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Sample records for hypocotyls involves proton

  1. Isolation and characterization of the betalain biosynthesis gene involved in hypocotyl pigmentation of the allotetraploid Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroki; Miyazato, Akio; Ohki, Shinya; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi

    2018-01-06

    In quinoa seedlings, the pigment betalain accumulates in the hypocotyl. To isolate the genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in the hypocotyl, we performed ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis on the CQ127 variety of quinoa seedlings. While putative amaranthin and celosianin II primarily accumulate in the hypocotyls, this process produced a green hypocotyl mutant (ghy). This MutMap+ method using the quinoa draft genome revealed that the causative gene of the mutant is CqCYP76AD1-1. Our results indicated that the expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 was light-dependent. In addition, the transient expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in the accumulation of betanin but not isobetanin, and the presence of a polymorphism in CqCYP76A1-2 in the CQ127 variety was shown to have resulted in its loss of function. These findings suggested that CqCYP76AD1-1 is involved in betalain biosynthesis during the hypocotyl pigmentation process in quinoa. To our knowledge, CqCYP76AD1-1 is the first quinoa gene identified by EMS mutagenesis using a draft gene sequence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis.

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    Takahashi, Koji; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2012-06-01

    The phytohormone auxin is a major regulator of diverse aspects of plant growth and development. The ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) auxin receptor family, has recently been demonstrated to be critical for auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. Early-phase auxin-induced hypocotyl elongation, on the other hand, has long been explained by the acid-growth theory, for which proton extrusion by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is a functional prerequisite. However, the mechanism by which auxin mediates H(+)-ATPase activation has yet to be elucidated. Here, we present direct evidence for H(+)-ATPase activation in etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by auxin through phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine during early-phase hypocotyl elongation. Application of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to endogenous auxin-depleted hypocotyl sections induced phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine of the H(+)-ATPase and increased H(+)-ATPase activity without altering the amount of the enzyme. Changes in both the phosphorylation level of H(+)-ATPase and IAA-induced elongation were similarly concentration dependent. Furthermore, IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation occurred in a tir1-1 afb2-3 double mutant, which is severely defective in auxin-mediated transcriptional regulation. In addition, α-(phenylethyl-2-one)-IAA, the auxin antagonist specific for the nuclear auxin receptor TIR1/AFBs, had no effect on IAA-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. These results suggest that the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor family is not involved in auxin-induced H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation. Our results define the activation mechanism of H(+)-ATPase by auxin during early-phase hypocotyl elongation; this is the long-sought-after mechanism that is central to the acid-growth theory.

  3. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

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    Verstraeten, Inge; Schotte, Sébastien; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    Wound-induced adventitious root (AR) formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR) and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LRs). In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in A. thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are distinct from LR

  4. Hypocotyl adventitious root organogenesis differs from lateral root development

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    Inge eVerstraeten

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound-induced adventitious root (AR formation is a requirement for plant survival upon root damage inflicted by pathogen attack, but also during the regeneration of plant stem cuttings for clonal propagation of elite plant varieties. Yet, adventitious rooting also takes place without wounding. This happens for example in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, in which AR initiate upon de-etiolation or in tomato seedlings, in which AR initiate upon flooding or high water availability. In the hypocotyl AR originate from a cell layer reminiscent to the pericycle in the primary root (PR and the initiated AR share histological and developmental characteristics with lateral roots (LR. In contrast to the PR however, the hypocotyl is a determinate structure with an established final number of cells. This points to differences between the induction of hypocotyl AR and LR on the PR, as the latter grows indeterminately. The induction of AR on the hypocotyl takes place in environmental conditions that differ from those that control LR formation. Hence, AR formation depends on differentially regulated gene products. Similarly to AR induction in stem cuttings, the capacity to induce hypocotyl AR is genotype-dependent and the plant growth regulator auxin is a key regulator controlling the rooting response. The hormones cytokinins, ethylene, jasmonic acid and strigolactones in general reduce the root-inducing capacity. The involvement of this many regulators indicates that a tight control and fine-tuning of the initiation and emergence of AR exists. Recently, several genetic factors, specific to hypocotyl adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been uncovered. These factors reveal a dedicated signaling network that drives AR formation in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. Here we provide an overview of the environmental and genetic factors controlling hypocotyl-born AR and we summarize how AR formation and the regulating factors of this organogenesis are

  5. Growing in darkness: The etiolated lupin hypocotyls

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Bravo, José; Oliveros-Valenzuela, M Rocío; Nicolás, Carlos; Acosta, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Epigeal germination of a dicot, like lupin (Lupinus albus L.), produces a seedling with a characteristic hypocotyl, which grows in darkness showing a steep growth gradient with an elongation zone just below the apex. The role of phytohormones, such as auxin and ethylene, in etiolated hypocotyl growth has been the object of our research for some time. The recent cloning and expression of three genes of influx and efflux carriers for polar auxin transport (LaAUX1, LaPIN1 and LaPIN3) reinforces ...

  6. Studying Secondary Growth and Bast Fiber Development: The Hemp Hypocotyl Peeks behind the Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Žižková, Eva; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e., 6–9–15–20 days after sowing) to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases, and transcription factors involved in light-related processes) and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors). PMID:27917184

  7. Studying Secondary Growth and Bast Fiber Development: The Hemp Hypocotyl Peeks behind the Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Marc; Legay, Sylvain; Žižková, Eva; Motyka, Václav; Dobrev, Petre I; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e., elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e., 6-9-15-20 days after sowing) to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases, and transcription factors involved in light-related processes) and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors).

  8. Studying secondary growth and bast fiber development: the hemp hypocotyl peeks behind the wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Behr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa L. is an annual herbaceous crop grown for the production of long extraxylary fibers, the bast fibers, rich in cellulose and used both in the textile and biocomposite sectors. Despite being herbaceous, hemp undergoes secondary growth and this is well exemplified by the hypocotyl. The hypocotyl was already shown to be a suitable model to study secondary growth in other herbaceous species, namely Arabidopsis thaliana and it shows an important practical advantage, i.e. elongation and radial thickening are temporally separated. This study focuses on the mechanisms marking the transition from primary to secondary growth in the hemp hypocotyl by analysing the suite of events accompanying vascular tissue and bast fiber development. Transcriptomics, imaging and quantification of phytohormones were carried out on four representative developmental stages (i.e. 6-9-15-20 days after sowing to provide a comprehensive overview of the events associated with primary and secondary growth in hemp. This multidisciplinary approach provides cell wall-related snapshots of the growing hemp hypocotyl and identifies marker genes associated with the young (expansins, β-galactosidases and transcription factors involved in light-related processes and the older hypocotyl (secondary cell wall biosynthetic genes and transcription factors.

  9. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Fraxinus americana hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitlin J. Palla; Paula M. Pijut

    2015-01-01

    An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation system was successfully developed for white ash (Fraxinus americana) using hypocotyls as the initial explants. Hypocotyls isolated from mature embryos germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 22.2 µM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 µM...

  10. Regeneration of plants from Fraxinus americana hypocotyls and cotyledons

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    Kaitlin J. Palla; Paula M. Pijut

    2011-01-01

    A plant regeneration protocol was developed for white ash (Fraxinus americana L.). Hypocotyls and cotyledons excised from embryos were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS)mediumsupplementedwith 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) plus thidiazuron (TDZ), and compared for organogenic potential. Sixty-six percent of hypocotyl segments and 10.4% of cotyledon...

  11. Origin, timing, and gene expression profile of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Margareta; Geier, Thomas; Smolka, Anders; Ahlman, Annelie; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable for vegetative propagation, but difficult to achieve in many crops. Understanding its molecular mechanisms is thus important for such species. Here we aimed at developing a rooting protocol for direct AR formation in stems, locating cellular AR origins in stems and exploring molecular differences underlying adventitious rooting in hypocotyls and stems. In-vitro-grown hypocotyls or stems of wild-type and transgenic ecotype Columbia (Col-0) of Arabidopsis thaliana were rooted on rooting media. Anatomy of AR formation, qRT-PCR of some rooting-related genes and in situ GUS expression were carried out during rooting from hypocotyls and stems. We developed a rooting protocol for AR formation in stems and traced back root origins in stems by anatomical and in situ expression studies. Unlike rooting in hypocotyls, rooting in stems was slower, and AR origins were mainly from lateral parenchyma of vascular bundles and neighboring starch sheath cells as well as, to a lesser extent, from phloem cap and xylem parenchyma. Transcript levels of GH3-3, LBD16, LBD29, and LRP1 in hypocotyls and stems were similar, but transcript accumulation was delayed in stems. In situ expression signals of DR5::GUS, LBD16::GUS, LBD29::GUS, and rolB::GUS reporters in stems mainly occurred at the root initiation sites, suggesting their involvement in AR formation. We have developed an efficient rooting protocol using half-strength Lepoivre medium for studying AR formation in stems, traced back the cellular AR origins in stems, and correlated expression of rooting-related genes with root initiation sites.

  12. Wortmannin-induced vacuole fusion enhances amyloplast dynamics in Arabidopsis zigzag1 hypocotyls.

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    Alvarez, Ashley Ann; Han, Sang Won; Toyota, Masatsugu; Brillada, Carla; Zheng, Jiameng; Gilroy, Simon; Rojas-Pierce, Marcela

    2016-12-01

    Gravitropism in Arabidopsis shoots depends on the sedimentation of amyloplasts in the endodermis, and a complex interplay between the vacuole and F-actin. Gravity response is inhibited in zigzag-1 (zig-1), a mutant allele of VTI11, which encodes a SNARE protein involved in vacuole fusion. zig-1 seedlings have fragmented vacuoles that fuse after treatment with wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and underscore a role of phosphoinositides in vacuole fusion. Using live-cell imaging with a vertical stage microscope, we determined that young endodermal cells below the apical hook that are smaller than 70 μm in length are the graviperceptive cells in dark-grown hypocotyls. This result was confirmed by local wortmannin application to the top of zig-1 hypocotyls, which enhanced shoot gravitropism in zig-1 mutants. Live-cell imaging of zig-1 hypocotyl endodermal cells indicated that amyloplasts are trapped between juxtaposed vacuoles and their movement is severely restricted. Wortmannin-induced fusion of vacuoles in zig-1 seedlings increased the formation of transvacuolar strands, enhanced amyloplast sedimentation and partially suppressed the agravitropic phenotype of zig-1 seedlings. Hypergravity conditions at 10 g were not sufficient to displace amyloplasts in zig-1, suggesting the existence of a physical tether between the vacuole and amyloplasts. Our results overall suggest that vacuole membrane remodeling may be involved in regulating the association of vacuoles and amyloplasts during graviperception. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. LLM-Domain B-GATA Transcription Factors Promote Stomatal Development Downstream of Light Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana Hypocotyls

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    Ranftl, Quirin L.; Diener, Julia; Bastakis, Emmanouil; Richter, René

    2016-01-01

    Stomata are pores that regulate the gas and water exchange between the environment and aboveground plant tissues, including hypocotyls, leaves, and stems. Here, we show that mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana LLM-domain B-GATA genes are defective in stomata formation in hypocotyls. Conversely, stomata formation is strongly promoted by overexpression of various LLM-domain B-class GATA genes, most strikingly in hypocotyls but also in cotyledons. Genetic analyses indicate that these B-GATAs act upstream of the stomata formation regulators SPEECHLESS (SPCH), MUTE, and SCREAM/SCREAM2 and downstream or independent of the patterning regulators TOO MANY MOUTHS and STOMATAL DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION1. The effects of the GATAs on stomata formation are light dependent but can be induced in dark-grown seedlings by red, far-red, or blue light treatments. PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) mutants form stomata in the dark, and in this genetic background, GATA expression is sufficient to induce stomata formation in the dark. Since the expression of the LLM-domain B-GATAs GNC (GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON METABOLISM-INVOLVED) and GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 as well as that of SPCH is red light induced but the induction of SPCH is compromised in a GATA gene mutant background, we hypothesize that PIF- and light-regulated stomata formation in hypocotyls is critically dependent on LLM-domain B-GATA genes. PMID:26917680

  14. Identifying involvement of Lys251/Asp252 pair in electron transfer and associated proton transfer at the quinone reduction site of Rhodobacter capsulatus cytochrome bc1.

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    Kuleta, Patryk; Sarewicz, Marcin; Postila, Pekka; Róg, Tomasz; Osyczka, Artur

    2016-10-01

    Describing dynamics of proton transfers in proteins is challenging, but crucial for understanding processes which use them for biological functions. In cytochrome bc1, one of the key enzymes of respiration or photosynthesis, proton transfers engage in oxidation of quinol (QH2) and reduction of quinone (Q) taking place at two distinct catalytic sites. Here we evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis the contribution of Lys251/Asp252 pair (bacterial numbering) in electron transfers and associated with it proton uptake to the quinone reduction site (Qi site). We showed that the absence of protonable group at position 251 or 252 significantly changes the equilibrium levels of electronic reactions including the Qi-site mediated oxidation of heme bH, reverse reduction of heme bH by quinol and heme bH/Qi semiquinone equilibrium. This implicates the role of H-bonding network in binding of quinone/semiquinone and defining thermodynamic properties of Q/SQ/QH2 triad. The Lys251/Asp252 proton path is disabled only when both protonable groups are removed. With just one protonable residue from this pair, the entrance of protons to the catalytic site is sustained, albeit at lower rates, indicating that protons can travel through parallel routes, possibly involving water molecules. This shows that proton paths display engineering tolerance for change as long as all the elements available for functional cooperation secure efficient proton delivery to the catalytic site. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Space-time analysis of gravitropism in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls using bioluminescence imaging of the IAA19 promoter fusion with a destabilized luciferase reporter.

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    Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Watahiki, Masaaki K; Matsuzaki, Jun; Satoh, Soichirou; Shimizu, Hisayo

    2017-07-01

    Imaging analysis was carried out during the gravitropic response of etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls, using an IAA19 promoter fusion of destabilized luciferase as a probe. From the bright-field images we obtained the local deflection angle to the vertical, A, local curvature, C, and the partial derivative of C with respect to time, [Formula: see text]. These were determined every 19.9 µm along the curvilinear length of the hypocotyl, at ~10 min intervals over a period of ~6 h after turning hypocotyls through 90° to the horizontal. Similarly from the luminescence images we measured the luminescence intensity of the convex and concave flanks of the hypocotyl as well as along the median of the hypocotyl, to determine differential expression of auxin-inducible IAA19. Comparison of these parameters as a function of time and curvilinear length shows that the gravitropic response is composed of three successive elements: the first and second curving responses and a decurving response (autostraightening). The maximum of the first curving response occurs when A is 76° along the entire length of the hypocotyl, suggesting that A is the sole determinant in this response; in contrast, the decurving response is a function of both A and C, as predicted by the newly-proposed graviproprioception model (Bastien et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:755-760, 2013). Further, differential expression of IAA19, with higher expression in the convex flank, is observed at A = 44°, and follows the Sachs' sine law. This also suggests that IAA19 is not involved in the first curving response. In summary, the gravitropic response of Arabidopsis hypocotyls consists of multiple elements that are each determined by separate principles.

  16. SHORT HYPOCOTYL 1 encodes a SMARCA3-like chromatin remodeling factor regulating elongation

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    Understanding the mechanisms and control of hypocotyl elongation is important for greenhouse vegetable crop production. In this study, we identified SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 (SH1) in cucumber which regulates low-dosage ultraviolet B (LDUVB)-dependent hypocotyl elongation by recruiting the cucumber UVR8 sign...

  17. Regeneration of plants from Fraxinus pennsylvanica hypocotyls and cotyledons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningxia Du; Paula M. Pijut

    2008-01-01

    An adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting protocol was developed for green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) seedling explants. The best regeneration medium for freshly isolated hypocotyls and cotyledons was Murashige and Skoog (MS) supplemented with 13.3 µM6-benzylaminopurine (BA) plus 4.5 µM thidiazuron (TDZ), and 22.2 µM...

  18. callus induction from epicotyl and hypocotyl explants of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Nigeria. (Submitted: 31 May 2004; Accepted: 31 October 2004). Abstract. Epicotyl and hypocotyl explants of Parkia biglobosa (Locust bean) were cultured in vitro to investigate their callogenic capacity. Established cultures were obtained and maintained on MS ...

  19. Kinetics of Hydrogen Evolution on Copper Electrode Involving Organic Acids as Proton Donors

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    A. Survila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear potential sweep (LPS voltammetry was applied to study the kinetics of hydrogen evolution in solutions containing glycolic, malic, tartaric, and gluconic acids. The CE mechanism of hydrogen evolution was analyzed invoking the 2nd Fick's law equations supplemented by terms that account for chemical interactions between diffusing particles. Acids are considered as components that are capable of releasing hydrated protons taking part in the charge-transfer step. Current peaks observed on LPS voltammograms are in linear dependence on ν (ν is the potential sweep rate. They obey well-known relationships obtained for simple redox processes, provided that the concentration of oxidant is treated as total concentration of proton donors. Determination of surface concentrations as current density functions makes it possible to transform LPS voltammograms into linear Tafel plots normalized with respect to the surface concentration of hydronium ions. Similar kinetic parameters (α≈0.6 and i0≈ 10 μA cm−2 obtained at pH 3 for all OA solutions indicate that the nature of OA has no noticeable influence on the charge-transfer process.

  20. Protein targets of tyrosine nitration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) hypocotyls.

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    Chaki, Mounira; Valderrama, Raquel; Fernández-Ocaña, Ana M; Carreras, Alfonso; López-Jaramillo, Javier; Luque, Francisco; Palma, José M; Pedrajas, José R; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Gómez-Rodríguez, María V; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosine nitration is recognized as an important post-translational protein modification in animal cells that can be used as an indicator of a nitrosative process. However, in plant systems, there is scant information on proteins that undergo this process. In sunflower hypocotyls, the content of tyrosine nitration (NO(2)-Tyr) and the identification of nitrated proteins were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and proteomic approaches, respectively. In addition, the cell localization of nitrotyrosine proteins and peroxynitrite were analysed by confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) using antibodies against 3-nitrotyrosine and 3'-(p-aminophenyl) fluorescein (APF) as the fluorescent probe, in that order. The concentration of Tyr and NO(2)-Tyr in hypocotyls was 0.56 micromol mg(-1) protein and 0.19 pmol mg(-1) protein, respectively. By proteomic analysis, a total of 21 nitrotyrosine-immunopositive proteins were identified. These targets include proteins involved in photosynthesis, and in antioxidant, ATP, carbohydrate, and nitrogen metabolism. Among the proteins identified, S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) was selected as a model to evaluate the effect of nitration on SAHH activity using SIN-1 (a peroxynitrite donor) as the nitrating agent. When the hypocotyl extracts were exposed to 0.5 mM, 1 mM, and 5 mM SIN-1, the SAHH activity was inhibited by some 49%, 89%, and 94%, respectively. In silico analysis of the barley SAHH sequence, characterized Tyr448 as the most likely potential target for nitration. In summary, the present data are the first in plants concerning the content of nitrotyrosine and the identification of candidates of protein nitration. Taken together, the results suggest that Tyr nitration occurs in plant tissues under physiological conditions that could constitute an important process of protein regulation in such a way that, when it is overproduced in adverse circumstances, it can be

  1. Involvement of a proton-coupled organic cation antiporter in the blood-brain barrier transport of amantadine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toyofumi; Aoyama, Takahiko; Suzuki, Naoto; Kobayashi, Masaru; Fukami, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Tomono, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    The blood-to-brain transport of amantadine, a weak N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, has been shown previously to participate in the cationic drug-sensitive transport system across the mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB). The purpose of the present study was to characterize the influx transport system by means of both an in situ mouse brain perfusion technique and in vitro studies using rat immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells (GPNT). The observed concentration-dependent initial uptake rate of [(3) H]amantadine suggested the involvement of a carrier-mediated transport mechanism. The normal uptake at physiological pH 7.4 was decreased by 72.9% in acidic perfusate, while it was increased by 35.3% in alkaline perfusate. These results suggest that pH-dependent transport is regulated by utilizing an oppositely directed proton gradient as a driving force. In addition, the [(3) H]amantadine uptake was moderately inhibited by the adamantane structural analogs (rimantadine and memantine) and other cationic drugs (pyrilamine, clonidine, nicotine, etc.), but not by substrates or inhibitors of the well-characterized organic cation transporters (tetraethylammonium, l-carnitine and choline). A similar inhibition pattern was observed between the in vivo studies and the in vitro experiments. These results indicate that the influx transport for amantadine across the BBB involves a proton-coupled organic cation antiporter. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Crosstalk among hormones and signaling networks during stomatal development in Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Serna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During development, signaling networks specify stomatal cell fate and patterning in response to phytohormones. A number of studies in the past few years have revealed that brassinosteroids repress the signaling pathway that inactivates SPEECHLESS (SPCH, promoting stomatal cell fate determination in the hypocotyl. These plant hormones also control stomatal patterning specification by regulating genes in the TTG/BHLHs/MYBs/GL2 network. Gibberellins, like brassinosteroids, promote stomatal formation in the embryonic stem, which suggests that their signaling pathways may converge. These phytohormones also regulate LLM-domain B-GATA factors. The involvement of these factors as positive regulators of stomatal formation, which function upstream of SPCH, suggests that the brassinosteroid and gibberellin signaling pathways may converge to control stomatal cell fate specification. In addition, the leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor-like protein TOO MANY MOUTHS acts later than these hormones in the cell division sequence that triggers stomatal formation, and it also appears to control stomatal initiation in response to brassinosteroids. The emerging picture suggests that crosstalk among hormones and signaling networks guides stomatal cell fate determination and patterning in the hypocotyl.

  3. Involvement of proton-sensing receptor TDAG8 in the anti-inflammatory actions of dexamethasone in peritoneal macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiao-dong; Tobo, Masayuki; Mogi, Chihiro; Nakakura, Takashi; Komachi, Mayumi; Murata, Naoya; Takano, Mutsumi; Tomura, Hideaki; Sato, Koichi [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan); Okajima, Fumikazu, E-mail: fokajima@showa.gunma-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Signal Transduction, Institute for Molecular and Cellular Regulation, Gunma University, Maebashi 371-8512 (Japan)

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucocorticoid (GC) induced the expression of proton-sensing TDAG8 in macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC enhanced acidic pH-induced cAMP accumulation and inhibition of TNF-{alpha} production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhancement of the GC-induced actions was lost by TDAG8 deficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GC-induced anti-inflammatory actions are partly mediated by TDAG8 expression. -- Abstract: Dexamethasone (DEX), a potent glucocorticoid, increased the expression of T-cell death associated gene 8 (TDAG8), a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, which is associated with the enhancement of acidic pH-induced cAMP accumulation, in peritoneal macrophages. We explored the role of increased TDAG8 expression in the anti-inflammatory actions of DEX. The treatment of macrophages with either DEX or acidic pH induced the cell death of macrophages; however, the cell death was not affected by TDAG8 deficiency. While DEX inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}, an inflammatory cytokine, which was independent of TDAG8, at neutral pH, the glucocorticoid enhanced the acidic pH-induced inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} production in a manner dependent on TDAG8. In conclusion, the DEX-induced increase in TDAG8 expression is in part involved in the glucocorticoid-induced anti-inflammatory actions through the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production under the acidic pH environment. On the other hand, the role of TDAG8 in the DEX-induced cell death is questionable.

  4. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Fraxinus pennsylvanica hypocotyls and plant regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningxia Du; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    A genetic transformation protocol for green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) hypocotyl explants was developed. Green ash hypocotyls were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring binary vector pq35GR containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion...

  5. Improved flax regeneration from hypocotyls using thidiazuron as a cytokinin source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretagne, B; Chupeau, M C; Chupeau, Y; Fouilloux, G

    1994-12-01

    The effects of thidiazuron, benzyladenine and zeatin were tested with respect to bud regeneration of different flax explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons and apices of two fibre varieties (Ariane, Viking) and one linseed variety (Antarès). These three cytokinins were tested either alone or in combination with naphthalene acetic acid, indole acetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.Hypocotyls were the most responsive explants. Thidiazuron was significantly the most effective followed by benzyladenine, and then zeatin, in inducing organogenesis from hypocotyl segments. The optimal thidiazuron concentration for bud regeneration from hypocotyls was 0.1-0.3 μM in combination with 0.01 μM of naphthalene acetic acid. Six days after plating, shoot initials began to appear on hypocotyl sections compared with ten to fifteen days when using benzyladenine or zeatin.

  6. Shoot development from hypocotyl protoplasts of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Nagl, Nevena; Miladinovic, Dragana; Mikic, A

    2009-06-01

    The plant regeneration from sunflower protoplast was achieved by protocols that considerably differ with respect to basal medium and concentration of growth regulators added. In most cases regeneration was restricted to a small proportion of genotypes. In this experiment, sunflower inbred line Ha-74A, with a high regeneration ability was used for protoplast isolation from etiolated hypocotyls. Isolated protoplasts were embedded in agarose droplets and cultured according to different regeneration protocols. The best results were obtained when protoplasts were cultured on L4 medium followed by transfer of regenerated microcalluses to solid regeneration media. Shoot regeneration was achieved by culture of calluses on SE regeneration medium after the treatment with 2.2 μM thidiazuron.

  7. Involved-Node Proton Therapy in Combined Modality Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of a Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Flampouri, Stella [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Zaiden, Robert [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Slayton, William [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Sandler, Eric [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology/Oncology Nemours Children' s Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Ozdemir, Savas [Department of Radiology, Division of Functional and Molecular Imaging, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville, Florida (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James W. [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida (United States); Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study describes the early clinical outcomes of a prospective phase 2 study of consolidative involved-node proton therapy (INPT) as a component of combined-mode therapy in patients with stages I to III Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement. Methods and Materials: Between September 2009 and June 2013, 15 patients with newly diagnosed HL received INPT after completing chemotherapy in an institutional review board-approved protocol comparing the dosimetric impact of PT with those of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT. Based on {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) response, 5 children received 15 to 25.5 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) of INPT after receiving 4 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Etoposide, Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine, adriamycin, methotrexate, Prednisone chemotherapy, and 10 adults received 30.6 to 39.6 CGE of INPT after 3 to 6 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycine, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine. Patients were routinely evaluated for toxicity during and after treatment, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and for relapse by physical examination and routine imaging. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method from the time of diagnosis. Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 26-55). Two events occurred during follow-up: 1 relapse (inside and outside the targeted field) and 1 transformation into a primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. The 3-year RFS rate was 93%, and the 3-year EFS rate was 87%. No acute or late grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes

  8. Rapid, bilateral changes in growth rate and curvature during gravitropism of cucumber hypocotyls: implications for mechanism of growth control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    The growth response of etiolated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) hypocotyls to gravitropic stimulation was examined by means of time-lapse photography and high-resolution analysis of surface expansion and curvature. In comparison with video analysis, the technique described here has five- to 20-fold better resolution; moreover, the mathematical fitting method (cubic splines) allows direct estimation of local and integrated curvature. After switching seedlings from a vertical to horizontal position, both upper and lower surfaces of the stem reacted after a lag of about 11 min with a two- to three-fold increase in surface expansion rate on the lower side and a cessation of expansion, or slight compression, on the upper surface. This growth asymmetry was initiated simultaneously along the length of the hypocotyl, on both upper and lower surfaces, and did not migrate basipetally from the apex. Later stages in the gravitropic response involved a complex reversal of the growth asymmetry, with the net result being a basipetal migration of the curved region. This secondary growth reversal may reflect oscillatory and/or self-regulatory behaviour of growing cells. With some qualifications, the kinetics and pattern of growth response are consistent with a mechanism involving hormone redistribution, although they do not prove such a mechanism. The growth kinetics require a growth mechanism which can be stimulated by two- to three-fold or completely inhibited within a few minutes.

  9. Characterization and functional analysis of four HYH splicing variants in Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Zheng, Lanlan; Zhang, Jingxuan; Lv, Yanxia; Liu, Jianping; Wang, Xuanbin; Palfalvi, Gergo; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yonghong

    2017-07-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) is a positive regulator of the light signaling pathway. The hy5 mutant has an elongated hypocotyl in all light conditions, whereas the hy5 homolog (hyh) mutant has a very weak phenotype, but only in blue light. However, overexpression of HYH rescues the elongated hypocotyl phenotype in the hy5 null mutant. Here, we report the identification of four HYH splicing variants in Arabidopsis. Alternative splicing in the 5' region of the HYH gene occurred such that the proteins encoded by all four HYH variants retained their bZIP domain. In hypocotyl tissue, transcript levels of HYH.2, HYH.3, and HYH.4 were higher than those of HYH.1. Like HY5, all HYH variants were induced by light. Functional analysis of the four HYH variants, based on their abilities to complement the hy5 mutant, indicated that they have similar roles in hypocotyl development, and may function redundantly with HY5. Our results indicate that the bZIP domain in HYH is critical for the function of four variants in the compensation of hy5 mutant in hypocotyl development. Additionally, while HY5/HYH is found in plant species ranging from green algae to flowering plants, the potential alternative splicing events are distinct in different species, with certain HYH variants found with greater frequency in some species than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Residual nutational activity of the sunflower hypocotyl in simulated weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity dependence of circumnutational activity in the sunflower hypocotyl is investigated under conditions of simulated weightlessness. Seedling cultures of the sunflower Helianthus annuus were placed four days after planting in clinostats rotating at a rate of 1.0 rpm in the horizontal or somersaulting configurations, and plant movements around their growth axes were recorded in infrared light by a time-lapse closed-circuit video system. The amplitudes and mean cycle durations of the plant nutations in the horizontal and tumbling clinostats are observed to be 20% and 72%, and 32% and 74%, respectively, of the values observed in stationary plants; extrapolations to a state of zero g by the imposition of small centripetal forces on horizontally clinostated plants also indicate some nutational motion in the absence of gravity. It is concluded that the results are incompatible with the model of Israelsson and Johnsson (1967) of geotropic response with overshoot for sunflower circumnutation; however, results of the Spacelab 1 mission experiment are needed to unambiguously define the role of gravitation.

  11. Proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton beam therapy; Cancer - proton therapy; Radiation therapy - proton therapy; Prostate cancer - proton therapy ... that use x-rays to destroy cancer cells, proton therapy uses a beam of special particles called ...

  12. Expression of genes involved in mouse lung cell differentiation/regulation after acute exposure to photons and protons with or without low-dose preirradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jian; Zhao, WeiLing; Tian, Sisi; Slater, James M; Deng, Zhiyong; Gridley, Daila S

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of acute 2 Gy irradiation with photons (0.8 Gy/min) or protons (0.9 Gy/min), both with and without pre-exposure to low-dose/low-dose-rate γ rays (0.01 Gy at 0.03 cGy/h), on 84 genes involved in stem cell differentiation or regulation in mouse lungs on days 21 and 56. Genes with a ≥1.5-fold difference in expression and P protons and photons in modulating the genes. More genes were affected by protons than by photons (22 compared to 2 and 6 compared to 2 on day 21 and day 56, respectively) compared to 0 Gy. Preirradiation with low-dose-rate γ rays enhanced the acute photon-induced gene modulation on day 21 (11 compared to 2), and all 11 genes were significantly downregulated on day 56. On day 21, seven genes (aldh2, bmp2, cdc2a, col1a1, dll1, foxa2 and notch1) were upregulated in response to most of the radiation regimens. Immunoreactivity of Clara cell secretory protein was enhanced by all radiation regimens. The number of alveolar type 2 cells positive for prosurfactant protein C in irradiated groups was higher on day 56 (12.4-14.6 cells/100) than on day 21 (8.5-11.2 cells/100) (P protons induced different gene expression profiles in the lungs and that pre-exposure to low-dose-rate γ rays sometimes had modulatory effects. In addition, proteins associated with lung-specific stem cells/progenitors were highly sensitive to radiation.

  13. Adenylate Cyclase Activity Not Found in Soybean Hypocotyl and Onion Meristem 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunghans, Wayne N.; Morré, D. James

    1977-01-01

    Tissue, homogenates, and purified cell fractions prepared from hypocotyls of a dicot, soybean (Glycine max), and meristematic tissue of a monocot, onion (Allium cepa), were examined critically for evidence of adenylate cyclase activity. Three assay methods were used: chemical analysis, isotope dilution analysis, and enzyme cytochemistry. In both crude extracts or whole tissue, as well as purified membranes, with or without auxin, no adenylate cyclase was detected by any of the three methods. For plasma membranes, the specific activity was less than 1/40 or 1/25,000 that of rat liver plasma membranes, depending on the assay procedure, i.e. below the limits of detection. Using comparable methods, we could detect neither cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate nor the phosphodiesterase responsible for its degradation in either purified membranes or homogenates. The results suggest that hormone responses in plants are not generally mediated by a mechanism involving the obligate production of cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate by a plasma membrane associated adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:16660026

  14. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0–5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  15. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0-5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl.

  16. The polar auxin transport inhibitor TIBA inhibits endoreduplication in dark grown spinach hypocotyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amijima, Makoto; Iwata, Yuji; Koizumi, Nozomu; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro

    2014-08-01

    We addressed the question of whether an additional round of endoreduplication in dark-grown hypocotyls is a common feature in dicotyledonous plants having endopolyploid tissues. Ploidy distributions of hypocotyl tissues derived from in vitro-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv. Atlas) seedlings grown under different light conditions were analyzed by flow cytometry. An additional round of endoreduplication (represented by 32C cells) was found in the dark-grown hypocotyl tissues. This response was inhibited by light, the intensity of which is a crucial factor for the inhibition of endoreduplication. The higher ploidy cells in cortical tissues of the dark-grown hypocotyls had larger cell sizes, suggesting that the additional round of endoreduplication contributes to hypocotyl elongation. More importantly, a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA), strongly inhibits endoreduplication, not only in spinach but also in Arabidopsis. Because other polar auxin transport inhibitors or an auxin antagonist show no or mild effects, TIBA may have a specific feature that inhibits endoreduplication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proton: The Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  18. Proton: the particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  19. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-01-01

    ... organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12...

