubular form to the stomach. After 6 months patients had lost 18.9 kg and 55.3% of excess weight. Conclusions: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty, together with dietary and psycho-behavioral changes, is a safe, effective technique in the coadjuvant management of obese patients.

  9. Apollo 15 impact melts, the age of Imbrium, and the Earth-Moon impact cataclysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Graham; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1992-01-01

    The early impact history of the lunar surface is of critical importance in understanding the evolution of both the primitive Moon and the Earth, as well as the corresponding populations of planetesimals in Earth-crossing orbits. Two endmember hypotheses call for greatly dissimilar impact dynamics. One is a heavy continuous (declining) bombardment from about 4.5 Ga to 3.85 Ga. The other is that an intense but brief bombardment at about 3.85 +/- Ga was responsible for producing the visible lunar landforms and for the common 3.8-3.9 Ga ages of highland rocks. The Apennine Front, the main topographic ring of the Imbrium Basin, was sampled on the Apollo 15 mission. The Apollo 15 impact melts show a diversity of chemical compositions, indicating their origin in at least several different impact events. The few attempts at dating them have generally not produced convincing ages, despite their importance. Thus, we chose to investigate the ages of melt rock samples from the Apennine Front, because of their stratigraphic importance yet lack of previous age definition.

  10. Breccia 66055 and related clastic materials from the Descartes region, Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Kridelbaugh, S. J.; Robyn, M. A.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace and major element contents obtained by instrumental neutron activation are reported for a number of Apollo 16 soil samples and miscellaneous breccia fragments. In addition, data obtained by instrumental neutron activation and electron microprobe techniques along with petrographic descriptions are presented for selected subsamples of breccia 66055. The compositions of our soil samples can be modeled by mixtures of various amounts of anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro and low-K Fra Mauro basalt components. These mixtures are typical of those found in a number of petrographic surveys of the fines. Breccia 66055 is a complex regolith breccia which consists of at least four distinct types of microbreccias. No systematic relation with respect to stratigraphic age among the various microbreccia types was observed. Compositionally and texturally, the clasts which compose breccia 66055 are similar to a number of previously reported rock types from the Apollo 16 area. The entire breccia appears to have undergone a complex history of thermal metamorphism. We conclude from the study of these samples that the Cayley Formation is probably homogeneous in its gross compositional and petrographic aspects.

  11. Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

  12. Restoration of the Apollo 15 Heat Flow Experiment Data from 1975 to 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Kiefer, W. S.

    2017-01-01

    The Apollo 15 Heat Flow Experiment (HFE) was conducted from July 1971 through January 1977. Two heat flow probes were deployed roughly 8.5 meters apart. Probe 1 and Probe 2 penetrated to 1.4-meters and 1-meter depths into the lunar regolith, respectively. Temperatures at different depths and the surface were logged with 7.25-minute intervals and transmitted to Earth. At the conclusion of the experiment, only data obtained from July 1971 through December 1974 were processed and archived at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) by the principal investigator of the experiment, Marcus Langseth of Columbia University. Langseth died in 1997. It is not known what happened to the HFE data tapes he used. Current researchers have strong interests in re-examining the HFE data for the full duration of the experiment. We have recovered and processed large portions of the Apollo 15 HFE data from 1975 through 1977 by assembling data and metadata from various sources.

  13. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  14. THE INTEGRATED AGENT IN MULTI-AGENT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Maleković, Mirko; Čubrilo, Mirko

    2000-01-01

    [n this paper, we characterize the integrated agent in multi-agent systems. The following result is proved: if a multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean) then the integrated agent of the multi-agent system is reflexive (symmetric, transitive, Euclidean), respectively. We also prove that the analogous result does not hold for multi-agent system's serial ness. A knowledge relationship between the integrated agent and agents in a multiagent system is presented.

  15. Mobile agent security using proxy-agents and trusted domains

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Nikola; Arronategui Arribalzaga, Unai

    2009-01-01

    Commercial or wide-network deployment of Mobile Agent Systems is not possible without satisfying security architecture. In this paper we propose architecture for secure Mobile Agent Systems, using Trusted Domains and Proxy agents. Existing approaches are based on security services at the level of an agent system, library or specific objects. Our concept uses proxy agents to enable transparent security services both to security-aware mobile agents and legacy agents. Per-agent and domain-level...

  16. Astronaut operations requirements document for the White Light Coronagraph experiment s-052 for the Apollo Telescope Mount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    Information necessary for successful performance of the observer's function in the White Light Coronagraph portion of the Apollo Telescope Mount experiments is presented. The pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight operations required to perform the S-052 experiment are described. A discussion of the scientific objectives of the experiment and a description of the hardware are provided.

  17. High-performing simulations of the space radiation environment for the International Space Station and Apollo Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Matthew Lawrence

    The space radiation environment is a significant challenge to future manned and unmanned space travels. Future missions will rely more on accurate simulations of radiation transport in space through spacecraft to predict astronaut dose and energy deposition within spacecraft electronics. The International Space Station provides long-term measurements of the radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO); however, only the Apollo missions provided dosimetry data beyond LEO. Thus dosimetry analysis for deep space missions is poorly supported with currently available data, and there is a need to develop dosimetry-predicting models for extended deep space missions. GEANT4, a Monte Carlo Method, provides a powerful toolkit in C++ for simulation of radiation transport in arbitrary media, thus including the spacecraft and space travels. The newest version of GEANT4 supports multithreading and MPI, resulting in faster distributive processing of simulations in high-performance computing clusters. This thesis introduces a new application based on GEANT4 that greatly reduces computational time using Kingspeak and Ember computational clusters at the Center for High Performance Computing (CHPC) to simulate radiation transport through full spacecraft geometry, reducing simulation time to hours instead of weeks without post simulation processing. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new set of detectors besides the historically used International Commission of Radiation Units (ICRU) spheres for calculating dose distribution, including a Thermoluminescent Detector (TLD), Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), and human phantom combined with a series of new primitive scorers in GEANT4 to calculate dose equivalence based on the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP) standards. The developed models in this thesis predict dose depositions in the International Space Station and during the Apollo missions showing good agreement with experimental measurements

  18. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  19. Adaptive auctioneer agents

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.Sc. This dissertation investigates how auctioneer agents can maximise the revenue of an auction. Auctions are an effective solution to agent negotiation because of their simplicity. They are therefore the most widely used approach to agent negotiation. A review of auction theory proves that auction revenue is influenced by factors such as the auction format and the auction parameters. The optimal auction format and parameters are dependent on the bidders and the auction environment. A st...

  20. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...... the expression of multimodal behavior in agents....

  1. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  2. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    CERN Document Server

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A; Joy, Katherine H; Grindrod, Peter M; Lintott, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASAs LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological features of interest. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and parameters therein to interrogate and reduce the Moon Zoo crater location and size dataset against a validated expert survey. We chose the Apollo 17 region as a test area since it offers a broad range of cratered terrains, including secondary-rich areas, older maria, and uplands. The assessment involved parallel testing in three key areas: (1) filtering of data to remove problematic mark-ups; (2) clustering methods of multiple notations per crater; and (3) derivation of alternative crater degradation indices, based on the s...

  3. Rust in the Apollo 16 rocks. [hydration and oxidation processes in lunar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Mao, H. K.; Bell, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Apollo 16 samples of all four rock types and from all stations contain evidence for hydration and oxidation - i.e., the presence of hydrated iron oxide, probably goethite. Rock 66095 contains native FeNi grains with a characteristic intergrowth of schreibersite and, to lesser extents, of cohenite. Troilite also contains sphalerite. The goethite contains 1.5-4.6 wt.% chlorine and occurs mainly on the edges of FeNi metal, causing a rust color in the cracks and space around the native metal grains, which also contain abundant chlorine. This observation suggests the presence of lawrencite (FeCl2), a phase that deliquesces and oxidizes very rapidly upon exposure to water or to a moist atmosphere.

  4. Green spherules from Apollo 15 - Inferences about their origin from inert gas measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, S.; Yaniv, A.; Heymann, D.

    1973-01-01

    Green spherules from the 'clod' 15426 and from fines 15421 contain about 100 times less trapped inert gases than normal bulk fines from Apollo 15. These spherules have apparently never been directly exposed to the solar wind. Spherules from other fines contain about 10 times more trapped gas than those from the 'clod.' The gas in the former is surface correlated. However, spherules from fines 15401 are exceptionally gas-poor. The trapped gases can be of solar-wind origin, but this origin requires a two-stage model for the spherules from the clods. Another possibility is that the gases were absorbed from an ambient gas phase. The trapped gases may also be assumed to represent primordial lunar gas. The composition of this gas is then similar to the 'solar' or 'unfractionated' component of gas-rich meteorites, but unlike that in most of the carbonaceous chondrites.

  5. A transient heating event in the history of a highlands troctolite from Apollo 12 soil 12033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, U. B.; Walker, D.

    1985-01-01

    A 2-mm particle, consisting of a troctolite clast attached to a small amount of glassy soil breccia, was found in a thin section of grains from Apollo 12 sample 12033,66. A description is given of the evolutionary history of the troctolite, taking into account the unique texture. It appears that the particle was broken from its parent rock and projected to Oceanus Procellarum from a source area in the highlands. Before, during, or after the flight, the troctolite was welded to a soil breccia by a minor amount of melting along the contact. It is argued that two separate heating events may be involved. The hypothesis is considered that the partial remelting and quenching of the troctolite took place very rapidly. Attention is given to melting experiments which test and confirm this hypothesis.

  6. Apollo asteroids (1566) Icarus and 2007 MK6: Icarus family members?

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsuka, K; Ito, T; Kasuga, T; Watanabe, J; Kinoshita, D; Sekiguchi, T; Asher, D J; Nakano, S

    2007-01-01

    Although it is more complicated to search for near-Earth object (NEO) families than main belt asteroid (MBA) families, since differential orbital evolution within a NEO family can cause current orbital elements to drastically differ from each other, we have found that Apollo asteroids (1566) Icarus and the newly discovered 2007 MK6 are almost certainly related. Specifically, their orbital evolutions show a similar profile, time shifted by only ~1000 yr, based on our time-lag theory. The dynamical relationship between Icarus and 2007 MK6 along with a possible dust band, the Taurid-Perseid meteor swarm, implies the first detection of an asteroidal NEO family, namely the "Icarus asteroid family".

  7. Resonances and librations of some Apollo and Amor asteroids with the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, W.-H.; Mehra, R.

    1973-01-01

    The orbital evolution of the Apollo asteroids 1620 Geographos and 1685 Toro and Amor asteroids 433 Eros, 1221 Amor, and 1627 Ivar are investigated by numerical integration. All these asteroids, with the exception of Geographos, exhibit systematic orbital couplings with the Earth during the time interval studied (1600-2350 A.D.). 1685 Toro is captured into libration once with Venus due to the 13.5 resonance, and once with the Earth due to the 8:5 resonance. Both librations are unstable because of the effect of the 13:8 near commensurability of the Venus-Earth system. 433 Eros exhibits no libration pattern; the regular variation of its orbital period is due to the beat-effect of the 4:7 resonance with the Earth.

  8. Ionospheric disturbances caused by long period sound waves generated by Saturn-Apollo launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wavelike disturbances were observed in the ionosphere following several nuclear explosions in early 1960's. Supersonic shock waves within the atmosphere generated by large rockets can cause ionospheric electron density perturbations. A CW phase path Doppler array in the New York area was operated during the Saturn-Apollo 12 and 13 launches and recorded Doppler frequency fluctuations due to rocket launchings. Cross correlation and power spectral analyses of the phase path-path Doppler frequency variation records showed that the phase velocities of the signal arrivals were from south of the array with 700 - 800 m/sec corresponding to periods in the range of 2 to 4 minutes. Ionograms taken every 60 seconds from Wallops Islands showed clearly ionospheric disturbances due to rockets. The group velocities were estimated to be of the order of 450 m/sec 1 obtained from the earliest visible disturbances seen on CW phase path Doppler records and ionograms together with the rocket trajectory data.

  9. Morphology and composition of condensates on Apollo 17 orange and black glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Sue J.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil sample 74220 and core samples 74001/2 consist mainly of orange glass droplets, droplet fragments, and their crystallized equivalents. These samples are now generally accepted to be pyroclastic ejecta from early lunar volcanic eruptions. It has been known since early examination of these samples that they contain surface coatings and material rich in volatile condensible phases, including S, Zn, F, Cl, and many volatile metals. The volatiles associated with these orange and black glasses (and the Apollo 15 green glasses) may provide important clues in understanding the differentiation and volcanic history of the Moon. In addition, condensible volatiles can be mobilized and concentrated by volcanic processes. We have reviewed many of our existing photomicrographs and energy dispersive analysis (EDXA) of grain surfaces and have reexamined some of our older SEM mounts using an improved EDXA system capable of light-element detection and analysis (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon). The results from these investigations are presented.

