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Sample records for hypoglycaemic agents apollo

  1. Oral hypoglycaemic agents in 118 diabetic pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, E; Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: To assess maternal and neonatal complications in pregnancies of diabetic women treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents during pregnancy. METHODS: A cohort study including all consecutively registered, orally treated pregnant diabetic patients set in a diabetic obstetrical service...... at a university hospital: 50 women treated with metformin, 68 women treated with sulphonylurea during pregnancy and a reference group of 42 diabetic women treated with insulin during pregnancy. RESULTS: The prevalence of pre-eclampsia was significantly increased in the group of women treated with metformin...

  2. Hypoglycaemia from misuse of oral hypoglycaemic agent in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, misuse of oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) to treat LUTS with subsequent presentation in hypoglycaemic coma should be of concern to the health care provider especially the urologist. It is of no benefit and constitutes drug abuse that should be discouraged. Keywords: drug abuse, hypoglycaemia, lower ...

  3. Once-daily basal insulin glargine versus thrice-daily prandial insulin lispro in people with type 2 diabetes on oral hypoglycaemic agents (APOLLO): an open randomised controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bretzel, R.G.; Nuber, U.; Landgraf, W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As type 2 diabetes mellitus progresses, oral hypoglycaemic agents often fail to maintain blood glucose control and insulin is needed. We investigated whether the addition of once-daily insulin glargine is non-inferior to three-times daily prandial insulin lispro in overall glycaemic c...

  4. Congenital malformations in offspring of diabetic women treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents during embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmuth, E; Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    1994-01-01

    A markedly increased risk (50%) of congenital malformations in the offspring of women treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents during the first trimester has recently been reported. With this background, the medical records of a consecutive sample of 25 pregnant Type 2 diabetic women treated...... with oral hypoglycaemic agents during embryogenesis between 1966 and 1991 in the diabetic service of a university hospital, were studied retrospectively. None of the infants had major congenital malformations disclosed in the neonatal period (0%, 97.5% confidence interval 0.0-13.7%), but one minor...... congenital malformation was found (4.0%, 95% confidence interval 0.1-20.3%). Although this study, due to the limited number of pregnancies examined, does not exclude an association between treatment with oral hypoglycaemic agents at the time of embryogenesis and major congenital malformations...

  5. Oral hypoglycaemic agents, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Lund, Søren S; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    This article is a narrative review of the current evidence of the effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) of oral hypoglycaemic agents that increase insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In overweight T2D patients, metformin has been demonstrated to reduce CVD risk, and this......This article is a narrative review of the current evidence of the effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) of oral hypoglycaemic agents that increase insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In overweight T2D patients, metformin has been demonstrated to reduce CVD risk......, and this beneficial effect may be conserved with the combination of metformin and insulin treatment. However, the effect of glitazones on CVD is uncertain. There is conflicting evidence from large randomized trials to support a protective effect against CVD of lowering blood glucose per se but a systematic review...

  6. Hypoglycaemic haemiparesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kirresh, Othman; Kamara, Achmed; Samadian, Samad

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycaemic haemiparesis (HH) is an uncommon but important presentation to the emergency department, and it often mimics stroke and is therefore frequently misdiagnosed by clinicians. The mechanism of haemiparesis is not fully understood. This case outlines a diabetic elderly woman, who had been having frequent hypoglycaemic episodes and presented to paramedics with hypoglycaemia associated with a right-sided haemiparesis. She was immediately transferred to the local stroke centre after pre...

  7. Hypoglycaemic haemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirresh, Othman; Kamara, Achmed; Samadian, Samad

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycaemic haemiparesis (HH) is an uncommon but important presentation to the emergency department, and it often mimics stroke and is therefore frequently misdiagnosed by clinicians. The mechanism of haemiparesis is not fully understood. This case outlines a diabetic elderly woman, who had been having frequent hypoglycaemic episodes and presented to paramedics with hypoglycaemia associated with a right-sided haemiparesis. She was immediately transferred to the local stroke centre after presenting to the emergency department. CT and MRI did not fit in with her presenting neurology. Her weakness resolved, after normoglycaemia was achieved with dextrose infusion; however, she was reported to be more sleepy and drowsy than usual. After extensive and costly investigations during her prolonged inpatient stay, her unifying diagnosis was an HH which triggered of a hypoactive delirium. PMID:24130203

  8. ORAL HYPOGLYCAEMIC AGENTS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durgaprasad M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Diabetes is fast gaining the status of a potential epidemic globally. The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014, the rise seen more rapidly in developing and under developed countries. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM being the most common type, accounting for an estimated 85-95% of all diabetes cases. Diabetes remains a major cause of blindness, renal failure, and cardiovascular events including heart attacks, stroke and limb amputations. 1 Being an heterogeneous disorder, many adults with T2DM have difficulty controlling their blood sugar levels and associated complications as most of available antidiabetic agents aim to achieve only normoglycaemia and relieve diabetes symptoms, such as polydipsia, polyuria, weight loss, ketoacidosis while the longterm goals to prevent the development of or slow the progression of longterm complications of the disease is often unaddressed, therefore, there remains, a significant unmet demand for new agents that will help diabetic patients achieve treatment targets without increasing the risk for weight gain or hypoglycaemia. Among the new classes of oral agents, SGLT-2 inhibitors and mTOT insulin sensitisers appear to hold some good promise. However, recent articles published describing its adverse effect profile of SGLT-2 inhibitors had put a question mark on its utility. In this article, we have reviewed the plethora of available OHAs along with the newer OHAs for managing T2DM optimally.

  9. Efficacy of Some Combination Regimens of Oral Hypoglycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of selected oral hypoglycaemic agent (OHA) regimens in a small group of patients receiving such treatment. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study that involved patients who had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and undergoing routine follow-up at a teaching ...

  10. Association of insulin treatment versus oral hypoglycaemic agents with diabetic retinopathy and its severity in type 2 diabetes patients in Cameroon, sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingi, Ahmadou M; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Essouma, Mickael; Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Ellong, Augustin; Mvogo, Côme Ebana

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease associated with multiple macro and microvascular complications, diabetic retinopathy (DR) being the commonest one. Recent literature has reported an increased risk of DR with insulin use. We carried out a cross-sectional study at the Ophthalmology Department of the Douala General Hospital (DGH) during a 2-year period to explore the association between insulin treatment and both DR and its severity as compared with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) in Cameroonian T2DM patients aged ≥35 years, and who were all screened for DR through eye examination including exhaustive retinal evaluation. In total, medical files of 134 T2DM patients were analyzed. The frequency of DR was 54.1% among patients on OHA and 73.9% among those on insulin treatment, giving an overall frequency of 57.5%. There were significantly more OHA treated patients than insulin treated patients (82.8% vs . 17.2%, Phistory of hypertension, alcohol misuse, and current tobacco smoking. DR was almost significantly more frequent in T2DM patients under insulin regimen than in patients under OHA [73.9% vs . 54.1%; odds ratio (OR) 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-6.6; P=0.06]. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was significantly more observed in insulin treated patients than in OHA treated patients (34.8% vs . 15.3%; OR 2.95; 95% CI, 1.1-8; P=0.035). Irrespective of staging, the frequency of diabetic macular edema (DME) was significantly higher in the insulin group than in the OHA group (43.5% vs . 19.8%; OR 3.1; 95% CI, 1.2-8; P=0.019). Compared with OHA, insulin therapy may be associated with DR, DR severity and DME in these T2DM sub-Saharan African patients.

  11. Drug interactions with oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J M; Christensen, L K

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the oral sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic drugs may be influenced by a large number of other drugs. Some of these combinations (e.g. phenylbutazone, sulphaphenazole) may result in cases of severe hypoglycaemic collapse. Tolbutamide and chlorpropamide should never be given to a patient without a prior careful check of which medicaments are already being given. Similarly, no drug should be given to a diabetic treated with tolbutamide and chlorpropamide without consideration of the possibility of interaction phenomena.

  12. Evaluation of the Hypoglycaemic Activity of Petiveria alliacea (Guinea Hen Weed) Extracts in Normoglycaemic and Diabetic Rat Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, S-L; Levy, A

    2013-11-01

    Petiveria alliacea (P alliacea) has ethno-traditional use as a hypoglycaemic agent in Jamaica and is yet to be scientifically validated as such. Therefore, extracts of aerial parts of the plant were evaluated for hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. Aqueous and hexane extracts prepared from leaves of P alliacea were tested for hypoglycaemic activity. An acute administration of the extracts (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) was evaluated in normoglycaemic rats. Additionally, the hypoglycaemic effect of sub-chronic administration was assessed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood glucose was recorded using a glucometer and test strips. Data were analysed using Student's t-test (p ≤ 0.05). The aqueous and hexane extracts demonstrated no significant reduction of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and no significant improvement of glucose tolerance in normal rats. The aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight) increased FBG from 4.75 ± 0.28 mmol/L to 5.88 ± 0.46 when compared to control (p ≤ 0.001). In diabetic rats, the hexane extract (400 mg/kg body weight) caused reduction of FBG after two weeks of treatment (p ≤ 0.010), but this was not sustained. The aqueous extract showed no reduction of FBG in diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of P alliacea demonstrated a hyperglycaemic effect in normoglycaemic rats and showed no hypoglycaemic activity in diabetic rats. The hexane extract caused no hypoglycaemic action in normal rats and failed to sustain an initial hypoglycaemic action in diabetic rats. This study presents evidence that does not support significant hypoglycaemic activity of P alliacea; this could hold significant implications for its use in ethno-traditional medicine.

  13. Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycaemic activity of the leaves extracts of Bersama engleriana in rats. Georgette Nyah Njike, Pierre Watcho, Télesphore Benoît Nguelefack, Albert Kamanyi. Abstract. The hypoglycaemic properties of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Bersama engleriana were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats in ...

  14. Antioxidant and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Ardisia Compressa (HBEK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    urinary protein excretion, lipid profiles, and antioxidant activity were ... considered a worldwide health problem. The ... lifestyle modification; oral hypoglycaemic drugs ... A voucher specimen (no. ... filtered, freeze-dried, and stored at -15 °C.

  15. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Treculia africana Decne and Bryophyllum pinnatum,/i> Lam. and their mixture on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

  16. Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Phyllanthus niruri in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -induced Diabetic Rats. HU Nwanjo, G Oze. Abstract. The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus niruri leaves in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced ...

  17. Hypoglycaemic Activity of Acalypha fruticosa Forssk Extracts in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    glucose level in STZ-Nicotinamide induced diabetic rats when compared to standard glibenclamide [21]. Therefore, the present study was aimed to investigate the potential hypoglycaemic activity of different polarity fractions obtained by extracting the aerial part of. Acalypha fruticosa as well as its acute toxicity. To the best of ...

  18. Hypoglycaemic action of the flavonoid fraction of Artocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hot water extract of mature jak leaves (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is recommended by Ayurvedic and traditional medical practitioners as a treatment for diabetes mellitus. The leaf extract caused the hypoglyceamic effect at a dose of 50 mg/Kg, both in normal and alloxan-diabetic rats. The hypoglycaemic effect was at its ...

  19. The Hypolipidaemic Effects of the Partially Purified “Hypoglycaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicated that the aqueous leaf extract caused significant (P<0.05) decrease in triacylglycerol (14 %), LDL-cholesterol (16 %), VLDL-cholesterol (19 %) and atherogenic index (45 %). The hexane fraction of the aqueous extract which was reported to possess significant hypoglycaemic effect caused significant ...

  20. Hypoglycaemic activity of Telfairia occidentalis in rats | Eseyin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of Telfairia occidentalis possess hypoglycemic activity in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this could be beneficial in the ethnotherapy of diabetes mellitus. Key words: Telfairia occidentalis; Glibenclamide; Hypoglycaemic activity; Alloxan-induced diabetes. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioresources Vol.

  1. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of the aqueous leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hypoglycaemic effect of aqueous leaf extract of Murraya koenigii was studied in normal and alloxan- induced diabetic rats. The extract was administered orally at 100 mg/Kg, 150 mg/Kg and 200 mg/Kg bodyweight each to respective groups of animals (Groups I, II and III) for seven days. Group IV received normal saline ...

  2. Antioxidant and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Ardisia Compressa (HBEK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the possible hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities of Ardisia compressa (AC) on a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Methods: Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and nicotinamide (120 mg/kg). The diabetic ...

  3. Hypoglycaemic activity of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Holarrhena floribunda is a common plant that has traditionally been used in Africa to treat many diseases such as fever, dysentery, sterility and diabetes. This study was set out to evaluate the hypoglycaemic properties of ethanolic leaf extract of Holarrhena floribunda and various fractions of this extract in normal fasted and ...

  4. Apollo 13 emblem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This is the insignia of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Represented in the Apollo 13 emblem is Apollo, the sun god of Greek mythology, symbolizing how the Apollo flights have extended the light of knowledge to all mankind. The Latin phrase Ex Luna, Scientia means 'From the Moon, Knowledge'.

  5. 14-Year risk of all-cause mortality according to hypoglycaemic drug exposure in a general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Bérard

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Guidelines for management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus recommend the use of hypoglycaemic drugs when lifestyle interventions remain insufficient for glycaemic control. Recent trials have provided worrying safety data on certain hypoglycaemic drugs. The aim of this study was to assess 14-year risk of all-cause mortality according to hypoglycaemic drug exposure at baseline, in a general population. METHODS: Our analysis was based on the observational Third French MONICA survey on cardiovascular risk factors (1995-1997. Vital status was obtained 14 years after inclusion, and assessment of determinants of mortality was based on multivariable Cox modelling. RESULTS: There were 3336 participants and 248 deaths over the 14-year period. At baseline, there were 3162 (95% non-diabetic, 46 (1% untreated type 2 diabetic and 128 (4% type 2 diabetic subjects with hypoglycaemic drug treatment (metformin alone (31%, sulfonylureas alone or in combination (49%, insulin alone or in combination (10%, or other treatments (9%. After adjustment for duration of diabetes, history of diabetes complications, area of residence (centre, age, gender, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking, blood pressure, LDL and HDL cholesterol, which all were significant and independent determinants of mortality, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 3.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.87-11.9] for untreated diabetic subjects, 2.28 [0.98-5.26] for diabetics treated with metformin alone, 1.70 [0.92-3.16] for diabetics with sulfonylureas and 4.92 [1.70-14.3] for diabetic with insulin versus non-diabetic subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the conclusion that until more evidence is provided from randomized trials, a prudent approach should be to restrain use of insulin to situations in which combinations of non-insulin agents have failed to appropriately achieve glycemic control, as it is recommended in the current guidelines for the management of

  6. Potential hypoglycaemic activity phenolic glycosides from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhong, Huan-Huan; Chen, Wei-Ke; Liu, Qing-Pu; Li, Cun-Yu; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Peng, Guo-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Moringa oleifera seed has remarkable curative effects on reducing blood pressure, blood sugar and enhancing human immunity. In this study, one novel phenolic glycoside (1) together with four known compounds 2-5 were isolated from the macroporous resin adsorption extract of M. oleifera seeds, and the compound 3 was reported for the first time from this plant. The structure of the new crystalline compound was determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D NMR experiments. The hypoglycaemic activity of isolated compounds was investigated with HepG2 cell and STZ-induced mice. It was found that compound 1, 4 and 5 could promote the glucose consumption of insulin resistance cells and reduce blood glucose levels of STZ-induced mice. This study concludes that compound 1, 4 and 5 may be developed as new and safe hypoglycaemic drugs.

  7. Self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östenson, C G; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P; Lahtela, J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hypoglycaemia presents a barrier to optimum diabetes management but data are limited on the frequency of hypoglycaemia incidents outside of clinical trials. The present study investigated the rates of self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events, hypoglycaemia awareness and physician...... discussion of events in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: People in seven European countries aged >15 years with Type 1 diabetes or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes (basal-only, basal-bolus and other insulin regimens) were recruited via consumer panels......, nurses, telephone recruitment and family referrals. Respondents completed four online questionnaires. The first questionnaire collected background information on demographics and hypoglycaemia-related behaviour, whilst all four questionnaires collected data on non-severe hypoglycaemic events...

  8. Apollo Image Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Apollo Image Atlas is a comprehensive collection of Apollo-Saturn mission photography. Included are almost 25,000 lunar images, both from orbit and from the...

  9. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue wit...

  10. Apollo food technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rambaut, P. C.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.; Huber, C. S.; Bourland, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Large improvements and advances in space food systems achieved during the Apollo food program are discussed. Modifications of the Apollo food system were directed primarily toward improving delivery of adequate nutrition to the astronaut. Individual food items and flight menus were modified as nutritional countermeasures to the effects of weightlessness. Unique food items were developed, including some that provided nutritional completeness, high acceptability, and ready-to-eat, shelf-stable convenience. Specialized food packages were also developed. The Apollo program experience clearly showed that future space food systems will require well-directed efforts to achieve the optimum potential of food systems in support of the physiological and psychological well-being of astronauts and crews.

  11. HYPOGLYCAEMIC EFFECT~ OF BOSWELL/A DALZIEL/I ST E ,1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Key Words: Blood Glucose, Glucose Tolerance Test. ... Boswellia gum resin was shown to be a safe and effective therapy in colitis, ... designed to investigate the acti\\ ity of 11 dal:iellii stem bark in normal and .... Some plants have been reported to induce pancreatic beta cells regeneration and ..... Oral hypoglycaemic drugs.

  12. Apollo The Definitive Sourcebook

    CERN Document Server

    Orloff, Richard W

    2006-01-01

    On 25 May 1961, John F Kennedy announced the goal of landing an American man on the Moon by the end of the decade. This challenge forced NASA to review the planned lunar landing of a three-man spaceship named Apollo in the mid-1970s. In 1962, it was decided that a specialized vehicle would accompany the main spacecraft, to make the lunar landing while the mothership remained in lunar orbit. To send these vehicles to the Moon would require the development of an enormous rocket. Development was protracted, but in December 1968 Apollo 8 was launched on a pioneering mission to perform an initial reconnaissance in lunar orbit. When Apollo 17 lifted off from the Moon in December 1972, the program was concluded. Now, at long last, there is a real prospect of a resumption of human exploration of the Moon. This book provides an overview of the origins of the Apollo program and descriptions of the ground facilities, launch vehicles and spacecraft that will serve as an invaluable single-volume sourcebook for space enthu...

  13. Log of Apollo 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  14. Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

  15. Apollo premeeris lugejate lemmikautoreid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Raamatupood Apollo kuulutas välja lugejate lemmikraamatud 2010: Mihkel Raua romaan "Sinine on sinu taevas", tõlketeostest Mika Waltari "Sinuhe : egiptlane", aja- ja elulooraamatutest Mart Laari "101 Eesti ajaloo sündmust", lasteraamatutest Andrus Kivirähki "Kaka ja kevad" ning luuleraamatutest Asko Künnapi, Jürgen Rooste ja Karl Martin Sinijärve "Eesti haiku"

  16. Apollo lugejate lemmikraamatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Apollo kaupluse koduleheküljel valiti parimaks ilukirjandusteoseks Jan Kausi "Tema", tõlgitud ilukirjanduse osas David Mitchelli "Pilveatlas", luuleraamatutest Ott Arderi "Luule sünnib kus sünnib kui sünnib" ja lasteraamatutest Christopher Paolini "Vanem". Vt. ka SL Õhtuleht, 14. dets., lk. 13

  17. Apollo 14 emblem

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    This is the Apollo 14 crew patch. It features the astronaut lapel pin approaching the Moon and leaving a comet trail from the liftoff point on Earth. The pin design was adopted by the astronaut corps several years ago. Astronauts who have not yet flown in space wear silver pins. Those who have flown wear gold pins.

  18. The APOLLO assembly spectrum code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavenoky, A.; Sanchez, R.

    1987-04-01

    The APOLLO code was originally developed as a design tool for HTR's, later it was aimed at the calculation of PWR lattices. APOLLO is a general purpose assembly spectrum code based on the multigroup integral transport equation; refined collision probability modules allow the computation of 1D geometries with linearly anisotropic scattering and two term flux expansion. In 2D geometries modules based on the substructure method provide fast and accurate design calculations and a module based on a direct discretization is devoted to reference calculations. The SPH homogenization technique provides corrected cross sections performing an equivalence between coarse and refined calculations. The post processing module of APOLLO generate either APOLLIB to be used by APOLLO or NEPLIB for reactor diffusion calculation. The cross section library of APOLLO contains data and self-shielding data for more than 400 isotopes. APOLLO is able to compute the depletion of any medium accounting for any heavy isotope or fission product chain. 21 refs

  19. Apollo's scientific legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, J.

    1979-01-01

    The scientific value and importance of the Apollo lunar programme is assessed in the light of data obtained both from the lunar surface itself and also from the command modules which orbited above. It is stated that much of the material they returned still awaits a detailed examination and that the cooperative teams set up to handle the lunar material have established new methods and standards of analysis, which are currently revitalising the old science of meteoritics. The new forms of organised research have also been carried over in the rapidly developing subject of planetary science. It is concluded that whatever the motives for launching the Apollo missions, planetary scientists have been in a much better position to understand the Solar System since then. (UK)

  20. Apollo Lightcraft Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.; Smith, Wayne L. (Editor); Decusatis, Casimer; Frazier, Scott R.; Garrison, James L., Jr.; Meltzer, Jonathan S.; Minucci, Marco A.; Moder, Jeffrey P.; Morales, Ciro; Mueller, Mark T.

    1988-01-01

    This second year of the NASA/USRA-sponsored Advanced Aeronautical Design effort focused on systems integration and analysis of the Apollo Lightcraft. This beam-powered, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is envisioned as the shuttlecraft of the 21st century. The five person vehicle was inspired largely by the Apollo Command Module, then reconfigured to include a new front seat with dual cockpit controls for the pilot and co-pilot, while still retaining the 3-abreast crew accommodations in the rear seat. The gross liftoff mass is 5550 kg, of which 500 kg is the payload and 300 kg is the LH2 propellant. The round trip cost to orbit is projected to be three orders of magnitude lower than the current space shuttle orbiter. The advanced laser-driven 5-speed combined-cycle engine has shiftpoints at Mach 1, 5, 11 and 25+. The Apollo Lightcraft can climb into low Earth orbit in three minutes, or fly to any spot on the globe in less than 45 minutes. Detailed investigations of the Apollo Lightcraft Project this second year further evolved the propulsion system design, while focusing on the following areas: (1) man/machine interface; (2) flight control systems; (3) power beaming system architecture; (4) re-entry aerodynamics; (5) shroud structural dynamics; and (6) optimal trajectory analysis. The principal new findings are documented. Advanced design efforts for the next academic year (1988/1989) will center on a one meter+ diameter spacecraft: the Lightcraft Technology Demonstrator (LTD). Detailed engineering design and analyses, as well as critical proof-of-concept experiments, will be carried out on this small, near-term machine. As presently conceived, the LTD could be constructed using state of the art components derived from existing liquid chemical rocket engine technology, advanced composite materials, and high power laser optics.

  1. Reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS) in daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, T; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Thorsteinsson, B

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Continuous glucose monitoring may reveal episodes of unrecognized hypoglycaemia. We evaluated reproducibility and reliability of hypoglycaemic episodes recorded in daily life by the Medtronic MiniMed Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS). METHODS: Twenty-nine adult patients with Type 1...... data were recalibrated generating four different CGMS data sets [left-A (left side of abdomen, calibration set A), left-B, right-A and right-B]. Agreement between CGMS data sets was evaluated during hypoglycaemic events, comparing CGMS readings = 2.2 mmol/l with nadir values from corresponding CGMS...... data sets. CGMS readings were also compared with independent self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) values. RESULTS: With hypoglycaemia (CGMS readings = 2.2 mmol/l) in calibration set left-A, values below 3.5 mmol/l were present in 99% (95% CI: 95-100%) of samples in left-B, 91% (95% CI: 84...

  2. Apollo 16 astronauts in Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). In the right background is Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. They are inside the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator (31046); Mattingly (right foreground) and Duke (right backgroung) in the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator for EVA simulation and training. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen in the left background (31047).

  3. Hypoglycaemic and coronary risk index lowering effects of Bauhinia thoningii in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojezele, M O; Abatan, O M

    2011-03-01

    Disease, one of humanity's greatest adversaries, has in recent times showed an intimidating increase in numerical and pathological strength. This stretched the available medications to the limit thereby necessitating the need for the discovery of new and alternative medications to combat the menace of disease. Diabetic mellitus is one disease condition for which ideal synthetic drugs are yet to be discovered. To this end, pharmaceuticals are looking in the direction of medicinal plants. This work aimed at screening Bauhinia thoningii (leaves) for its hypoglycaemic effect. The effect of the extract on lipid profile as a Coronary Risk Index (CRI) was also evaluated. Aqueous crude extract of the plant was administered orally to alloxan induced diabetic rats and fasting blood glucose monitored over a period of 7 days. Blood samples collected from the rats were assayed for full lipid profile and the CRI calculated. Bauhinia thoningii caused 81.37% reduction in blood glucose of the experimental animals over a period of 7 days from an initial 365 mg/dl to 68 mg/dl. The plant extract was also observed to have the capacity to ameliorate diabetic complications like cardiovascular disorders. The extract reduced the Low Density lipoprotein (LDL) and reduced the CRI. Results from this study confirmed the hypoglycaemic efficacy of the extract and ability to ameliorate coronary diabetic complications. Further study is required to purify the plant extract to identify the fraction(s) that are responsible for the hypoglycaemic effects observed. This will also help to isolate the active components and elucidate the likely mechanism of action of the plant extract.

  4. Apollo, Marsyas and Ferdinand I

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bažant, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 22 (2009), s. 127-136 ISSN 0567-8269 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Apollo * Marsyas * Ferdinand I * Prague * Renaissance Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  5. Neutron radiography of Apollo ordnance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golliher, K.G.

    1983-01-01

    Neutron radiography played an important role in the successful Apollo missions. Neutron radiography was used, for the first time, on a production basis to examine the internal details of ordnance devices employed in the Apollo Program. Ordnance devices ranged from charges which separated the massive booster stages to those which triggered the release of re-entry parachutes. Discussed are the early developments in neutron radiography and the conversion of this infant nondestructive technology into production capabilities. (Auth.)

  6. Chelating, antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potential of Muscari comosum (L.) Mill. bulb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Federica; Pugliese, Alessandro; Bonesi, Marco; Solimene, Umberto; Menichini, Francesco

    2010-12-01

    The metal chelating activity, antioxidant properties and the effect on carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibition of Muscari comosum extracts have been investigated. M. comosum bulbs contain a total amount of the phenols with a value of 56.6 mg chlorogenic acid equivalent per gram of extract and a flavonoid content of 23.4 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of extract. In order to evaluate the non-polar constituents, n-hexane extract was obtained. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of fatty acids and ethyl esters as major constituents, with different aldehydes and alkanes as minor components. Ethanolic extract had the highest ferric-reducing ability power (66.7 μM Fe(II)/g) and DPPH scavenging activity with a concentration giving 50% inhibition (IC₅₀) value of 40.9 μg/ml. Moreover, this extract exhibited a good hypoglycaemic activity with IC₅₀ values of 81.3 and 112.8 μg/ml for α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. In conclusion, M. comosum bulbs show promising antioxidant and hypoglycaemic activity via the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These activities may be of interest from a functional point of view and for the revalorization of this ancient non-cultivated vegetable of Mediterranean traditional gastronomy.

  7. Apollo decommissioning project, Apollo, Pennsylvania. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In November, 1991 Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) received a grant to partially fund the decommissioning of the former Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility. The decommissioning was performed in accordance with a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved decommissioning plan. This report summarizes the decommissioning of the Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility and the radiological surveying of the site to demonstrate that these decommissioning activities were effective in reducing residual activity well below NRC's criteria for release for unrestricted use. The Apollo Nuclear Fuel Facility was utilized by the Nuclear Materials and Equipment Corporation (NUMEC) and B and W for nuclear research and production under Atomic Energy Commission and Department of Energy (DOE) contracts during 20 plus years of nuclear fuel manufacturing operations

  8. Digital Apollo: human and machine in spaceflight

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mindell, David A

    2008-01-01

    ... had just landed on the moon and begun transmitting images to NASA. Project Gemini was drawing to a close, Apollo hardware was beginning to emerge from factories, and Apollo software was experiencing a crisis. And on that day I was born. I do not remember the first lunar landing of Apollo 11 or the drama of Apollo 13, but I do remember watching the late...

  9. Tracking Apollo to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Lindsay, Hamish

    2001-01-01

    This is perhaps the most complete, detailed and readable story of manned space-flight ever published Beginning with the historical origins of the dream of walking on the Moon, Tracking Apollo to the Moon is the complete story of manned spaceflight, from the earliest Mercury and Gemini flights through to the end of the Apollo era In readable, fascinating detail, Hamish Lindsay - who was directly involved in all three programs - chronicles mankind's greatest adventure with a great narrative, interviews, quotes and masses of photographs, including some previously unpublished As well as bringing the history of these missions to life Tracking Apollo to the Moon serves as a detailed reference for space enthusiasts and students Having seen the manuscript, the Smithsonian requested two copies of the finished book, and Buzz Aldrin asked for five!

  10. Fenugreek, A Potent Hypoglycaemic Herb Can Cause Central Hypothyroidism Via Leptin - A Threat To Diabetes Phytotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Jayjeet; Chakraborty, Pratip; Mitra, Analava; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Sarkar, Supriti

    2017-07-01

    Fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum graecum) , a medicinal herb with potent antihyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic effects, is used to treat diabetes. This study is aimed to explore the interaction of fenugreek seed extract (FSE) and HPT (hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid) axis in context of leptin secretion which have important role in normal and type-1 diabetic subjects. FSE (confirmed to contain trigonelline, diosgenin, 4 hydroxyisoleucine) was gavaged (0.25 gm/kg body weight/day) to normal and alloxan-induced type-1 diabetic rats for 4 weeks. Expression of hypothalamic prepro-TRH (Thyrotropin releasing hormone) mRNA, serum levels of TRH, TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone), fT 3 , fT 4 , insulin, leptin, glucose; thyroperoxidase activity and growth of thyroid gland, food intake, adiposity index were also studied FSE significantly down regulated prepro-TRH mRNA expression; decreased serum TRH, TSH, fT 3 , fT 4 levels, and regressed thyroid gland in FSE-fed normal and diabetic rats than those observed in normal diet-fed control and diabetic rats. FSE decreased (psecretion, increased food intake and body weight in all FSE-fed rats. FSE improved insulin secretion, decreased glucose level but impaired HPT axis in diabetic rats, indicating insulin-independent central hypothyroidism. Results suggested that the dominant signal to hypothalamus suppressing HPT axis is the fall in leptin level which i resulted from decreased adiposity index following FSE feeding. Fenugreek simultaneously having hypoglycaemic and hypothyroidal actions raises questions whether it can be safely used to treat diabetes and/or hyperthyroidism as was suggested by many workers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Non-Cell Autonomous Influence of the Astrocyte System xc − on Hypoglycaemic Neuronal Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Jackman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite longstanding evidence that hypoglycaemic neuronal injury is mediated by glutamate excitotoxicity, the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain incompletely defined. Here, we demonstrate that the excitotoxic neuronal death that follows GD (glucose deprivation is initiated by glutamate extruded from astrocytes via system xc −– – an amino acid transporter that imports L-cystine and exports L-glutamate. Specifically, we find that depriving mixed cortical cell cultures of glucose for up to 8 h injures neurons, but not astrocytes. Neuronal death is prevented by ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonism and is partially sensitive to tetanus toxin. Removal of amino acids during the deprivation period prevents – whereas addition of L-cystine restores – GD-induced neuronal death, implicating the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system xc−–. Indeed, drugs known to inhibit system xc −– ameliorate GD-induced neuronal death. Further, a dramatic reduction in neuronal death is observed in chimaeric cultures consisting of neurons derived from WT (wild-type mice plated on top of astrocytes derived from sut mice, which harbour a naturally occurring null mutation in the gene (Slc7a11 that encodes the substrate-specific light chain of system xc −– (xCT. Finally, enhancement of astrocytic system xc −– expression and function via IL-1β (interleukin-1β exposure potentiates hypoglycaemic neuronal death, the process of which is prevented by removal of L-cystine and/or addition of system xc −– inhibitors. Thus, under the conditions of GD, our studies demonstrate that astrocytes, via system xc −–, have a direct, non-cell autonomous effect on cortical neuron survival.

  12. How to find the Apollo landing sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, James L

    2014-01-01

    This book is for anyone who wants to be able to connect the history of lunar exploration to the Moon visible above. It addresses what Apollo equipment and experiments were left behind and what the Apollo landings sites look like now. Each Apollo mission is examined in detail, with photos that progressively zoom-in to guide the reader in locating the Apollo landing sites. Guided by official NASA photographs from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and the original Apollo missions, the reader can view the Moon with a new appreciation of the accomplishment of landing astronauts on its surface.  Countless people have gazed at the Moon in the night sky knowing the successes of the Apollo Program in landing men on the Moon. After the information in this guide, casual and serious observers can actually point out where the Apollo landings occurred as well as knowing why those sites were chosen.

  13. Apollo 11 Command Service Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A close-up view of the Apollo 11 command service module ready to be mated with the spacecraft LEM adapter of the third stage. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  14. Apollo 12 ropy glasses revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Basu, A.; Martinez, R. R.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed ropy glasses from Apollo 12 soils 12032 and 12033 by a variety of techniques including SEM/EDX, electron microprobe analysis, INAA, and Ar-39-Ar-40 age dating. The ropy glasses have potassium rare earth elements phosphorous (KREEP)-like compositions different from those of local Apollo 12 mare soils; it is likely that the ropy glasses are of exotic origin. Mixing calculations indicate that the ropy glasses formed from a liquid enriched in KREEP and that the ropy glass liquid also contained a significant amount of mare material. The presence of solar Ar and a trace of regolith-derived glass within the ropy glasses are evidence that the ropy glasses contain a small regolith component. Anorthosite and crystalline breccia (KREEP) clasts occur in some ropy glasses. We also found within these glasses clasts of felsite (fine-grained granitic fragments) very similar in texture and composition to the larger Apollo 12 felsites, which have a Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing age of 800 +/- 15 Ma. Measurements of 39-Ar-40-Ar in 12032 ropy glass indicate that it was degassed at the same time as the large felsite although the ropy glass was not completely degassed. The ropy glasses and felsites, therefore, probably came from the same source. Most early investigators suggested that the Apollo 12 ropy glasses were part of the ejecta deposited at the Apollo 12 site from the Copernicus impact. Our new data reinforce this model. If these ropy glasses are from Copernicus, they provide new clues to the nature of the target material at the Copernicus site, a part of the Moon that has not been sampled directly.

  15. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera-Ram?rez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Gardu?o-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hern?ndez, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant ...

  16. The flavonoid content and antiproliferative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of Annona dioica St. Hill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formagio Anelise S N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annona dioica St. Hill (Annonacaeae is a Brazilian plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of several types of rheumatisms and diarrhoea. The focus of this work was to evaluate the in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activity and the in vivo hypoglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activity of A. dioica and identify the principal constituents of this plant. Methods The crude methanol extract (EAD and hexane (HF, chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF and hydromethanol fractions (HMF were evaluated for free radical scavenging activity using the DPPH assay. The EAD and EAF were assayed for hypoglycaemic activity in rats. The EAD was tested in an antiproliferation assay and for anti-inflammatory effects in paw oedema, in addition to myeloperoxidase activity induced by carrageenan (Cg in mice. The EAF was assayed using chromatographic methods. Results The fractionation of the EAF through chromatographic methods identified derivatives of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol. Among all the tested fractions, the ethyl acetate and hydromethanol fractions were the most potent, exhibiting an IC50 of 8.53 and 10.57 μg/mL, respectively, which is comparable to that of the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The oral administration of the EAD (100 mg/kg and EAF (15 mg/kg inhibited the increase of glucose levels, resulting in a hypoglycaemic effect. The EAD (30 to 300 mg/kg exhibited an anti-oedematogenic effect in Cg-induced paw oedema in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The results showed a reduction of MPO activity by A. dioica 6 h after the induction of paw oedema at all doses tested with maximal inhibition at 300 mg/kg. Conclusions Our results reveal for the first time that compounds contained in the A. dioica leaves exert anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antiproliferative, and antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity may be associated with the presence of flavonoids.

  17. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of crude extracts and chromatographic fractions of Morinda morindoides root bark in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Olufemi Olukunle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of different extracts and fractions of root bark from the plant Morinda morindoides (Baker Milne-Redh of the family Rubiaceae were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and methanolic extracts were administered to 48 rats orally at a dose of 400 mg·kg-1 for 21 days. Fractions (hydromethanol, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate from bio-activity guided fractionation and chromatographic sub fractions (CsF A-F from accelerated gradient chromatography were also evaluated in 45 rats for the hypoglycaemic activity at doses of 400 mg·kg-1, 200 mg·kg-1 and 100 mg·kg-1 of solvent fractions and (CsF A-F, respectively. Glibenclamide was used as positive control. Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate and distilled water administered to rats were used as negative controls. The dose of 400 mg·kg-1 of aqueous and methanolic extracts and 100 mg·kg-1 of chloroform CsF B of Morinda morindoides caused (62.8%, 56% and 74%, respectively reductions in blood glucose level (BGL. The aqueous extract caused significant (P -1, low density lipoprotein (66.38 ± 2.5 mg·dl-1 and significant (P -1 when compared to the control. These results confirm the folkloric claim of the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities of Morinda morindoides root bark.