  20. Thermoperiodic control of hypocotyl elongation depends on auxin-induced ethylene signaling that controls downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 ACTIVITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bours, Ralph; Kohlen, Wouter; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We show that antiphase light-temperature cycles (negative day-night temperature difference [2DIF]) inhibit hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This is caused by reduced cell elongation during the cold photoperiod. Cell elongation in the basal part of the hypocotyl under 2DIF

  1. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; As, Van Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we

  2. Inhibition of hypocotyl elongation by ultraviolet-B radiation in de-etiolating tomato seedling. I. The photoreceptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballare, C.L. [Univ. deBuenos Aires, IFEVA-Dept. de Ecologia, Facultad de Agronomia, Buenos Aires (Argentina); barnes, W. [Southwest Texas State Univ., Dept. of Biology, San Marcos, TX (United States); Flint, S.D. [Utah State Univ., Dept. of Rangel and Resources and Ecology Center, Logan, UT (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Broad-band UV-B radiation inhibited hypocotyl elongation in etiolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Alisa Craig) seedlings. This inhibition could be elicited by <3 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} of UV-B radiation provided against a background of white light (>620 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} between 320 and 800 nm), and was similar in wild-type and phytochrome-I-deficient aurea mutant seedlings. These observations suggest that the effect of UV-B radiation is not mediated by phytochrome. An activity spectrum obtained by delivering 1 ({mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) showed maximum effectiveness around 300 nm, which suggests that DNA or aromatic residues in proteins are not the chromophores mediating UV-B induced inhibition of elongation. Chemicals that affect the normal (photo)chemistry of flavins and possibly pterins (KI, NaN{sub 3} and phenylacetic acid) largely abolished the inhibitory effect of broad-band UV-B radiation when applied to the root zone before irradiation. KI was effective at concentrations <10{sup -4} M, which have been shown in vitro to be effective in quenching the triplet excited states of flavins but not fluorescence from pterine or singlet states of flavins. Elimination of blue light or reduction of UV-A, two sources of flavin excitation, promoted hypocotyl elongation, but did not affect the inhibition of elongation exerted by UV-B. KI applied after UV-B irradiation had no effect on the inhibition response. Taken together these findings suggest that the chromophore of the photoreceptor system involved in UV-B perception by tomato seedlings during de-etiolation may be a flavin. (au) (38 refs.)

  3. Thermoperiodic control of hypocotyl elongation depends on auxin-induced ethylene signaling that controls downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Ralph; Kohlen, Wouter; Bouwmeester, Harro J; van der Krol, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    We show that antiphase light-temperature cycles (negative day-night temperature difference [-DIF]) inhibit hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This is caused by reduced cell elongation during the cold photoperiod. Cell elongation in the basal part of the hypocotyl under -DIF was restored by both 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; ethylene precursor) and auxin, indicating limited auxin and ethylene signaling under -DIF. Both auxin biosynthesis and auxin signaling were reduced during -DIF. In addition, expression of several ACC Synthase was reduced under -DIF but could be restored by auxin application. In contrast, the reduced hypocotyl elongation of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling mutants could not be complemented by auxin, indicating that auxin functions upstream of ethylene. The PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 were previously shown to be important regulators of hypocotyl elongation. We now show that, in contrast to pif4 and pif5 mutants, the reduced hypocotyl length in pif3 cannot be rescued by either ACC or auxin. In line with this, treatment with ethylene or auxin inhibitors reduced hypocotyl elongation in PIF4 overexpressor (PIF4ox) and PIF5ox but not PIF3ox plants. PIF3 promoter activity was strongly reduced under -DIF but could be restored by auxin application in an ACC Synthase-dependent manner. Combined, these results show that PIF3 regulates hypocotyl length downstream, whereas PIF4 and PIF5 regulate hypocotyl length upstream of an auxin and ethylene cascade. We show that, under -DIF, lower auxin biosynthesis activity limits the signaling in this pathway, resulting in low activity of PIF3 and short hypocotyls. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. In vitro effects of Laccaria bicolor S238 N and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain BBc6 on rooting of de-rooted shoot hypocotyls of Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabaghli, C.; Frey-Klett, P.; Sotta, B.; Bonnet, M.; Le Tacon, F.

    1998-02-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor S238 N and the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6 were used separately and in combination to induce in vitro rooting of de-rooted shoot hypocotyls of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). When the culture medium was supplemented with tryptophan, a precursor of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis, the presence of the ectomycorrhizal fungus increased the percentage of hypocotyls forming roots; furthermore, both the fungal and bacterial inoculations enhanced the number of roots formed per rooted hypocotyl. Similar results were obtained by adding exogenous IAA (5 and 10 &mgr;M) to the rooting medium. After the rooting phase, the fungal inoculation enhanced adventitious root elongation and branching as well as the aerial growth of the cuttings. Pseudomonas fluorescens BBc6 had no effect on these parameters. The production of IAA by pure cultures of L. bicolor S238 N and P. fluorescens BBc6 was estimated by immunochemical analysis using specific anti-IAA antibodies. Both L. bicolor S238 N and P. fluorescens BBc6 synthesized IAA in pure culture and synthesis was stimulated in the presence of tryptophan. Thus, the effect of the fungus in stimulating adventitious root formation and subsequent elongation and branching can be attributed, at least partially, to the synthesis of IAA by the fungus. The finding that P. fluorescens BBc6 had no effect on root elongation and branching although it produced IAA suggests that either IAA was not the only parameter involved in the stimulation of these processes by L. bicolor S238 N or the bacterium produced other compounds that counteracted the stimulatory effects of IAA on root elongation and branching.

  5. The effect of electric field on callus induction with rape hypocotyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filek, M.; Holda, M. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland); Machackova, I.; Krekule, J. [Inst. of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2005-12-01

    The influence of electric field treatment on dedifferentiation and calli formation on rape hypocotyls was investigated. Segments, 10 mm long, of the upper part of rape (Brassica napus L., cv. Gorcza{delta}ski) hypocotyls were stimulated by different combinations of voltage/time (1.5 V/120 h, 3 V/3 h, 10 V/15 min and 30 V/30 s) under in vitro conditions. With all electric field treatments, segments oriented with their apical part towards the cathode produced more calli as compared to control (non-treated with electric field). Under opposite orientation slight inhibition of callus growth was observed. As the strongest effect on callus growth was observed after treatment with 30 V/30 s, this electric field treatment was selected for following analyses: the incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and [{sup 14}C]-BAP (benzylaminopurine) from the culture medium, changes in ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) level and the redox activity in apical and bottom parts of hypocotyls during 18 d of culture. In contrast to changes in fresh weight, electric field treatment (30 V/30 s) stimulated a higher accumulation of 2,4-D and BAP in basal parts of hypocotyls than in apical ones. Moreover, orienting the apical part towards the cathode resulted in lower uptake of hormones as compared with the opposite orientation. The ACC concentration increased, especially in the basal parts of hypocotyls, independently on electric field application. However, the highest level was observed after electric field treatment with orientation of the apical part towards the anode. The distribution of oxidative substances (measured as the amount of ferric ions) between the apical and bottom part of hypocotyls was not changed when the apical parts were oriented towards the cathode. Under these conditions a decrease in apical and an increase in basal parts was observed during culture. Opposite orientation influenced the redistribution of oxidative substances from the

  6. A comparative proteomic analysis of responses to high temperature stress in hypocotyl of Canola (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili, Ahmad; Salavati, Afshin; Mohammadi, Payam Pour

    2014-01-01

    High temperature stress, especially on the early season of plant growth stages, is an agricultural problem in many areas in the world. A temporary or continually high temperature leads to a set of morphological, biochemical and physiological changes in plants, which consequently reduces the plant growth and development and finally may cause a severe reduction in economic yield. The main goal of this study was to assess plant response to high temperature stress (HTS) in early seedling of canola. This study is the first experiment on the effect of heat stress on proteome of canola. In the present research, a proteomics approach was used to evaluate the effects of high temperature stress, including 45 °C day/34 °C night for 2, 6 and 12 hour, on early seedling stage (2-day old) of canola. Proteins were isolated from hypocotyl and separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Out of 381 protein spots, 28 and 34 proteins were significantly down- and up-regulated, respectively. The trend of mRNA expression for sucrose binding protein, a scorbate peroxidase and triosephosphateisomerase, was in accordance with their trend at translation level. Results of this study suggest that the up-regulation of proteins involved in cellular traffic, energy and metabolism, and down-regulation of some proteins involved in disease and defense, protein synthesis and signal transduction could be the main reason of physiological and morphological responses to high temperature stress. The observed increases in the level of ascorbate peroxidase protein and mRNA expression in canola hypocotyl in response to HTS suggests that ascorbate peroxidase is a short term high temperature stress response protein and is thus a candidate for gene modification strategies aimed at producing high temperature canola varieties. These results also suggest that the up regulation of protein involved in energy and metabolism in response to the heat stress can use most of nutritive reserves in

  7. System-wide organization of actin cytoskeleton determines organelle transport in hypocotyl plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jacqueline; Ivakov, Alexander; Somssich, Marc; Persson, Staffan; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an essential intracellular filamentous structure that underpins cellular transport and cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. However, the system-level properties of actin-based cellular trafficking remain tenuous, largely due to the inability to quantify key features of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we developed an automated image-based, network-driven framework to accurately segment and quantify actin cytoskeletal structures and Golgi transport. We show that the actin cytoskeleton in both growing and elongated hypocotyl cells has structural properties facilitating efficient transport. Our findings suggest that the erratic movement of Golgi is a stable cellular phenomenon that might optimize distribution efficiency of cell material. Moreover, we demonstrate that Golgi transport in hypocotyl cells can be accurately predicted from the actin network topology alone. Thus, our framework provides quantitative evidence for system-wide coordination of cellular transport in plant cells and can be readily applied to investigate cytoskeletal organization and transport in other organisms. PMID:28655850

  8. Effect of the defoliant thidiazuron on ethylene evolution from mung bean hypocotyl segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, J C

    1984-08-01

    The effect of the defoliant thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N'1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea) on ethylene evolution from etiolated mung bean hypocotyl segments was examined. Treatment of hypocotyl segments with concentrations of thidiazuron equal to or greater than 30 nanomolar stimulated ethylene evolution. Increased rates of ethylene evolution from thidiazuron-treated tissues could be detected within 90 minutes of treatment and persisted up to 30 hours after treatment. Radioactive methionine was readily taken up by thidiazuron-treated tissues and was converted to ethylene, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and an acidic conjugate of ACC. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine, aminooxyacetic acid, cobalt chloride, and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid reduced ethylene evolution from treated tissues. An increase in the endogenous content of free ACC coincided with the increase in ethylene evolution following thidiazuron treatment. Uptake and conversion of exogenous ACC to ethylene were not affected by thidiazuron treatment. No increases in the extractable activities of ACC synthase were detected following thidiazuron treatment.

  9. Effects of Insect Predation on Hypocotyl Survival and Germination Success of Mature Quercus variabilis Acorns

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi, FUKUMOTO; Hisashi, KAJIMURA; Laboratory of Forest Protection, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University:Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

    2000-01-01

    The rates of hypocotyl and radicle survival and of germination success were investigated in mature acorns of Quercus variabilis Blume in relation to endosperm loss due to seed insects. The acorns were damaged by curculio weevils (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) and moths, including tortricid moths (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae); the former were more abundant than the latter. Acorns damaged by curculio weevils showed a significantly lower germination rate when there was a large endosperm loss than th...

  10. Physiological effects of cotyledons on gibberellin-induced cucumber hypocotyl elongation

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki, Katsumi; Noriko, KAWAMURA; Biology Department, International Christian University

    1980-01-01

    The cotyledon requirement for gibberellin-induced hypocotyl elongation of light-grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Aonaga-jibae) seedlings was studied. Gibberellin A_7 was used. At the saturation dosage, gibberellin-induced elongation was roughly proportional to the amount of the cotyledon retained. The cotyledon dependence of gibberellin-induced elongation was most marked when decotylization was done at the time of gibberellin treatment or at 24 hr after it. However, when the time of dec...

  11. Influence of colour type and previous cultivation on secondary metabolites in hypocotyls and leaves of maca (Lepidium meyenii Walpers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Céline; Diaz Grados, Diego A; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ihklas A; Mayer, Andrea C; Ponce Aguirre, Dante D; Manrique, Ivan; Kreuzer, Michael

    2010-04-15

    Maca is an Andean crop of the Brassicaceae family which is mainly known for its fertility-enhancing properties following consumption. The hypocotyls display various colours ranging from white to black. Each colour has different biological effects. The aim of this study was to analyse the concentrations of major secondary metabolites in hypocotyls and leaves of maca in a controlled planting experiment in the Peruvian Andes at 4130 m above sea level. The effects of colour type and of previous cultivation of the field were examined. In the hypocotyls, the colour type effect was significant for most secondary metabolites; exceptions were beta-sitosterol and campesterol. The lead-coloured, yellow and violet maca hypocotyls were rich in glucosinolates, macaene and macamides, respectively. Previous cultivation affected macaene, campesterol and indole glucosinolate concentrations. Effects on metabolite concentrations in the leaves were minor. Hypocotyls were richer in macaene, macamides and glucosinolates than were leaves, and were poorer in beta-sitosterol and total phenols. Colour type has to be considered in maca production, as colour associates with variations in concentrations of distinct bioactive metabolites. Leaves may be interesting for animal nutrition purposes as they contain essentially the same secondary metabolites as the hypocotyls but in clearly lower concentrations. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Arabidopsis RSS1 Mediates Cross-Talk Between Glucose and Light Signaling During Hypocotyl Elongation Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjul; Gupta, Aditi; Singh, Dhriti; Khurana, Jitendra P; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2017-11-23

    Plants possess exuberant plasticity that facilitates its ability to adapt and survive under challenging environmental conditions. The developmental plasticity largely depends upon cellular elongation which is governed by a complex network of environmental and phytohormonal signals. Here, we report role of glucose (Glc) and Glc-regulated factors in controlling elongation growth and shade response in Arabidopsis. Glc controls shade induced hypocotyl elongation in a dose dependent manner. We have identified a Glc repressed factor REGULATED BY SUGAR AND SHADE1 (RSS1) encoding for an atypical basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein of unknown biological function that is required for normal Glc actions. Phenotype analysis of mutant and overexpression lines suggested RSS1 to be a negative regulator of elongation growth. RSS1 affects overall auxin homeostasis. RSS1 interacts with the elongation growth-promoting proteins HOMOLOG OF BEE2 INTERACTING WITH IBH 1 (HBI1) and BR ENHANCED EXPRESSION2 (BEE2) and negatively affects the transcription of their downstream targets such as YUCs, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE (IAAs), LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1), HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 2 (ATHB2), XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE/HYDROLASES (XTHs) and EXPANSINS. We propose, Glc signals might maintain optimal hypocotyl elongation under multiple signals such as light, shade and phytohormones through the central growth regulatory bHLH/HLH module.

  13. HYPOTrace: image analysis software for measuring hypocotyl growth and shape demonstrated on Arabidopsis seedlings undergoing photomorphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya; Uilecan, Ioan Vlad; Assadi, Amir H; Kozmik, Christine A; Spalding, Edgar P

    2009-04-01

    Analysis of time series of images can quantify plant growth and development, including the effects of genetic mutations (phenotypes) that give information about gene function. Here is demonstrated a software application named HYPOTrace that automatically extracts growth and shape information from electronic gray-scale images of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Key to the method is the iterative application of adaptive local principal components analysis to extract a set of ordered midline points (medial axis) from images of the seedling hypocotyl. Pixel intensity is weighted to avoid the medial axis being diverted by the cotyledons in areas where the two come in contact. An intensity feature useful for terminating the midline at the hypocotyl apex was isolated in each image by subtracting the baseline with a robust local regression algorithm. Applying the algorithm to time series of images of Arabidopsis seedlings responding to light resulted in automatic quantification of hypocotyl growth rate, apical hook opening, and phototropic bending with high spatiotemporal resolution. These functions are demonstrated here on wild-type, cryptochrome1, and phototropin1 seedlings for the purpose of showing that HYPOTrace generated expected results and to show how much richer the machine-vision description is compared to methods more typical in plant biology. HYPOTrace is expected to benefit seedling development research, particularly in the photomorphogenesis field, by replacing many tedious, error-prone manual measurements with a precise, largely automated computational tool.

  14. Development of efficient catharanthus roseus regeneration and transformation system using agrobacterium tumefaciens and hypocotyls as explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Quan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a valuable medicinal plant, Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus produces many terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, such as vindoline, ajamlicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine et al. Some of them are important components of drugs treating cancer and hypertension. However, the yields of these TIAs are low in wild-type plants, and the total chemical synthesis is impractical in large scale due to high-cost and their complicated structures. The recent development of metabolic engineering strategy offers a promising solution. In order to improve the production of TIAs in C. roseus, the establishment of an efficient genetic transformation method is required. Results To develop a genetic transformation method for C. roseus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was employed which harbors a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 containing a report β-glucuronidase (GUS gene and a selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NTPII. The influential factors were investigated systematically and the optimal transformation condition was achieved using hypocotyls as explants, including the sonication treatment of 10 min with 80 W, A. tumefaciens infection of 30 min and co-cultivation of 2 d in 1/2 MS medium containing 100 μM acetosyringone. With a series of selection in callus, shoot and root inducing kanamycin-containing resistance media, we successfully obtained stable transgenic regeneration plants. The expression of GUS gene was confirmed by histochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and genomic southern blot analysis. To prove the efficiency of the established genetic transformation system, the rate-limiting gene in TIAs biosynthetic pathway, DAT, which encodes deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase, was transferred into C. roseus using this established system and 9 independent transgenic plants were obtained. The results of metabolite analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC

  15. Development of efficient Catharanthus roseus regeneration and transformation system using agrobacterium tumefaciens and hypocotyls as explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Xing, Shihai; Pan, Qifang; Yuan, Fang; Zhao, Jingya; Tian, Yuesheng; Chen, Yu; Wang, Guofeng; Tang, Kexuan

    2012-06-29

    As a valuable medicinal plant, Madagascar periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) produces many terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), such as vindoline, ajamlicine, serpentine, catharanthine, vinblastine and vincristine et al. Some of them are important components of drugs treating cancer and hypertension. However, the yields of these TIAs are low in wild-type plants, and the total chemical synthesis is impractical in large scale due to high-cost and their complicated structures. The recent development of metabolic engineering strategy offers a promising solution. In order to improve the production of TIAs in C. roseus, the establishment of an efficient genetic transformation method is required. To develop a genetic transformation method for C. roseus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 was employed which harbors a binary vector pCAMBIA2301 containing a report β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene and a selectable marker neomycin phosphotransferase II gene (NTPII). The influential factors were investigated systematically and the optimal transformation condition was achieved using hypocotyls as explants, including the sonication treatment of 10 min with 80 W, A. tumefaciens infection of 30 min and co-cultivation of 2 d in 1/2 MS medium containing 100 μM acetosyringone. With a series of selection in callus, shoot and root inducing kanamycin-containing resistance media, we successfully obtained stable transgenic regeneration plants. The expression of GUS gene was confirmed by histochemistry, polymerase chain reaction, and genomic southern blot analysis. To prove the efficiency of the established genetic transformation system, the rate-limiting gene in TIAs biosynthetic pathway, DAT, which encodes deacetylvindoline-4-O-acetyltransferase, was transferred into C. roseus using this established system and 9 independent transgenic plants were obtained. The results of metabolite analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that overexpression of DAT

  16. Relative examination of antioxidative enzymatic activities in plantlets of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. differentiated from hypocotyls in in vivo and ex vitro environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushi A. Jahan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A plant regeneration protocol was devised for Cardiospermum halicacabum by means of aseptically extracted 7 days old hypocotyls forming adventitious shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium harmonized with 0.7 μM thidiazuron (TDZ producing a maximum of 18.20 ± 0.98 number of shoots in 94% cultures following 4 weeks. Subsequent subculturing for five passages, on a medium without plant growth regulators, tempted the highest shoot number (40.00 ± 1.15 with an average shoot length of 6.53 ± 0.49 cm after the fourth subculture. Histological sections confirmed the formation of multiple buds from hypocotyl explants. The expression of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase was found to be higher in acclimatized plants than in the in vitro cultured ones suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in shoot differentiation and in growth under external environment partly due to their ability to cope up with oxidative stress.

  17. Relative examination of antioxidative enzymatic activities in plantlets of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. differentiated from hypocotyls in in vivo and ex vitro environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Anushi A; Anis, Mohammad; Aref, Ibrahim M

    2014-12-01

    A plant regeneration protocol was devised for Cardiospermum halicacabum by means of aseptically extracted 7 days old hypocotyls forming adventitious shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium harmonized with 0.7 μM thidiazuron (TDZ) producing a maximum of 18.20 ± 0.98 number of shoots in 94% cultures following 4 weeks. Subsequent subculturing for five passages, on a medium without plant growth regulators, tempted the highest shoot number (40.00 ± 1.15) with an average shoot length of 6.53 ± 0.49 cm after the fourth subculture. Histological sections confirmed the formation of multiple buds from hypocotyl explants. The expression of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase was found to be higher in acclimatized plants than in the in vitro cultured ones suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in shoot differentiation and in growth under external environment partly due to their ability to cope up with oxidative stress.

  18. Determination of the threshold acceleration for the gravitropic stimulation of cress roots and hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurinavičius, R.; Švegždiene, D.; Buchen, B.; Sievers, A.

    To determine the range of the threshold acceleration (a-threshold) for the gravitropic stimulation of Lepidium sativum L. roots and hypocotyls, experiments were performed on a centrifuge-clinostat with two-orthogonal axes. The rotation rate of the clinostat was 4 rpm (centrifuge was from 3 to 17 rpm (3 x 10^-3 to 10^-1 g). The gravitropic response was determined: (i) after growth of roots and hypocotyls in their normal vertical position and subsequent gravitropic stimulation for 3 h by accelerations of 4 x 10^-3 to 10^-1 g, and (ii) after continuous stimulation in the lateral direction by centripetal accelerations of 4 x 10^-3 to 10^-1 g. The a-threshold was defined by an extrapolation of the regression line of R = p + rx, where x was either 1n a or 1/a for 3 h or a continuous stimulation, respectively. The a-threshold estimated after 3 h stimulation was equal to 2.6 x 10^-3 g for roots and 3.1 x 10^-3 g for hypocotyls. The threshold accelerations that were unable to evoke a gravitropic response even with continuous stimulation of cress roots and hypocotyls were approximately 3.1 x 10^-3 g and 3.6 x 10^-3 g, respectively. Increasing the stimulation acceleration up to 4.1 x 10^-3 g led to a statistically confirmed gravitropic response of a definite proportion of both the root and hypocotyl populations. In the experiments where acceleration and stimulation time were variable, the threshold dose (D-threshold) for roots was determined to be about 14 to 22 g x s, depending on the stimulation duration and the range of accelerations. The kinetics of gravitropic response at a near-threshold acceleration (4 x 10^-3 to 1.9 x 10^-2 g) differed from that at 1 g (horizontal stimulation). At low forces, the maximal response dependent on the magnitude of acceleration could not be enhanced by increasing the stimulation time up to at least 210 min.

  19. The Molecular Basis for Species-specific Activation of Human TRPA1 Protein by Protons Involves Poorly Conserved Residues within Transmembrane Domains 5 and 6*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Roche, Jeanne; Eberhardt, Mirjam J.; Klinger, Alexandra B.; Stanslowsky, Nancy; Wegner, Florian; Koppert, Wolfgang; Reeh, Peter W.; Lampert, Angelika; Fischer, Michael J. M.; Leffler, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The surveillance of acid-base homeostasis is concerted by diverse mechanisms, including an activation of sensory afferents. Proton-evoked activation of rodent sensory neurons is mainly mediated by the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels. In this study, we demonstrate that extracellular acidosis activates and sensitizes the human irritant receptor TRPA1 (hTRPA1). Proton-evoked membrane currents and calcium influx through hTRPA1 occurred at physiological acidic pH values, were concentration-dependent, and were blocked by the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC030031. Both rodent and rhesus monkey TRPA1 failed to respond to extracellular acidosis, and protons even inhibited rodent TRPA1. Accordingly, mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons lacking TRPV1 only responded to protons when hTRPA1 was expressed heterologously. This species-specific activation of hTRPA1 by protons was reversed in both mouse and rhesus monkey TRPA1 by exchange of distinct residues within transmembrane domains 5 and 6. Furthermore, protons seem to interact with an extracellular interaction site to gate TRPA1 and not via a modification of intracellular N-terminal cysteines known as important interaction sites for electrophilic TRPA1 agonists. Our data suggest that hTRPA1 acts as a sensor for extracellular acidosis in human sensory neurons and should thus be taken into account as a yet unrecognized transduction molecule for proton-evoked pain and inflammation. The species specificity of this property is unique among known endogenous TRPA1 agonists, possibly indicating that evolutionary pressure enforced TRPA1 to inherit the role as an acid sensor in human sensory neurons. PMID:23709225

  20. The molecular basis for species-specific activation of human TRPA1 protein by protons involves poorly conserved residues within transmembrane domains 5 and 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Roche, Jeanne; Eberhardt, Mirjam J; Klinger, Alexandra B; Stanslowsky, Nancy; Wegner, Florian; Koppert, Wolfgang; Reeh, Peter W; Lampert, Angelika; Fischer, Michael J M; Leffler, Andreas

    2013-07-12

    The surveillance of acid-base homeostasis is concerted by diverse mechanisms, including an activation of sensory afferents. Proton-evoked activation of rodent sensory neurons is mainly mediated by the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 and acid-sensing ion channels. In this study, we demonstrate that extracellular acidosis activates and sensitizes the human irritant receptor TRPA1 (hTRPA1). Proton-evoked membrane currents and calcium influx through hTRPA1 occurred at physiological acidic pH values, were concentration-dependent, and were blocked by the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC030031. Both rodent and rhesus monkey TRPA1 failed to respond to extracellular acidosis, and protons even inhibited rodent TRPA1. Accordingly, mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons lacking TRPV1 only responded to protons when hTRPA1 was expressed heterologously. This species-specific activation of hTRPA1 by protons was reversed in both mouse and rhesus monkey TRPA1 by exchange of distinct residues within transmembrane domains 5 and 6. Furthermore, protons seem to interact with an extracellular interaction site to gate TRPA1 and not via a modification of intracellular N-terminal cysteines known as important interaction sites for electrophilic TRPA1 agonists. Our data suggest that hTRPA1 acts as a sensor for extracellular acidosis in human sensory neurons and should thus be taken into account as a yet unrecognized transduction molecule for proton-evoked pain and inflammation. The species specificity of this property is unique among known endogenous TRPA1 agonists, possibly indicating that evolutionary pressure enforced TRPA1 to inherit the role as an acid sensor in human sensory neurons.

  1. Consolidative Involved-Node Proton Therapy for Stage IA-IIIB Mediastinal Hodgkin Lymphoma: Preliminary Dosimetric Outcomes From a Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Bradford S., E-mail: bhoppe@floridaproton.org [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Flampouri, Stella; Su Zhong; Morris, Christopher G. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Latif, Naeem [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James [University of Florida Hematology/Oncology, Gainesville, FL (United States); Li Zuofeng; Mendenhall, Nancy P. [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To compare the dose reduction to organs at risk (OARs) with proton therapy (PT) versus three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with mediastinal Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) enrolled on a Phase II study of involved-node radiotherapy (INRT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2009 and October 2010, 10 patients were enrolled on a University of Florida institutional review board-approved protocol for de novo 'classical' Stage IA-IIIB HL with mediastinal (bulky or nonbulky) involvement after chemotherapy. INRT was planned per European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines. Three separate optimized plans were developed for each patient: 3D-CRT, IMRT, and PT. The primary end point was a 50% reduction in the body V4 with PT compared with 3D-CRT or IMRT. Results: The median relative reduction with PT in the primary end point, body V4, was 51% compared with 3D-CRT (p = 0.0098) and 59% compared with IMRT (p = 0.0020), thus all patients were offered treatment with PT. PT provided the lowest mean dose to the heart, lungs, and breasts for all 10 patients compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. The median difference in the OAR mean dose reduction with PT compared with 3D-CRT were 10.4 Gy/CGE for heart; 5.5 Gy/CGE for lung; 0.9 Gy/CGE for breast; 8.3 Gy/CGE for esophagus; and 4.1 Gy/CGE for thyroid. The median differences for mean OAR dose reduction for PT compared with IMRT were 4.3 Gy/CGE for heart, 3.1 Gy/CGE for lung, 1.4 Gy/CGE for breast, 2.8 Gy/CGE for esophagus, and 2.7 Gy/CGE for thyroid. Conclusions: All 10 patients benefitted from dose reductions to OARs with PT compared with either 3D-CRT or IMRT. It is anticipated that these reductions in dose to OAR will translate into lower rates of late complications, but long-term follow-up on this Phase II INRT study is needed.

  2. Analysis of the change of polyamine during the cold treatment in spring radish young cotyledons and hypocotyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.C.; Park, J.W.; Cho, B.H. [University of Suwon, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    The concentration of polyamine and the relationship between the concentration of PA and cold resistance were analysed during the cold stress in the cotyledons and hypocotyls of young spring radishes. The concentration of PUT was increased during the cold stress in the cotyledons and the concentration of PUT and SPD was changed significantly all the stress time. From the results, we suggested that PUT and SPD were synthesized against cold stress or separated from the bound PA during the cold stress. But, the concentration of SPM was not significantly changed during the cold stress. Only SPD existed in the control hypocotyls. The concentration of SPD was increased during the cold stress, but was decreased dramatically during continuously cold stress. The reactivity against stress of hypocotyls was generally more sensitive during the cold treatment than that of the cotyledons because of the lower concentration of PA in the hypocotyls. PUT and SPD were responsible for the resistance of cold stress in the cotyledons and PA did not play an important role on the resistance of cold stress in the hypocotyls. In this study we suggest that PUT and SPD were responsible for the increase of the resistance against the cold stress. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Auxin and gibberellin responsive Arabidopsis SMALL AUXIN UP RNA36 regulates hypocotyl elongation in the light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Petra; Kumar, Prakash P

    2013-06-01

    The Arabidopsis SAUR36, renamed RAG1, integrates auxin and gibberellin signals to regulate apical hook maintenance in etiolated seedlings, hypocotyl elongation in the light and fertility. Phytohormone signalling intermediates integrate responses to developmental cues and the variety of environmental inputs thereby governing all aspects of plant growth and development. At the genetic level, interactions of different phytohormone signalling pathways lead to the regulation of overlapping sets of target genes. We have characterised SMALL AUXIN UP RNA 36 (SAUR36, At2g45210) whose expression is induced by auxins and repressed by gibberellins. Its expression appears to be restricted to elongating tissues. Germination responses to treatments with paclobutrazol and exogenous abscisic acid were affected in knock-out, knock-down as well as ectopic expression lines. At later stages of development, however, transgenic plants with reduced levels of SAUR36 expression appeared similar to wild-type plants, while ectopic expression of SAUR36 led to the absence of apical hooks in etiolated seedlings and longer hypocotyls in light-grown seedlings. Mature plants ectopically expressing SAUR36 further displayed strongly reduced fertility and wavy growth of inflorescence axes, the latter of which could be linked to defects in auxin transport. Taken together, our data suggest that SAUR36 plays a role in the regulation of seed germination by gibberellins and abscisic acid, light-dependent hypocotyl elongation as well as apical hook formation or maintenance. Therefore, we propose that it could act as one of the converging points of auxin and gibberellin signal integration in controlling key plant developmental events. Hence, we named the gene RESPONSE TO AUXINS AND GIBBERELLINS 1 (RAG1).

  4. The localization of NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species in in vitro-cultured Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. hypocotyls discloses their differing roles in rhizogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libik-Konieczny, Marta; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Desel, Christine; Michalec-Warzecha, Żaneta; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Konieczny, Robert

    2015-03-01

    This work demonstrated how reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the regulation of rhizogenesis from hypocotyls of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. cultured on a medium containing 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The increase of NADPH oxidase activity was correlated with an increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content and induction of mitotic activity in vascular cylinder cells, leading to root formation from cultured hypocotyls. Diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, inhibited H2O2 production and blocked rhizogenesis. Ultrastructural studies revealed differences in H2O2 localization between the vascular cylinder cells and cortex parenchyma cells of cultured explants. We suggest that NADPH oxidase is responsible for H2O2 level regulation in vascular cylinder cells, while peroxidase (POD) participates in H2O2 level regulation in cortex cells. Blue formazan (NBT) precipitates indicating superoxide radical (O2 (•-)) accumulation were localized within the vascular cylinder cells during the early stages of rhizogenesis and at the tip of root primordia, as well as in the distal and middle parts of newly formed organs. 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining of H2O2 was more intense in vascular bundle cells and in cortex cells. In newly formed roots, H2O2 was localized in vascular tissue. Adding DPI to the medium led to a decrease in the intensity of NBT and DAB staining in cultured explants. Accumulation of O2 (•-) was then limited to epidermis cells, while H2O2 was accumulated only in vascular tissue. These results indicate that O2 (•-) is engaged in processes of rhizogenesis induction involving division of competent cells, while H2O2 is engaged in developmental processes mainly involving cell growth.