  10. Results of examination of the calvarium, brain, and meninges. [in Apollo 17 BIOCORE pocket mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymaker, W.; Zeman, W.; Turnbill, C. E.; Clayton, R. K.; Bailey, O. T.; Samorajski, T.; Vogel, F. S.; Lloyd, B.; Cruty, M. R.; Benton, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Tissue reactions were found around the monitor (dosimeter) assemblies that had been implanted beneath the scalp of the five pocket mice that flew on Apollo XVII. Mitosis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation was considerably reduced in comparison with that in control animals. Otherwise the brain tissue as well as the meninges in the flight animals appeared unaltered. Since the animals were exposed primarily to high Z-high energy (HZE) cosmic-ray particles at the lower end of the high LET spectrum, the lack of changes in the brain cannot be taken as evidence that the brain will suffer no damage from the heavier HZE particles on prolonged manned missions.

  11. Apollo 16 impact-melt splashes - Petrography and major-element composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Thomas H.; Horz, Friedrich; Morris, Richard V.

    1986-11-01

    Petrographic and major-element analyses are applied to 50 Apollo 16 impact-melt splash (IMS) samples in order to determine their origin and assess the nature of the subregolith source. The macroscopic analyses reveal that the IMSs exhibit a glassy appearance, but the textures range from holohyaline to hyalopilitic. Schlieren-rich glasses dominate the holohyaline areas, and the crystalline areas are mainly spherulitic. It is observed that most IMSs contain feldspathic monomineralic and lithic clasts and no regolithic materials. It is detected that the chemistry of most IMSs is not like the local regolith and appears to represent varied mixtures of VHA impact-melt breccias and anorthosite; the host rocks are mainly dimict breccias. It is concluded that the Cayley Formation is a polymict deposit composed of VHA impact-melt breccias and anorthosites. Tables revealing the macroscopic characteristics of the IMSs and the major-element composition of IMSs and various host rock are presented.

  12. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  13. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moergestel, Leo van; Langerak, Wouter; Meerstra, Glenn; Nieuwenburg, Niels van; Pape, Franc; Telgen, Daniël; Puik, Erik; Meyer, John-Jules

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to ti

  14. Agents in domestic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glenn Meerstra; Wouter Langerak; Leo van Moergestel; Niels van Nieuwenburg; John-Jules Meyer; Ing. Erik Puik; Franc Pape; Daniël Telgen

    2013-01-01

    Athor supplied : "This paper describes an agent-based architecture for domotics. This architecture is based on requirements about expandability and hardware independence. The heart of the system is a multi-agent system. This system is distributed over several platforms to open the possibility to

  15. The Moon Zoo citizen science project: Preliminary results for the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugiolacchi, Roberto; Bamford, Steven; Tar, Paul; Thacker, Neil; Crawford, Ian A.; Joy, Katherine H.; Grindrod, Peter M.; Lintott, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Moon Zoo is a citizen science project that utilises internet crowd-sourcing techniques. Moon Zoo users are asked to review high spatial resolution images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC), onboard NASA's LRO spacecraft, and perform characterisation such as measuring impact crater sizes and identify morphological 'features of interest'. The tasks are designed to address issues in lunar science and to aid future exploration of the Moon. We have tested various methodologies and parameters therein to interrogate and reduce the Moon Zoo crater location and size dataset against a validated expert survey. We chose the Apollo 17 region as a test area since it offers a broad range of cratered terrains, including secondary-rich areas, older maria, and uplands. The assessment involved parallel testing in three key areas: (1) filtering of data to remove problematic mark-ups; (2) clustering methods of multiple notations per crater; and (3) derivation of alternative crater degradation indices, based on the statistical variability of multiple notations and the smoothness of local image structures. We compared different combinations of methods and parameters and assessed correlations between resulting crater summaries and the expert census. We derived the optimal data reduction steps and settings of the existing Moon Zoo crater data to agree with the expert census. Further, the regolith depth and crater degradation states derived from the data are also found to be in broad agreement with other estimates for the Apollo 17 region. Our study supports the validity of this citizen science project but also recommends improvements in key elements of the data acquisition planning and production.

  16. Differential Draining of Parallel-Fed Propellant Tanks in Morpheus and Apollo Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Guardado, Hector; Hernandez, Humberto; Desai, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Parallel-fed propellant tanks are an advantageous configuration for many spacecraft. Parallel-fed tanks allow the center of gravity (cg) to be maintained over the engine(s), as opposed to serial-fed propellant tanks which result in a cg shift as propellants are drained from tank one tank first opposite another. Parallel-fed tanks also allow for tank isolation if that is needed. Parallel tanks and feed systems have been used in several past vehicles including the Apollo Lunar Module. The design of the feedsystem connecting the parallel tank is critical to maintain balance in the propellant tanks. The design must account for and minimize the effect of manufacturing variations that could cause delta-p or mass flowrate differences, which would lead to propellant imbalance. Other sources of differential draining will be discussed. Fortunately, physics provides some self-correcting behaviors that tend to equalize any initial imbalance. The question concerning whether or not active control of propellant in each tank is required or can be avoided or not is also important to answer. In order to provide data on parallel-fed tanks and differential draining in flight for cryogenic propellants (as well as any other fluid), a vertical test bed (flying lander) for terrestrial use was employed. The Morpheus vertical test bed is a parallel-fed propellant tank system that uses passive design to keep the propellant tanks balanced. The system is operated in blow down. The Morpheus vehicle was instrumented with a capacitance level sensor in each propellant tank in order to measure the draining of propellants in over 34 tethered and 12 free flights. Morpheus did experience an approximately 20 lb/m imbalance in one pair of tanks. The cause of this imbalance will be discussed. This paper discusses the analysis, design, flight simulation vehicle dynamic modeling, and flight test of the Morpheus parallel-fed propellant. The Apollo LEM data is also examined in this summary report of the

  17. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  18. sup 40^Ar/^sup 39^Ar and cosmic ray exposure ages of plagioclase-rich lithic fragments from Apollo 17 regolith, 78461

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J P Das; S L Baldwin; J W Delano

    2016-01-01

    ... (CRE) ages, determined for eleven submillimeter-sized (ranging from 0.06 to 1.2 mg) plagioclase-rich lithic fragments from Apollo 17 regolith sample 78461 collected at the base of the Sculptured Hills...

  19. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  20. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  1. Health care agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make decisions during a stressful time. Your agent's duty is to see that your wishes are followed. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 5. Zorowitz RA. Ethics. In: Ham RJ Jr, Sloane PD, Warshaw GA, ...

  2. Agent Standards Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the work herein proposed is the development of standards for software autonomous agents. These standards are essential to achieve software...

  3. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  4. Composition of the Cayley formation at Apollo 16 as inferred from Impact Melt Splashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; See, Thomas H.; Hörz, Friedrich

    1986-01-01

    Chemical data for impact melt splashes (IMS) collected at the Apollo 16 landing site show that Ni concentrations and FeO-Ni, Cr-Ni, and Co-Ni correlations are consistent with a chondritic meteoritic component present at levels between approximately 1.5 and 11 wt%. Like Apollo 16 soils, the IMS are intermediate in composition to Apollo 16 rocks. The chemical data for the IMS are consistent with two main compositional groups. The Group A IMS (28 samples) are chemically The Group A IMS (28 samples) are chemically distinct from local Apollo 16 soils and are very similar to mixtures of anorthosite and low-Sc VHA (LScVHA) impact melt rocks. Calculated to a meteorite-free basis, their average Sc concentration, La/Sc, MgO/Sc, and TiO2/MgO ratios, and mg' value are 6.1 ug/g, 1.94, 9800, 0.066, and 0.74, respectively. The Group B IMS (seven samples) have chemical equivalents among the soils. Five samples are chemically very similar to mature Apollo 16 soils from the central and southern parts of the landing site; two are more similar to soils 67601 and 67941 from North Ray Crater. Generally, the Group B IMS and soils are enriched in a anorthosite as compared to the Group AIMS. THe average Sc concentration, La/Sc, MgO, and TiO2/MgO ratios, and mg' value for the subgroup of five are 9.3 ug/g, 1.41, 5780, 0.124, and 0.66, respectively. The corresponding values for the subgroup of two are 7.5 ug/g, 1.04, 7400, 0.090, and 0.71, respectively. The Group BIMS (and most soils) have a minor high-Ti component not present in the Group AIMS. If this component is high-Ti mare basalt, its average concentration is approximately 1.6 wt%. The seven Group AIMS that have been dated by rare gas methods all have approximately 2 m.y. exposure ages, an age generally associated with South Ray Crater. These seven and potentially most Group AIMS are likely quenched samples of the melt volume produced by the South Ray impact. The chemical signature of the impacting projectile is chondritic, and its

  5. 50th Anniversary of the World's First Extraterrestrial Sample Receiving Laboratory: The Apollo Program's Lunar Receiving Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Apollo program's Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL), building 37 at NASA's Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC), now Johnson Space Center (JSC), in Houston, TX, was the world's first astronaut and extraterrestrial sample quarantine facility (Fig. 1). It was constructed by Warrior Construction Co. and Warrior-Natkin-National at a cost of $8.1M be-tween August 10, 1966 and June 26, 1967. In 1969, the LRL received and curated the first collection of extra-terrestrial samples returned to Earth; the rock and soil samples of the Apollo 11 mission. This year, the JSC Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (here-after JSC curation) celebrates 50 years since the opening of the LRL and its legacy of laying the foundation for modern curation of extraterrestrial samples.

  6. Apollo 16 - Impact melt sheets, contrasting nature of the Cayley plains and Descartes mountains, and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinley, J. P.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Apollo 16 stations four and five rake samples have been examined petrographically and by electron microprobe and INAA. Lithologic abundances support the idea (Korontev, 1981) that the variation of soil composition at Apollo 16 results from mixing between a component represented by station five and components much like either the dimict breccias or feldspathic fragmental breccias in composition. Pyroxene, olivine, and coexisting plagioclase compositions from within the anorthosite portions of dimict breccias bridge the gap between the Mg-rich and ferroan anorthosite fields. Analyses from associated cumulate and granulitic clasts indicate that they are the source of the intermediate material. Dimict breccias formed about 3.92 b.y. ago, the nectaris event occurred 3.84-3.92 b.y. ago, and the Cayley plains were deposited as a result of the Imbrium event sometime later than 3.84 b.y.

  7. Nondestructive Analysis of Apollo Samples by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis: A PET Style Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of a PET is to characterize and classify the returned samples, making this information available to the general research community who can then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. A PET strives to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which often limits the PET work to largely visual measurements and observations like optical microscopy. More modern techniques can also be utilized by future PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in a more rigorous way. Here we present our recent analyses of Apollo samples 14321 and 14305 by micro-CT and micro-XRF (respectively), assess the potential for discovery of "new" Apollo samples for scientific study, and evaluate the usefulness of these techniques in future PET efforts.

  8. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  9. Size Matters: FTIR Spectral Analysis of Apollo Regolith Samples Exhibits Grain Size Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dayl; Joy, Katherine; Pernet-Fisher, John; Wogelius, Roy; Morlok, Andreas; Hiesinger, Harald

    2017-04-01

    The Mercury Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) on the upcoming BepiColombo mission is designed to analyse the surface of Mercury in thermal infrared wavelengths (7-14 μm) to investigate the physical properties of the surface materials [1]. Laboratory analyses of analogue materials are useful for investigating how various sample properties alter the resulting infrared spectrum. Laboratory FTIR analysis of Apollo fine (60%) causes a 'flattening' of the spectrum, with reduced reflectance in the Reststrahlen Band region (RB) as much as 30% in comparison to samples that are dominated by a high proportion of crystalline material. Apollo 15401,147 is an immature regolith with a high proportion of volcanic glass pyroclastic beads [2]. The high mafic mineral content results in a systematic shift in the Christiansen Feature (CF - the point of lowest reflectance) to longer wavelength: 8.6 μm. The glass beads dominate the spectrum, displaying a broad peak around the main Si-O stretch band (at 10.8 μm). As such, individual mineral components of this sample cannot be resolved from the average spectrum alone. Apollo 67481,96 is a sub-mature regolith composed dominantly of anorthite plagioclase [2]. The CF position of the average spectrum is shifted to shorter wavelengths (8.2 μm) due to the higher proportion of felsic minerals. Its average spectrum is dominated by anorthite reflectance bands at 8.7, 9.1, 9.8, and 10.8 μm. The average reflectance is greater than the other samples due to a lower proportion of glassy material. In each soil, the smallest fractions (0-25 and 25-63 μm) have CF positions 0.1-0.4 μm higher than the larger grain sizes. Also, the bulk-sample spectra mostly closely resemble the 0-25 μm sieved size fraction spectrum, indicating that this size fraction of each sample dominates the bulk spectrum regardless of other physical properties. This has implications for surface analyses of other Solar System bodies where some mineral phases or components

  10. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  11. A Thorium-rich Mare Basalt Rock Fragment from the Apollo 12 Regolith: A Sample from a Young Procellarum Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Barra, F.; Swindle, T. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this abstract, we report on the composition, mineralogy and petrography of a basaltic rock fragment, 12032,366-18, found in the Apollo 12 regolith. Age data, collected as part of an investigation by Barra et al., will be presented in detail in. Here, only the age dating result is summarized. This rock fragment garnered our attention because it is significantly enriched in incompatible elements, e.g., 7 ppm thorium, compared to other known lunar basalts. Its mineral- and trace-element chemistry set it apart from other Apollo 12 basalts and indeed from all Apollo and Luna basalts. What makes it potentially very significant is the possibility that it is a sample of a relatively young, thorium-rich basalt flow similar to those inferred to occur in the Procellarum region, especially northwestern Procellarum, on the basis of Lunar Prospector orbital data. Exploiting the lunar regolith for the diversity of rock types that have been delivered to a landing site by impact processes and correlating them to their likely site of origin using remote sensing will be an important part of future missions to the Moon. One such mission is Moonrise, which would collect regolith samples from the South Pole-Aitken Basin, concentrating thousands of rock fragments of 3-20 mm size from the regolith, and returning the samples to Earth.