  18. APOLLO 17 PRELAUNCH ASTRONAUT TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Apollo Command Module Pilot Evans, left, and Mission Commander Cernan, right, discuss their flight plans as each prepares to fly a T-38 jet aircraft at Patrick Air Force Base just south of the Spaceport. Astronauts Cernan and Evans flew the T-38 aircraft today on training flights over the Kennedy Space Center area to practice flying skills in preparation for upcoming launch to the Moon scheduled 12/06/72.

  19. Apollo 11 Earth Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, an engineer, Bob Mason, donned in a space suit, goes through some of those training exercises on the mock lunar surface. He performed activites similar to those planned for astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin during their moon walk. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  20. Neurofibromatosis 1-associated panhypopituitarism presenting as hypoglycaemic seizures and stroke-like symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Waqar; Nathan, Muriel H; Allen, Gilman B; Borden, Neil M; Babi, M Ali; Tandan, Rup

    2015-11-03

    A 37-year-old man with a known history of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) presented within 2 days of diarrhoeal illness followed by encephalopathy, facial twitching, hypoglycaemia, hypotension, tachycardia and low-grade fever. Examination showed multiple café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas over the trunk, arms and legs and receptive aphasia with right homonymous hemianopia, which resolved. Workup for cardiac, inflammatory and infectious aetiologies was unrevealing. A brain MRI showed gyral swelling with increased T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal and diffusion restriction in the left cerebral cortex. Neuroendocrine findings suggested panhypopituitarism with centrally derived adrenal insufficiency. Supportive treatment, hormone supplementation, antibiotics, antivirals and levetiracetam yielded clinical improvement. A follow-up brain MRI showed focal left parieto-occipital atrophy with findings of cortical laminar necrosis. In conclusion, we describe a case of NF1-associated panhypopituitarism presenting as hypoglycaemic seizures and stroke-like findings, hitherto unreported manifestations of NF1. Prompt recognition and treatment of these associated conditions can prevent devastating complications. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. PDS Archive Release of Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 17 Lunar Rock Sample Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P. A.; Stefanov, W. L.; Lofgren, G. E.; Todd, N. S.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory, Information Resources Directorate, and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory have been working to digitize (scan) the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs [1, 2]. The rock samples, and associated regolith and lunar core samples, were obtained during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions. The images allow scientists to view the individual rock samples in their original or subdivided state prior to requesting physical samples for their research. In cases where access to the actual physical samples is not practical, the images provide an alternate mechanism for study of the subject samples. As the negatives are being scanned, they have been formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate (which includes the Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory) at JSC is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving of these valuable data. The PDS Imaging Node is now pleased to announce the release of the image archives for Apollo missions 11, 12, and 17.

  2. Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A; Wali, Adil F; Malik, Akhtar H; Dar, Mohammad Y; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.

  3. Apollo for Adobe Flex Developers Pocket Guide A Developer's Reference for Apollo's Alpha Release

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Swartz, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Now you can build and deploy Flash-based Rich Internet Applications (RIAs) to the desktop using Adobe's Flex framework. Written by members of the Apollo product team, this is the official guide to the Alpha release of Adobe Apollo, the new cross platform desktop runtime from Adobe Labs. Numerous examples illustrate how Apollo works so you can start building RIAs for the desktop right away.

  4. The Apollo passive seismic experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  5. Comparison between KARBUS and APOLLO 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payer, L.; Broeders, C.

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is made between benchmark calculations by the French APOLLO 1 code and the Karlsruhe KARBUS procedure. Independently these two codes had been developed for transport computations in infinite reactor configurations and for burnup calculations. (orig.)

  6. Launch of Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    The Apollo 8 (Spacecraft 103/Saturn 503) space vehicle launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, at 7:51 a.m., December 21, 1968. In this view there is water in the foreground and seagulls.

  7. Apollo Lunar Module Electrical Power System Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe LM Electrical System original specifications; b) Describe the decision to change from fuel cells to batteries and other changes; c) Describe the Electrical system; and d) Describe the Apollo 13 failure from the LM perspective.

  8. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  9. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were

  10. Apollo 15 mare units and their petrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from 12 different mare sites were identified and classified among the Apollo 15 samples. The genesis of the Apollo 15 mare units is summarized given the general model of mare basalt source regions and of more basalt genesis derived from a synthesis of the major oxide/major mineral, compatible siderophile, and incompatible trace element data and isotopic ratios of the Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd systems

  11. Apollo Missions to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige V.

    2018-01-01

    Six Apollo missions to the Moon, from 1969-1972, enabled astronauts to collect and bring lunar rocks and materials from the lunar surface to Earth. Apollo lunar samples are curated by NASA Astromaterials at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Samples continue to be studied and provide clues about our early Solar System. Learn more and view collected samples at: https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar.

  12. Vertical view Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed by Apollo 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An almost vertical view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing sites as photographed from the Apollo 14 spacecraft. Overlays are provided to point out extravehicular activity (EVA), Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) travers routes and the nicknames of features. The Roman numerals indicate the EVA numbers and the Arabic numbers point out stations or traverse stops.

  13. Use of household ingredients as Complementary medicines for perceived hypoglycaemic benefit among Sri Lankan diabetic patients; a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna Bandara Medagama

    2015-06-01

    The practice of using household ingredients as complementary medicines is common in Sri Lanka. Few herbal remedies and their methods of preparation have limited evidence for efficacy. In view of the frequent use by diabetic patients each needs to be documented for reference and scientifically explored with regard to their hypoglycaemic potential. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 138-142

  14. Apollo experience report: Food systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rapp, R. M.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Development, delivery, and use of food systems in support of the Apollo 7 to 14 missions are discussed. Changes in design criteria for this unique program as mission requirements varied are traced from the baseline system that was established before the completion of the Gemini Program. Problems and progress in subsystem management, material selection, food packaging, development of new food items, menu design, and food-consumption methods under zero-gravity conditions are described. The effectiveness of various approaches in meeting food system objectives of providing flight crews with safe, nutritious, easy to prepare, and highly acceptable foods is considered. Nutritional quality and adequacy in maintaining crew health are discussed in relation to the establishment of nutritional criteria for future missions. Technological advances that have resulted from the design of separate food systems for the command module, the lunar module, The Mobile Quarantine Facility, and the Lunar Receiving Laboratory are presented for application to future manned spacecraft and to unique populations in earthbound situations.

  15. Duration Effect of Acacia Nilotica Leaves Extract and Glibenclamide as Hypolipidaemic and Hypoglycaemic Activity in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, M.; Shah, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the duration and effects of aqueous methanol Acacia-nilotica leaves extract and glibenclamide as hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Shifa International Hospital in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, from September 2010 to August 2011.Male Sprague Dawley albino rats were taken and divided into 8 equal groups. Groups I and II were the normal and diabetic control rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in group II to VIII by administering 110 mg/kg body weight alloxan and at day 4, fasting blood glucose level of >200 mg/dl confirmed diabetes. Acacia-nilotica leaves extract was given to group III, IV and V and glibenclamide to group VI to VIII for a period of 1-3 weeks. Blood samples were analysed for lipid profile using enzymatic calorimetric method and serum insulin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: There were 64 rats in the study, with 8(12.5 percent) in each group. Statistically significant decreases in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipids, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and an increase in high density lipoprotein and serum insulin levels were observed in diabetic rats compared to diabetic controls after 2 weeks of treatment with plant extract and glibenclamide (p<0.05 each).When plant extract and drug treated diabetic rats were compared, a significant difference in the levels of blood glucose, insulin, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were noted after 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. Conclusion: Acacia-nilotica leaves extract resulted in hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats similar to glibenclamide. (author)

  16. Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Withania somnifera Root and Leaf Extracts on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Ganapathi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Withania somnifera is an important medicinal plant, which is used in traditional medicine to cure many diseases.Flavonoids were determined in the extracts of W. somnifera root (WSREt and leaf (WSLEt. The amounts of total flavonoids found in WSREt and WSLEt were 530 and 520 mg/100 g dry weight (DW, respectively. Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of WSREt and WSLEt were also investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. WSREt and WSLEt and the standard drug glibenclamide were orally administered daily to diabetic rats for eight weeks. After the treatment period, urine sugar, blood glucose, haemoglobin (Hb, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C, liver glycogen, serum and tissues lipids, serum and tissues proteins, liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6P and serum enzymes like aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, acid phosphatase (ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels were determined. The levels of urine sugar, blood glucose, HbA1C, G6P, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, serum lipids except high density lipoprotein-bound cholesterol (HDL-c and tissues like liver, kidney and heart lipids were significantly (p < 0.05 increased, however Hb, total protein, albumin, albumin:globulin (A:G ratio, tissues protein and glycogen were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of the diabetic rats with WSREt, WSLEt and glibenclamide restored the changes of the above parameters to their normal level after eight weeks of treatment, indicating that WSREt and WSLEt possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus (DM rats.

  17. Apollo 12 - On the Ocean of Storms

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David

    2011-01-01

    With its two moonwalks, deployment of a geophysical station and geological sampling, Apollo 12 did what many had hoped would be achieved by the first men to land on the Moon. It spectacularly demonstrated the precision landing capability required for the success of future lunar surface explorations. Apollo 12 - On the Ocean of Storms contains over 30 page of color images, including high-resolution scans recently produced by NASA from the original Hasselblad film; covers the mission from its planning through to completion; includes conversations among the crew in the spacecraft that were not transmitted; in the definitive 'popular' account of this mission. This is the first time in 40 years that the story of the Apollo 12 mission to the Moon has bene told in its entirety, using official documents, flight transcripts, and post-mission debriefing to recreate the drama.

  18. Comparison between KARBUS and APOLLO 1; Vergleichsrechnungen mit KARBUS und APOLLO 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, L.; Broeders, C.

    1995-08-01

    A comparison is made between benchmark calculations by the French APOLLO 1 code and the Karlsruhe KARBUS procedure. Independently these two codes had been developed for transport computations in infinite reactor configurations and for burnup calculations. (orig.)

  19. Paving the Way for Apollo 11

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2009-01-01

    In 'Paving the Way for Apollo 11' David Harland explains the lure of the Moon to classical philosophers, astronomers, and geologists, and how NASA set out to investigate the Moon in preparation for a manned lunar landing mission. It focuses particularly on the Lunar Orbiter and Surveyor missions.

  20. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, W David

    2011-01-01

    This new and expanded edition of the bestselling How Apollo Flew to the Moon tells the exciting story of how the Apollo missions were conducted and follows a virtual flight to the Moon and back. New material includes: - the exploration of the lunar surface; - more illustrations; - more technical explanations and anecdotes. From launch to splashdown, hitch a ride in the incredible Apollo spaceships, the most sophisticated machines of their time. Explore each step of the journey and glimpse the enormous range of disciplines, techniques, and procedures the Apollo crews had to master. Although the tremendous technological accomplishments are well documented, the human dimension is not forgotten, and the book calls on the testimony of the people who were there at the time. A wealth of fascinating and accessible material is provided, including: the role of the powerful Saturn V; the reasoning  behind trajectories; the day-to-day concerns of human and spacecraft health; the triumphs and difficulties of working in...

  1. Apollo 15 mare volcanism: constraints and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delano, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site contains more volcanics in the form of crystalline basalts and pristine glasses, which form the framework for all models dealing with the mantle beneath that site. Major issues on the petrology of the mare source regions beneath that portion of Mare Imbrium are summarized

  2. Remembering the Giants: Apollo Rocket Propulsion Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Steven C. (Editor); Rahman, Shamim A. (Editor)

    2009-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Rocketdyne - F-1 Saturn V First Stage Engine; Rocketdyne - J-2 Saturn V 2nd & 3rd Stage Engine; Rocketdyne - SE-7 & SE-8 Engines; Aerojet - AJ10-137 Apollo Service Module Engine; Aerojet - Attitude Control Engines; TRW - Lunar Descent Engine; and Rocketdyne - Lunar Ascent Engine.

  3. Apollo-12 gift to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    On March 2 the Agency was host to the three Apollo-12 astronauts who placed the first atomic power generator on the moon. Accompanied by their wives, they were given a warm welcome and received mementos prepared by the Agency. In return they presented the Director General with a model of the SNAP-27 generator. (author)

  4. APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  5. Glycaemic control and prevalence of hypoglycaemic events in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavšić, Ljiljana; Mitrović, Katarina; Todorović, Sladjana; Vuković, Rade; Milenković, Tatjana; Zdravković, Dragan

    2014-09-01

    An ideal insulin regimen for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) should be physiological, flexibile and predictable, protecting against hypoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of insulin analogues on glycaemic control and the occurance of hypoglycaemic episodes in children and adolescents with T1DM. The study group consisted of 151 children and adolescents (90 boys, 61 girls) treated with human insulins for at least 12 months before introducing insulin analogues. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I consisted of 72 (47.7%) patients treated with three injections of regular human insulin before meals and long-acting analogue (RHI/LA), and the group II of 79 (52.30%) patients treated with a combination of rapid-acting and long-acting analogue (RA/LA). The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and the number of hypoglycaemic episodes were assessed at the beginning of therapy with insulin analogues, and after 6 and 12 months. The mean HbA1c was significantly lower in the group I (RHI/LA) after 6 months (9.15% vs 8.20%, p < 0.001) and after 12 months (9.15% vs 8.13%, p < 0.001) as well as in the group II (RA/LA) after 6 months (9.40% vs 8.240%, p < 0.001) and after 12 months of insulin analogues treatment (9.40% vs 8.38%, p < 0.001). The frequency of severe hypoglycaemia was significantly lower in both groups after 6 months (in the group I from 61.1% to 4.2% and in the group II from 54.4% to 1.3%, p < 0.001), and after 12 months (in the group I from 61.1% to 1.4% and in the group II from 54.4% to 1.3%, p < 0.001). Significantly better HbA1c values and lower risk of severe hypoglycaemia were established in children and adolescents with T1DM treated with insulin analogues.

  6. Onyx embolization with the Apollo detachable tip microcatheter: A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R; Giacon, Luciano; Kole, Matthew J; Chen, Rong; Jindal, Gaurav; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2018-06-01

    Purpose The Apollo Onyx Delivery Microcatheter (Ev3, Irvine, CA) is a detachable-tip microcatheter that was developed to reduce the risk of microcatheter entrapment during ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) embolizations. We report our experience with the microcatheter in a variety of neurointerventional procedures. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all Onyx embolizations performed in the head, neck, and spine using the Apollo Onyx Delivery Microcatheter from its introduction at our institution in July 2014 to August 2016. Information regarding patient diagnoses, procedural details, as well as clinical outcomes were obtained from the electronic medical record, procedure reports, and relevant angiographic imaging. Results A total of 58 arterial pedicle Onyx embolizations were performed in 37 patients. There were no cases of microcatheter entrapment, early/inadvertent tip detachment, or vessel injury upon removal of the device. There were two instances (3.5%) of leakage of Onyx from the microcatheter detachment site during embolization, which did not result in adverse sequelae. Clinical outcomes were excellent, with nearly all embolizations achieving the intended goal. In multivariate analysis, length of Onyx reflux along the microcatheter tip and utilization of a higher viscosity agent, Onyx 34, were significantly associated with tip detachment. Conclusion The use of the Apollo Microcatheter is both safe and effective during neurointerventional embolizations using Onyx. Leakage of liquid embolic agent from the detachment site is an infrequent technical complication that may be encountered with the device.

  7. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlam Mushtaq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001; this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05, while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.

  8. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity. PMID:22174560

  9. Acute phase response in lactating dairy cows during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic and hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamps and after intramammary LPS challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Matteis, L; Bertoni, G; Lombardelli, R; Wellnitz, O; Van Dorland, H A; Vernay, M C M B; Bruckmaier, R M; Trevisi, E

    2017-06-01

    The link between energy availability, turnover of energy substrates and the onset of inflammation in dairy cows is complex and poorly investigated. To clarify this, plasma inflammatory variables were measured in mid-lactating dairy cows allocated to three groups: hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5); hyperinsulinemic euglycaemic clamp, induced by insulin and glucose infusion (EuG; n = 6); control, receiving a saline solution infusion (NaCl; n = 6). At 48 h after the start of i.v. infusions, two udder quarters per cow were challenged with 200 μg of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Individual blood samples were taken before clamps, before LPS challenge (i.e. 48 h after clamps) and 6.5 h after. At 48 h, positive acute phase proteins (posAPP) did not differ among groups, whereas albumin and cholesterol (index of lipoproteins), negative APP (negAPP), were lower (p insulin at the tissue-level makes dairy cows more susceptible to inflammatory events. In contrast, HypoG seems to attenuate the inflammatory response. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Antiobesity and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous extract of Ibervillea sonorae in mice fed a high-fat diet with fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  11. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  12. Apollo Anniversary: Moon Landing "Inspired World"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Roach; 李然

    2004-01-01

    @@ On July 20, 1969, at 10:56 p.m. ET, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped onto the surface of the moon and said, "That' s one small step for man,one giant leap for mankind." Thirty-five years later, Steven Dick, NASA's chief historian at the space agency's headquarters in Washington, D.C. , said that a thousand years from now, that step may be considered the crowning① achievement of the 20th century.

  13. Apollo experience report: Earth landing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    A brief discussion of the development of the Apollo earth landing system and a functional description of the system are presented in this report. The more significant problems that were encountered during the program, the solutions, and, in general, the knowledge that was gained are discussed in detail. Two appendixes presenting a detailed description of the various system components and a summary of the development and the qualification test programs are included.

  14. Photogrammetry of Apollo 15 photography, part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.; Jordan, R.; Nakata, G. M.; Derick, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    In the Apollo 15 mission, a mapping camera system and a 61 cm optical bar, high resolution panoramic camera, as well as a laser altimeter were used. The panoramic camera is described, having several distortion sources, such as cylindrical shape of the negative film surface, the scanning action of the lens, the image motion compensator, and the spacecraft motion. Film products were processed on a specifically designed analytical plotter.

  15. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong is the center of attention at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  16. Clinical Presentation Of The Abuse Of Insulin: Hypoglycaemic Coma And Aspiration Pneumonia In Non-Professional Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Ivica

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of medications that improve the physical performance of an individual represents a very serious worldwide health problem. The abuse of these medications is increasing. Herein, we describe a patient, at the age of 20, who was hospitalized due to loss of consciousness and difficulty breathing. At admission, the patient was unconsciousness, tahi-dyspnoic, and had a pale complexion and an athletic build. In gas analyses, extremely low saturation was observed, followed by acidosis, heavy hypoxia with normocapnia, higher lactates, hypocalcaemia and severe hypoglycaemia. The patient was treated with a hypertonic solution of glucose and intubated, with the aspiration of sanious content from the respiratory tract. After treatment, the patient woke from coma but was very confused. In the first 6 hours of hospitalization, severe hypoglycaemia occurred several times, despite the continuous administration of glucose. Due to the growth of inflammatory syndrome since the first day of hospitalization, the patient was kept in the hospital for treatment along with the administration of antibiotic treatment. On the fourth day of hospitalization, the patient stated that for the last year, he had been taking testosterone at a dose of 1 g a week, as well as tamoxifen pills and 15 i.j. of fast-acting human insulin (Actrapid® daily for their combined anabolic effect. Hypoglycaemic coma, caused by the abuse of insulin, represents a severe complication in patients, which can be followed by confusion, a slowed thinking process, the weakening of cognitive functions and even death. It is necessary to invest great efforts into the prevention of the purchase of these medications via the Internet or on the black market for purposes of abuse in order to prevent such serious and life-threatening complications.

  17. Five Apollo astronauts with Lunar Module at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the former Apollo program astronauts observe a Lunar Module and Moon mockup during a tour the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. Some of the visiting astonauts were (from left): Apollo 10 Lunar Module Pilot and Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweikart; Apollo 10 Command Module Pilot and Apollo 16 Commander John W. Young; Apollo 10 Commander Thomas P. Stafford; and Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  18. Application of Apollo cosmic radiation dosimetry to lunar colonization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.A.; Bailey, J.V.; Brown, R.D.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation data gathered from the lunar landing missions of Apollo 11 through Apollo 15 are presented. These data have been analyzed to provide dosimetry evaluation of the ambient radiation and radiation from potential solar particle events for the planning of safe, long-term stays of relatively large numbers of individuals upon the moon. (U.S.)

  19. Medical microbiological analysis of Apollo-Soyuz test project crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.; Zaloguev, S. N.

    1976-01-01

    The procedures and results of the Microbial Exchange Experiment (AR-002) of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project are described. Included in the discussion of procedural aspects are methods and materials, in-flight microbial specimen collection, and preliminary analysis of microbial specimens. Medically important microorganisms recovered from both Apollo and Soyuz crewmen are evaluated.

  20. Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' at the Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is part of the lunar scene at the Descartes landing site, as seen in the reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Note the U.S. flag deployed on the left. This picture was made during the second Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2).

  1. Apollo Saturn V Height Comparison to Statue of Liberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    This 1967 illustration compares the Apollo Saturn V Spacecraft of the Moon Landing era to the Statue of Liberty located on Ellis Island in New York City. The Apollo Saturn V, at 363 feet towers above Lady Liberty, as the statue is called, standing at 305 feet.

  2. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  3. Official emblem of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    This is the Official emblem of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) chosen by NASA and the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Of circular design, the emblem has the words Apollo in English and Soyuz in Russian around a center disc which depicts the two spacecraft docked together in Earth orbit. The Russian word 'soyuz' means 'union' in English.

  4. Physics analysis of the Apollo D-3He tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarius, J.F.; Emmert, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments in the analysis and conceptual design of Apollo, a D- 3 He Tokamak Reactor are presented. Encouraging experimental results on TEXT motivated a key change in the Apollo concept utilization of an ergodic magnetic limiter for impurity control instead of a divertor. Parameters for the updated Apollo design and an analysis of the ergoidc magnetic limiter are given. The Apollo reference case uses direct conversion of synchrotron radiation to electricity by rectifying antennas (rectennas) for its power conversion system. Previous analyses of this concept are expanded, including further details of the rectennas and of the loss of synchrotron power to the waveguides and walls. Although Apollo will burn D- 3 He fuel, a significant amount of unburned tritium will be generated by D4D reactions. The possibility of operating a short, dedicated, T+ 3 He burn phase to eliminate this tritium will be examined

  5. Apollo 16 time and motion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Barnes, J. E.; Saxon, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    A time and motion study is presented of astronaut lunar surface activity on Apollo 16 which consists of five distinct analyses: an evaluation of lunar mobility, a comparison of task performance in 1-g training and lunar EVA, a study of metabolic costs and adaptation, a discussion of falls, and retrieval of fallen objects. Two basic mobility patterns, the hop or canter and the traditional walking gait, were consistently utilized in longer traverses. The metabolic rates associated with these two mobility types, each used by a different astronaut, were relatively equivalent. The time to perform tasks on the lunar surface was significantly longer (on the order of 70%) than the time to perform the same tasks during the last 1-g training session. These results corroborated the findings on Apollo 15 and were not significantly different from them. There was general improvement in lunar EVA performance upon repetition of tasks. Metabolic rate (BTU/hr.) and metabolic cost (BTU) decreased over successive EVAs. Specifically, the metabolic rate associated with riding the lunar roving vehicle (LRV) decreased by approximately 18% from EVA 1 to EVA 2 and by 15% from EVA 2 to EVA 3.

  6. APOLLO 16 COMMANDER JOHN YOUNG ENTERS ALTITUDE CHAMBER FOR TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 16 commander John W. Young prepares to enter the lunar module in an altitude chamber in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building at the spaceport prior to an altitude run. During the altitude run, in which Apollo 16 lunar module pilot Charles M. Duke also participated, the chamber was pumped down to simulate pressure at an altitude in excess of 200,000 feet. Young, Duke and command module pilot Thomas K. Mattingly II, are training at the Kennedy Space Center for the Apollo 16 mission. Launch is scheduled from Pad 39A, March 17, 1972.

  7. Heavy element affinities in Apollo 17 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.O. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    204 Pb, Bi, Tl and Zn in samples from Apollo 17 exhibit relationships not found in samples from other sites. 204 Pb, Tl and Zn in residues remaining after dilute acid leaching are correlated with one another. Orange soil 74220, which is enriched in 204 Pb, Tl and Zn, is included in these relationships. In addition the submicron metallic phase generally associated with agglutinate formation is correlated with all three of these elements; this relationship has already been reported for 204 Pb in other samples. Thus, orange soil and agglutinates appear to be involved in concentrating heavy volatile metals. A process other than mixing is required to account for this. As a consequence of the isolation of the landing site by the surrounding massifs, local supply and recycling of volatile trace elements in soils may account for some of the interelement relations. (Auth.)

  8. Crustal evolution inferred from apollo magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyal, P.; Daily, W.D.; Vanyan, L.L.

    1978-09-01

    Magnetic field and solar wind plasma density measurements were analyzed to determine the scale size characteristics of remanent fields at the Apollo 12, 15, and 16 landing sites. Theoretical model calculations of the field-plasma interaction, involving diffusion of the remanent field into the solar plasma, were compared to the data. The information provided by all these experiments shows that remanent fields over most of the lunar surface are characterized by spatial variations as small as a few kilometers. Large regions (50 to 100 km) of the lunar crust were probably uniformly magnetized during early crustal evolution. Bombardment and subsequent gardening of the upper layers of these magnetized regions left randomly oriented, smaller scale (5 to 10 km) magnetic sources close to the surface. The larger scale size fields of magnitude approximately 0.1 gammas are measured by the orbiting subsatellite experiments and the small scale sized remanent fields of magnitude approximately 100 gammas are measured by the surface experiments

  9. APOLLO2 calculations of RBMK lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, D.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of erbium as burnable poison in RBMK reactors. The neutronic code APOLLO2 has been used and a comparison with the Monte-Carlo code TRIPOLI2 has been made. The first chapter briefly presents the RBMK characteristics, the second chapter deals with the neutronic behaviour of a fuel assembly in an infinite lattice which is an important step in the modelling process. The third chapter presents the analysis of the use of erbium in typical elements of the RBMK lattice. A good agreement is obtained between the 2 codes except in the draining situations. Erbium appears to reduce the positive reactivity effect of the draining configuration. (A.C.)

  10. On the Moon the apollo journals

    CERN Document Server

    Heiken, Grant

    2007-01-01

    Public interest in the first lunar landing transcended political, economic and social borders – the world was briefly united by the courage of the crew, and the wonder of the accomplishment. Prompted by the rivalry of the Cold War, Apollo 11 and the five missions that subsequently landed on the Moon were arguably the finest feats of exploration in human history. But these were more than exercises in ‘flags and footprints’, because the missions involved the crews making geological field trips on a low gravity site while wearing pressure suits, carrying life-support systems on their backs and working against an unforgiving time line. The missions delivered not only samples of moonrock, but also hard-learned lessons for how to work on the surface of another planet, and this experience will be crucial to planning the resumption of the human exploration of the Moon and going on to Mars.

  11. Photogrammetry using Apollo 16 orbital photography, part B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.; Schafer, F. J.; Jordan, R.; Nakata, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion is made of the Apollo 15 and 16 metric and panoramic cameras which provided photographs for accurate topographic portrayal of the lunar surface using photogrammetric methods. Nine stereoscopic models of Apollo 16 metric photographs and three models of panoramic photographs were evaluated photogrammetrically in support of the Apollo 16 geologic investigations. Four of the models were used to collect profile data for crater morphology studies; three models were used to collect evaluation data for the frequency distributions of lunar slopes; one model was used to prepare a map of the Apollo 16 traverse area; and one model was used to determine elevations of the Cayley Formation. The remaining three models were used to test photogrammetric techniques using oblique metric and panoramic camera photographs. Two preliminary contour maps were compiled and a high-oblique metric photograph was rectified.

  12. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  13. A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

  14. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  15. Three astronauts inside Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Three astronauts inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Left to right are Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; John W. Young, command module pilot; and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot.

  16. Effects of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide on ATP-sensitive potassium-channels and cytosolic calcium levels in beta TC3 cells and rat pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromada, J; Dissing, S; Kofod, Hans

    1995-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the action of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide in cultured newborn rat islet cells and mouse beta TC3 cells. In cell-attached membrane patches of newborn rat islet cells repaglinide (10 nmol/l) and glibenclamide (20 nmol/l) decrease the open pro...

  17. Giles, Petrone, and Garriott Chat at Apollo 16 Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Huntsville's Jack Giles, Alabama State Senator (left), and Dr. Rocco Petrone, Marshall Space Flight Center Director (Middle), speak with Astronaut Owen Garriott who is inside the Apollo 16 Command Module on display at the Alabama Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The successful Apollo 16 manned lunar landing mission took place April 16, 1972 through April 27, 1972. (Photograph courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)

  18. Conversion of CATHENA from the VAX to APOLLO computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawa, D.M.

    1986-12-01

    The thermal-hydraulic computer code developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, CATHENA, has been converted from the VAX computer to operate on a low-cost, high-performance APOLLO 3000 work station. Full functionality of the program has been retained. Three verification cases have been analyzed which indicate accuracy to the sixth decimal place as printed in output listings. The APOLLO 3000 computing times for the 3 cases are approximately 15% faster than achieved on the Wardrop VAX 11 750

  19. Apollo 16 lunar module 'Orion' photographed from distance during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 Lunar Module 'Orion' is photographed from a distance by Astronaut Chares M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, aboard the moving Lunar Roving Vehicle. Astronauts Duke and John W. Young, commander, were returing from the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-2). The RCA color television camera mounted on the LRV is in the foreground. A portion of the LRV's high-gain antenna is at top left.

  20. Restoration of the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Stephens, M. K.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow probes were deployed on the Apollo 15 and 17 missions as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). At each landing site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The holes were 1- and 1.5-m deep at the Apollo 15 site and 2.5-m deep at the Apollo 17 sites. The probes monitored surface temperature and subsurface temperatures at different depths. At the Apollo 15 site, the monitoring continued from July 1971 to January 1977. At the Apollo 17 site, it did from December 1972 to September 1977. Based on the observations made through December 1974, Marcus Langseth, the principal investigator of the heat flow experiments (HFE), determined the thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith by mathematically modeling how the seasonal temperature fluctuation propagated down through the regolith. He also determined the temperature unaffected by diurnal and seasonal thermal waves of the regolith at different depths, which yielded the geothermal gradient. By multiplying the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity, Langseth obtained the endogenic heat flow of the Moon as 21 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 15 and 16 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 17.

  1. Apollo 15 time and motion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Barnes, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A time and motion study of Apollo 15 lunar surface activity led to examination of four distinct areas of crewmen activity. These areas are: an analysis of lunar mobility, a comparative analysis of tasks performed in 1-g training and lunar EVA, an analysis of the metabolic cost of two activities that are performed in several EVAs, and a fall/near-fall analysis. An analysis of mobility showed that the crewmen used three basic mobility patterns (modified walk, hop, side step) while on the lunar surface. These mobility patterns were utilized as adaptive modes to compensate for the uneven terrain and varied soil conditions that the crewmen encountered. A comparison of the time required to perform tasks at the final 1-g lunar EVA training sessions and the time required to perform the same task on the lunar surface indicates that, in almost all cases, it took significantly more time (on the order of 40%) to perform tasks on the moon. This increased time was observed even after extraneous factors (e.g., hardware difficulties) were factored out.

  2. Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command/Service Module being moved to Operations bldg

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Transfer of Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command/Service Module for mating to the Saturn Lunar Module Adapter No. 05 in the Manned Spacecraft Operations bldg. S/C 012 will be flown on the Apollo/Saturn 204 mission.

  3. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11, 12, and 15 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections. It uses software that duplicates many of the functions of a petrological microscope.

  4. Astronaut John Young during final suiting operations for Apollo 10 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A technician attaches hose from test stand to spacesuit of Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 10 command module pilot, during final suiting operations for the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. Another technician makes adjustment behind Young.

  5. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets Neil Armstrong at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Neil A. Armstrong (left) shakes the hand of Judy Goldin (center), wife of NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right). The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

  6. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  7. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  8. Apollo 7 prime crew during water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    The prime crew of the first manned Apollo space mission, Apollo 7, is seen in Apollo Command Module Boilerplate 1102 during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. In foreground is Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., in center is Astronaut Donn F. Eisele, and in background is Astronaut Walter Cunningham.

  9. Compositional characteristics of some Apollo 14 clastic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Duncan, A. R.; Fruchter, J. S.; Mckay, S. M.; Stoeser, J. W.; Goles, G. G.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    Eighty-two subsamples of Apollo 14 materials have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques for as many as 25 elements. In many cases, it was necessary to develop new procedures to allow analyses of small specimens. Compositional relationships among Apollo 14 materials indicate that there are small but systematic differences between regolith from the valley terrain and that from Cone Crater ejecta. Fragments from 1-2 mm size fractions of regolith samples may be divided into compositional classes, and the 'soil breccias' among them are very similar to valley soils. Multicomponent linear mixing models have been used as interpretive tools in dealing with data on regolith fractions and subsamples from breccia 14321. These mixing models show systematic compositional variations with inferred age for Apollo 14 clastic materials.

  10. Rock and Roll at the Apollo 17 Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt collected 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock and regolith samples during 22 hours working on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972, while Astronaut Ronald Evans orbited in the command module. The field observations, audio descriptions, and photographs coupled with orbital data and detailed, laboratory analyses of Apollo samples provided unprecedented information about the Moon and its geologic history. The Apollo samples continue to inspire new questions and answers about the Moon. Debra Hurwitz and David Kring (Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute; Hurwitz now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) were particularly interested in solving the mystery of where the boulders came from at the base of the North Massif (station 6) and at the base of the South Massif (station 2) from which Apollo 17 astronauts collected samples of impact melt breccias. The breccias were unequivocally formed by impact processes, but forty years of analyses had not yet determined unambiguously which impact event was responsible. Was it the basin-forming event of the landing site's neighbor Serenitatis (possibly Nectarian age); the larger, nearby Imbrium basin (Imbrian age and one of the last large basins to form); a combination of these impacts or an impact event older or younger than all of the above. Tracking down the origin of the boulders would ideally unravel details of the formation age of the breccias and, ultimately, help with the historical record of basin formation on the Moon. Hurwitz and Kring verified the boulders rolled down from massif walls - Apollo 17 impact melt breccias originated in massif material, not from the Sculptured Hills, an overlying geologic unit. But the relative geologic context is easier to explain than the absolute age, at least until some discrepancies are resolved in existing Ar-Ar and U-Pb radiometric ages of the Apollo 17

  11. Managing the Moon Program: Lessons Learned from Project Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    There have been many detailed historical studies of the process of deciding on and executing the Apollo lunar landing during the 1960s and early 1970s. From the announcement of President John F Kennedy on May 25, 1961, of his decision to land an American on the Moon by the end of the decade, through the first lunar landing on July 20, 1969, on to the last of six successful Moon landings with Apollo 17 in December 1972, NASA carried out Project Apollo with enthusiasm and aplomb. While there have been many studies recounting the history of Apollo, at the time of the 30th anniversary of the first lunar landing by Apollo 11, it seems appropriate to revisit the process of large-scale technological management as it related to the lunar mission. Consequently, the NASA History Office has chosen to publish this monograph containing the recollections of key partcipants in the management process. The collective oral history presented here was recorded in 1989 at the Johnson Space Center's Gilruth Recreation Center in Houston, Texas. It includes the recollections of key participants in Apollo's administration, addressing issues such as communication between field centers, the prioritization of technological goals, and the delegation of responsibility. The following people participated: George E. Muller, Owen W. Morris, Maxime A. Faget, Robert R. Gilruth, Christopher C. Kraft, and Howard W. (Bill) Tindall. The valuable perspectives of these individuals deepen and expand our understanding of this important historical event. This is the 14th in a series of special studies prepared by the NASA History Office. The Monographs in Aerospace History series is designed to provide a wide variety of investigations relative to the history of aeronautics and space. These publications are intended to be tightly focused in terms of subject, relatively short in length, and reproduced in an inexpensive format to allow timely and broad dissemination to researchers in aerospace history.

  12. The Apollo experiment for document delivery via satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Dutch participation possibilities in the Apollo document delivery project, wishes and idea's of potential user and tender groups, and plans and activities of Dutch institutes and companies, are surveyed. The Apollo storage and transport system, demand and administration network, potential markets, and subject areas of the documents are investigated. Utilization areas (scientific, technical, administration, and business information) are listed. High tariffs and the lack of necessary provision make a direct participation strategy impossible. However, in the experimental phase, Dutch companies must be allowed to contribute in technical developments and availability of organizational and technical facilities must be stimulated.

  13. Web Apollo: a web-based genomic annotation editing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eduardo; Helt, Gregg A; Reese, Justin T; Munoz-Torres, Monica C; Childers, Chris P; Buels, Robert M; Stein, Lincoln; Holmes, Ian H; Elsik, Christine G; Lewis, Suzanna E

    2013-08-30

    Web Apollo is the first instantaneous, collaborative genomic annotation editor available on the web. One of the natural consequences following from current advances in sequencing technology is that there are more and more researchers sequencing new genomes. These researchers require tools to describe the functional features of their newly sequenced genomes. With Web Apollo researchers can use any of the common browsers (for example, Chrome or Firefox) to jointly analyze and precisely describe the features of a genome in real time, whether they are in the same room or working from opposite sides of the world.

  14. ArcGIS Digitization of Apollo Surface Traverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gladdis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Lam, F.; Mest, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo surface activities were documented in extraordinary detail, with every action performed by the astronauts while on the surface recorded either in photo, audio, film, or by written testimony [1]. The samples and in situ measurements the astronauts collected while on the lunar surface have shaped our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, and the earliest history and evolution of the inner Solar System. As part of an ongoing LASERfunded effort, we are digitizing and georeferencing data from astronaut traverses and spatially associating them to available, co-registered remote sensing data. Here we introduce the products produced so far for Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions.