  5. Plant regeneration from hypocotyl protoplasts of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from hypocotyls of six breeding lines and two cultivars of winter oilseed rape (B. napus L.. Under presented culture conditions almost all of the protoplasts regenerated cell walls. Division frequency depended on the genotype and was from 50% to 64%. Shoot regeneration (also depended on the genotype was induced with the frequency of 3.6% (for cv Bolko on the medium containing IAA (0.1 mg•dm-3, zeatin (0.5 mg•dm-3 and BAP (0.5 mg•dm-3 . All shoots were rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with sucrose 30 g•dm-3.

  6. Interaction of a Brassinosteroid with IAA and GA_3 in the Elongation of Cucumber Hypocotyl Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki, Katsumi; Biology Department, International Christian University

    1985-01-01

    A synthetic brassinosteroid, 22,23(S,S)-homobrassinolide (hBR), was examined for its interaction with IAA and GA_3 In the elongation of hypocotyl sections of light-grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Aonagajibai) seedlings. hBR alone was less active than IAA. Its optimal concentration was around 10μM and the lowest effective concentration between 10 and 100μM, which is more than 100 times higher than that of brassinolide. hBR was more active in sections from younger seedlings. Its growth-p...

  7. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Elective Nodal Irradiation and Involved-Field Radiation in the Definitive Treatment of Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Dosimetric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Ko, Christine J.; Ning, Holly; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Haglund, Karl E.; O’Meara, William P.; Simone, Charles B.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Photon involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT), the standard for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), results in favorable outcomes without increased isolated nodal failures, perhaps from scattered dose to elective nodal stations. Given the high conformality of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), proton IFRT could increase nodal failures. We investigated the feasibility of IMPT for elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in LA-NSCLC. Materials and Methods IMPT IFRT plans were generated to the same total dose of 66.6–72 Gy received by 20 LA-NSCLC patients treated with photon IFRT. IMPT ENI plans were generated to 46 CGE to elective nodal (EN) planning treatment volumes (PTV) plus 24 CGE to involved field (IF)-PTVs. Results Proton IFRT and ENI both improved D95 involved field (IF)-PTV coverage by 4% (pENI. Mean esophagus dose decreased 16% with IFRT and 12% with ENI; heart V25 decreased 63% with both (all pENI. Potential decreased toxicity indicates IMPT could allow ENI while maintaining a favorable therapeutic ratio compared to photon IFRT. PMID:25604729

  8. Evidence for an Increase in Microviscosity of Plasma Membranes from Soybean Hypocotyls Induced by the Plant Hormone, Indole-3-Acetic Acid 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgerson, Sam L.; Cramer, William A.; Morré, D. James

    1976-01-01

    The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or auxin) added at a concentration for half-maximal promotion of cell elongation (1 μm) caused an increase of 25% in the fluorescence polarization of the membrane-bound probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, when added to fractions enriched in plasma membranes from soybean hypocotyls (Glycine max L. var. Wayne), with no measurable change in fluorescence lifetime. The amplitude of the polarization increase was maximal in the temperature range 12 to 22 C. The findings provide evidence for a cell-free response of isolated plasma membranes to the hormone and imply that the response involves an increase in the microviscosity of hydrocarbon regions of the membrane. Images PMID:16659715

  9. Involvement of bicarbonate in the protonation of the secondary quinone electron acceptor of photosystem II via the non-haem iron of the quinone-iron complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.; Tonk, W.J.M.; Bruijn, de S.M.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism of the bicarbonate effect was investigated by monitoring flash-induced pH changes. In control chloroplasts the proton yields exhibit a binary oscillation with a period of four. In CO2-depleted chloroplasts the binary oscillation disappears and only the period four pattern remains,

  10. Melatonin promotes adventitious- and lateral root regeneration in etiolated hypocotyls of Lupinus albus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

    2007-03-01

    Melatonin is a well-known animal substance, which has recently been detected in plant tissues. However, there are only a few studies concerning its possible physiological role in plants. In this paper, we investigate the possible effect of melatonin on the regeneration of lateral and adventious roots in etiolated hypocotyls of Lupinus albus L. compared with the effect of indole-3-acetic acid. We performed this study by measuring both molecules in roots. Six-day-old derooted lupin hypocotyls immersed in several melatonin or indole-3-acetic acid concentrations were used to induce roots. A macro- and microscopic study of the histological origin of the adventitious and lateral roots was made, while melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid in the roots were quantified using liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The data show that both melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid induced the appearance of root primordia from pericicle cells, modifying the pattern of distribution of adventitious or lateral roots, the time-course, the number and length of adventitious roots, and the number of lateral roots. Melatonin and indole-3-acetic acid were detected and quantified in lupin primary roots, where both molecules were present in similar concentrations. The physiological effect of exogenous melatonin as root promoter was demonstrated, its action being similar to that of indole-3-acetic acid.

  11. Evidence from in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy for the involvement of terminal disulfide in the reduction of protons by an amorphous molybdenum sulfide electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt; Merki, Daniel; Vrubel, Heron; Gul, Sheraz; Yachandra, Vittal K; Hu, Xile; Yano, Junko

    2015-01-14

    The reduction of protons into dihydrogen is important because of its potential use in a wide range of energy applications. The preparation of efficient and cheap catalysts for this reaction is one of the issues that need to be tackled to allow the widespread use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. In this paper, we report the study of an amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoSx) proton reducing electrocatalyst under functional conditions, using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We probed the local and electronic structures of both the molybdenum and sulfur elements for the as prepared material as well as the precatalytic and catalytic states. The as prepared material is very similar to MoS3 and remains unmodified under functional conditions (pH = 2 aqueous HNO3) in the precatalytic state (+0.3 V vs RHE). In its catalytic state (-0.3 V vs RHE), the film is reduced to an amorphous form of MoS2 and shows spectroscopic features that indicate the presence of terminal disulfide units. These units are formed concomitantly with the release of hydrogen, and we suggest that the rate-limiting step of the HER is the reduction and protonation of these disulfide units. These results show the implication of terminal disulfide chemical motifs into HER driven by transition-metal sulfides and provide insight into their reaction mechanism.

  12. Pattern of antioxidant enzyme activities and hydrogen peroxide content during developmental stages of rhizogenesis from hypocotyl explants of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konieczny, Robert; Banaś, Agnieszka K; Surówka, Ewa; Michalec, Żaneta; Miszalski, Zbigniew; Libik-Konieczny, Marta

    2014-01-01

    H2O2 is necessary to elicit rhizogenic action of auxin. Activities of specific catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase forms mark roots development. Hypocotyl explants of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum regenerated roots on medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Explants became competent to respond to the rhizogenic action of auxin on day 3 of culture, when hydrogen peroxide content in cultured tissue was the highest. L-Ascorbic acid added to the medium at 5 μM lowered the H2O2 level, inhibited rhizogenesis and induced non-regenerative callus, suggesting that certain level of H2O2 is required to promote root initiation. Coincident with the onset of rhizogenic determination, meristemoids formed at the periphery of the hypocotyl stele and the activity of the manganese form of superoxide dismutase, MnSOD-2 was induced. Once induced, MnSOD-2 activity was maintained through the post-determination phase of rooting, involving root growth. MnSOD-2 activity was not found in non-rhizogenic explants maintained in the presence of AA. Analyses of the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and the oxygen uptake rate revealed that the explants were metabolically arrested during the predetermination stage of rhizogenesis. Respiratory and photosynthetic rates were high during root elongation and maturation. Changes in catalase and peroxidase activities correlated with fluctuations of endogenous H2O2 content throughout rhizogenic culture. Expression of a specific CAT-2 form accompanied the post-determination stage of rooting and a high rate of carbohydrate metabolism during root growth. On the other hand, the occurrence of MnSOD-2 activity did not depend on the metabolic status of explants. The expression of MnSOD-2 activity throughout root development seems to relate it specifically to root metabolism and indicates it as a molecular marker of rhizogenesis in M. crystallinum.

  13. Involvement of the Artemis Protein in the Relative Biological Efficiency Observed With the 76-MeV Proton Beam Used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calugaru, Valentin [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Nauraye, Catherine [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Cordelières, Fabrice P. [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Biard, Denis [Centre d' Etude Atomique, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Institut des Maladies Emergentes et des Thérapies Innovantes, Service d' Etude des Prions et des Infections Atypiques, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); De Marzi, Ludovic [Institut Curie Centre de Protonthérapie d' Orsay, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Hall, Janet; Favaudon, Vincent [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); Mégnin-Chanet, Frédérique, E-mail: frederique.megnin@inserm.fr [Institut Curie, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France); INSERM U612, Centre Universitaire, Orsay (France)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Previously we showed that the relative biological efficiency for induced cell killing by the 76-MeV beam used at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy Center in Orsay increased with depth throughout the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). To investigate the repair pathways underlying this increase, we used an isogenic human cell model in which individual DNA repair proteins have been depleted, and techniques dedicated to precise measurements of radiation-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs). Methods and Materials: The 3-Gy surviving fractions of HeLa cells individually depleted of Ogg1, XRCC1, and PARP1 (the base excision repair/SSB repair pathway) or of ATM, DNA-PKcs, XRCC4, and Artemis (nonhomologous end-joining pathway) were determined at the 3 positions previously defined in the SOBP. Quantification of incident SSBs and DSBs by the alkaline elution technique and 3-dimensional (3D) immunofluorescence of γ-H2AX foci, respectively, was performed in SQ20 B cells. Results: We showed that the amount of SSBs and DSBs depends directly on the particle fluence and that the increase in relative biological efficiency observed in the distal part of the SOBP is due to a subset of lesions generated under these conditions, leading to cell death via a pathway in which the Artemis protein plays a central role. Conclusions: Because therapies like proton or carbon beams are now being used to treat cancer, it is even more important to dissect the mechanisms implicated in the repair of the lesions generated by these particles. Additionally, alteration of the expression or activity of the Artemis protein could be a novel therapeutic tool before high linear energy transfer irradiation treatment.

  14. Hypocotyl Transcriptome Reveals Auxin Regulation of Growth-Promoting Genes through GA-Dependent and -Independent Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Cristina; Sartor, Ryan; Bialy, Agniezska; Sun, Tai-ping; Estelle, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Many processes critical to plant growth and development are regulated by the hormone auxin. Auxin responses are initiated through activation of a transcriptional response mediated by the TIR1/AFB family of F-box protein auxin receptors as well as the AUX/IAA and ARF families of transcriptional regulators. However, there is little information on how auxin regulates a specific cellular response. To begin to address this question, we have focused on auxin regulation of cell expansion in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. We show that auxin-mediated hypocotyl elongation is dependent upon the TIR1/AFB family of auxin receptors and degradation of AUX/IAA repressors. We also use microarray studies of elongating hypocotyls to show that a number of growth-associated processes are activated by auxin including gibberellin biosynthesis, cell wall reorganization and biogenesis, and others. Our studies indicate that GA biosynthesis is required for normal response to auxin in the hypocotyl but that the overall transcriptional auxin output consists of PIF-dependent and -independent genes. We propose that auxin acts independently from and interdependently with PIF and GA pathways to regulate expression of growth-associated genes in cell expansion. PMID:22590525

  15. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuyu; Cui, Xuefei; Su, Liang; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Gong, Qingqiu; Yang, Jianping; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2017-06-01

    A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark. We also find that JA stabilizes several COP1-targeted transcription factors in a COP1-dependent manner. RNA-seq analysis further defines a JA-light co-modulated and cop1-dependent transcriptome, which is enriched for auxin-responsive genes and genes participating in cell wall modification. JA suppresses COP1 activity through at least two distinct mechanisms: decreasing COP1 protein accumulation in the nucleus; and reducing the physical interaction between COP1 and its activator, SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 1 (SPA1). Our work reveals that JA suppresses COP1 activity to stabilize COP1 targets, thereby inhibiting hypocotyl elongation and stimulating cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Protonated nitrosamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, H.; Carlsen, L.; Øgaard Madsen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The protonated nitrosamide, NH3NO+, has been generated by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Although a direct search for this species in ammonia flames has proved negative, fast proton transfer to major flame constituents is supported experimentally as well as by MO calculations....

  17. Proton Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy is one of the most precise and advanced forms of radiation treatment available. How Proton Therapy is Delivered The patient is positioned on a table with a head frame or face mask covering the head. As the cyclotron smashes atoms, the protons released are directed toward ...

  18. Intensity-modulated proton therapy for elective nodal irradiation and involved-field radiation in the definitive treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a dosimetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwala, Aparna H; Ko, Christine J; Ning, Holly; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Haglund, Karl E; O'Meara, William P; Simone, Charles B; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-05-01

    Photon involved-field (IF) radiation therapy (IFRT), the standard for locally advanced (LA) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), results in favorable outcomes without increased isolated nodal failures, perhaps from scattered dose to elective nodal stations. Because of the high conformality of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT), proton IFRT could increase nodal failures. We investigated the feasibility of IMPT for elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in LA-NSCLC. IMPT IFRT plans were generated to the same total dose of 66.6-72 Gy received by 20 LA-NSCLC patients treated with photon IFRT. IMPT ENI plans were generated to 46 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) to elective nodal planning treatment volumes (PTV) plus 24 CGE to IF-PTVs. Proton IFRT and ENI improved the IF-PTV percentage of volume receiving 95% of the prescribed dose (D95) by 4% (P ENI. The mean esophagus dose decreased 16% with IFRT and 12% with ENI; heart V25 decreased 63% with both (all P ENI. Potential decreased toxicity indicates that IMPT could allow ENI while maintaining a favorable therapeutic ratio compared with photon IFRT. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Growth-limiting Proteins in Relation to Auxin-induced Elongation in Lupin Hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Pauline

    1971-01-01

    The role of protein synthesis in auxin-induced cell elongation in lupin hypocotyl segments was studied using cycloheximide. Cycloheximide inhibited protein synthesis by 9 minutes. Experiments adding cycloheximide at various times before and after indolyl-3-acetic acid are reported. Estimates of the relative amounts of growth-limiting protein(s), and a first order rate constant for the apparent turnover of the growth-limiting protein(s) were made. It was shown that there is a sizeable growth promotion by auxin after protein synthesis has essentially ceased. It is concluded that the initial phases of auxin action do not require protein synthesis but that its action depends on the existing pool of growth-limiting proteins which is rapidly depleted, and protein synthesis is then required for continued elongation. PMID:16657867

  20. Callus formation and plant regeneration from protoplasts of sunflower calli and hypocotyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower (cv. Girapac SH222 protoplasts were obtained from 4-7 day-old hypocotyls and cotyledons and from two-month old calli. Higher yields of protoplasts were achieved with medium El (KCl 25g dm-3, CaCl2 2g dm-3, MES 0.7 g• dm-3, pH 5.5 and the combination of Driselase Fluka 0.2%, Macerozyme Onozuka 0.2% and Cellulase Onozuka R10 0.2%. Hypocotyls gave the highest yields of protoplasts, followed by cotyledons and calli. Protoplasts were cultivated in liquid and on solid media using both L4M (Burrus et al., 1991 and V-KM (Bokelman and Roest, 1983 media. Culture on solid M1 medium (L4M medium supplemented with NAA 3.0 mg•dm- 3, 2,4-D 0.1 mg•dm-3 and BA 1.0 mg•dm -3 gave a good planting efficiency with the development of many white-green colonies. These colonies gave rise to small calli which were transferred to MSmod medium (MS medium supplemented with KCI 5 g•dm-', and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, 4 g• dm-3 containing benziladenine (BA, 0.5 mg•dm-3, naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA, 0.5 mg•dm-3 and giberelic acid (GA3 0.1 mg•dm-3. After two weeks, calli were transferred to MSmod medium containing BA 1.0 mg•dm-3, NAA 0.1 mg•dm-3, and GA3 0.1 mg•dm-3 for shoot formation. Shoots were excised and induced to root in MSmod supplemented with BA 0.1 mg•dm-3, NAA 1.0 mg•dm-3, and GA3 0.1 mg•dm-3. Plantlets were then transferred to sterilised vermiculite for greenhouse acclimation.

  1. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  2. Proton interrogation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Energetic proton beams may provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because: they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and proton beams can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections for delayed neutrons and gamma-rays using the 800 MeV proton beam from the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Results will be presented.

  3. Cooperative Electrocatalytic O 2 Reduction Involving Co(salophen) with p- Hydroquinone as an Electron–Proton Transfer Mediator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anson, Colin W. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin−Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States; Stahl, Shannon S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin−Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States

    2017-12-01

    The molecular cobalt complex, Co(salophen), and para-hydroquinone (H2Q) serve as effective cocatalysts for the electrochemical reduction of O2 to water. Mechanistic studies reveal redox cooperativity between Co(salophen) and H2Q. H2Q serves as an electron-proton transfer mediator (EPTM) that enables electrochemical O2 reduction at higher potentials and with faster rates than is observed with Co(salophen) alone. Replacement of H2Q with the higher potential EPTM, 2-chloro-H2Q, allows for faster O2 reduction rates at higher applied potential. These results demonstrate a unique strategy to achieve improved performance with molecular electrocatalyst systems.

  4. Characterization of loxoprofen transport in Caco-2 cells: the involvement of a proton-dependent transport system in the intestinal transport of loxoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumi, Katsuya; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kondo, Ayuko; Furugen, Ayako; Yamada, Takehiro; Takahashi, Natsuko; Iseki, Ken

    2016-11-01

    Loxoprofen, a propionate non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is used widely in East Asian countries. However, little is known about the transport mechanisms contributing to its intestinal absorption. The objectives of this study were to characterize the intestinal transport of loxoprofen using the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model. The transport of loxoprofen was investigated in cellular uptake studies. The uptake of loxoprofen into Caco-2 cells was pH- and concentration-dependent, and was described by a Michaelis-Menten equation with passive diffusion (Km : 4.8 mm, Vmax : 142 nmol/mg protein/30 s, and Kd : 2.2 μl/mg protein/30 s). Moreover, the uptake of loxoprofen was inhibited by a typical monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibitor as well as by various monocarboxylates. The uptake of [(14) C] l-lactic acid, a typical MCT substrate, in Caco-2 cells was saturable with relatively high affinity for MCT. Because loxoprofen inhibited the uptake of [(14) C] l-lactic acid in a noncompetitive manner, it was unlikely that loxoprofen uptake was mediated by high-affinity MCT(s). Our results suggest that transport of loxoprofen in Caco-2 cells is, at least in part, mediated by a proton-dependent transport system. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Role of K^+ and Cl^- in Osmotic Adjustment in Roots and Hypocotyls of Intact Mung Bean Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Kimio, Itoh; Teruaki, Yamada; Hideo, Ishikawa; Eiji, Ohta; Makoto, Sakata; Department of Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University; Department of Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University; Department of Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Health Sciences, Kyorin University; Department of Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University; Department of Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University

    1986-01-01

    It was confirmed that osmotic adjustment occurred in young intact mung bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) seedlings exposed to high osmotic pressure stress. Root growth was not affected by osmotic pressure of less than 200 mOsm in the external solution, although hypocotyl growth was conspicuously reduced. Under this moderate osmotic stress, intracellular K+ concentration, [K^+]_i, increased dramatically during the osmotic adjustment in all the regions of the root, but the intracellular Cl^- conce...

  6. Over-expression of mango (Mangifera indica L.) MiARF2 inhibits root and hypocotyl growth of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Jian-Yong; Chen, Qi-Zhu; Huang, Xia; Chen, Yun-Feng; Huang, Xue-Lin

    2011-06-01

    An auxin response factor 2 gene, MiARF2, was cloned in our previous study [1] from the cotyledon section of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zihua) during adventitious root formation, which shares an 84% amino acid sequence similarity to Arabidopsis ARF2. This study was to examine the effects of over-expression of the full-length MiARF2 open reading frame on the root and hypocotyl growth in Arabidopsis. Phenotype analysis showed that the T(3) transgenic lines had about 20-30% reduction in the length of hypocotyls and roots of the seedlings in comparison with the wild-type. The transcription levels of ANT and ARGOS genes which play a role in controlling organ size and cell proliferation in the transgenic seedlings also decreased. Therefore, the inhibited root and hypocotyl growth in the transgenic seedlings may be associated with the down-regulated transcription of ANT and ARGOS by the over-expression of MiARF2. This study also suggests that although MiARF2 only has a single DNA-binding domain (DBD), it can function as other ARF-like proteins containing complete DBD, middle region (MR) and carboxy-terminal dimerization domain (CTD).

  7. HYPOTrace: Image Analysis Software for Measuring Hypocotyl Growth and Shape Demonstrated on Arabidopsis Seedlings Undergoing Photomorphogenesis1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liya; Uilecan, Ioan Vlad; Assadi, Amir H.; Kozmik, Christine A.; Spalding, Edgar P.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of time series of images can quantify plant growth and development, including the effects of genetic mutations (phenotypes) that give information about gene function. Here is demonstrated a software application named HYPOTrace that automatically extracts growth and shape information from electronic gray-scale images of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings. Key to the method is the iterative application of adaptive local principal components analysis to extract a set of ordered midline points (medial axis) from images of the seedling hypocotyl. Pixel intensity is weighted to avoid the medial axis being diverted by the cotyledons in areas where the two come in contact. An intensity feature useful for terminating the midline at the hypocotyl apex was isolated in each image by subtracting the baseline with a robust local regression algorithm. Applying the algorithm to time series of images of Arabidopsis seedlings responding to light resulted in automatic quantification of hypocotyl growth rate, apical hook opening, and phototropic bending with high spatiotemporal resolution. These functions are demonstrated here on wild-type, cryptochrome1, and phototropin1 seedlings for the purpose of showing that HYPOTrace generated expected results and to show how much richer the machine-vision description is compared to methods more typical in plant biology. HYPOTrace is expected to benefit seedling development research, particularly in the photomorphogenesis field, by replacing many tedious, error-prone manual measurements with a precise, largely automated computational tool. PMID:19211697

  8. In Vitro Shoot Bud Differentiation from Hypocotyl Explants of Chili Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is an economically important spice crop in tropical and subtropical countries. In vitro plant regeneration was obtained from 15th day old hypocotyl explants of three chili pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L., var. �X-235�, var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. Among the genotypes of Capsicum L. var. �X-235� responded better than the var. �PC-1� and var. �Pusa Jwala�. MS medium containing BAP (4.0 mg/l and IAA (0.5 mg/l was found to be the best medium for the production of maximum number of shoot buds in all the genotypes of chili pepper i.e., 6.80�0.16 (var. �X-235�, 5.00�0.19 (var. �PC-1� and 4.80�0.12 (var. �Pusa Jwala�. The shoots were rooted on MS medium fortified with IBA (0.5 mg/l. Rooted plants were hardened and transplanted to the soil. The plants showed 80-90% survival during transplantation.

  9. Phytochrome-induced synthesis of ribonuclease de novo in lupin hypocotyl sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, G. John; Schopfer, Peter

    1974-01-01

    1. Density-labelling with 99 atoms% of 2H2O distinguished pre-existing from newly synthesized ribonuclease molecules in sections of developing hypocotyl tissue. 2. Activity profiles of enzyme extracted from the fraction pelletable at 100000g showed heterogeneity after isopycnic centrifugation in CsCl gradients. 3. Measurement of density shifts of the entire heterogeneous band shows that ribonuclease protein is synthesized de novo in both continuous far-red light and darkness. 4. A twofold increase in enzyme activity after irradiation was accompanied by band-broadening and a significantly faster rate of labelling than in darkness. 5. The conclusion is drawn from the experimental evidence and theoretical arguments presented that phytochrome regulates the synthesis of new enzyme molecules against a background of continuous (dark-rate) synthesis and degradation. 6. Further information has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50033 (3 pages) at the British Library Lending Division (formerly the National Lending Library for Science and Technology), Boston Spa, Yorks. LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1973), 131, 5. PMID:4464836

  10. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 or HAIKU2 mixepression alters canola and Arabidopsis seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu-Guo; Sun, Qing-Bin; Kang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Chang-Bin; Ni, Min

    2016-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is a widely cultivated species and provides important resources of edible vegetable oil, biodiesel production and animal feed. Seed development in Arabidopsis and canola shares a similar path: an early proliferation of endosperm to form a large seed cavity, followed by a second phase in which the embryo grows to replace the endosperm. In Arabidopsis, the seed reaches almost its final volume before the enlargement of the embryo. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) is a key regulatory gene of seed development with a broad expression beyond endosperm development. By contrast, its two target genes, MINISEED3 (MINI3) and HAIKU2 (IKU2), are narrowly expressed in early developing endosperm and early embryo. We overexpressed SHB1 in canola to explore the possibility of altering seed development. As an alternative strategy, we expressed the canola IKU2 ortholog in Arabidopsis endosperm under the control of a stronger MINI3 promoter. SHB1 targeted canola orthologs of Arabidopsis MINI3 and IKU2 and caused a significantly increased seed mass. Overaccumulation of IKU2 in the early stage of Arabidopsis seed development also significantly increased the final seed mass. Our studies provide a strong case for increasing the final seed mass by manipulating endosperm proliferation at a rather early developmental stage in crops. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. The proton-coupled amino acid transporter hPAT1 is the main transporter involved in vigabatrin uptake in intestinal Caco-2 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Brodin, Birger

    2012-01-01

    transporter hPAT1. The aim of the project was to identify if transporters are involved in cellular uptake of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells. Methods: The uptake rate of vigabatrin was measured in Caco-2 cells at pH 6.0 or 7.4 for 15 min after application of 0.1 – 25.0 mM vigabatrin. The inhibitory effect...... of selected amino acids and -derivatives on the apical vigabatrin uptake in Caco-2 cells was investigated. Vigabatrin samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to a mass selective detector (MSD). Results: The uptake rate of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells was pH-dependent. The uptake...... of vigabatrin was saturable at pH 6.0 with a Michaelis constant, Km of 12.7 ± 3.7 mM and a maximal flux, Jmax of 3.7 ± 0.5 nmol•min-1•cm-2. The presences of hPAT1 ligands significantly inhibited the uptake of vigabatrin in Caco-2 cells at pH 6.0, whereas hPAT1 non-ligands did not. Discussion: The saturability...

  12. Principles and practice of proton beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Indra J

    2015-01-01

    Commissioned by The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for their June 2015 Summer School, this is the first AAPM monograph printed in full color. Proton therapy has been used in radiation therapy for over 70 years, but within the last decade its use in clinics has grown exponentially. This book fills in the proton therapy gap by focusing on the physics of proton therapy, including beam production, proton interactions, biology, dosimetry, treatment planning, quality assurance, commissioning, motion management, and uncertainties. Chapters are written by the world's leading medical physicists who work at the pioneering proton treatment centers around the globe. They share their understandings after years of experience treating thousands of patients. Case studies involving specific cancer treatments show that there is some art to proton therapy as well as state-of-the-art science. Even though the focus lies on proton therapy, the content provided is also valuable to heavy charged particle th...

  13. Constitutive Expression of Arabidopsis SMALL AUXIN UP RNA19 (SAUR19) in Tomato Confers Auxin-Independent Hypocotyl Elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartz, Angela K; Lor, Vai S; Ren, Hong; Olszewski, Neil E; Miller, Nathan D; Wu, Guosheng; Spalding, Edgar P; Gray, William M

    2017-02-01

    The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or auxin) mediates the elongation growth of shoot tissues by promoting cell expansion. According to the acid growth theory proposed in the 1970s, auxin activates plasma membrane H+-ATPases (PM H+-ATPases) to facilitate cell expansion by both loosening the cell wall through acidification and promoting solute uptake. Mechanistically, however, this process is poorly understood. Recent findings in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have demonstrated that auxin-induced SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) genes promote elongation growth and play a key role in PM H+-ATPase activation by inhibiting PP2C.D family protein phosphatases. Here, we extend these findings by demonstrating that SAUR proteins also inhibit tomato PP2C.D family phosphatases and that AtSAUR19 overexpression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) confers the same suite of phenotypes as previously reported for Arabidopsis. Furthermore, we employ a custom image-based method for measuring hypocotyl segment elongation with high resolution and a method for measuring cell wall mechanical properties, to add mechanistic details to the emerging description of auxin-mediated cell expansion. We find that constitutive expression of GFP-AtSAUR19 bypasses the normal requirement of auxin for elongation growth by increasing the mechanical extensibility of excised hypocotyl segments. In contrast, hypocotyl segments overexpressing a PP2C.D phosphatase are specifically impaired in auxin-mediated elongation. The time courses of auxin-induced SAUR expression and auxin-dependent elongation growth were closely correlated. These findings indicate that induction of SAUR expression is sufficient to elicit auxin-mediated expansion growth by activating PM H+-ATPases to facilitate apoplast acidification and mechanical wall loosening. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Transformation of plastids in soil-shaded lowermost hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) during a 60-day cultivation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Solymosi, Katalin; Böddi, Béla

    2017-04-01

    The maintenance but substantial transformation of plastids was found in lowermost hypocotyl segments of soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Magnum) during a 60-day cultivation period. Although the plants were grown under natural light-dark cycles, this hypocotyl segment was under full coverage of the soil in 5-7 cm depth, thus it was never exposed to light. The 4-day-old plants were fully etiolated: amyloplasts, occasionally prolamellar bodies, protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) and protochlorophyll (Pchl) were found in the hypocotyls of these young seedlings. The 633 and 654 nm bands in the 77 K fluorescence emission spectra indicated the presence of Pchlide and Pchl pigments. During aging, both the Pchlide and Pchl contents increased, however, the Pchl to Pchlide ratio gradually increased. In parallel, the contribution of the 654 nm form decreased and in the spectra of the 60-day-old samples, the main band shifted to 631 nm, and a new form appeared with an emission maximum at 641 nm. The photoactivity had been lost; bleaching took place at continuous illumination. The inner membranes of the plastids disappeared, the amount of starch storing amyloplasts decreased. These data may indicate the general importance of plastids for plant cell metabolism, which can be the reason for their maintenance. Also the general heterogeneity of plastid forms can be concluded: in tissues not exposed to light, Pchl accumulating plastids develop and are maintained even for a long period. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Cloning of eggplant hypocotyl cDNAs encoding cytochromes P450 belonging to a novel family (CYP77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toguri, T; Tokugawa, K

    1994-02-07

    From eggplant hypocotyl tissues we have cloned two closely related cDNAs encoding cytochromes P450 (P450s) by PCR amplification using a primer designed based on the highly conserved sequence among the known eggplant P450s. One cDNA lacks the NH2-terminal short sequence that is present in the other, full-length cDNA. The two predicted protein sequences are 71% identical with each other and show less than 30% identity with any other known P450s. It is concluded that these P450s, which are termed CYP77A1 and -A2, belong to a hitherto unknown P450 family.

  16. Proton scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This note presents analytic estimates of the performance of proton beams in remote surveillance for nuclear materials. The analysis partitions the analysis into the eight steps used by a companion note: (1) Air scattering, (2) Neutron production in the ship and cargo, (3) Target detection probability, (4) Signal produced by target, (5) Attenuation of signal by ship and cargo, (6) Attenuation of signal by air, (7) Geometric dilution, and (8) Detector Efficiency. The above analyses indicate that the dominant air scattering and loss mechanisms for particle remote sensing are calculable with reliable and accepted tools. They make it clear that the conversion of proton beams into neutron sources rapidly goes to completion in all but thinnest targets, which means that proton interrogation is for all purposes executed by neutrons. Diffusion models and limiting approximations to them are simple and credible - apart from uncertainty over the cross sections to be used in them - and uncertainty over the structure of the vessels investigated. Multiplication is essentially unknown, in part because it depends on the details of the target and its shielding, which are unlikely to be known in advance. Attenuation of neutron fluxes on the way out are more complicated due to geometry, the spectrum of fission neutrons, and the details of their slowing down during egress. The attenuation by air is large but less uncertain. Detectors and technology are better known. The overall convolution of these effects lead to large but arguably tolerable levels of attenuation of input beams and output signals. That is particularly the case for small, mobile sensors, which can more than compensate for size with proximity to operate reliably while remaining below flux limits. Overall, the estimates used here appear to be of adequate accuracy for decisions. That assessment is strengthened by their agreement with companion calculations.

  17. Study of nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and intermediate- and high-energy protons and an application in nuclear reactor physics (ADS); Estudo das reacoes nucleares envolvendo nucleos pesados e protons a energias intermediarias e altas de uma aplicacao em fisica de reatores nucleares (ADS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuoka, Paula Fernanda Toledo

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, intermediate- and high-energy nuclear reactions involving heavy nuclei and protons were studied with the Monte Carlo CRISP (Rio - Ilheus - Sao Paulo Collaboration) model. The most relevant nuclear processes studied were intranuclear cascade and fission-evaporation competition. Preliminary studies showed fair agreement between CRISP model calculation and experimental data of multiplicity of evaporated neutrons (E < 20 MeV) from the p(1200 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction and of spallation residues from the p(1000 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction. The investigation of neutron multiplicity from proton-induced fission of {sup 232}Th up to 85 MeV showed that it was being overestimated by CRISP model; on the other hand, fission cross section were being underestimated. This behavior is due to limitations of the intranuclear cascade model for low-energies (around 50 MeV). The p(1200 MeV) + {sup 208}Pb reaction was selected for the study of a spallation neutron source. High-energy neutrons (E > 20 MeV) were emitted mostly in the intranuclear cascade stage, while evaporation presented larger neutron multiplicity. Fission cross section of 209 mb and spallation cross section of 1788 mb were calculated both in agreement with experimental data. The fission process resulted in a symmetric mass distribution. Another Monte Carlo code, MCNP, was used for radiation transport in order to understand the role of a spallation neutron source in a ADS (Accelerator Driven System) nuclear reactor. Initially, a PWR reactor was simulated to study the isotopic compositions in spent nuclear fuel. As a rst attempt, a spallation neutron source was adapted to an industrial size nuclear reactor. The results showed no evidence of incineration of transuranic elements and modifications were suggested. (author)

  18. Morphoregulatory role of thidiazuron : substitution of auxin and cytokinin requirement for the induction of somatic embryogenesis in geranium hypocotyl cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, C; Qureshi, J A; Gill, R; Saxena, P K

    1992-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis was induced in hypocotyl explants of geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) cultured on media supplemented with various concentrations of N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron). In less than 2 weeks, somatic embryos were observed in treatments containing levels of thidiazuron (TDZ) ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 micromolar. The use of N(6)-benzylaminopurine in combination with indole-3-acetic acid also evoked embryogenesis, but the efficiency of somatic embryo production was significantly lower than that obtained with TDZ. Hypocotyl culture for only 2 days on TDZ-supplemented medium before transfer to a basal medium was sufficient for inducing somatic embryogenesis. This distinction between the induction and expression of embryogenesis may provide an experimental system for studying the developmental biology of somatic embryogenesis. Substitution of the auxin-cytokinin requirement for the induction of somatic embryogenesis by TDZ suggests the possibility of a novel mode of its action by modulation of endogenous growth regulators.