  12. Characterization of Apollo Regolith by X-Ray and Electron Microbeam Techniques: An Analog for Future Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The Apollo missions collected 382 kg of rock and regolith from the Moon; approximately 1/3 of the sample mass collected was regolith. Lunar regolith consists of well mixed rocks, minerals, and glasses less than 1-centimeter n size. The majority of most surface regolith samples were sieved into less than 1, 1-2, 2-4, and 4-10- millimiter size fractions; a portion of most samples was re-served unsieved. The initial characterization and classification of most Apollo regolith particles was done primarily by binocular microscopy. Optical classification of regolith is difficult because (1) the finest fraction of the regolith coats and obscures the textures of the larger particles, and (b) not all lithologies or minerals are uniquely identifiable optically. In recent years, we have begun to use more modern x-ray beam techniques [1-3], coupled with high resolution 3D optical imaging techniques [4] to characterize Apollo and meteorite samples as part of the curation process. These techniques, particularly in concert with SEM imaging of less than 1-millimeter regolith grain mounts, allow for the rapid characterization of the components within a regolith.

  13. Agentes farmacológicos actuales en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus no insulinodependiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Hernández-Yero

    1997-12-01

    thiazolidinediones, whose used at the beginning of the disease or in insulin-resistant patients may delay or prevent the development of the disease, and may interfere in the progressive reduction of the pancreatic function. An important group of pharmacological agents, as well as their possible mechanisms of action, which have been investigated, are shown to widen and increase the therapeutics of diabetes. The insuline analogs, the insulinomimetic agents, and the oral insuline preparations, the non-sulphonylurea insulinotropic agents, the amylene analogs, the peptides similar to glucagon, the adrenergic alpha-2 antagonist, the modulators of glucose metabolism, and some substances of vegetal origin with possible hypoglycaemic effects, are among these agents

  14. Valence of Ti, V, and Cr in Apollo 14 aluminous basalts 14053 and 14072

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven B.; Sutton, Stephen R.

    2017-09-01

    The valences of Ti, V, and Cr in olivine and pyroxene, important indicators of the fO2 of the source region of their host rocks, can be readily measured nondestructively by XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy, but little such work has been done on lunar rocks, and there is some uncertainty regarding the presence of Ti3+ in lunar silicates and the redox state of the lunar mantle. This is the first study involving direct XANES measurement of valences of multivalent cations in lunar rocks. Because high alumina activity facilitates substitution of Ti cations into octahedral rather than tetrahedral sites in pyroxene and Ti3+ only enters octahedral sites, two aluminous basalts from Apollo 14, 14053 and 14072, were studied. Most pyroxene contains little or no detectable Ti3+, but in both samples relatively early, magnesian pyroxene was found that has Ti valences that are not within error of 4; in 14053, this component has an average Ti valence of 3.81 ± 0.06 (i.e., Ti3+/[Ti3+ + Ti4+ = 0.19]). This pyroxene has relatively low atomic Ti/Al ratios ( 0.5 contains Ti3+ and pyroxene with lower ratios does not. Later pyroxene, with lower Mg/Fe and higher Ti/Al ratios, has higher proportions of Ti (all Ti4+) in tetrahedral sites. All pyroxene analyzed contains divalent Cr, ranging from 15 to 30% of the Cr present, and all but one analysis spot contains divalent V, accounting for 0 to 40% (typically 20-30%) of the V present. Three analyses of olivine in 14053 do not show any Ti3+, but Ti valences in 14072 olivine range from 4 down to 3.70 ± 0.10. In 14053 olivine, 50% of the Cr and 60% of the V are divalent. In 14072 olivine, the divalent percentages are 20% for Cr and 20-60% for V. These results indicate significant proportions of divalent Cr and V and limited amounts of trivalent Ti in the parental melts, especially when crystal/liquid partitioning preferences are taken into account. These features are consistent with an fO2 closer to IW - 2 than to IW

  15. LRO Camera Imaging of the Moon: Apollo 17 and other Sites for Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Wiseman, S. M.; Robinson, M. S.; Lawrence, S.; Denevi, B. W.; Bell, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    One of the fundamental goals of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the determination of mineralogic and compositional distributions and their relation to geologic features on the Moon’s surface. Through a combination of imaging with the LRO narrow-angle cameras and wide-angle camera (NAC, WAC), very fine-scale geologic features are resolved with better than meter-per-pixel resolution (NAC) and correlated to spectral variations mapped with the lower resolution, 7-band WAC (400-m/pix, ultraviolet bands centered at 321 and 360 nm; 100-m/pix, visible bands centered at 415, 566, 604, 643, and 689 nm). Keys to understanding spectral variations in terms of composition, and relationships between compositional variations and surface geology, are ground-truth sites where surface compositions and mineralogy, as well as geology and geologic history, are well known. The Apollo 17 site is especially useful because the site geology includes a range of features from high-Ti mare basalts to Serenitatis-Basin-related massifs containing basin impact-melt breccia and feldspathic highlands materials, and a regional black and orange pyroclastic deposit. Moreover, relative and absolute ages of these features are known. In addition to rock samples, astronauts collected well-documented soil samples at 22 different sample locations across this diverse area. Many of these sample sites can be located in the multispectral data using the co-registered NAC images. Digital elevation data are used to normalize illumination geometry and thus fully exploit the multispectral data and compare derived compositional parameters for different geologic units. Regolith characteristics that are known in detail from the Apollo 17 samples, such as maturity and petrography of mineral, glass, and lithic components, contribute to spectral variations and are considered in the assessment of spectral variability at the landing site. In this work, we focus on variations associated with the ilmenite content

  16. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  17. Agent Oriented Programming进展%Advances in Agent Oriented Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一川; 石纯一

    2002-01-01

    Agent-oriented programming (AOP) is a framework to develop agents, and it aims to link the gap betweentheory and practical in agent research. The core of an AOP framework is its language and semantics. In this paper,we propose the necessary properties which agents should have, and then give a summary and analysis about differentAOP languages based on these properties.

  18. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...

  19. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  20. Developing Enculturated Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) are complex multimodal systems with rich verbal and nonverbal repertoires. There human-like appearance raises severe expectations regarding natural communicative behaviors on the side of the user. But what is regarded as “natural” is to a large degree dependent...... on our cultural profiles that provide us with heuristics of behavior and interpretation. Thus, integrating cultural aspects of communicative behaviors in virtual agents and thus enculturating such systems seems to be inevitable. But culture is a multi-defined domain and thus a number of pitfalls arise...

  1. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Apollo Samples as a Curation Technique Enabling Better Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R. A.; Almeida, N. V.; Sykes, D.; Smith, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a technique that has been used to research meteorites for some time and many others], and recently it is becoming a more common tool for the curation of meteorites and Apollo samples. Micro-CT is ideally suited to the characterization of astromaterials in the curation process as it can provide textural and compositional information at a small spatial resolution rapidly, nondestructively, and without compromising the cleanliness of the samples (e.g., samples can be scanned sealed in Teflon bags). This data can then inform scientists and curators when making and processing future sample requests for meteorites and Apollo samples. Here we present some preliminary results on micro-CT scans of four Apollo regolith breccias. Methods: Portions of four Apollo samples were used in this study: 14321, 15205, 15405, and 60639. All samples were 8-10 cm in their longest dimension and approximately equant. These samples were micro-CT scanned on the Nikon HMXST 225 System at the Natural History Museum in London. Scans were made at 205-220 kV, 135-160 microamps beam current, with an effective voxel size of 21-44 microns. Results: Initial examination of the data identify a variety of mineral clasts (including sub-voxel FeNi metal grains) and lithic clasts within the regolith breccias. Textural information within some of the lithic clasts was also discernable. Of particular interest was a large basalt clast (approx.1.3 cc) found within sample 60639, which appears to have a sub-ophitic texture. Additionally, internal void space, e.g., fractures and voids, is readily identifiable. Discussion: It is clear from the preliminary data that micro-CT analyses are able to identify important "new" clasts within the Apollo breccias, and better characterize previously described clasts or igneous samples. For example, the 60639 basalt clast was previously believed to be quite small based on its approx.0.5 sq cm exposure on the surface of the main mass

  2. Derivation of Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts at Discrete Times: Rb-Sr Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui. Hejiu; Neal, Clive, R.; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2012-01-01

    Pristine Apollo 14 (A-14) high-Al basalts represent the oldest volcanic deposits returned from the Moon [1,2] and are relatively enriched in Al2O3 (>11 wt%) compared to other mare basalts (7-11 wt%). Literature Rb-Sr isotopic data suggest there are at least three different eruption episodes for the A-14 high-Al basalts spanning the age range approx.4.3 Ga to approx.3.95 Ga [1,3]. Therefore, the high-Al basalts may record lunar mantle evolution between the formation of lunar crust (approx.4.4 Ga) and the main basin-filling mare volcanism (basalts were originally classified into five compositional groups [5,6], and then regrouped into three with a possible fourth comprising 14072 based on the whole-rock incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios and Rb-Sr radiometric ages [7]. However, Rb-Sr ages of these basalts from different laboratories may not be consistent with each other because of the use of different 87Rb decay constants [8] and different isochron derivation methods over the last four decades. This study involved a literature search for Rb-Sr isotopic data previously reported for the high-Al basalts. With the re-calculated Rb-Sr radiometric ages, eruption episodes of A-14 high-Al basalts were determined, and their petrogenesis was investigated in light of the "new" Rb-Sr isotopic data and published trace element abundances of these basalts.

  3. Fission track astrology of three Apollo 14 gas-rich breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, H.; Shirck, J.; Sun, S.; Walker, R.

    1973-01-01

    The three Apollo 14 breccias 14301, 14313, and 14318 all show fission xenon due to the decay of Pu-244. To investigate possible in situ production of the fission gas, an analysis was made of the U-distribution in these three breccias. The major amount of the U lies in glass clasts and in matrix material and no more than 25% occurs in distinct high-U minerals. The U-distribution of each breccia is discussed in detail. Whitlockite grains in breccias 14301 and 14318 found with the U-mapping were etched and analyzed for fission tracks. The excess track densities are much smaller than indicated by the Xe-excess. Because of a preirradiation history documented by very high track densities in feldspar grains, however, it is impossible to attribute the excess tracks to the decay of Pu-244. A modified track method has been developed for measuring average U-concentrations in samples containing a heterogeneous distribution of U in the form of small high-U minerals. The method is briefly discussed, and results for the rocks 14301, 14313, 14318, 68815, 15595, and the soil 64421 are given.

  4. Guests line the stage at a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At a women's forum about 'Past, Present and Future of Space,' held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, guests line the stage. From left, they are Marta Bohn-Meyer, the first woman to pilot an SR- 71; astronauts Ellen Ochoa, Ken Cockrell, Joan Higginbotham, and Yvonne Cagle; former astronaut Sally Ride, the first American woman to fly in space; and Jennifer Harris, the Mars 2001 Operations System Development Manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The forum included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing site. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  5. Neutronics characterization of an erbia fully poisoned PWR assembly by means of the APOLLO2 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pergreffi Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, increasing demands on the reduction of fuel cycle costs have led to higher burnup fuel designs. According to the erbia-credit super high burnup fuel concept, developed by mixing low content of erbia to UO2 powder directly after reconversion process so that all fuel pins in a given fuel assembly are homogeneously doped, the present study aims to characterize, from a neutronic point of view, a 17 × 17 pressurized water reactor assembly enriched to 10.27 wt.% in 235U with an erbia content of 1 at.% (i.e. 0.7 wt.% by means of the deterministic neutronic code APOLLO2. For this purpose, a simplified thermal-hydraulic analysis was performed in order to evaluate the effects on fuel thermal conductivity of adding erbia to uranium oxide. The results obtained allow to conclude that an Er-doped assembly enriched to >5 wt.% in 235U represents an advantageous solution for very long fuel cycles, and it is so suited for very high burnups.