  15. Impact of sex and glucose-lowering treatments on hypoglycaemic symptoms in people with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. The French Chronic Kidney Disease - Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkau, B; Metzger, M; Andreelli, F; Frimat, L; Speyer, E; Combe, C; Laville, M; Jacquelinet, C; Briançon, S; Ayav, C; Massy, Z; Pisoni, R L; Stengel, B; Fouque, D

    2018-04-06

    To describe current practices of glucose-lowering treatments in people with diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD), the associated glucose control and hypoglycaemic symptoms, with an emphasis on sex differences. Among the 3033 patients with CKD stages 3-5 recruited into the French CKD-REIN study, 645 men and 288 women had type 2 diabetes and were treated by glucose-lowering drugs. Overall, 31% were treated only with insulin, 28% with combinations of insulin and another drug, 42% with non-insulin glucose-lowering drugs. In CKD stage 3, 40% of patients used metformin, 12% at stages 4&5, similar for men and women; in CKD stage 3, 53% used insulin, similar for men and women, but at stages 4&5, 59% of men and 77% of women used insulin. Patients were reasonably well controlled, with a median HbA1c of 7.1% (54mmol/mol) in men, 7.4% (57mmol/mol) in women (P=0.0003). Hypoglycaemic symptoms were reported by 40% of men and 59% of women; they were not associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate, nor with albuminuria or with HbA1c in multivariable analyses, but they were more frequent in people treated with insulin, particularly with fast-acting and pre-mixed insulins. Glucose-lowering treatment, HbA1c and hypoglycaemic symptoms were sex dependent. Metformin use was similar in men and women, but unexpectedly low in CKD stage 3; its use could be encouraged rather than resorting to insulin. Hypoglycaemic symptoms were frequent and need to be more closely monitored, with appropriate patient-education, especially in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. The spectral code Apollo2: from lattice to 2D core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste-Delclaux, M.; Santandrea, S.; Damian, F.; Blanc-Tranchant, P.; Zmijarevic, I.; Santamarina, A.

    2005-01-01

    Apollo2 is a powerful code dedicated to neutron transport, it is a highly qualified tool for a wide range of applications from research and development studies to industrial applications. Today Apollo2 is part of several advanced 3-dimensional nuclear code packages dedicated to reactor physics, fuel cycle, criticality and safety analysis. The presentations have been organized into 7 topics: -) an introduction to Apollo2, -) cross-sections, -) flux calculation, -) advanced applications, -) Apollo2 users, specialized packages, -) qualification program, and -) the future of Apollo2. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations

  17. The spectral code Apollo2: from lattice to 2D core calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste-Delclaux, M.; Santandrea, S.; Damian, F.; Blanc-Tranchant, P.; Zmijarevic, I. [CEA Saclay (DEN/DANS/SERMA), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Santamarina, A. [CEA Cadarache (CEA/DEN/DER/SPRC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Apollo2 is a powerful code dedicated to neutron transport, it is a highly qualified tool for a wide range of applications from research and development studies to industrial applications. Today Apollo2 is part of several advanced 3-dimensional nuclear code packages dedicated to reactor physics, fuel cycle, criticality and safety analysis. The presentations have been organized into 7 topics: -) an introduction to Apollo2, -) cross-sections, -) flux calculation, -) advanced applications, -) Apollo2 users, specialized packages, -) qualification program, and -) the future of Apollo2. This document gathers only the slides of the presentations.

  18. Nutritional composition of Stevia rebaudiana, a sweet herb, and its hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect on patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritu, Mathur; Nandini, Johri

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. India shelters the highest number of diabetics and is thus known as the 'Diabetes Capital of the World'. The chemical management of diabetes has side effects and hence the present study was undertaken to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect of Stevia rebaudiana in patients with type 2 diabetes, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Its nutritional composition and use as a sweetener substitute were also assessed. Chemical analysis of dried Stevia leaf powder revealed it to be a nutritious herb with a good iron and fibre content. Intervention trials in diabetics revealed that it significantly lowered fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels. The serum triglycerides and VLDL-C levels were also significantly reduced. Hence it can be said that Stevia can safely be used as an anti-diabetic herb, as a sweetener substitute and may help to prevent cardiovascular diseases in patients with long-standing diabetes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Apollo 12, A New Vista for Lunar Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Man's second lunar landing, Apollo 12, provided a wealth of scientific information about the moon. The deployment of the magnetometer, seismometer, and ionosphere detector, and other activities on the lunar surface are described. A number of color photographs show the astronauts setting up equipment on the moon as well as close-ups of the lunar…

  20. Code-Name: Spider, Flight of Apollo 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Apollo 9, an earth orbiting mission during which the Lunar Module was first tested in space flight in preparation for the eventual moon landing missions, is the subject of this pamphlet. Many color photographs and diagrams of the Lunar Module and flight activities are included with a brief description of the mission. (PR)

  1. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  2. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Prayer Within Quarantine Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Shown here is the Apollo 11 crew inside the quarantine facility as prayer is offered by Lt. Commander John Pirrto, USS Hornet Chaplain accompanied by U.S. President Richard Nixon (front right). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  3. Searchlights Illuminate Apollo 8 on Pad 39-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Searchlights penetrate the darkness surrounding Apollo 8 on Pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center. This mission was the first manned flight using the Saturn V. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  4. Reporters Interview Family of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Newsmen talked with the wife and sons of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong after the successful launch of Apollo 11 on its trajectory to the moon. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  5. Emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This is the Official emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission which will be flown by Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt. The insignia is dominated by the image of Apollo, the Greek sun god. Suspended in space behind the head of Apollo is an American eagle of contemporary design, the red bars of the eagle's wing represent the bars in the U.S. flag; the three white stars symbolize the three astronaut crewmen. The background is deep blue space and within it are the Moon, the planet Saturn and a spiral galaxy or nebula. The Moon is partially overlaid by the eagle's wing suggesting that this is a celestial body that man has visited and in that sense conquered. The thrust of the eagle and the gaze of Apollo to the right and toward Saturn and the galaxy is meant to imply that man's goals in space will someday include the planets and perhaps the stars. The colors of the emblem are red, white and blue, the colors of our flag; with the addition of gold, to

  6. [Hypoglycaemic coma due to falsely elevated glucose values in a patient with diabetes mellitus and peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, W A; Bruijns, R H J; Vastenburg, G; Wouters, R S M E

    2006-07-15

    A 45-year-old female diabetes-mellitus patient on peritoneal dialysis was admitted because of vertigo. During her stay in hospital she developed a comatose condition with abnormal head posture and deviation ofthe eyes to the left. Capillary blood from the fingertip showed a glucose value of 15.4 mmol/l. However, the automatically obtained glucose value delivered with a blood-gas analysis was found to be 1.2 mmol/l. The neurological state of the patient normalised fully after intravenous glucose administration. The glucose values were falsely elevated because the patient used a peritoneal dialysis fluid at night which contained icodextrin as an osmotic agent. Metabolites of icodextrin can influence blood-glucose measurements taken using analyzers that depend on the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. To prevent potentially life-threatening situations, the use of an adequate glucose meter is of paramount importance.

  7. Spacecraft Conceptual Design Compared to the Apollo Lunar Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Bowie, J.; Rust, R.; Lenius, J.; Anderson, M.; Connolly, J.

    2011-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will require an optimized spacecraft design with each sub-system achieving the required minimum capability and maintaining high reliability. The objective of this study was to trade capability with reliability and minimize mass for the lunar lander spacecraft. The NASA parametric concept for a 3-person vehicle to the lunar surface with a 30% mass margin totaled was considerably heavier than the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "as flown" mass of 16.4 metric tons. The additional mass was attributed to mission requirements and system design choices that were made to meet the realities of modern spaceflight. The parametric tool used to size the current concept, Envision, accounts for primary and secondary mass requirements. For example, adding an astronaut increases the mass requirements for suits, water, food, oxygen, as well as, the increase in volume. The environmental control sub-systems becomes heavier with the increased requirements and more structure was needed to support the additional mass. There was also an increase in propellant usage. For comparison, an "Apollo-like" vehicle was created by removing these additional requirements. Utilizing the Envision parametric mass calculation tool and a quantitative reliability estimation tool designed by Valador Inc., it was determined that with today?s current technology a Lunar Module (LM) with Apollo capability could be built with less mass and similar reliability. The reliability of this new lander was compared to Apollo Lunar Module utilizing the same methodology, adjusting for mission timeline changes as well as component differences. Interestingly, the parametric concept's overall estimated risk for loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) did not significantly improve when compared to Apollo.

  8. Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 2: X-Rays, Gamma-Rays. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

    This booklet is the second in a series of nine that describe the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for high school and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method,…

  9. Recovery and Restoration of Apollo Data - An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Nagihara, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Kiefer, W. S.; Guinness, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The effort to restore Apollo lunar data, much of which was stored in obsolete formats and on unwieldy media, typically without sufficient documentation, continues to provide new insights into the workings of the Moon. The endeavor, under the auspices of the NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) Lunar Data Project and Planetary Data System (PDS) Lunar Data Node, and also funded by LASER and PDART proposals, is designed to take the data from the Apollo orbital instruments, astronaut experiments, and long-lived surface stations and convert them into well-documented, digital formats for archive in the NSSDCA and PDS. The data from the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) surface stations in particular had not been thoroughly examined. Now in standard digital formats with the aid of modern computers and algorithms, they are yielding long-term information on the lunar environment. We will review the data restoration effort in general, concentrating on data sets we have completed and those we are currently working on, which have resulted in advances in our understanding of the Moon. For example, we have restored the archived ALSEP heat flow data from Apollo 15 and 17 that covered the period from deployment to 1 January 1975 and archived them with PDS. In addition, raw data for a three month period from April to June, 1975 have been discovered and restored, and data from March 1976 through September 1977 have been read from the Apollo Work Tapes. These data confirm the subsurface temperatures at the heat flow site have been warming over many years, even at depth, and have implications for the interpretation of the heat flow coming from the Moon. Examination of the restored Lunar Ejecta And Meteorite (LEAM) data and comparison with the restored ALSEP Housekeeping data indicates that the anomalous signals recorded by LEAM are not due to electrical interference and may be due to charged dust particles. Re-examination of restored Lunar Atmospheric

  10. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  11. Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the question of "Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?" Was money really flowing freely all through Apollo? Are we wallowing in nostalgia and comparing current circumstances to a managerial time which did not exist? This talk discusses these and other questions as background for you as today s project managers. There are slides showing the timelines from before the speech that Kennedy gave promising to land a man on the moon, to the early 60's, when the manned space center prepared the preliminary lunar landing mission design, an NASA organization chart from 1970, various photos of the rockets, and the astronauts are presented. The next slides discuss the budgets from the 1960's to the early 1970's. Also the results of a survey of 62 managers, who were asked "What problems pose the greatest obstacles to successful project performance?"

  12. Odysseus and the Cult of Apollo at Delos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Marks

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores literary representations of the cult of Apollo on Delos. This island is, to be sure, mentioned only occasionally in early Greek poetry, but details specific to the cult do appear. Thus, for example, Odysseus describes a palm tree he saw at an altar of Apollo on Delos (Od. 6.162-3, and a third-century inscription from the island mentions just such a feature. References to a palm, altar, and temple at Delos in later classical authors, including Callimachus, Pliny, Cicero, and Plutarch, demonstrate that the Archaic period traditions represented by the Homeric passages continued to shape how successive generations of visitors understood Delos. The material record makes clear that the Greek epic tradition documents a time when Delos was already a well attended sanctuary, and that later constructions at the site attempted to remain consistent with the details preserved in the epics.

  13. Stratigraphy and depositional history of the Apollo 17 drill core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.

    1979-01-01

    Lithologic abundances obtained from modal analyses of a continuous string of polished thin sections indicate that the Apollo 17 deep drill core can be divided into three main zones: An upper zone (0-19 cm depth) characterized by high abundances of agglutinates (30%) and a high ratio of mare to non-mare lithic fragments (less than 0.8); a coarse-grained layer (24-56 cm) rich in fragments of high-Ti mare basalts and mineral fragments derived from them, and poor in agglutinates (6%); and a lower zone (56-285 cm) characterized by variable but generally high agglutinate abundances (25%) and a low ratio of mare to nonmare lithic fragments (0.6). Using observations of the geology of the landing site, the principles of cratering dynamics, and the vast amount of data collected on the core, the following depositional history for the section of regolith sampled by the Apollo 17 drill core: was devised.

  14. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  15. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Engineering simulation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D. W.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo Program experience from early 1962 to July 1969 with respect to the engineering-simulation support and the problems encountered is summarized in this report. Engineering simulation in support of the Apollo guidance and control system is discussed in terms of design analysis and verification, certification of hardware in closed-loop operation, verification of hardware/software compatibility, and verification of both software and procedures for each mission. The magnitude, time, and cost of the engineering simulations are described with respect to hardware availability, NASA and contractor facilities (for verification of the command module, the lunar module, and the primary guidance, navigation, and control system), and scheduling and planning considerations. Recommendations are made regarding implementation of similar, large-scale simulations for future programs.

  16. Apollo telescope mount thermal systems unit thermal vacuum test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks, H. F.; Hueter, U.; Wise, J. H.; Bachtel, F. D.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo Telescope Mount's thermal systems unit was utilized to conduct a full-scale thermal vacuum test to verify the thermal design and the analytical techniques used to develop the thermal mathematical models. Thermal vacuum test philosophy, test objectives configuration, test monitoring, environment simulation, vehicle test performance, and data correlation are discussed. Emphasis is placed on planning and execution of the thermal vacuum test with particular attention on problems encountered in conducting a test of this maguitude.

  17. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  18. Apollo 6 Transported to Launch Pad at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 6, the second and last of the unmarned Saturn V test flights, is slowly transported past the Vehicle Assembly Building on the way to launch pad 39-A. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  19. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  20. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong looks over flight plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong is looking over flight plans while being assisted by a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  1. Apollo 11 Cmdr Neil Armstrong watches STS-83 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil A. Armstrong and his wife, Carol, were among the many special NASA STS-83 launch guests who witnessed the liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia April 4 at the Banana Creek VIP Viewing Site at KSC. Columbia took off from Launch Pad 39A at 2:20:32 p.m. EST to begin the 16-day Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission.

  2. Documentation of CATHENA input files for the APOLLO computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Input files created for the VAX version of the CATHENA two-fluid code have been modified and documented for simulation on the AECB's APOLLO computer system. The input files describe the RD-14 thermalhydraulic loop, the RD-14 steam generator, the RD-12 steam generator blowdown test facility, the Stern Laboratories Cold Water Injection Facility (CWIT), and a CANDU 600 reactor. Sample CATHENA predictions are given and compared with experimental results where applicable. 24 refs

  3. Vertical view of Apollo 16 landing site located Descartes area lunar nearside

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A vertical view of the Apollo 16 landing site located in the Descartes area lunar nearside. The overlay indicates the location of the proposed touchdown point for the Apollo 16 Lunar Module. Descartes is located west of the Sea of Nectar and southwest of the Sea of Tranquility. This photograph was taken with a 500mm lens camera from lunar orbit by the Apollo 14 crew.

  4. APOLLO-2: An advanced transport code for LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathonniere, G.

    1995-01-01

    APOLLO-2 is a fully modular code in which each module corresponds to a specific task: access to the cross-sections libraries, creation of isotopes medium or mixtures, geometry definition, self-shielding calculations, computation of multigroup collision probabilities, flux solver, depletion calculations, transport-transport or transport-diffusion equivalence process, SN calculations, etc... Modules communicate exclusively by ''objects'' containing structured data, these objects are identified and handled by user's given names. Among the major improvements offered by APOLLO-2 the modelization of the self-shielding: it is possible now to deal with a great precision, checked versus Montecarlo calculations, a fuel rod divided into several concentric rings. So the total production of Plutonium is quite better estimated than before and its radial distribution may be predicted also with a good accuracy. Thanks to the versatility of the code some reference calculations and routine ones may be compared easily because only one parameter is changed; for example the self-shielding approximations are modified, the libraries or the flux solver being exactly the same. Other interesting features have been introduced in APOLLO-2: the new isotopes JEF.2 are available in 99 and 172 energy groups libraries, the surface leakage model improves the calculation of the control rod efficiency, the flux-current method allows faster calculations, the possibility of an automatic convergence checking during the depletion calculations coupled with fully automatic corrections, heterogeneous diffusion coefficients used for voiding analysis. 17 refs, 1 tab

  5. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  6. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  7. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  8. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

  9. Neil Armstrong gets round of applaus at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong stands to a round of applause after being introduced at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  10. Parnassiana nova : XLVII. Neue Unterarten von Parnassius apollo L. und Parnassius mnemosyne L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1974-01-01

    1. DREI NEUE PARNASSIUS APOLLO L. UNTERARTEN AUS SPANIEN Die Herren P. Capdeville und P. C. Rougeot haben in den letzten Jahren die verschiedenen Flugplätze von Parnassius apollo L. in Spanien aufgesucht und eine Anzahl neuer Unterarten aufgestellt. Die Kenntnis wird ergänzt durch die Beschreibung

  11. On the Moon with Apollo 15, A Guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Gene

    The booklet, published before the Apollo 15 mission, gives a timeline for the mission; describes and illustrates the physiography of the landing site; and describes and illustrates each lunar surface scientific experiment. Separate timelines are included for all traverses (the traverses are the Moon walks and, for Apollo 15, the Moon rides in the…

  12. A model for calculating expected performance of the Apollo unified S-band (USB) communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, N. W.

    1971-01-01

    A model for calculating the expected performance of the Apollo unified S-band (USB) communication system is presented. The general organization of the Apollo USB is described. The mathematical model is reviewed and the computer program for implementation of the calculations is included.

  13. 76 FR 7853 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Apollo Publishing, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... notification of voluntary relinquishment from Apollo Publishing, Inc., of its status as a Patient Safety... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Apollo Publishing, Inc. AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  14. Artist's concept of eastward view of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An artist's concept illustrating an eastward view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site. The white overlay indicates the scheduled tranverses by the Apollo 16 astronauts in the Lunar Roving Vehicle. The Roman numerals are the extravehicular activities (EVA's); and the Arabic numbers are the station stops along the traverse.

  15. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  16. Lunar heat flow: Regional prospective of the Apollo landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M. A.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    reexamine the Apollo Heat Flow Experiment in light of new orbital data. Using three-dimensional thermal conduction models, we examine effects of crustal thickness, density, and radiogenic abundance on measured heat flow values at the Apollo 15 and 17 sites. These models show the importance of regional context on heat flux measurements. We find that measured heat flux can be greatly altered by deep subsurface radiogenic content and crustal density. However, total crustal thickness and the presence of a near-surface radiogenic-rich ejecta provide less leverage, representing only minor (<1.5 mW m-2) perturbations on surface heat flux. Using models of the crust implied by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory results, we found that a roughly 9-13 mW m-2 mantle heat flux best approximate the observed heat flux. This equates to a total mantle heat production of 2.8-4.1 × 1011 W. These heat flow values could imply that the lunar interior is slightly less radiogenic than the Earth's mantle, perhaps implying that a considerable fraction of terrestrial mantle material was incorporated at the time of formation. These results may also imply that heat flux at the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Procellarum potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus (KREEP) Terrane (PKT) is anomalously elevated compared to the rest of the Moon. These results also suggest that a limited KREEP-rich layer exists beneath the PKT crust. If a subcrustal KREEP-rich layer extends below the Apollo 17 landing site, required mantle heat flux can drop to roughly 7 mW m-2, underlining the need for future heat flux measurements outside of the radiogenic-rich PKT region.

  17. NASA Officials in MCC to decide whether to land Apollo 16 or cancel landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    NASA Officials gather around a console in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC) prior to the making of a decision whether to land Apollo 16 on the moon or to abort the landing. Seated, left to right, are Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and Brig. Gen. James A. McDivitt (USAF), Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, MSC; and standing, left to right, are Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office Manned Space Flight (OMSF), NASA HQ.; Capt. John K. Holcolmb (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Director of Apollo Operations, OMSF; Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Deputy Director, MSC; Capt. Chester M. Lee (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Apollo Mission Director, OMSF; Dale D. Myers, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight; and Dr. George M. Low, NASA Deputy Administrator.

  18. The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  19. SGN III code conversion from Apollo to HP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae Cho

    1996-04-01

    SGN III computer code is used to analyze transient behavior of reactor coolant system, pressurizer and steam generators in the event of main steam line break (MSLB), and to calculate mass and energy release for containment design. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of SFN III on Apollo DN 10000 and code validation results after installation. Secondly, a series of work is also describes in relation to installation of SGN III on HP 9000/700 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 8 refs. (Author) .new

  20. CONTRANS 2 code conversion from Apollo to HP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae Cho

    1996-01-01

    CONTRANS2 computer code is used to calculate transient thermal hydraulic responses of containment building to loss of coolant and main steam line break accident. Mass and energy release to the containment following an accident are code inputs. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of CONTRANS2 on Apollo DN10000 and code validation results after installation. Secondly, A series of work is also describes in relation to installation of CONTRANS2 on HP 9000/700 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 7 refs. (Author) .new

  1. Location of Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device in Apollo Command Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The location of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device (MEED) installed on the open hatch of the Apollo Command Module is illustrated in this photograph. The MEED, equipment of the Microbial Response in Space Environment experiment, will house a selection of microbial systems. The MEED will be deployed during the extravehicular activity on the transearth coast phase of the Aopllo 16 lunar landing mission. The purpose of the experiment will be to measure the effects of certain space environmental parameters on the microbial test systems.

  2. CESEC III code conversion from Apollo to HP9000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Cho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    CESEC code is a computer program used to analyze transient behaviour of reactor coolant systems of nuclear power plants. CESEC III is an extension of original CESEC code in order to apply wide range of accident analysis including ATWS model. Major parameters during the transients are calculated by CESEC. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of CESEC III on Apollo DN10000 and code validation results after installation. Secondly, A series of work is also described in relation to installation of CESECIII on HP 9000/700 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 7 refs. (Author) .new.

  3. CESEC III code conversion from Apollo to HP9000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae Cho

    1996-01-01

    CESEC code is a computer program used to analyze transient behaviour of reactor coolant systems of nuclear power plants. CESEC III is an extension of original CESEC code in order to apply wide range of accident analysis including ATWS model. Major parameters during the transients are calculated by CESEC. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of CESEC III on Apollo DN10000 and code validation results after installation. Secondly, A series of work is also described in relation to installation of CESECIII on HP 9000/700 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 7 refs. (Author) .new

  4. Deterioration of plasticized PVC components in Apollo spacesuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne; Schnell, Ulrich; Young, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Spacesuits from the Apollo era are unique in their history, materials and construction. This project involved the first detailed examination of the condition of the spacesuits since their acquisition by the National Air and Space Museum in the 1970s. Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing...... in the Life Support System, used to transport air and water to the astronaut, and in the Liquid Cooling Garment, used to cool the wearer of the spacesuit, exhibited high levels of deterioration. Tubing was unacceptably discoloured, tacky to the touch and surfaces were obscured by crystals. Visual examination...

  5. Estimation of Apollo lunar dust transport using optical extinction measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    A technique to estimate mass erosion rate of surface soil during landing of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) and total mass ejected due to the rocket plume interaction is proposed and tested. The erosion rate is proportional to the product of the second moment of the lofted particle size distribution N(D), and third moment of the normalized soil size distribution S(D), divided by the integral of S(D)D^2/v(D), where D is particle diameter and v(D) is the vertical component of particle velocity. Th...

  6. Apollo 16 exploration of Descartes - A geologic summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Cayley Plains at the Apollo 16 landing site consist of crudely stratified breccias to a depth of at least 200 meters, overlain by a regolith 10 to 15 meters thick. Samples, photographs, and observations by the astronauts indicate that most of the rocks are impact breccias derived from an anorthosite-gabbro complex. The least brecciated members of the suite include coarse-grained anorthosite and finer-grained, more mafic rocks, some with igneous and some with metamorphic textures. Much of the transverse area is covered by ejecta from North Ray and South Ray craters, but the abundance of rock fragments increases to the south toward the younger South Ray crater.

  7. Composition and size of Apollo asteroid 1984 KB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey F.; Hawke, B. Ray; Brown, Robert Hamilton

    1988-01-01

    The Class S object-typifying spectral signatures of olivine, pyroxene, and NiFe metal are noted in the present reflection spectra and thermal-emission radiometric data for the earth orbit-crossing Apollo object, 1984KB; a surface material akin to the rare lodranite meteorites. While the Class S object identification is strengthened by standard asteroid thermal model's indication of an about 0.7-km radius, and albedo of about 0.16, which is inconsistent with the IR spectrum, is obtained by an analysis of the same thermal data with a bare-rock thermal model. The object must have a significant regolith despite its small size.

  8. Lunar plant biology--a review of the Apollo era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Recent plans for human return to the Moon have significantly elevated scientific interest in the lunar environment with emphasis on the science to be done in preparation for the return and while on the lunar surface. Since the return to the Moon is envisioned as a dedicated and potentially longer-term commitment to lunar exploration, questions of the lunar environment and particularly its impact on biology and biological systems have become a significant part of the lunar science discussion. Plants are integral to the discussion of biology on the Moon. Plants are envisioned as important components of advanced habitats and fundamental components of advanced life-support systems. Moreover, plants are sophisticated multicellular eukaryotic life-forms with highly orchestrated developmental processes, well-characterized signal transduction pathways, and exceedingly fine-tuned responses to their environments. Therefore, plants represent key test organisms for understanding the biological impact of the lunar environment on terrestrial life-forms. Indeed, plants were among the initial and primary organisms that were exposed to returned lunar regolith from the Apollo lunar missions. This review discusses the original experiments involving plants in association with the Apollo samples, with the intent of understanding those studies within the context of the first lunar exploration program and drawing from those experiments the data to inform the studies critical within the next lunar exploration science agenda.

  9. Base flow investigation of the Apollo AS-202 Command Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpot, Louis M. G.; Wright, Michael J.; Noeding, Peter; Schrijer, Ferry

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the overall vehicle mass of re-entry vehicles is the afterbody thermal protection system. This is due to the large acreage (equal or bigger than that of the forebody) to be protected. The present predictive capabilities for base flows are comparatively lower than those for windward flowfields and offer therefore a substantial potential for improving the design of future re-entry vehicles. To that end, it is essential to address the accuracy of high fidelity CFD tools exercised in the US and EU, which motivates a thorough investigation of the present status of hypersonic flight afterbody heating. This paper addresses the predictive capabilities of afterbody flow fields of re-entry vehicles investigated in the frame of the NATO/RTO-RTG-043 task group. First, the verification of base flow topologies on the basis of available wind-tunnel results performed under controlled supersonic conditions (i.e. cold flows devoid of reactive effects) is performed. Such tests address the detailed characterization of the base flow with particular emphasis on separation/reattachment and their relation to Mach number effects. The tests have been performed on an Apollo-like re-entry capsule configuration. Second, the tools validated in the frame of the previous effort are exercised and appraised against flight-test data collected during the Apollo AS-202 re-entry.

  10. Estimation of Apollo Lunar Dust Transport using Optical Extinction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2015-04-01

    A technique to estimate mass erosion rate of surface soil during landing of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM) and total mass ejected due to the rocket plume interaction is proposed and tested. The erosion rate is proportional to the product of the second moment of the lofted particle size distribution N(D), and third moment of the normalized soil size distribution S(D), divided by the integral of S(D)ṡD2/v(D), where D is particle diameter and v(D) is the vertical component of particle velocity. The second moment of N(D) is estimated by optical extinction analysis of the Apollo cockpit video. Because of the similarity between mass erosion rate of soil as measured by optical extinction and rainfall rate as measured by radar reflectivity, traditional NWS radar/rainfall correlation methodology can be applied to the lunar soil case where various S(D) models are assumed corresponding to specific lunar sites.

  11. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  12. An absolute calibration system for millimeter-accuracy APOLLO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Birkmeier, K. J.; Colmenares, N. R.; Davis, R.; Hoyle, C. D.; Huang, L. R.; McMillan, R. J.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Schlerman, E.; Skrobol, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zach, A.

    2017-12-01

    Lunar laser ranging provides a number of leading experimental tests of gravitation—important in our quest to unify general relativity and the standard model of physics. The apache point observatory lunar laser-ranging operation (APOLLO) has for years achieved median range precision at the  ∼2 mm level. Yet residuals in model-measurement comparisons are an order-of-magnitude larger, raising the question of whether the ranging data are not nearly as accurate as they are precise, or if the models are incomplete or ill-conditioned. This paper describes a new absolute calibration system (ACS) intended both as a tool for exposing and eliminating sources of systematic error, and also as a means to directly calibrate ranging data in situ. The system consists of a high-repetition-rate (80 MHz) laser emitting short (motivating continued work on model capabilities. The ACS provides the means to deliver APOLLO data both accurate and precise below the 2 mm level.

  13. The link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcat, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Made in the frame of a French master on political history of USA in Paris IV La Sorbonne University, this subject is the third part of " The Economy of Apollo during the 60s". Nicolas Turcat is actually preparing his PhD in History of Innovation (DEA—Paris IV La Sorbonne). Our actual subject is " the link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years". This speech will highlight on some aspects of the link between NASA and aerospace industry. NASA could achieve the Apollo mission safely and under heavy financial pressure during the sixties due to a new type of organization for a civil agency; the contractor system. In fact, Military used it since the 1950s. And we will see how the development of this type of contract permitted a better interaction between the two parts. NASA would make another type of link with universities and technical institutes; a real brain trust was created, and between 1961 and 1967, 10,000 students worked and more than 200 universities on Apollo program. We will try to study briefly the procurement plan and process during the Apollo years. Without entering the " spin-offs debate", we will try to watch different aspects of the impacts and realities of the contractor and subcontractor system. We will see that would create a political debate inside USA when presidents Johnson and Nixon would decide to reduce Apollo program. Which states will benefit Apollo program? Or questions like how the debate at the end of the 1960s will become more and more political? Actually, almost 60% of the country's R&D was focused on Apollo, economical and moreover, political impacts would be great. We will try to study this under the light of different example: and particularly in California. The industrial and military complex was a part of the Apollo program. Apollo reoriented the aim of this complex for making it the first aerospace industry. Since this time, USA had not only acquired space ambition but real space capabilities. But more than

  14. Regolith irradiation stratigraphy at the Apollo 16 and 17 landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozaz, G.

    1978-01-01

    Additional fossil track measurements in the Apollo 17 deep drill stem, as well as detailed track studies in section 3 of the Apollo 16 deep drill core are reported. Although the upper part of the Apollo 17 core seems to have accreted rapidly, no evidence for a rapid accretion of the lower part, as postulated by some authors, is found. Despite the apparent inhomogeneity of section 60003, its track record is unexpectedly homogeneous; all levels are heavily irradiated and emplacement of big slabs of material is not favored.

  15. Neil Armstrong talks of his experiences at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Neil Armstrong, former Apollo 11 astronaut, and first man to walk on the moon, talks about his experiences for an enthusiastic audience at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. The occasion was a banquet celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Gene Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon.

  16. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  17. Physical Properties of Aten, Apollo and Amor asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, L.A.; Tholen, D.J.; Veeder, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    The physical properties of Aten, Apollo and Amor objects includeing their taxonomy, composition, size, rotation rate, shape and surface texture, are derived from observations using spectrophometry, reflectance spectroscopy, broadband photometry, radiometry, polarimetry and radar. The authors discuss how their current understanding of this population is that it is diverse in terms of all physical properties that can be studied from the ground and consists of contributions from more than one source region. Almost all taxonomic types found in the main belt are present amoung this population. Class Q objects are unique to the AAAO population. Both low-temperature assemblages, which are dark and probably carbonaceous-rich, and high-temperature, differentiated assemblages of olivine, pyroxene and metallic phases, are found amoung the AAAO. These asteroids have experienced a range of different thermal regimes in the past. Discovery biases probably create the high abundance of bright objects. A bimodal distribution of rotation rates indicates that the population is not collisionally evolved

  18. Apollo 14 crewmen near site of volcanic eruption on Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Prime crewmen and backup crewmen of the Apollo 14 mission look over an area near the site of a volcanic eruption in Aloi Alae, Hawaii. Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr. (leaning with left hand on ground) and Edgar D. Mitchell (behind Shepard, wearing dark glasses) are the prime crewmen scheduled to walk on the moon. Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (almost obscured at extreme left) and Joe H. Engle (partially visible, on Cernan's right) are back-up crew commander and lunar module pilot, respectively, for the mission. Others in the photograph are Pat Crosland (in hard hat), a geologist and a park ranger in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Michael C McEwen (facing Mitchell) of the Geology Branch, Lunar and Earth Sciences Division, Manned Spacecraft Center; and Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, who made the trip to serve as a spacecraft communicator during simulations of extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface.

  19. The apollo 15 lunar samples: A preliminary description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, P.W.; Phinney, W.C.; Duke, M.B.; Silver, L.T.; Hubbard, N.J.; Heiken, G.H.; Butler, P.; McKay, D.S.; Warner, J.L.; Morrison, D.A.; Horz, F.; Head, J.; Lofgren, G.E.; Ridley, W.I.; Reid, A.M.; Wilshire, H.; Lindsay, J.F.; Carrier, W.D.; Jakes, P.; Bass, M.N.; Brett, P.R.; Jackson, E.D.; Rhodes, J.M.; Bansal, B.M.; Wainwright, J.E.; Parker, K.A.; Rodgers, K.V.; Keith, J.E.; Clark, R.S.; Schonfeld, E.; Bennett, L.; Robbins, Martha M.; Portenier, W.; Bogard, D.D.; Hart, W.R.; Hirsch, W.C.; Wilkin, R.B.; Gibson, E.K.; Moore, C.B.; Lewis, C.F.

    1972-01-01

    Samples returned from the Apollo 15 site consist of mare basalts and breccias with a variety of premare igneous rocks. The mare basalts are from at least two different lava flows. The bulk chemical compositions and textures of these rocks confirm the previous conclusion that the lunar maria consist of a series of extrusive volcanic rocks that are rich in iron and poor in sodium. The breccias contain abundant clasts of anorthositic fragments along with clasts of basaltic rocks much richer in plagioclase than the mare basalts. These two rock types also occur as common components in soil samples from this site. The rocks and soils from both the front and mare region exhibit a variety of shock characteristics that can best be ascribed to ray material from the craters Aristillus or Autolycus.

  20. Irradiation stratigraphy in the Apollo 16 deep drill section 60002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, G. E.; Wood, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    Particle track density frequency distributions, abundance of track rich grains and minimum track densities are reported for the upper 20 cm of the 60002 section of the Apollo 16 deep drill core. The principal stratigraphic feature is a boundary approximately 7 cm from the top of the section. Experimental evidence does not conclusively determine whether this contact is an ancient regolith surface or is simply a depositional boundary. If it is an ancient surface, it has a model exposure age of 3 to 7 million years and a reworking depth of about 0.5 cm. However, because track density frequency distributions indicate the mixing of soils of different maturities, we favor interpreting this contact as a depositional boundary. There may be a second depositional boundary approximately 19 cm below the top of 60002.

  1. [Inspired by Apollo and Asclepio's sons in Homer and Virgil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, R L

    1989-01-01

    Important passages of the Homeric and Virgilian epic are regarding the art of divination and the medical science, and underline contextually the figures of the fortune teller and that of the physician. Two roles are associated to one matrix: heroic-aristocratic or royal-sacerdotal. In Homer's epic it is possible to single out surgical and phytotherapeutic knowledge together with remedies for diseases aroused by a solar god, like Apollo is, gods' physician. Pitiful divinities comfort those who have been struck by demoniac and mysterious forms. On the contrary, in Virgil's epic a symbiosis is carried out between the physician's figure and the priest's one, with the very vague outlines of the two arts and however, overloaded by factors which are typically Virgilian. Unusual form of incubation of the Greek rituals has been transplanted in the Latin matrix; and moreover there is a constant recall of words used in their most antique meaning.

  2. The Legacy of Apollo: a Thirty Year Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    2002-01-01

    John F. Kennedy's challenge in 1961 for an American commitment toward "achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth" stimulated a remarkable coincidence of many truly American characteristics. It can be argued that American's do truly great things for humanity and themselves when five societal conditions are in coincidence - a sufficient base of technology to serve as a foundation for the effort, a reservoir of young engineers and skilled workers to draw up on, a pervasive environment of national unease about the way things are, a catalytic event that begins to focus attention on a potential goal worth the Nation's effort, and an articulate and trusted President. Kennedy fully deserves the credit for recognizing the needed response to the Soviet challenge and thus formally initiating the U.S. effort that first put men, in particular, Americans on the Moon. Much of the conceptual and political heavy lifting, however, necessary to give policy makers the confidence that such an effort could be successful, had been undertaken in the last few years of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Administration. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had been created in 1958, NASA and industry studies of manned lunar missions were well advanced, and Eisenhower had initiated the development of rockets capable of such missions. Apollo also gave all human beings a new evolutionary status in the universe as well as a new foundation of know-how for life on Earth. With Apollo, humankind demonstrated that it had the intellect and the will to go into space and stay there permanently. As a consequence, young people alive today will live on the Moon and Mars and will help their home planet survive itself as America helped former homelands in Europe and Asia in recent centuries. race to the Moon. Both Americans and Russians can be proud of the eventual results of their competition.