  19. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric...... and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were...... localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that the H(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely...

  20. ATLAS proton-proton event containing two high energy photons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event where two energetic photons ("gammas") are produced in a proton-proton collision in ATLAS. Many events of this type are produced by well-understood Standard Model processes ("backgrounds") which do not involve Higgs particles. A small excess of events of this type with similar masses could indicate evidence for Higgs particle production, but any specific event is most likely to be from the background. The photons are indicated, in the different projections and views, by the clusters of energy shown in yellow.

  1. Proton movies

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A humorous short film made by three secondary school students received an award at a Geneva film festival. Even without millions of dollars or Hollywood stars at your disposal, it is still possible to make a good science fiction film about CERN. That is what three students from the Collège Madame de Staël in Carouge, near Geneva, demonstrated. For their amateur short film on the LHC, they were commended by the jury of the video and multimedia festival for schools organised by the "Media in education" service of the Canton of Geneva’s Public Education Department. The film is a spoof of a television news report on the LHC start-up. In sequences full of humour and imagination, the reporter conducts interviews with a very serious "Professor Sairne", some protons preparing for their voyage and even the neutrons that were rejected by the LHC. "We got the idea of making a film about CERN at the end of the summer," explains Lucinda Päsche, one of the three students. "We did o...

  2. Proton-antiproton collider physics

    CERN Document Server

    Altarelli, Guido

    1989-01-01

    This volume reviews the physics studied at the CERN proton-antiproton collider during its first phase of operation, from the first physics run in 1981 to the last one at the end of 1985. The volume consists of a series of review articles written by physicists who are actively involved with the collider research program. The first article describes the proton-antiproton collider facility itself, including the antiproton source and its principle of operation based on stochastic cooling. The subsequent six articles deal with the various physics subjects studied at the collider. Each article descr

  3. Transient gibberellin application promotes Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl cell elongation without maintaining transverse orientation of microtubules on the outer tangential wall of epidermal cells

    KAUST Repository

    Sauret-Güeto, Susanna

    2011-11-25

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) promotes plant growth by stimulating cellular expansion. Whilst it is known that GA acts by opposing the growth-repressing effects of DELLA proteins, it is not known how these events promote cellular expansion. Here we present a time-lapse analysis of the effects of a single pulse of GA on the growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Our analyses permit kinetic resolution of the transient growth effects of GA on expanding cells. We show that pulsed application of GA to the relatively slowly growing cells of the unexpanded light-grown Arabidopsis hypocotyl results in a transient burst of anisotropic cellular growth. This burst, and the subsequent restoration of initial cellular elongation rates, occurred respectively following the degradation and subsequent reappearance of a GFP-tagged DELLA (GFP-RGA). In addition, we used a GFP-tagged α-tubulin 6 (GFP-TUA6) to visualise the behaviour of microtubules (MTs) on the outer tangential wall (OTW) of epidermal cells. In contrast to some current hypotheses concerning the effect of GA on MTs, we show that the GA-induced boost of hypocotyl cell elongation rate is not dependent upon the maintenance of transverse orientation of the OTW MTs. This confirms that transverse alignment of outer face MTs is not necessary to maintain rapid elongation rates of light-grown hypocotyls. Together with future studies on MT dynamics in other faces of epidermal cells and in cells deeper within the hypocotyl, our observations advance understanding of the mechanisms by which GA promotes plant cell and organ growth. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Transport of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls Using Stable Isotope Labeling1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Barkawi, Lana; Gardner, Gary; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2012-01-01

    The polar transport of the natural auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls using radioactive tracers. Because radioactive assays alone cannot distinguish IBA from its metabolites, the detected transport from applied [3H]IBA may have resulted from the transport of IBA metabolites, including IAA. To test this hypothesis, we used a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the transport of IBA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by following the movement of [13C1]IBA and the [13C1]IAA derived from [13C1]IBA. We also assayed [13C6]IAA transport in a parallel control experiment. We found that the amount of transported [13C1]IBA was dramatically lower than [13C6]IAA, and the IBA transport was not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Significant amounts of the applied [13C1]IBA were converted to [13C1]IAA during transport, but [13C1]IBA transport was independent of IBA-to-IAA conversion. We also found that most of the [13C1]IBA was converted to ester-linked [13C1]IBA at the apical end of hypocotyls, and ester-linked [13C1]IBA was also found in the basal end at a level higher than free [13C1]IBA. In contrast, most of the [13C6]IAA was converted to amide-linked [13C6]IAA at the apical end of hypocotyls, but very little conjugated [13C6]IAA was found in the basal end. Our results demonstrate that the polar transport of IBA is much lower than IAA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the transport mechanism is distinct from IAA transport. These experiments also establish a method for quantifying the movement of small molecules in plants using stable isotope labeling. PMID:22323783

  5. Proton-air and proton-proton cross sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Ralf

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different attempts to measure hadronic cross sections with cosmic ray data are reviewed. The major results are compared to each other and the differences in the corresponding analyses are discussed. Besides some important differences, it is crucial to see that all analyses are based on the same fundamental relation of longitudinal air shower development to the observed fluctuation of experimental observables. Furthermore, the relation of the measured proton-air to the more fundamental proton-proton cross section is discussed. The current global picture combines hadronic proton-proton cross section data from accelerator and cosmic ray measurements and indicates a good consistency with predictions of models up to the highest energies.

  6. Mechanism of [m+h]+ formation in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry: identification of propionitrile in acetonitrile with high mass accuracy measurement and tandem mass spectrometry and evidence for its involvement in the protonation phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Amin; Jeanville, Patrick; Colizza, Kevin; J-Rivera, Lauren Elizabeth

    2008-11-01

    The role of propionitrile in the production of [M+H]+ under atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) was investigated. In dopant-assisted APPI using acetone and anisole, protonated acetone and anisole radical cations were the most prominent ions observed. In dopant-free or direct APPI in acetonitrile, however, a major ion in acetonitrile was detected and identified as propionitrile, using high accuracy mass measurement and collision induced dissociation studies. Vaporizing ca. 10(-5) M althiazide and bendroflumethazide under direct APPI in acetonitrile produced their corresponding protonated species [M+H]+. In addition to protonated acetonitrile, its dimers, and acetonitrile/water clusters, protonated propionitrile, propionitrile dimer, and propionitrile/water clusters were also observed. The role of propionitrile, an impurity in acetonitrile and/or a possible product of ion-molecule reaction, in the production of [M+H]+ of althiazide and bendroflumethazide was further investigated in the absence of dopant using propionitrile-d5. The formation of [M+D]+ species was observed, suggesting a possible role of propionitrile in the protonation process. Additionally, an increase in the [M+H]+ signal of althiazide and bendroflumethazide was observed as a function of propionitrile concentration in acetonitrile. Theoretical data from the literature supported the assumption that one possible mechanism, among others, for the formation of [M+H]+ could be attributed to photo-initiated isomerization of propionitrile. The most stable isomers of propionitrile, based on their calculated ionization energy (IE) and relative energy (DeltaE), were assumed to undergo proton transfer to the analytes, and mechanisms were proposed.

  7. A transposable element insertion in the susceptibility gene CsaMLO8 results in hypocotyl resistance to powdery mildew in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jeroen A; Appiano, Michela; Santillán Martínez, Miguel; Hermans, Freddy W K; Vriezen, Wim H; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Schouten, Henk J

    2015-10-09

    Powdery mildew (PM) is an important disease of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). CsaMLO8 was previously identified as a candidate susceptibility gene for PM in cucumber, for two reasons: 1) This gene clusters phylogenetically in clade V, which has previously been shown to harbour all known MLO-like susceptibility genes for PM identified in dicot species; 2) This gene co-localizes with a QTL on chromosome 5 for hypocotyl-specific resistance to PM. CsaMLO8 alleles from susceptible and resistant cucumber were cloned and transformed to mlo-mutant tomato. Cucumber seedlings were inoculated with Podosphaera xanthii, tissues were studied for CsaMLO8 expression at several timepoints post inoculation using qRT-PCR. The occurrence of the observed loss-of-function allele of CsaMLO8 in resequenced cucumber accessions was studied in silico. We cloned CsaMLO8 alleles from susceptible and resistant cucumber genotypes, the latter carrying the QTL for hypocotyl resistance. We found that insertion of a non-autonomous Class LTR retrotransposable element in the resistant genotype leads to aberrant splicing of CsaMLO8 mRNA. Heterologous expression of the wild-type allele of CsaMLO8 in a tomato mlo-mutant restored PM susceptibility. However, heterologous expression of the CsaMLO8 allele cloned from the resistant cucumber genotype failed to restore PM susceptibility. Furthermore we showed that inoculation of susceptible cucumber with the PM pathogen Podosphaera xanthii induced transcriptional upregulation of CsaMLO8 in hypocotyl tissue, but not in cotyledon or leaf tissue. This coincides with the observation that the QTL at the CsaMLO8-locus causes full resistance in hypocotyl tissue, but only partial resistance in cotyledons and true leafs. We studied the occurrence of the loss-of-function allele of CsaMLO8 in cucumber germplasm by an in silico approach using resequencing data of a collection of 115 cucumber accessions, and found that this allele was present in 31 out of 115 accessions

  8. Kinetics of proton transfer in a green fluorescent protein: A laser ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    protonation kinetics showed dependence on the bulk viscosity of the solvent, and therefore implicates bulk solvent-controlled protein dynamics in the protonation process. The protonation is proposed to be a sequential process involving two steps: (a) proton transfer from solvent to the chromophore, and (b) internal structural.

  9. Proton pump inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  10. The ESI CAD fragmentations of protonated 2,4,6-tris(benzylamino)- and tris(benzyloxy)-1,3,5-triazines involve benzyl-benzyl interactions: a DFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, M; Raju, B; George, M; Srinivas, K; Jayathirtha Rao, V; Bhanuprakash, K; Srinivas, R

    2012-07-01

    The electrospray ionization collisionally activated dissociation (CAD) mass spectra of protonated 2,4,6-tris(benzylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (1) and 2,4,6-tris(benzyloxy)-1,3,5-triazine (6) show abundant product ion of m/z 181 (C(14) H(13)(+)). The likely structure for C(14) H(13)(+) is α-[2-methylphenyl]benzyl cation, indicating that one of the benzyl groups must migrate to another prior to dissociation of the protonated molecule. The collision energy is high for the 'N' analog (1) but low for the 'O' analog (6) indicating that the fragmentation processes of 1 requires high energy. The other major fragmentations are [M + H-toluene](+) and [M + H-benzene](+) for compounds 1 and 6, respectively. The protonated 2,4,6-tris(4-methylbenzylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (4) exhibits competitive eliminations of p-xylene and 3,6-dimethylenecyclohexa-1,4-diene. Moreover, protonated 2,4,6-tris(1-phenylethylamino)-1,3,5-triazine (5) dissociates via three successive losses of styrene. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that an ion/neutral complex (INC) between benzyl cation and the rest of the molecule is unstable, but the protonated molecules of 1 and 6 rearrange to an intermediate by the migration of a benzyl group to the ring 'N'. Subsequent shift of a second benzyl group generates an INC for the protonated molecule of 1 and its product ions can be explained from this intermediate. The shift of a second benzyl group to the ring carbon of the first benzyl group followed by an H-shift from ring carbon to 'O' generates the key intermediate for the formation of the ion of m/z 181 from the protonated molecule of 6. The proposed mechanisms are supported by high resolution mass spectrometry data, deuterium-labeling and CAD experiments combined with DFT calculations. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. High frequency organogenesis in hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, D K

    2015-04-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important, nutritionally rich vegetable crop, but severely affected by environmental stresses, pests and diseases which cause massive yield and quality losses. Genetic manipulation is becoming an important method for broccoli improvement. In the present study, a reproducible and highly efficient protocol for obtaining organogenesis from hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole explants of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. Solan green head) has been developed. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were used from 10 to 12 days old aseptically grown seedlings whereas leaf and petiole explants were excised from 18 to 20 days old green house grown seedlings and surface sterilized. These explants were cultured on shoot induction medium containing different concentration and combination of BAP and NAA. High efficiency shoot regeneration has been achieved in hypocotyl (83.33 %), cotyledon (90.11 %), leaf (62.96 %) and petiole (91.10 %) explants on MS medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA 2.5 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA, 4.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l NAA and 4.5 mg/l BAP + 0.019 mg/l NAA respectively. Petiole explants showed maximum shoot regeneration response as compared to other explants. MS medium supplemented with 0.10 mg/l NAA was found best for root regeneration (100 %) from in vitro developed shoots. The regenerated complete plantlets were transferred to the pots containing cocopeat and successfully acclimatized. This optimized regeneration protocol can be efficiently used for genetic transformation in broccoli. This is the first comparative report on multiple shoot induction using four different types of explants viz. hypocotyl, cotyledon, leaf and petiole.

  12. Aqueous extract of yellow maca (Lepidium meyenii) improves sperm count in experimental animals but response depends on hypocotyl size, pH and routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salazar, L; Gonzales, G F

    2017-11-21

    Lepidium meyenii, a Peruvian plant growing over 4000 m.a.s.l., has effects on nutrition and fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm count in 105 male mice receiving boiled aqueous extract of yellow maca hypocotyls from different sizes, under different pH conditions and using two different routes of administration. Five mice per group were treated daily for 3 days with vehicle (oral and intraperitoneal) or maca aqueous extracts (5 mg/0.5 ml/day) belonging to the first, second, third and fourth categories, according to their hypocotyl size. On day four, sperm count was evaluated at testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Sperm count was higher in mice receiving maca from the larger sizes (first and second categories). Reduction in maca extract pH increased sperm count, whereas an increase in the pH resulted in a reduction in sperm count. The effect of pH reduction is observed only in maca from the first and second categories. Aqueous extract of maca was effective only after oral administration. In conclusion, the larger size of hypocotyls presented the best biological effect, and the low pH in the extract and the transformation after gastrointestinal passage are both important for its biological action. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  14. SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 associates with MINISEED3 and HAIKU2 promoters in vivo to regulate Arabidopsis seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Kang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiangyu; Zhang, Xiansheng; Ni, Min

    2009-01-01

    Seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana undergoes an initial phase of endosperm proliferation followed by a second phase in which the embryo grows at the expense of the endosperm. As mature seed size is largely attained during the initial phase, seed size is coordinately determined by the growth of the maternal ovule, endosperm, and embryo. Here, we identify SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) as a positive regulator of Arabidopsis seed development that affects both cell size and cell number. shb1-D, a gain-of-function overexpression allele, increases seed size, and shb1, a loss-of-function allele, reduces seed size. SHB1 is transmitted zygotically. The increase in shb1-D seed size is associated with endosperm cellurization, chalazal endosperm enlargement, and embryo development. SHB1 is required for the proper expression of two other genes that affect endosperm development, MINISEED3 (MINI3) and HAIKU2 (IKU2), a WRKY transcription factor gene and a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase gene. SHB1 associates with both MINI3 and IKU2 promoters in vivo. SHB1 may act with other proteins that bind to MINI3 and IKU2 promoters to promote a large seed cavity and endosperm growth in the early phase of seed development. In the second phase, SHB1 enhances embryo cell proliferation and expansion through a yet unknown IKU2-independent pathway.

  15. Clathrin-Mediated Auxin Efflux and Maxima Regulate Hypocotyl Hook Formation and Light-Stimulated Hook Opening in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qinqin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Juan; Yan, Xu; Wang, Chao; Xu, Jian; Pan, Jianwei

    2016-01-04

    The establishment of auxin maxima by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3)- and AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (LAX) 3 (AUX1/LAX3)-mediated auxin transport is essential for hook formation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Until now, however, the underlying regulatory mechanism has remained poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of function of clathrin light chain CLC2 and CLC3 genes enhanced auxin maxima and thereby hook curvature, alleviated the inhibitory effect of auxin overproduction on auxin maxima and hook curvature, and delayed blue light-stimulated auxin maxima reduction and hook opening. Moreover, pharmacological experiments revealed that auxin maxima formation and hook curvature in clc2 clc3 were sensitive to auxin efflux inhibitors 1-naphthylphthalamic acid and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid but not to the auxin influx inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid. Live-cell imaging analysis further uncovered that loss of CLC2 and CLC3 function impaired PIN3 endocytosis and promoted its lateralization in the cortical cells but did not affect AUX1 localization. Taken together, these results suggest that clathrin regulates auxin maxima and thereby hook formation through modulating PIN3 localization and auxin efflux, providing a novel mechanism that integrates developmental signals and environmental cues to regulate plant skotomorphogenesis and photomorphogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential regulation of cellulose orientation at the inner and outer face of epidermal cells in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Elizabeth Faris; Timpano, Hélène; Desprez, Thierry; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne-Mie; Höfte, Herman; Vernhettes, Samantha

    2011-07-01

    It is generally believed that cell elongation is regulated by cortical microtubules, which guide the movement of cellulose synthase complexes as they secrete cellulose microfibrils into the periplasmic space. Transversely oriented microtubules are predicted to direct the deposition of a parallel array of microfibrils, thus generating a mechanically anisotropic cell wall that will favor elongation and prevent radial swelling. Thus far, support for this model has been most convincingly demonstrated in filamentous algae. We found that in etiolated Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls, microtubules and cellulose synthase trajectories are transversely oriented on the outer surface of the epidermis for only a short period during growth and that anisotropic growth continues after this transverse organization is lost. Our data support previous findings that the outer epidermal wall is polylamellate in structure, with little or no anisotropy. By contrast, we observed perfectly transverse microtubules and microfibrils at the inner face of the epidermis during all stages of cell expansion. Experimental perturbation of cortical microtubule organization preferentially at the inner face led to increased radial swelling. Our study highlights the previously underestimated complexity of cortical microtubule organization in the shoot epidermis and underscores a role for the inner tissues in the regulation of growth anisotropy.

  17. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  18. Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Scandale, Walter

    2014-01-01

    In the last five decades, proton–proton and proton–antiproton colliders have been the most powerful tools for high energy physics investigations. They have also deeply catalyzed innovation in accelerator physics and technology. Among the large number of proposed colliders, only four have really succeeded in becoming operational: the ISR, the SppbarS, the Tevatron and the LHC. Another hadron collider, RHIC, originally conceived for ion–ion collisions, has also been operated part-time with polarized protons. Although a vast literature documenting them is available, this paper is intended to provide a quick synthesis of their main features and key performance.

  19. Protons in Jupiter's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodisch, K. M.; Bagenal, F.; Dougherty, L.

    2016-12-01

    The solar wind, the icy moons and Jupiter's ionosphere are all potential sources of protons found in the Jovian magnetosphere. In an attempt to quantify the relative importance of these different sources we explore the spatial distribution of density and temperature of the protons in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Through re-analysis of Voyager 1 and 2 Plasma Science (PLS) data obtained between 4 and 40 RJ we produce temperature and density profiles of protons in those regions. By combining profiles of protons and heavy ions (under the assumption of anisotropic Maxwellian distributions) we extrapolate the ion densities along the magnetic field to create global maps of proton density and temperature. Using these models of plasma distributions in the Jovian magnetosphere we predict the proton conditions likely encountered by the Juno spacecraft along its trajectory.

  20. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gil

    2017-09-01

    In 2010 the proton charge radius was extracted for the first time from muonic hydrogen, a bound state of a muon and a proton. The value obtained was five standard deviations away from the regular hydrogen extraction. Taken at face value, this might be an indication of a new force in nature coupling to muons, but not to electrons. It also forces to reexamine our understanding of the structure of the proton. In this talk I will describe an ongoing theoretical research effort that seeks to address and resolve this ''proton radius puzzle''. In particular, I will present a reevaluation of the proton structure effects, correcting 40 years of such calculations, and the development of new effective field theoretical tools that would allow to directly connect muonic hydrogen and muon-proton scattering.

  1. Mechanism of blue-light-induced plasma-membrane depolarization in etiolated cucumber hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, E. P.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    A large, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane precedes the rapid blue-light (BL)-induced growth suppression in etiolated seedlings of Cucumis sativus L. The mechanism of this voltage transient was investigated by applying inhibitors of ion channels and the plasma-membrane H(+)-ATPase, by manipulating extracellular ion concentrations, and by measuring cell input resistance and ATP levels. The depolarizing phase was not affected by Ca(2+)-channel blockers (verapamil, La3+) or by reducing extracellular free Ca2+ by treatment with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). However, these treatments did reduce the rate of repolarization, indicating an inward movement of Ca2+ is involved. No effects of the K(+)-channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA+) were detected. Vanadate and KCN, used to inhibit the H(+)-ATPase, reduced or completely inhibited the BL-induced depolarization. Levels of ATP increased by 11-26% after 1-2 min of BL. Input resistance of trichrome cells, measured with double-barreled microelectrodes, remained constant during the onset of the depolarization but decreased as the membrane voltage became more positive than -90 mV. The results indicate that the depolarization mechanism initially involves inactivation of the H(+)-ATPase with subsequent transient activation of one or more types of ion channels.

  2. Polarized proton beams since the ZGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krisch, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses research involving polarized proton beams since the ZGS`s demise. He begins by reminding the attendee that in 1973 the ZGS accelerated the world`s first high energy polarized proton beam; all in attendance at this meeting can be proud of this accomplishment. A few ZGS polarized proton beam experiments were done in the early 1970`s; then from about 1976 until 1 October 1979, the majority of the ZGS running time was polarized running. A great deal of fundamental physics was done with the polarized beam when the ZGS ran as a dedicated polarized proton beam from about Fall 1977 until it shut down on 1 October 1979. The newly created polarization enthusiats then dispersed; some spread polarized seeds al over the world by polarizing beams elsewhere; some wound up running the High Energy and SSC programs at DOE.

  3. Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH Negatively Regulates Expression of the Ambient Temperature-Responsive MicroRNA Gene MIR169

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phanu T. Serivichyaswat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis microRNA169 (miR169 is an ambient temperature-responsive microRNA that plays an important role in stress responses and the floral transition. However, the transcription factors that regulate the expression of MIR169 have remained unknown. In this study, we show that Elongated Hypocotyl 5-Homolog (HYH directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively regulates its expression. Absolute quantification identified MIR169a as the major locus producing miR169. GUS reporter assays revealed that the deletion of a 498-bp fragment (–1,505 to –1,007, relative to the major transcriptional start site of MIR169a abolished its ambient temperature-responsive expression. DNA-affinity chromatography followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified transcription factor HYH as a trans-acting factor that binds to the 498-bp promoter fragment of pri-miR169a. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation–quantitative PCR demonstrated that the HYH.2 protein, a predominant isoform of HYH, directly associated with a G-box-like motif in the 498-bp fragment of pri-miR169a. Higher enrichment of HYH.2 protein on the promoter region of MIR169a was seen at 23°C, consistent with the presence of more HYH.2 protein in the cell at the temperature. Transcript levels of pri-miR169a increased in hyh mutants and decreased in transgenic plants overexpressing HYH. Consistent with the negative regulation of MIR169a by HYH, the diurnal levels of HYH mRNA and pri-miR169a showed opposite patterns. Taken together, our results suggest that HYH is a transcription factor that binds to a G-box-like motif in the MIR169a promoter and negatively regulates ambient temperature-responsive expression of MIR169a at higher temperatures in Arabidopsis.

  4. Proton-driven amide bond-cleavage pathways of gas-phase peptide ions lacking mobile protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythell, Benjamin J; Suhai, Sándor; Somogyi, Arpád; Paizs, Béla

    2009-10-07

    The mobile proton model (Dongre, A. R., Jones, J. L., Somogyi, A. and Wysocki, V. H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118 , 8365-8374) of peptide fragmentation states that the ionizing protons play a critical role in the gas-phase fragmentation of protonated peptides upon collision-induced dissociation (CID). The model distinguishes two classes of peptide ions, those with or without easily mobilizable protons. For the former class mild excitation leads to proton transfer reactions which populate amide nitrogen protonation sites. This enables facile amide bond cleavage and thus the formation of b and y sequence ions. In contrast, the latter class of peptide ions contains strongly basic functionalities which sequester the ionizing protons, thereby often hindering formation of sequence ions. Here we describe the proton-driven amide bond cleavages necessary to produce b and y ions from peptide ions lacking easily mobilizable protons. We show that this important class of peptide ions fragments by different means from those with easily mobilizable protons. We present three new amide bond cleavage mechanisms which involve salt-bridge, anhydride, and imine enol intermediates, respectively. All three new mechanisms are less energetically demanding than the classical oxazolone b(n)-y(m) pathway. These mechanisms offer an explanation for the formation of b and y ions from peptide ions with sequestered ionizing protons which are routinely fragmented in large-scale proteomics experiments.

  5. Giving Protons a Boost

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The first of LHC's superconducting radio-frequency cavity modules has passed its final test at full power in the test area of building SM18. These modules carry an oscillating electric field that will accelerate protons around the LHC ring and help maintain the stability of the proton beams.

  6. Hypocotyl shape in radishes - a useful impact criterion for biological indication of ozone?; Hypokotyl-Form bei Radieschen - ein sinnvolles Wirkungskriterium fuer die Bioindikation von Ozon?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka-Rick, R.

    1992-12-31

    A consistent correlation between certain `source` leaves and specific `sink` regions in the root of Beta vulgaris L. justifies to study the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on the shape of the hypocotyl in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and the potential use of shape variants as effect criteria. A 7-day period of exposure to O{sub 3} ranging within realistic immission levels caused a nonsignificant reduction of hypocotyl fresh weight in radish. Two out three of the shape indices under study were also changed by ozone exposure - sometimes significantly. A discriminance function derived from several shape indices with or without fresh weight allowed a significant separation between the two O{sub 3}-treatment variants. Treatment with the anti-oxidant ethylene diurea (EDU) had no essential effect on hypocotyl shape. The author discusses the use of shape variants for ozone bio-indication. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine konsistente Beziehung zwischen bestimmten `source`-Blaettern und spezifischen `sink`-Regionen in der Wurzel von Beta vulgaris L. rechtfertigt die Ueberpruefung des Einflusses von Ozon (O{sub 3}) auf die Form des Hypokotyls bei Radies (Raphanus sativus L.) und der potentiellen Nutzung von Formvariablen als Wirkungskriterium. Eine 7taegige O{sub 3}-Belastung im Bereich realistischer Immissionskonzentrationen verursachte eine nicht-signifikante Minderung des Hypokotyl-Frischgewichtes von Radies. Zwei von drei der untersuchten Formindizes wurden durch die Ozon-Belastung ebenfalls, z.T. signifikant, veraendert. Eine Diskriminanzfunktion aus mehreren Formindizes, mit oder ohne Einbeziehung des Frischgewichtes, gestattete eine signifikante Trennung zwischen den beiden O{sub 3}-Behandlungsvarianten. Eine Behandlung mit dem Anti-oxidants Ethylendiurea (EDU) hatte keinen wesentlichen Einfluss auf die Hypokotylform. Die Moeglichkeiten des Einsatzes von Formvariablen in der Bioindikation von Ozon werden diskutiert. (orig.)

  7. Light piping driven photosynthesis in the soil: Low-light adapted active photosynthetic apparatus in the under-soil hypocotyl segments of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuszi, Andrea; Sárvári, Éva; Solti, Ádám; Czégény, Gyula; Hideg, Éva; Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva; Bóka, Károly; Böddi, Béla

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic activity was identified in the under-soil hypocotyl part of 14-day-old soil-grown bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Magnum) cultivated in pots under natural light-dark cycles. Electron microscopic, proteomic and fluorescence kinetic and imaging methods were used to study the photosynthetic apparatus and its activity. Under-soil shoots at 0-2cm soil depth featured chloroplasts with low grana and starch grains and with pigment-protein compositions similar to those of the above-soil green shoot parts. However, the relative amounts of photosystem II (PSII) supercomplexes were higher; in addition a PIP-type aquaporin protein was identified in the under-soil thylakoids. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction measurements showed that the above- and under-soil hypocotyl segments had similar photochemical yields at low (10-55μmolphotonsm(-2)s(-1)) light intensities. However, at higher photon flux densities the electron transport rate decreased in the under-soil shoot parts due to inactivation of the PSII reaction centers. These properties show the development of a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus driven by light piping of the above-soil shoot. The results of this paper demonstrate that the classic model assigning source and sink functions to above- and under-soil tissues is to be refined, and a low-light adapted photosynthetic apparatus in under-soil bean hypocotyls is capable of contributing to its own carbon supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Proton-Proton Physics with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the ALICE experiment at LHC is to study strongly interacting matter at high energy densities as well as the signatures and properties of the quark-gluon plasma. This goal manifests itself in a rich physics program. Although ALICE will mainly study heavy-ion collisions, a dedicated program will concentrate on proton-proton physics. The first part will introduce the ALICE experiment from a pp measurement's point of view. Two unique properties are its low pT cut-off and the excellent PID capabilities. The various topics of the proton-proton physics program, which will allow a close scrutiny of existing theoretical models, will be described. Furthermore, the interpretation of measurements of heavy-ion collisions necessitates the comparison to measurements of pp collisions. The second part will concentrate on the day-1 physics program of ALICE. At startup, neither the LHC luminosity nor its energy will have their nominal values. Furthermore, the ALICE detector is in the process of being aligned and cal...

  9. Unraveling the mechanism of a reversible photoactivated molecular proton crane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loop, Tibert H; Ruesink, Freek; Amirjalayer, Saeed; Sanders, Hans J; Buma, Wybren J; Woutersen, S

    2014-11-13

    We study the structural dynamics of the photoactivated molecular proton crane 7-hydroxy-8-(morpholinomethyl)quinoline using femtosecond UV-pump IR-probe spectroscopy. Upon electronic excitation, a proton is transferred from the hydroxy to the amine group located on the rotatable morpholino side group. This morpholino group subsequently delivers the proton to the aromatic quinoline nitrogen by rotation around the C-C bond. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy allows us to study this process in unprecedented detail. We find that the transport of the proton involves multiple time scales. Upon photoexcitation, the OH proton is transferred within <300 fs to the morpholino side group. After this, the intramolecular hydrogen bond that locks the crane arm breaks with a time constant of 36 ± 1 ps. Subsequently, the protonated crane arm rotates with a time constant of 334 ± 12 ps to deliver the proton at the quinoline moiety. After the proton crane has returned to its electronic ground state with a time constant 700 ± 22 ps, the proton is transferred back from the quinoline nitrogen to the negatively charged O atom. The time constant of the back rotation is 39.8 ± 0.2 ns, about 200 times slower than the forward proton transfer.

  10. Evaluation of cell wall preparations for proteomics: a new procedure for purifying cell walls from Arabidopsis hypocotyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canut Hervé

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultimate goal of proteomic analysis of a cell compartment should be the exhaustive identification of resident proteins; excluding proteins from other cell compartments. Reaching such a goal closely depends on the reliability of the isolation procedure for the cell compartment of interest. Plant cell walls possess specific difficulties: (i the lack of a surrounding membrane may result in the loss of cell wall proteins (CWP during the isolation procedure, (ii polysaccharide networks of cellulose, hemicelluloses and pectins form potential traps for contaminants such as intracellular proteins. Several reported procedures to isolate cell walls for proteomic analyses led to the isolation of a high proportion (more than 50% of predicted intracellular proteins. Since isolated cell walls should hold secreted proteins, one can imagine alternative procedures to prepare cell walls containing a lower proportion of contaminant proteins. Results The rationales of several published procedures to isolate cell walls for proteomics were analyzed, with regard to the bioinformatic-predicted subcellular localization of the identified proteins. Critical steps were revealed: (i homogenization in low ionic strength acid buffer to retain CWP, (ii purification through increasing density cushions, (iii extensive washes with a low ionic strength acid buffer to retain CWP while removing as many cytosolic proteins as possible, and (iv absence of detergents. A new procedure was developed to prepare cell walls from etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. After salt extraction, a high proportion of proteins predicted to be secreted was released (73%, belonging to the same functional classes as proteins identified using previously described protocols. Finally, removal of intracellular proteins was obtained using detergents, but their amount represented less than 3% in mass of the total protein extract, based on protein quantification. Conclusion The

  11. [Polyphase character of the dependence of Brassica napus germ root and hypocotyl growth on zeatin and thidiazuron concentrations with view of applicability to biological life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, G I; Babosha, A V

    2010-01-01

    Physiologically active substances are considered as a potential component of plant cultivation technologies for biological life support systems. In spacelight, plant reactions to growth-regulating agents may be changed by the specific stress factors such as microgravity, radiation, and trace admixtures in cabin air. Complex character of the concentration dependence of PAS efficiency and consequent variability generate a need to optimize plant growth regulating technologies in order to stabilize the wanted effect. Pattern of the concentration dependence of zeatin and tidiazurone effects on roots and hypocotyls growth was analyzed in rape germs. 24-hour Brassica napus germs grown in the dark in thermostat at 24 degrees C were transferred to Petri dishes with solutions of cytokinins under study for continued incubation under the same conditions for the next 24 hours. Roots and hypocotyls were measured. Zeatin concentration curve for roots was multiphase and, in addition to the general trend towards greater inhibition with increase of phyto-hormone concentration and had clearly defined minimum and maximum. The dependence of root growth inhibition on tidiazurone concentration also was not monotonic and had a distinct similarity with the zeatin curve. Gradual increase of tidiazurone concentration used in combination with zeatin brought about a predictable gradual twist of the zeatin curve; however, in most of the instances no additive cytokinin effect was observed. A supposition can be made that PAS interaction with the phytohormone regulation system may be a factor in variability of activity of these substances.