  6. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  7. On Eagle's Wings: The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissian, John M.

    At 12:56 p.m., on Monday 21 July 1969 (AEST), six hundred million people witnessed Neil Armstrong's historic first steps on the Moon through television pictures transmitted to Earth from the lunar module, Eagle. Three tracking stations were receiving the signals simultaneously. They were the CSIRO's Parkes Radio Telescope, the Honeysuckle Creek tracking station near Canberra, and NASA's Goldstone station in California. During the first nine minutes of the broadcast, NASA alternated between the signals being received by the three stations. When they switched to the Parkes pictures, they were of such superior quality that NASA remained with them for the rest of the 2½-hour moonwalk. The television pictures from Parkes were received under extremely trying and dangerous conditions. A violent squall struck the telescope on the day of the historic moonwalk. The telescope was buffeted by strong winds that swayed the support tower and threatened the integrity of the telescope structure. Fortunately, cool heads prevailed and as Aldrin activated the TV camera, the Moon rose into the field-of-view of the Parkes telescope. This report endeavours to explain the circumstances of the Parkes Observatory's support of the Apollo 11 mission, and how it came to be involved in the historic enterprise.

  8. Composition of the Cayley Formation at Apollo 16 as inferred from impact melt splashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Horz, Friedrich; See, Thomas H.

    1986-11-01

    Abundances of major and trace elements and magnetic properties of 50 impact melt splashes (IMSs) from the Apollo 16 landing site are analzyed to determine the composition of their meteoritic component. MgO-Sc and Ca-Sc variation diagrams and least-squares mixing models are utilized to analyze the IMS, soil, and rock data. Consideration is given to progenitor lithologies of the IMS, the number of impact events represented by the IMS, and the heterogeneity of impact melts from single events. It is observed that the IMSs are composed of either a mixture of anorthosite and low-Sc impact melt rocks or anorthositic norite. It is determined that the surface Cayley layer is composed of TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.69, and 7.1 wt pct and 10.5 and 21.2 microg/g, respectively and 0.38 and 5.9 wt pct and 6.1 and 11.8 microg/g, respectively, for the subsurface Cayley layer. The Descartes Formation composition is estimated as TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.25, and 3.5 wt pct and 7.7 and 2.2 microg/g, respectively.

  9. Incidence of dermatophytosis in canine cases presented at Apollo Veterinary College, Rajashtan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Gangil

    Full Text Available Aim: Ring worm are fungal infection relevant to animal and human health. The study was aimed to assess the frequency of dermatophytes infection of the skin of dogs in and around the Jaipur city. Materials and methods: One twenty canine samples were obtained during three years (2008-2011 from dogs suffering from different dermatological disorders and were invitro processed for dermatophytes detection at the Department of Microbiology, Apollo College of veterinary medicine Agra Road, Jaipur. Result: Out of these, eighty nine samples were positive respectively for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. sporadic in 15 samples (0.12%. Retrospective studies of dermatophytosis due to Microsporum and Trichophyton were performed with the sole consideration of public health consequence of the canine ringworm. Conclusion: In the present study samples were found positive for Microsporum gypseum 55.83%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 18.3% and other fungal isolate Alternaria spp. Considering the veterinary and public health importance of canine ringworm it would be necessary to assess the prevalence of the dermatophytosis in Rajasthan. [Vet World 2012; 5(11.000: 682-684

  10. Software Agent Techniques in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1998-01-01

    This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments.......This paper briefly presents studies of software agent techniques and outline aspects of these which can be applied in design agents in integrated civil engineering design environments....

  11. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  12. Programming Agents with Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dastani, Mehdi; Floor, Chr.; Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show how a cognitive agent programming language can be endowed with ways to program emotions. In particular we show how the programming language 2APL can be augmented so that it can work together with the computational emotion model ALMA to deal with appraisal, emotion/mood generati

  13. The need for agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel arbejder vi med begrebet Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs), som autonomous, social, reactive, proactive og subservient computer systemer. Baseret på socialt psykologiske argumenter viser jeg endvidere, hvordan både den menneskelige natur og det teknologiske stadium, som mennesket...

  14. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.

    2003-01-01

    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  15. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  16. Remote Agent Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  17. Agent-Based Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2012-01-01

    Agent-based cloud computing is concerned with the design and development of software agents for bolstering cloud service\\ud discovery, service negotiation, and service composition. The significance of this work is introducing an agent-based paradigm for\\ud constructing software tools and testbeds for cloud resource management. The novel contributions of this work include: 1) developing\\ud Cloudle: an agent-based search engine for cloud service discovery, 2) showing that agent-based negotiatio...

  18. A new look at Apollo 17 LEAM data: Nighttime dust activity in 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Eberhard; Horányi, Mihály

    2013-12-01

    One of the unresolved enigmas from the Apollo era is the existence and characteristics of highly electrically charged dust floating above the lunar surface. Potential evidence for this hypothesized phenomenon came from the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites (LEAM) experiment on Apollo 17. The LEAM instrument consisted of three sets of multi-coincidence dust sensors facing different directions. Recently, new arguments were raised (O'Brien, 2011) that the signals recorded by LEAM may be caused by interferences from heater current switching, which occurred most frequently near sunrise and sunset. In order to shed light on this controversy a new look into the LEAM data was initiated within the Colorado Center for Lunar and Dust and Atmospheric Studies (CCLDAS) team of NASA's Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). The purpose of this analysis is to verify the earlier analysis by Berg et al. (1975), and to find evidence for impacts of interplanetary meteoroids in the LEAM data available to us. A second goal is to find in the LEAM house keeping data evidence for excessive power switching and correlated signals in the LEAM science data. The original analysis by Berg et al. (1975) covered LEAM data during 22 lunations (~22 months) in 1973 and 1974. This data set is no longer available. For the present study, we had access to LEAM data for only about 5 lunations (140 days) in 1976. We analyzed the housekeeping data and observed excessive heating from about 24 h after sunrise until about 24 h before sunset. We defined sunrise and sunset when the LEAM temperature measurement reached -20 °C above which significant solar heating was apparent. For about 9 days around lunar noon the temperatures were so high that LEAM was switched off. During the times of excessive heating LEAM became very noisy. We limit our current analysis to about 24 h before sunset to about 24 h after sunrise when the LEAM temperatures were moderate <60 °C. This carefully analyzed data set of 74.6 days constitutes about

  19. Diverse impactors in Apollo 15 and 16 impact melt rocks: Evidence from osmium isotopes and highly siderophile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingao; Sharp, Miriam; Ash, Richard D.; Kring, David A.; Walker, Richard J.

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of highly siderophile elements (HSE) and 187Os/188Os isotopic compositions for eleven impact related rocks from the Apollo 15 and 16 landing sites are reported and combined with existing geochronological data to investigate the chemical nature and temporal changes in the large impactors implicated in the formation of the lunar basins. Data for the samples all define linear trends on plots of HSE versus Ir concentrations, whose slopes likely reflect the relative HSE compositions of the dominant impactors that formed the rocks. The inferred Imbrium basin impactor that generated Apollo 15 impact melt rocks 15445 and 15455 was characterized by modestly suprachondritic 187Os/188Os, Ru/Ir, Pt/Ir and Pd/Ir ratios. Diverse impactor components are revealed in the Apollo 16 impact melt rocks. The 187Os/188Os and HSE/Ir ratios of the impactor components in melt rocks 60635, 63595 and 68416, with reported ages meteorites, but slightly higher than ratios characterizing previously studied granulitic impactites with reported ages >4.0 Ga. By contrast, the impactor components in melt rocks 60235, 62295 and 67095, with reported ages of ∼3.9 Ga, are characterized by suprachondritic 187Os/188Os and HSE/Ir ratios similar to the Apollo 15 impact melt rocks, and may also sample the Imbrium impactor. Three lithic clasts from regolith breccias 60016 and 65095, also with ∼3.9 Ga ages, contain multiple impactor components, of which the dominant composition is considerably more suprachondritic than those implicated for Imbrium and Serenitatis (Apollo 17) impactors. The dominant composition recorded in these rocks was most likely inherited from a pre-Imbrium impactor. Consideration of composition versus age relations among lunar impact melt rocks reveals no discernable trend. Virtually all lunar impact melt rocks sampled by the Apollo missions, as well as meteorites, are characterized by 187Os/188Os and HSE/Ir ratios that, when collectively plotted, define linear trends

  20. [Pharmacology of inotropic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    High-risk patients, during anesthesia and after surgery present changes in pharmacokinetics (biotransformation reactions, renal clearance, drug interactions, etc.) modifying the usefulness of most drugs, cardiac inotropics included. This group of substances is formed by adrenergic agents, phospodiesterase inhibitors and digitalis compounds. Adrenergic agents are the catecholamines, adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (D), plus dopaminergic agonists as dobutamine and pirbuterol. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, as amrinone and milrinone, produce their inotropic action by preserving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc) from its intracellular catabolism. Recent studies on the utility of digitalis compounds demonstrated the valuable applicability of digoxin in chronic and acute heart failure. Another group of substances whose mechanism of action differs from that of the inotropics, offers future utility in high risk patients, they include: inhibitors of nitric oxide sintases, natriuretic atrial peptide inhibitors, Q-10 coenzyme, endothelin antagonists, and anti-tumoral necrosis factor.

  1. Announcements to Attentive Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; van Ditmarsch, Hans; Herzig, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    In public announcement logic it is assumed that all agents pay attention to the announcement. Weaker observational conditions can be modelled in action model logic. In this work, we propose a version of public announcement logic wherein it is encoded in the states of the epistemic model which...... agents pay attention to the announcement. This logic is called attention-based announcement logic. We give an axiomatization of the logic and prove that complexity of satisfiability is the same as that of public announcement logic, and therefore lower than that of action model logic. An attention......-based announcement can also be described as an action model. We extend our logic by integrating attention change. Finally, we add the notion of common belief to the language, we exploit this to formalize the concept of joint attention, that has been widely discussed in the philosophical and cognitive science...

  2. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  3. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  4. Lunar highland meteorite Dhofar 026 and Apollo sample 15418: Two strongly shocked, partially melted, granulitic breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; James, O.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Nazarov, M.A.; Barsukova, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Studies of lunar meteorite Dhofar 026, and comparison to Apollo sample 15418, indicate that Dhofar 026 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia (or a fragmental breccia consisting almost entirely of granulitic breccia clasts) that experienced considerable post-shock heating, probably as a result of diffusion of heat into the rock from an external, hotter source. The shock converted plagioclase to maskelynite, indicating that the shock pressure was between 30 and 45 GPa. The post-shock heating raised the rock's temperature to about 1200 ??C; as a result, the maskelynite devitrified, and extensive partial melting took place. The melting was concentrated in pyroxene-rich areas; all pyroxene melted. As the rock cooled, the partial melts crystallized with fine-grained, subophitic-poikilitic textures. Sample 15418 is a strongly shocked granulitic breccia that had a similar history, but evidence for this history is better preserved than in Dhofar 026. The fact that Dhofar 026 was previously interpreted as an impact melt breccia underscores the importance of detailed petrographic study in interpretation of lunar rocks that have complex textures. The name "impact melt" has, in past studies, been applied only to rocks in which the melt fraction formed by shock-induced total fusion. Recently, however, this name has also been applied to rocks containing melt formed by heating of the rocks by conductive heat transfer, assuming that impact is the ultimate source of the heat. We urge that the name "impact melt" be restricted to rocks in which the bulk of the melt formed by shock-induced fusion to avoid confusion engendered by applying the same name to rocks melted by different processes. ?? Meteoritical Society, 2004.

  5. Sunscreening Agents: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Latha, M. S.; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; B R Naveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food an...

  6. Intelligent Agent Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The DARPA knowledge sharing effort: Progress report. In B. Nebel , C. Rich, and W. Swartout, editors, Principles of Knowledge Representation and...and Automation, pages 2,785-2,788. IEEE CS Press. [18] Carl Hewitt. Offices are open systems. Communications of the ACM, 4(3):271-287, July 1986...19] Carl Hewitt and Jeff Inman. DAI betwixt and be- tween: From "intelligent agents" to open systems sci- ence. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man

  7. NOVEL ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Vinay

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Antipsychotics are a group of drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat psychosis. Antipsychotic agents are grouped in two categories: Typical and Atypical antipsychotics. The first antipsychotic was chlorpromazine, which was developed as a surgical anesthetic. The first atypical anti-psychotic medication, clozapine, was discovered in the 1950s, and introduced in clinical practice in the 1970s. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics are effective in reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Blockade of D2 receptor in mesolimbic pathway is responsible for antipsychotic action. Typical antipsychotics are not particularly selective and also block Dopamine receptors in the mesocortical pathway, tuberoinfundibular pathway, and the nigrostriatal pathway. Blocking D2 receptors in these other pathways is thought to produce some of the unwanted side effects. Atypical antipsychotics differ from typical psychotics in their "limbic-specific" dopamine type 2 (D2-receptor binding and high ratio of serotonin type 2 (5-HT2-receptor binding to D2. Atypical antipsychotics are associated with a decreased capacity to cause EPSs, TD, narcoleptic malignant syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia. Atypical antipsychotic agents were developed in response to problems with typical agents, including lack of efficacy in some patients, lack of improvement in negative symptoms, and troublesome adverse effects, especially extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs and tardive dyskinesia (TD.