  3. Revolution in Field Science: Apollo Approach to Inaccessible Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.

    2010-07-01

    The extraordinary challenge mission designers, scientists, and engineers, faced in planning the first human expeditions to the surface of another solar system body led to the development of a distinctive and even revolutionary approach to field work. Not only were those involved required to deal effectively with the extreme limitation in resources available for and access to a target as remote as the lunar surface; they were required to developed a rigorous approach to science activities ranging from geological field work to deploying field instruments. Principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work are discussed here, including the highly integrated, intensive, and lengthy science planning, simulation, and astronaut training; the development of a systematic scheme for description and documentation of geological sites and samples; and a flexible yet disciplined methodology for site documentation and sample collection. The capability for constant communication with a ‘backroom’ of geological experts who make requests and weigh in on surface operations was innovative and very useful in encouraging rapid dissemination of information to the greater community in general. An extensive archive of the Apollo era science activity related documents provides evidence of the principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work. The Apollo Surface Journal allows analysis of the astronaut’s performance in terms of capability for traveling on foot, documentation and sampling of field stations, and manual operation of tools and instruments, all as a function of time. The application of these analysis as ‘lessons learned’ for planning the next generation of human or robotic field science activities on the Moon and elsewhere are considered here as well.

  4. APOLLO 15 HEAT FLOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY RDR SUBSAMPLED V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises a reduced, subsampled set of the data returned from the Apollo 15 Heat Flow Experiment from 31 July 1971 through 31 December 1974. The...

  5. APOLLO 17 HEAT FLOW THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY RDR SUBSAMPLED V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises a reduced, subsampled set of the data returned from the Apollo 17 Heat Flow Experiment from 12 December 1972 through 31 December 1974. The...

  6. Apollo-Soyuz test project: Composite of MSFC final science report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Experimental procedures of nine experiments conducted during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission from July 15th to July 24th, 1975 are presented. Conclusions and recommendations based on these experiments are given.

  7. Hurricane Gladys, Gulf of Mexico as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Hurricane Gladys, Gulf of Mexico, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 91st revolution of the earth. Photographed from an altitude of 99 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 144 hours and 27 minutes.

  8. Basin Contributions to the Stratigraphy of the Apollo 16 Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskin, Larry A.

    2001-01-01

    Ejecta deposit modeling suggests that the megaregolith at the Apollo 16 landing site is dominated by Imbrium and Serenitatis ejecta, and Nectaris ejecta are a minor componen Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.t.

  9. Apollo 10 astronauts in space suits in front of Command Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Three astronauts named as the prime crew of the Apollo 10 space mission. Left to right, are Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot; John W. Young, command module pilot; and Thomas P. Stafford, commander.

  10. Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing mission in his space suit, with his helmet on the table in front of him. Behind him is a large photograph of the lunar surface.

  11. Hadley Rille, lava tubes and mare volcanism at the Apollo 15 site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greeley, R.; Spudis, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    Hadley Rille appears to be a collapsed lava tube/channel, whose formation history may be more intimately related to the mare units sampled at 15 than was previously thought. More work is needed relating samples and observations from Apollo 15 to the rille and its geologic evolution. As the only sinuous rille visited during the Apollo missions, Hadley Rille represents a data source that is directly applicable to the deciphering of processes involved in lunar mare volcanism

  12. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Glove handlers work with freshly opened Apollo 14 lunar sample material in modularized cabinets in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The glove operator on the right starts to pour fine lunar material which he has just taken from a tote bag. This powdery sample was among the last to be revealed of the 90-odd pounds of material brought back to Earth by the Apollo 14 crewmen.

  13. Flight feeding systems design and evaluation. Supplement 1: Production guides. [for the Apollo food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for processing, packaging, testing, and shipment of foods selected for use in the Apollo food system are presented. Specific foodstuffs chosen from the following categories are discussed: (1) soups; (2) juices; (3) breads; (4) meat and poultry products; (5) fruits and nuts; (6) desserts; and (7) beverages. Food procurement for the mobile quarantine facility and for Apollo preflight and postflight activities is also discussed.

  14. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  15. Apollo 8 prime crew seen during water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    The prime crew of the Apollo 8 mission in life raft awaiting pickup by U.S. Coast Guard helicopter during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. They had just egressed Apollo Boilerplate 1102A, at left. Inflated bags were used to upright the boilerplate. Left to right, are Astronauts William A. Anders, lunar module pilot; James A. Lovell Jr., command module pilot; and Frank Borman, commander. A team of Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) swimmers assisted with the training exercise.

  16. Apollo 11 crew on ship during water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission relaxes on the deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever prior to participating in water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Left to right, are Astronauts Edwin A. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot; Neil A. Armstrong, commander; and Michael Collins, command module pilot. In the background is Apollo Boilerplate 1102 which was used in the training exercise.

  17. Engineering aspects of the experiment and results of animal tests. [Apollo 17 Biological Cosmic Ray Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Look, B. C.; Tremor, J. W.; Barrows, W. F.; Zabower, H. R.; Suri, K.; Park, E. G., Jr.; Durso, J. A.; Leon, H. A.; Haymaker, W.; Lindberg, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    A closed passive system independent of support from the spacecraft or its crew was developed to house five pocket mice for their flight on Apollo XVII. The reaction of potassium superoxide with carbon dioxide and water vapor to produce oxygen provided a habitable atmosphere within the experiment package. The performance of the system and the ability of the mice to survive the key preflight tests gave reasonable assurance that the mice would also withstand the Apollo flight.-

  18. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  19. Cosmic ray exposure ages of features and events at the Apollo landing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidson, R.; Crozaz, G.; Drozd, R.J.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Morgan, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Cosmic ray exposure ages of lunar samples have been used to date surface features related to impact cratering and downslope movement of material. Only when multiple samples related to a feature have the same rare gas exposure age, or when a single sample has the same 81 Kr-Kr and track exposure age can a feature be considered reliably dated. Because any single lunar sample is likely to have had a complex history, assignment of ages to features based upon only one determination by any method should be avoided. Based on the above criteria, there are only five well-dated lunar features: Cone Crater (Apollo 14) 26 m.y., North Ray Crater (Apollo 16) 50 m.y., South Ray Crater (Apollo 16) 2 m.y., the emplacement of the Station 6 boulders (Apollo 17) 22 m.y., and the emplacement of the Station 7 boulder (Apollo 17) 28 m.y. Other features are tentatively dated or have limits set on their ages: Bench Crater (Apollo 12) =50 m.y. (Auth.)

  20. Restoration and Reexamination of Apollo Lunar Dust Detector Data from Original Telemetry Files

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent

    2012-01-01

    We are recovering the original telemetry (Figure I) from the Apollo Dust, Thermal, Radiation Environment Monitor (DTREM) experiment, more commonly known as the Dust Detector, and producing full time resolution (54 second) data sets for release through the Planetary Data System (PDS). The primary objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of dust deposition, temperature, and radiation damage on solar cells on the lunar surface. The monitor was a small box consisting of three solar cells and thermistors mounted on the ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package) central station. The Dust Detector was carried on Apollo's 11, 12, 14 and 15. The Apollo 11 DTREM was powered by solar cells and only operated for a few months as planned. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 detectors operated for 5 to 7 years, returning data every 54 seconds, consisting of voltage outputs from the three solar cells and temperatures measured by the three thermistors. The telemetry was received at ground stations and held on the Apollo Housekeeping (known as "Word 33") tapes. made available to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) by Yosio Nakamura (University of Texas Institute for Geophysics). We have converted selected parts of the telemetry into uncalibrated and calibrated output voltages and temperatures.

  1. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  2. Review of measurements of dust movements on the Moon during Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.

    2011-11-01

    This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270 g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969-30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed, taken back to Earth into quarantine and lost; and (iii) the 7.5 kg Lunar Ejecta and Meteoroids (LEAM) experiment of Apollo 17, whose original tapes and plots are lost. LEAM, designed to measure rare impacts of cosmic dust, registered scores of events each lunation most frequently around sunrise and sunset. LEAM data are accepted as caused by heavily-charged particles of lunar dust at speeds of motivation for returning to the Moon. New analyses here show some raw data are sporadic bursts of 1, 2, 3 or more events within time bubbles smaller than 0.6 s, not predicted by theoretical dust models but consistent with noise bits caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from switching of large currents in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP), as occurred in pre-flight LEAM-acceptance tests. On the Moon switching is most common around sunrise and sunset in a dozen heavy-duty heaters essential for operational survival during 350 h of lunar night temperatures of minus 170 °C. Another four otherwise unexplained features of LEAM data are consistent with the "noise bits" hypothesis. Discoveries with DDE and TDS reported in 1970 and 1971, though overlooked, and extensive DDE discoveries in 2009 revealed strengths of adhesive and cohesive forces of lunar dust. Rocket exhaust gases during Lunar Module (LM) ascent caused dust and debris to (i) contaminate instruments 17 m distant (Apollo 11) as expected, and (ii) unexpectedly cleanse Apollo hardware 130 m (Apollo 12) and 180 m (Apollo 14) from LM. TDS photos uniquely document in situ cohesion of dust particles and their adhesion to 12

  3. Update on Apollo Data Restoration by the NSSDC and the PDS Lunar Data Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, K. Kent; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie J.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) , under the auspices of the Geosciences Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS) and the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), is continuing its efforts to recover and restore Apollo science data. The data being restored are in large part archived with NSSDC on older media, but unarchived data are also being recovered from other sources. They are typically on 7- or 9-track magnetic tapes, often in obsolete formats, or held on microfilm, microfiche, or paper documents. The goal of the LDN is to restore these data from their current form, which is difficult for most researchers to access, into common digital formats with all necessary supporting data (metadata) and archive the data sets with PDS. Restoration involves reading the data from the original media, deciphering the data formats to produce readable digital data and converting the data into usable tabular formats. Each set of values in the table must then be understood in terms of the quantity measured and the units used. Information on instrument properties, operational history, and calibrations is gathered and added to the data set, along with pertinent references, contacts, and other ancillary documentation. The data set then undergoes a peer review and the final validated product is archived with PDS. Although much of this effort has concentrated on data archived at NSSDC in the 1970's, we have also recovered data and information that were never sent to NSSDC. These data, retrieved from various outside sources, include raw and reduced Gamma-Ray Spectrometer data from Apollos 15 and 16, information on the Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta And Meteorites experiment, Dust Detector data from Apollos 11, 12, 14, and I5, raw telemetry tapes from the Apollo ALSEPs, and Weekly Status Reports for all the Apollo missions. These data are currently being read or organized, and supporting data is being gathered. We are still looking for the calibrated heat flow data from Apollos 15 and 17 for the

  4. Apollo: giving application developers a single point of access to public health models using structured vocabularies and Web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael M; Levander, John D; Brown, Shawn; Hogan, William R; Millett, Nicholas; Hanna, Josh

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Apollo Web Services and Apollo-SV, its related ontology. The Apollo Web Services give an end-user application a single point of access to multiple epidemic simulators. An end user can specify an analytic problem-which we define as a configuration and a query of results-exactly once and submit it to multiple epidemic simulators. The end user represents the analytic problem using a standard syntax and vocabulary, not the native languages of the simulators. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this design by implementing a set of Apollo services that provide access to two epidemic simulators and two visualizer services.

  5. The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of

  6. Indigenous Carbon Embedded in Apollo 17 Black Volcanic Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. The levels of such organic material were expected to be and found to be small. Previous work on this topic includes Murphy et al. [1] who reported the presence of anthropogenic organics with sub-ppm concentrations in Apollo 11 fines. In Apollo 12 samples, Preti et al. [2] detected low levels, < 10 ppb or below, of more complex organic material that may have been synthesized by abrupt heating during analysis. Kvenvolden et al. [3] detected porphyrin-like pigments at the ng to pg level in an Apollo 11 bulk sample. Hodgson et al. [4] and Ponnamperuma et al. [5] suggested that most if not all porphyrins were synthesized from rocket fuel during module landing. Chang et al. [6] reported indigenous carbon ranging from 5-20 g/g in the form of metal carbides in Apollo 11 fines. Hare et al. [7] reported amino acids at he 50 ng/g level in Apollo 11 samples but suggested the results may be explained as contamination. More recently, Clemett et al. [8] reported simple polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at concentrations of < 1ppm in an Apollo 16 soil. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity, but also its heterogeneous distribution. If the sample size required for a measurement is large relative to the localization of organics, detection is limited not by ultimate sensitivity but rather by the ability to distinguish an indigenous signature from background contamination [9].

  7. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  8. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Quesnel, Y.; Lepaulard, C.; Lima, E. A.; Manfredi, M.; Rochette, P.

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10-7 Am2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  9. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M; Gattacceca, J; Quesnel, Y; Lepaulard, C; Lima, E A; Manfredi, M; Rochette, P

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10 -7 Am 2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  10. FLOOD 3 code conversion from Apollo to HP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae Cho

    1996-01-01

    FLOOD3 is a Fortran program used to analyze LOCA Reflood and Post Reflood transients for purpose of mechanistically generating containment sizing mass/energy source terms. The reflood time frame starts when safety injection water first enters the bottom of the core, following the initial LOCA blowdown phase, and the ends when liquid level in the core is high enough to quench the core. The post reflood phase starts at the end of reflood phase and lasts until the end of LOCA transient period. Longterm core cooling is initiated following post reflood phase. FLOOD3 code dose not contain separate capability for longterm cooling analysis. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of FLOOD3 on Apollo DN10000 and code validation results after installation. Secondly, A series of work is also describes in relation to installation of FLOOD3 on HP 9000/700 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 7 refs. (Author) .new

  11. FLOOD 3 code conversion from Apollo to HP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hae Cho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    FLOOD3 is a Fortran program used to analyze LOCA Reflood and Post Reflood transients for purpose of mechanistically generating containment sizing mass/energy source terms. The reflood time frame starts when safety injection water first enters the bottom of the core, following the initial LOCA blowdown phase, and the ends when liquid level in the core is high enough to quench the core. The post reflood phase starts at the end of reflood phase and lasts until the end of LOCA transient period. Longterm core cooling is initiated following post reflood phase. FLOOD3 code dose not contain separate capability for longterm cooling analysis. This report firstly describes detailed work carried out for installation of FLOOD3 on Apollo DN10000 and code validation results after installation. Secondly, A series of work is also describes in relation to installation of FLOOD3 on HP 9000/700 series as well as relevant code validation results. Attached is a report on software verification and validation results. 7 refs. (Author) .new.

  12. Apollo Video Photogrammetry Estimation Of Plume Impingement Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip T.; Clements, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Project's planned return to the moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the Lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. Much work is needed to understand the physics of plume impingement during landing in order to protect hardware surrounding the landing sites. While mostly qualitative in nature, the Apollo Lunar Module landing videos can provide a wealth of quantitative information using modem photogrammetry techniques. The authors have used the digitized videos to quantify plume impingement effects of the landing exhaust on the lunar surface. The dust ejection angle from the plume is estimated at 1-3 degrees. The lofted particle density is estimated at 10(exp 8)- 10(exp 13) particles per cubic meter. Additionally, evidence for ejection of large 10-15 cm sized objects and a dependence of ejection angle on thrust are presented. Further work is ongoing to continue quantitative analysis of the landing videos.

  13. Armstrong Retrieves Equipment From Apollo 11 Storage Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Astronauts onboard included Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Armstrong is removing scientific equipment from a storage bay of the LM. The brilliant sunlight emphasizes the U. S. Flag to the left. The object near the flag is the Solar Wind Composition Experiment deployed by Aldrin earlier.

  14. Qualification of the APOLLO2 lattice physics code of the NURISP platform for WWER hexagonal lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegyi, G.; Kereszturi, A.; Tota, A.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments performed at the ZR-6 zero critical reactor by the Temporary International Collective and a numerical assembly burnup benchmark specified for depletion calculation of a WWER-440 assembly containing gadolinium burnable poison were used to qualify the APOLLO2 (APOLLO2.8-E3) code as a part of its ongoing validation activity. The work is part of the NURISP project, where KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute undertook to develop and qualify some calculation schemes for hexagonal problems. Concerning the ZR-6 measurements, single cell, macro cell and two-dimensional calculations of selected regular and perturbed experiments are being used for the validation. In the two-dimensional cases the radial leakage is also taken into account in the calculations together with the axial leakage represented by the measured axial buckling. Criticality parameter and reaction rate comparisons are presented. Although various sets of the experiments have been selected for the validation, good agreement of the measured and calculated parameters could be found by using the different options offered by APOLLO2. An additional mathematical benchmark-presented in the paper - also attests for the reliability of APOLLO2. All the test results prove the reliability of APOLLO2 for WWER core calculations. (Authors)

  15. Rocket ranch the nuts and bolts of the Apollo Moon program at Kennedy Space Center

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Jonathan Ward takes the reader deep into the facilities at Kennedy Space Center to describe NASA’s first computer systems used for spacecraft and rocket checkout and explain how tests and launches proceeded. Descriptions of early operations include a harrowing account of the heroic efforts of pad workers during the Apollo 1 fire. A companion to the author’s book Countdown to a Moon Launch: Preparing Apollo for Its Historic Journey, this explores every facet of the facilities that served as the base for the Apollo/Saturn missions. Hundreds of illustrations complement the firsthand accounts of more than 70 Apollo program managers and engineers. The era of the Apollo/Saturn missions was perhaps the most exciting period in American space exploration history. Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center were buzzing with activity. Thousands of workers came to town to build the facilities and launch the missions needed to put an American on the Moon before the end of the decade. Work at KSC involved much more than j...

  16. Apollo 12 feldspathic basalts 12031, 12038, and 12072; petrology, comparison and interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, E.W.; Hill, S.M.R.; Albee, A.L.; Baldridge, W.S.

    1979-01-01

    Modal and chemical data indicate that 12072, 12038, and 12031, the Apollo 12 feldspathic basalts, form a well-defined group which cannot be related to the other Apollo 12 rock types. 12072 contains phenocrysts of olivine and pigeonite and microphenocrysts of Cr-spinel set in a fine-grained, variolitic groundmass. 12038 is a medium-grained, equigranular basalt with a texture indicating it was multiply saturated. 12031 is a coarse-grained rock with granular to graphic intergrowths of pyroxene and plagioclase; it was also multiply saturated. Petrologic observations, as well as the bulk chemistry, are consistent with the interpretation that 12031 could be derived from 12072 through fractionation of Cr-spinel, olivine, and pigeonite, the observed phenocryst assemblage. 12038, however, contains more pigeonite, less olivine, three times as much Ca-phosphate minerals, one-fifth as much troilite, and much more sodic plagioclase than 12072. These differences indicate that 12038 must have come from a separate igneous body. Consideration of the bulk compositions indicates that neither 12072 and 12031 nor 12038 could have been derived from the Apollo 12 olivine, pigeonite, or ilmenite basalts by crystal--liquid fractionation. The general petrologic similarities between 12072, 12031, and the other Apollo 12 basalts suggests that they were produced in either the same or similar source regions. 12038, however, is petrologically and chemically unique, and is probably exotic to the Apollo 12 landing site

  17. The self shielding module of Apollo.II; Module d`autoprotection du code Apollo.II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.

    1994-06-01

    This note discusses the methods used in the APOLLO.II code for the calculation of self shielded multigroup cross sections. Basically, the calculation consists in characterizing a heterogenous medium with a single parameter: the background cross section, which is in then used to interpolate reaction rates from pre tabulated values. Very fine multigroup slowing down calculations in homogenous media are used to generate these tables, which contain absorption, diffusion and production reaction rates per group, resonant isotope, temperature and background cross section. Multigroup self shielded cross sections are determined from an equivalence that preserves absorption rates at a slowing down problem with given sources. This article gives a detailed description of the PIC and ``dilution matrix`` formalisms that are used in the homogenization step, as well as the utilization of Bell macro-groups and the different quadrature formulas that may be used in the calculations. Self shielding techniques for isotopic resonant mixtures are also discussed. (author). 2 refs., 193 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Apollo-Soyuz test project. Operations handbook command/service/docking modules (CSM 119/DM 1): Operational procedures reference issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Operational and configuration checks for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project are presented. The checks include: backup crew prelaunch, prime crew prelaunch, boost and insertion, G and C reference data, G and N reference modes, rendezvous, navigation, Apollo-Soyuz operations, abort procedures, and emergency procedures.

  19. Neutronic modeling of pebble bed reactors in APOLLO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimod, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we develop a new iterative homogenization technique for pebble bed reactors, based on a 'macro-stochastic' transport approximation in the collision probability method. A model has been developed to deal with the stochastic distribution of pebbles with different burnup in the core, considering spectral differences in homogenization and depletion calculations. This is generally not done in the codes presently used for pebble bed analyses, where a pebble with average isotopic composition is considered to perform the cell calculation. Also an iterative core calculation scheme has been set up, where the low-order RZ S N full-core calculation computes the entering currents in the spectrum zones subdividing the core. These currents, together with the core k eff , are then used as surface source in the fine-group heterogeneous calculation of the multi-pebble geometries. The developed method has been verified using reference Monte Carlo simulations of a simplified PBMR- 400 model. The pebbles in this model are individually positioned and have different randomly assigned burnup values. The APOLLO2 developed method matches the reference core k eff within ± 100 pcm, with relative differences on the production shape factors within ± 4%, and maximum discrepancy of 3% at the hotspot. Moreover, the first criticality experiment of the HTR-10 reactor was used to perform a first validation of the developed model. The computed critical number of pebbles to be loaded in the core is very close to the experimental value of 16890, only 77 pebbles less. A method to calculate the equilibrium reactor state was also developed and applied to analyze the simplified PBMR-400 model loaded with different fuel types (UO 2 , Pu, Pu + MA). The potential of the APOLLO2 method to compute different fluxes for the different pebble types of a multi-pebble geometry was used to evaluate the bias committed by the average composition pebble approximation. Thanks to a 'compensation of error

  20. Evolution of KREEP - Further petrologic evidence. [igneous rocks from Apollo 15 site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M. L.; Hollister, L. S.

    1977-01-01

    It is hypothesized that KREEP samples from the Apollo 15 site are igneous. To support the hypothesis, comparisons are made with other crystalline KREEP samples, especially 14310. It is noted that the low siderophile element content and lack of high pressure phenocrysts in the Apollo 15 KREEP may be indications of a slower rise of KREEP melt to the surface, when contrasted with sample 14310. Gravitational separation of Fe-Ni metal is proposed as a mechanism to account for the depletion of siderophile elements relative to the Si-rich component. It is further suggested that KREEP may be the parent of Apollo 12 and 15 basalts, as well as of granitic rocks, due to the liquid immiscibility occurring during the KREEP melt crystallization, and the subsequent independent evolution of the components.

  1. MAX: an expert system for running the modular transport code APOLLO II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loussouarn, O.; Ferraris, C.; Boivineau, A.

    1990-01-01

    MAX is an expert system built to help users of the APOLLO II code to prepare the input data deck to run a job. APOLLO II is a modular transport-theory code for calculating the neutron flux in various geometries. The associated GIBIANE command language allows the user to specify the physical structure and the computational method to be used in the calculation. The purpose of MAX is to bring into play expertise in both neutronic and computing aspects of the code, as well as various computational schemes, in order to generate automatically a batch data set corresponding to the APOLLO II calculation desired by the user. MAX is implemented on the SUN 3/60 workstation with the S1 tool and graphic interface external functions

  2. Restoration of APOLLO Data by the NSSDC and PDS Lunar Data Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie J.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), suites of instruments deployed by the Apollo 12. 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts on the lunar surface, still represent the only in-situ measurements of the Moon's environment taken over long time periods, Much of these data are housed at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center but are in forms that are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, obsolete formats. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. The LDN has prioritized the restoration of these data based on their scientific and engineering value and the level of effort required. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  3. The Apollo 17 'melt sheet': chemistry, age and Rb/Sr systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, S.R.; Nava, D.F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Major, minor and trace element compositions, age data and Rb/Sr systematics of Apollo 17 boulders have been compiled, and additional analyses performed on a norite breccia clast (77215) included in the Apollo 17, Station 7 boulder. The Apollo 17 boulders are found to be identical or nearly so in major, minor and trace element composition, suggesting that they all originated as an impact melt analogous to melt sheets found in larger terrestrial craters. The matrix dates ( 40 Ar/ 39 Ar) and Rb/Sr systematics available suggest that this impact melt formed by a single impact about 4 b.y. ago. This impact excavated, shocked, brecciated and melted norites, norite cumulates and possibly anorthositic gabbros and dunites about 4.4 b.y. old. The impact was likely a major one, possibly the Serenitatis basin-forming event. (Auth.)

  4. Apollo 17 'melt sheet': chemistry, age and Rb/Sr systematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzer, S R [Martin Marietta Labs., Baltimore, Md. (USA); Nava, D F; Schuhmann, S; Philpotts, J A [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md. (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center; Schuhmann, P J; Lum, R K.L.; Lindstrom, M M; Lindstrom, D J [Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)

    1977-01-01

    Major, minor and trace element compositions, age data and Rb/Sr systematics of Apollo 17 boulders have been compiled, and additional analyses performed on a norite breccia clast (77215) included in the Apollo 17, Station 7 boulder. The Apollo 17 boulders are found to be identical or nearly so in major, minor and trace element composition, suggesting that they all originated as an impact melt analogous to melt sheets found in larger terrestrial craters. The matrix dates (/sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar) and Rb/Sr systematics available suggest that this impact melt formed by a single impact about 4 b.y. ago. This impact excavated, shocked, brecciated and melted norites, norite cumulates and possibly anorthositic gabbros and dunites about 4.4 b.y. old. The impact was likely a major one, possibly the Serenitatis basin-forming event.

  5. Paradigm shifts about dust on the Moon: From Apollo 11 to Chang'e-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.

    2018-07-01

    Strategic purposes of this DAP-2017 report are to update our DAP-2010 report on movements of inescapable fine lunar dust, to summarise key new measurements and to assist rigorous focus. Lunar dust is defined here in two sciences, Apollo dust and Ejecta dust, to end several confusions. The Kuhn Cycle is introduced to stimulate progression of a science about movements of Apollo dust which lacks an agreed paradigm to supply puzzles for scientists to solve and tools for their solution. We populate the cycle with two paradigm shifts. The first was serendipitous invention in 1966 of the Apollo Dust Detector Experiment (DDE), 3 orthogonal solar cells each with a thermometer, which on Apollo 12 measured cause and effect, collective movements of billions to trillions of low-energy Apollo dust particles and changes in temperature they cause. In contrast, Apollo 17 LEAM and LADEE LDEX experiments follow traditions to measure impacts of high-velocity Ejecta dust particles, one by one. In 2015, Apollo 12 DDE discoveries of sunrise-driven storms of Apollo dust stimulated a measurement-based 5-step model of dust transport at astronaut waist height. The discoveries solve (i) 50-year-old mysteries of Horizon Glow, (ii) 30-year-old uncertainties about levitated dust, (iii) processes leading to lunar surfaces being smooth and (iv) immobilisation of the Chang'e-3 lunar rover Yutu in 2014 after its first sunrise. The IAC-2017 Website Abstract of a withdrawn Chang'e-3 presentation may support our views that sunrise-mobilised dust caused immobilisation of Yutu. A precursor to a second paradigm shift was May 2016 announced revision of Chang'e-4 scientific priorities. Using Kuhn terminology of scientific progress, a second shift would follow our "revolution" in 2015 that sunrise-driven dust storms caused the 2014 ″crisis" of immobilisation of Chang'e-3 lunar rover Yutu. No such sequence occurred previously with lunar dust. Measurement-based evidence from Apollo 11 to Chang'e-3 confirms

  6. Search for Extralunar Materials in Apollo Soil Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, P. G.; Honniball, C.; Crites, S.; Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been proposed that the lunar surface is a pristine collector of material from across the solar system. The Moon is exposed to the same meteorite flux as the Earth, but because its surface is unaltered by processes such as plate tectonics, aqueous alteration, or recent volcanism, the Moon may have recorded a much longer meteoritic history than the chemically and physically active Earth. By studying lunar soils at the individual grain level, we have the potential to identify and study material from across the inner solar system. We have developed three hyperspectral imaging microscopes to search a large quantity of lunar soil grains for rare lunar, and extra-lunar minerals. We are using lunar-exotic mineralogy as a tracer to detect extralunar candidates. One hyperspectral microscope covers the 1-2.5 micron region for detection of water and hydroxyl overtones in alteration minerals such as phyllosilicates. The second instrument covers the 2.5 to 5 micron region to characterize the 3 micron water region, and for detection of organics and carbonates. The third covers the thermal infrared for detection of phosphates and zeolites as well as the major lunar silicates. We are examining 1 million grains of varying sizes from Apollo 11 ,12, 14 and 16 landing sites. Using the USGS spectral library and the Tetracorder mineral mapping algorithm, we are matching library mineral spectra with the grain spectra we acquire. To validate our ability to detect and match mineral spectra, we are conducting scans of relevent mineral seperates and mixtures at the individual grain level. Results of this mineral inventory will provide contraints on various models and estimates for material transfer between the terrestrial planets.

  7. Apollo Passive Seismic Experiments: lunar data in SEED format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, C.; Nakamura, Y.; Igel, H.

    2017-12-01

    As a part of the Apollo lunar missions, five seismometers were deployed on the near side of the Moon between 1969 and 1972, and four of them operated continuously until 1977. Seismic data were collected on the Moon and telemetered to Earth. The data were recorded on digital magnetic tapes, with timestamps representing the time of signal reception on Earth. The taped data have been widely used for many applications. Data from the tapes had also been transferred to SEED (Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data) format and these SEED files were previously available at IRIS (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology). However, there were some timing-related problems with the original SEED files. We have re-imported the long period data to SEED format, and will make these data available via IRIS. There are many gaps within the data caused by loss of signal or instrument problems. The signal is reconstructed to be read in as a continuous record, with gaps within the seismic trace where necessary. We also record the ground station which received the signal from the Moon, and we preserve the timestamps within the file. The timestamps indicate that the sampling rate varies by up to 0.01 %. We investigate how much this is a change in the apparent sampling rate (due to the orbital parameters of the Moon and the rotation of the Earth) and how much is due to the instrument not maintaining a constant sampling rate. We also provide response files. The new files will be a valuable resource for analyzing the structure of the Moon.

  8. Unusual Microtopography on an Apollo 12 Soil Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Keprta, N. T.; Clemett, S. J.; Berger, E. L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the presence of a previously undescribed microtopography in several regions on the surface of a lunar grain from Apollo regolith sample 12070,29. This microtopography consists of flattened triangular prisms, henceforth referred to as denticles, set in an orderly arrangement. We propose three possible processes to describe the presence of these structures: (1) radiation; (2) aqueous activity; or (3) impact. Radiation—the surface of the Earth’s moon is subject to energetic ion and photon irradiation which can produce a multitude of morphological effects on grain surfaces including erosion/sputtering, vesicle formation, and amorphization of crystalline phases. Under certain conditions surface erosion can result in the formation of well-ordered nanostructures including mounds, dots, wave-shaped, rippled or corrugated features typically <10s nm in size and organized into pattered arrays. However larger pyramid-shaped features up to approx. 300 nm at the base, similar in shape to lunar denticles, were produced on Cu substrates ex-posed to ion beam sputtering.. Aqueous alteration—recent reports of purported water on the Moon imply the possibility of brief, limited exposure of surface materials to aqueous fluids. Aqueous corrosion of silicates can result in the formation of crystallographically controlled denticulated features, up to 10s of micron at the base, arranged in a patterned formation. Impact—the surface of the moon is impacted by meteorites, particularly by micron-size particles, resulting in the formation of a variety of crater types. While it is difficult to envision a scenario in which a patterned array could be formed by impact, fracturing along planes of crystallographic structural weakness due to external stress could explain these features.

  9. Image processing and data reduction of Apollo low light level photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvord, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of the lens induced vignetting from a selected sample of the Apollo low light level photographs is discussed. The methods used were developed earlier. A study of the effect of noise on vignetting removal and the comparability of the Apollo 35mm Nikon lens vignetting was also undertaken. The vignetting removal was successful to about 10% photometry, and noise has a severe effect on the useful photometric output data. Separate vignetting functions must be used for different flights since the vignetting function varies from camera to camera in size and shape.

  10. Age Distribution of Lunar Impact-Melt Rocks in Apollo Drive-Tube 68001/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, N. M.; Bower, D. M.; Frasl, B.; Cohen, B. A.

    2018-01-01

    Apollo 16 double-drive tube 68001 /68002 provides impact and volcanic materials along a depth of approximately 60 cm in five compositional distinct units. 68001 /2 offers the potential to study distinct populations of impact melts with depth to understand how 'gardening' affects these samples. We will use unbiased major-element chemistry, mineralogy, and age to understand the impact history of Apollo 16 landing site. The study demonstrates the techniques that landed missions require to identify lithologies of interest (e.g., impact melts).

  11. Radioactivity observed in the sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer returned on the Apollo 17 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Eller, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain information on radioactive background induced in the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers (7 cm x 7 cm NaI) by particle irradiation during spaceflight, and identical detector was flown and returned to earth on the Apollo 17 mission. The induced radioactivity was monitored both internally and externally from one and a half hours after splashdown. When used in conjunction with a computation scheme for estimating induced activation from calculated trapped proton and cosmic-ray fluences, these results show an important contribution resulting from both thermal and energetic neutrons produced in the heavy spacecraft by cosmic-ray interactions.

  12. Indigenous Carbonaceous Phases Embedded Within Surface Deposits on Apollo 17 Volcanic Glass Beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of indigenous organic matter in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program. Prior studies of Apollo samples have shown the total amount of organic matter to be in the range of approx 50 to 250 ppm. Low concentrations of lunar organics may be a consequence not only of its paucity but also its heterogeneous distribution. Several processes should have contributed to the lunar organic inventory including exogenous carbonaceous accretion from meteoroids and interplanetary dust particles, and endogenous synthesis driven by early planetary volcanism and cosmic and solar radiation.

  13. First-Time Analysis of Completely Restored DTREM Instrument Data from Apollo 14 and 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Marie J.; Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Turner, Niescja

    2013-01-01

    The Dust, Thermal and Radiation Engineering Measurement (DTREM) packages (figure 1) mounted on the central stations of the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 ALSEPs (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages) measured the outputs of exposed solar cells and thermistors over time. The goal of the experiment, also commonly known as the dust detector, was to study the long-term effects of dust, radiation, and temperature at the lunar surface on solar cells. The monitors returned data for up to almost 8 years from the lunar surface.

  14. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  15. Chemical differences between small subsamples of Apollo 15 olivine-normative basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shervais, J. W.; Vetter, S. K.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on the chemical and petrological characterization of nine samples of an Apollo 15 mare basalt suite. The results show that all nine samples are low-silica olivine normative basalts (ONBs) similar to those described earlier for low-silica ONBs from Apollo 15 site. The samples were found to vary in texture and grain size, from fine-grained intergranular or subophitic basalts to coarse-grained granular 'microgabbros'. Several displayed macroscopic heterogeneity. Variation diagrams show that the overall trend of the data is consistent with the fractionation of olivine (plus minor Cr-spinel) from a high-MgO parent magma.

  16. Apollo 11 crewmembers participate in water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The third member of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission egresses Apollo Boilerplate 1102 during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. The other two crewmen are in raft. Taking part in the training were Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. The three crewmen practiced donning and wearing biological isolation garments (B.I.G.) as a part of the exercise. The Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) swimmer standing up, who assisted in the training, is also wearing a B.I.G.

  17. Design development of the Apollo command and service module thrust vector attitude control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the Apollo thrust vector control digital autopilot (TVC DAP) was summarized. This is the control system that provided pitch and yaw attitude control during velocity change maneuvers using the main rocket engine on the Apollo service module. A list of ten primary functional requirements for this control system are presented, each being subordinate to a more general requirement appearing earlier on the list. Development process functions were then identified and the essential information flow paths were explored. This provided some visibility into the particular NASA/contractor interface, as well as relationships between the many individual activities.

  18. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  19. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  20. A lack of Wolbachia-specific DNA in samples from apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    Various insects contain maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria which can cause reproductive alterations, modulation of some physiological responses (like immunity, heat shock response, and oxidative stress response), and resistance to viral infections. In butterflies, Wolbachia sp. is the most frequent endosymbiont from this group, occurring in about 30 % of species tested to date. In this report, the presence of Wolbachia-specific DNA has been detected in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo). In the isolated population of this insect occurring in Pieniny National Park (Poland), malformed individuals with deformed or reduced wings appear with an exceptionally high frequency. Interestingly, while total DNA isolated from most (about 85 %) normal insects contained Wolbachia-specific sequences detected by PCR, such sequences were absent in a large fraction (70 %) of individuals with deformed wings and in all tested individuals with reduced wings. These results indicate for the first time the correlation between malformation of wings and the absence of Wolbachia sp. in insects. Although the lack of the endosymbiotic bacteria cannot be considered as the sole cause of the deformation or reduction of wings, one might suggest that Wolbachia sp. could play a protective role in the ontogenetic development of apollo butterfly.