  12. Increased risk of fundic gland polyps during long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalving, M.; Koornstra, J. J.; Wesseling, J.; Boezen, H. M.; De Jong, S.; Kleibeuker, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    Background It is controversial whether proton pump inhibitor use leads to fundic gland polyp development. Aim To determine whether fundic gland polyp development is due to proton pump inhibitor use and to investigate mechanisms involved. Methods Proton pump inhibitor use and the presence of fundic

  13. Lorentz contracted proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fierro, D. Bedoya; Kelkar, N.G.; Nowakowski, M. [Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1E No. 18A-10, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)

    2015-09-30

    The proton charge and magnetization density distributions can be related to the well known Sachs electromagnetic form factors G{sub E,M}(/emph {q}{sup 2}) through Fourier transforms, only in the Breit frame. The Breit frame however moves with relativistic velocities in the Lab and a Lorentz boost must be applied before extracting the static properties of the proton from the corresponding densities. Apart from this, the Fourier transform relating the densities and form factors is inherently a non-relativistic expression. We show that the relativistic corrections to it can be obtained by extending the standard Breit equation to higher orders in its 1/c{sup 2} expansion. We find that the inclusion of the above corrections reduces the size of the proton as determined from electron proton scattering data by about 4%.

  14. Inauguration of Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    On 5 February 1960, the Proton Synchrotron (PS) was formally inaugurated. The great Danish physicist, Niels Bohr, releases a bottle of champagne against a shielding block to launch the PS on its voyage in physics.

  15. Proton computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K.M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of protons or other heavy charged particles instead of x rays in computed tomography (CT) is explored. The results of an experimental implementation of proton CT are presented. High quality CT reconstructions are obtained at an average dose reduction factor compared with an EMI 5005 x-ray scanner of 10:1 for a 30-cm-diameter phantom and 3.5:1 for a 20-cm diameter. The spatial resolution is limited by multiple Coulomb scattering to about 3.7 mm FWHM. Further studies are planned in which proton and x-ray images of fresh human specimens will be compared. Design considerations indicate that a clinically useful proton CT scanner is eminently feasible.

  16. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  17. Jovian proton aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, M. G.; Edgar, B. C.; Green, A. E. S.

    1975-01-01

    Auroral and polar cap emissions in a model Jovian atmosphere are determined for proton precipitation. The incident protons, which are characterized by representative spectra, are degraded in energy by applying the continuous slowing down approximation. All secondary and higher generation electrons are assumed to be absorbed locally and their contributions to the total emissions are included. Volume emission rates are calculated from the total direct excitation rates with corrections for cascading applied. Results show that most molecular hydrogen and helium emissions for polar cap precipitation are below the ambient dayglow values. Charge capture by precipitating protons is an important source of Lyman alpha and Balmer alpha emissions and offers a key to the detection of large fluxes of low energy protons.

  18. Proton conduction in phosphatidylethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, N; Gonda, K; Kagami, I; Koga, S

    1977-08-01

    The dc conductivity of polycrystalline phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was measured in the temperature range 60-120 degrees C. Since no conclusive evidence had so far been obtained for the presence of proteon conduction in this phospholipid, hydrogen gas was shown in the present experiment to evolve during the electrolysis in its premelted state between 91 and 124 degrees C. In this temperature range molecules assume rotation around the molecular axes and proton conduction of the Grotthus type takes place possibly along two chains of intermolecular hydrogen bonds running in parallel. Zwitter-ions behave cooperatively as proton donors and acceptors in transferring proton from molecule and molecule via the hydrogen bond networks. This efficient push-pull way of proton transferring seems to account for the fact that no polarization was observed in the dc conduction experiments. The amount of devolved gas appears to be not exactly in accordance with Faraday's law and discussions are made on possible causes for this slight deviation.

  19. The Proton Radius Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downie E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle, the proposed solutions, and the new electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments planned and underway. We then introduce the MUSE experiment, which seeks to resolve the puzzle by simultaneously measuring elastic electron and muon scattering on the proton, in both charge states, thereby providing new information to the puzzle. MUSE addresses issues of two-photon effects, lepton universality and, possibly, new physics, while providing simultaneous form factor, and therefore radius, measurements with both muons and electrons.

  20. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  1. The physics of proton therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Newhauser, Wayne D; ZHANG, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes a...

  2. Photoinduced dynamics in protonated aromatic amino acid

    CERN Document Server

    Grégoire, Gilles; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    UV photoinduced fragmentation of protonated aromatics amino acids have emerged the last few years, coming from a situation where nothing was known to what we think a good understanding of the optical properties. We will mainly focus this review on the tryptophan case. Three groups have mostly done spectroscopic studies and one has mainly been involved in dynamics studies of the excited states in the femtosecond/picosecond range and also in the fragmentation kinetics from nanosecond to millisecond. All these data, along with high level ab initio calculations, have shed light on the role of the different electronic states of the protonated molecules upon the fragmentation mechanisms.

  3. Measuring the Proton Detection Asymmetry at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Abeele, Jeriek

    2015-01-01

    Violation of charge-parity (CP) symmetry gives rise to a fundamental matter-antimatter asymmetry. However, this underlying distinction appears obscured in experiments, in part due to differences in the hadronisation process of quarks and antiquarks from proton-proton collisions leading to a production asymmetry, and due to the detection asymmetry resulting from differences in the nuclear interactions with detector material. Quantifying these effects is necessary to disentangle them from the fundamental CP asymmetry, and accordingly correct the measured raw asymmetry. Another strategy involves cancelling out the detection and production effects by taking the difference of the raw asymmetries of two decay modes [3, 6].

  4. Proton pump inhibitor usage and the associated risk of pneumonia in patients with chronic kidney disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Hsiu-Li; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Chou, Jung-Min; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Fung, Chang-Phone

    2015-01-01

    .... Gastrointestinal symptoms frequently occur in patients with CKD, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have therapeutic indications for gastrointestinal disorders involving excessive acid production...

  5. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy: http://www.protonjournal.org/

  6. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch-Pedersen, M J; Pedersen, B P; Veierskov, B; Nissen, P; Palmgren, M G

    2009-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological proton pumps emerge. Most notably, the minimal pumping apparatus of all pumps consists of a central proton acceptor/donor, a positively charged residue to control pK(a) changes of the proton acceptor/donor, and bound water molecules to facilitate rapid proton transport along proton wires.

  7. Proton relativistic model; Modelo relativistico do proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de

    1995-12-31

    In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author) 42 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The physics of proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-21

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  9. The physics of proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne D.; Zhang, Rui

    2015-04-01

    The physics of proton therapy has advanced considerably since it was proposed in 1946. Today analytical equations and numerical simulation methods are available to predict and characterize many aspects of proton therapy. This article reviews the basic aspects of the physics of proton therapy, including proton interaction mechanisms, proton transport calculations, the determination of dose from therapeutic and stray radiations, and shielding design. The article discusses underlying processes as well as selected practical experimental and theoretical methods. We conclude by briefly speculating on possible future areas of research of relevance to the physics of proton therapy.

  10. Protons and how they are transported by proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Nissen, Poul

    2008-01-01

    The very high mobility of protons in aqueous solutions demands special features of membrane proton transporters to sustain efficient yet regulated proton transport across biological membranes. By the use of the chemical energy of ATP, plasma-membrane-embedded ATPases extrude protons from cells...... of plants and fungi to generate electrochemical proton gradients. The recently published crystal structure of a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase contributes to our knowledge about the mechanism of these essential enzymes. Taking the biochemical and structural data together, we are now able to describe the basic...... molecular components that allow the plasma membrane proton H(+)-ATPase to carry out proton transport against large membrane potentials. When divergent proton pumps such as the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, bacteriorhodopsin, and F(O)F(1) ATP synthase are compared, unifying mechanistic premises for biological...

  11. Stereochemistry-Dependent Proton Conduction in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Tiwari, Omshanker; Gaikwad, Pramod; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2016-01-12

    Graphene oxide (GO) is impermeable to H2 and O2 fuels while permitting H(+) shuttling, making it a potential candidate for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), albeit with a large anisotropy in their proton transport having a dominant in plane (σIP) contribution over the through plane (σTP). If GO-based membranes are ever to succeed in PEMFC, it inevitably should have a dominant through-plane proton shuttling capability (σTP), as it is the direction in which proton gets transported in a real fuel-cell configuration. Here we show that anisotropy in proton conduction in GO-based fuel cell membranes can be brought down by selectively tuning the geometric arrangement of functional groups around the dopant molecules. The results show that cis isomer causes a selective amplification of through-plane proton transport, σTP, pointing to a very strong geometry angle in ionic conduction. Intercalation of cis isomer causes significant expansion of GO (001) planes involved in σTP transport due to their mutual H-bonding interaction and efficient bridging of individual GO planes, bringing down the activation energy required for σTP, suggesting the dominance of a Grotthuss-type mechanism. This isomer-governed amplification of through-plane proton shuttling resulted in the overall boosting of fuel-cell performance, and it underlines that geometrical factors should be given prime consideration while selecting dopant molecules for bringing down the anisotropy in proton conduction and enhancing the fuel-cell performance in GO-based PEMFC.

  12. Proton translocation in cytochrome c oxidase: insights from proton exchange kinetics and vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Izumi; Hikita, Masahide; Egawa, Tsuyoshi; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Rousseau, Denis L

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is the terminal enzyme in the electron transfer chain. It reduces oxygen to water and harnesses the released energy to translocate protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mechanism by which the oxygen chemistry is coupled to proton translocation is not yet resolved owing to the difficulty of monitoring dynamic proton transfer events. Here we summarize several postulated mechanisms for proton translocation, which have been supported by a variety of vibrational spectroscopic studies. We recently proposed a proton translocation model involving proton accessibility to the regions near the propionate groups of the heme a and heme a3 redox centers of the enzyme based by hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange Raman scattering studies (Egawa et al., PLoS ONE 2013). To advance our understanding of this model and to refine the proton accessibility to the hemes, the H/D exchange dependence of the heme propionate group vibrational modes on temperature and pH was measured. The H/D exchange detected at the propionate groups of heme a3 takes place within a few seconds under all conditions. In contrast, that detected at the heme a propionates occurs in the oxidized but not the reduced enzyme and the H/D exchange is pH-dependent with a pKa of ~8.0 (faster at high pH). Analysis of the thermodynamic parameters revealed that, as the pH is varied, entropy/enthalpy compensation held the free energy of activation in a narrow range. The redox dependence of the possible proton pathways to the heme groups is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vibrational spectroscopies and bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Proton tunneling in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, J.

    1998-10-01

    The tunneling rate of the proton and its isotopes between interstitial sites in solids is studied theoretically. The phonons and/or the electrons in the solid have two effects on the tunneling phenomenon. First, they suppress the transfer integral between two neighbouring states. Second, they give rise to a finite lifetime of the proton state. Usually the second effect is large and the tunneling probability per unit time (tunneling rate) can be defined. In some cases, however, a coherent tunneling is expected and actually observed. (author)

  14. Proton Radiography (pRad)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose more than 300 dynamic experiments in support...

  15. Proton therapy in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation dose escalation and acceleration improves local control but also increases toxicity. Proton radiation is an emerging therapy for localized cancers that is being sought with increasing frequency by patients. Compared with photon therapy, proton therapy spares more critical structures due to its unique physics. The physical properties of a proton beam make it ideal for clinical applications. By modulating the Bragg peak of protons in energy and time, a conformal radiation dose with or without intensity modulation can be delivered to the target while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Thus, proton therapy is ideal when organ preservation is a priority. However, protons are more sensitive to organ motion and anatomy changes compared with photons. In this article, we review practical issues of proton therapy, describe its image-guided treatment planning and delivery, discuss clinical outcome for cancer patients, and suggest challenges and the future development of proton therapy. PMID:21527064

  16. Molecular mechanisms controlling proton pumping by bacteriorhodopsin. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouch, Rosalie K.; Ebrey, Thomas G.

    2000-02-10

    Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is the simplest biological system for the transduction of light energy. Light energy is directly converted to transmembrane proton gradient by a single, small membrane protein. The extraordinary stability of bR makes it an outstanding subject for bioenergetic studies. This project has focused on the role of interactions between key residues of the pigment involved in light-induced proton transfer. Methods to estimate the strength of these interactions and their correlation with the rate and efficiency of proton transfer have been developed. The concept of the coupling of the protonation states of key groups has been applied to individual steps of the proton transfer with the ultimate goal of understanding on the molecular level the driving forces for proton transport and the pathway of the transported proton in bT. The mechanism of light-induced proton release, uptake and the mechanism of recovery of initial state of bT has been examined. The experiments were performed with genetically engineered, site-specific mutants of bR. This has enabled us to characterize the role of individual amino acid residues in bR. Time resolved and low temperature absorption spectroscopy and light-induced photocurrent measurements were used in order to study the photochemical cycle and proton transfer in mutant pigments. Chemical modification and crosslinking of both the specific amino acids to the chromophore or to other amino acids were used to elucidate the role of light-induced conformational changes in the photocycle and the structure of the protein in the ground state. The results of this project provided new knowledge on the architecture of the proton transfer pathways inside the protein, on the mechanism of proton release in bR, and on the role of specific amino acid residues in the structure and function of bR.

  17. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Proton-pump inhibitors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) work by binding irreversibly to the. H+/K+-ATPase pump of the parietal cell, leading to inhibition of acid production in approximately 70% of active pumps.1The result is a dramatic increase in gastric pH mitigating the deleterious effects of acid in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and.

  19. Proton transfer events in GFP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Donato, M.; van Wilderen, L.J.; van Stokkum, I.H.M.; Stuart, T. C.; Kennis, J.T.M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; van Grondelle, R.; Groot, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Proton transfer is one of the most important elementary processes in biology. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) serves as an important model system to elucidate the mechanistic details of this reaction, because in GFP proton transfer can be induced by light absorption. Illumination initiates proton

  20. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamonti, C., E-mail: cinzia.talamonti@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Reggioli, V. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Menichelli, D. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  1. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Xia, Xinli [Beijing Forestry University, China; Yin, Weilun [Beijing Forestry University, China

    2013-01-01

    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant specieswas reported.We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240members are separated into three families, i.e., Na+/H+ exchangers, K+ efflux antiporters, and cation/H+ exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H+ exchangers in the examined angiospermspecies. Sliding windowanalysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and foundmostmotifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants.

  2. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  3. Antideuteron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Duperray, R. P.; K. V. Protasov; Voronin, A. Yu.(P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 53 Leninsky Prospekt, 117924 Moscow, Russia)

    2002-01-01

    The experimental data of the antideuteron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions are analyzed within a simple model based on the diagrammatic approach to the coalescence model. This model is shown to be able to reproduce most of existing data without any additional parameter.

  4. Proton-beam technique dates fine wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumé, Belle

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear physicists in France have invented a way to authenticate the vintage of rare wine without needing a sommelier's keen nose or even a corkscrew. The technique, which involves firing high-energy protons at wine bottles, can determine how old the bottles are and even where they come from. The new method could help unmask counterfeit wines - a growing problem in the fine-wine industry, where a bottle can sell for thousands of Euros.

  5. Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, S Jimena; Odella, Emmanuel; Moore, Gary F; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L

    2018-01-08

    Artificial photosynthetic constructs can in principle operate more efficiently than natural photosynthesis because they can be rationally designed to optimize solar energy conversion for meeting human demands rather than the multiple needs of an organism competing for growth and reproduction in a complex ecosystem. The artificial photosynthetic constructs described in this Account consist primarily of covalently linked synthetic chromophores, electron donors and acceptors, and proton donors and acceptors that carry out the light absorption, electron transfer, and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes characteristic of photosynthetic cells. PCET is the movement of an electron from one site to another accompanied by proton transfer. PCET and the transport of protons over tens of angstroms are important in all living cells because they are a fundamental link between redox processes and the establishment of transmembrane gradients of proton electrochemical potential, known as proton-motive force (PMF), which is the unifying concept in bioenergetics. We have chosen a benzimidazole phenol (BIP) system as a platform for the study of PCET because with appropriate substitutions it is possible to design assemblies in which one or multiple proton transfers can accompany oxidation of the phenol. In BIP, oxidation of the phenol increases its acidity by more than ten pKa units; thus, electrochemical oxidation of the phenol is associated with a proton transfer to the imidazole. This is an example of a PCET process involving transfer of one electron and one proton, known as electron-proton transfer (EPT). When the benzimidazole moiety of BIP is substituted at the 4-position with good proton acceptor groups such as aliphatic amines, experimental and theoretical results indicate that two proton transfers occur upon one-electron oxidation of the phenol. This phenomenon is described as a one-electron-two-proton transfer (E2PT) process and results in translocation of

  6. Direct view on nanoionic proton mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Wing K.; Haverkate, Lucas A.; Wagemaker, Marnix; Mulder, Fokko M. [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Department of Radiation, Radionuclides, and Reactors, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Borghols, Wouter J.H. [Juelich Center for Neutron Science at FRM II, Garching (DE). Inst. of Solid State Research (IFF); Picken, Stephen J. [Nano structured Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Van Eck, Ernst R.H.; Kentgens, Arno P.M. [Department of Physical Chemistry - Solid State NMR, IMM, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Johnson, Mark R. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble(France); Kearley, Gordon J. [Bragg Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB Menai, NSW (Australia)

    2011-04-22

    The field of nanoionics is of great importance for the development of superior materials for devices that rely on the transport of charged ions, like fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. Often nanostructuring leads to enhanced ionic mobilities due to the induced space-charge effects. Here these large space-charge effects occurring in composites of the proton-donating solid acid CsHSO{sub 4} and the proton-accepting TiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2} are studied. CsHSO{sub 4} is chosen for this study because it can operate effectively as a fuel-cell electrolyte at elevated temperature while its low-temperature conductivity is increased upon nano-structuring. The composites have a negative enthalpy of formation for defects involving the transfer of protons from the acid to the acceptor. Very high defect densities of up to 10% of the available sites are observed by neutron diffraction. The effect on the mobility of the protons is observed directly using quasielastic neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Surprisingly large fractions of up to 25% of the hydrogen ions show orders-of-magnitude enhanced mobility in the nanostructured composites of TiO{sub 2} or SiO{sub 2}, both in crystalline CsHSO{sub 4} and an amorphous fraction. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Proton therapy in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaney, Thomas F

    2011-01-01

    The clinical advantage for proton radiotherapy over photon approaches is the marked reduction in integral dose to the patient, due to the absence of exit dose beyond the proton Bragg peak. The integral dose with protons is approximately 60% lower than that with any external beam photon technique. Pediatric patients, because of their developing normal tissues and anticipated length of remaining life, are likely to have the maximum clinical gain with the use of protons. Proton therapy may also allow treatment of some adult tumors to much more effective doses, because of normal tissue sparing distal to the tumor. Currently, the most commonly available proton treatment technology uses 3D conformal approaches based on (a) distal range modulation, (b) passive scattering of the proton beam in its x- and y-axes, and (c) lateral beam-shaping. It is anticipated that magnetic pencil beam scanning will become the dominant mode of proton delivery in the future, which will lower neutron scatter associated with passively scattered beam lines, reduce the need for expensive beam-shaping devices, and allow intensity-modulated proton radiotherapy. Proton treatment plans are more sensitive to variations in tumor size and normal tissue changes over the course of treatment than photon plans, and it is expected that adaptive radiation therapy will be increasingly important for proton therapy as well. While impressive treatment results have been reported with protons, their cost is higher than for photon IMRT. Hence, protons should ideally be employed for anatomic sites and tumors not well treated with photons. While protons appear cost-effective for pediatric tumors, their cost-effectiveness for treatment of some adult tumors, such as prostate cancer, is uncertain. Comparative studies have been proposed or are in progress to more rigorously assess their value for a variety of sites. The utility of proton therapy will be enhanced by technological developments that reduce its cost

  8. Fast proton decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Walker, Joel W.

    2010-10-01

    We consider proton decay in the testable flipped SU(5)×U(1)X models with TeV-scale vector-like particles which can be realized in free fermionic string constructions and F-theory model building. We significantly improve upon the determination of light threshold effects from prior studies, and perform a fresh calculation of the second loop for the process p→eπ from the heavy gauge boson exchange. The cumulative result is comparatively fast proton decay, with a majority of the most plausible parameter space within reach of the future Hyper-Kamiokande and DUSEL experiments. Because the TeV-scale vector-like particles can be produced at the LHC, we predict a strong correlation between the most exciting particle physics experiments of the coming decade.

  9. The proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antognini, A.; Amaro, F. D.; Biraben, F.; Cardoso, J. M. R.; Covita, D. S.; Dax, A.; Dhawan, S.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Giesen, A.; Graf, T.; Hänsch, T. W.; Indelicato, P.; Julien, L.; Kao, C.-Y.; Knowles, P.; Kottmann, F.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Liu, Y.-W.; Lopes, J. A. M.; Ludhova, L.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mulhauser, F.; Nebel, T.; Nez, F.; Rabinowitz, P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Schaller, L. A.; Schuhmann, K.; Schwob, C.; Taqqu, D.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Pohl, R.

    2011-09-01

    By means of pulsed laser spectroscopy applied to muonic hydrogen (μ- p) we have measured the 2SF = 11/2 - 2PF = 23/2 transition frequency to be 49881.88(76) GHz [1]. By comparing this measurement with its theoretical prediction [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] based on bound-state QED we have determined a proton radius value of rp = 0.84184(67) fm. This new value differs by 5.0 standard deviations from the COD ATA value of 0.8768(69) fm [8], and 3 standard deviation from the e-p scattering results of 0.897(18) fm [9]. The observed discrepancy may arise from a computational mistake of the energy levels in μp or H, or a fundamental problem in bound-state QED, an unknown effect related to the proton or the muon, or an experimental error.

  10. Pion, Kaon, Proton and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive pion, kaon, proton, and antiproton production from proton-proton collisions is studied at a variety of proton energies. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are compared with experimental data. The Badhwar and Alper parameterizations are moderately satisfactory for charged pion production. The Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best, and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. However, no parameterization is able to fully account for all the data.

  11. Proton gradients and proton-dependent transport processes in the chloroplast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricarda eHöhner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Proton gradients are fundamental to chloroplast function. Across thylakoid membranes, the light induced proton gradient is essential for ATP synthesis. As a result of proton pumping into the thylakoid lumen, an alkaline stromal pH develops, which is required for full activation of pH-dependent Calvin Benson cycle enzymes. This implies that a pH gradient between the cytosol (pH 7 and the stroma (pH 8 is established upon illumination. To maintain this pH gradient chloroplasts actively extrude protons. More than 30 years ago it was already established that these proton fluxes are electrically counterbalanced by Mg2+, K+ or Cl- fluxes, but only recently the first transport systems that regulate the pH gradient were identified. Notably several (Na+,K+/H+ antiporter systems where identified, that play a role in pH gradient regulation, ion homeostasis, osmoregulation, or coupling of secondary active transport. The established pH gradients are important to drive uptake of essential ions and solutes, but not many transporters involved have been identified to date. In this mini review we summarize the current status in the field and the open questions that need to be addressed in order to understand how pH gradients are maintained, how this is interconnected with other transport processes and what this means for chloroplast function.

  12. Proton conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, G.W.; Pederson, L.R.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Cerate perovskites of the general formula AM{sub x}Ce{sub 1-x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where A = Sr or Ba and where M = Gd, Nd, Y, Yb or other rare earth dopant, are known to conduct a protonic current. Such materials may be useful as the electrolyte in a solid oxide fuel cell operating at intermediate temperatures, as an electrochemical hydrogen separation membrane, or as a hydrogen sensor. Conduction mechanisms in these materials were evaluated using dc cyclic voltammetry and mass spectrometry, allowing currents and activation energies for proton, electron, and oxygen ion contributions to the total current to be determined. For SrYb{sub 0.05}Ce{sub 0.95}O{sub 3-{delta}}, one of the best and most environmentally stable compositions, proton conduction followed two different mechanisms: a low temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 0.42{+-}0.04 eV, and a high temperature process, characterized by an activation energy of 1.38{+-}0.13 eV. It is believed that the low temperature process is dominated by grain boundary conduction while bulk conduction is responsible for the high temperature process. The activation energy for oxygen ion conduction (0.97{+-}0.10 eV) agrees well with other oxygen conductors, while that for electronic conduction, 0.90{+-}0.09 eV, is affected by a temperature-dependent electron carrier concentration. Evaluated by direct measurement of mass flux through a dense ceramic with an applied dc field, oxygen ions were determined to be the majority charge carrier except at the lowest temperatures, followed by electrons and then protons.

  13. Heavy quarks in proton

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)655637

    The measurement of prompt photon associated with a b jet in proton-proton interactions can provide us insight into the inner structure of proton. This is because precision of determination of parton distribution functions of b quark and gluon can be increased by such a measurement. The measurement of cross-section of prompt photon associated with a b jet (process $pp\\longrightarrow \\gamma + b + X$) at $\\sqrt{s}$= 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector is presented. Full 8 TeV dataset collected by ATLAS during the year 2012 was used in this analysis. Corresponding integrated luminosity is 20.3 $fb^{-1}$. Fiducial differential cross-section as a function of photon transverse momentum at particle level was extracted from data and compared with the prediction of leading order event generator Pythia 8. Cross-section extracted from data is normalised independently on the Monte Carlo prediction. Values of data distribution lie above Monte Carlo values. The difference can be explained by presence of higher order effects not ...

  14. [Why proton therapy? And how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariat, Juliette; Habrand, Jean Louis; Lesueur, Paul; Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Kammerer, Emmanuel; Lecomte, Delphine; Batalla, Alain; Balosso, Jacques; Tessonnier, Thomas

    2018-02-05

    Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost. It also addresses the technical and physical specificities of proton therapy and the clinical situations for which proton therapy may be relevant but requires evidence. Different proton therapy techniques are possible. These are explained in terms of their clinical potential by explaining the current terminology (such as cyclotrons, synchrotrons or synchrocyclotrons, using superconducting magnets, fixed line or arm rotary with passive diffusion delivery or active by scanning) in basic words. The requirements associated with proton therapy are increased due to the precision of the depth dose deposit. The learning curve of proton therapy requires that clinical indications be prioritized according to their associated uncertainties (such as range uncertainties and movement in lung tumors). Many clinical indications potentially fall under proton therapy ultimately. Clinical strategies are explained in a paralleled manuscript. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Proton Radiography Imager:Generates Synthetic Proton Radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-12

    ProRad is a computer program that is used to generate synthetic images of proton (or other charged particles) radiographs. The proton radiographs arc images that arc obtained by sending energetic protons (or electrons or positrons, for example) through 11 plasma where electric and/or magnetic fields alter the particles trajectory, Dnd the variations me imaged on RC film, image plate, or equivalent

  16. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  17. Measurement of small-angle antiproton-proton and proton-proton elastic scattering at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amos, N.; Block, M.M.; Bobbink, G.J.; Botje, M.A.J.; Favart, D.; Leroy, C.; Linde, F.; Lipnik, P.; Matheys, J-P.; Miller, D.

    1985-01-01

    Antiproton-proton and proton-proton small-angle elastic scattering was measured for centre-of-mass energies at the CERN Intersectung Storage Rings. In addition, proton-proton elastic scattering was measured at . Using the optical theorem, total cross sections are obtained with an accuracy of about

  18. Physics controversies in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelsman, Martijn; Schwarz, Marco; Dong, Lei

    2013-04-01

    The physical characteristics of proton beams are appealing for cancer therapy. The rapid increase in operational and planned proton therapy facilities may suggest that this technology is a "plug-and-play" valuable addition to the arsenal of the radiation oncologist and medical physicist. In reality, the technology is still evolving, so planning and delivery of proton therapy in patients face many practical challenges. This review article discusses the current status of proton therapy treatment planning and delivery techniques, indicates current limitations in dealing with range uncertainties, and proposes possible developments for proton therapy and supplementary technology to try to realize the actual potential of proton therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The photomorphogenic factors UV-B RECEPTOR 1, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5, and HY5 HOMOLOGUE are part of the UV-B signalling pathway in grapevine and mediate flavonol accumulation in response to the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola, Rodrigo; Herrera, Daniela; Mas, Abraham; Wong, Darren Chern Jan; Höll, Janine; Cavallini, Erika; Amato, Alessandra; Azuma, Akifumi; Ziegler, Tobias; Aquea, Felipe; Castellarin, Simone Diego; Bogs, Jochen; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Czemmel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a species well known for its adaptation to radiation. However, photomorphogenic factors related to UV-B responses have not been molecularly characterized. We cloned and studied the role of UV-B RECEPTOR (UVR1), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), and HY5 HOMOLOGUE (HYH) from V. vinifera. We performed gene functional characterizations, generated co-expression networks, and tested them in different environmental conditions. These genes complemented the Arabidopsis uvr8...

  20. DYNAMIQUE DES PROTÉINES PARIÉTALES AU COURS DE L'ÉLONGATION CELLULAIRE DANS DES HYPOCOTYLES ÉTIOLÉS D'ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA : APPROCHES PROTÉOMIQUE ET TRANSCRIPTOMIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    The cell wall of higher plants is a complex dynamic entity that performs a variety of functions during growth and development as well as in response to environmental stresses. Cell wall proteins play important roles in cell elongation. Etiolated hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana were chosen as elongating organs since they undergo rapid and polar elongation without cell division. Two developmental stages were compared through proteomic and transcriptomic surveys: active elongation (5- day-old...

  1. Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick M.; Kouba, Coy K.; Foster, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    The Proton Upset Monte Carlo Simulation (PROPSET) program calculates the frequency of on-orbit upsets in computer chips (for given orbits such as Low Earth Orbit, Lunar Orbit, and the like) from proton bombardment based on the results of heavy ion testing alone. The software simulates the bombardment of modern microelectronic components (computer chips) with high-energy (.200 MeV) protons. The nuclear interaction of the proton with the silicon of the chip is modeled and nuclear fragments from this interaction are tracked using Monte Carlo techniques to produce statistically accurate predictions.

  2. Proton emission from highly deformed nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, D S

    2002-01-01

    We give the description of proton emission involving transition between excited states of the even-even cores. The contribution of the rotational energy is properly taken into account. It is shown that the proton decay width is practically independent of the matching radius for a large interval of values. By using the universal parametrisation of the Woods-Saxon potential the agreement with the experimental data for the transitions between ground states is satisfactory. We show that the half-life to first excited state in sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 Eu is much more sensitive to the mean field parameters then the transition between ground states. The influence of the difference between the parent and daughter deformations is studied. (authors)

  3. Proton-transport mechanisms in cytochrome c oxidase revealed by studies of kinetic isotope effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Ann-Louise; Chakrabarty, Suman; Siöberg, Catrine Berthold; Högbom, Martin; Warshel, Arieh; Brzezinski, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CytcO) is a membrane-bound enzyme, which catalyzes the reduction of di-oxygen to water and uses a major part of the free energy released in this reaction to pump protons across the membrane. In the Rhodobacter sphaeroides aa3 CytcO all protons that are pumped across the membrane, as well as one half of the protons that are used for O2 reduction, are transferred through one specific intraprotein proton pathway, which holds a highly conserved Glu286 residue. Key questions that need to be addressed in order to understand the function of CytcO at a molecular level are related to the timing of proton transfers from Glu286 to a “pump site” and the catalytic site, respectively. Here, we have investigated the temperature dependencies of the H/D kinetic-isotope effects of intramolecular proton-transfer reactions in the wild-type CytcO as well as in two structural CytcO variants, one in which proton uptake from solution is delayed and one in which proton pumping is uncoupled from O2 reduction. These processes were studied for two specific reaction steps linked to transmembrane proton pumping, one that involves only proton transfer (peroxy–ferryl, P→F, transition) and one in which the same sequence of proton transfers is also linked to electron transfer to the catalytic site (ferryl–oxidized, F→O, transition). An analysis of these reactions in the framework of theory indicates that that the simpler, P→F reaction is rate-limited by proton transfer from Glu286 to the catalytic site. When the same proton-transfer events are also linked to electron transfer to the catalytic site (F→O), the proton-transfer reactions are gated by a protein structural change, which presumably ensures that the proton-pumping stoichiometry is maintained also in the presence of a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. PMID:21463601

  4. Protons Regulate Vesicular Glutamate Transporters through an Allosteric Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jacob; Chang, Roger; McGregor, Matt; Silm, Katlin; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Edwards, Robert H

    2016-05-18

    The quantal nature of synaptic transmission requires a mechanism to transport neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles without promoting non-vesicular efflux across the plasma membrane. Indeed, the vesicular transport of most classical transmitters involves a mechanism of H(+) exchange, which restricts flux to acidic membranes such as synaptic vesicles. However, vesicular transport of the principal excitatory transmitter glutamate depends primarily on membrane potential, which would drive non-vesicular efflux, and the role of protons is unclear. Adapting electrophysiology to record currents associated with the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs), we characterize a chloride conductance that is gated by lumenal protons and chloride and supports glutamate uptake. Rather than coupling stoichiometrically to glutamate flux, lumenal protons and chloride allosterically activate vesicular glutamate transport. Gating by protons serves to inhibit what would otherwise be substantial non-vesicular glutamate efflux at the plasma membrane, thereby restricting VGLUT activity to synaptic vesicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro propagation and genetic fidelity study of plant regenerated from inverted hypocotyl explants of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cv. Arka Shirish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma Mallaya, N; Ravishankar, G A

    2013-02-01

    Genetic variation due to somaclonal variation in micropropagated plants is a beneficial phenomenon for crop improvement. Genetic integrity of the plants derived through micropropagation becomes crucial if genetic transformation studies have to be carried out. Somaclonal variation in tissue culture is a common phenomenon which makes it mandatory to check for genetic stability of plants. Hypocotyl explants of Solanummelongena L. cv. Arka Shirish inoculated with inverted polarity in MS media supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) thidiazuron (TDZ) gave maximum number of shoot buds. Elongation of the shoot buds was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L(-1) 2, 3, 5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) and 0.1 mg L(-1) gibberellic acid (GA3). The elongated shoots were rooted in MS with 1 mg L(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and the rooted plants were hardened in the greenhouse. Morphological characteristics were similar in both seed-propagated and micropropagated plants. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis carried out with 10 primers for genetic stability studies of the regenerated plants generated 96 scorable bands with a total of 1,056 bands for the primers. Comparison of the bands with the mother plant revealed the monomorphic nature and true-to-type clones. The above regeneration protocol will be useful for micropropagation and genetic transformation studies of S.melongena L. cv. Arka Shirish.