  8. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  9. Apollo’s Warriors: United States Air Force Special Operations during the Cold War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    in South Vietnam, three at were made to Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Hurlburt Field, and one each in Panama and West Guatemala, Peru ...MCAO program. Force Military Civic Action Officer (MCAO) To the casual social observer, the ingredients for program conducted in Thailand received...Agent Orange issue. described Agent Orange as so powerful that The 12th Special Operations Squadron ( redes - "within two days [it] could topple a

  10. 'Shooting at the sun god Apollo': the Apollonian-Dionysian balance of the TimeSlips Storytelling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R

    2013-09-01

    In The Birth of Tragedy, Friedrich Nietzsche celebrated the dueling forces of reason and emotion as personified by the ancient Greek gods Apollo and Dionysus. A subtle Apollonian-Dionysian balance can be observed in TimeSlips, a group-based creative storytelling activity developed in the 1990s and increasingly used in dementia care settings worldwide. This article explains how the Apollonion-Dionysian aspects of TimeSlips are beneficial not only for persons with dementia, but also for their carers. Narrative data from medical students at Penn State College of Medicine who participated in TimeSlips at a local retirement community are shared.

  11. Engineering study for pallet adapting the Apollo laser altimeter and photographic camera system for the Lidar Test Experiment on orbital flight tests 2 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebert, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A Laser Altimeter and Mapping Camera System was included in the Apollo Lunar Orbital Experiment Missions. The backup system, never used in the Apollo Program, is available for use in the Lidar Test Experiments on the STS Orbital Flight Tests 2 and 4. Studies were performed to assess the problem associated with installation and operation of the Mapping Camera System in the STS. They were conducted on the photographic capabilities of the Mapping Camera System, its mechanical and electrical interface with the STS, documentation, operation and survivability in the expected environments, ground support equipment, test and field support.

  12. Agents Play Mix-game

    CERN Document Server

    Gou, C

    2005-01-01

    In mix-game which is an extension of minority game, there are two groups of agents; group1 plays the majority game, but the group2 plays the minority game. This paper studies the change of the average winnings of agents and volatilities vs. the change of mixture of agents in mix-game model. It finds that the correlations between the average winnings of agents and the mean of local volatilities are different with different combinations of agent memory length when the proportion of agents in group 1 increases. This study result suggests that memory length of agents in group1 be smaller than that of agent in group2 when mix-game model is used to simulate the financial markets.

  13. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence...

  14. Agentes selladores en endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Recibido: Noviembre 2002 Aceptado: Enero 2003 La gutapercha sigue siendo uno de los materiales predilectos, pero debido a su falta de adhesión a las paredes dentinarias, debe estar siempre combinada con un sellador que actúe como interfase entre la masa de gutapercha y la estructura dentaria. El uso de un agente sellador para obturar los conductos radiculares es esencial para el éxito del proceso de obturación. Un buen sellador debe ser biocompatible y bien tolerado por los tejid...

  15. Secure Mobile Trade Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah M. Aqe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce on the internet has the ability to produce millions of transactions and a great number of merchants whose supply merchandise over the internet. As a result, it is difficult for entities to roam over every site on the internet and choose the best merchandise to trade. So, in this paper we introduced a mobile trade agent that visit the sites to gather and evaluate the information from merchant servers and decide to trade goods on behalf of the user. We observed that the combination of public key cryptosystem with distributed object technology make this proposed scheme more secure and efficient than the already existed schemes.

  16. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...... of globalization, social progress, and competitive logic. For our approximation, we use the concepts societies of control, dispositive, and discourses from a Foucault–Deleuze toolbox. Our purpose is to cast light on the social and cultural constitution of the ways of thinking about the mathematics teacher. Hence...

  17. Antineoplastic agents and thrombotic microangiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gwenalyn; Atallah, Jean Paul

    2017-03-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy is an uncommon but reported adverse effect of a variety of antineoplastic drugs, including chemotherapy agents such as mitomycin C and gemcitabine, and newer targeted agents such as the vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. We present a review of thrombotic microangiopathy associated with antineoplastic agents and its implications in current cancer therapy.

  18. Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2012-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  19. Cultural differentiation of negotiating agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Verwaart, T.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiations proceed differently across cultures. For realistic modeling of agents in multicultural negotiations, the agents must display culturally differentiated behavior. This paper presents an agent-based simulation model that tackles these challenges, based on Hofstede’s model of national cultu

  20. Implementing an Agent Trade Server

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Sandin, Anna

    2003-01-01

    An experimental server for stock trading autonomous agents is presented and made available, together with an agent shell for swift development. The server, written in Java, was implemented as proof-of-concept for an agent trade server for a real financial exchange.

  1. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of assigning agents to slots on a line, where only one agent can be served at a slot and each agent prefers to be served as close as possible to his target. Our focus is on aggregate gap minimizing methods, i.e., those that minimize the total gap between targets and assigned...

  2. Agentes de información Information Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso López Yepes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo realiza un repaso sobre las tipologías de agentes de información y describe aspectos como movilidad, racionalidad y adaptatividad, y el ajuste final de estos conceptos a entornos distribuidos como Internet, donde este tipo de agentes tienen un amplio grado de aplicación. Asimismo, se propone una arquitectura de agentes para un sistema multiagente de recuperación de información donde se aplica un paradigma documental basado en el concepto de ciclo documental.This article summarizes the main information agent types reflecting on issues such as mobility, rationality, adaptability and the final adjustment of this concepts to distributed environments such as the Internet, where this kind of agents has wide range application. Likewise, an information agent architecture is proposed to create a multi-agent information retrieval system in which a documentary paradigm based on the documentary cycle is developed.

  3. Newer agents for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes: systematic review and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, N; Cummins, E; Royle, P; Clar, C; Marien, M; Richter, B; Philip, S

    2010-07-01

    In May 2008, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) issued an updated guideline [clinical guideline (CG) 66] for the management of all aspects of type 2 diabetes. This report aims to provide information on new drug developments to support a 'new drugs update' to the 2008 guideline. To review the newer agents available for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes from four classes: the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue exenatide; dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors sitagliptin and vildagliptin; the long-acting insulin analogues, glargine and detemir; and to review concerns about the safety of the thiazolidinediones. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE (1990-April 2008), EMBASE (1990-April 2008), the Cochrane Library (all sections) Issue 2, 2008, and the Science Citation Index and ISI Proceedings (2000-April 2008). The websites of the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, the US Food and Drug Administration, the European Medicines Evaluation Agency and the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency were searched, as were manufacturers' websites. Data extraction was carried out by one person, and checked by a second. Studies were assessed for quality using standard methods for reviews of trials. Meta-analyses were carried out using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan) software. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were based on current standard clinical practice in the UK, as outlined in NICE CG 66. The outcomes for the GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors and the long-acting insulin analogues were: glycaemic control, reflected by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level, hypoglycaemic episodes, changes in weight, adverse events, quality of life and costs. Modelling of the cost-effectiveness of the various regimes used the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes Model. Exenatide improved glycaemic control by around 1%, and had the added benefit of weight loss

  4. The effect of interstitial gaseous pressure on the thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 lunar soil sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, K.-I.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of a simulated Apollo 12 soil sample is measured as a function of interstitial gas density, and implications for the thermal properties of lunar and Martian regolith are discussed. Measurements were performed for samples consisting of a mixture of Knippa and Berkely basalt powders with a grain size distribution identical to that of Apollo 12 lunar soil samples by the needle probe technique at interstitial pressures of He, N2, Ar and CO2 from 133,000 to 0.0133 Pa. It is shown that sample thermal conductivity decreases with decreasing interstitial gas pressure down to 1.0 Pa, due to the decreasing effective thermal conductivity of interstitial gas with decreasing gas pressure. Constant thermal conductivity values of 8.8 mW/m per K and 10.9 mW/m per K are obtained for sample densities of 1.70 and 1.85 g/cu cm, respectively, in agreement with in situ lunar regolith measurements. The results, which are greater than those obtained in previous soil studies, are explained by the dense packing of soil particles and enhanced intergranular thermal contact in the present experimental configuration, rather than the influence of interstitial gas pressure. The differences in conductivity between loose soils and packed regolith may also be used to account for the two peaks observed in Martian surface thermal inertia data.

  5. Petrologic comparisons of Cayley and Descartes on the basis of Apollo 16 soils from stations 4 and 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.; Mckay, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Petrologic aspects of the Cayley and Descartes formations are reviewed in the light of new data on Apollo 16 soils. Specific comparison of the modal abundances of lithic fragments in drive tube sample 64001/2 from the slopes of Stone Mountain (station 4) and in soil 67941 from the North Ray Crater rim (station 11) shows that melt rocks, especially poikilitic rocks, are more abundant at station 4 than at station 11; the reverse is true for fragmental breccias. Such lithologic differences suggest that stations 4 and 11 do not belong to the same geologic formation. Metamorphosed breccias are pervasive in both the formations and may represent a local component that has been reworked and diluted as fresh materials were added. Lithologic compositions inferred from the study of soil samples are different from lithologic compositions inferred from the study of rake samples or breccia clasts. This difference may be related to a mixing of material of different grain size distributions. The petrology of soils at the Apollo 16 site may not accurately reflect original material associated with either the Descartes or the Cayley formation because of extensive mixing with local material.

  6. Ultrafast Phase Mapping of Thin-Sections from An Apollo 16 Drive Tube - a New Visualisation of Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Pieter; Butcher, Alan R.; Horsch, Hana; Rickman, Doug; Wentworth, Susan J.; Schrader, Christian M.; Stoeser, Doug; Benedictus, Aukje; Gottlieb, Paul; McKay, David

    2008-01-01

    Polished thin-sections of samples extracted from Apollo drive tubes provide unique insights into the structure of the Moon's regolith at various landing sites. In particular, they allow the mineralogy and texture of the regolith to be studied as a function of depth. Much has been written about such thin-sections based on optical, SEM and EPMA studies, in terms of their essential petrographic features, but there has been little attempt to quantify these aspects from a spatial perspective. In this study, we report the findings of experimental analysis of two thin-sections (64002, 6019, depth range 5.0 - 8.0 cm & 64001, 6031, depth range 50.0 - 53.1 cm), from a single Apollo 16 drive tube using QEMSCAN . A key feature of the method is phase identification by ultrafast energy dispersive x-ray mapping on a pixel-by-pixel basis. By selecting pixel resolutions ranging from 1 - 5 microns, typically 8,500,000 individual measurement points can be collected on a thin-section. The results we present include false colour digital images of both thin-sections. From these images, information such as phase proportions (major, minor and trace phases), particle textures, packing densities, and particle geometries, has been quantified. Parameters such as porosity and average phase density, which are of geomechanical interest, can also be calculated automatically. This study is part of an on-going investigation into spatial variation of lunar regolith and NASA's ISRU Lunar Simulant Development Project.

  7. Complex role of secondary electron emissions in dust grain charging in space environments: measurements on Apollo 11 & 17 dust grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James; Leclair, Andre C.

    Dust grains in various astrophysical environments are generally charged electrostatically by photoelectric emissions with radiation from nearby sources, by electron/ion collisions, and sec-ondary electron emissions. Knowledge of the dust grain charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a variety of physical and dynamical processes in the interstel-lar medium (ISM), and heliospheric, interplanetary, planetary, and lunar environments. The high vacuum environment on the lunar surface leads to some unusual physical and dynam-ical phenomena involving dust grains with high adhesive characteristics, and levitation and transportation over long distances. It has been well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/submicron size dust grains are expected to be substantially different from the corresponding values for bulk materials and theoretical models. In this paper we present experimental results on charging of individual dust grains selected from Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust samples by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-400 eV energy range. The charging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of 0.2 to 13 µm diam-eters are discussed in terms of the secondary electron emission (SEE) process, which is found to be a complex charging process at electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with strong parti-cle size dependence. The measurements indicate substantial differences between dust charging properties of individual small size dust grains and of bulk materials.

  8. Relative cooling rates of mare basalts at the Apollo 12 and 15 sites as estimated from pyroxene exsolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Ishii, T.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray single-crystal diffraction studies, supplemented by electron microprobe analyses of core pigeonites and rim augites from rocks 12031, 15085, 15475, and 15495, have been used to suggest cooling rates for these and other Apollo 12 and 15 rocks studied by similar methods. The extent of subsolidus phase separation of pyroxenes is used as a measure of the cooling rate. The results were interpreted in terms of model cooling histories of a lava flow whose thickness was estimated from the absolute cooling rates obtained by cooling rate experiments and by temperature-time variation through an extrusive flow computed by employing simplified theory of Jaeger. All available data on the exsolution and cation distributions of pyroxenes from Apollo 12 and 15 samples at present are consistent with the hypothesis that these rocks were derived from the top and interior of lava flows with thicknesses of 4-10 m. A process for exsolution of augite from a host pigeonite on (100) has been related to its low-calcium content.