  1. Lesions in the wingless gene of the Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings, coming from the isolated population in Pieniny (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-02-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is a butterfly species which was common in Europe in 19th century, but now it is considered as near threatened. Various programs devoted to protect and save P. apollo have been established, between others the one in Pieniny National Park (Poland). An isolated population of this butterfly has been restored there from a small group of 20-30 individuals in early 1990s. However, deformations or reductions of wings occur in this population in a relatively large number of insects, and the cause of this phenomenon is not known. In this report, the occurrence of lesions in the wingless (wg) gene is demonstrated in most of tested butterflies with deformed or reduced wings, but not in normal insects. Although the analyses indicated that wg lesion(s) cannot be the sole cause of the deformed or reduced wings in the population of P. apollo from Pieniny, the discovery that this genetic defect occurs in most of malformed individuals, can be considered as an important step in understanding this phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Apollo külastajate lemmikuks on Jan Kausi ja David Mitchelli raamatud / Jaak Urmet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Urmet, Jaak, 1979-

    2006-01-01

    Apollo kaupluse koduleheküljel valiti parimaks ilukirjandusteoseks Jan Kausi "Tema", tõlgitud ilukirjanduse osas David Mitchelli "Pilveatlas", luuleraamatutest Ott Arderi "Luule sünnib kus sünnib kui sünnib" ja lasteraamatutest Christopher Paolini "Vanem"

  3. Updating the Geologic Maps of the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, W. B.; Mest, S. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Ostrach, L. R.; Petro, N. E.; Cohen, B. A.

    2018-06-01

    Our team is funded through NASA's Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools (PDART) program to produce two new USGS Special Investigation Maps (SIM) for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions: a regional map (1:200K) and a landing-site map (1:24K).

  4. Use of the APOLLO2 transport code for PWR assembly studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaffaf, D.; Coste, M.; Lenain, R.; Mathonniere, G.; Sanchez, R.; Stankovski, Z.; Zmijarevic, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents some validation and application aspects of the APOLLO2, user oriented, modular code for multigroup transport assembly calculation which is developed at the French Commissariat a l'Energies Atomique. The main points approached in this paper are: the two dimensional collision probability convergence, critical leakage calculation schemes, self-shielding spatial discretization, and the equivalence procedure

  5. Apollo experience report: Development flight instrumentation. [telemetry equipment for space flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.

  6. On the Moon with Apollo 16. A Guidebook to the Descartes Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Gene

    The Apollo 16 guidebook describes and illustrates (with artist concepts) the physical appearance of the lunar region visited. Maps show the planned traverses (trips on the lunar surface via Lunar Rover); the plans for scientific experiments are described in depth; and timelines for all activities are included. A section on "The Crew" is…

  7. Stratigraphy of the Descartes region /Apollo 16/ - Implications for the origin of samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of terrain in the Apollo 16 Descartes landing region shows a series of features that form a stratigraphic sequence which dominates the history and petrogenesis at the site. An ancient 150-km diam crater centered on the Apollo 16 site is one of the earliest recognizable major structures. Nectaris ejecta was concentrated in a regional low at the base of the back slope of the Nectaris basin to form the Descartes Mountains. Subsequently, a 60-km diam crater formed in the Descartes Mountains centered about 25 km to the west of the site. This crater dominates the geology and petrogenetic history of the site. Stone and Smoky Mountains represent the degraded terraced crater walls, and the dark matrix breccias and metaclastic rocks derived from North and South Ray craters represent floor fallback breccias from this cratering event. The interpretation is developed that the stratigraphy of the Cayley and Descartes, and thus the historical record of the Apollo 16 region, documents the complex interaction of deposits and morphology of local and regional impact cratering events. Large local 60- to 150-km diam craters have had a dramatic and previously unrecognized effect on the history and petrology of the Apollo 16 site.

  8. Apollo 14 prime crew during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Members of the Apollo 14 crew train in the Gulf of Mexico for the water egress phase of their upcoming mission. They are in the raft waiting ascension to the Coast Guard hellicopter via the 'Billy Pugh' net. Manned Spacecraft Center swimmers assist in the water egress simulation.

  9. Dr. von Braun Relaxes After the Successful Launch of Apollo 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun, first director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, relaxes following the successful launch of the Saturn V carrying Apollo 11 to the moon. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  10. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  11. Inert gas investigations of the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The inert gas contents in size fractions of the following fines from the Apollo 15 site: 15071, 15501, 15511, 15421, and 15080 has been determined. In addition, the same for size fractions of fines 79221, 79241, and 79261 from depths of 0 to 2 cm, 2 to 7 cm, and 7 to 17 cm in a trench near Van Serg Crater at the Apollo 17 site was determined. The very low gas contents and lack of anticorrelation with grain diameter of 15421 suggests that these fines are undersaturated with respect to solar wind irradiation. The decrease in slope of the curves for gas concentration vs grain diameter of 15071 for successively heavier gases is interpreted to be the effects of the Rosiwal principle + comminution + agglutinate formation. Evidence for heavily irradiated (with respect to cosmic rays) zones deep within or beneath the regolith exists at both Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites. This may in part explain the ''missing'' cosmic ray record. Scatter between ''young'' and ''old'' age limits in 40 Ar vs 36 Ar plots exists for 15511, and the 3 trench fines from the Apollo 17 landing site. In the case of 15511 the observed ratios suggest that these may be the result of large impacts on the Apennine Front contributing material to the site where 15511 was collected. The observed 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios in the trench fines may be the result of excavation of materials with high 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratios during the Van Serg event. The low apparent 40 K-- 40 Ar ages of the Apollo 15 fines are interpreted to be the result of addition of young 40 K-- 40 Ar age material (less than 1.8 by) from Autolycus and Aristillus, two large craters north of the site, to the older (3.3 by) mare materials

  12. Benchmark calculation of APOLLO-2 and SLAROM-UF in a fast reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, T.

    2009-07-01

    A lattice cell benchmark calculation is carried out for APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF on the infinite lattice of a simple pin cell featuring a fast reactor. The accuracy in k-infinity and reaction rates is investigated in their reference and standard level calculations. In the 1. reference level calculation, APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF agree with the reference value of k-infinity obtained by a continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation within 50 pcm. However, larger errors are observed in a particular reaction rate and energy range. The major problem common to both codes is in the cross section library of 239 Pu in the unresolved energy range. In the 2. reference level calculation, which is based on the ECCO 1968 group structure, both results of k-infinity agree with the reference value within 100 pcm. The resonance overlap effect is observed by several percents in cross sections of heavy nuclides. In the standard level calculation based on the APOLLO2 library creation methodology, a discrepancy appears by more than 300 pcm. A restriction is revealed in APOLLO2. Its standard cross section library does not have a sufficiently small background cross section to evaluate the self shielding effect on 56 Fe cross sections. The restriction can be removed by introducing the mixture self-shielding treatment recently introduced to APOLLO2. SLAROM-UF original standard level calculation based on the JFS-3 library creation methodology is the best among the standard level calculations. Improvement from the SLAROM-UF standard level calculation is achieved mainly by use of a proper weight function for light or intermediate nuclides. (author)

  13. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo substatellite magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L.L.; Coleman, P.J.; Russell, C.T.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate presently available magnetic anomaly maps - one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous, light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. An age for Cavalerius (and, by implication, for Reiner Gamma) of 3.2 ?? 0.2 ?? 109 y is estimated. The main (30 ?? 60 km) Reiner Gamma deposit is nearly uniformly magnetized in a single direction, with a minimum mean magnetization intensity of ???7 ?? 10-2 G cm3/g (assuming a density of 3 g/cm3), or about 700 times the stable magnetization component of the most magnetic returned samples. Additional medium-amplitude anomalies exist over the Fra Mauro Formation (Imbrium basin ejecta emplaced ???3.9 ?? 109 y ago) where it has not been flooded by mare basalt flows, but are nearly absent over the maria and over the craters Copernicus, Kepler, and Reiner and their encircling ejecta mantles. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near-side map and the surface geology is more complex, so individual anomaly sources have not yet been identified. However, it is clear that a concentration of especially strong sources exists in the vicinity of the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken. Numerical modeling of the associated fields reveals that the source locations do not correspond with the larger primary impact craters of the region and, by analogy with Reiner Gamma, may be less conspicuous secondary crater ejecta deposits. The reason for a special concentration of strong sources in the Van de Graaff-Aitken region is unknown, but may be indirectly

  14. Chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  15. Apollo-Soyuz test project. Volume 1: Astronomy, earth atmosphere and gravity field, life sciences, and materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The joint U.S.-USSR experiments and the U.S. conducted unilateral experiments performed during the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are described. Scientific concepts and experiment design and operation are discussed along with scientific results of postflight analysis.

  16. Report of Apollo 204 Review Board to the Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration . Appendix F ; Schedule of Physical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Immediately following the Apollo 204 accident of January 27, 1961. all associated equipment and material were impounded. Release of this equipment and material for normal use was under the close control of the Apollo 204 Review Board. Apollo Review Board Administrative Procedure No. 11, February 11, 1961, established the Apollo 204 Review Board Material Release Record (MRR). This MRR was the official form used to release material from full impoundment and was valid only after being approved by the Board and signed by a Member. The form was used as the authority to place any impounded item into one of the three Categories defined in Administrative Procedure No. 11. This appendix contains all of the authorized MRR's. Each item submitted on an MRR was given a control number; a description, including the part number and serial number; the relevance and location to the accident; any constraints before release; and the control category. The categories placed on the equipment were as follows: Category A - Items which may have a significant influence or bearing on the results or findings of the Apollo 204 Review Board; Category B - All material other than Category A which is considered relevant to the Apollo 204 Review Board investigation; Category C - Material released from Board jurisdiction. Several classes of equipment were released by special Board action prior to the establishment of the MRR system. The operating procedure for release of these classes is Enclosure F-l to this appendix.

  17. The Apollo peak-ring impact basin: Insights into the structure and evolution of the South Pole-Aitken basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Ross W. K.; Head, James W.; Guo, Dijun; Liu, Jianzhong; Xiao, Long

    2018-05-01

    The 492 km-diameter Apollo impact basin post-dates, and is located at the inner edge of, the ∼2240 km-diameter South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin, providing an opportunity to assess the SPA substructure and lateral heterogeneity. Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory gravity data suggest an average crustal thickness on the floor of SPA of ∼20 km and within the Apollo basin of ∼5 km, yet remote sensing data reveal no conclusive evidence for the presence of exposed mantle material. We use the iSALE shock physics code to model the formation of the Apollo basin and find that the observational data are best fit by the impact of a 40 km diameter body traveling at 15 km/s into 20-40 km thick crustal material. These results strongly suggest that the Apollo impact occurred on ejecta deposits and collapsed crustal material of the SPA basin and could help place constraints on the location, size and geometry of the SPA transient cavity. The peak ring in the interior of Apollo basin is plausibly interpreted to be composed of inwardly collapsed lower crustal material that experienced peak shock pressures in excess of 35 GPa, consistent with remote sensing observations that suggest shocked plagioclase. Proposed robotic and/or human missions to SPA and Apollo would present an excellent opportunity to test the predictions of this work and address many scientific questions about SPA basin evolution and structure.

  18. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  19. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  20. Planning for the Future, a Look from Apollo to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrera, David

    2008-01-01

    Future missions out of low Earth orbit, returning to the moon and Mars, will be some of the most complicated endeavors ever attempted by mankind. It will require the wealth of nations and the dedicated efforts of thousand of individuals working in a concerted effort to take man to the moon, Mars and beyond. These missions will require new equipment and new approaches to optimize our limited resources and time in space. This daily planning and optimization which currently is being performed by scores of people in MCC Houston and around the world will need to adapt to the challenges faced far from Earth. By studying the processes, methodologies, and tools employed from Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and other programs such as NEEMO, we can learn from the past to plan for the future. This paper will explore the planning process used from Apollo onward and will discuss their relevancy in future applications.

  1. Visibility of lunar surface features - Apollo 14 orbital observations and lunar landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an in-flight visibility test conducted during the Apollo 14 mission for the purpose of validating and extending the mathematical visibility models used previously in the course of the Apollo program to examine the constraints on descent operations imposed by lunar visibility limitations. Following a background review of the effects on mission planning of the visibility limitations due to downsun lunar surface detail 'washout' and a discussion of the visibility prediction techniques previously used for studying lunar visibility problems, the visibility test rationale and procedures are defined and the test results presented. The results appear to confirm the validity of the visibility prediction techniques employed in lunar visibility problem studies. These results provide also a basis for improving the accuracy of the prediction techniques by appropriate modifications.

  2. Apollo - An advanced fuel fusion power reactor for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Emmert, G.A.; Blanchard, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    A preconceptual design of a tokamak reactor fueled by a D-He-3 plasma is presented. A low aspect ratio (A=2-4) device is studied here but high aspect ratio devices (A > 6) may also be quite attractive. The Apollo D-He-3 tokamak capitalizes on recent advances in high field magnets (20 T) and utilizes rectennas to convert the synchrotron radiation directly to electricity. The overall efficiency ranges from 37 to 52% depending on whether the bremsstrahlung energy is utilized. The low neutron wall loading (0.1 MW/m/sup 2/) allows a permanent first wall to be designed and the low nuclear decay heat enables the reactor to be classed as inherently safe. The cost of electricity from Apollo is > 40% lower than electricity from a similar sized DT reactor

  3. Magnesium and Silicon Isotopes in HASP Glasses from Apollo 16 Lunar Soil 61241

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, G. F.; Delaney, J. S.; Lindsay, F.; Alexander, C. M. O'D; Chakrabarti, R.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Whattam, S.; Korotev, R.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The high-Al (>28 wt %), silica-poor (<45 wt %) (HASP) feldspathic glasses of Apollo 16 are widely regarded as the evaporative residues of impacts in the lunar regolith [1-3]. By virtue of their small size, apparent homogeneity, and high inferred formation temperatures, the HASP glasses appear to be good samples in which to study fractionation processes that may accompany open system evaporation. Calculations suggest that HASP glasses with present-day Al2O3 concentrations of up to 40 wt% may have lost 19 wt% of their original masses, calculated as the oxides of iron and silicon, via evaporation [4]. We report Mg and Si isotope abundances in 10 HASP glasses and 2 impact-glass spherules from a 64-105 m grain-size fraction taken from Apollo 16 soil sample 61241.

  4. APOLLO: a quality assessment service for single and multiple protein models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin

    2011-06-15

    We built a web server named APOLLO, which can evaluate the absolute global and local qualities of a single protein model using machine learning methods or the global and local qualities of a pool of models using a pair-wise comparison approach. Based on our evaluations on 107 CASP9 (Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction) targets, the predicted quality scores generated from our machine learning and pair-wise methods have an average per-target correlation of 0.671 and 0.917, respectively, with the true model quality scores. Based on our test on 92 CASP9 targets, our predicted absolute local qualities have an average difference of 2.60 Å with the actual distances to native structure. http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/apollo/. Single and pair-wise global quality assessment software is also available at the site.

  5. Vesicles in Apollo 15 Green Glasses: The Nature of Ancient Lunar Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Berger, E. L.; Rahman, Z.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed studies of Apollo 15 green glass and related beads have shown they were formed in gas-rich fire fountains.. As the magmatic fluid became super-saturated in volatile gas, bubbles or vesicles formed within the magma. These exsolved gases became trapped within vesicles as the glasses were ejected from the fire-fountain and subsequently quenched. One of the keys to understanding formation processes on the ancient moon includes determining the composition of volatile species and elements, including metals, dissolved in magmatic gases. Here we report the nature of mineral phases spatially associated with vesicles in a green glass bead from Apollo sample 15411,42. The phases reflect the composition of the cooling/degassing magmatic vapors and fluids present at the time of bead formation approx, 3 Ga ago

  6. Temperature-dependent magnetic properties of individual glass spherules, Apollo 11, 12, and 14 lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. N.; Sullivan, S.; Alexander, C. C.; Senftle, F. E.; Dwornik, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 14 lunar fines have been measured from room temperature to 4 K. Data taken at room temperature, 77 K, and 4.2 K, show that the soft saturation magnetization was temperature independent. In the temperature range 300 to 77 K the temperature-dependent component of the magnetic susceptibility obeys the Curie law. Susceptibility measurements on these same specimens and in addition 14 similar spherules from the Apollo 11 and 12 mission show a Curie-Weiss relation at temperatures less than 77 K with a Weiss temperature of 3-7 degrees in contrast to 2-3 degrees found for tektites and synthetic glasses of tektite composition. A proposed model and a theoretical expression closely predict the variation of the susceptibility of the glass spherules with temperature.

  7. Apollo 15 clastic materials and their relationship to local geologic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Stoeser, J. W.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Goles, G. G.

    1973-01-01

    Ninety sub-samples of Apollo 15 materials have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis techniques for as many as 21 elements. Soil and soil breccia compositions show considerable variation from station to station although at any given station the soils and soil breccias were compositionally very similar to one another. Mixing model calculations show that the station-to-station variations can be related to important local geologic features. These features include the Apennine Front, Hadley Rille and the ray from the craters Aristillus or Autolycus. Compositional similarities between soils and soil breccias at the Apollo 15 site indicate that the breccias and soils are related in some fundamental way, although the exact nature of this relationship is not yet fully understood.

  8. Mosaic of Apollo 16 Descartes landing site taken from TV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A 360 degree field of view of the Apollo 16 Descartes landing site area composed of individual scenes taken from a color transmission made by the color RCA TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. This panorama was made while the LRV was parked at the rim of North Ray crater (Stations 11 and 12) during the third Apollo 16 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA-3) by Astronauts John W. Young and Charles M. Duke Jr. The overlay identifies the directions and the key lunar terrain features. The camera panned across the rear portion of the LRV in its 360 degree sweep. Note Young and Duke walking along the edge of the crater in one of the scenes. The TV camera was remotely controlled from a console in the Mission Control Center.

  9. Assessment of Scheduling and Plan Execution of Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    Although over forty years have passed since first landing on the Moon, there is not yet a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of Apollo extravehicular activities (EVAs). Quantitatively evaluating lunar EVAs will provide a better understanding of the challenges involved with surface operations. This first evaluation of a surface EVA centers on comparing the planned and the as-ran timeline, specifically collecting data on discrepancies between durations that were estimated versus executed. Differences were summarized by task categories in order to gain insight as to the type of surface operation activities that were most challenging. One Apollo 14 EVA was assessed utilizing the described methodology. Selected metrics and task categorizations were effective, and limitations to this process were identified.

  10. Inhalation Toxicity of Ground Lunar Dust Prepared from Apollo-14 Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the decade one or more space-faring nations intend to return humans to the moon for more in depth exploration of the lunar surface and subsurface than was conducted during the Apollo days. The lunar surface is blanketed with fine dust, much of it in the respirable size range (<10 micron). Eventually, there is likely to be a habitable base and rovers available to reach distant targets for sample acquisition. Despite designs that could minimize the entry of dust into habitats and rovers, it is reasonable to expect lunar dust to pollute both as operations progress. Apollo astronauts were exposed briefly to dust at nuisance levels, but stays of up to 6 months on the lunar surface are envisioned. Will repeated episodic exposures to lunar dust present a health hazard to those engaged in lunar exploration? Using rats exposed to lunar dust by nose-only inhalation, we set out to investigate that question.

  11. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...

  12. Asymptotically Optimal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lattimore, Tor; Hutter, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Artificial general intelligence aims to create agents capable of learning to solve arbitrary interesting problems. We define two versions of asymptotic optimality and prove that no agent can satisfy the strong version while in some cases, depending on discounting, there does exist a non-computable weak asymptotically optimal agent.

  13. Reasoning about emotional agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, J.-J.

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in

  14. Rocket flight performance of a preprototype Apollo 17 UV spectrometer S-169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    The design, construction, testing, calibration, flight performance and flight data of an Ebert ultraviolet spectrometer are described which is an accurate representation of the conceptual design of the Apollo 17 UV spectrometer. The instrument was flown in an Aerobee 350 rocket from Wallops Island, Va., at 7:10 p.m. EDT on June 10, 1971 to an altitude of 328 km with a solar elevation angle of about 11 deg.

  15. Rock sample brought to earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A scientist's gloved hand holds one of the numerous rock samples brought back to Earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. This sample is a highly shattered basaltic rock with a thin black-glass coating on five of its six sides. Glass fills fractures and cements the rock together. The rock appears to have been shattered and thrown out by a meteorite impact explosion and coated with molten rock material before the rock fell to the surface.

  16. Apollo 16 landing site: Summary of earth based remote sensing data, part W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisk, S. H.; Masursky, H.; Milton, D. J.; Schaber, G. G.; Shorthill, R. W.; Thompson, T. W.

    1972-01-01

    Infrared and radar studies of the Apollo 16 landing site are summarized. Correlations and comparisons between earth based remote sensing data, IR observations, and other data are discussed in detail. Remote sensing studies were devoted to solving two problems: (1) determining the physical difference between Cayley and Descartes geologic units near the landing site; and (2) determining the nature of the bright unit of Descartes mountain material.

  17. MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount. [a technical history and management critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    A technical history and management critique of the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) from initial conception through the design, manufacturing, testing and prelaunch phases is presented. A mission performance summary provides a general overview of the ATM's achievements in relationship to its design goals. Recommendations and conclusions applicable to hardware design, test program philosophy and performance, and program management techniques for the ATM with potential application to future programs are also discussed.

  18. The Apollo Number: space suits, self-support, and the walk-run transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Carr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How space suits affect the preferred walk-run transition is an open question with relevance to human biomechanics and planetary extravehicular activity. Walking and running energetics differ; in reduced gravity (<0.5 g, running, unlike on Earth, uses less energy per distance than walking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The walk-run transition (denoted * correlates with the Froude Number (Fr = v(2/gL, velocity v, gravitational acceleration g, leg length L. Human unsuited Fr* is relatively constant (approximately 0.5 with gravity but increases substantially with decreasing gravity below approximately 0.4 g, rising to 0.9 in 1/6 g; space suits appear to lower Fr*. Because of pressure forces, space suits partially (1 g or completely (lunar-g support their own weight. We define the Apollo Number (Ap = Fr/M as an expected invariant of locomotion under manipulations of M, the ratio of human-supported to total transported mass. We hypothesize that for lunar suited conditions Ap* but not Fr* will be near 0.9, because the Apollo Number captures the effect of space suit self-support. We used the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal and other sources to identify 38 gait events during lunar exploration for which we could determine gait type (walk/lope/run and calculate Ap. We estimated the binary transition between walk/lope (0 and run (1, yielding Fr* (0.36+/-0.11, mean+/-95% CI and Ap* (0.68+/-0.20. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Apollo Number explains 60% of the difference between suited and unsuited Fr*, appears to capture in large part the effects of space suits on the walk-run transition, and provides several testable predictions for space suit locomotion and, of increasing relevance here on Earth, exoskeleton locomotion. The knowledge of how space suits affect gait transitions can be used to optimize space suits for use on the Moon and Mars.

  19. Scots scientists dismiss Apollo mission doubts university team deals with the conspiracies

    CERN Multimedia

    Simpson, Cameron

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists from a Scottish university are going walkabout to combat the sceptics who claim US astronaut Neil Armstrong never set foot on the moon. The conspiracists claim the Apollo moon landings of the 60s and 70s were faked by Nasa in a TV studio in an attempt to help America claim victory in the space race with the former Soviet Union" (1 page)

  20. Restoration of Apollo Data by the NSSDC and the PDS Lunar Data Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN), under the auspices of the Geosciences Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS), is restoring Apollo data archived at the National Space Science Data Center. The Apollo data were arch ived on older media (7 -track tapes. microfilm, microfiche) and in ob solete digital formats, which limits use of the data. The LDN is maki ng these data accessible by restoring them to standard formats and archiving them through PDS. The restoration involves reading the older m edia, collecting supporting data (metadata), deciphering and understa nding the data, and organizing into a data set. The data undergo a pe er review before archive at PDS. We will give an update on last year' s work. We have scanned notebooks from Otto Berg, P.1. for the Lunar Ejecta and Meteorites Experiment. These notebooks contain information on the data and calibration coefficients which we hope to be able to use to restore the raw data into a usable archive. We have scanned Ap ollo 14 and 15 Dust Detector data from microfilm and are in the proce ss of archiving thc scans with PDS. We are also restoring raw dust de tector data from magnetic tape supplied by Yosio Nakamura (UT Austin) . Seiichi Nagihara (Texas Tech Univ.) and others in cooperation with NSSDC are recovering ARCSAV tapes (tapes containing raw data streams from all the ALSEP instruments). We will be preparing these data for archive with PDS. We are also in the process of recovering and archivi ng data not previously archived, from the Apollo 16 Gamma Ray Spectro meter and the Apollo 17 Infrared Spectrometer.

  1. Analysis of the Apollo spacecraft operational data management system. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A study was made of Apollo, Skylab, and several other data management systems to determine those techniques which could be applied to the management of operational data for future manned spacecraft programs. The results of the study are presented and include: (1) an analysis of present data management systems, (2) a list of requirements for future operational data management systems, (3) an evaluation of automated data management techniques, and (4) a plan for data management applicable to future space programs.

  2. Second Stage (S-II) Plays Key Role in Apollo missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph of the Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) clearly shows the cluster of five powerful J-2 engines needed to boost the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit following first stage separation. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  3. Bird's-eye View of Apollo 6 on Transporter at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    A bird's-eye view of Apollo 6 and its gantry leaving the Vehicle Assembly Building on the transporter heading to the launch site on Pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  4. A technician works adjacent to the Apollo 11 spacecraft atop the white room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A technician can be seen working atop the white room across from the escape tower of the Apollo 11 spacecraft a few days prior to the launch of the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams

  5. Artists concept of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong on the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation artist's concept depicting mankind's first walk on another celestianl body. Here, Astronaut Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, is making his first step onto the surface of the moon. In the background is the Earth, some 240,000 miles away. Armstrong. They are continuing their postflight debriefings. The three astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  6. Reference calculations on critical assemblies with Apollo2 code working with a fine multigroup mesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggery, A.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this thesis is to add to the multigroup transport code APOLLO2 the capability to perform deterministic reference calculations, for any type of reactor, using a very fine energy mesh of several thousand groups. This new reference tool allows us to validate the self-shielding model used in industrial applications, to perform depletion calculations, differential effects calculations, critical buckling calculations or to evaluate precisely data required by the self shielding model. At its origin, APOLLO2 was designed to perform routine calculations with energy meshes around one hundred groups. That is why, in the current format of cross sections libraries, almost each value of the multigroup energy transfer matrix is stored. As this format is not convenient for a high number of groups (concerning memory size), we had to search out a new format for removal matrices and consequently to modify the code. In the new format we found, only some values of removal matrices are kept (these values depend on a reconstruction precision choice), the other ones being reconstructed by a linear interpolation, what reduces the size of these matrices. Then we had to show that APOLLO2 working with a fine multigroup mesh had the capability to perform reference calculations on any assembly geometry. For that, we successfully carried out the validation with several calculations for which we compared APOLLO2 results (obtained with the universal mesh of 11276 groups) to results obtained with Monte Carlo codes (MCNP, TRIPOLI4). Physical analysis led with this new tool have been very fruitful and show a great potential for such an R and D tool. (author)

  7. Rescue and Preservation of Sample Data from the Apollo Missions to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Zeigler, Ryan A.; Evans, Cindy A.; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Six Apollo missions landed on the Moon from 1969-72, returning to Earth 382 kg of lunar rock, soil, and core samples. These samples are among the best documented and preserved samples on Earth that have supported a robust research program for 45 years. From mission planning through sample collection, preliminary examination, and subsequent research, strict protocols and procedures are followed for handling and allocating Apollo subsamples, resulting in the production of vast amounts of documentation. Even today, hundreds of samples are allocated for research each year, building on the science foundation laid down by the early Apollo sample studies and combining new data from today's instrumentation, lunar remote sensing missions and lunar meteorites. Much sample information is available to researchers at curator.jsc.nasa.gov. Decades of analyses on lunar samples are published in LPSC proceedings volumes and other peer-reviewed journals, and tabulated in lunar sample compendia entries. However, for much of the 1969-1995 period, the processing documentation, individual and consortia analyses, and unpublished results exist only in analog forms or primitive digital formats that are either inaccessible or at risk of being lost forever because critical data from early investigators remain unpublished.

  8. Regional chemical setting of the Apollo 16 landing site and the importance of the Kant Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, C. G.; El-Baz, F.

    1982-01-01

    Orbital X-ray data from the Apollo 16 region indicate that physiographic units identified before the lunar mission can be classified as chemical units as well. The Descartes Mountains, however, appear to be an extension of the Kant Plateau composition that is unusually anorthositic and resembles farside terra. The Cayley Plains have closer affinities to basaltic materials than terra materials, physically, spectrally and chemically. The Theophilus impact, 330 km east of the landing site, excavated magnesium-rich basalts from below less-magnesian flows in Mare Nectaris; but, mafic ejecta was substantially blocked from the Apollo 16 site by the Kant Plateau that rises 5 km above the level of the mare. Apollo 16 soil samples from stations selected to collect either Descartes Mountains material or Cayley Plains material were surprisingly similar. However, they do, indeed, show the chemical trends indicative of the two units as defined by the orbiting geochemistry detectors. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains material may be among the rare nearside examples of a plagioclase-rich cumulate of the primordial magma ocean.

  9. Countdown to a Moon launch preparing Apollo for its historic journey

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Jonathan H

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of workers labored at Kennedy Space Center around the clock, seven days a week, for half a year to prepare a mission for the liftoff of Apollo 11. This is the story of what went on during those hectic six months. Countdown to a Moon Launch provides an in-depth look at the carefully choreographed workflow for an Apollo mission at KSC. Using the Apollo 11 mission as an example, readers will learn what went on day by day to transform partially completed stages and crates of parts into a ready-to-fly Saturn V. Firsthand accounts of launch pad accidents, near misses, suspected sabotage, and last-minute changes to hardware are told by more than 70 NASA employees and its contractors. A companion to Rocket Ranch, it includes many diagrams and photographs, some never before published, to illustrate all aspects of the process. NASA’s groundbreaking use of computers for testing and advanced management techniques are also covered in detail. This book will demystify the question of how NASA could build and lau...

  10. Apollo 11 Astronaut Armstrong Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walks to the flight crew training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  11. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  12. Agente adaptable y aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Angel Lara Rivero

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se contrasta el concepto de agente programado con el de agente complejo adaptable, se presenta una nueva visión ligada al aprendizaje y la estructura del agente. La imagen del agente se analiza considerando los modelos internos, la práctica, el concepto de rutina y la influencia en su comportamiento, y la importancia del aprendizaje ex ante y ex post. Por último se muestra que la resolución de problemas está sujeta a restricciones del agente y se describen las formas de explorar el espacio de soluciones mediante tres tipos de exploración: exhaustiva, aleatoria y selectiva.

  13. Comparative antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEYAKS PLC

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... rats. Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally using 50 mg/kg streptozotocin, while ... causes long-term complications in many organs. ..... Iwueke AV, Nwodo OFC, Okoli CO (2006) not cited. ... Regulation of geneexpression by.

  14. Comparative antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes was induced intraperitoneally using 50 mg/kg streptozotocin, while diabetic rats were treated in 12 h cycles for four weeks with 100 mg/kg of the extract and glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg). Nondiabetic control rats received distilled water. The levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance ...

  15. Hypoglycaemic and biochemical properties of Cnestis ferruginea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extracts (250mg/kg body weight) were administered orally for 10 consecutive days to STZ-induced diabetic rats while a single dose (250mg/kg body weight) of ... of new orally active antihyperglycaemic compounds for attenuating secondary complications of diabetes such as atherosclerosis, liver and renal dysfunction.

  16. Hypoglycaemic activity of commelina africana and ageratum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Background: Many plants with antidiabetic properties probably act in part through their content of fibre, vitamins, bioactive or mineral ... in Asia and Africa probably due to the adoption of a Western ... Some of the leaves were air dried, ground to ...

  17. Hypoglycaemic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Leptadenia hastata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and in the treatment of numerous diseases without ... The rats in the alloxan induced diabetic group were injected .... actions of lipolytic hormones on the fat depots. Although an increase .... auriculata flowers on blood sugar levels, serum and ...

  18. Comparative antioxidant and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEYAKS PLC

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... acid reactive substance (TBARS), aspartatate aminotransfrease (AST), alanine ... from diseases in antioxidant defense potential ... is a renewed and growing interest in the use of plant- ..... is a critical pathogenic mechanism that initiates a .... Stress and Nitric Oxide Related Parameters in Type II Diabetes.

  19. [Hypoglycaemic periodic paralysis in hyperthyroidism patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvíl, J; Masopust, J; Martínková, V; Charvát, J

    2008-11-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) is a rare disorder characterised by acute, potentially fatal atacks of muscle weakness or paralysis. Massive shift of potassium into cells is caused by elevated levels of insulin and catecholamines in the blood. Hypophosphatemia and hypomagnesemia may be also present. Acidobasic status usually is not impaired. HPP occurs as familiar (caused by ion channels inherited defects) or acquired (in patients with hyperthyroidism). On the basis of two clinical cases we present a review of hypokalemic periodic paralysis in hyperthyroid patients. We discuss patogenesis, clinical and laboratory findings as well as the principles of prevention and treatment of this rare disorder.

  20. Project M: Scale Model of Lunar Landing Site of Apollo 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Hollie; Crain, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    The basis of the project was creating a scale model representation of the Apollo 17 lunar landing site. Vital components included surface slope characteristics, crater sizes and locations, prominent rocks, and lighting conditions. The model was made for Project M support when evaluating approach and terminal descent as well as when planning surface operations with respect to the terrain. The project had five main mi lestones during the length of the project. The first was examining the best method to use to re-create the Apollo 17 landing site and then reviewing research fmdings with Dr. Tim Crain and EO staff which occurred on June 25, 2010 at a meeting. The second step was formulating a construction plan, budget, and schedule and then presenting the plan for authority to proceed which occurred on July 6,2010. The third part was building a prototype to test materials and building processes which were completed by July 13, 2010. Next was assembling the landing site model and presenting a mid-term construction status report on July 29, 2010. The fifth and final milestone was demonstrating the model and presenting an exit pitch which happened on August 4, 2010. The project was very technical: it needed a lot of research about moon topography, lighting conditions and angles of the sun on the moon, Apollo 17, and Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT), before starting the actual building process. This required using Spreadsheets, searching internet sources and conducting personal meetings with project representatives. This information assisted the interns in deciding the scale of the model with respect to cracks, craters and rocks and their relative sizes as the objects mentioned could interfere with any of the Lunar Landers: Apollo, Project M and future Landers. The project concluded with the completion of a three dimensional scale model of the Apollo 17 Lunar landing site. This model assists Project M members because they can now visualize

  1. Connecting Returned Apollo Soils and Remote Sensing: Application to the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; DonaldsonHanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, Carlton C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context, returned Apollo samples. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. It has been established previously that thermal infrared spectra measured in simulated lunar environment (SLE) are significantly altered from spectra measured under terrestrial or martian conditions. The data presented here were collected at the University of Oxford Simulated Lunar Environment Chamber (SLEC). In SLEC, we simulate the lunar environment by: (1) pumping the chamber to vacuum pressures (less than 10-4 mbar) sufficient to simulate lunar heat transport processes within the sample, (2) cooling the chamber with liquid nitrogen to simulate radiation to the cold space environment, and (3) heating the samples with heaters and lamp to set-up thermal gradients similar to those experienced in the upper hundreds of microns of the lunar surface. We then conducted a comprehensive suite of experiments using different sample preparation and heating conditions on Apollo soils 15071 (maria) and 67701 (highland) and compared the results to Diviner noontime data to select the optimal experimental conditions. This study includes thermal infrared SLE measurements of 10084 (A11 - LM), 12001 (A12 - LM), 14259 (A14 - LM), 15071 (A15 - S1), 15601 (A15 - S9a), 61141 (A16 - S1), 66031 (A16 - S6), 67701 (A16 - S11), and 70181 (A17 - LM). The Diviner dataset includes all six Apollo sites

  2. Validation de schemas de calcul APOLLO3 pour assemblages de type RNR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, Simon

    The next generation nuclear reactors are already under construction or under development in the R&D labs around the world. The 3rd and 4th generation nuclear reactors will need a neutronic calculation code able to deal with any kind of technology (FBR or PWR for example). APOLLO3, a new neutronic code developped by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, will receive the heritage of his two predecessors, APOLLO2 (PWR) and ECCO/ERANOS (FBR), and to play a major role in the design of the next nuclear reactors. Validation is an essential step along the development of a deterministic neutronic code. It comes right after implementation and verification and it gives the team in charge of the calculation models in Cadarache the necessary feedbacks on the code's behaviour in various situations. This thesis goal is to suggest a validation (without evolution) of the current APOLLO3 reference calculation route used for FBR. This validation is supposed to be as complete as possible and to cover various configurations. This work will be a preparatory work for the complete validation which will be performed by the APOLLO3 project team in Cadarache. This validation is based on a study of various configurations composed of basic elements like pincells or assemblies. To complete this task, we study different aspects : geometry, sodium void effect, AEMC-RNR-1200 energy mesh, JEFF3.2 nuclear data evaluation for Pu239. We conduct a macroscopical study (multiplication factor, reactivity, neutron flux,...) and an isotopical study (fission and capture rates for Pu239 and U238 for example). We use TRIPOLI4, a Monte-Carlo simulation code, as a reference for all of our APOLLO3 calculations. We consider an infinite lattice (no neutron leakage model keff = kinfinity). This first validation phase led us to several conclusions. First of all, we observed that the geometrical configuration defined for the single pincell used in ASTRID predefinition studies is heterogeneous enough. Indeed, void

  3. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  4. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  5. Stabilized radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99m-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisic acid or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  6. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions. This dataset is associated with the following...