  6. Vibrational spectroscopy on protons and deuterons in proton conducting perovskites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, M.; Poulsen, F.W.; Berg, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    A short review of IR-spectroscopy on protons in perovskite structure oxides is given. The nature of possible proton sites, libration and combination tones and degree of hydrogen bonding is emphasised. Three new spectroscopic experiments and/or interpretations are presented. An IR-microscopy exper...

  7. Effects of relativity in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinus, G.H.; Scholten, O.; Tjon, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the influence of negative-energy states in proton-proton bremsstrahlung in a fully relativistic framework using the T matrix of Fleischer and Tjon. The contribution from negative-energy states in the single-scattering diagrams is shown to be large, indicating that relativistic effects

  8. Proton-proton virtual bremsstrahlung in a relativistic covariant model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinus, GH; Scholten, O; Tjon, J

    1999-01-01

    Lepton-pair production (virtual bremsstrahlung) in proton-proton scattering is investigated using a relativistic covariant model. The effects of negative-energy slates and two-body currents are studied. These are shown to have large effects in some particular structure functions, even at the

  9. Electromagnetic off-shell effects in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kondratyuk, S.A.; Martinus, G.H.; Scholten, O.

    1998-01-01

    We study the influence of the off-shell structure of the nucleon electromagnetic vertex on proton-proton bermsstrahlung observables. Realistic choices for the off-shell behavior are found to have considerable influences on observables such as cross sections and analyzing powers. The rescattering

  10. [Proton imaging applications for proton therapy: state of the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amblard, R; Floquet, V; Angellier, G; Hannoun-Lévi, J M; Hérault, J

    2015-04-01

    Proton therapy allows a highly precise tumour volume irradiation with a low dose delivered to the healthy tissues. The steep dose gradients observed and the high treatment conformity require a precise knowledge of the proton range in matter and the target volume position relative to the beam. Thus, proton imaging allows an improvement of the treatment accuracy, and thereby, in treatment quality. Initially suggested in 1963, radiographic imaging with proton is still not used in clinical routine. The principal difficulty is the lack of spatial resolution, induced by the multiple Coulomb scattering of protons with nuclei. Moreover, its realization for all clinical locations requires relatively high energies that are previously not considered for clinical routine. Abandoned for some time in favor of X-ray technologies, research into new imaging methods using protons is back in the news because of the increase of proton radiation therapy centers in the world. This article exhibits a non-exhaustive state of the art in proton imaging. Copyright © 2015 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Parental involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Ezra S Simon

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted in Ghana to investigate, (1) factors that predict parental involvement, (2) the relationship between parental home and school involvement and the educational achievement of adolescents, (3) the relationship between parental authoritativeness and the educational achievement of adolescent students, (4) parental involvement serving as a mediator between their authoritativeness and the educational achievement of the students, and (5) whether parental involvement decreases...

  12. Slope analysis for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Okorokov, V. A.

    2008-01-01

    The diffraction slope parameter is investigated for elastic proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering based on the all available experimental data at intermediate square of momentum transfer in the main. Energy dependence of the elastic diffraction slope is approximated by various analytic functions in a model-independent fashion. The expanded standard logarithmic approximations allow to describe experimental slopes in all available energy range at qualitative level reasonably. Various f...

  13. Transverse spin effects in proton-proton scattering and $Q \\bar Q$ production

    OpenAIRE

    Goloskokov, S. V.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss transverse spin effects caused by the spin-flip part of the Pomeron coupling with the proton. The predicted spin asymmetries in proton-proton scattering and QQ production in proton-proton and lepton-proton reactions are not small and can be studied in future polarized experiments.

  14. Proton minibeam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie

    2016-03-08

    The risk of developing adverse side effects in the normal tissue after radiotherapy is often limiting for the dose that can be applied to the tumor. Proton minibeam radiotherapy, a spatially fractionated radiotherapy method using sub-millimeter proton beams, similar to grid therapy or microbeam radiation radiotherapy (MRT) using X-rays, has recently been invented at the ion microprobe SNAKE in Munich. The aim of this new concept is to minimize normal tissue injuries in the entrance channel and especially in the skin by irradiating only a small percentage of the cells in the total irradiation field, while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose in the tumor, just like in conventional broad beam radiotherapy. This can be achieved by optimizing minibeam sizes and distances according to the prevailing tumor size and depth such that after widening of the minibeams due to proton interactions in the tissue, the overlapping minibeams produce a homogeneous dose distribution throughout the tumor. The aim of this work was to elucidate the prospects of minibeam radiation therapy compared to conventional homogeneous broad beam radiotherapy in theory and in experimental studies at the ion microprobe SNAKE. Treatment plans for model tumors of different sizes and depths were created using the planning software LAPCERR, to elaborate suitable minibeam sizes and distances for the individual tumors. Radiotherapy-relevant inter-beam distances required to obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume were found to be in the millimeter range. First experiments using proton minibeams of only 10 μm and 50 μm size (termed microchannels in the corresponding publication Zlobinskaya et al. 2013) and therapy-conform larger dimensions of 100 μm and 180 μm were performed in the artificial human in-vitro skin model EpiDermFT trademark (MatTek). The corresponding inter-beam distances were 500 μm, 1mm and 1.8 mm, respectively, leading to irradiation of only a few percent of the cells

  15. Proton therapy - Present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Radhe; Grosshans, David

    2017-01-15

    In principle, proton therapy offers a substantial clinical advantage over conventional photon therapy. This is because of the unique depth-dose characteristics of protons, which can be exploited to achieve significant reductions in normal tissue doses proximal and distal to the target volume. These may, in turn, allow escalation of tumor doses and greater sparing of normal tissues, thus potentially improving local control and survival while at the same time reducing toxicity and improving quality of life. Protons, accelerated to therapeutic energies ranging from 70 to 250MeV, typically with a cyclotron or a synchrotron, are transported to the treatment room where they enter the treatment head mounted on a rotating gantry. The initial thin beams of protons are spread laterally and longitudinally and shaped appropriately to deliver treatments. Spreading and shaping can be achieved by electro-mechanical means to treat the patients with "passively-scattered proton therapy" (PSPT) or using magnetic scanning of thin "beamlets" of protons of a sequence of initial energies. The latter technique can be used to treat patients with optimized intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), the most powerful proton modality. Despite the high potential of proton therapy, the clinical evidence supporting the broad use of protons is mixed. It is generally acknowledged that proton therapy is safe, effective and recommended for many types of pediatric cancers, ocular melanomas, chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Although promising results have been and continue to be reported for many other types of cancers, they are based on small studies. Considering the high cost of establishing and operating proton therapy centers, questions have been raised about their cost effectiveness. General consensus is that there is a need to conduct randomized trials and/or collect outcomes data in multi-institutional registries to unequivocally demonstrate the advantage of protons. Treatment planning and plan

  16. Pathway of proton transfer in bacterial reaction centers: replacement of serine-L223 by alanine inhibits electron and proton transfers associated with reduction of quinone to dihydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, M L; McPherson, P H; Feher, G; Okamura, M Y

    1990-01-01

    The pathway of proton transfer in the reaction center (RC) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. Ser-L223, a putative proton donor that forms a hydrogen bond with the secondary quinone acceptor QB, was replaced with Ala and Thr. RCs with Ala-L223 displayed reduced electron transfer and proton uptake rates in the reaction QA-QB- + 2H+----QAQBH2. The rate constant for this reaction, k(2)AB, was found to be reduced approximately 350-fold to 4.0 +/- 0.2 s-1. Proton uptake measurements using a pH indicator dye showed a rapid uptake of 1 H+ per RC followed by a slower uptake of 1 H+ per RC at a rate of 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1; native RCs showed a rapid uptake of 2H+ per RC. Evidence is provided that these changes were not due to gross structural changes in the binding site of QB. RCs with Thr-L223 showed little reduction in the rates of electron and proton transfer. These results indicate that proton transfer from the hydroxyl group of Ser-L223 or Thr-L223 is required for fast electron and proton transfer associated with the formation of the dihydroquinone QH2. In contrast, previous work showed that replacing Glu-L212, another putative proton donor to QB, with Gln slowed proton uptake from solution without significantly altering electron transfer. We propose a model that involves two distinct proton transfer steps. The first step occurs prior to transfer of the second electron to QB and involves proton transfer from Ser-L223. The second step occurs after this electron transfer through a pathway involving Glu-L212. PMID:2168561

  17. Polarized proton collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanaka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Lehrach, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S.Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W.W. E-mail: mackay@bnl.govhttp://www.rhichome.bnl.gov/People/waldowaldo@bnl.gov; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.N

    2003-03-01

    In addition to heavy ion collisions (RHIC Design Manual, Brookhaven National Laboratory), RHIC will also collide intense beams of polarized protons (I. Alekseev, et al., Design Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1998, reaching transverse energies where the protons scatter as beams of polarized quarks and gluons. The study of high energy polarized protons beams has been a long term part of the program at BNL with the development of polarized beams in the Booster and AGS rings for fixed target experiments. We have extended this capability to the RHIC machine. In this paper we describe the design and methods for achieving collisions of both longitudinal and transverse polarized protons in RHIC at energies up to {radical}s=500 GeV.

  18. Polarized Proton Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Mei; Alekseev, Igor G; Alessi, James; Beebe-Wang, Joanne; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bravar, Alessandro; Brennan, Joseph M; Bruno, Donald; Bunce, Gerry; Butler, John J; Cameron, Peter; Connolly, Roger; De Long, Joseph; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Ganetis, George; Gardner, Chris J; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Ingrassia, Peter; Iriso, Ubaldo; Laster, Jonathan S; Lee, Roger C; Luccio, Alfredo U; Luo, Yun; MacKay, William W; Makdisi, Yousef; Marr, Gregory J; Marusic, Al; McIntyre, Gary; Michnoff, Robert; Montag, Christoph; Morris, John; Nicoletti, Tony; Oddo, Peter; Oerter, Brian; Osamu, Jinnouchi; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smith, Kevin T; Svirida, Dima; Tepikian, Steven; Tomas, Rogelio; Trbojevic, Dejan; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Vetter, Kurt; Wilinski, Michelle; Zaltsman, Alex; Zelenski, Anatoli; Zeno, Keith; Zhang, S Y

    2005-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider~(RHIC) provides not only collisions of ions but also collisions of polarized protons. In a circular accelerator, the polarization of polarized proton beam can be partially or fully lost when a spin depolarizing resonance is encountered. To preserve the beam polarization during acceleration, two full Siberian snakes were employed in RHIC to avoid depolarizing resonances. In 2003, polarized proton beams were accelerated to 100~GeV and collided in RHIC. Beams were brought into collisions with longitudinal polarization at the experiments STAR and PHENIX by using spin rotators. RHIC polarized proton run experience demonstrates that optimizing polarization transmission efficiency and improving luminosity performance are significant challenges. Currently, the luminosity lifetime in RHIC is limited by the beam-beam effect. The current state of RHIC polarized proton program, including its dedicated physics run in 2005 and efforts to optimize luminosity production in beam-beam limite...

  19. Collimator effects in proton planning

    CERN Document Server

    Matsinos, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    The present paper pertains to corrections which are due to the presence of beam-limiting and beam-shaping devices in a proton-treatment plan. Two types of corrections are considered: those which are due to the nonzero thickness of such devices (geometrical effects) and those relating to the scattering of beam particles off their material. The application of these two types of corrections is greatly facilitated by decomposing the physical effects (i.e., the contribution to the fluence) of two-dimensional objects (i.e., of the apertures of the devices) into one-dimensional, easily-calculable contributions. To minimise the time requirements in the derivation of the scattering corrections, a two-step process is introduced. The first step occurs at beam-configuration time and comprises the analysis of half-block fluence measurements; subsequently, a number of Monte-Carlo runs lead to the determination of the parameters of a convenient parameterisation of the relevant fluence contributions. The second step involves...

  20. UV-B-Responsive Association of the Arabidopsis bZIP Transcription Factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 with Target Genes, Including Its Own Promoter[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkert, Melanie; Kozma-Bognár, László; Terecskei, Kata; De Veylder, Lieven; Nagy, Ferenc; Ulm, Roman

    2014-01-01

    In plants subjected to UV-B radiation, responses are activated that minimize damage caused by UV-B. The bZIP transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) acts downstream of the UV-B photoreceptor UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) and promotes UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and acclimation. Expression of HY5 is induced by UV-B; however, the transcription factor(s) that regulate HY5 transcription in response to UV-B and the impact of UV-B on the association of HY5 with its target promoters are currently unclear. Here, we show that HY5 binding to the promoters of UV-B-responsive genes is enhanced by UV-B in a UVR8-dependent manner in Arabidopsis thaliana. In agreement, overexpression of REPRESSOR OF UV-B PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS2, a negative regulator of UVR8 function, blocks UV-B-responsive HY5 enrichment at target promoters. Moreover, we have identified a T/G-box in the HY5 promoter that is required for its UV-B responsiveness. We show that HY5 and its homolog HYH bind to the T/GHY5-box cis-acting element and that they act redundantly in the induction of HY5 expression upon UV-B exposure. Therefore, HY5 is enriched at target promoters in response to UV-B in a UVR8 photoreceptor-dependent manner, and HY5 and HYH interact directly with a T/G-box cis-acting element of the HY5 promoter, mediating the transcriptional activation of HY5 in response to UV-B. PMID:25351492

  1. The underlying event in proton-proton collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel, F.

    2009-05-15

    In this thesis, studies of the underlying event in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s) = 10 TeV are presented. Crucial ingredient to underlying event models are multiple parton-parton scatters in single proton-proton collisions. The feasibility of measuring the underlying event was investigated with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using charged particles and charged-particle jets. Systematic uncertainties of the underlying event measurement due to detector misalignment and imperfect track reconstruction are found to be negligible after {integral}Ldt=1 pb{sup -1} of data are available. Different model predictions are compared with each other using fully simulated Monte Carlo samples. It is found, that distinct models differ strongly enough to tell them apart with early data. (orig.)

  2. The proton-proton scattering without Coulomb force renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glöckle W.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate numerically that proton-proton (pp scattering observables can be determined directly by standard short range methods using a screened pp Coulomb force without renormalization. We numerically investigate solutions of the 3-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS equation for an exponentially screened Coulomb potential. For the limit of large screening radii we confirm analytically predicted properties for off-shell, half-shell and on-shell elements of the Coulomb t-matrix.

  3. Proton radiography to improve proton radiotherapy: Simulation study at different proton beam energies

    CERN Document Server

    Biegun, A K; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; van Beuzekom, M; Visser, J; Brandenburg, S

    2016-01-01

    To improve the quality of cancer treatment with protons, a translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images into a map of the proton stopping powers needs to be more accurate. Proton stopping powers determined from CT images have systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a patient of typically 3-4\\% and even up to 10\\% in region containing bone~\\cite{USchneider1995,USchneider1996,WSchneider2000,GCirrone2007,HPaganetti2012,TPlautz2014,GLandry2013,JSchuemann2014}. As a consequence, part of a tumor may receive no dose, or a very high dose can be delivered in healthy ti\\-ssues and organs at risks~(e.g. brain stem)~\\cite{ACKnopf2013}. A transmission radiograph of high-energy protons measuring proton stopping powers directly will allow to reduce these uncertainties, and thus improve the quality of treatment. The best way to obtain a sufficiently accurate radiograph is by tracking individual protons traversing the phantom (patient)~\\cite{GCirrone2007,TPlautz2014,VSipala2013}. In our simulations ...

  4. The controlled relay of multiple protons required at the active site of nitrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dance, Ian

    2012-07-07

    The enzyme nitrogenase, when reducing natural and unnatural substrates, requires large numbers of protons per chemical catalytic cycle. The active face of the catalytic site (the FeMo-cofactor, FeMo-co) is situated in a protein domain which is largely hydrophobic and anhydrous, and incapable of serial provision of multiple protons. Through detailed analysis of the high quality protein crystal structures available the characteristics of a chain of water molecules leading from the protein surface to a key sulfur atom (S3B) of FeMo-co are described. The first half of the water chain from the surface inwards is branched, slightly variable, and able to accommodate exogenous small molecules: this is dubbed the proton bay. The second half, from the proton bay to S3B, is comprised of a single chain of eight hydrogen bonded water molecules. This section is strictly conserved, and is intimately involved in hydrogen bonds with homocitrate, an essential component that chelates Mo. This is the proton wire, and a detailed Grotthuss mechanism for serial translocation of protons through this proton wire to S3B is proposed. This controlled serial proton relay from the protein surface to S3B is an essential component of the intramolecular hydrogenation paradigm for the complete chemical mechanisms of nitrogenase. Each proton reaching S3B, instigated by electron transfer to FeMo-co, becomes a hydrogen atom that migrates to other components of the active face of FeMo-co and to bound substrates and intermediates, allowing subsequent multiple proton transfers along the proton wire. Experiments to test the proposed mechanism of proton supply are suggested. The water chain in nitrogenase is comparable with the purported proton pumping pathway of cytochrome c oxidase.

  5. Proton Radiotherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. Ladra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric sarcomas represent a distinct group of pathologies, with approximately 900 new cases per year in the United States alone. Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the local control of these tumors, which often arise adjacent to critical structures and growing organs. The physical properties of proton beam radiotherapy provide a distinct advantage over standard photon radiation by eliminating excess dose deposited beyond the target volume, thereby reducing both the dose of radiation delivered to non-target structures as well as the total radiation dose delivered to a patient. Dosimetric studies comparing proton plans to IMRT and 3D conformal radiation have demonstrated the superiority of protons in numerous pediatric malignancies and data on long-term clinical outcomes and toxicity is emerging. In this article, we review the existing clinical and dosimetric data regarding the use of proton beam radiation in malignant bone and soft tissue sarcomas.

  6. Protonation Equilibrium of Linear Homopolyacids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Požar J.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short summary of investigations dealing with protonation equilibrium of linear homopolyacids, in particularly those of high charge density. Apart from the review of experimental results which can be found in the literature, a brief description of theoretical models used in processing the dependence of protonation constants on monomer dissociation degree and ionic strength is given (cylindrical model based on Poisson-Boltzmann equation, cylindrical Stern model, the models according to Ising, Högfeldt, Mandel and Katchalsky. The applicability of these models regarding the polyion charge density, electrolyte concentration and counterion type is discussed. The results of Monte Carlo simulations of protonation equilibrium are also briefly mentioned. In addition, frequently encountered errors connected with calibration of of glass electrode and the related unreliability of determined protonation constants are pointed out.

  7. Proton Football European Championship 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Check out the European championship of proton football 2016 at CERN. Produced by: CERN Audiovisual Productions Service Director: Jacques Fichet Editor: Jacques Fichet Music : Burnt of Jingle Punks You can follow us on:

  8. Two-Pion Production in Proton-Proton Collisions near Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoistad, B.; Calen, H.; Fransson, K.; Gustafsson, L.; Haggstrom, S.; Hoistad, B.; Johansson, A.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kullander, S.; Ruber, R.; Zlomanczuk, J.; Ekstrom, C.; Bilger, R.; Brodowski, W.; Clement, H.; Wagner, G. J.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Greiff, J.; Koch, I.; Scobel, W.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Stepaniak, J.; Morosov, B.; Povtorejko, A.; Sukhanov, A.; Zabierowski, J.; Shwartz, B.

    Two-pion production reactions in proton-proton collisions have been studied using the PROMICE/WASA detector and an internal cluster gas-jet target at the CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala. The total cross sections for the pp → ppπ+π-, pp → ppπ0π0 and the pp → pnπ0π+ reactions are presented at beam energies ranging from 650 to 775 MeV. An isospin analysis of the amplitudes involved in these three reactions indicates that the excitation of the N*(1440) followed by direct two pion emission can be the most important amplitude when allowed. However, large contributions from other production mechanisms must also be prevalent to explain the large pp → pnπ0π+ cross section. The data are compared to an extensive model including non-resonant as well as resonant production via N* and Δ excitation.

  9. Kaon photoproduction off proton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoupil Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently constructed our version of the Regge-plus-resonance (RPR model and two variants of an isobar model for photoproduction of kaons on the proton, utilizing new experimental data from CLAS, LEPS, and GRAAL collaborations for adjusting free parameters of the models. Higher-spin nucleon (3/2 and 5/2 and hyperon (3/2 resonances were included using the consistent formalism by Pascalutsa and found to play an important role in data description. The set of chosen nucleon resonances in our new isobar models agrees well with the set of the most probable contributing states determined in the Bayesian analysis with the RPR model whilst only 6 out of 10 N*’s selected in the RPR fit of ours overlap with the nucleon resonant states in the Bayesian analysis. Results of two versions of the isobar model are compared to the new version of the RPR model and experimental data in the third-resonance region and their properties are discussed. We place an emphasis on the choice of resonances, the predictions in the forward- and backward-angle region as well as the choice of the hadron form factor.

  10. Parametric Model for Astrophysical Proton-Proton Interactions and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Niklas [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Observations of gamma-rays have been made from celestial sources such as active galaxies, gamma-ray bursts and supernova remnants as well as the Galactic ridge. The study of gamma rays can provide information about production mechanisms and cosmic-ray acceleration. In the high-energy regime, one of the dominant mechanisms for gamma-ray production is the decay of neutral pions produced in interactions of ultra-relativistic cosmic-ray nuclei and interstellar matter. Presented here is a parametric model for calculations of inclusive cross sections and transverse momentum distributions for secondary particles--gamma rays, e±, ve, $\\bar{v}$e, vμ and $\\bar{μ}$e--produced in proton-proton interactions. This parametric model is derived on the proton-proton interaction model proposed by Kamae et al.; it includes the diffraction dissociation process, Feynman-scaling violation and the logarithmically rising inelastic proton-proton cross section. To improve fidelity to experimental data for lower energies, two baryon resonance excitation processes were added; one representing the Δ(1232) and the other multiple resonances with masses around 1600 MeV/c2. The model predicts the power-law spectral index for all secondary particle to be about 0.05 lower in absolute value than that of the incident proton and their inclusive cross sections to be larger than those predicted by previous models based on the Feynman-scaling hypothesis. The applications of the presented model in astrophysics are plentiful. It has been implemented into the Galprop code to calculate the contribution due to pion decays in the Galactic plane. The model has also been used to estimate the cosmic-ray flux in the Large Magellanic Cloud based on HI, CO and gamma-ray observations. The transverse momentum distributions enable calculations when the proton distribution is anisotropic. It is shown that the gamma-ray spectrum and flux due to a

  11. Proton Structure and PHENIX Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Jian-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We briefly summarize the important and critical roles that PHENIX Experiment has played in determining the proton's internal structure in terms of quarks and gluons, and their dynamics. Some pioneering measurements by PHENIX Experiment on the motion and polarization of quarks and gluons, as well as their correlations inside a fast moving proton are presented. Some future opportunities and potentials of PHENIX Experiment are also discussed.

  12. Voltage-gated Proton Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, have vaulted from the realm of the esoteric into the forefront of a central question facing ion channel biophysicists, namely the mechanism by which voltage-dependent gating occurs. This transformation is the result of several factors. Identification of the gene in 2006 revealed that proton channels are homologues of the voltage-sensing domain of most other voltage-gated ion channels. Unique, or at least eccentric, properties of proton channels include dimeric architecture with dual conduction pathways, perfect proton selectivity, a single-channel conductance ~103 smaller than most ion channels, voltage-dependent gating that is strongly modulated by the pH gradient, ΔpH, and potent inhibition by Zn2+ (in many species) but an absence of other potent inhibitors. The recent identification of HV1 in three unicellular marine plankton species has dramatically expanded the phylogenetic family tree. Interest in proton channels in their own right has increased as important physiological roles have been identified in many cells. Proton channels trigger the bioluminescent flash of dinoflagellates, facilitate calcification by coccolithophores, regulate pH-dependent processes in eggs and sperm during fertilization, secrete acid to control the pH of airway fluids, facilitate histamine secretion by basophils, and play a signaling role in facilitating B-cell receptor mediated responses in B lymphocytes. The most elaborate and best-established functions occur in phagocytes, where proton channels optimize the activity of NADPH oxidase, an important producer of reactive oxygen species. Proton efflux mediated by HV1 balances the charge translocated across the membrane by electrons through NADPH oxidase, minimizes changes in cytoplasmic and phagosomal pH, limits osmotic swelling of the phagosome, and provides substrate H+ for the production of H2O2 and HOCl, reactive oxygen species crucial to killing pathogens. PMID:23798303

  13. Generation of proton aurora by magnetosonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Qiugang; Wang, Yongfu; He, Zhaoguo; Su, Zhenpeng; Yang, Chang; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-06-05

    Earth's proton aurora occurs over a broad MLT region and is produced by the precipitation of low-energy (2-10 keV) plasmasheet protons. Proton precipitation can alter chemical compositions of the atmosphere, linking solar activity with global climate variability. Previous studies proposed that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves can resonate with protons, producing proton scattering precipitation. A long-outstanding question still remains whether there is another mechanism responsible for the proton aurora. Here, by performing satellite data analysis and diffusion equation calculations, we show that fast magnetosonic waves can produce trapped proton scattering that yields proton aurora. This provides a new insight into the mechanism of proton aurora. Furthermore, a ray-tracing study demonstrates that magnetosonic wave propagates over a broad MLT region, consistent with the global distribution of proton aurora.

  14. When the proton becomes larger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment at the LHC has just confirmed that, at high energy, protons behave as if they were becoming larger. In more technical terms, their total cross-section – a parameter linked to the proton-proton interaction probability – increases with energy. This phenomenon, expected from previous measurements performed at much lower energy, has now been confirmed for the first time at the LHC’s unprecedented energy.   One arm of a TOTEM T2 detector during its installation at interaction point 5. A composite particle like the proton is a complex system that in no way resembles a static Lego construction: sub-components move inside and interactions keep the whole thing together, but in a very dynamic way. This partly explains why even the very common proton can still be hiding secrets about its nature, decades after its discovery. One way of studying the inner properties of protons is to observe how they interact with each other, which, in technical terms, i...

  15. Measurement of proton capture reactions in the hot cycles: an evaluation of experimental methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leleux, P. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Univ. Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1998-06-01

    In the hot cycles, most of the proton capture reactions involve radioactive nuclei in the entrance and exit channels. This paper evaluates the specific methods that were designed to measure such reactions. (orig.)

  16. Gradients of turgor, osmotic pressure, and water potential in the cortex of the hypocotyl of growing ricinus seedlings : effects of the supply of water from the xylem and of solutes from the Phloem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshcheryakov, A; Steudle, E; Komor, E

    1992-03-01

    To evaluate the possible role of solute transport during extension growth, water and solute relations of cortex cells of the growing hypocotyl of 5-day-old castor bean seedlings (Ricinus communis L.) were determined using the cell pressure probe. Because the osmotic pressure of individual cells (pi(i)) was also determined, the water potential (psi) could be evaluated as well at the cell level. In the rapidly growing part of the hypocotyl of well-watered plants, turgor increased from 0.37 megapascal in the outer to 1.04 megapascal in the inner cortex. Thus, there were steep gradients of turgor of up to 0.7 megapascal (7 bar) over a distance of only 470 micrometer. In the more basal and rather mature region, gradients were less pronounced. Because cell turgor approximately pi(i) and psi approximately 0 across the cortex, there were also no gradients of psi across the tissue. Gradients of cell turgor and pi(i) increased when the endosperm was removed from the cotyledons, allowing for a better water supply. They were reduced by increasing the osmotic pressure of the root medium or by cutting off the cotyledons or the entire hook. If the root was excised to interrupt the main source for water, effects became more pronounced. Gradients completely disappeared and turgor fell to 0.3 megapascal in all layers within 1.5 hours. When excised hypocotyls were infiltrated with 0.5 millimolar CaCl(2) solution under pressure via the cut surface, gradients in turgor could be restored or even increased. When turgor was measured in individual cortical cells while pressurizing the xylem, rapid responses were recorded and changes of turgor exceeded that of applied pressure. Gradients could also be reestablished in excised hypocotyls by abrading the cuticle, allowing for a water supply from the wet environment. The steep gradients of turgor and osmotic pressure suggest a considerable supply of osmotic solutes from the phloem to the growing tissue. On the basis of a new theoretical

  17. 4-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydes: proton transfer or deprotonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Y; Kurteva, V; Antonov, L

    2015-01-01

    A series of naphthaldehydes, including a Mannich base, have been investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, NMR and theoretical methods to explore their potential tautomerism. In the case of 4-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde concentration dependent deprotonation has been detected in methanol and acetonitrile....... For 4-hydroxy-3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)-1-naphthaldehyde (a Mannich base) an intramolecular proton transfer involving the OH group and the piperidine nitrogen occurs. In acetonitrile the equilibrium is predominantly at the OH-form, whereas in methanol the proton transferred tautomer is the preferred form...

  18. Sparse-view proton computed tomography using modulated proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jiseoc; Kim, Changhwan; Cho, Seungryong, E-mail: scho@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byungjun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, 110–746 (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Jungwon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, 138–736 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seyjoon; Lee, Se Byeong [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 410–769 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sungyong [Proton Therapy Center, McLaren Cancer Institute, Flint, Michigan 48532 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Proton imaging that uses a modulated proton beam and an intensity detector allows a relatively fast image acquisition compared to the imaging approach based on a trajectory tracking detector. In addition, it requires a relatively simple implementation in a conventional proton therapy equipment. The model of geometric straight ray assumed in conventional computed tomography (CT) image reconstruction is however challenged by multiple-Coulomb scattering and energy straggling in the proton imaging. Radiation dose to the patient is another important issue that has to be taken care of for practical applications. In this work, the authors have investigated iterative image reconstructions after a deconvolution of the sparsely view-sampled data to address these issues in proton CT. Methods: Proton projection images were acquired using the modulated proton beams and the EBT2 film as an intensity detector. Four electron-density cylinders representing normal soft tissues and bone were used as imaged object and scanned at 40 views that are equally separated over 360°. Digitized film images were converted to water-equivalent thickness by use of an empirically derived conversion curve. For improving the image quality, a deconvolution-based image deblurring with an empirically acquired point spread function was employed. They have implemented iterative image reconstruction algorithms such as adaptive steepest descent-projection onto convex sets (ASD-POCS), superiorization method–projection onto convex sets (SM-POCS), superiorization method–expectation maximization (SM-EM), and expectation maximization-total variation minimization (EM-TV). Performance of the four image reconstruction algorithms was analyzed and compared quantitatively via contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE). Results: Objects of higher electron density have been reconstructed more accurately than those of lower density objects. The bone, for example, has been reconstructed

  19. Development of Intense Beam Proton Linac in China

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, S; Ouyang Hua Fu; Zhao, S

    2004-01-01

    Study on intense beam proton linac was started about four years ago in a national program for the basic research on ADS in China. This ADS program is meant for the future development of the clean nuclear power generation. Another important application of HPPA for Chinese Spallation Neutron Source was also proposed recently in China, and it is financially supported by Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this paper, the research progress on intense beam proton linac in these two application fields will be outlined. It involves the test result of an high-current ECR proton source, construction status of a 3.5 MeV RFQ accelerator and the design of a DTL linac.

  20. Analysis of the low-altitude proton flux asymmetry: methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Kruglanski, M

    1999-01-01

    Existing East-West asymmetry models of the trapped proton fluxes at low altitudes depend on the local magnetic dip angle and a density scale height derived from atmospheric models. We propose an alternative approach which maps the directional flux over a drift shell (B sub m , L) in terms of the local pitch and azimuthal angles alpha and beta, where beta is defined in the local mirror plane as the angle between the proton arrival direction and the surface normal to the drift shell. This approach has the advantage that it only depends on drift shell parameters and does not involve an atmosphere model. A semi-empirical model based on the new methodology is able to reproduce the angular distribution of a set of SAMPEX/PET proton flux measurements. Guidelines are proposed for spacecraft missions and data analysis procedures that are intended to be used for the building of new trapped radiation environment models.