  9. Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show Higher Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Possible Deep Space Radiation Effects on the Vascular Endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Michael D; Charvat, Jacqueline M; Limoli, Charles L; Globus, Ruth K; Ghosh, Payal

    2016-07-28

    As multiple spacefaring nations contemplate extended manned missions to Mars and the Moon, health risks could be elevated as travel goes beyond the Earth's protective magnetosphere into the more intense deep space radiation environment. The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's magnetosphere. Results show there were no differences in CVD mortality rate between non-flight (9%) and LEO (11%) astronauts. However, the CVD mortality rate among Apollo lunar astronauts (43%) was 4-5 times higher than in non-flight and LEO astronauts. To test a possible mechanistic basis for these findings, a secondary purpose was to determine the long-term effects of simulated weightlessness and space-relevant total-body irradiation on vascular responsiveness in mice. The results demonstrate that space-relevant irradiation induces a sustained vascular endothelial cell dysfunction. Such impairment is known to lead to occlusive artery disease, and may be an important risk factor for CVD among astronauts exposed to deep space radiation.

  10. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  12. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  13. Geological and geographical investigations of an Apollo 9 photo anomaly near Point of Pines, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Eaton, G.P.; Peterson, D.L.; Ratte, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    An infrared photograph of southeastern Arizona, taken during the Apollo 9 multispectral terrain photography experiment in 1969, reveals a ringlike feature, some 3-4 miles (5-6 kin) in diameter, on the Natanes Plateau, 35 miles (56 kin) north of the town of Safford. Because the feature occurs in an area of nearly flat lying Tertiary volcanic rocks, the possibilities of its being a small collapse caldera or an exposed circular intrusive body were considered. Geological and geophysical studies of the area were made to test these hypotheses. The local stratigraphic section consists of approximately 1,500 feet (457 m) of Oligocene and perhaps older volcanic rocks, resting on a moderately irregular basement surface carved from nearly flat lying trending Basin-and-Range faults define a broad horst within which two arcuate cross faults, with 300-600 feet (91-183 m) of displacement, bound a downdropped area. Deep erosion along these faults has created a polygonal network of canyons which constitutes the 'ring' seen on the photograph. A mild arching of the volcanic rocks within the ring is suggested by structure contours on the base of the youngest flows. A sharp 350-gamma positive aeromagnetic anomaly is centered within the ring. In its southwest quadrant the anomaly has an elongate extension that trends northwest along an adjoining Basin-and-Range fault. Associated with both is a subtle gravity low. The geophysical data thus suggest the presence of a small blind silicic pluton, possibly of middle Tertiary or younger age. Although it can be argued that the arcuate faults and mild arching of the volcanic pile are related to this postulated pluton, no evidence of hydrothermal alteration or thermal metamorphism of the country rocks was seen. Thus if a pluton is present and of postvolcanic age, it must have been emplaced as a relatively cool dry body; or alternatively, it is older than the surface volcanic rocks. In either instance, its magnetic expression contrasts with that

  14. Agent-oriented Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Xu; CHENG Ming; LIU Bao

    2001-01-01

    An increasing number of computer systems are being viewed in terms of autonomous agents.Most people believe that agent-oriented approach is well suited to design and build complex systems. Yet. todate, little effort had been devoted to discuss the advantages of agent-oriented approach as a mainstreamsoftware engineering paradigm. Here both of this issues and the relation between object-oriented and agent-oriented will be argued. we describe an agent-oriented methodology and provide a quote for designing anauction system.

  15. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith,; Steven, Y [Rochester, MN

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  16. MORBIDITY AGENTS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava Neelesh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss on clinical representation of morbid jealousy which often termed delusional jealousy or ‘Othello Syndrome’ is a psychiatric condition where a lover believes against all reason and their beloved is being sexually unfaithful. Patients will be preoccupied with their partner’s perceived lack of sexual fidelity and will often behave in an unacceptable or extreme way as they endeavor to prove their ideas. Misuse of any psychomotor is an important association cause morbidity jealousy agents, like CNS stimulants that release the catecholamine, particularly dopamine, from pre synaptic terminals substance should be treated as a priority. Where higher levels of violence are reported Sildenafil may be useful as a diagnostic as well as therapeutic test in such cases .Many studies have shown an association between high alcohol consumption and developing morbid jealousy. Amphetamine-induced psychosis has been extensively studied because of its close resemblance to schizophrenia.

  17. Evaluation report for toggle switches: Texas Instruments, Inc., Apollo-type, and Daven Measurements part number 45000-XXX, job order 32-139

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labberton, D.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of environmental capabilities was undertaken on toggle switches and on Apollo-type toggle switches. The purpose of this evaluation was to take a first look at their tested capabilities for the purpose of determining whether the candidate hardware appears to have a good chance of successfully completing a detailed envrionmental qualification test program.

  18. UTBot: A Virtual Agent Platform for Teaching Agent System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Cheol Kim

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce UTBot, a virtual agent platform for teaching agent system design. UTBot implements a client for the Unreal Tournament game server and Gamebots system. It provides students with the basic functionality required to start developing their own intelligent virtual agents to play autonomously UT games. UTBot includes a generic agent architecture, CAA (Context-sensitive Agent Architecture, a domain-specific world model, a visualization tool, several basic strategies (represented by internal modes and internal behaviors, and skills (represented by external behaviors. The CAA architecture can support complex long-term behaviors as well as reactive short-term behaviors. It also realizes high context-sensitivity of behaviors. We also discuss our experience using UTBot as a pedagogical tool for teaching agent system design in undergraduate Artificial Intelligence course.

  19. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  20. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  1. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  2. Anticancer agents from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblas-tine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.

  3. Anticancer agents from medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shoeb

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. Plant derived agents are being used for the treatment of cancer. Several anticancer agents including taxol, vinblastine, vincristine, the camptothecin derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, and etoposide derived from epipodophyllotoxin are in clinical use all over the world. A number of promising agents such as flavopiridol, roscovitine, combretastatin A-4, betulinic acid and silvestrol are in clinical or preclinical development.

  4. Research on Negotiating Agent Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ding-guo; PENG Hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a flexible and effective method of development of negotiating agents.A strategy specification, which is specified by a state chart and defeasible rules, can be dynamically inserted into an agent shell incorporating a state chart interpreter and a defeasible logic inference engine, in order to yield a desirable agent.The set of desirable criteria and rules is required to be justified with different context of the application.

  5. Agent 与Multi-Agent System 技术研究%The Research on Agent and Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党建武; 韩泉叶; 崔文华

    2002-01-01

    分析了Multi-Agent System 涉及的相关问题,在普通的Multi-Agent System的组织结构的基础上提出了管理服务机构,中介服务机构和主控流动服务机构的Multi-Agent System,并对不同组织结构的Agent之间的协同进行了讨论.

  6. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Da eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

  7. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  8. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  9. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  10. Deliberate evolution in multi-agent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. After its creation the new agent participates fully in the running multi-agent system. The age

  11. Genetic effects of cosmic radiation on bacteriophage T4Br/+/ /On materials of biological experiment Soyuz-Apollo/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iurov, S.S. (Academy of Sciences, Institute of Biological Physics, Pushchino, USSR); Akoev, I.G. (Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniia SSSR, Institut Mediko-Biologicheskikh Problem, Moscow, USSR)

    1979-01-01

    During the experiment Spore-ring Forming Fungi Biorhythm of the Apollo-Soyuz test project the Rhythm-1 apparatus contained a dried film culture of bacteriophage T4Br(+), growing cultures of Actinomyces and plastic nuclear particle detectors. The following were studied: the frequency of induction of r mutations in the bacteriophage film per 20,000 surviving particles, the spectrum of mutant types obtained (rI, rII, rIII), and the possible molecular mechanisms for the occurrence of rII mutants with due regard to the registered tracks of heavy nuclear particles. The studies showed that the local radiation due to heavy nuclear particle tracks plays a major role in space radiation damage.

  12. Facility and test support equipment for the manned thermal vacuum tests of the Apollo Soyuz docking module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, O. L.

    1975-01-01

    In order to accommodate manned thermal-vacuum testing of the Apollo-Soyuz docking module (ASDM), modifications to the facility, cleanliness and access control, and special test equipment were required. Facility modifications discussed briefly include: the addition of an oxygen supply system; the modification of manlock (ML) piping for cleaning and access controls; the addition of a nitrogen diluent system; the removal of manlock internal lights and the addition of external lights as well as fusing all power circuits over 10 watts; the removal/containment of flammable materials; the upgrading of a ML fire suppression system; and the addition of a garment donning station for cleanliness control. Special test equipment discussed include: an access tunnel for crew ingress/egress; a support device for the docking module (DM) and simulators; a command module thermal simulator; a DM infrared (IR) simulator; a docking system IR simulator; a metabolic heat load simulator; and a television camera simulator.

  13. Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

  14. Dust Degradation of Apollo Lunar Laser Retroreflectors and the Implications for the Next Generation Lunar Laser Retroreflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, D. G.; Delle Monache, G.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Murphy, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Apollo Lunar Laser Retroreflectors deployed during Apollo 11, 14 and 15 are still operating after 44 years and producing unique new science addressing some of the best tests of General Relativity (e. g., the Strong Equivalence Principle, the inertial properties of gravitational fields and constraints on the temporal and spatial variation of the gravitational constant -G) and lunar physics (e. g., the discover and parameters of the inner liquid core, the free librations, and various crustal properties). However, the magnitude of the return signal has decreased by a factor ten to one hundred since the arrays were deployed. While this degradation in the signal level has not decreased the ranging accuracy from which the science is derived, the source and behavior of the cause must be addressed within the current program to develop the next generation Lunar laser retroreflector, that is, the 'Lunar Laser Ranging Retroreflector Array for the 21st Century' or LLRRA-21. During lunar night, the return signal strength is about 10% of the expected signal strength, based upon an analysis of the ground station and retroreflector arrays. Around full moon, the signal level drops to about 1% of the expected return. While a deposit of lunar dust on the front faces of the Cube Corner Reflectors (CCRs) is the most likely candidate, other causes have been postulated: darkening due to UV and/or particle exposure, micrometeorite bombardment or change in the properties of the thermal coating due to dust, UV and or particle exposure. The dust may be due to secondary eject from micrometeorite impacts in the near vicinity, electrically levitated dust and/or dust from the LEM liftoff. Again, understanding the causes of this degradation is critical in the design of the LLRRA-21, impacting the design of the current sun/dust shade, choice of thermal control surfaces etc. Crucial observational data has been obtained by a recent set of observation during a lunar eclipse by the APOLLO ranging

  15. Aeroheating Measurement of Apollo Shaped Capsule with Boundary Layer Trip in the Free-piston Shock Tunnel HIEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideyuki, TANNO; Tomoyuki, KOMURO; Kazuo, SATO; Katsuhiro, ITOH; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    An aeroheating measurement test campaign of an Apollo capsule model with laminar and turbulent boundary layer was performed in the free-piston shock tunnel HIEST at JAXA Kakuda Space Center. A 250mm-diameter 6.4%-scaled Apollo CM capsule model made of SUS-304 stainless steel was applied in this study. To measure heat flux distribution, the model was equipped with 88 miniature co-axial Chromel-Constantan thermocouples on the heat shield surface of the model. In order to promote boundary layer transition, a boundary layer trip insert with 13 "pizza-box" isolated roughness elements, which have 1.27mm square, were placed at 17mm below of the model geometric center. Three boundary layer trip inserts with roughness height of k=0.3mm, 0.6mm and 0.8mm were used to identify the appropriate height to induce transition. Heat flux records with or without roughness elements were obtained for model angles of attack 28º under stagnation enthalpy between H(sub 0)=3.5MJ/kg to 21MJ/kg and stagnation pressure between P(sub 0)=14MPa to 60MPa. Under the condition above, Reynolds number based on the model diameter was varied from 0.2 to 1.3 million. With roughness elements, boundary layer became fully turbulent less than H(sub 0)=9MJ/kg condition. However, boundary layer was still laminar over H(sub 0)=13MJ/kg condition even with the highest roughness elements. An additional experiment was also performed to correct unexpected heat flux augmentation observed over H(sub 0)=9MJ/kg condition.

  16. An Introduction to Software Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Tropos .......................................................................................................................... 34 8.3 Gaia...32 DRDC Atlantic TM 2007-221 Each of these methodologies (Prometheus, Tropos and Gaia) guide the user to develop a specification for agents...specific agents required. While Prometheus and Tropos cover similar portions of the overall design process (from requirements to implementation

  17. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...