  8. Self-shielding phenomenon modelling in multigroup transport code Apollo-2; Modelisation du phenomene d'autoprotection dans le code de transport multigroupe Apollo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste-Delclaux, M

    2006-03-15

    This document describes the improvements carried out for modelling the self-shielding phenomenon in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. They concern the space and energy treatment of the slowing-down equation, the setting up of quadrature formulas to calculate reaction rates, the setting-up of a method that treats directly a resonant mixture and the development of a sub-group method. We validate these improvements either in an elementary or in a global way. Now, we obtain, more accurate multigroup reaction rates and we are able to carry out a reference self-shielding calculation on a very fine multigroup mesh. To end, we draw a conclusion and give some prospects on the remaining work. (author)

  9. Self-shielding phenomenon modelling in multigroup transport code Apollo-2; Modelisation du phenomene d'autoprotection dans le code de transport multigroupe Apollo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste-Delclaux, M

    2006-03-15

    This document describes the improvements carried out for modelling the self-shielding phenomenon in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. They concern the space and energy treatment of the slowing-down equation, the setting up of quadrature formulas to calculate reaction rates, the setting-up of a method that treats directly a resonant mixture and the development of a sub-group method. We validate these improvements either in an elementary or in a global way. Now, we obtain, more accurate multigroup reaction rates and we are able to carry out a reference self-shielding calculation on a very fine multigroup mesh. To end, we draw a conclusion and give some prospects on the remaining work. (author)

  10. Change Agent Survival Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  11. Teaching Tourism Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stilling Blichfeldt, Bodil; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... change in tourism in the future....

  12. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  13. Radiographic scintiscanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A new technetium-based scintiscanning agent has been prepared comprising a water soluble sup(99m)Tc-methanehydroxydiphosphonate in combination with a reducing agent selected from stannous, ferrous, chromous and titanous salts. As an additional stabilizer salts and esters of gentisic or ascorbic acids have been used. (E.G.)

  14. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  15. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  16. Phoebus volentem proelia me loqui: The Apollo of Callimachus in Horace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Tomc

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Augustan poets often modelled their recusationes on Callimachus’ portrayal of Apollo in theAetiaPrologue. The paper discusses parallel passages in Horace’s oeuvre, illustrating some typical characteristics of Horace’s poetry and of his attitude to his poetic models. After a brief introduction, the paper first touches on three poems by Horace where the role of Callimachus’ Apollo is taken over by another deity: the Muse in C. 1.6.10-12, Venus in C. 1.19.9-12, and adeus (presumably Cupid in Epod. 14.6-8. The three examples display similarities to, rather than identity with, the Callimachean situation: instead of supplying a direct quote, Horace merely reports the words of a ῾higher power’ which allegedly prevented him from writing what he wanted or what was expected of him. In the two Odes Horace thus refuses to compose an epic, while Epode 14 is not a typical recusatio: Horace’s polished iambics paradoxically profess his inability to compose iambic poetry, and his preference for erotic lyric poetry. The next section focuses on Satire 1.10.31-35, which portrays the Roman god Quirinus warning the young poet in a dream that writing Greek verse is pointless. An analysis of this complex programmatic satire reveals continual departures from, and approximations to, Callimachean poetic, as Horace interweaves several, at times clearly irreconcilable, traditions. Indeed, Callimachean poetic itself is not unequivocal or monolithic but contains many tensions.  The short fourth section discusses Horace’s prayer to Mercury in Satire 2.6.13-15. Although superficially lacking a ῾programmatic’ dimension, the satire in fact contains several allusions to Callimachus. It serves to show that Horace’s images function at several levels at once, and that his satires closely interweave ethics with aesthetics. The final and longest section focuses on Horace’s last poem, C. 4.15. In the first strophe, Horace is finally given

  17. Rhabdom evolution in butterflies: insights from the uniquely tiered and heterogeneous ommatidia of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Atsuko; Awata, Hiroko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Takemura, Shin-ya; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-09-07

    The eye of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis, a 'living fossil' species of the family Papilionidae, contains three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia. Electron microscopy reveals that the Apollo rhabdom is tiered. The distal tier is composed exclusively of photoreceptors expressing opsins of ultraviolet or blue-absorbing visual pigments, and the proximal tier consists of photoreceptors expressing opsins of green or red-absorbing visual pigments. This organization is unique because the distal tier of other known butterflies contains two green-sensitive photoreceptors, which probably function in improving spatial and/or motion vision. Interspecific comparison suggests that the Apollo rhabdom retains an ancestral tiered pattern with some modification to enhance its colour vision towards the long-wavelength region of the spectrum.

  18. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  19. Restoration of Apollo Data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Taylor, Patrick T.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo 11, 12, and 14 through 17 missions orbited and landed on the Moon, carrying scientific instruments that returned data from all phases of the missions, included long-lived Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs) deployed by the astronauts on the lunar surface. Much of these data were never archived, and some of the archived data were on media and in formats that are outmoded, or were deposited with little or no useful documentation to aid outside users. This is particularly true of the ALSEP data returned autonomously for many years after the Apollo missions ended. The purpose of the Lunar Data Project and the Planetary Data System (PDS) Lunar Data Node is to take data collections already archived at the NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and prepare them for archiving through PDS, and to locate lunar data that were never archived, bring them into NSSDCA, and then archive them through PDS. Preparing these data for archiving involves reading the data from the original media, be it magnetic tape, microfilm, microfiche, or hard-copy document, converting the outmoded, often binary, formats when necessary, putting them into a standard digital form accepted by PDS, collecting the necessary ancillary data and documentation (metadata) to ensure that the data are usable and well-described, summarizing the metadata in documentation to be included in the data set, adding other information such as references, mission and instrument descriptions, contact information, and related documentation, and packaging the results in a PDS-compliant data set. The data set is then validated and reviewed by a group of external scientists as part of the PDS final archive process. We present a status report on some of the data sets that we are processing.

  20. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11 and 12 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicating many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described. Images from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions may be viewed at: www.virtualmicroscope.org/content/apollo. Introduction: During the six NASA missions to the Moon from 1969-72 a total of 382 kilograms of rocks and soils, often referred to as "the legacy of Apollo", were collected and returned to Earth. A unique collection of polished thin sections (PTSs) was made from over 400 rocks by the Lunar Sample Curatorial Facility at the Johnson Spacecraft Center (JSC), Houston. These materials have been available for loan to approved PIs but of course they can't be simultaneously investigated by several researchers unless they are co-located or the sample is passed back and forward between them by mail/hand carrying which is inefficient and very risky for irreplaceable material. When The Open University (OU), the world's largest Distance Learning Higher Education Establishment found itself facing a comparable problem (how to supply thousands of undergraduate students with an interactive petrological microscope and a personal set of thin sections), it decided to develop a software tool called the Virtual Microscope (VM). As a result it is now able to make the unique and precious collection of Apollo specimens universally available as a resource for concurrent study by anybody in the world's Earth and Planetary Sciences community. Herein, we describe the first steps of a collaborative project between OU and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Curatorial Facility to record a PTS for every lunar rock, beginning with those collected by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. Method: Production of a virtual microscope dedicated to a particular theme divides into four main parts - photography, image processing, building and assembly of virtual microscope

  1. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  2. Restoration and Reexamination of Data from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 Dust, Thermal and Radiation Engineering Measurements Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Marie J.; Williams, David R.; Kent, H.; Turner, Niescja

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort by the Lunar Data Node (LDN) we are restoring data returned by the Apollo Dust, Thermal, and Radiation Engineering Measurements (DTREM) packages emplaced on the lunar surface by the crews of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15. Also commonly known as the Dust Detector experiments, the DTREM packages measured the outputs of exposed solar cells and thermistors over time. They operated on the surface for up to nearly 8 years, returning data every 54 seconds. The Apollo 11 DTREM was part of the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), and operated for a few months as planned following emplacement in July 1969. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 DTREMs were mounted on the central station as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) and operated from deployment until ALSEP shutdown in September 1977. The objective of the DTREM experiments was to determine the effects of lunar and meteoric dust, thermal stresses, and radiation exposure on solar cells. The LDN, part of the Geosciences Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS), operates out of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. The goal of the LDN is to extract lunar data stored on older media and/or in obsolete formats, restore the data into a usable digital format, and archive the data with PDS and NSSDC. For the DTREM data we plan to recover the raw telemetry, translate the raw counts into appropriate output units, and then apply calibrations. The final archived data will include the raw, translated, and calibrated data and the associated conversion tables produced from the microfilm, as well as ancillary supporting data (metadata) packaged in PDS format.

  3. Low-gravity homogenization and solidification of aluminum antimonide. [Apollo-Soyuz test project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, C.-Y.; Lacy, L. L.

    1976-01-01

    The III-V semiconducting compound AlSb shows promise as a highly efficient solar cell material, but it has not been commercially exploited because of difficulties in compound synthesis. Liquid state homogenization and solidification of AlSb were carried out in the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Experiment MA-044 in the hope that compositional homogeneity would be improved by negating the large density difference between the two constituents. Post-flight analysis and comparative characterization of the space-processed and ground-processed samples indicate that there are major homogeneity improvements in the low-gravity solidified material.

  4. Apollo-L2, an advanced fuel tokamak reactor utilizing direct conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, G.A.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Blanchard, J.P.; El-Guebaly, L.A.; Khater, H.Y.; Santarius, J.F.; Sawan, M.E.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Witt, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A scoping study of a tokamak reactor fueled by a D- 3 He plasma is presented. The Apollo D- 3 He tokamak capitalizes on recent advances in high field magnets (20 T) and utilizes rectennas to convert the synchrotron radiation directly to electricity. The low neutron wall loading (0.1 MW/m 2 ) permits a first wall lasting the life of the plant and enables the reactor to be classified as inherently safe. The cost of electricity is less than that from a similar power level DT reactor. 10 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  5. Apollo 12 lunar material - Effects on lipid levels of tobacco tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.; Walkinshaw, C. H.; Laseter, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Tobacco tissue cultures grown in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12, for a 12-week period, resulted in fluctuations of both the relative and absolute concentrations of endogenous sterols and fatty acids. The experimental tissues contained higher concentrations of sterols than the controls did. The ratio of campesterol to stigmasterol was greater than 1 in control tissues, but less than 1 in the experimental tissues after 3 weeks. High relative concentrations (17.1 to 22.2 per cent) of an unidentified compound or compounds were found only in control tissues that were 3 to 9 weeks of age.

  6. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Hischke, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data. This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.

  7. Apollo 9 prime crew participates in water egress training in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    The Apollo 9 prime crew participates in water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Being hoisted up to the U.S. Coast Guard helicopter in a new type of rescue net (called a Billy Pugh net) is Astronaut David R. Scott, command module pilot. Sitting in the life raft awaiting their turn for helicopter pickup are Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart (on left), lunar module pilot; and James A. McDivitt, commander. A team of Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) swimmers assisted in the training exercise.

  8. PUBLIC AFFAIRS DIRECTOR HUGH HARRIS SPEAKS AT THE APOLLO/SATURN V CENTER RIBBON-CUTTING CEREMONY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA/KSC Public Affairs Director Hugh W. Harris gives the welcome and introductions at the ribbon-cutting ceremony to officially open the new Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Center. The 100,000- square-foot facility includes two theaters, various exhibits and an Apollo-era Saturn V rocket, which formerly was on display outside the Vehicle Assembly Building and is one of only three moon rockets remaining in existence. The new center is located off the Kennedy Parkway at the Banana Creek launch viewing site.

  9. Agent Programming Languages and Logics in Agent-Based Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John

    2018-01-01

    and social behavior, and work on verification. Agent-based simulation is an approach for simulation that also uses the notion of agents. Although agent programming languages and logics are much less used in agent-based simulation, there are successful examples with agents designed according to the BDI...

  10. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  11. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  12. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  13. Agent-Based Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Jędrzejowicz, Piotr; Kacprzyk, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of original research works by leading specialists focusing on novel and promising approaches in which the multi-agent system paradigm is used to support, enhance or replace traditional approaches to solving difficult optimization problems. The editors have invited several well-known specialists to present their solutions, tools, and models falling under the common denominator of the agent-based optimization. The book consists of eight chapters covering examples of application of the multi-agent paradigm and respective customized tools to solve  difficult optimization problems arising in different areas such as machine learning, scheduling, transportation and, more generally, distributed and cooperative problem solving.

  14. Mobile Agent Data Integrity Using Multi-Agent Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    .... Security issues for mobile agents continue to produce research interest, particularly in developing mechanisms that guarantee protection of agent data and agent computations in the presence of malicious hosts...

  15. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  16. Magnetism and the interior of the moon. [measured at Apollo landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972 eleven magnetometers were sent to the moon. The results of lunar magnetometer data analysis are reviewed, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are given. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. The origin of the lunar remanent field is not yet satisfactorily understood; several source models are presented. Simultaneous data from the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer and the Explorer 35 Ames magnetometer are used to construct a wholemoon hysteresis curve, from which the global lunar permeability is determined. Total iron abundance is calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior. Other lunar models with a small iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer are also discussed in light of the measured global permeability.

  17. New Improvements in Mixture Self-Shielding Treatment with APOLLO2 Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste-Delclaux, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of the presentation follows: APOLLO2 is a modular multigroup transport code developed at the CEA in Saclay (France). Previously, the self-shielding module could only treat one resonant isotope mixed with moderator isotopes. Consequently, the resonant mixture self-shielding treatment was an iterative one. Each resonant isotope of the mixture was treated separately, the other resonant isotopes of the mixture being then considered as moderator isotopes, that is to say non-resonant isotopes. This treatment could be iterated. Recently, we have developed a new method that consists in treating the resonant mixture as a unique entity. A main feature of APOLLO2 self-shielding module is that some implemented models are very general and therefore very powerful and versatile. We can give, as examples, the use of probability tables in order to describe the microscopic cross-section fluctuations or the TR slowing-down model that can deal with any resonance shape. The self-shielding treatment of a resonant mixture was developed essentially thanks to these two models. The goal of this paper is to describe the improvements on the self-shielding treatment of a resonant mixture and to present, as an application, the calculation of the ATRIUM-10 BWR benchmark. We will conclude by some prospects on remaining work in the self-shielding domain. (author)

  18. Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Electron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron size dust grains with unusually high adhesive characteristics. The dust grains observed to be levitated and transported on the lunar surface are believed to have a hazardous impact on the robotic and human missions to the Moon. The observed dust phenomena are attributed to the lunar dust being charged positively during the day by UV photoelectric emissions, and negatively during the night by the solar wind electrons. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena, with the uncertainty of dust charging processes and the equilibrium potentials of the individual dust grains. It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual dust grains are substantially different from those determined from measurements made on bulk materials that are currently available. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at MSFC for investigating the charging and optical properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present the laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by a low energy electron beam. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission process are discussed.

  19. Laboratory Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Low Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.; Gaskin, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual micron/sub-micron size dust grains by various processes are expected to be substantially different from the currently available measurements made on bulk materials. Solar UV radiation and the solar wind plasma charge micron size dust grains on the lunar surface with virtually no atmosphere. The electrostatically charged dust grains are believed to be levitated and transported long distances over the lunar terminator from the day to the night side. The current models do not fully explain the lunar dust phenomena and laboratory measurements are needed to experimentally determine the charging properties of lunar dust grains. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center MSFC for investigating the charging properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by low energy electron beams in the 5-100 eV energy range. The measurements are made by levitating Apollo 17 dust grains of 0.2 to 10 micrometer diameters, in an electrodynamic balance and exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission processes are discussed.

  20. High performance 3D neutron transport on peta scale and hybrid architectures within APOLLO3 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamelot, E.; Dubois, J.; Lautard, J-J.; Calvin, C.; Baudron, A-M.

    2011-01-01

    APOLLO3 code is a common project of CEA, AREVA and EDF for the development of a new generation system for core physics analysis. We present here the parallelization of two deterministic transport solvers of APOLLO3: MINOS, a simplified 3D transport solver on structured Cartesian and hexagonal grids, and MINARET, a transport solver based on triangular meshes on 2D and prismatic ones in 3D. We used two different techniques to accelerate MINOS: a domain decomposition method, combined with an accelerated algorithm using GPU. The domain decomposition is based on the Schwarz iterative algorithm, with Robin boundary conditions to exchange information. The Robin parameters influence the convergence and we detail how we optimized the choice of these parameters. MINARET parallelization is based on angular directions calculation using explicit message passing. Fine grain parallelization is also available for each angular direction using shared memory multithreaded acceleration. Many performance results are presented on massively parallel architectures using more than 103 cores and on hybrid architectures using some tens of GPUs. This work contributes to the HPC development in reactor physics at the CEA Nuclear Energy Division. (author)

  1. Nuclear emulsion measurements of the astronauts' radiation exposure on the Apollo-Soyuz mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. J.; Sullivan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    On the Apollo-Soyuz mission each astronaut carried one passive dosimeter containing nuclear photographic emulsions, plastic foils, TLD chips, and neutron-activation foils for recording radiation exposure. This report is limited to the presentation of data retrieved from nuclear emulsions. Protons, most of them trapped particles encountered in numerous passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly, contributed by far the largest share to the mission dose. Their linear energy transfer (LET) spectrum was established from track and grain counts in a G.5 emulsion which is used for medium and high energies, and from ender counts in a K.2 emulsion which is used for low energies. The total mission fluence of protons was found to be equivalent to a unidirectional beam of 448,500 square centimeters. The broad spectrum was broken down into small LET intervals, which allowed for the computation of absorbed doses and dose equivalents. The totals are 51 millirad and 74 millirem. Counts of disintegration stars in K.2 emulsion are incomplete at present. While a total of 467 stars were identified, counting their prong numbers is still in progress. It was concluded that the Apollo-Soyuz astronauts' radiation exposure as such did not contain anything out of the ordinary that would seem to require special attention.

  2. Pulmonary function evaluation during the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Previous experience during Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic normal gravity environments, but no previous study has reported on men exposed to an environment that was both normoxic at 258 torr total pressure and at null gravity as encountered in Skylab. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Inflight measurements of vital capacity (VC) were obtained during the last 2 weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). More detailed pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination (RV), closing volume (CV), VC, FVC and its derivatives. In addition, VC was measured in flight at regular intervals during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly (-10%) in flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight-to-postflight changes were observed. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen were studied using equipment and procedures similar to those employed during Skylab 4. Postflight evaluation of the ASTP crewmen was complicated by their inadvertent exposure to nitrogen tetroxide gas fumes upon reentry.

  3. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (the Apollo method: a new approach to obesity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gontrand López-Nava-Breviere

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many obese patients cannot lose weight or reject conventional obesity management. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (the Apollo method is a pioneering coadjuvant, interventionist technique for the integral management of obesity. Objectives: The goals of this study were to report safety and efficacy results obtained at 6 months in patients undergoing endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. Material and methods: A prospective study was performed in 55 patients (13 males, 42 females who were subjected to the Apollo technique; mean age was 43.5 years (range 25-60 and mean BMI was 37.7 kg/m² (range 30-48. All received multidisciplinary follow-up for weight loss. Weight changes and presence of complications were assessed. Through the endoscope a triangular pattern suture is performed consisting of approximately 3-6 transmural (mucosa to serosa stitches, using a cinch device to bring them nearer and form a plication. Results: A total of 6-8 plications are used to provide a tubular or sleeve-shaped restriction to the gastric cavity. No major complications developed and patients were discharged at 24 hours following the procedure. Endoscopic and radiographic follow-up at 6 months post-procedure showed a well preserved tubular form to the stomach. After 6 months patients had lost 18.9 kg and 55.3% of excess weight. Conclusions: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty, together with dietary and psycho-behavioral changes, is a safe, effective technique in the coadjuvant management of obese patients.

  4. The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson-Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. We find that analyses of Diviner observations of individual sampling stations and SLE measurements of returned Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal infrared reflectance under terrestrial conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates the Diviner compositional dataset. Future work includes measurement of additional soils in SLE and cross comparisons with measurements in JPL Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL).

  5. Breccia 66055 and related clastic materials from the Descartes region, Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchter, J. S.; Kridelbaugh, S. J.; Robyn, M. A.; Goles, G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Trace and major element contents obtained by instrumental neutron activation are reported for a number of Apollo 16 soil samples and miscellaneous breccia fragments. In addition, data obtained by instrumental neutron activation and electron microprobe techniques along with petrographic descriptions are presented for selected subsamples of breccia 66055. The compositions of our soil samples can be modeled by mixtures of various amounts of anorthosite, anorthositic gabbro and low-K Fra Mauro basalt components. These mixtures are typical of those found in a number of petrographic surveys of the fines. Breccia 66055 is a complex regolith breccia which consists of at least four distinct types of microbreccias. No systematic relation with respect to stratigraphic age among the various microbreccia types was observed. Compositionally and texturally, the clasts which compose breccia 66055 are similar to a number of previously reported rock types from the Apollo 16 area. The entire breccia appears to have undergone a complex history of thermal metamorphism. We conclude from the study of these samples that the Cayley Formation is probably homogeneous in its gross compositional and petrographic aspects.

  6. Agents Within our Midst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    agents; and the development of bio -monitoring protocols for civilian and service personnel during a chemical attack. These efforts have resulted in greater...produced by staphylococcal bacteria that is and is classified as a CDC select agent which has the potential to be used as a biological weapon .1...NMR chemical shift perturbation titrations with Fab (fragment, antigen binding regions) domains of 20B1, 14G8, and 6D3 using deuterated (2H) SEB

  7. Adrenal imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.A.; Hanson, R.N.; Holman, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of this proposal are the development of selenium-containing analogs of the aromatic amino acids as imaging agents for the pancreas and of the adrenal cortex enzyme inhibitors as imaging agents for adrenal pathology. The objects for this year include (a) the synthesis of methylseleno derivatives of phenylalanine and tryptophan, and (b) the preparation and evaluation of radiolabeled iodobenzoyl derivatives of the selenazole and thiazole analogs of metyrapone and SU-9055

  8. Changes is genes coding for laccases 1 and 2 may contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from the isolated population in Pieniny National Park (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) occurs in Pieniny National Park (Poland). Deformations and reductions of wings in a relatively large number of individuals from this population is found, yet the reasons for these defects are unknown. During studies devoted to identify cause(s) of this phenomenon, we found that specific regions of genes coding of enzymes laccases 1 and 2 could not be amplified from DNA samples isolated from large fractions of malformed insects while expected PCR products were detected in almost all (with one exception) normal butterflies. Laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductases) are oxidases containing several copper atoms. They catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic or other compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. In insects, their enzymatic activities were found previously in epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, salivary glands, and reproductive tissues. Therefore, we suggest that defects in genes coding for laccases might contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterflies, though it seems obvious that deficiency in these enzymes could not be the sole cause of these developmental improperties in P. apollo from Pieniny National Park.

  9. Earth-based and Galileo SSI multispectral observations of eastern mare serenitatis and the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both the Apollo 17 and the Mare Serenitatis region were observed by Galileo during its fly-by in December 1992. We used earth-based multispectral data to define mare units which then can be compared with the results of the Galileo SSI data evaluation.

  10. 78 FR 50135 - AIMS Worldwide, Inc., Apollo Capital Group, Inc., CommunitySouth Financial Corp., Last Mile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] AIMS Worldwide, Inc., Apollo Capital Group, Inc., CommunitySouth Financial Corp., Last Mile Logistics Group, Inc., Made in America Entertainment... securities of AIMS Worldwide, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended June...

  11. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  12. Monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care

    2000-12-01

    Full text: The methods that have been used for monitoring volatile anaesthetic agents depend on some physical property such as Density, Refractometry, Mass, Solubility, Raman scattering, or Infra-red absorption. Today, refractometry and infra-red techniques are the most common. Refractometry is used for the calibration of vaporizers. All anaesthetic agents increase the refractive index of the carrier gas. Provided the mixture is known then the refractive change measures the concentration of the volatile anaesthetic agent. Raman Scattering is when energy hits a molecule a very small fraction of the energy is absorbed and re-emitted at one or more lower frequencies. The shift in frequency is a function of the chemical bonds and is a fingerprint of the substance irradiated. Electromagnetic (Infra-red) has been the commonest method of detection of volatile agents. Most systems use a subtractive system, i.e. the agent in the sampling cell absorbed some of the infrared energy and the photo-detector therefore received less energy. A different approach is where the absorbed energy is converted into a pressure change and detected as sound (Acoustic monitor). This gives a more stable zero reference. More recently, the detector systems have used multiple narrow-band wavelengths in the infrared bands and by shape matching or matrix computing specific agent identification is achieved and the concentration calculated. In the early Datex AS3 monitors, a spectral sweep across the 3 micron infrared band was used to create spectral fingerprints. The recently released AS3 monitors use a different system with five very narrow band filters in the 8-10 micron region. The transmission through each of these filters is a value in a matrix which is solved by a micro computer to identify the agent and its concentration. These monitors can assist in improving the safety and efficiency of our anaesthetics but do not ensure that the patient is completely anaesthetized. Copyright (2000

  13. A New Moonquake Catalog from Apollo 17 Seismic Data II: Lunar Surface Gravimeter: Implications of Expanding the Passive Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.; Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Apollo 17's Lunar Surface Gravimeter (LSG) was deployed on the Moon in 1972, and was originally intended to detect gravitational waves as a confirmation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Due to a design problem, the instrument did not function as intended. However, remotely-issued reconfiguration commands permitted the instrument to act effectively as a passive seismometer. LSG recorded continuously until Sept. 1977, when all surface data recording was terminated. Because the instrument did not meet its primary science objective, little effort was made to archive the data. Most of it was eventually lost, with the exception of data spanning the period March 1976 until Sept. 1977, and a recent investigation demonstrated that LSG data do contain moonquake signals (Kawamura et al., 2015). The addition of useable seismic data at the Apollo 17 site has important implications for event location schemes, which improve with increasing data coverage. All previous seismic event location attempts were limited to the four stations deployed at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 sites. Apollo 17 extends the functional aperture of the seismic array significantly to the east, permitting more accurate moonquake locations and improved probing of the lunar interior. Using the standard location technique of linearized arrival time inversion through a known velocity model, Kawamura et al. (2015) used moonquake signals detected in the LSG data to refine location estimates for 49 deep moonquake clusters, and constrained new locations for five previously un-located clusters. Recent efforts of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package Data Recovery Focus Group have recovered some of the previously lost LSG data, spanning the time period April 2, 1975 to June 30, 1975. In this study, we expand Kawamura's analysis to the newly recovered data, which contain over 200 known seismic signals, including deep moonquakes, shallow moonquakes, and meteorite impacts. We have completed initial

  14. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  15. [Supramolecular Agents for Theranostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyev, S M; Lebedenko, E N

    2015-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes recent data obtained in the process of creation of a versatile module platform suitable for construction of supramolecular theranostic agents. As an example, we consider multifunctional hybrid agents for imaging and elimination of cancer cells. The use of an adapter protein system barnase:barstar for producing targeted multifunctional hybrid structures on the basis of highly specific peptides and mini-antibodies as addressing modules and recombinant proteins and/or nanoparticles of different nature (quantum dots, nanogold, magnetic nanoparticles, nanodiamonds, upconverting nanophosphores, polymer nanoparticles) as agents visualizing and damaging cancer cells is described. New perspectives for creation of selective and highly effective compounds for theranostics and personified medicine are contemplated.

  16. Teaching tourism change agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Kvistgaard, Hans-Peter; Hird, John

    2017-01-01

    This article discuss es know ledge, competencies and skills Master’s students should obtain during their academic studies and particularly, the differences between teaching about a topic and teaching to do. This is ex emplified by experiential learning theory and the case of a change management...... course that is part of a Tourism Master’s program, where a major challenge is not only to teach students about change and change agents, but to teach them how change feels and ho w to become change agents. The c hange management course contains an experiment inspired by experiential teaching literature...... and methods. The experiment seeks to make students not only hear/learn about change agency and management, but to make them feel cha nge, hereby enabling them to develop the skills and competencies necessary for them to take on the role as change agent s and thus enable them to play key role s in implementing...

  17. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wayner, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  18. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  19. Building dismantlement and site remediation at the Apollo Fuel Plant: When is technology the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Apollo fuel plant was located in Pennsylvania on a site known to have been used continuously for stell production from before the Civil War until after World War II. Then the site became a nuclear fuel chemical processing plants. Finally it was used to convert uranium hexafluoride to various oxide fuel forms. After the fuel manufacturing operations were teminated, the processing equipment was partially decontaminated, removed, packaged and shipped to a licensed low-level radioactive waste burial site. The work was completed in 1984. In 1990 a detailed site characterization was initiated to establishe the extent of contamination and to plan the building dismantlement and soil remediation efforts. This article discusses the site characterization and remedial action at the site in the following subsections: characterization; criticality control; mobile containment; soil washing; in-process measurements; and the final outcome of the project

  20. Air-coupled seismic waves at long range from Apollo launchings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, W. L.; Dalins, I.; Mccarty, V.; Ewing, M.; Kaschak , G.

    1971-01-01

    Microphones and seismographs were co-located in arrays on Skidaway Island, Georgia, for the launchings of Apollo 13 and 14, 374 km to the south. Simultaneous acoustic and seismic waves were recorded for both events at times appropriate to the arrival of the acoustic waves from the source. The acoustic signal is relatively broadband compared to the nearly monochromatic seismic signal; the seismic signal is much more continuous than the more pulse-like acoustic signal; ground loading from the pressure variations of the acoustic waves is shown to be too small to account for the seismic waves; and the measured phase velocities of both acoustic and seismic waves across the local instrument arrays differ by less than 6 per cent and possibly 3 per cent if experimental error is included. It is concluded that the seismic waves are generated by resonant coupling to the acoustic waves along some 10 km of path on Skidaway Island.

  1. Artist concept illustrating key events on day by day basis during Apollo 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Artist concept illustrating key events on day by day basis during Apollo 9 mission. First photograph illustrates activities on the first day of the mission, including flight crew preparation, orbital insertion, 103 north mile orbit, separations, docking and docked Service Propulsion System Burn (19792); Second day events include landmark tracking, pitch maneuver, yaw-roll maneuver, and high apogee orbits (19793); Third day events include crew transfer and Lunar Module system evaluation (19794); Fourth day events include use of camera, day-night extravehicular activity, use of golden slippers, and television over Texas and Louisiana (19795); Fifth day events include vehicles undocked, Lunar Module burns for rendezvous, maximum separation, ascent propulsion system burn, formation flying and docking, and Lunar Module jettison ascent burn (19796); Sixth thru ninth day events include service propulsion system burns and landmark sightings, photograph special tests (19797); Tenth day events i

  2. Pre-Imbrian craters and basins: ages, compositions and excavation depths of Apollo 16 breccias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, P.; Eberhardt, P.; Geiss, J.; Groegler, N.; Stettler, A.; Brown, G.M.; Peckett, A.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1978-01-01

    Breccia fragments have been analyzed from the 2 to 4 mm sieve fraction of three Apollo 16 soils collected in the vicinity of North Ray Crater. Ar 39 -Ar 40 ages, Ar 37 -Ar 38 exposure ages, abundances of major and certain trace elements, and petrographic data relevant to thermal history have been obtained for up to 48 individual fragments. Among the samples, 30 gave Ar 39 -Ar 40 release patterns that allowed the assignment of a high- or intermediate-temperature plateau age and the recognition of three age groups. Group 1 (10 fragments) are 4.12 to 4.21 AE, Group 2 (13 fragments) are 3.89 to 4.02 AE, and Group 3 (6 fragments) are 6 y, the age of North Ray Crater. Compositional and textural properties of the three groups are discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Chemical stratigraphy of the Apollo 17 deep drill cores 70009-70007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, W. D.; Ali, M. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an analysis of a total of 26 samples from three core segments (70009, 70008, 70007) of the Apollo 17 deep drill string. The deep drill string was taken about 700 m east of the Camelot Crater in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon. Three core segments have been chemically characterized from the mainly coarse-grained upper portion of the deep drill string. The chemical data suggest that the entire 70007-70009 portion of the deep drill string examined was not deposited as a single unit, but was formed by several events sampling slightly different source materials which may have occurred over a relatively short period of time. According to the data from drill stem 70007, there were at least two phases of deposition. Core segment 70009 is probably derived from somewhat different source material than 70008. It seems to be a very well mixed material.

  4. First massively parallel algorithm to be implemented in Apollo-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The collision probability (CP) method in neutron transport, as applied to arbitrary 2D XY geometries, like the TDT module in APOLLO-II, is very time consuming. Consequently RZ or 3D extensions became prohibitive. Fortunately, this method is very suitable for parallelization. Massively parallel computer architectures, especially MIMD machines, bring a new breath to this method. In this paper we present a CM5 implementation of the CP method. Parallelization is applied to the energy groups, using the CMMD message passing library. In our case we use 32 processors for the standard 99-group APOLLIB-II library. The real advantage of this algorithm will appear in the calculation of the future fine multigroup library (about 8000 groups) of the SAPHYR project with a massively parallel computer (to the order of hundreds of processors). (author). 3 tabs., 4 figs., 4 refs

  5. First massively parallel algorithm to be implemented in APOLLO-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The collision probability method in neutron transport, as applied to arbitrary 2-dimensional geometries, like the two dimensional transport module in APOLLO-II is very time consuming. Consequently 3-dimensional extension became prohibitive. Fortunately, this method is very suitable for parallelization. Massively parallel computer architectures, especially MIMD machines, bring a new breath to this method. In this paper we present a CM5 implementation of the collision probability method. Parallelization is applied to the energy groups, using the CMMD massage passing library. In our case we used 32 processors for the standard 99-group APOLLIB-II library. The real advantage of this algorithm will appear in the calculation of the future multigroup library (about 8000 groups) of the SAPHYR project with a massively parallel computer (to the order of hundreds of processors). (author). 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Research, development and application of noncombustible Beta fiber structures. [for Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, J. J.; Cobb, E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Beta fiber was selected as the primary material for flexible fibrous structures used in spacecraft and crew systems applications in the Apollo program because it was noncombustible in a 100 percent oxygen atmosphere up to 16.5 psia. It met NASA criteria for outgassing, toxicity, odor, and crew comfort, and possessed sufficient durability to last through the mission. Topics discussed include: study of spacecraft applications; design of Beta fiber textile structures to meet the requirements; selection of surface treatments (finishes, coatings, and printing systems) to impart the required durability and special functional use to the textile structures; development of sewing and fabrication techniques; and testing and evaluation programs, and development of production sources.

  7. Nonequilibrium Radiation Aerothermodynamics of the Command Modulus of Apollo 4 at Altitudes above 75 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of the radiation gas dynamics of super-orbital entry into dense layers of the Earth's atmosphere of the command module of Apollo 4 is solved numerically in the two-dimensional formulation of the flow around an aerodynamic frontal shield at the velocity V∞= 10.7 km/s in the altitude range H = 91.5‒76.2 km. The density distributions of the spectral and integral radiation heat fluxes on the surface flowed around are obtained. The considerable role of atomic spectral lines in the radiation heating of the surface is shown. The results of calculations are compared with the flight experimental data and the calculated data of other authors.

  8. Rust in the Apollo 16 rocks. [hydration and oxidation processes in lunar environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Mao, H. K.; Bell, P. M.

    1973-01-01

    Apollo 16 samples of all four rock types and from all stations contain evidence for hydration and oxidation - i.e., the presence of hydrated iron oxide, probably goethite. Rock 66095 contains native FeNi grains with a characteristic intergrowth of schreibersite and, to lesser extents, of cohenite. Troilite also contains sphalerite. The goethite contains 1.5-4.6 wt.% chlorine and occurs mainly on the edges of FeNi metal, causing a rust color in the cracks and space around the native metal grains, which also contain abundant chlorine. This observation suggests the presence of lawrencite (FeCl2), a phase that deliquesces and oxidizes very rapidly upon exposure to water or to a moist atmosphere.

  9. Contribution to the validation of the Apollo code library for thermal neutron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.; Van der Gucht, C.; Vanuxeem, J.

    1988-03-01

    The neutron nuclear data which are needed by reactor physicists to perform core calculation are brought together in the evaluated files. The files are processed to provide multigroup cross sections. The accuracy of the core calculations depends on the initial data which are sometimes not accurate enough. Therefore the reactor physicists carry out integral experiments. We show in this paper, how the use of these integral experiments and the application of the tendency research method can improve the accuracy of the neutron data. This technique was applied to the validation of the Apollo code library. For this purpose 60 buckling measurements (34 for uranium fuel multiplying media and 26 for plutonium fuel multiplying media) and 42 spent fuel analysis were used. Small modifications of the initial data are proposed. The final values are compared which recent recommended values of microscopic data and the agreement is good [fr

  10. Results of examination of the calvarium, brain, and meninges. [in Apollo 17 BIOCORE pocket mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymaker, W.; Zeman, W.; Turnbill, C. E.; Clayton, R. K.; Bailey, O. T.; Samorajski, T.; Vogel, F. S.; Lloyd, B.; Cruty, M. R.; Benton, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    Tissue reactions were found around the monitor (dosimeter) assemblies that had been implanted beneath the scalp of the five pocket mice that flew on Apollo XVII. Mitosis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation was considerably reduced in comparison with that in control animals. Otherwise the brain tissue as well as the meninges in the flight animals appeared unaltered. Since the animals were exposed primarily to high Z-high energy (HZE) cosmic-ray particles at the lower end of the high LET spectrum, the lack of changes in the brain cannot be taken as evidence that the brain will suffer no damage from the heavier HZE particles on prolonged manned missions.