  1. Proton-proton Scattering Above 3 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Sibirtsev, J. Haidenbauer, H.-W. Hammer S. Krewald ,Ulf-G. Meissner

    2010-01-01

    A large set of data on proton-proton differential cross sections, analyzing powers and the double-polarization parameter A{sub NN} is analyzed employing the Regge formalism. We find that the data available at proton beam momenta from 3 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c exhibit features that are very well in line with the general characteristics of Regge phenomenology and can be described with a model that includes the {rho}, {omega}, f{sub 2}, and a{sub 2} trajectories and single-Pomeron exchange. Additional data, specifically for spin-dependent observables at forward angles, would be very helpful for testing and refining our Regge model.

  2. A simple solution of the proton crisis

    CERN Document Server

    Pankovic, Vladan

    2014-01-01

    In this work we suggest a simple theoretical model of the proton able to effectively solve proton spin crisis. Within domain of applicability of this simple model proton consists only of two u quarks and one d quarks (two of which have spin opposite to proton and one identical to proton) and one neutral vector phi meson (with spin two times larger than proton spin and directed identically to proton spin). This model is in full agreement not only with existing DIS experiments, but also with spin and electric charge conservation as well as in a satisfactory agreement with rest mass-energy conservation (since phi meson mass is close to proton rest mass). Our model opens an interesting possibility of the solution of the quarks and leptons families problem (proton is not an absolutely non-strange particle, but only a particle with almost totally effectively hidden strange).

  3. Preliminary diagnosis of areal density in the deuterium fuel capsule by proton measurement at SG-III facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Luo, Xing; Zheng, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongjing; Yan, Ji; Pu, Yudong; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Tianxuan; Yang, Zhenghua; Yang, Pin; Tang, Qi; Song, Zifeng; Jiang, Shao'en; Liu, Shenye; Yang, Jiamin; Wang, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Areal density (ρR) is one of the crucial parameters in the inertial confinement fusion. Measurement of the fusion products is a more feasible method to diagnose ρR than other methods, such as X-ray. In the capsules filled with D2 fuel or D-3He fuel, proton is an ideal probe to diagnose the implosion ρR in different emission times and directions by measurements of the proton yields and spectra. By D-D reaction protons and D-3He reaction protons, the diagnostics of the total and fuel ρR, ρR evolution, implosion asymmetry and mix effect have been demonstrated at OMEGA and NIF facilities. Also some advanced proton diagnostics instruments are developed with a high level capability. Preliminary diagnosis of ρR in the deuterium involved fuel capsules by measurement of protons at SG-III facility was implemented. A fusion product emission and transport code by Monte-Carlo method was developed. The primary and secondary protons emission and transport in the fuel and shell plasmas were able to be simulated. The relations of the proton energy loss and the secondary proton yields with the areal density were inspected. Several proton spectrometers have been built up at SG-III facility, such as a step ranged filter (SRF) proton spectrometer and a wedged range filter (WRF) proton spectrometer. Some proton response simulation codes and the codes for proton spectra reconstruction were also developed. The demonstrations of ρR diagnostics at SG-III facility by D-D reaction and D-3He reaction proton spectra measurements are presented.

  4. LHC Report: Ions cross protons

    CERN Multimedia

    Reyes Alemany Fernandez for the LHC team

    2013-01-01

    The LHC starts the New Year facing a new challenge: proton-lead collisions in the last month before the shutdown in mid-February.    The first stable beams were achieved on 20 January with 13 individual bunches per beam. In the next fill, the first bunch-trains were injected and stable beams were achieved with 96 proton on 120 ion bunches.  This fill was very important because we were able to study the so-called moving long-range beam-beam encounters. Long-range encounters, which are also seen in proton-proton runs, occur when the bunches in the two beams “see” each other as they travel in the same vacuum chamber at either side of the experiments.  The situation becomes more complicated with proton-lead ions because the two species have different revolution times (until the frequencies are locked at top energy- see “Cogging exercises”) and thus these encounters move. We found that this effect does not cause significant beam losses...

  5. Towards a proton imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civinini, C., E-mail: Carlo.Civinini@fi.infn.i [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Candiano, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Capineri, L. [Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Mazzaglia, E. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Menichelli, D.; Pieri, S. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Hadron therapy for tumor treatment is nowadays used in several medical centres. The main advantage in using protons or light ions beams is the possibility of tightly shaping the radiation dose to the target volume. Presently the spatial accuracy of the therapy is limited by the uncertainty in stopping power distribution, which is derived, for each treatment, from the photon attenuation coefficients measured by X-ray tomography. A direct measurement of the stopping powers will help in reducing this uncertainty. This can be achieved by using a proton beam and a detection system able to reconstruct a tomography image of the patient. As a first step towards such a system an apparatus able to perform a proton transmission radiography (pCR) has been designed. It consists of a silicon microstrip tracker, measuring proton trajectories, and a YAG:Ce calorimeter to determine the particle residual energy. Proton beam and laboratory tests have been performed on the system components prototypes: the main results will be shown and discussed.

  6. The Structure of the Proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, E. E.; Hofstadter, R.

    1956-04-01

    The structure and size of the proton have been studied by means of the methods of high-energy electron scattering. The elastic scattering of electrons from protons in polyethylene has been investigated at the following energies in the laboratory system: 200, 300, 400, 500, 550 Mev. The range of laboratory angles examined has been 30 degrees to 135 degrees. At the largest angles and the highest energy, the cross section for scattering shows a deviation below that expected from a point proton by a factor of about nine. The magnitude and variation with angle of the deviations determine a structure factor for the proton, and thereby determine the size and shape of the charge and magnetic-moment distributions within the proton. An interpretation, consistent at all energies and angles and agreeing with earlier results from this laboratory, fixes the rms radius at 0.77 {plus or minus} 0.10 x 10{sup -13} cm for each of the charge and moment distributions. The shape of the density function is not far from a Gaussian with rms radius 0.70 x 10{sup -13} cm or an exponential with rms radius 0.80 x 10 {sup -13} cm. An equivalent interpretation of the experiments would ascribe the apparent size to a breakdown of the Coulomb law and the conventional theory of electromagnetism.

  7. ATLAS proton-proton event containing four muons

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    An event with four identified muons from a proton-proton collision in ATLAS. This event is consistent with coming from two Z particles decaying: both Z particles decay to two muons each. Such events are produced by Standard Model processes without Higgs particles. They are also a possible signature for Higgs particle production, but many events must be analysed together in order to tell if there is a Higgs signal. This view is a zoom into the central part of the detector. The four muons are picked out as red tracks. Other tracks and deposits of energy in the calorimeters are shown in yellow.

  8. Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Jingyu; Chai, Weiping; Chen, Fusan; Chen, Nian; Chou, Weiren; Dong, Haiyi; Gao, Jie; Han, Tao; Leng, Yongbin; Li, Guangrui; Gupta, Ramesh; Li, Peng; Li, Zhihui; Liu, Baiqi; Liu, Yudong; Lou, Xinchou; Luo, Qing; Malamud, Ernie; Mao, Lijun; Palmer, Robert B.; Peng, Quanling; Peng, Yuemei; Ruan, Manqi; Sabbi, GianLuca; Su, Feng; Su, Shufang; Stratakis, Diktys; Sun, Baogeng; Wang, Meifen; Wang, Jie; Wang, Liantao; Wang, Xiangqi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Ming; Xing, Qingzhi; Xu, Qingjin; Xu, Hongliang; Xu, Wei; Witte, Holger; Yan, Yingbing; Yang, Yongliang; Yang, Jiancheng; Yuan, Youjin; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Yuhong; Zheng, Shuxin; Zhu, Kun; Zhu, Zian; Zou, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

  9. Concept for a Future Super Proton-Proton Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jingyu; et al.

    2015-07-12

    Following the discovery of the Higgs boson at LHC, new large colliders are being studied by the international high-energy community to explore Higgs physics in detail and new physics beyond the Standard Model. In China, a two-stage circular collider project CEPC-SPPC is proposed, with the first stage CEPC (Circular Electron Positron Collier, a so-called Higgs factory) focused on Higgs physics, and the second stage SPPC (Super Proton-Proton Collider) focused on new physics beyond the Standard Model. This paper discusses this second stage.

  10. Proton Inventory and Dynamics in the Nia-S to Nia-C Transition of a [NiFe] Hydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Brandon L; Wu, Chang-Hao; Vansuch, Gregory E; Adams, Michael W W; Dyer, R Brian

    2016-03-29

    Hydrogenases (H2ases) represent one of the most striking examples of biological proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) chemistry, functioning in facile proton reduction and H2 oxidation involving long-range proton and electron transport. Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of the [NiFe] H2ases have identified several catalytic intermediates, but the details of their interconversion are still a matter of debate. Here we use steady state and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, sensitive to the CO ligand of the active site iron, as a probe of the proton inventory as well as electron and proton transfer dynamics in the soluble hydrogenase I from Pyrococcus furiosus. Subtle shifts in infrared signatures associated with the Nia-C and Nia-S states as a function of pH revealed an acid-base equilibrium associated with an ionizable amino acid near the active site. Protonation of this residue was found to correlate with the photoproduct distribution that results from hydride photolysis of the Nia-C state, in which one of the two photoproduct states becomes inaccessible at low pH. Additionally, the ability to generate Nia-S via PCET from Nia-C was weakened at low pH, suggesting prior protonation of the proton acceptor. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of electron and proton transfer with respect to the various proton inventories was utilized to develop a chemical model for reversible hydride oxidation involving two intermediates differing in their hydrogen bonding character.

  11. Protons in near earth orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Béné, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Cavalletti, R; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Chiarini, A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Da Cunha, J P; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; D'Antone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, Pierre; Favier, Jean; Feng, C C; Fiandrini, E; Finelli, F; Fisher, P H; Flaminio, R; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu Hong Tao; Lolli, M; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Massera, F; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mezzanotte, F; Mezzenga, R; Mihul, A; Molinari, G; Mourão, A M; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Pancaldi, G; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pilastrini, R; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Postolache, V; Prati, E; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Recupero, S; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Santos, D; Sartorelli, G; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torromeo, G; Torsti, J; Trümper, J E; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Van den Hirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Von Gunten, H P; Waldmeier-Wicki, S; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan Lu Guang; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye Shu Wei; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A

    2000-01-01

    The proton spectrum in the kinetic energy range 0.1 to 200 GeV was measuredby the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) during space shuttle flight STS-91 atan altitude of 380 km. Above the geomagnetic cutoff the observed spectrum isparameterized by a power law. Below the geomagnetic cutoff a substantial secondspectrum was observed concentrated at equatorial latitudes with a flux ~ 70m^-2 sec^-1 sr^-1. Most of these second spectrum protons follow a complicatedtrajectory and originate from a restricted geographic region.

  12. Proton aurora and substorm intensifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, J.C.; Xu, B.; Lyons, L.R.; Newell, P.T.; Creutzberg, F.

    1993-10-01

    Ground based measurements from the CANOPUS array of meridian scanning photometers and precipitating ion and electron data from the DMSP F9 satellite show that the electron arc which brightens to initiate substorm intensifications is formed within a region of intense proton precipitation that is well equatorward (approximately four to six degrees) of the nightside open-closed field line boundary. The precipitating protons are from a population that is energized via earthward convection from the magnetotail into the dipolar region of the magnetosphere and may play an important role in the formation of the electron arcs leading to substorm intensifications on dipole-like field lines.

  13. Proton aurora and substorm intensifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, J.C.; Lyons, L.R.; Newell, P.T.; Creutzberg, F.; Xu, B. (Alberta Univ., Edmonton (Canada) Aerospace Corp., Space and Environmental Technology Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (United States) National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Inst. of Astrophysics, Ottawa (Canada) Canadian Network for Space Research, Edmonton (Canada))

    1992-11-01

    Ground based measurements from the CANOPUS array of meridian scanning photometers and precipitating ion and electron data from the DMSP F9 satellite show that the electron arc which brightens to initiate substorms intensifications is formed within a region of intense proton precipitation that is well equatorward (about 4-6 deg) of the nightside open-closed field line boundary. The precipitating protons are from a population that is energized via Earthward convection from the magnetotail into the dipolar region of the magnetosphere and may play an important role in the formation of the electron arcs leading to substorm intensifications on dipolelike field lines. 12 refs.

  14. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  15. Search for Sphalerons in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John

    2016-04-14

    In a recent paper, Tye and Wong (TW) have argued that sphaleron-induced transitions in high-energy proton-proton collisions should be enhanced compared to previous calculations, based on a construction of a Bloch wave function in the periodic sphaleron potential and the corresponding pass band structure. Here we convolute the calculations of TW with parton distribution functions and simulations of final states to explore the signatures of sphaleron transitions at the LHC and possible future colliders. We calculate the increase of sphaleron transition rates in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 13/14/33/100 TeV for different sphaleron barrier heights, while recognising that the rates have large overall uncertainties. We use a simulation to show that LHC searches for microscopic black holes should have good efficiency for detecting sphaleron-induced final states, and discuss their experimental signatures and observability in Run 2 of the LHC and beyond. We recast the early ATLAS Run-2 search...

  16. Proton beam therapy how protons are revolutionizing cancer treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Yajnik, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Proton beam therapy is an emerging technology with promise of revolutionizing the treatment of cancer. While nearly half of all patients diagnosed with cancer in the US receive radiation therapy, the majority is delivered via electron accelerators, where photons are used to irradiate cancerous tissue. Because of the physical properties of photon beams, photons may deposit energy along their entire path length through the body. On the other hand, a proton beam directed at a tumor travels in a straight trajectory towards its target, gives off most of its energy at a defined depth called the Bragg peak, and then stops. While photons often deposit more energy within the healthy tissues of the body than within the cancer itself, protons can deposit most of their cancer-killing energy within the area of the tumor. As a result, in the properly selected patients, proton beam therapy has the ability to improve cure rates by increasing the dose delivered to the tumor and simultaneously reduce side-effects by decreasing...

  17. Quantitative proton MR techniques for measuring fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H H; Kan, H E

    2013-12-01

    Accurate, precise and reliable techniques for the quantification of body and organ fat distributions are important tools in physiology research. They are critically needed in studies of obesity and diseases involving excess fat accumulation. Proton MR methods address this need by providing an array of relaxometry-based (T1, T2) and chemical shift-based approaches. These techniques can generate informative visualizations of regional and whole-body fat distributions, yield measurements of fat volumes within specific body depots and quantify fat accumulation in abdominal organs and muscles. MR methods are commonly used to investigate the role of fat in nutrition and metabolism, to measure the efficacy of short- and long-term dietary and exercise interventions, to study the implications of fat in organ steatosis and muscular dystrophies and to elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms in the context of obesity and its comorbidities. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of mainstream MR strategies for fat quantification. The article succinctly describes the principles that differentiate water and fat proton signals, summarizes the advantages and limitations of various techniques and offers a few illustrative examples. The article also highlights recent efforts in the MR of brown adipose tissue and concludes by briefly discussing some future research directions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Controlling Proton Delivery through Catalyst Structural Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, Allan J.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Kumar, Neeraj; Hou, Jianbo; Raugei, Simone; Helm, Monte L.; Appel, Aaron M.; Bullock, R. Morris; O' Hagan, Molly J.

    2016-09-27

    The fastest synthetic molecular catalysts for production and oxidation of H2 emulate components of the active site of natural hydrogenases. The role of controlled structural dynamics is recognized as a critical component in the catalytic performance of many enzymes, including hydrogenases, but is largely neglected in the design of synthetic molecular cata-lysts. In this work, the impact of controlling structural dynamics on the rate of production of H2 was studied for a series of [Ni(PPh2NC6H4-R2)2]2+ catalysts including R = n-hexyl, n-decyl, n-tetradecyl, n-octadecyl, phenyl, or cyclohexyl. A strong correlation was observed between the ligand structural dynamics and the rates of electrocatalytic hydrogen production in acetonitrile, acetonitrile-water, and protic ionic liquid-water mixtures. Specifically, the turnover frequencies correlate inversely with the rates of ring inversion of the amine-containing ligand, as this dynamic process dictates the positioning of the proton relay in the second coordination sphere and therefore governs protonation at either catalytically productive or non-productive sites. This study demonstrates that the dynamic processes involved in proton delivery can be controlled through modifications of the outer coordination sphere of the catalyst, similar to the role of the protein architecture in many enzymes. The present work provides new mechanistic insight into the large rate enhancements observed in aqueous protic ionic liquid media for the [Ni(PPh2NR2)]2+ family of catalysts. The incorporation of controlled structural dynamics as a design parameter to modulate proton delivery in molecular catalysts has enabled H2 production rates that are up to three orders of magnitude faster than the [Ni(PPh2NPh2)]2+complex. The observed turnover frequencies are up to 106 s-1 in acetonitrile-water, and over 107 s-1 in protic ionic liquid-water mixtures, with a minimal increase in overpotential. This material is based upon work supported as part of

  19. Quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Conesa del Valle, Z; Fleuret, F; Ferreiro, E G; Kartvelishvili, V; Kopeliovich, B Z; Lansberg, J P; Lourenço, C; Martinez, G; Papadimitriou, V; Satz, H; Scomparin, E; Ullrich, T; Teryaev, O; Vogt, R; Wang, J X

    2011-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the most relevant current issues related to quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions along with some perspectives. After reviewing recent experimental and theoretical results on quarkonium production in pp and pA collisions, we discuss the emerging field of polarisation studies. Thereafter, we report on issues related to heavy-quark production, both in pp and pA collisions, complemented by AA collisions. To put the work in a broader perspective, we emphasize the need for new observables to investigate quarkonium production mechanisms and reiterate the qualities that make quarkonia a unique tool for many investigations in particle and nuclear physics.

  20. Quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa del Valle, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS-IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Corcella, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E.Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Fleuret, F. [LLR, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Ferreiro, E.G. [Departamento de Fisica de Particulas and IGFAE, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Kartvelishvili, V. [Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB,United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Kopeliovich, B. [Departamento de Fisica Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Instituto de Estudios Avanzados en Ciencias e Ingenieria and Centro, Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Casilla 110-V, Valparaiso (Chile); Lansberg, J.P. [IPNO, Universite Paris-Sud 11, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay (France); Lourenco, C. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Martinez, G. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Universite de Nantes, CNRS-IN2P3, Nantes (France); Papadimitriou, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois, 60510, U.S.A (United States); Satz, H. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Bielefeld (Germany); Scomparin, E. [INFN Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, Torino, I-10125 (Italy); Ullrich, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Teryaev, O. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Vogt, R. [Physics Divsion, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Physics Department, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wang, J.X. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918(4), Beijing, 100049 (China)

    2011-05-15

    We present a brief overview of the most relevant current issues related to quarkonium production in high energy proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions along with some perspectives. After reviewing recent experimental and theoretical results on quarkonium production in pp and pA collisions, we discuss the emerging field of polarisation studies. Afterwards, we report on issues related to heavy-quark production, both in pp and pA collisions, complemented by AA collisions. To put the work in broader perpectives, we emphasize the need for new observables to investigate the quarkonium production mechanisms and reiterate the qualities that make quarkonia a unique tool for many investigations in particle and nuclear physics.

  1. ASACUSA Anti-protonic Helium_Final

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Production Service; CERN AD; Paola Catapano; Julien Ordan, Arzur Catel; Paola Catapano; ASACUSA COLLABORATION

    2016-01-01

    Latest precision measurement of the mass of the proton and the anti proton though the production of antiprotonic helium by the ASACUSA experiment at CERN's antimatter factory, with a beam from the Antiproton Decelerator

  2. Determining the mechanism of cusp proton aurora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Qiugang; Su, Zhenpeng; Yang, Chang; He, Zhaoguo; Wang, Yongfu; Gao, Zhonglei

    2013-01-01

    Earth's cusp proton aurora occurs near the prenoon and is primarily produced by the precipitation of solar energetic (2-10 keV) protons. Cusp auroral precipitation provides a direct source of energy for the high-latitude dayside upper atmosphere, contributing to chemical composition change and global climate variability. Previous studies have indicated that magnetic reconnection allows solar energetic protons to cross the magnetopause and enter the cusp region, producing cusp auroral precipitation. However, energetic protons are easily trapped in the cusp region due to a minimum magnetic field existing there. Hence, the mechanism of cusp proton aurora has remained a significant challenge for tens of years. Based on the satellite data and calculations of diffusion equation, we demonstrate that EMIC waves can yield the trapped proton scattering that causes cusp proton aurora. This moves forward a step toward identifying the generation mechanism of cusp proton aurora.

  3. Polarized protons and parity violating asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trueman, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for utilizing parity violating effects, associated with polarized protons, to study the standard model, proton structure, and new physics at the SPS Collider is summarized. 24 references.

  4. Low-Energy Proton Testing Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.; Marshall, Paul W.; Heidel, David F.; Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Xapsos, M.A.; Ladbury, Raymond L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie; Kim, Hak S.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Use of low-energy protons and high-energy light ions is becoming necessary to investigate current-generation SEU thresholds. Systematic errors can dominate measurements made with low-energy protons. Range and energy straggling contribute to systematic error. Low-energy proton testing is not a step-and-repeat process. Low-energy protons and high-energy light ions can be used to measure SEU cross section of single sensitive features; important for simulation.

  5. Dilepton and double-photon production in proton-proton scattering at 190 MeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplar, R.; Bacelar, J.C.S; Castelijns, R.J.J.; Ermisch, K.; Gasparic, I.; Harakeh, M.N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Löhner, H.; Mahjour Shafiei, M.

    2004-01-01

    The first high-statistics measurement of dilepton and double-photon yields in proton-proton scattering below the pion threshold has been performed. The data obtained allow a detailed study of off-shell effects in the proton-proton interaction.

  6. TOTEM: The experiment to measure the total proton-proton cross section at LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Lami, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    The current large uncertainty on the extrapolation of the proton-proton total cross section at the LHC energy will be resolved by the precise measurement by the TOTEM experiment. Its accurate studies on the basic properties of proton-proton collisions at the maximum accelerator energy could provide a significant contribution to the understanding of cosmic ray physics.

  7. Playing with Protons CREATIONS Demonstrator

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexopoulos, Angelos

    2017-01-01

    This document describes Playing with Protons, a CMS education initiative that seeks to enhance teachers’ pedagogical practice with creative, hands-on methodologies through which 10-12 year old students can, in turn, get engaged effectively with science, technology and innovation.

  8. Proton irradiation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Chiba, Shunya [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Tanaka, Naomi

    1999-02-01

    A curative effect of high dose proton irradiation for hepatoma was investigated. In cases of single nodular type HCC, radiation field was limited to tumor, and in cases of multi nodular type HCC, irradiation was also fractionated. An average dose of radiation was 4 Gy/time, average times were 16, and an average total dose was 72 Gy. Tumor size reduction rate at 6 months after proton irradiation (123 cases) was CR (17.9%), PR (52.0%), NC (29.3%) and PD (0.8%). And the reduction rate of tumor size in monotherapy cases was 100% (after 3 weeks), 96% (after 1 year) and 88% (after 2 years). The local control rate was 99.1% (after 1 year) and 91.4% (after 3-5 years). AFP value significantly decreased from 571.0{+-}1266.6 ng/ml before radiation to 145.4{+-}346.3 ng/ml after radiation (p<0.0005). The recurrence after radiation occurred more at outside of radiation field, significantly. Indication basis of proton irradiation was showed in this article. Because selective radiation is possible, the proton irradiation should be optimum therapy in specific carcinomas of deep organ. (K.H.)

  9. Emerging technologies in proton therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Jacobus M.; Lomax, Antony J.

    An increasing number of proton therapy facilities are being planned and built at hospital based centers. Most facilities are employing traditional dose delivery methods. A second generation of dose application techniques, based on pencil beam scanning, is slowly being introduced into the

  10. Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hassing (Robert); A. Verbon (Annelies); H. de Visser (Herman); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAn association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam

  11. High current polarized proton sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Polarized proton sources are now being used more frequently on linacs. In pulsed operation up to 10 mA of /rvec H//sup +/ and 0.4 mA of /rvec H//sup /minus// have been produced. The present status of these sources, and developments to reach even higher intensities, are reviewed. 39 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Proton radiation therapy in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grein, E.; Duzenli, C.; Pickles, T.; Ma, R.; Paton, K.; Kwa, W.; Harrison, R.; Blackmore, E. [BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2002-04-01

    The development, commissioning, and implementation of the first Canadian Proton Radiation Therapy facility at TRIUMF in British Columbia is described. This was a collaborative project by the cyclotron physicists and staff at TRIUMF, the medical physicists and radiation oncologists of the Cancer Agency and the ocular oncology physicians of the Eye Care Center at Vancouver Hospital. (author)

  13. Actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement modulates proton-induced uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Dov, Nadav [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel); Korenstein, Rafi, E-mail: korens@post.tau.ac.il [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, 69978 Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2013-04-15

    Recently it has been shown that elevating proton concentration at the cell surface stimulates the formation of membrane invaginations and vesicles accompanied by an enhanced uptake of macromolecules. While the initial induction of inward membrane curvature was rationalized in terms of proton-based increase of charge asymmetry across the membrane, the mechanisms underlying vesicle formation and its scission are still unknown. In light of the critical role of actin in vesicle formation during endocytosis, the present study addresses the involvement of cytoskeletal actin in proton-induced uptake (PIU). The uptake of dextran-FITC is used as a measure for the factual fraction of inward invaginations that undergo scission from the cell's plasma membrane. Our findings show that the rate of PIU in suspended cells is constant, whereas the rate of PIU in adherent cells is gradually increased in time, saturating at the level possessed by suspended cells. This is consistent with pH induced gradual degradation of stress-fibers in adherent cells. Wortmannin and calyculin-A are able to elevate PIU by 25% in adherent cells but not in suspended cells, while cytochalasin-D, rapamycin and latrunculin-A elevate PIU both in adherent and suspended cells. However, extensive actin depolymerization by high concentrations of latrunculin-A is able to inhibit PIU. We conclude that proton-induced membrane vesiculation is restricted by the actin structural resistance to the plasma membrane bending. Nevertheless, a certain degree of cortical actin restructuring is required for the completion of the scission process. - Highlights: ► Acidification of cells' exterior enhances uptake of macromolecules by the cells. ► Disruption of actin stress fibers leads to enhancement of proton induced uptake. ► Extensive depolymerization of cellular actin attenuates proton-induced uptake.

  14. Proton Testing: Opportunities, Pitfalls and Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladbury, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Although proton SEE testing can place constraints on some heavy-ion SEE susceptibilities, it is important to quantify residual risk that protons may not reveal all SEE susceptibilities in a system. We examine the relative strengths and limitations of proton and heavy-ion SEE testing and how these may be affected by technology scaling and high-Z materials in the device.

  15. Shrink-wrapping water to conduct protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, George K. H.

    2017-11-01

    For proton-conducting metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to find application as the electrolyte in proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, materials with better stability and conductivity are required. Now, a structurally flexible MOF that is also highly stable is demonstrated to possess high proton conductivity over a range of humidities.

  16. The excess proton at the air-water interface: The role of instantaneous liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, Federico; Hassanali, Ali A.

    2017-06-01

    The magnitude of the pH of the surface of water continues to be a contentious topic in the physical chemistry of aqueous interfaces. Recent theoretical studies have shown little or no preference for the proton to be at the surface compared to the bulk. Using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we revisit the propensity of the excess proton for the air-water interface with a particular focus on the role of instantaneous liquid interfaces. We find a more pronounced presence for the proton to be at the air-water interface. The enhanced water structuring around the proton results in the presence of proton wires that run parallel to the surface as well as a hydrophobic environment made up of under-coordinated topological defect water molecules, both of which create favorable conditions for proton confinement at the surface. The Grotthuss mechanism within the structured water layer involves a mixture of both concerted and closely spaced stepwise proton hops. The proton makes excursions within the first solvation layer either in proximity to or along the instantaneous interface.

  17. Pair angular correlations for pions, kaons and protons in proton-proton collisions in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Zaborowska, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents the correlation functions in $\\Delta\\eta\\, \\Delta\\phi$ space for pairs of pions, kaons and protons. The studies were carried out on the set of proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, obtained in ALICE, A Large Ion Collider Experiment at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The analysis was performed for two charge combinations (like-sign pairs and unlike-sign pairs) as well as for three multiplicity ranges. Angular correlations are a rich source of information about the elementary particles behaviour. They result in from the interplay of numerous effects, including resonances’ decays, Coulomb interactions and energy and momentum conservation. In case of identical particles quantum statistics needs to be taken into account. Moreover, particles differ in terms of quark content. Kaons, carrying the strange quark obey the strangeness conservation law. In the production of protons baryon number must be conserved. These features are reflected...

  18. Towards structural and functional analysis of the plant plasma membrane proton pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Bo Højen

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a proton pump essential for several physiological important processes in plants. Through the extrusion of protons from the cell, the PM H+-ATPase establishes and maintains a proton gradient used by proton coupled transporters and secondary active transport...... of nutrients and metabolites across the plasma membrane. Additional processes involving the PM H+-ATPase includes plant growth, development, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Extensive efforts have been made in attempts to elucidate the detailed physiological role and biochemical characteristics...... of plasma membrane H+-ATPases. Studies on the plasma membrane H+-ATPases have involved both in vivo and in vitro approaches, with the latter employing either solubilisation by detergent micelles, or reconstitution into lipid vesicles. Despite resulting in a large body of information on structure, function...

  19. Dielectron production in proton-proton collisions with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, Markus K

    Ultrarelativistic hadron collisions, such as delivered since a couple of years at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), provide new insights into the properties of strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities, which is expected to have existed a few of a millionth seconds after the big bang. Electromagnetic probes, such as leptons and photons, are emitted during the entire collision. Since they do not undergo strong interactions, they reflect the entire evolution of the collision.\\\\ Pairs of leptons, so called dileptons, have the advantage compared to real photons, that they do not only carry momentum, but also have a non-zero invariant mass. The invariant mass spectrum of dileptons is a superposition of several components and allows to address different characteristics of the medium.\\\\ To understand dielectron production in heavy-ion collisions, reference measurements in proton-proton (pp) collisions are necessary. pp collisions reflect the vacuum contribution of the particles produced in heavy-...

  20. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, D.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bollmann, R.; Büßer, K.; Cloth, P.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H. P.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P. D.; Gasthuber, M.; Gebel, R.; Greiff, J.; Groß, A.; Groß-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Igelbrink, M.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Maier, R.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Müller, M.; Münstermann, M.; Prasuhn, D.; Rohdjeß, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Roß, U.; von Rossen, P.; Scheid, H.; Schirm, N.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Scobel, W.; Sterzenbach, G.; Trelle, H. J.; Wellinghausen, A.; Wiedmann, W.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta pp (energies Tp) from 1100 to 3300 MeV/c (500 to 2500 MeV) in the angular range 35°<=Θc.m.<=90° with a detector providing ΔΘc.m.~1.4° resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH2 fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of Tp. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found.

  1. Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering Excitation Functions at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisplinghoff, J.; Daniel, R.; Diehl, O.; Engelhardt, H.; Ernst, J.; Eversheim, P.; Gro-Hardt, R.; Heider, S.; Heine, A.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Jeske, M.; Lahr, U.; Maschuw, R.; Mayer-Kuckuk, T.; Mosel, F.; Rohdje, H.; Rosendaal, D.; Ro, U.; Scheid, H.; Schulz-Rojahn, M.; Schwandt, F.; Schwarz, V.; Trelle, H.; Wiedmann, W.; Ziegler, R. [Inst.fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Albers, D.; Bollmann, R.; Bueer, K.; Dohrmann, F.; Gasthuber, M.; Greiff, J.; Gro, A.; Igelbrink, M.; Langkau, R.; Lindlein, J.; Mueller, M.; Muenstermann, M.; Schirm, N.; Scobel, W.; Wellinghausen, A.; Woller, K. [I. Inst.fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Cloth, P.; Gebel, R.; Maier, R.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Sterzenbach, G. [Inst.fuer Kernphysik, KFA Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Excitation functions of proton-proton elastic scattering cross sections have been measured in narrow steps for projectile momenta p{sub p} (energies T{sub p}) from 1100 to 3300MeV/c (500 to 2500MeV) in the angular range 35{degree}{le}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{le}90{degree} with a detector providing {Delta}{Theta}{sub c.m.}{approx}1.4{degree} resolution. Measurements have been performed continuously during projectile acceleration in the cooler synchrotron COSY with an internal CH{sub 2} fiber target, taking particular care to monitor luminosity as a function of T{sub p}. The advantages of this experimental technique are demonstrated, and the excitation functions obtained are compared to existing cross section data. No evidence for narrow structures was found. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Search for Sphalerons in Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Satco, Daria

    2017-01-01

    In view of new possibilities becoming more realistic with FCC design and of recent promising results regarding $(B+L)$-violating processes detection we concentrated our research on generation and analysis of sphaleron transitions. The existence of instanton and sphaleron solutions which are associated with transitions between different vacuum states is well known since 1980s. However first calculations of instanton rate killed any hope to detect them even at very high energies while the calculation of sphaleron transitions rate is a tricky problem which continue being widely discussed. In our research we used HERBVI package to generate baryon- and lepton-number violating processes in proton-proton collisions at typical energies 14, 33, 40 and 100 TeV in order to estimate the upper limit on the sphaleron cross-section. We considered the background processes and determined the zero background regions.

  3. Proton radiation damage in optical filter glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillot, Patrick N.; Rosenberg, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Schott BG-39 and Hoya CM-500 blue-green filter glass were subjected to proton radiation to determine their acceptability for spaceflight. Initial testing done with 2.7 MeV protons showed negligible change in optical transmittance with doses as high as 5.2 x 10 to the 14th protons per sq cm. Irradiation with protons of energy up to 63 MeV caused a significant reduction in transmittance in the Schott samples at doses of 5.3 x 10 to the 12th protons per sq cm, while negligible change occurred in the Hoya samples.