  18. Topical agents in burn care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  19. Multimodal nanoparticulate bioimaging contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Parvesh; Singh, Amit; Brown, Scott C; Bengtsson, Niclas; Walter, Glenn A; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Iwakuma, Nobutaka; Santra, Swadeshmukul; Scott, Edward W; Moudgil, Brij M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of bioimaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound, computed X-ray tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography) are commonly employed for clinical diagnostics and scientific research. While all of these methods use a characteristic "energy-matter" interaction to provide specific details about biological processes, each modality differs from another in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, anatomical and molecular details, imaging depth, as well as the desirable material properties of contrast agents needed for augmented imaging. On many occasions, it is advantageous to apply multiple complimentary imaging modalities for faster and more accurate prognosis. Since most imaging modalities employ exogenous contrast agents to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the development and use of multimodal contrast agents is considered to be highly advantageous for obtaining improved imagery from sought-after imaging modalities. Multimodal contrast agents offer improvements in patient care, and at the same time can reduce costs and enhance safety by limiting the number of contrast agent administrations required for imaging purposes. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate-based multimodal contrast agent for noninvasive bioimaging using MRI, optical, and photoacoustic tomography (PAT)-imaging modalities. The synthesis of these agents is described using microemulsions, which enable facile integration of the desired diversity of contrast agents and material components into a single entity.

  20. Implementing Lego Agents Using Jason

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Andreas Schmidt

    2010-01-01

    Since many of the currently available multi-agent frameworks are generally mostly intended for research, it can be difficult to built multi-agent systems using physical robots. In this report I describe a way to combine the multi-agent framework Jason, an extended version of the agent-oriented programming language AgentSpeak, with Lego robots to address this problem. By extending parts of the Jason reasoning cycle I show how Lego robots are able to complete tasks such as following lines on a floor and communicating to be able to avoid obstacles with minimal amount of coding. The final implementation is a functional extension that is able to built multi-agent systems using Lego agents, however there are some issues that have not been addressed. If the agents are highly dependent on percepts from their sensors, they are required to move quite slowly, because there currently is a high delay in the reasoning cycle, when it is combined with a robot. Overall the system is quite robust and can be used to make simple...

  1. Activity Recognition for Agent Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    seek to use in the upcoming confrontation. There is not a simple mapping between a character capabilities and this policy; an effective team role must...additional research challenges, specific to the team role assumed by the agent. Agents that support individual human team members face the following chal

  2. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  3. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... tions by altering vascular cellular metabolism (Barrett-. *Corresponding author. ... paired carbohydrate utilization in the diabetic also leads to accelerated ..... artherogenesis in cholesterol-fed diabetic rabbits. Giant lipoproteins.

  4. Treatment of hypoglycaemic diabetics in a prehospital setting is safe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatting, Nikolaj Preuss; Mikkelsen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients with diabetes suffering from hypoglycaemia may be treated by a Mobile Emergency Care Unit (MECU) and are often released at the scene following treatment. Some of these patients experience secondary hypoglycaemia and require renewed treatment or admission to hospital...

  5. Hypoglycaemic Activity of Acalypha fruticosa Forssk Extracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research August 2015; 14 (8): 1445-1450. ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); ... and this prevalence will increase to 439 million people, 7.7 % of the .... 311 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics - GmbH, D-. 68298 Mannheim ...

  6. The hypoglycaemic response of diabetic rats to insulin-liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkowicz, J; Byra, A; Szumiło, T

    1990-01-01

    We prepared insulin-liposomes using one combination of lipids including phosphatidylcholine (cholesterol) stearylamine, 7/2/1 (molar ratio). Non-sonicated liposomes (LMV) and sonicated liposomes (SUV) contained about 20% and 5% of insulin, respectively. Free insulin was removed from liposomes-associated insulin by ultracentrifugation, or ultrafiltration on Sepharose 6B column. Insulin preparations were administered parenterally and non-parenterally into male, Wistar rats with alloxan diabetes to produce the hypoglycaemia. In case of i.v. and s.c. routes of administration all preparations acted in the similar manner giving the clear hypoglycaemia after 2 h. When administered intragastrically only liposome insulin caused hypoglycaemia. In case of buccal and nasal routes of administration only SUV-insulin was effective.

  7. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of ethanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... resistance, characterized by: 1) increased lipolysis, 2) reduction of glucose uptake by muscle, liver and adipose tissue, 3) beta cell dysfunction, ... 5) reduction of the incretin effect (optimization of insulin and glucagon glucose ...

  8. Mobile agent driven by aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hannad

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Domain application of mobile agents is quite large. They are used for network management and the monitoring of complex architecture. Mobile agent is also essential into specific software architecture such that adaptable grid architecture. Even if the concept of mobile agent seems to be obvious, the development is always complex because it needs to understand network features but also security features and negotiation algorithms. We present a work about an application of aspects dedicated to mobile agent development over a local network. At this level, the underlying protocol is called jini and allows managing several essential concepts such that short transaction and permission management. Three subsets of aspects are defined in this work. A part is for the description of agent host and its security level, accessible resource, etc. A second part is about mobile agent and their collaboration. This means how they can operate on an agent host with the respect of the execution context. All the results are illustrated through a distributed monitoring application called DMA. Its main objective is the observation of component servers.

  9. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  10. Agent Based Multiviews Requirements Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the current researches of viewpoints oriented requirements engineering and intelligent agent, we present the concept of viewpoint agent and its abstract model based on a meta-language for multiviews requirements engineering. It provided a basis for consistency checking and integration of different viewpoint requirements, at the same time, these checking and integration works can automatically realized in virtue of intelligent agent's autonomy, proactiveness and social ability. Finally, we introduce the practical application of the model by the case study of data flow diagram.

  11. Apollo management: A key to the solution of the social-economical dilemma - The transferability of space-travel managerial techniques to the civil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkamer, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis has been conducted to find out whether the management techniques developed in connection with the Apollo project could be used for dealing with such urgent problems of modern society as the crisis of the cities, the increasing environmental pollution, and the steadily growing traffic. Basic concepts and definitions of program and system management are discussed together with details regarding the employment of these concepts in connection with the solution of the problems of the Apollo program. Principles and significance of a systems approach are considered, giving attention to planning, system analysis, system integration, and project management. An application of the methods of project management to the problems of the civil sector is possible if the special characteristics of each particular case are taken into account.

  12. Apollo management: A key to the solution of the social-economical dilemma - The transferability of space-travel managerial techniques to the civil sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkamer, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis has been conducted to find out whether the management techniques developed in connection with the Apollo project could be used for dealing with such urgent problems of modern society as the crisis of the cities, the increasing environmental pollution, and the steadily growing traffic. Basic concepts and definitions of program and system management are discussed together with details regarding the employment of these concepts in connection with the solution of the problems of the Apollo program. Principles and significance of a systems approach are considered, giving attention to planning, system analysis, system integration, and project management. An application of the methods of project management to the problems of the civil sector is possible if the special characteristics of each particular case are taken into account.

  13. Deliberate Evolution in Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazier, F.M.T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, N.J.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for an agent capable of deliberation about the creation of new agents, and of actually creating a new agent in the multi-agent system, on the basis of this deliberation. The agent architecture is based on an existing

  14. Computational Environment of Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tomášek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Presented process calculus for software agent communication and mobility canbe used to express distributed computational environment and mobile code applications ingeneral. Agents are abstraction of the functional part of the system architecture and theyare modeled as process terms. Agent actions model interactions within the distributedenvironment: local/remote communication and mobility. Places are abstraction of thesingle computational environment where the agents are evaluated and where interactionstake place. Distributed environment is modeled as a parallel composition of places whereeach place is evolving asynchronously. Operational semantics defines rules to describebehavior within the distributed environment and provides a guideline for implementations.Via a series of examples we show that mobile code applications can be naturally modeled.

  15. Infectious Agents Trigger Trophic Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Julia C; Ripple, William J

    2017-09-01

    Most demonstrated trophic cascades originate with predators, but infectious agents can also cause top-down indirect effects in ecosystems. Here we synthesize the literature on trophic cascades initiated by infectious agents including parasitoids, pathogens, parasitic castrators, macroparasites, and trophically transmitted parasites. Like predators, infectious agents can cause density-mediated and trait-mediated indirect effects through their direct consumptive and nonconsumptive effects respectively. Unlike most predators, however, infectious agents are not fully and immediately lethal to their victims, so their consumptive effects can also trigger trait-mediated indirect effects. We find that the frequency of trophic cascades reported for different consumer types scales with consumer lethality. Furthermore, we emphasize the value of uniting predator-prey and parasite-host theory under a general consumer-resource framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    .... Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines...

  17. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  18. Humor and embodied conversational agents

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and interaction (verbal and nonverbal) capabilities. A current state of the art of research in embodied conversational agents, affective computing and verbal and nonverbal interaction is presented. The report ad...

  19. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  20. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  1. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  2. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  3. Crystal Stratigraphy of Two Basalts from Apollo 16: Unique Crystallization of Picritic Basalt 606063,10-16 and Very-Low-Titanium Basalt 65703,9-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, P. H.; Neal, C. R.; Stevens, R. E.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A geochemical survey of Apollo 16 regolith fragments found five basaltic samples from among hundreds of 2-4 mm regolith fragments of the Apollo 16 site. These included a high-Ti vitrophyric basalt (60603,10-16) and one very-low-titanium (VLT) crystalline basalt (65703,9-13). Apollo 16 was the only highlands sample return mission distant from the maria (approx. 200 km). Identification of basaltic samples at the site not from the ancient regolith breccia indicates input of material via lateral transport by post-basin impacts. The presence of basaltic rocklets and glass at the site is not unprecedented and is required to satisfy mass-balance constraints of regolith compositions. However, preliminary characterization of olivine and plagioclase crystal size distributions indicated the sample textures were distinct from other known mare basalts, and instead had affinities to impact melt textures. Impact melt textures can appear qualitatively similar to pristine basalts, and quantitative analysis is required to distinguish between the two in thin section. The crystal stratigraphy method is a powerful tool in studying of igneous systems, utilizing geochemical analyses across minerals and textural analyses of phases. In particular, trace element signatures can aid in determining the ultimate origin of these samples and variations document subtle changes occurring during their petrogenesis.

  4. Measuring thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith in-situ: Lessons learned from the Apollo heat flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grott, Matthias; Knollenberg, Joerg; Sohl, Frank; Krause, Christian

    With landed lunar missions like the International Lunar Network ILN on the agenda of major space agencies, new opportunities for the in-situ geophysical exploration of the Moon are arising. In preparation for these missions, it is due time to re-evaluate earlier measurements and to identify open science questions and lessons learned from the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package. Here we focus on the heat flow experiment conducted during the Apollo 15 and 17 missions, which provided the first extraterrestrial heat flow measurements in history. The lunar heat flow values measured at the two sites carry some uncertainty connected to am-biguities considering the in-situ determination of the thermal conductivity. Disparate thermal conductivity values were deduced using two different methods, (i) a modified line heat source (LHS) method and (ii) a transient method involving the analysis of transient thermal waves. This led to a downward correction of the estimated lunar heat flow by 30 to 50 % relative to first published results. It was concluded at that time that the discrepancy between the both methods must be attributed to regolith disruption close to the borestem and that transient methods would yield more reliable results. We have re-evaluated the influence of regolith disruption caused by probe emplacement on the measurements. We find that disturbed regolith probably extended across many cm from the drill stem into the surrounding soil. This finding poses significant challenges to future in-situ experiments, as the volume sampled by LHS methods is usually fairly restricted. On the other hand, as a direct method, the measurement accuracy of the LHS methods is much higher than that expected from transient methods. We therefore propose to use a combination of methods to gain confidence in the obtained results. Our results suggest that the influence of probe emplacement on the surroundings needs to be carefully analyzed and we will present a model for regolith

  5. Efforts to Find, Recover and Restore "A National Treasure", The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Neal, C. R.; Chi, P. J.; Williams, D. R.; Schmidt, G. K.; Currie, D. G.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Dyal, P.; Freeman, J. W.; Reiff, P. H.; Bates, J.; Hager, M. A.; Kiefer, W. S.; Perkins, D.