  11. Determining the 3D Subsurface Density Structure of Taurus Littrow Valley Using Apollo 17 Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Stanley, S,; Johnson, C. L.; Carroll, K. A.; Hatch, D.; Williamson, M. C.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Surface gravity surveys can detect subsurface density variations that can reveal subsurface geologic features. In 1972, the Apollo 17 (A17) mission conducted the Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) using a gravimeter that measured the local gravity field near Taurus Littrow Valley (TLV), located on the south-eastern rim of the Serenitatis basin. TLV is hypothesized to be a basaltfilled radial graben resulting from the impact that formed Mare Serenitatis. It is bounded by both the North and South Massifs (NM and SM) as well as other smaller mountains to the East that are thought to be mainly composed of brecciated highland material. The TGE is the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon. Other more recent satellite surveys, such as NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission (2011- 2012), have produced the best global gravity field to date (approx. 13km resolution). However, these satellite surveys are not sensitive enough to detect fine-scale (<1km) lunar subsurface structures. This underscores the value of the data collected at the surface by A17. In the original analysis of the data a 2D forward-modelling approach was used to derive a thickness of the subsurface basalt layer of 1.0 km by assuming a simple flat-faced rectangular geometry and using densities derived from Apollo lunar samples. We are investigating whether modern 3D modelling techniques in combination with high-resolution topographical and image datasets can reveal additional fine-scale subsurface structure in TLV.

  12. Development of common user data model for APOLLO3 and MARBLE and application to benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    A Common User Data Model, CUDM, has been developed for the purpose of benchmark calculations between APOLLO3 and MARBLE code systems. The current version of CUDM was designed for core calculation benchmark problems with 3-dimensional Cartesian, 3-D XYZ, geometry. CUDM is able to manage all input/output data such as 3-D XYZ geometry, effective macroscopic cross section, effective multiplication factor and neutron flux. In addition, visualization tools for geometry and neutron flux were included. CUDM was designed by the object-oriented technique and implemented using Python programming language. Based on the CUDM, a prototype system for a benchmark calculation, CUDM-benchmark, was also developed. The CUDM-benchmark supports input/output data conversion for IDT solver in APOLLO3, and TRITAC and SNT solvers in MARBLE. In order to evaluate pertinence of CUDM, the CUDM-benchmark was applied to benchmark problems proposed by T. Takeda, G. Chiba and I. Zmijarevic. It was verified that the CUDM-benchmark successfully reproduced the results calculated with reference input data files, and provided consistent results among all the solvers by using one common input data defined by CUDM. In addition, a detailed benchmark calculation for Chiba benchmark was performed by using the CUDM-benchmark. Chiba benchmark is a neutron transport benchmark problem for fast criticality assembly without homogenization. This benchmark problem consists of 4 core configurations which have different sodium void regions, and each core configuration is defined by more than 5,000 fuel/material cells. In this application, it was found that the results by IDT and SNT solvers agreed well with the reference results by Monte-Carlo code. In addition, model effects such as quadrature set effect, S n order effect and mesh size effect were systematically evaluated and summarized in this report. (author)

  13. New Measurements of the Particle Size Distribution of Apollo 11 Lunar Soil 10084

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D.S.; Cooper, B.L.; Riofrio, L.M.

    2009-01-01

    We have initiated a major new program to determine the grain size distribution of nearly all lunar soils collected in the Apollo program. Following the return of Apollo soil and core samples, a number of investigators including our own group performed grain size distribution studies and published the results [1-11]. Nearly all of these studies were done by sieving the samples, usually with a working fluid such as Freon(TradeMark) or water. We have measured the particle size distribution of lunar soil 10084,2005 in water, using a Microtrac(TradeMark) laser diffraction instrument. Details of our own sieving technique and protocol (also used in [11]). are given in [4]. While sieving usually produces accurate and reproducible results, it has disadvantages. It is very labor intensive and requires hours to days to perform properly. Even using automated sieve shaking devices, four or five days may be needed to sieve each sample, although multiple sieve stacks increases productivity. Second, sieving is subject to loss of grains through handling and weighing operations, and these losses are concentrated in the finest grain sizes. Loss from handling becomes a more acute problem when smaller amounts of material are used. While we were able to quantitatively sieve into 6 or 8 size fractions using starting soil masses as low as 50mg, attrition and handling problems limit the practicality of sieving smaller amounts. Third, sieving below 10 or 20microns is not practical because of the problems of grain loss, and smaller grains sticking to coarser grains. Sieving is completely impractical below about 5- 10microns. Consequently, sieving gives no information on the size distribution below approx.10 microns which includes the important submicrometer and nanoparticle size ranges. Finally, sieving creates a limited number of size bins and may therefore miss fine structure of the distribution which would be revealed by other methods that produce many smaller size bins.

  14. SECOND BUYING AGENT

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL - SERVICES ACHATS

    2000-01-01

    Last year the buying agent LOGITRADE started operations on the CERN site, processing purchasing requests for well-defined families of products up to a certain value. It was planned from the outset that a second buying agent would be brought in to handle the remaining product families. So, according to that plan, the company CHARLES KENDALL will be commencing operations at CERN on 8 May 2000 in Building 73, 1st floor, offices 31 and 35 (phone and fax numbers to be announced).Each buying agent will have its own specific list of product families and will handle purchasing requests up to 10'000 CHF.Whenever possible they will provide the requested supplies at a price (including the cost of their own services) which must be equivalent to or lower than the price mentioned on the purchasing request, changing the supplier if necessary. If a lower price cannot be obtained, agents will provide the necessary administrative support free of charge.To ensure that all orders are processed in the best possible conditions, us...

  15. Socially Intelligent Tutor Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Vissers, M.; Aylett, R.; Ballin, D.; Rist, T.

    2003-01-01

    Emotions and personality have received quite a lot of attention the last few years in research on embodied conversational agents. Attention is also increasingly being paid to matters of social psychology and interpersonal aspects, for work of our group). Given the nature of an embodied

  16. Alternative inerting agents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report ALTERNATIVE INERTING AGENTS Author/s: J J L DU PLESSIS Research Agency: OSIR MINING TECHNOLOGY Project No: Date: 3 2 7 2 COL 443 APRIL 1999 N’ ) ( G~6~ I Title: 9 / The results show...

  17. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  18. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  19. A waterproofing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchipanov, A.I.; Bass, U.M.; Belousov, E.D.; Chernova, S.P.; Gioev, K.A.; Perlin, L.M.; Shapiro, B.O.; Silantev, U.R.

    1979-12-25

    A waterproofing agent is proposed with improved physiomechanical properties. The agent contains (by parts): bitumens: 100; emulsifier: .6-5; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4-8; synthetic latex: 5.24; a corrosion inhibitor: .2-10; SPL methyl methacrylate with chloroprene: 2.24; hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine: 2-10, water: 118-220. The agent is prepared using either periodic or continuous action in emulsifying dispersion machines. The bitumen is dispersed in the machine in an aqueous emulsifying solution in which polyvinylpyrrolidone and the corrosion inihibitor are first introduced. Then a synthetic latex solution is introduced into the bitumen emulsion while being mixed in rotor-type turbulent mixers; a solution and a hydrochlorinated amine of adduct diethylene triamine with diglycidyl diamine solution until a homogeneous mixture is obtained. Example: a waterproofing agent is obtained in parts: bitumen 100, emulsifyer (oxidized petrolatum): .6; polyvinylpyrrolidone: .4; synthetic latex (nitrile): 5; corrosion inhibitor (guanidine chromate): .2, SPL:2; and water 118. The properties of the proposed composition are better than the properties of the composition currently used.

  20. Product and Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montecino, Alex; Valero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will explore how the “mathematics teacher” becomes a subject and, at the same time, is subjected as part of diverse dispositive of power. We argue that the mathematics teacher becomes both a product and a social agent, which has been set, within current societies, from the ideas...

  1. E-Learning Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  2. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  3. Agentes farmacológicos actuales en el tratamiento de la diabetes mellitus no insulinodependiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Hernández-Yero

    1997-12-01

    thiazolidinediones, whose used at the beginning of the disease or in insulin-resistant patients may delay or prevent the development of the disease, and may interfere in the progressive reduction of the pancreatic function. An important group of pharmacological agents, as well as their possible mechanisms of action, which have been investigated, are shown to widen and increase the therapeutics of diabetes. The insuline analogs, the insulinomimetic agents, and the oral insuline preparations, the non-sulphonylurea insulinotropic agents, the amylene analogs, the peptides similar to glucagon, the adrenergic alpha-2 antagonist, the modulators of glucose metabolism, and some substances of vegetal origin with possible hypoglycaemic effects, are among these agents

  4. Heavy nucleus resonant absorption in heterogeneous lattices. I- Apollo 2 self-shielding formalism; Absorption resonnante des noyaux lourds dans les reseaux heterogenes. I -Formalisme du module d`autoprotection d`Apollo 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coste, M.

    1994-01-01

    This note gives in detailed way the self-shielding formalism which is used in the multigroup transport code APOLLO2. The self-shielded cross-sections are performed with the same scheme as in APOLLO1. We use two equivalencies, first an heterogeneous/homogeneous equivalence which gives the reaction rates and then a multigroup equivalence in order to obtain the cross-sections which preserve these reaction rates. However, numerous improvements were implemented, specially in the homogenization step. Homogenization can be performed group per group with different modelizations of the heavy slowing-down operator (statistical, intermediary and ``wide resonance`` models), which allows us to fit correctly the resonance shapes. Moreover, we can take exactly into account the spatial interferences between resonant isotopes with the background matrix model. Consequently, we are now able to perform, for instance, the radial distribution of the resonant absorption inside a fuel pin. (author). 7 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Topical antifungal agents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, K B

    1996-10-01

    So many topical antifungal agents have been introduced that it has become very difficult to select the proper agent for a given infection. Nonspecific agents have been available for many years, and they are still effective in many situations. These agents include Whitfield's ointment, Castellani paint, gentian violet, potassium permanganate, undecylenic acid and selenium sulfide. Specific antifungal agents include, among others, the polyenes (nystatin, amphotericin B), the imidazoles (metronidazole, clotrimazole) and the allylamines (terbinafine, naftifine). Although the choice of an antifungal agent should be based on an accurate diagnosis, many clinicians believe that topical miconazole is a relatively effective agent for the treatment of most mycotic infections. Terbinafine and other newer drugs have primary fungicidal effects. Compared with older antifungal agents, these newer drugs can be used in lower concentrations and shorter therapeutic courses. Studies are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacies and cost advantages of both newer and traditional agents.

  6. Reference calculations on critical assemblies with Apollo2 code working with a fine multigroup mesh; Calculs de reference avec un maillage multigroupe fin sur des assemblages critiques par Apollo2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggery, A

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this thesis is to add to the multigroup transport code APOLLO2 the capability to perform deterministic reference calculations, for any type of reactor, using a very fine energy mesh of several thousand groups. This new reference tool allows us to validate the self-shielding model used in industrial applications, to perform depletion calculations, differential effects calculations, critical buckling calculations or to evaluate precisely data required by the self shielding model. At its origin, APOLLO2 was designed to perform routine calculations with energy meshes around one hundred groups. That is why, in the current format of cross sections libraries, almost each value of the multigroup energy transfer matrix is stored. As this format is not convenient for a high number of groups (concerning memory size), we had to search out a new format for removal matrices and consequently to modify the code. In the new format we found, only some values of removal matrices are kept (these values depend on a reconstruction precision choice), the other ones being reconstructed by a linear interpolation, what reduces the size of these matrices. Then we had to show that APOLLO2 working with a fine multigroup mesh had the capability to perform reference calculations on any assembly geometry. For that, we successfully carried out the validation with several calculations for which we compared APOLLO2 results (obtained with the universal mesh of 11276 groups) to results obtained with Monte Carlo codes (MCNP, TRIPOLI4). Physical analysis led with this new tool have been very fruitful and show a great potential for such an R and D tool. (author)

  7. Halon firefighting agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, P.R.; Dalzell, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the current state of the International agreements on the use of halons and the subsequent National and industry approaches to the subject. It examines the definition of Essential Use and gives particular examples to clarify its interpretation. Alternative methods of loss control are reviewed. It does not address alternative active firefighting agents but examines the need for protection in particular areas. It addresses reduction of the hazards and consequences so that the need for protection can be minimized. Practical measures to minimize the installed quantities of halon are described. This covers specifications for new, essential, systems and the short term reduction of inventories in existing systems. The causes of leakage and accidental releases are studied and preventive measures are proposed. The paper concludes with an overview of the current research into replacement agents and the future outlook

  8. Blasting agent package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, R.

    1971-03-17

    A protected preassembled package for blasting agents susceptible to desensitization by water consists of, in combination: (1) an inner rigid and self-supporting tube, the upper end of which is suited to be connected, or attached, to the discharge end of a loading hose for a blasting agent and the lower end of which is open; and (2) a flexible tubular liner made of water-resistant film, having a diameter greater than that of the inner tube and a length at least equal to the desired depth of its insertion into the borehole, the liner being sleeved over the length of the inner tube, the upper end of the liner being attached to the inner tube and the lower end of the liner being closed so as to prevent substantial discharge of the explosive mixture therefrom when the latter is pumped into it. (24 claims)

  9. Nondestructive Analysis of Apollo Samples by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis: A PET Style Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of a PET is to characterize and classify the returned samples, making this information available to the general research community who can then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. A PET strives to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which often limits the PET work to largely visual measurements and observations like optical microscopy. More modern techniques can also be utilized by future PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in a more rigorous way. Here we present our recent analyses of Apollo samples 14321 and 14305 by micro-CT and micro-XRF (respectively), assess the potential for discovery of "new" Apollo samples for scientific study, and evaluate the usefulness of these techniques in future PET efforts.

  10. Apollo 16 - Impact melt sheets, contrasting nature of the Cayley plains and Descartes mountains, and geologic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinley, J. P.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Ma, M.-S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Apollo 16 stations four and five rake samples have been examined petrographically and by electron microprobe and INAA. Lithologic abundances support the idea (Korontev, 1981) that the variation of soil composition at Apollo 16 results from mixing between a component represented by station five and components much like either the dimict breccias or feldspathic fragmental breccias in composition. Pyroxene, olivine, and coexisting plagioclase compositions from within the anorthosite portions of dimict breccias bridge the gap between the Mg-rich and ferroan anorthosite fields. Analyses from associated cumulate and granulitic clasts indicate that they are the source of the intermediate material. Dimict breccias formed about 3.92 b.y. ago, the nectaris event occurred 3.84-3.92 b.y. ago, and the Cayley plains were deposited as a result of the Imbrium event sometime later than 3.84 b.y.

  11. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  12. Logics for Intelligent Agents and Multi-Agent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, John-Jules Charles

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents the history of the application of logic in a quite popular paradigm in contemporary computer science and artificial intelligence, viz. the area of intelligent agents and multi-agent systems. In particular we discuss the logics that have been used to specify single agents, the

  13. Organizations as Socially Constructed Agents in the Agent Oriented Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Boella (Guido); L.W.N. van der Torre (Leon)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we propose a new role for the agent metaphor in the definition of the organizational structure of multiagent systems. The agent metaphor is extended to consider as agents also social entities like organizations, groups and normative systems, so that mental attitudes can

  14. New developments in resonant mixture self-shielding treatment with Apollo code and application to Jules Horowitz reactor core calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste-Delclaux, M.; Aggery, A.; Huot, N.

    2005-01-01

    APOLLO2 is a modular multigroup transport code developed by Cea in Saclay. Until last year, the self-shielding module could only treat one resonant isotope mixed with moderator isotopes. Consequently, the resonant mixture self-shielding treatment was an iterative one. Each resonant isotope of the mixture was treated separately, the other resonant isotopes of the mixture being then considered as moderator isotopes, that is to say non-resonant isotopes. This treatment could be iterated. Last year, we have developed a new method that consists in treating the resonant mixture as a unique entity. A main feature of APOLLO2 self-shielding module is that some implemented models are very general and therefore very powerful and versatile. We can give, as examples, the use of probability tables in order to describe the microscopic cross-section fluctuations or the TR slowing-down model that can deal with any resonance shape. The self-shielding treatment of a resonant mixture was developed essentially thanks to these two models. The calculations of a simplified Jules Horowitz reactor using a Monte-Carlo code (TRIPOLI4) as a reference and APOLLO2 in its standard and improved versions, show that, as far as the effective multiplication factor is concerned, the mixture treatment does not bring an improvement, because the new treatment suppresses compensation between the reaction rate discrepancies. The discrepancy of 300 pcm that appears with the reference calculation is in accordance with the technical specifications of the Jules Horowitz reactor

  15. FE-SEM, FIB and TEM Study of Surface Deposits of Apollo 15 Green Glass Volcanic Spherules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Daniel K.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Rahman, Z.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Surface deposits on lunar pyroclastic green (Apollo 15) and orange (Apollo 17) glass spherules have been attributed to condensation from the gas clouds that accompanied fire-fountain eruptions. The fire fountains cast molten lava high above the lunar surface and the silicate melt droplets quenched before landing producing the glass beads. Early investigations showed that these deposits are rich in sulfur and zinc. The deposits are extremely fine-grained and thin, so that it was never possible to determine their chemical compositions cleanly by SEM/EDX or electron probe x-ray analysis because most of the excited volume was in the under-lying silicate glass. We are investigating the surface deposits by TEM, using focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy to extract and thin the surface deposits. Here we report on chemical mapping of a FIB section of surface deposits of an Apollo green glass bead 15401using the ultra-high resolution JEOL 2500 STEM located at NASA Johnson Space Center.

  16. Three-agent Peer Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vicki Knoblauch

    2008-01-01

    I show that every rule for dividing a dollar among three agents impartially (so that each agent's share depends only on her evaluation by her associates) underpays some agent by at least one-third of a dollar for some consistent profile of evaluations. I then produce an impartial division rule that never underpays or overpays any agent by more than one-third of a dollar, and for most consistent evaluation profiles does much better.

  17. Agent control of cooperating satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, N.K.; Veres, S.M.; Dennis, Louise; Fisher, Michael; Lisitsa, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    A novel, hybrid, agent architecture for (small)swarms of satellites has been developed. The software architecture for each satellite comprises ahigh-level rational agent linked to a low-level control system. The rational agent forms dynamicgoals, decides how to tackle them and passes theactual implementation of these plans to the control layer. The rational agent also has access to aMatLabmodel of the satellite dynamics, thus allowing it to carry out selective hypothetical reasoningabout pote...

  18. Believable Social and Emotional Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    While building tools to support the creation of believable emotional agents, I had to make a number of important design decisions . Before describing...processing systems, it is difficult to give an artist direct control over the emotion - al aspects of the character. By making these decisions explicit, I hope...Woody on “Cheers”). Believable Agents BELIEVABLE SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL AGENTS 11 Lesson: We don’t want agent architectures that enforce rationality and

  19. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  20. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  1. The triumph and decline of the "squares": Grumman Aerospace engineers and production workers in the Apollo era, 1957--1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkst, David Hugh

    This dissertation is a social, cultural, and economic history of the men and women of the Grumman Aerospace Company of Bethpage, New York from 1957 through 1973. These "Grummanites" were the engineers and production workers who designed and built the Apollo Lunar Modules that allowed humans to land on the Moon. This study provides unique insights into the impact that the Apollo Program---a large state-initiated and -supported program---had on those "squares," people whom many contemporaries saw as a vital part of mainstream 1960s American society. By the beginning of the Space Age in 1957, Grumman, Long Island's single largest employer, had firmly established a workplace culture of paternalism that Grummanites largely embraced. Company officials believed strongly in worker retention and had established a policy of providing every sort of benefit their employees seemingly desired, including a highly personal and participatory form of management. Many Grummanites had joined the firm during the early years of the Apollo Program because they believed in the promise of permanent employment on exciting projects that would explore the endless frontier of space. But, as many of these mainly self-reliant, individualistic "squares" would bitterly discover, their dedication to Grumman did little to secure their livelihoods during the aerospace industry's early 1970s downsizing; their individual successes were too largely tied to federal spending and declined when Americans grew disenchanted with space exploration. This dissertation demonstrates how the cultural bond of paternalism between aerospace workers and their company unraveled in the 1960s, and then ended in the early 1970s, because of forces within the company, the economy, and the American state. The word "triumph" in this study's title not only applies to Grummanites' triumphs with the Lunar Modules, but also their individual socioeconomic victories. The term "decline" refers to the early 1970s downsizing of more

  2. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  3. Amphoteric surface active agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A.M. F.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available 2-[trimethyl ammonium, triethyl ammonium, pyridinium and 2-amino pyridinium] alkanoates, four series of surface active agents containing carbon chain C12, C14, C16 and C18carbon atoms, were prepared. Their structures were characterized by microanalysis, infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Surface and interfacial tension, Krafft point, wetting time, emulsification power, foaming height and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined and a comparative study was made between their chemical structure and surface active properties. Antimicrobial activity of these surfactants was also determined.

    Se prepararon cuatro series de agentes tensioactivos del tipo 2-[trimetil amonio, trietil amonio, piridinio y 2-amino piridinio] alcanoatos, que contienen cadenas carbonadas con C12, C14, C16 y C18 átomos de carbono.
    Se determinaron la tensión superficial e interfacial, el punto de Krafft, el tiempo humectante, el poder de emulsionamiento, la altura espumante y la concentración critica de miscela (cmc y se hizo un estudio comparativo entre la estructura química y sus propiedades tensioactivas. Se determinó también la actividad antimicrobiana de estos tensioactivos. Estas estructuras se caracterizaron por microanálisis, infrarrojo (IR y resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN.

  4. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. X-Ray Micro-Computed Tomography of Apollo Samples as a Curation Technique Enabling Better Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, R. A.; Almeida, N. V.; Sykes, D.; Smith, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is a technique that has been used to research meteorites for some time and many others], and recently it is becoming a more common tool for the curation of meteorites and Apollo samples. Micro-CT is ideally suited to the characterization of astromaterials in the curation process as it can provide textural and compositional information at a small spatial resolution rapidly, nondestructively, and without compromising the cleanliness of the samples (e.g., samples can be scanned sealed in Teflon bags). This data can then inform scientists and curators when making and processing future sample requests for meteorites and Apollo samples. Here we present some preliminary results on micro-CT scans of four Apollo regolith breccias. Methods: Portions of four Apollo samples were used in this study: 14321, 15205, 15405, and 60639. All samples were 8-10 cm in their longest dimension and approximately equant. These samples were micro-CT scanned on the Nikon HMXST 225 System at the Natural History Museum in London. Scans were made at 205-220 kV, 135-160 microamps beam current, with an effective voxel size of 21-44 microns. Results: Initial examination of the data identify a variety of mineral clasts (including sub-voxel FeNi metal grains) and lithic clasts within the regolith breccias. Textural information within some of the lithic clasts was also discernable. Of particular interest was a large basalt clast (approx.1.3 cc) found within sample 60639, which appears to have a sub-ophitic texture. Additionally, internal void space, e.g., fractures and voids, is readily identifiable. Discussion: It is clear from the preliminary data that micro-CT analyses are able to identify important "new" clasts within the Apollo breccias, and better characterize previously described clasts or igneous samples. For example, the 60639 basalt clast was previously believed to be quite small based on its approx.0.5 sq cm exposure on the surface of the main mass

  6. Derivation of Apollo 14 High-Al Basalts at Discrete Times: Rb-Sr Isotopic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui. Hejiu; Neal, Clive, R.; Shih, Chi-Yu; Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2012-01-01

    Pristine Apollo 14 (A-14) high-Al basalts represent the oldest volcanic deposits returned from the Moon [1,2] and are relatively enriched in Al2O3 (>11 wt%) compared to other mare basalts (7-11 wt%). Literature Rb-Sr isotopic data suggest there are at least three different eruption episodes for the A-14 high-Al basalts spanning the age range approx.4.3 Ga to approx.3.95 Ga [1,3]. Therefore, the high-Al basalts may record lunar mantle evolution between the formation of lunar crust (approx.4.4 Ga) and the main basin-filling mare volcanism (groups [5,6], and then regrouped into three with a possible fourth comprising 14072 based on the whole-rock incompatible trace element (ITE) ratios and Rb-Sr radiometric ages [7]. However, Rb-Sr ages of these basalts from different laboratories may not be consistent with each other because of the use of different 87Rb decay constants [8] and different isochron derivation methods over the last four decades. This study involved a literature search for Rb-Sr isotopic data previously reported for the high-Al basalts. With the re-calculated Rb-Sr radiometric ages, eruption episodes of A-14 high-Al basalts were determined, and their petrogenesis was investigated in light of the "new" Rb-Sr isotopic data and published trace element abundances of these basalts.

  7. Apollo 14 regolith breccias - Different glass populations and their potential for charting space time variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Apollo 14 regolith breccias (14313, 14307, 14301, 14049, 14047) have been found to have different populations of nonagglutinitic, mare-derived glasses. These variations appear to not only reflect different source regoliths but also different closure ages for these breccias. Based upon these different glass populations, 14301 is inferred to have a closure age sometime during the epoch of mare volcanism. All of the other four breccias were formed after the termination of mare volcanism with a possible age sequence from old to young of the following: 14307, 14313, 14049, 14047. Due to the relative simplicity of acquiring high-quality chemical data on large numbers of glasses by electron microprobe, mare glass populations allow: (1) classification of regolith breccias with respect to provenance and (2) estimation of their relative and absolute closure ages. The determination of (Ar-40)-(Ar-39) ages on individual glass spherules within breccias using the laser probe should in the future prove to be a promising extension of the present study.

  8. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  9. Simplified P{sub n} transport core calculations in the Apollo3 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques, E-mail: anne-marie.baudron@cea.fr, E-mail: jean-jacques.lautard@cea.fr [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the development of two different neutronics core solvers based on the Simplified P{sub N} transport (SP{sub N}) approximation developed in the context of a new generation nuclear reactor computational system, APOLLO3. Two different approaches have been used. The first one solves the standard SPN system. In the second approach, the SP{sub N} equations are solved as diffusion equations by treating the SP{sub N} flux harmonics like pseudo energy groups, obtained by a change of variable. These two methods have been implemented for Cartesian and hexagonal geometries in the kinetics solver MINOS. The numerical approximation is based on the mixed dual finite formulation and the discretization uses the Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. For the unstructured geometries, the SP{sub N} equations are treated by the SN transport solver MINARET by considering the second SP{sub N} approach. The MINARET solver is based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element approximation on cylindrical unstructured meshes composed of a set of conforming triangles for the radial direction. Numerical applications are presented for both solvers in different core configurations (the Jules Horowitz research reactor (JHR) and the Generation IV fast reactor project ESFR). (author)

  10. Fission track astrology of three Apollo 14 gas-rich breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, H.; Shirck, J.; Sun, S.; Walker, R.

    1973-01-01

    The three Apollo 14 breccias 14301, 14313, and 14318 all show fission xenon due to the decay of Pu-244. To investigate possible in situ production of the fission gas, an analysis was made of the U-distribution in these three breccias. The major amount of the U lies in glass clasts and in matrix material and no more than 25% occurs in distinct high-U minerals. The U-distribution of each breccia is discussed in detail. Whitlockite grains in breccias 14301 and 14318 found with the U-mapping were etched and analyzed for fission tracks. The excess track densities are much smaller than indicated by the Xe-excess. Because of a preirradiation history documented by very high track densities in feldspar grains, however, it is impossible to attribute the excess tracks to the decay of Pu-244. A modified track method has been developed for measuring average U-concentrations in samples containing a heterogeneous distribution of U in the form of small high-U minerals. The method is briefly discussed, and results for the rocks 14301, 14313, 14318, 68815, 15595, and the soil 64421 are given.

  11. Irradiation stratigraphy and depositional history of the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanford, G. E.; Blanford, J.; Hawkins, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    We report track density frequency distributions, the fraction of high density grains and minimum track densities for 63, 1 mm wide locations in the Apollo 16 double drive tube 60009/10. From these data we conclude that there are seven irradiation strata in the core. Only one buried reworking zone extending from 50-52 cm was found and it was exposed near the surface from 4.5-9 times 10 to the 6th y with a most probable exposure period of 6 times 10 to the 6th y. There is lack of conclusive data that this zone represents a reworking zone in which case the material below 52 cm most probably was exposed in situ for 4.5 times 10 to the 6th y and developed a reworking zone approximately less than 0.5 cm. The present surface of the core has a reworking zone of 12-13 cm which was exposed from 1.3 times 10 to the 7th to 2.5 times 10 to the 8th y. The best estimate for this exposure period remains the value of approximately less than 1.25 times 10 to the 8th y determined by Bogard and Hirsch (1976). The other strata in the core appear to contain mixtures of various soil types and are not related to in situ depositional events.

  12. Simplified P_n transport core calculations in the Apollo3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of two different neutronics core solvers based on the Simplified P_N transport (SP_N) approximation developed in the context of a new generation nuclear reactor computational system, APOLLO3. Two different approaches have been used. The first one solves the standard SPN system. In the second approach, the SP_N equations are solved as diffusion equations by treating the SP_N flux harmonics like pseudo energy groups, obtained by a change of variable. These two methods have been implemented for Cartesian and hexagonal geometries in the kinetics solver MINOS. The numerical approximation is based on the mixed dual finite formulation and the discretization uses the Raviart-Thomas-Nedelec finite elements. For the unstructured geometries, the SP_N equations are treated by the SN transport solver MINARET by considering the second SP_N approach. The MINARET solver is based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element approximation on cylindrical unstructured meshes composed of a set of conforming triangles for the radial direction. Numerical applications are presented for both solvers in different core configurations (the Jules Horowitz research reactor (JHR) and the Generation IV fast reactor project ESFR). (author)

  13. Rust and schreibersite in Apollo 16 highland rocks - Manifestations of volatile-element mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R. H.; Taylor, L. A.

    Rust is a manifestation of halogen and volatile-metal mobility in the lunar environment. Schreibersite is stable as the primary phosphorus-bearing phase in the highland rocks, a consequence of the inherently low oxygen fugacity within impact-generated melts. Apatite and whitlockite are subordinate in these rocks. The partitioning of P into phosphide in impact-generated melts, and the failure of phosphate to crystallize, effects a decoupling of the halogens and phosphorus. Of the Apollo 16 rocks, 63% contain rust, 70% contain schreibersite, and 52% contain both phases, thereby establishing the pervasiveness of volatile-elements throughout the highland rocks. The major portion of these volatile-bearing phases occur in impact melt-rocks or in breccia matrices. Rhabdites of schreibersite in some of the FeNi grains indicate that there is a meteoritic contribution to the phosphorus in these rocks. Cl/P2O5 ratios in lunar highland rocks are a function of secondary effects, with any apparent Cl-P correlations being coincidential. The present observations preclude the validity of models based on such elemental ratios in these rocks. The presence of rust in the clast laden matrices of pristine rocks indicates fugitive element localization. Pristine clasts may have been contaminated. The basis for a pristine volatile chemistry is questioned.

  14. Microencapsulation of chemotherapeutic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hong Sik

    1993-01-01

    Mixing various amounts of chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatinum, 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and adriamycin with polymers such as poly-d, 1-lactide, ethylhydroxyethylcellulose, and polycaprolactone, several kinds of microcapsules were made. Among them, microcapsule made from ethylhydroxyethylcellulose showed best yield. Under light microscopy, the capsules were observed as particles with refractive properties. For the basic toxicity test, intraarterial administration of cisplatinum was done in 6 adult mongrel dogs. Follow-up angiography was accomplished in 2 wk intervals for 6 wks. Despite no significant difference in the histopathological examination between the embolized and normal kidneys, follow-up angiogram showed atrophy of renal cortex and diminished numbers of arterial branches in the embolized kidneys. In order to identify the structural properties of microcapsules, and to determine the drug content and the rate of release, further experiment is thought to be necessary. (Author)

  15. New MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, C.D.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.; Szeverenyi, N.E.; Rosenbaum, A.M.; Gagne, G.; Tillapaugh-Fay, G.; Berlin, R.; Ritter-Hrncirik, C.; Yu, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates an MR contrast agent-meglumine tris-(2,6-dicarboxypyridine) gadolinium (III) or gadolinium dipicolinate (Gd-DPC)-produced in-house. Rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital. For renal imaging, bowel motion artifact was minimized with glucagon (0.014 mg/kg, intravenous (IV)). Enhanced images were generated on a 2-T chemical shift imaging system with a 31-cm horizontal bore magnet after IV injection of Gd-DPC (100 μM/kg). Coronal sections of the kidneys and sagittal sections of the brain, 2 mm thick, were made. Six to eight excitations and 128 or 356 phase-encoding steps were used for each image. Control animals were injected with equivalent doses of gadopentetate dimeglumine

  16. A Composite Agent Architecture for Multi-Agent Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    VanPutte, Michael; Osborn, Brian; Hiles, John

    2002-01-01

    CGF Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation The MOVES Institute’s Computer-Generated Autonomy Group has focused on a research goal of modeling complex and adaptive behavior while at the same time making the behavior easier to create and control. This research has led to several techniques for agent construction, that includes a social and organization relationship management engine, a composite agent architecture, an agent goal apparatus, a structure for capturi...

  17. Odor Classification using Agent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure and classify odors, Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM can be used. In the present study, seven QCM sensors and three different odors are used. The system has been developed as a virtual organization of agents using an agent platform called PANGEA (Platform for Automatic coNstruction of orGanizations of intElligent Agents. This is a platform for developing open multi-agent systems, specifically those including organizational aspects. The main reason for the use of agents is the scalability of the platform, i.e. the way in which it models the services. The system models functionalities as services inside the agents, or as Service Oriented Approach (SOA architecture compliant services using Web Services. This way the adaptation of the odor classification systems with new algorithms, tools and classification techniques is allowed.

  18. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  19. Radioactive scanning agents with stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    Stable compositions useful as technetium 99-based scintigraphic agents comprise gentisyl alcohol or a pharmaceutically-acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcOsub(4)sup(-)) solution. The compositions are especially useful in combination with a phosphate or phosphonate material that carries the radionuclide to bone, thus providing a skeletal imaging agent

  20. Principals, agents and research programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Shove

    2003-01-01

    Research programmes appear to represent one of the more powerful instruments through which research funders (principals) steer and shape what researchers (agents) do. The fact that agents navigate between different sources and styles of programme funding and that they use programmes to their own ends is readily accommodated within principal-agent theory with the help of concepts such as shirking and defection. Taking a different route, I use three examples of research programming (by the UK, ...

  1. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then propose some basic ideas for developing real-time agent-based software system for business intelligence in supply chain management, using Case Base Reasoning Agents.

  2. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  3. Aspects of agents for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, U.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of the Internet and the WWW, information treatment has gained a new dimension. (Intelligent) software agents are one of the means expected to relieve human staff of the burden of information overload, and in the future to contribute to safeguards data acquisition, data evaluation and decision-making. An overview is given for the categories of Internet, intranet and desktop agents. Aspects of the potential application of agents are described in three fields: information access and delivery, collaboration and workflow management, adaptive interfaces and learning assistants. Routine application of agents is not yet in sight, but the scientific and technical progress seems to be encouraging. (author)

  4. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  5. Base Flow Investigation of the Apollo AS-202 Command Module. Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpot, Louis M. G.; Wright, Michael J.; Noeding, Peter; Schrijer, Ferry

    2011-01-01

    when attempting to rebuild measurements performed in "hot" ground facilities, where the difficulty level is increased by the addition of the free-flow characterization itself. The implementation of ever more sophisticated thermochemical models is no obvious cure to the aforementioned problems since their effect is often overwhelmed by the large measurement uncertainties incurred in both flight and ground high enthalpy facilities. Concurrent to the previous considerations, a major contributor to the overall vehicle mass of re-entry vehicles is the afterbody thermal protection system. This is due to the large acreage (equal or bigger than that of the forebody) to be protected. The present predictive capabilities for base flows are comparatively lower than those for windward flowfields and offer therefore a substantial potential for improving the design of future re-entry vehicles. To that end, it is essential to address the accuracy of high fidelity CFD tools exercised in the US and EU, which motivates a thorough investigation of the present status of hypersonic flight afterbody heating. This paper addresses the predictive capabilities of after body flow fields of re-entry vehicles investigated in the frame of the NATO/RTO - RTG-043 Task Group and is structured as follows: First, the verification of base flow topologies on the basis of available wind-tunnel results performed under controlled supersonic conditions (i.e., cold flows devoid of reactive effects) is performed. Such tests address the detailed characterization of the base flow with particular emphasis on separation/reattachment and their relation to Mach number effects. The tests have been performed on an Apollo-like re-entry capsule configuration. Second, the tools validated in the frame of the previous effort are exercised and appraised against flight-test data collected during the Apollo AS-202 re-entry.

  6. Apollo 15 yellow-brown volcanic glass: Chemistry and petrogenetic relations to green volcanic glass and olivine-normative mare basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, S.S.; Schmitt, R.A.; (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA)); Delano, J.W. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Apollo 15 yellow-brown glass is one of twenty-five, high Mg, primary magmas emplaced on the lunar surface in pyroclastic eruptions. Forty spherules of this glass were individually analyzed by electron microprobe and INAA for major- and trace-elements. The abundances demonstrate that this primary magma was produced by partial melting of differentiated cumulates in the lunar mantle. Models are developed to explain the possible source-regions of several Apollo 15 and Apollo 12 low-Ti mare magmas as being products of hybridization involving three ancient differentiated components of a primordial lunar magma ocean: (a) early olivine {plus minus} orthopyroxene cumulates; (b) late-stage clinopyroxene + pigeonite + ilmenite + plagioclase cumulates; and (c) late-stage inter-cumulus liquid.