    2014-12-01

    ALSEP science stations were deployed by Apollo astronauts at 5 Apollo lunar landing sites and were comprised of 13 active science experiments which were flown 4 to 8 at a time. All ALSEPs were turned-off on 9-30-1977, after they had generated a data set of 31 system data years and an experiment data set of over 100 data years. The 3 passive laser retroreflector experiments are still providing useable return signals. The plan was for NASA to archive the raw data, while PI Teams archived their processed data in GSFC-NSSDC. In 1975 funding for science experiments was drastically reduced. Archiving of experiments data was incomplete and in other cases experiment years of data were never analyzed. JSC's ALSEP operations manager at-end-mission stressed that the 10s of 1,000s of pages of ALSEP operational and background materals be archived in Lunar and Planetary Library for future use. In 2004 there was a renewed interest in old ALSEP science data. However, current investigators found ALSEP data very difficult to use because of its archaic formats, rerecording artifacts, and lack of suitable playback tape transports. In 2007 a group of original ALSEP personnel, current lunar investigators, and personnel from NSSDC began an effort to help solve ALSEP data availability problems. NSSDC PDS established a Lunar Node whose role was to restore the existing ALSEP data into forms which could be used by current lunar investigators. Excellent progress was achieved in several areas*. In 2010 NLSI made the Recovery of Missing ALSEP Data, a NLSI Focus Group. The group estimated 50 percent of ALSEP processed data and 80 percent of ALSEP experiments raw data were never archived with NSSDC. We suspect archival raw data tapes for the first 44 ALSEP mission months (AMM) were degaussed and reused, those for AMM 45 to 79 were lost, misplaced or destroyed in a complex system of NASA, government, industrial storage facilities (except for ~450 tapes located by S. Nagihara). The last 19 AMMs of

  6. Glutamic acid as anticancer agent: An overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dutta, Satyajit; Ray, Supratim; Nagarajan, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the article is to highlight various roles of glutamic acid like endogenic anticancer agent, conjugates to anticancer agents, and derivatives of glutamic acid as possible anticancer agents...

  7. An analysis of Apollo lunar soil samples 12070,889, 12030,187, and 12070,891: Basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site and implications for classification of small-sized lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Louise; Snape, Joshua F.; Joy, Katherine H.; Downes, Hilary; Crawford, Ian A.

    2016-09-01

    Lunar mare basalts provide insights into the compositional diversity of the Moon's interior. Basalt fragments from the lunar regolith can potentially sample lava flows from regions of the Moon not previously visited, thus, increasing our understanding of lunar geological evolution. As part of a study of basaltic diversity at the Apollo 12 landing site, detailed petrological and geochemical data are provided here for 13 basaltic chips. In addition to bulk chemistry, we have analyzed the major, minor, and trace element chemistry of mineral phases which highlight differences between basalt groups. Where samples contain olivine, the equilibrium parent melt magnesium number (Mg#; atomic Mg/[Mg + Fe]) can be calculated to estimate parent melt composition. Ilmenite and plagioclase chemistry can also determine differences between basalt groups. We conclude that samples of approximately 1-2 mm in size can be categorized provided that appropriate mineral phases (olivine, plagioclase, and ilmenite) are present. Where samples are fine-grained (grain size lava flow diversity and petrological significance.

  8. Geo-Agents: Design and Implement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Geo-Agents, a multi-agent system that processes distr ib utedgeospatial information and geospatial service was presented. Firstly, the requirement for distributed geographical information process was discussed, and the architecture of Geo-Agents was introduced. Then in-depth discussions were r aised on agent system implementation, such as the basic agent, agent advertising , message passing, and collaborating. An example was also given to explain the p roblem solving process.

  9. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  10. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  11. Launch your Audience into Lunar Orbit - A case study of the Apollo 11 Google Earth Tour (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askay, S.

    2009-12-01

    Google Earth 5.0 added support for 'Touring' in KML which allows content creators to create narrated, guided flights in the virtual globe. Given the complexity of many geospatial visualizations in KML, even a simple tour can provide an introduction and contextual foundation that will empower users to explore your content. However, to-date few developers have taken full advantage of the touring language's capabilities to create truly engaging user experiences. For the launch of Moon in Google Earth, the presenter created a KML tour which harnesses some of these advanced features, particularly the ability to dynamically manipulate 2D/3D features through space and time. This case study of the "Apollo 11" KML tour will dissect some of these innovative techniques and provide considerations for creating your own cutting-edge KML tours. Some specific topics covered will include how to: fade-in and out photos on-screen, animate and follow a 3D model along a path (or GPS track), dynamically scale Sketchup models to compensate for clipping at high altitude, and considerations for pre-caching content for smooth tour playback. This session will include both conceptual explanations of what is possible with KML Touring and some in-depth technical explanations of the KML code required.

  12. A study of the Apollo aqueous redox process for converting hydrogen sulfide in biogas to elemental sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellenor, D.T.

    2004-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to develop a commercial biogas scrubber for municipal and agricultural use. The specific objectives were to provide design and scaling parameters that would improve the performance while minimizing the capital and operating costs of the biogas scrubber; provide a useful reaction model of the aqueous phase iron chelate catalyzed oxide of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur; develop hypotheses and determine what data are of relevance in comprehending the interfacial phenomena of colloidal sulfur in aqueous solutions that could result in unwanted sulfur deposition and poor sulfur quality; obtain interfacial chemistry data that could improve the understanding of how sulfur particles behave during flocculation and deposition on surfaces, and the factors that lead to poor surface quality; and, determine whether crystal size and characteristics of deposited and flocculated sulfur could be changed by surfactants to enhance sulfur purity and reduce process operability. Interfacial chemistry experiments were performed to determine the factors that influence the operating problems and poor quality associated with the sulfur product. Results suggest that a low foaming nonionic surfactant can improve the quality and processability of the elemental sulfur product. It was concluded that the addition of surfactant to the redox solution reduces the mean hydrogen removal efficiency of the process. The addition of surfactants also decreases the mean particle size of the precipitated sulfur product, but increases the purity of the precipitated product. This study contributed to the successful installation by Apollo Environmental Systems of a commercial biogas scrubber that is very resistant to sulfur plugging.

  13. Astronauts Yvonne Cagle and Ellen Ochoa participate in a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Astronaut Yvonne Cagle (left); Jennifer Harris (center); the Mars 2001 Operations System Development Manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; and Astronaut Ellen Ochoa (right) participate in a panel about 'Past, Present and Future of Space,' held at a women's forum in the Apollo/Saturn V Center. The forum included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing site. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  14. Marta Bohn-Meyer greets Astronaut Yvonne Cagle at a women's forum at the Apollo/Saturn V Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At a women's forum held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Marta Bohn-Meyer, the first woman to pilot an SR-71, greets astronaut Yvonne Cagle. They participated in the panel discussion about 'Past, Present and Future of Space,' along with Kathryn Sullivan, Ph.D., the first American woman to walk in space; Donna Shirley, Ph.D., the first woman leading the Mars Exploration Program; Jennifer Harris, the Mars 2001 Operations System Development Manager at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory; and astronaut Ellen Ochoa, the first Hispanic female in space and member of the President's commission on the Celebration of Women in American History. The forum included a welcome by Center Director Roy Bridges and remarks by Donna Shalala, secretary of Department of Health and Human Services. The attendees are planning to view the launch of STS-93 at the Banana Creek viewing site. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. Liftoff is scheduled for July 20 at 12:36 a.m. EDT.

  15. Apollo 16 regolith breccias and soils - Recorders of exotic component addition to the Descartes region of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Using the subdivision of Apollo 16 regolith breccias into ancient (about 4 Gyr) and younger samples (McKay et al., 1986), with the present-day soils as a third sample, a petrologic and chemical determination of regolith evolution and exotic component addition at the A-16 site was performed. The modal petrologies and mineral and chemical compositions of the regolith breccias in the region are presented. It is shown that the early regolith was composed of fragments of plutonic rocks, impact melt rocks, and minerals and impact glasses. It is found that KREEP lithologies and impact melts formed early in lunar history. The mare components, mainly orange high-TiO2 glass and green low-TiO2 glass, were added to the site after formation of the ancient breccias and prior to the formation of young breccias. The major change in the regolith since the formation of the young breccias is an increase in maturity represented by the formation of fused soil particles with prolonged exposure to micrometeorite impacts.

  16. Evaluation of patient and doctor perception toward the use of telemedicine in Apollo Tele Health Services, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Rajesh V.; Rai, Jasuma J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine incorporates electronic information and medical technology. It connects healthcare through vast distances which would benefit both patients and doctors. The aim of this questionnaire study was to evaluate the effects of telemedicine on patients and medical specialists. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 122 participants (71 patients and 51 doctors) on satisfaction in quality of service, cost-effectiveness, and problems encountered in healthcare provided by the telemedicine in Apollo Tele Health Services, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. The data for each group were calculated and compared. Results: About 80% patients and all the doctors reported their satisfaction on the quality of treatment given through telemedicine. Approximately, 90% of the participants found telemedicine cost-effective and 61% of the doctors found an increase in patient's inflow apart for their regular practice. Problems encountered in telemedicine were 47% in technical issues and 39% in time scheduling by doctors and 31% of patients were uncomfortable to face the camera, and 24% had technical issues. Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that telemedicine in healthcare could prove to be useful to patients in distant regions and to rural doctors in India. In the near future, telemedicine can be considered as an alternate to face to face patient care.

  17. The Apollo 14 regolith - Chemistry of cores 14210/14211 and 14220 and soils 14141, 14148, and 14149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laul, J. C.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on bulk and size fractions from drive tube specimens from 39 cm and 16.5 cm depths, and soil samples taken at the Apollo 14 landing site. Chemical data were obtained for 31 major, minor, and trace elements in the KREEPy soils. The cores were homogeneous in chemical composition, containing 20% LKFM, 15% mare basalt, 6% ANT, and 59% high-K KREEP, according to the classifications of Laul and Papike (1980). The meteoritic fraction was 3-7% for both cores, while the chemical compositions of both cores and soils were similar. Differences were detected in the fractions finer than 10 microns, which were more feldspathic than the coarser samples. The similarities between the grains 1000-90 micron in diam and less than 10 micron in diam, in terms of chemical contents, indicates that the observed agglutinates were derived from fusion of the finest grained fraction. The dominant soil-forming processes were comminution and vertical mixing of the regolith.

  18. Environmental Projects. Volume 17; Biological Assessment, Opinion, and New 34-Meter Beam-Waveguide Antenna (DSS 24) at Apollo Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengelsdorf, Irving

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with the Biological Assessment, Biological Opinion and Final Report on the construction of a high- efficiency 34-meter, multifrequency beam-waveguide antenna at the Apollo Site of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, operated by JPL. According to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, a Biological Assessment must be conducted and a Biological Opinion, with terms and conditions, rendered (the Opinion by the U.S. Department of the Interior) before construction of any federal project that may affect endangered or threatened flora or fauna. After construction, a final report is filed with the Department. The desert tortoise, designated "threatened" by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Mojave ground squirrel and the Lane Mountain milk vetch, both designated "candidate threatened," required the reporting specified by the Act. The Assessment found no significant danger to the animal species if workers are educated about them. No stands of the plant species were observed in the surveyed construction area. The Department issued a Biological Opinion to safeguard the two animal species. The Service and the California Department of Fish and Game both issued a Biological Concurrence that JPL had satisfied all environmental criteria for preserving threatened species.

  19. Annealing of radiation damage in zircons from Apollo 14 impact breccia 14311: Implications for the thermal history of the breccia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Merle, R. E.; Grange, M. L.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Impact breccia 14311, was collected from the Apollo 14 landing site as a potential sample of the underlying Fra Mauro Formation. Published zircon U-Pb ages of >4000 Ma date the source material of the breccia and the apatite U-Pb age of ~3940 Ma is interpreted as dating thermal resetting of the apatite U-Pb systems. In this contribution we present new age information on the late stage thermal history of the breccia based on the annealing of radiation damage in the zircons. From Raman spectroscopic determination of the radiation damage within SIMS analytical spots on the zircons and the U and Th concentrations determined on these spots, we demonstrate that the radiation damage in the zircons has been annealed and we estimate the age of annealing at 3410 ± 80 Ma. This age is interpreted as a cooling age following heating of the breccia to above the annealing temperature of ~230 °C for stage 1 radiation damage in zircon, but below the temperature needed to reset the U-Pb system of apatite (~500 °C). It is proposed that this thermal event was associated with the prolonged period of Mare volcanism, from 3150 to 3750 Ma, that generated massive basalt flows in the vicinity of the sample location.

  20. NIETZSCHE: APOLO E O ESTADO PARA PROMOÇÃO DA CULTURA NIETZSCHE: APOLLO AND THE STATE IN CULTURE'S FOMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Delbó

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os escritos de Nietzsche, contemporâneos a O nascimento da
    tragédia
    , esclarecem as preocupações do jovem filósofo com as condições políticas para uma verdadeira cultura. O par Apolo e Dionisio, opostos que se integram na religiosidade grega, como potências da natureza, resulta esteticamente na arte trágica, e politicamente em um Estado guerreiro. Assim Nietzsche atribui aos gregos a capacidade para a criação de cultura: arte, Estado e religião, unidos pela vontade artística da natureza, impulsionadora da vida de um povo.The Nietzsche’s writings of the period of The birth of tragedy informs
    about the young philosopher’s concerns with the requisite political
    conditions for a true culture. The pair Apollo and Dionysus, in opposition and harmonized in Greek religiosity, as powers of the nature, results aesthetically in the tragic art, and politically results in a warlike State. Nietzsche assigns to Greeks the capacity to create a culture: art, state and religion jointed by the artistic will of nature, which impels the life of a nation.