  7. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  8. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  9. Subsurface density structure of Taurus-Littrow Valley using Apollo 17 gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, N.; Ghent, R.; Johnson, C. L.; Stanley, S.; Hatch, D.; Carroll, K. A.; Garry, W. B.; Talwani, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Traverse Gravimeter Experiment (TGE) from the Apollo 17 mission was the first and only successful gravity survey on the surface of the Moon, revealing the local gravity field at Taurus-Littrow Valley (TLV). TLV is hypothesized to be a basalt-filled graben, oriented radial to Serenitatis basin. We implemented modern 3-D modeling techniques using recent high-resolution Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter topography and image data sets to reinvestigate the subsurface structure of TLV and constrain the volcanic and tectonic history of the region. Updated topography led to significant improvements in the accuracy of free-air, Bouguer, and terrain corrections. To determine the underlying geometry for TLV, we tested a range of possible thicknesses, dips, and wall positions for the graben fill. We found that the thickness and position previously determined by Talwani et al. (1973) represent our preferred model for the data, but with walls with dips of 30°, rather than 90°. We found large model misfits due to unmodeled 3-D structure and density anomalies, as well as parameter trade-offs. We performed a sensitivity analysis to quantify the parameter trade-offs in an ideal future survey, assuming dominantly 2-D geological structure. At the TGE survey noise level (2.5 mGal), the fill thickness was constrained to ±150 m, the wall angle to ±5∘20∘ and the wall positions to ±1 km of the preferred model. This information can be used to inform the design of future lunar gravimetry experiments in regions similar to TLV.

  10. Basalt generation at the Apollo 12 site. Part 2: Source heterogeneity, multiple melts, and crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Clive R.; Hacker, Matthew D.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Liu, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1994-01-01

    The petrogenesis of Apollo 12 mare basalts has been examined with emphasis on trace-element ratios and abundances. Vitrophyric basalts were used as parental compositions for the modeling, and proportions of fractionating phases were determined using the MAGFOX prograqm of Longhi (1991). Crystal fractionation processes within crustal and sub-crustal magma chambers are evaluated as a function of pressure. Knowledge of the fractionating phases allows trace-element variations to be considered as either source related or as a product of post-magma-generation processes. For the ilmenite and olivine basalts, trace-element variations are inherited from the source, but the pigeonite basalt data have been interpreted with open-system evolution processes through crustal assimilation. Three groups of basalts have been examined: (1) Pigeonite basalts-produced by the assimilation of lunar crustal material by a parental melt (up to 3% assimilation and 10% crystal fractionation, with an 'r' value of 0.3). (2) Ilmenite basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (4-8%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, augite, and plagioclase, brought together by overturn of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) cumulate pile. After generation, which did not exhaust any of the minerals in the source, these melts experienced closed-system crystal fractionation/accumulation. (3) Olivine basalts-produced by variable degrees of partial melting (5-10%) of a source of olivine, pigeonite, and augite. After generation, again without exhausting any of the minerals in the source, these melts evolved through crystal accumulation. The evolved liquid counterparts of these cumulates have not been sampled. The source compositions for the ilmenite and olivine basalts were calculated by assuming that the vitrophyric compositions were primary and the magmas were produced by non-modal batch melting. Although the magnitude is unclear, evaluation of these source regions indicates that both be composed of early- and

  11. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  12. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  13. Plutonium-244 dating: Initial ratios of plutonium to uranium in the Apollo 11 and 14 lunar fines and breccias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, P.K.; Myers, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    More than 550 mass-spectrometric analyses of xenon released from bulk samples and temperature fractions of the lunar fines, breccias and rocks have been carried out in various laboratories in the world including the Soviet Union, since Apollo 11 astronauts made the first successful landing on the moon on 20 July 1969. Re-examination of all the known xenon isotope data for the lunar samples reveals that the moon started to retain her xenon at about the same time as the carbonaceous chondrites, when the initial ratio of Pu to U within the solar system was about 1 to 10 (atom/atom) more than 4,800 million years ago

  14. 'Shooting at the sun god Apollo': the Apollonian-Dionysian balance of the TimeSlips Storytelling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel R

    2013-09-01

    In The Birth of Tragedy, Friedrich Nietzsche celebrated the dueling forces of reason and emotion as personified by the ancient Greek gods Apollo and Dionysus. A subtle Apollonian-Dionysian balance can be observed in TimeSlips, a group-based creative storytelling activity developed in the 1990s and increasingly used in dementia care settings worldwide. This article explains how the Apollonion-Dionysian aspects of TimeSlips are beneficial not only for persons with dementia, but also for their carers. Narrative data from medical students at Penn State College of Medicine who participated in TimeSlips at a local retirement community are shared.

  15. Characterization of the Long-term Subsurface Warming Observed at the Apollo 15 and 17 Sites Utilizing the Newly Restored Heat Flow Experiment Data from 1975 to 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Kiefer, W. S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Krell, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Apollo Heat Flow Experiment (HFE) was conducted at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) program. At each site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The probes monitored surface and subsurface temperatures. The Apollo 15 probes operated from July 1971 to January 1977. The Apollo 17 probes operated from December 1972 to September 1977. For both sites, only data from the beginning to December 1974 were archived previously. We have restored major portions of the 1975-1977 HFE data for both sites from two sets of sources recently recovered. One was the original ALSEP archival data tapes, from which raw HFE data were extracted and processed according to the procedure and the calibration data specified by the original investigators. The other was the ALSEP Performance Summary Reports, which included weekly logs of temperature readings from the deepest sensor of each of the probes. The original HFE investigators noted that temperature of the regolith well below the thermal skin depth ( 1 m) rose gradually through December 1974 at both sites. Possible causes of the warming have been debated since. The restored 1975-1977 HFE data allow more detailed characterization of this phenomenon, especially for the Apollo 17 site, for which the duration of data availability has more than doubled. For both sites, the subsurface warming continued till the end of observations. Simultaneously, thermal gradient decreased. Such behavior is consistent with one of the hypotheses proposed by the original investigators; temperature of the lunar surface around the probe increased by 2 to 4 K at the time of deployment. Consequently, the subsurface thermal regime gradually adjusted to the new boundary condition. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images taken over the Apollo landing sites suggest that astronaut-induced surface disturbance resulted in lower albedo, and that should have raised average

  16. Artificial agents learning human fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de S.; Tuyls, K.P.; Verbeeck, K.; Padgham, xx; Parkes, xx

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in technology allow multi-agent systems to be deployed in cooperation with or as a service for humans. Typically, those systems are designed assuming individually rational agents, according to the principles of classical game theory. However, research in the field of behavioral

  17. Overview of shoreline cleaning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical cleaning agents may be used to promote release of stranded oil from shorelines for reasons including biological sensitivity of indigenous fauna and flora to the oil, amenity considerations of the shoreline, or concern about refloating of the oil and subsequent stranding on adjacent shorelines. While use of chemical cleaning agents may be appropriate under proper toxic responses in circumstances, certain limitations should be recognized. The potential for toxic responses in indigenous fauna and flora to the cleaning agents must be considered. Enhanced penetration of oil into permeable shorelines following treatment with chemical cleaning agents also is not desirable. However, if conditions related to toxicity and substrate permeability are determined to be acceptable, the use of chemical cleaning agents for treatment of stranded oil can be considered. Chemical agents for cleaning oiled shorelines can be grouped into three categories: (1) non-surfactant-based solvents, (2) chemical dispersants, and (3) formulations especially designed to release stranded oil from shoreline substrates (i.e., shoreline-cleaning-agents). Depending on the specific circumstances present on an oiled shoreline, it is generally desirable that chemical agents used for cleaning will release oil from shoreline substrate(s) to surface waters. Recovery of the oil can then be accomplished by mechanical procedures such as booming and skimming operations

  18. Reactive agents and perceptual ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dartel, M. van; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.; Herik, H.J. van den

    2005-01-01

    Reactive agents are generally believed to be incapable of coping with perceptual ambiguity (i.e., identical sensory states that require different responses). However, a recent finding suggests that reactive agents can cope with perceptual ambiguity in a simple model (Nolfi, 2002). This paper

  19. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar

  20. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  1. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2009), s. 209-219 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06075; GA ČR GP402/08/P207; GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : heterogeneous agent model * market structure * smart traders * Hurst exponent Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/vacha- smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  2. Petrologic comparisons of Cayley and Descartes on the basis of Apollo 16 soils from stations 4 and 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.; Mckay, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Petrologic aspects of the Cayley and Descartes formations are reviewed in the light of new data on Apollo 16 soils. Specific comparison of the modal abundances of lithic fragments in drive tube sample 64001/2 from the slopes of Stone Mountain (station 4) and in soil 67941 from the North Ray Crater rim (station 11) shows that melt rocks, especially poikilitic rocks, are more abundant at station 4 than at station 11; the reverse is true for fragmental breccias. Such lithologic differences suggest that stations 4 and 11 do not belong to the same geologic formation. Metamorphosed breccias are pervasive in both the formations and may represent a local component that has been reworked and diluted as fresh materials were added. Lithologic compositions inferred from the study of soil samples are different from lithologic compositions inferred from the study of rake samples or breccia clasts. This difference may be related to a mixing of material of different grain size distributions. The petrology of soils at the Apollo 16 site may not accurately reflect original material associated with either the Descartes or the Cayley formation because of extensive mixing with local material.

  3. Extending the Reach of IGSN Beyond Earth: Implementing IGSN Registration to Link NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and their Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The rock and soil samples returned from the Apollo missions from 1969-72 have supported 46 years of research leading to advances in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the inner Solar System. NASA has been engaged in several initiatives that aim to restore, digitize, and make available to the public existing published and unpublished research data for the Apollo samples. One of these initiatives is a collaboration with IEDA (Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance) to develop MoonDB, a lunar geochemical database modeled after PetDB. In support of this initiative, NASA has adopted the use of IGSN (International Geo Sample Number) to generate persistent, unique identifiers for lunar samples that scientists can use when publishing research data. To facilitate the IGSN registration of the original 2,200 samples and over 120,000 subdivided samples, NASA has developed an application that retrieves sample metadata from the Lunar Curation Database and uses the SESAR API to automate the generation of IGSNs and registration of samples into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration). This presentation will describe the work done by NASA to map existing sample metadata to the IGSN metadata and integrate the IGSN registration process into the sample curation workflow, the lessons learned from this effort, and how this work can be extended in the future to help deal with the registration of large numbers of samples.

  4. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate [Renografin 76] were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk

  5. Agents Play Mix-game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengling

    In recent years, economics and finance see the shift of paradigm from representative agent models to heterogeneous agent models [1, 2]. More and more economists and physicists made efforts in research on heterogeneous agent models for financial markets. Minority game (MG) proposed by D. Challet, and Y. C. Zhang [3] is an example among such efforts. Challet and Zhang's MG model, together with the original bar model of Arthur, attracts a lot of following studies [4-6]. Given MG's richness and yet underlying simplicity, MG has also received much attention as a financial market model [4]. MG comprises an odd number of agents choosing repeatedly between the options of buying (1) and selling (0) a quantity of a risky asset. The agents continually try to make the minority decision, i.e. buy assets when the majority of other agents are selling, and sell when the majority of other agents are buying. Neil F. Johnson [4, 5] and coworkers extended MG by allowing a variable number of active traders at each timestep— they called their modified game as the Grand Canonical Minority Game (GCMG). GCMG, and to a lesser extent the basic MG itself, can reproduce the stylized facts of financial markets, such as volatility clustering and fat-tail distributions.

  6. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  7. Immunological effects of hypomethylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Katherine E; Goswami, Meghali; Hourigan, Christopher S; Oetjen, Karolyn A

    2017-08-01

    Epigenetic changes resulting from aberrant methylation patterns are a recurrent observation in hematologic malignancies. Hypomethylating agents have a well-established role in the management of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition to the direct effects of hypomethylating agents on cancer cells, there are several lines of evidence indicating a role for immune-mediated anti-tumor benefits from hypomethylating therapy. Areas covered: We reviewed the clinical and basic science literature for the effects of hypomethylating agents, including the most commonly utilized therapeutics azacitidine and decitabine, on immune cell subsets. We summarized the effects of hypomethylating agents on the frequency and function of natural killer cells, T cells, and dendritic cells. In particular, we highlight the effects of hypomethylating agents on expression of immune checkpoint inhibitors, leukemia-associated antigens, and endogenous retroviral elements. Expert commentary: In vitro and ex vivo studies indicate mixed effects on the function of natural killer, dendritic cells and T cells following treatment with hypomethylating agents. Clinical correlates of immune function have suggested that hypomethylating agents have immunomodulatory functions with the potential to synergize with immune checkpoint therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancy, and has become an active area of clinical research.

  8. Complex responses to alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.D.

    2003-01-01

    Using Affymetrix oligonucleotide GeneChip analysis, we previously found that, upon exposure to the simple alkylating agent methylmethane sulfonate, the transcript levels for about one third of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome (∼2,000 transcripts) are induced or repressed during the first hour or two after exposure. In order to determine whether the responsiveness of these genes has any relevance to the protection of cells against alkylating agents we have undertaken several follow-up studies. First, we explored the specificity of this global transcriptional response to MMS by measuring the global response of S. cerevisiae to a broad range of agents that are known to induce DNA damage. We found that each agent produced a very different mRNA transcript profile, even though the exposure doses produced similar levels of toxicity. We also found that the selection of genes that respond to MMS is highly dependent upon what cell cycle phase the cells are in at the time of exposure. Computational clustering analysis of the dataset derived from a large number of exposures identified several promoter motifs that are likely to control some of the regulons that comprise this large set of genes that are responsive to DNA damaging agents. However, it should be noted that these agents damage cellular components other than DNA, and that the responsiveness of each gene need not be in response to DNA damage per se. We have also begun to study the response of other organisms to alkylating agents, and these include E. coli, cultured mouse and human cells, and mice. Finally, we have developed a high throughput phenotypic screening method to interrogate the role of all non-essential S. cerevisiae genes (about 4,800) in protecting S. cerevisiae against the deleterious effects of alkylating agents; we have termed this analysis 'genomic phenotyping'. This study has uncovered a plethora of new pathways that play a role in the recovery of eukaryotic cells after exposure to toxic

  9. Rare gas constraints on the history of Boulder 1, Station 2, Apollo 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Kahl, S.B.; Kirschbaum, A.R.; Niemeyer, S.; Phinney, D.

    1975-01-01

    Rare gas isotopic analyses have been performed on both pile-irradiated and unirradiated samples from Boulder 1, Station 2. Two samples from rock 72255, the Civet Cat clast and a sample of adjacent breccia, have concordant 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages of 3.99 +- 0.03 b.y. and 4.01 +- 0.03 b.y., respectively. Several samples from rock 72275 have complex thermal release patterns with no datable features, but an intermediate temperature plateau from the dark rim material of the Marble Cake clast yields an age of 3.99 +- 0.03 b.y., indistinguishable from the age of rock 72255. We regard these ages as upper limits on the time of the Serenitatis basin-forming event. The absence of fossil solar-wind trapped gases in the breccia samples implies that a prior existence for the boulder as near-surface regolith material can be regarded as extremely unlikely. Instead, the small trapped rare-gas components have isotopic and elemental compositions diagnostic of the terrestrial-type trapped component which has previously been identified in several Apollo 16 breccias and in rock 14321. Excess fission Xe is found in all Boulder 1 samples in approximately 1:1 proportions with Xe from spontaneous fission of 238 U. This excess fission Xe is attributed to spontaneous fission of 244 Pu in situ. Cosmic-ray exposure ages for samples from rocks 72215 and 72255 are concordant with mean 81 Kr-Kr exposure ages of 41.4 +- 1.4 m.y. and 44.1 +- 3.3 m.y., respectively. However, a distinctly different 81 Kr-Kr exposure age of 52.5 +- 1.4 m.y. is obtained for samples from rock 72275. A two-stage exposure model is developed to account for this discordance and for the remaining cosmogenic rare-gas data. The first stage was initiated at least 55 m.y. ago, probably as a result of the excavation of the boulder source-crop. A discrete change in shielding depths approx. 35 m.y. ago probably corresponds to the dislodgement of Boulder 1 from the South Massif and emplacement in its present position

  10. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  11. Dynamics of Three Agent Games

    OpenAIRE

    Rador, Tonguc; Mungan, Muhittin

    2007-01-01

    We study the dynamics and resulting score distribution of three-agent games where after each competition a single agent wins and scores a point. A single competition is described by a triplet of numbers $p$, $t$ and $q$ denoting the probabilities that the team with the highest, middle or lowest accumulated score wins. We study the full family of solutions in the regime, where the number of agents and competitions is large, which can be regarded as a hydrodynamic limit. Depending on the parame...

  12. Evaluation report for toggle switches: Texas Instruments, Inc., Apollo-type, and Daven Measurements part number 45000-XXX, job order 32-139

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labberton, D.

    1974-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of environmental capabilities was undertaken on toggle switches and on Apollo-type toggle switches. The purpose of this evaluation was to take a first look at their tested capabilities for the purpose of determining whether the candidate hardware appears to have a good chance of successfully completing a detailed envrionmental qualification test program.

  13. Roles for Agent Assistants in Field Science: Understanding Personal Projects and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.

    2003-01-01

    A human-centered approach to computer systems design involves reframing analysis in terms of the people interacting with each other. The primary concern is not how people can interact with computers, but how shall we design work systems (facilities, tools, roles, and procedures) to help people pursue their personal projects, as they work independently and collaboratively? Two case studies provide empirical requirements. First, an analysis of astronaut interactions with CapCom on Earth during one traverse of Apollo 17 shows what kind of information was conveyed and what might be automated today. A variety of agent and robotic technologies are proposed that deal with recurrent problems in communication and coordination during the analyzed traverse. Second, an analysis of biologists and a geologist working at Haughton Crater in the High Canadian Arctic reveals how work interactions between people involve independent personal projects, sensitively coordinated for mutual benefit. In both cases, an agent or robotic system's role would be to assist people, rather than collaborating, because today's computer systems lack the identity and purpose that consciousness provides.

  14. Noncontraceptive use of contraceptive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Monique Collier; Alderman, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    • On the basis of strong research evidence, there are many noncontraceptive advantages to use of hormonal contraceptive agents in adolescent girls. (3) (4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, most of these agents are safe with minor adverse effects. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, through application of evidence-based approaches and proper counseling, pediatricians can use various contraceptive agents to treat several medical conditions and to help alleviate many of the undesired symptoms and complications associated with menstrual periods. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13) (14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, these agents may be used in sexually active adolescents to simultaneously help prevent unintended adolescent pregnancies. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14).

  15. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC is Doing Blog: Public Health Matters Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select One PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  16. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... 10 percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  17. Antisense Treatments for Biothreat Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warfield, Kelly L; Panchal, Rekha G; Aman, M J; Bavari, Sina

    2006-01-01

    ... a variety of pathogens in cell culture studies and nonhuman primate models of infection. For these reasons, antisense technologies are being pursued as treatments against biothreat agents such as Ebola virus, dengue virus and Bacillus anthracis...

  18. Macroeconomic Policies and Agent Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    GOTTLIEB, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Defence date: 24 February 2012 Examining Board: Giancarlo Corsetti, Arpad Abraham, Juan Carlos Conesa, Jonathan Heathcote. This thesis contributes to the understanding of macroeconomic policies’ impact on the distribution of wealth. It belongs to the strand of literature that departs from the representative agent assumption and perceives agent heterogeneity and the induced disparities in wealth accumulation, as an important dimension of economic policy-making. Within such economic envir...

  19. Agents in E-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mencke

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework to describe thecrossover domain of e-learning and agent technology.Furthermore it is used to classify existing work and possiblestarting points for the future development of agenttechniques and technologies order to enhance theperformance and the effectiveness of several aspects of elearningsystems. Agents are not a new concept but their usein the field of e-learning constitutes a basis for consequentialadvances.

  20. Building Agents to Serve Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Barbuceanu, Mihai; Fox, Mark S.; Hong, Lei; Lallement, Yannick; Zhang, Zhongdong

    2004-01-01

    AI agents combining natural language interaction, task planning, and business ontologies can help companies provide better-quality and more costeffective customer service. Our customer-service agents use natural language to interact with customers, enabling customers to state their intentions directly instead of searching for the places on the Web site that may address their concern. We use planning methods to search systematically for the solution to the customer's problem, ensuring that a r...

  1. Business Intelligence using Software Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Ramona BOLOGA; Razvan BOLOGA

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas about business intelligence today and the importance of developing real time business solutions. The authors make an exploration of links between business intelligence and artificial intelligence and focuses specifically on the implementation of software agents-based systems in business intelligence. There are briefly presented some of the few solutions proposed so far that use software agents properties for the benefit of business intelligence. The authors then...

  2. What makes virtual agents believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  3. Interactions of ionic and nonionic contrast agents with thrombolytic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareed, J.; Moncada, R.; Scanlon, P.; Hoppensteadt, D.; Huan, X.; Walenga, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Both the ionic and nonionic intravascular contrast media have been used before and after the administration of thrombolytic agents to evaluate clot lysis during angioplasty and the treatment of myocardial infarction. In experimental animal models, the authors found that the clot lytic efficacy of streptokinase, streptokinase-plasminogen complex, and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is markedly augmented if these agents are administered within 1 hour after the angiographic producers. Furthermore, contrast agents injected after the administration of t-Pa exhibit a synergistic action. In stimulated models administration of one ionic contrast medium (Angiovist, Berlex, Wayne, NJ) and two nonionic contrast agents (Isovue-370, Squibb Diagnostics, New Brunswick, NJ; Omnipaque-350, Winthrop, NY) 15 minutes before the administration of t-PA resulted in marked enhancement of the lytic activity. Although the mechanism of this interaction is unknown at this time, it should be taken into consideration in the treatment of patients with myocardial infarction, in whom contrast agents are continually used to evaluate the therapeutic lysis. Furthermore, this interaction may be partly related to the therapeutic efficacy and/or hemorrhagic actions observed

  4. Apollo 12 breccia 12013: Impact-induced partial Pb loss in zircon and its implications for lunar geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, F.; Nemchin, A. A.; Snape, J. F.; Bellucci, J. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2018-06-01

    Apollo 12 breccia 12013 is composed of two portions, one grey in colour, the other black. The grey portion of the breccia consists mainly of felsite thought to have formed during a single crystallisation event, while the black part is characterized by presence of lithic fragments of noritic rocks and individual plagioclase crystals. In this study, U-Pb analyses of Ca-phosphate and zircon grains were conducted in both portions of the breccia. The zircon grains within the grey portion yielded a large range of ages (4154 ± 7 to 4308 ± 6 Ma, 2σ) and show decreasing U and Th concentrations within the younger grains. Moreover, some grains exhibit recrystallisation features and potentially formation of neoblasts. The latter process requires high temperatures above 1600-1700 °C leading to the decomposition of the primary zircon grain and subsequent formation of new zircon occurring as neoblasts. As a result of the high temperatures, the U-Pb system of the remaining original zircon grains was most likely open for Pb diffusion causing partial resetting and the observed range of 207Pb/206Pb ages. The event that led to the Pb loss in zircon could potentially be dated by the U-Pb system in Ca-phosphates, which have a weighted average 207Pb/206Pb age across both lithologies of 3924 ± 3 Ma (95% conf.). This age is identical within error to the combined average 207Pb/206Pb age of 3926 ± 2 Ma that was previously obtained from Ca-phosphates within Apollo 14 breccias, zircon grains in Apollo 12 impact melt breccias, and the lunar meteorite SaU 169. This age was interpreted to date the Imbrium impact. The zircon grains located within the black portion of the breccia yielded a similar range of ages (4123 ± 13 to 4328 ± 14 Ma, 2σ) to those in the grey portion. Given the brecciated nature of this part of the sample, the interpretation of these ages as representing igneous crystallisation or resetting by impact events remains ambiguous since there is no direct link to their

  5. Quantitative EPMA of Nano-Phase Iron-Silicides in Apollo 16 Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopon, P.; Fournelle, J.; Valley, J. W.; Pinard, P. T.; Sobol, P.; Horn, W.; Spicuzza, M.; Llovet, X.; Richter, S.

    2013-12-01

    Until recently, quantitative EPMA of phases under a few microns in size has been extremely difficult. In order to achieve analytical volumes to analyze sub-micron features, accelerating voltages between 5 and 8 keV need to be used. At these voltages the normally used K X-ray transitions (of higher Z elements) are no longer excited, and we must rely of outer shell transitions (L and M). These outer shell transitions are difficult to use for quantitative EPMA because they are strongly affected by different bonding environments, the error associated with their mass attenuation coefficients (MAC), and their proximity to absorption edges. These problems are especially prevalent for the transition metals, because of the unfilled M5 electron shell where the Lα transition originates. Previous studies have tried to overcome these limitations by using standards that almost exactly matched their unknowns. This, however, is cumbersome and requires accurate knowledge of the composition of your sample beforehand, as well as an exorbitant number of well characterized standards. Using a 5 keV electron beam and utilizing non-standard X-ray transitions (Ll) for the transition metals, we are able to conduct accurate quantitative analyses of phases down to ~300nm. The Ll transition in the transition metals behaves more like a core-state transition, and unlike the Lα/β lines, is unaffected by bonding effects and does not lie near an absorption edge. This allows for quantitative analysis using standards do not have to exactly match the unknown. In our case pure metal standards were used for all elements except phosphorus. We present here data on iron-silicides in two Apollo 16 regolith grains. These plagioclase grains (A6-7 and A6-8) were collected between North and South Ray Craters, in the lunar highlands, and thus are associated with one or more large impact events. We report the presence of carbon, nickel, and phosphorus (in order of abundance) in these iron-silicide phases

  6. Developing a multi-physics solver in APOLLO3 and applications to cross section homogenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugan, Kevin-James

    2016-01-01

    Multi-physics coupling is becoming of large interest in the nuclear engineering and computational science fields. The ability to obtain accurate solutions to realistic models is important to the design and licensing of novel reactor designs, especially in design basis accident situations. The physical models involved in calculating accident behavior in nuclear reactors includes: neutron transport, thermal conduction/convection, thermo-mechanics in fuel and support structure, fuel stoichiometry, among others. However, this thesis focuses on the coupling between two models, neutron transport and thermal conduction/convection.The goal of this thesis is to develop a multi-physics solver for simulating accidents in nuclear reactors. The focus is both on the simulation environment and the data treatment used in such simulations.This work discusses the development of a multi-physics framework based around the Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method. The framework includes linear and nonlinear solvers, along with interfaces to existing numerical codes that solve neutron transport and thermal hydraulics models (APOLLO3 and MCTH respectively) through the computation of residuals. a new formulation for the neutron transport residual is explored, which reduces the solution size and search space by a large factor; instead of the residual being based on the angular flux, it is based on the fission source.The question of whether using a fundamental mode distribution of the neutron flux for cross section homogenization is sufficiently accurate during fast transients is also explored. It is shown that in an infinite homogeneous medium, using homogenized cross sections produced with a fundamental mode flux differ significantly from a reference solution. The error is remedied by using an alternative weighting flux taken from a time dependent calculation; either a time-integrated flux or an asymptotic solution. The time-integrated flux comes from the multi-physics solution of the

  7. Smart Agents and Sentiment in the Heterogeneous Agent Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Lukáš; Baruník, Jozef; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    -, č. 81 (2010), s. 39-40 ISSN 0926-4981 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/09/0965; GA ČR GP402/08/P207 Grant - others:GAUK(CZ) GAUK 46108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Smart traders * price movements * smart traders concept Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/vacha- smart agent s and sentiment in the heterogeneous agent model.pdf

  8. Homeostatic Agent for General Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Naoto

    2018-03-01

    One of the essential aspect in biological agents is dynamic stability. This aspect, called homeostasis, is widely discussed in ethology, neuroscience and during the early stages of artificial intelligence. Ashby's homeostats are general-purpose learning machines for stabilizing essential variables of the agent in the face of general environments. However, despite their generality, the original homeostats couldn't be scaled because they searched their parameters randomly. In this paper, first we re-define the objective of homeostats as the maximization of a multi-step survival probability from the view point of sequential decision theory and probabilistic theory. Then we show that this optimization problem can be treated by using reinforcement learning algorithms with special agent architectures and theoretically-derived intrinsic reward functions. Finally we empirically demonstrate that agents with our architecture automatically learn to survive in a given environment, including environments with visual stimuli. Our survival agents can learn to eat food, avoid poison and stabilize essential variables through theoretically-derived single intrinsic reward formulations.

  9. Lunar near-surface shear wave velocities at the Apollo landing sites as inferred from spectral amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, P.; Latham, G. V.; Nakamura, Y.; Dorman, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The horizontal-to-vertical amplitude ratios of the long-period seismograms are reexamined to determine the shear wave velocity distributions at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 lunar landing sites. Average spectral ratios, computed from a number of impact signals, were compared with spectral ratios calculated for the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves in media consisting of homogeneous, isotropic, horizontal layers. The shear velocities of the best fitting models at the different sites resemble each other and differ from the average for all sites by not more than 20% except for the bottom layer at station 14. The shear velocities increase from 40 m/s at the surface to about 400 m/s at depths between 95 and 160 m at the various sites. Within this depth range the velocity-depth functions are well represented by two piecewise linear segments, although the presence of first-order discontinuities cannot be ruled out.

  10. Geologic history of quartz-normative and olivine-normative basalts in the vicinity of Hadley Rille (Apollo 15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The geologic history of the quartz normative (QNB) and olivine normative (ONB) basalt types at Hadley Rille are discussed. A model for the geology of the mare basalts was constructed from a combination of field observations, sample chemistry, sample petrology and personal bias from terrestrial experience. The model proposes that the QNBs are the only mare lava type that is present as outcrop in the area traversed by the astronauts during the Apollo 15 mission. The returned QNB samples formed during a single eruptive phase of the Hadley Rille lava tube system. The ONB lavas are an exotic component transported to the site by a cratering event, or the ONBs are samples excavated from older are bedrock that was partly covered by the QNB lavas

  11. Lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiment: plasma and energetic particles on the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.A.; Chase, L.M.; Lin, R.P.; McCoy, J.E.; McGuire, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiments aboard the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites and scientific reduction and analysis of the data to date are discussed with emphasis on four major topics: solar particles; interplanetary particle phenomena; lunar interactions; and topology and dynamics of the magnetosphere at lunar orbit. The studies of solar and interplanetary particles concentrated on the low energy region which was essentially unexplored, and the studies of lunar interaction pointed up the transition from single particle to plasma characteristics. The analysis concentrated on the electron angular distributions as highly sensitive indicators of localized magnetization of the lunar surface. Magnetosphere experiments provided the first electric field measurements in the distant magnetotail, as well as comprehensive low energy particle measurements at lunar distance

  12. The high energy multicharged particle exposure of the microbial ecology evaluation device on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    The high energy multicharged cosmic-ray-particle exposure of the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device package on board the Apollo 16 spacecraft was monitored using cellulose nitrate, Lexan polycarbonate, nuclear emulsion, and silver chloride crystal nuclear-track detectors. The results of the analysis of these detectors include the measured particle fluences, the linear energy transfer spectra, and the integral atomic number spectrum of stopping particle density. The linear energy transfer spectrum is used to compute the fractional cell loss in human kidney (T1) cells caused by heavy particles. Because the Microbial Ecology Evaluation Device was better shielded, the high-energy multicharged particle exposure was less than that measured on the crew passive dosimeters.

  13. Stratigraphy and structural evolution of southern Mare Serenitatis - A reinterpretation based on Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Head, J. W., III

    1983-01-01

    Two subsurface reflecting horizons have been detected by the Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) in the southern Mare Serenitatis which appear to be regolith layers more than 2 m thick, and are correlated with major stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present stratigraphic boundaries in the southeastern Mare Serenitatis. The present analysis implies that the lower horizon represents the interface between the earliest mare unit and the modified Serenitatis basin material below. The depth of volcanic fill within Serenitatis is highly variable, with an average thickness of mare basalts under the ALSE ground track of 1.6 km. Comparisons with the Orientale basin topography suggests that a major increaae in load thickness could occur a few km basinward of the innermost extent of the traverse. The history of volcanic infilling of Mare Serenitatis was characterized by three major episodes of volcanism.

  14. Krypton and xenon in Apollo 14 samples - Fission and neutron capture effects in gas-rich samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, R.; Hohenberg, C.; Morgan, C.

    1975-01-01

    Gas-rich Apollo 14 breccias and trench soil are examined for fission xenon from the decay of the extinct isotopes Pu-244 and I-129, and some samples have been found to have an excess fission component which apparently was incorporated after decay elsewhere and was not produced by in situ decay. Two samples have excess Xe-129 resulting from the decay of I-129. The excess is correlated at low temperatures with excess Xe-128 resulting from neutron capture on I-127. This neutron capture effect is accompanied by related low-temperature excesses of Kr-80 and Kr-82 from neutron capture on the bromine isotopes. Surface correlated concentrations of iodine and bromine are calculated from the neutron capture excesses.

  15. Two-level MOC calculation scheme in APOLLO2 for cross-section library generation for LWR hexagonal assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Nikolay; Todorova, Galina; Kolev, Nikola; Damian, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and efficient MOC calculation scheme in APOLLO2, developed by CEA for generating multi-parameterized cross-section libraries for PWR assemblies, has been adapted to hexagonal assemblies. The neutronic part of this scheme is based on a two-level calculation methodology. At the first level, a multi-cell method is used in 281 energy groups for cross-section definition and self-shielding. At the second level, precise MOC calculations are performed in a collapsed energy mesh (30-40 groups). In this paper, the application and validation of the two-level scheme for hexagonal assemblies is described. Solutions for a VVER assembly are compared with TRIPOLI4® calculations and direct 281g MOC solutions. The results show that the accuracy is close to that of the 281g MOC calculation while the CPU time is substantially reduced. Compared to the multi-cell method, the accuracy is markedly improved. (author)

  16. Far-ultraviolet Bidirectional Photometry of Apollo Soil 10084: New Results from The Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, U.

    2017-12-01

    We report new measurements of the far-ultraviolet (115-180 nm) bidirectional reflectance of Apollo soil 10084 in the Southwest Ultraviolet Reflectance Chamber (SwURC). We find the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) to be featureless in this wavelength region, though with a small blue slope. The angular distribution of the BRDF at Ly-α and 160 nm shows that this mature mare soil, containing nanophase Fe and enriched in Ti, anisotropically scatters light in the forward direction. The phase angle dependence of the BRDF is fitted with Hapke's photometric model with an additional diffuse-directional term. Future plans include measurements of mare and highland soils of differing maturity index (Is/FeO), water ice frost and lunar soil-ice aggregates. Such measurements will help constrain the abundance and distribution of the water ice on the illuminated lunar surface and dark permanently shadowed regions of the moon, as reported by LRO-LAMP.

  17. Aeroheating Measurement of Apollo Shaped Capsule with Boundary Layer Trip in the Free-piston Shock Tunnel HIEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideyuki, TANNO; Tomoyuki, KOMURO; Kazuo, SATO; Katsuhiro, ITOH; Lillard, Randolph P.; Olejniczak, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    An aeroheating measurement test campaign of an Apollo capsule model with laminar and turbulent boundary layer was performed in the free-piston shock tunnel HIEST at JAXA Kakuda Space Center. A 250mm-diameter 6.4%-scaled Apollo CM capsule model made of SUS-304 stainless steel was applied in this study. To measure heat flux distribution, the model was equipped with 88 miniature co-axial Chromel-Constantan thermocouples on the heat shield surface of the model. In order to promote boundary layer transition, a boundary layer trip insert with 13 "pizza-box" isolated roughness elements, which have 1.27mm square, were placed at 17mm below of the model geometric center. Three boundary layer trip inserts with roughness height of k=0.3mm, 0.6mm and 0.8mm were used to identify the appropriate height to induce transition. Heat flux records with or without roughness elements were obtained for model angles of attack 28º under stagnation enthalpy between H(sub 0)=3.5MJ/kg to 21MJ/kg and stagnation pressure between P(sub 0)=14MPa to 60MPa. Under the condition above, Reynolds number based on the model diameter was varied from 0.2 to 1.3 million. With roughness elements, boundary layer became fully turbulent less than H(sub 0)=9MJ/kg condition. However, boundary layer was still laminar over H(sub 0)=13MJ/kg condition even with the highest roughness elements. An additional experiment was also performed to correct unexpected heat flux augmentation observed over H(sub 0)=9MJ/kg condition.

  18. Multi-Agent Software Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed an alarm-monitoring system for people based on multi-agent using maps. The system monitors the users physical context using their mobile phone. The agents on the mobile phones are responsible for collecting, processing and sending data to the server. They can determine the parameters of their environment by sensors. The data are processed and sent to the server. On the other side, a set of agents on server can store this data and check the preconditions of the restrictions associated with the user, in order to trigger the appropriate alarms. These alarms are sent not only to the user who is alarmed to avoid the appeared restriction, but also to his supervisor. The proposed system is a general purpose alarm system that can be used in different critical application areas. It has been applied for monitoring the workers of radiation sites. However, these workers can do their activity tasks in the radiation environments safely

  19. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  20. Monitoring presence of chemical agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The specification describes a case for use with a hand-portable chemical agent detector for continuously monitoring an atmosphere for the presence of predetermined chemical agents. The detector having means for ionizing air samples and providing at an output terminal electrical signals representative of the mobility spectrum of ionized chemical vapours produced by the ionizing means. The case comprises means for defining a chamber in the case for supporting and removably enclosing the detector, means for communicating ambient atmosphere to the chamber, electrical circuit means in the case, the circuit means being adapted to be detachably connected to the detector output terminal when the detector is positioned in the chamber and being responsive to the electrical signals for producing an alarm signal when the signals detect a chemical agent concentration in the atmosphere exceeding a predetermined concentration level, and alarm means responsive to the alarm signal. (author)