  4. Proton conduction in biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Jin Jung [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Lee, Kyu Won; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Cheol Eui, E-mail: rscel@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seunho [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology and UBITA, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Chanho [Naraebio Research Laboratories, 177 Dangha-ri, Bongdam-eup, Hawseong-si 445-892 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-07

    Protonic currents play a vital role in electrical signalling in living systems. It has been suggested that succinoglycan plays a specific role in alfalfa root nodule development, presumably acting as the signaling molecules. In this regard, charge transport and proton dynamics in the biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan have been studied by means of electrical measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, a dielectric dispersion in the system has revealed that the electrical conduction is protonic rather electronic. Besides, our laboratory- and rotating-frame {sup 1}H NMR measurements have elucidated the nature of the protonic conduction, activation of the protonic motion being associated with a glass transition.

  5. Microscopic dynamics of a base protonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsgaard, Bjørn; Petersen, Christian; Thøgersen, Jan; Keiding, Søren Rud; Jensen, Svend J. Knak

    2008-10-01

    The protonation of the base peroxynitrite in aqueous solution is investigated by way of the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics technique. It is found that the protonation proceeds through an increase in the vibration amplitude of the hydrogen bond between the base and the hydronium ion. When the amplitude gets sufficiently large a proton may oscillate a few times between the base and the hydronium ion before it remains as part of peroxynitrous acid. The start of the protonation requires a certain orientation of the hydrogen bond. The estimated protonation time agrees well with the one obtained from femtosecond UV experiments.

  6. Loss of protons in thin absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Renberg, P U; Measday, D F; Pepin, M; Serre, Claude; Schwaller, P

    1972-01-01

    Proton losses due to nuclear inelastic interactions have been measured in Al and Cu absorbers of thicknesses less than half the proton range, for incident proton energies of 250 and 560 MeV. It is shown that the data can be used to obtain absorption corrections in proton counter telescopes for other energies in this energy interval. The absorption correction would be found from the loss calculated from the proton reaction cross-sections by multiplying by an experimentally determined ratio which is given by the present measurement. (5 refs).

  7. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.

    1980-01-01

    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  8. Resonant proton scattering of $^{22}$Mg and $^{21}$Na

    CERN Multimedia

    Di julio, D D; Jansson, K; Rudolph, D; Fynbo, H O U; Nilsson, T; Perea martinez, A

    In our letter-of-intent, INTC-I-051, we discussed the physics case for scattering and transfer reactions involving light nuclei in the break-out region of the rp-process. The Committee found the physics case compelling and supported the letter-of-intent under the premise that beams of proper quality were developed and that an adequate detector set-up was presented. As these two requirements have been met recently we now propose to study resonant proton scattering of $^{22}$Mg to identify the states at 1.733 MeV and 2.575 MeV in $^{23}$Al that have been reported from the $^{24}$Mg($^{7}$Li,$^{8}$He)$\\,^{23}\\!$Al reaction but that remained unobserved in the only resonant proton scattering experiment performed with $^{22}$Mg so far. In particular we should be able to investigate the character of the proton emission of the 2.575 MeV state which may also have a significant inelastic branch. We also propose to perform resonant proton scattering on $^{21}$Na above $\\alpha$-particle threshold with $^{18}$Ne to study ...

  9. The recoil proton polarization in. pi. p elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seftor, C.J.

    1988-09-01

    The polarization of the recoil proton for ..pi../sup +/p and ..pi../sup -/p elastic scattering has been measured for various angles at 547 MeV/c and 625 MeV/c by a collaboration involving The George Washington University; the University of California, Los Angeles; and Abilene Christian University. The experiment was performed at the P/sup 3/ East experimental area of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Beam intensities varied from 0.4 to 1.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup -/'s/sec and from 3.0 to 10.0 x 10/sup 7/ ..pi../sup +/'s/sec. The beam spot size at the target was 1 cm in the horizontal direction by 2.5 cm in the vertical direction. A liquid-hydrogen target was used in a flask 5.7 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The scattered pion and recoil proton were detected in coincidence using the Large Acceptance Spectrometer (LAS) to detect and momentum analyze the pions and the JANUS recoil proton polarimeter to detect and measure the polarization of the protons. Results from this experiment are compared with previous measurements of the polarization, with analyzing power data previously taken by this group, and to partial-wave analysis predictions. 12 refs., 53 figs., 18 tabs.

  10. Proton Radiography at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Alexander [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    The proton radiography (pRad) facility at Los Alamos National Lab uses high energy protons to acquire multiple frame flash radiographic sequences at megahertz speeds: that is, it can make movies of the inside of explosions as they happen. The facility is primarily used to study the damage to and failure of metals subjected to the shock forces of high explosives as well as to study the detonation of the explosives themselves. Applications include improving our understanding of the underlying physical processes that drive the performance of the nuclear weapons in the United States stockpile and developing novel armor technologies in collaboration with the Army Research Lab. The principle and techniques of pRad will be described, and examples of some recent results will be shown.

  11. Proton affinities of hydrated molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadbeigi, Younes

    2016-09-01

    Proton affinities (PA) of non-hydrated, M, and hydrated forms, M(H2O)1,2,3, of 20 organic molecules including alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones and amines were calculated by the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. For homogeneous families, linear correlations were observed between PAs of the M(H2O)1,2,3 and the PAs of the non-hydrated molecules. Also, the absolute values of the hydration enthalpies of the protonated molecules decreased linearly with the PAs. The correlation functions predicted that for an amine with PA amine with PA > 1100 kJ/mol the PA(M(H2O)) is smaller than the PA.

  12. Proton Resonance Spectroscopy -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriner, Jr., J. F. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    2009-07-27

    This report summarizes work supported by the DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER40990 during its duration from June 1996 to May 2009. Topics studied include (1) statistical descriptions of nuclear levels and measurements of proton resonances relevant to such descriptions, including measurements toward a complete level scheme for 30P, (2) the development of methods to estimate the missing fraction of levels in a given measurement, and (3) measurements at HRIBF relevant to nuclear astrophysics.

  13. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  14. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2008-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are novel compounds that strongly inhibit the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cells to cause profound suppression of acid secretion. Acid-generating ATPase, also known as vacuolar-type ATPase, is located in the lysozomes of leukocytes and osteoclasts and its activity is also reportedly influenced by treatment with PPIs. This concept is supported by the results of studies using autoradiography in which 3H-Lansoprazole uptake sites were clearly detected in the...

  15. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2011-12-27

    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  16. Solid-state proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Cryptochrome 1 regulates growth and development in Brassica through alteration in the expression of genes involved in light, phytohormone and stress signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pooja; Chatterjee, Mithu; Burman, Naini; Khurana, Jitendra P

    2014-04-01

    The blue light photoreceptors cryptochromes are ubiquitous in higher plants and are vital for regulating plant growth and development. In spite of being involved in controlling agronomically important traits like plant height and flowering time, cryptochromes have not been extensively characterized from agriculturally important crops. Here we show that overexpression of CRY1 from Brassica napus (BnCRY1), an oilseed crop, results in short-statured Brassica transgenics, likely to be less prone to wind and water lodging. The overexpression of BnCRY1 accentuates the inhibition of cell elongation in hypocotyls of transgenic seedlings. The analysis of hypocotyl growth inhibition and anthocyanin accumulation responses in BnCRY1 overexpressors substantiates that regulation of seedling photomorphogenesis by cry1 is dependent on light intensity. This study highlights that the photoactivated cry1 acts through coordinated induction and suppression of specific downstream genes involved in phytohormone synthesis or signalling, and those involved in cell wall modification, during de-etiolation of Brassica seedlings. The microarray-based transcriptome profiling also suggests that the overexpression of BnCRY1 alters abiotic/biotic stress signalling pathways; the transgenic seedlings were apparently oversensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and mannitol. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Next-to-leading-order QCD and electroweak corrections to WWW production at proton-proton colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmaier, Stefan; Huss, Alexander; Knippen, Gernot

    2017-09-01

    Triple-W-boson production in proton-proton collisions allows for a direct access to the triple and quartic gauge couplings and provides a window to the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking. It is an important process to test the Standard Model (SM) and might be background to physics beyond the SM. We present a calculation of the next-to-leading order (NLO) electroweak corrections to the production of WWW final states at proton-proton colliders with on-shell W bosons and combine the electroweak with the NLO QCD corrections. We study the impact of the corrections to the integrated cross sections and to kinematic distributions of the W bosons. The electroweak corrections are generically of the size of 5-10% for integrated cross sections and become more pronounced in specific phase-space regions. The real corrections induced by quark-photon scattering turn out to be as important as electroweak loops and photon bremsstrahlung corrections, but can be reduced by phase-space cuts. Considering that prior determinations of the photon parton distribution function (PDF) involve rather large uncertainties, we compare the results obtained with different photon PDFs and discuss the corresponding uncertainties in the NLO predictions. Moreover, we determine the scale and total PDF uncertainties at the LHC and a possible future 100 TeV pp collider.

  19. One-proton halo in 26P and two-proton halo in 27S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhongzhou; Chen, Baoqiu; Ma, Zhongyu; Xu, Gongou

    1996-02-01

    Proton-drip-line nuclei 26P and 27S are studied in the nonlinear relativistic mean-field theory. Calculations show that the mean-square radius of protons in the 2s1/2 state is approximately 18-20 fm2 which is abnormally large as compared with the mean-square radii of proton, neutron, and matter distributions, giving a strong evidence for proton halos in 26P and 27S. This indicates that the size of proton halos is as large as that of neutron halos although there exists the Coulomb barrier in proton-drip-line nuclei.

  20. Proton Pump Inhibitors: Risk for Myopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Evan W; Pappas, Ashley L

    2016-08-18

    The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and symptoms of myopathy based on case reports. A literature search was conducted in PubMed (1946 to June 2016) using MeSH terms proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, dexlansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, and muscular diseases Additionally, a search was conducted in ToxNet and EMBASE using similar search criteria. The resulting articles were scanned to assess relevance to the review. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were evaluated for additional sources; 26 articles resulted from the search of PubMed, ToxNet, and EMBASE; articles that involved medications typically considered to have myalgia-like side effects (eg, statins), or included patients who presented with a confounding disease state (eg, Guillain-Barré) were excluded. In total, 11 case reports as well as a review of an adverse event reporting database that included 292 cases were evaluated. Association of PPI use and myopathy symptoms does not have a clear etiology. Overall, the available published data do not show a high risk of myopathy with PPI use but should be considered if a patient presents with myopathy symptoms and concurrent PPI use. A limited body of published data suggests that PPI use has been associated with myopathy-like symptoms without long-term effects following discontinuation. Although myopathy is a rare adverse effect observed with PPIs, it can be a serious side effect to be considered when starting a patient on acid suppression therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach for deformed odd-odd nuclei and the proton emitter 130Eu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patial, Monika; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2013-11-01

    Proton emission from deformed nuclei near the drip line is regarded as a versatile tool in nuclear structure physics and such a study in odd-odd nuclei provides us with an excellent opportunity to understand several interesting features including the interaction between the valence proton and the valence neutron. We present a detailed formalism for a full microscopic calculation of such proton emitters, where the nuclear structure and decay aspects are taken into account exactly. This formalism is based on the nonadiabatic approach for the two quasiparticle plus rotor model, where the residual neutron-proton interactions are considered in the mean field represented by a deformed Woods-Saxon potential. We demonstrate a systematic way of unambiguously identifying several parameters involved in the calculations with the aid of the experimental data. The quality of results in the case of 180Ta justifies the approach which is further extended to discuss in detail the proton emission from 130Eu. Iπ=1+ state in 130Eu still remains to be the proton emitting state irrespective of the choice of several parameters. We also note that the decay widths could be quite sensitive to the residual np interaction in case of proton emission from isomeric states.

  2. Reduction and Reoxidation of Humic Acid: Influence on Spectroscopic Properties and Proton Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, F.; Christl, I; Kretzschmar, R

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on proton and metal binding to humic substances have not considered a potential influence of reduction and oxidation of functional groups. Therefore, we investigated how proton binding of a purified soil humic acid was affected by reduction. Reduction of the humic acid was carried out using an electrochemical cell that allowed us to measure the amounts of electrons and protons involved in reduction reactions. We further applied spectroscopic methods (UV-vis, fluorescence, FT-IR, C-1s NEXAFS) to detect possible chemical changes in the humic acid induced by reduction and reoxidation. The effect of reduction on proton binding was determined with acid-base titrations in the pH range 4-10 under controlled redox conditions. During reduction, 0.54 mol kg{sup -1} protons and 0.55 mol kg{sup -1} electrons were transferred to humic acid. NICA-Donnan modeling revealed an equivalent increase in proton-reactive sites (0.52 mol kg{sup -1}) in the alkaline pH-range. Our results indicate that reduction of humic acid increased the amount of proton-reactive sites by 15% compared to the untreated state. Spectroscopic differences between the untreated and reduced humic acid were minor, apart from a lower UV-vis absorption of the reduced humic acid between 400 and 700 nm.

  3. Inhibitory effects of antihistamines, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, on proton currents in BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiwon; Song, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-05

    Microglial NADPH oxidase is a major source of toxic reactive oxygen species produced during chronic neuroinflammation. Voltage-gated proton channel (HV1) functions to maintain the intense activity of NADPH oxidase, and channel inhibition alleviates the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases such as ischemic stroke and multiple sclerosis associated with oxidative neuroinflammation. Antagonists of histamine H1 receptors have beneficial effects against microglia-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. We examined the effects of the H1 antihistamines, diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine, on proton currents in BV2 microglial cells recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reduced the proton currents with almost the same potency, yielding IC50 values of 42 and 43μM, respectively. Histamine did not affect proton currents, excluding the involvement of histamine receptors in their action. Neither drug shifted the voltage-dependence of activation or the reversal potential of the proton currents, even though diphenhydramine slowed the activation and deactivation kinetics. The inhibitory effects of the two antihistamines on proton currents could be utilized to develop therapeutic agents for neurodegenerative diseases and other diseases associated with HV1 proton channel abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of proton beam irradiation on mitochondrial biogenesis in a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Byung Geun; Jung, Sung Suk; Shon, Yun Hee

    2017-09-01

    Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis. Both the mtDNA/nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio and the mitochondria staining assays showed that proton beam irradiation increases mitochondrial biogenesis in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced aggressive HT-29 cells. Simultaneously, proton beam irradiation increases the gene expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors PGC-1α, NRF1, ERRα, and mtTFA, the dynamic regulators DRP1, OPA1, TIMM44, and TOM40, and the functional regulators CytC, ATP5B and CPT1-α. Furthermore, proton beam irradiation increases the phosphorylation of AMPK, an important molecule involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that is an energy sensor and is regulated by the AMP/ATP ratio. Based on these findings, we suggest that proton beam irradiation inhibits metastatic potential by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and function in TPA-induced aggressive HT-29 cells.

  5. Two-pion production in proton-proton collisions near threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, J.; Bilger, R.; Brodowski, W.; Calen, H.; Clement, H.; Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K.; Greiff, J.; Gustafsson, L.; Haeggstroem, S.; Hoeistad, B. E-mail: bo.hoistad@tsl.uu.se; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Koch, I.; Kullander, S.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Oelert, W.; Povtorejko, A.; Ruber, R.; Scobel, W.; Sefzick, T.; Shwartz, B.; Stepaniak, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Wagner, G.J.; Zabierowski, J.; Zlomanczuk, J

    2002-12-16

    Two-pion production reactions in proton-proton collisions have been studied using the PROMICE/ WASA detector and an internal cluster gas-jet target at the CELSIUS storage ring in Uppsala. The total cross sections for the pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, pp{yields}pp{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and the pp{yields}pn{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} reactions are presented at beam energies ranging from 650 to 775 MeV. An isospin analysis of the amplitudes involved in these three reactions indicates that the excitation of the N{sup *}(1440) followed by direct two pion emission can be the most important amplitude when allowed. However, large contributions from other production mechanisms must also be prevalent to explain the large pp{yields}pn{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +} cross section. The data are compared to an extensive model including non-resonant as well as resonant production via N{sup *} and {delta} excitation.

  6. The ATLAS Forward Proton Detector (AFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, S.; AFP Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector will identify events in which one or two protons emerge intact from the proton-proton collisions at the LHC. Tracking and timing detectors will be placed 2-3 mm from the beam, 210 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. The silicon-based tracker will provide momentum measurement, while the time of flight system is used to reduce the background from multiple proton-proton collisions. The study of soft and hard diffractive events at low luminosities (μ ≈ 1) is the core of the AFP physics program. This paper presents an overview of the project with particular emphasis on the qualification of the pixel and timing systems.

  7. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  8. Assessment of Proton Deflectometry for Exploding Wire Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, Farhat Nadeem [University of California San Diego

    2013-09-25

    This project provides the first demonstration of the application of proton deflectometry for the diagnosis of electromagnetic field topology and current-carrying regions in Z-pinch plasma experiments. Over the course of this project several milestones were achieved. High-energy proton beam generation was demonstrated on the short-pulse high-intensity Leopard laser, (10 Joules in ~350 femtoseconds, and the proton beam generation was shown to be reproducible. Next, protons were used to probe the electromagnetic field structure of short circuit loads in order to benchmark the two numerical codes, the resistive-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, Gorgon, and the hybrid particle-in-cell code, LSP for the interpretation of results. Lastly, the proton deflectometry technique was used to map the magnetic field structure of pulsed-power-driven plasma loads including wires and supersonic jets formed with metallic foils. Good agreement between the modeling and experiments has been obtained. The demonstrated technique holds great promise to significantly improve the understanding of current flow and electromagnetic field topology in pulsed power driven high energy density plasmas. Proton probing with a high intensity laser was for the first time implemented in the presence of the harsh debris and x-ray producing z-pinch environment driven by a mega-ampere-scale pulsed-power machine. The intellectual merit of the program was that it investigated strongly driven MHD systems and the influence of magnetic field topology on plasma evolution in pulsed power driven plasmas. The experimental program involved intense field-matter interaction in the generation of the proton probe, as well as the generation of plasma subjected to 1 MegaGauss scale magnetic fields. The computational aspect included two well-documented codes, in combination for the first time to provide accurate interpretation of the experimental results. The broader impact included the support of 2 graduate students, one at

  9. Protons on ions bring new physics to LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    The research opportunities offered by proton-lead collisions at the LHC are generating increasing interest among theorists and experimentalists. During this recent run, LHCb, the asymmetric detector originally designed to study CP asymmetries and rare decays involving heavy quarks, took data with proton and ion beams for the first time. Using these collisions, the experiment can provide a different perspective on specific physics processes, so new developments may be in sight.   A proton-lead ion collision observed by the LHCb detector during the 2013 data taking period. LHCb is a smaller detector than the gigantic multi-purpose CMS and ATLAS detectors. It is also smaller than ALICE, the detector designed in particular to study ion-ion collisions. However, LHCb has something special: it can study physics processes that involve particles scattered from collisions at very small angles and close to the collision point. LHCb does not take data during ion-ion r...

  10. Statistical analysis of SAMPEX PET proton measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrard, V; Heynderickx, D; Kruglanski, M; Looper, M; Blake, B; Mewaldt, D

    2000-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the distributions of proton counts from the Proton-Electron Telescope aboard the low-altitude polar satellite SAMPEX. Our statistical analysis shows that histograms of observed proton counts are generally distributed according to Poisson distributions but are sometimes quite different. The observed departures from Poisson distributions can be attributed to variations of the average flux or to the non-constancy of the detector lifetimes.

  11. Very Forward proton-proton interactions with the LHCf detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, Alessia

    2013-01-01

    The LHCf experiment has been designed to precisely measure very forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system. These measurements are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR) field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of 1017 eV. In 2009-2010 the experiment has completed the p-p data taking at sqrt{s} = 0.9 TeV and sqrt{s}=7 TeV and the detectors have later on been removed from the tunnel region, when the LHC luminosity increased above 1030 cm-2s-1. In this paper the most up-to-date results on the inclusive photon spectra and the pi0 spectra measured by LHCf are reported. Comparison of these spectra with the model expectations and the impact on high energy cosmic ray (HECR) Physics are discussed. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the foreseen data taking in p-P...

  12. ππ Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodko, T.; Bashkanov, M.; Bogoslowsky, D.; Calén, H.; Cappellaro, F.; Clement, H.; Demiroers, L.; Ekström, C.; Fransson, K.; Greiff, J.; Gustafsson, L.; Höistad, B.; Ivanov, G.; Jacewicz, M.; Jiganov, E.; Johansson, T.; Kaskulov, M. M.; Keleta, S.; Khakimova, O.; Koch, I.; Kren, F.; Kullander, S.; Kupść, A.; Kuznetsov, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Meier, R.; Morosov, B.; Oelert, W.; Pauly, C.; Petukhov, Y.; Povtorejko, A.; Ruber, R. J. M. Y.; Schwick, A.; Scobel, W.; Shafigullin, R.; Shwartz, B.; Sopov, V.; Stepaniak, J.; Tchernyshev, V.; Thörngren-Engblom, P.; Tikhomirov, V.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G. J.; Wolke, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Zabierowski, J.; Złomanćzuk, J.

    At CELSIUS-WASA the two-pion production in proton-proton collisisons has been measured exclusively from threshold up to the energy regime, where both of the collision partners are expected to be excited to the Δ state. The measurements constitute the first kinematically complete data samples of solid statistics in this energy range. Most of the data have been obtained for the π+π- and π0π0channels. Whereas at near-threshold energies the differential distributions can be succesfully explained by chiral dynamics and Roper excitation, respectively, the data for the π+π- channel in the ΔΔ region can be described only, if the special configuration (ΔΔ)0+ is assumed. The data for the π0π0 channel moreover exhibit a low-mass enhancement in the π0π0 invariant mass spectrum, which is reminiscent of the ABC-effect found in double-pionic fusion to light nuclei.

  13. Transverse relaxation of scalar-coupled protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segawa, Takuya F; Baishya, Bikash; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2010-10-25

    In a preliminary communication (B. Baishya, T. F. Segawa, G. Bodenhausen, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 17538-17539), we recently demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clean echo decays of protons in biomolecules despite the presence of homonuclear scalar couplings. These unmodulated decays allow one to determine apparent transverse relaxation rates R(2) (app) of individual protons. Herein, we report the observation of R(2) (app) for three methyl protons, four amide H(N) protons, and all 11 backbone H(α) protons in cyclosporin A. If the proton resonances overlap, their R(2) (app) rates can be measured by transferring their magnetization to neighboring (13)C nuclei, which are less prone to overlap. The R(2) (app) rates of protons attached to (13)C are faster than those attached to (12)C because of (13)C-(1)H dipolar interactions. The differences of these rates allow the determination of local correlation functions. Backbone H(N) and H(α) protons that have fast decay rates R(2) (app) also feature fast longitudinal relaxation rates R(1) and intense NOESY cross peaks that are typical of crowded environments. Variations of R(2) (app) rates of backbone H(α) protons in similar amino acids reflect differences in local environments.

  14. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chadwick, M B; Arendse, G J; Cowley, A A; Richter, W A; Lawrie, J J; Newman, R T; Pilcher, J V; Smit, F D; Steyn, G F; Koen, J W; Stander, J A

    1999-01-01

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  15. Proton therapy for uveal melanomas and other eye lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munzenrider, J.E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Harvard Univ. Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Charged particle beams are ideal for treating intra-ocular lesions, since they can be made to deposit their dose in the target, while significantly limiting dose received by non-involved ocular and orbital structures. Proton beam treatment of large numbers of uveal melanoma patients consistently achieves local control rates in excess of 95%, and eye retention rates of approximately 90%. Visual preservation is related to initial visual acuity, tumor size and location, and dose received by the macula, disc, and lens. The probability of distant metastasis is increased by larger tumor diameter, more anterior tumor location, and older patient age. Proton therapy is also effective treatment for patients with ocular angiomas, hemangiomas, metastatic tumors, and retinoblastomas, and may be beneficial for patients with exudative (`wet`) age-related macular degeneration. (orig.)

  16. Ionic Liquids and New Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belieres, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    There is currently a great surge of activity in fuel cell research as laboratories across the world seek to take advantage of the high energy capacity provided by &el cells relative to those of other portable electrochemical power systems. Much of this activity is aimed at high temperature fie1 cells, and a vital component of such &el cells must be the availability of a high temperature stable proton-permeable membrane. NASA Glenn Research Center is greatly involved in developing this technology. Other approaches to the high temperature fuel cell involve the use of single- component or almost-single-component electrolytes that provide a path for protons through the cell. A heavily researched case is the phosphoric acid fuel cell, in which the electrolyte is almost pure phosphoric acid and the cathode reaction produces water directly. The phosphoric acid fie1 cell delivers an open circuit voltage of 0.9 V falling to about 0.7 V under operating conditions at 170 C. The proton transport mechanism is mainly vehicular in character according to the viscosity/conductance relation. Here we describe some Proton Transfer Ionic Liquids (PTILs) with low vapor pressure and high temperature stability that have conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems. The first requirement of an ionic liquid is that, contrary to experience with most liquids consisting of ions, it must have a melting point that is not much above room temperature. The limit commonly suggested is 100 C. PTILs constitute an interesting class of non-corrosive proton-exchange electrolyte, which can serve well in high temperature (T = 100 - 250 C) fuel cell applications. We will present cell performance data showing that the open circuit voltage output, and the performance of a simple H2(g)Pt/PTIL/Pt/O2(g) fuel cell may be superior to those of the equivalent phosphoric acid electrolyte fuel cell both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200 C. My work at NASA Glenn Research

  17. Saturating Cronin effect in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Papp, Gabor; Levai, Peter; Fai, George

    1999-01-01

    Pion and photon production cross sections are analyzed in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions at energies 20 GeV < s^1/2 < 60 GeV. We separate the proton-proton and nuclear contributions to transverse-momentum broadening and suggest a new mechanism for the nuclear enhancement in the high transverse-momentum region.

  18. Storage ring proton EDM experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    sensitivity of 10^-29 e-cm.  The strength of the method originates from the fact that there are high intensity polarized proton beams available and the fact that the so-called geometric phase systematic error background cancels with clock-wise and counter-clock-wise storage possible in electric rings. The ultimate sensitivity of the method is 10^-30 e-cm. At this level it will either detect a non-zero EDM or it will eliminate electro-weak baryogenesis.

  19. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Trotter, Steven

    2017-09-01

    In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  20. SNS Proton Beam Window Disposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to support the disposal of the proton beam window assembly of the Spallation Neutron Source beamline to the target station, waste classification analyses are performed. The window has a limited life-time due to radiation-induced material damage. Analyses include calculation of the radionuclide inventory and shielding analyses for the transport package/container to ensure that the container is compliant with the transportation and waste management regulations. In order to automate this procedure and minimize manual work a script in Perl language was written.

  1. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  2. Multi-proton bunch driven hollow plasma wakefield acceleration in the nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangmei; Xia, Guoxing; Lotov, Konstantin V.; Sosedkin, Alexander P.; Hanahoe, Kieran; Mete-Apsimon, Oznur

    2017-10-01

    Proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration has been demonstrated in simulations to be capable of accelerating particles to the energy frontier in a single stage, but its potential is hindered by the fact that currently available proton bunches are orders of magnitude longer than the plasma wavelength. Fortunately, proton micro-bunching allows driving plasma waves resonantly. In this paper, we propose using a hollow plasma channel for multiple proton bunch driven plasma wakefield acceleration and demonstrate that it enables the operation in the nonlinear regime and resonant excitation of strong plasma waves. This new regime also involves beneficial features of hollow channels for the accelerated beam (such as emittance preservation and a uniform accelerating field) and long buckets of stable deceleration for the drive beam. The regime is attained at a proper ratio between plasma skin depth, driver radius, hollow channel radius, and micro-bunch period.

  3. Neonatal hypoglycaemic encephalopathy: diffusion-weighted imaging and proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Yeon; Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea); Lim, Keun Ho; Kim, Sang Tae [Asan Institute for Life Science, NMR Laboratory, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Ki Soo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Neonatology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-02-01

    We report two infants with neonatal hypoglycaemic encephalopathy who were evaluated with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) as well as conventional MR. As in conventional MR, DWI and proton MRS revealed a predominance of abnormalities in the parieto-occipital lobes and underlying white matter including the splenium of the corpus callosum. In the acute phase of the disease, lesions on DWI showed restricted water diffusion and on DWI the characteristic lesions seemed to be more readily discernible than on conventional MRI. In the chronic phase, DWI demonstrated increased water diffusion in the affected areas showing atrophy on conventional MRI. Proton MRS revealed an increased lactate-lipid peak and a decreased NAA peak in the involved areas. DWI and proton MRS findings appear helpful in evaluating the extent and the presence of neuronal damage early in the course of neonatal hypoglycaemic encephalopathy. (orig.)

  4. Salt-bridge Swapping in the EXXERFXYY Motif of Proton Coupled Oligopeptide Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aduri, Nanda G; Prabhala, Bala K; Ernst, Heidi A

    2015-01-01

    Proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs) couple the inwards transport of di- or tripeptides with an inwards-directed transport of protons. Evidence from several studies of different POTs have pointed towards involvement of a highly conserved sequence motif, E1XXE2RFXYY (from here on referred......-motif salt bridge, i.e. R-E2 to R-E1, which is consistent with previous structural studies. Molecular dynamics simulations of the motif variants E1XXE2R and E1XXQ2R support this mechanism. The simulations showed that upon changing conformation, arginine pushes Helix V, through interactions with the highly...... conserved FYING motif, further away from the central cavity, in what could be a stabilization of an inward-facing conformation. As E2 has been suggested to be the primary site for protonation, these novel findings show how protonation may drive conformational changes through interactions of two highly...

  5. Influence of proton scattering angles on the energy radiograph in proton radiotherapy : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, A.K.; Takatsu, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; van der Graaf, E.R.; van Goethem, M-J.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-01-01

    The treatment quality of cancer patients with a proton beam critically depends on accurate predictions of proton stopping powers. Uncertainties in proton range that occur from translation of an X-ray CT patient image, of typical 3–4% or more, lead to necessary enlargements of contours around the

  6. Proton energy and scattering angle radiographs to improve proton treatment planning : a Monte Carlo study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biegun, Aleksandra; Takatsu, Jun; Nakaji, Taku; van Goethem, Marc-Jan; van der Graaf, Emiel; Koffeman, E.; Visser, Jan; Brandenburg, Sijtze

    2016-01-01

    The novel proton radiography imaging technique has a large potential to be used in direct measurement of the proton energy loss (proton stopping power, PSP) in various tissues in the patient. The uncertainty of PSPs, currently obtained from translation of X-ray Computed Tomography (xCT) images,

  7. External protons destabilize the activated voltage sensor in hERG channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu Patrick; Cheng, Yen May; Van Slyke, Aaron C; Claydon, Tom W

    2014-03-01

    Extracellular acidosis shifts hERG channel activation to more depolarized potentials and accelerates channel deactivation; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear. External divalent cations, e.g., Ca(2+) and Cd(2+), mimic these effects and coordinate within a metal ion binding pocket composed of three acidic residues in hERG: D456 and D460 in S2 and D509 in S3. A common mechanism may underlie divalent cation and proton effects on hERG gating. Using two-electrode voltage clamp, we show proton sensitivity of hERG channel activation (pKa = 5.6), but not deactivation, was greatly reduced in the presence of Cd(2+) (0.1 mM), suggesting a common binding site for the Cd(2+) and proton effect on activation and separable effects of protons on activation and deactivation. Mutational analysis confirmed that D509 plays a critical role in the pH dependence of activation, as shown previously, and that cooperative actions involving D456 and D460 are also required. Importantly, neutralization of all three acidic residues abolished the proton-induced shift of activation, suggesting that the metal ion binding pocket alone accounts for the effects of protons on hERG channel activation. Voltage-clamp fluorimetry measurements demonstrated that protons shifted the voltage dependence of S4 movement to more depolarized potentials. The data indicate a site and mechanism of action for protons on hERG activation gating; protonation of D456, D460 and D509 disrupts interactions between these residues and S4 gating charges to destabilize the activated configuration of S4.

  8. Electron reconstruction and identification efficiency measurements with the ATLAS detector using the 2011 LHC proton-proton collision data.

    Science.gov (United States)

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    Many of the interesting physics processes to be measured at the LHC have a signature involving one or more isolated electrons. The electron reconstruction and identification efficiencies of the ATLAS detector at the LHC have been evaluated using proton-proton collision data collected in 2011 at [Formula: see text] TeV and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb[Formula: see text]. Tag-and-probe methods using events with leptonic decays of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] bosons and [Formula: see text] mesons are employed to benchmark these performance parameters. The combination of all measurements results in identification efficiencies determined with an accuracy at the few per mil level for electron transverse energy greater than 30 GeV.

  9. Charged-Particle Multiplicity Distributions over Wide Pseudorapidity Range in Proton-Proton and Proton-Lead Collisions with ALICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaccolo, Valentina

    The charged–particle distribution (P(Nch) as a function of Nch), producedin high energy collisions between protons (pp) and between protons and heavynucleus (pPb), depends on the fundamental processes, which lead to the formationof the observed particles. In particular, the so–called multiplicity...

  10. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at root s=7 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

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H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Da Costa, H. Pereira; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Lara, C. E. Perez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Razazi, V.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J. -P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Manso, A. Rodriguez; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Roehrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Castro, X. Sanchez; Sandor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seeder, K. S.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Sogaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Stassinaki, M. Spyropoulou; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; De Toledo, A. Szanto; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Takaki, J. D. Tapia; Peloni, A. Tarantola; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Munoz, G. Tejeda; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thaeder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Palomo, L. Valencia; Vallero, S.; Van der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; Van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Limon, S. Vergara; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Vlkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. -K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of primary pi(+/-), K-+/-, p and (p) over bar production at mid-rapidity (|y| <0.5) in proton-proton collisions at root s = 7 TeV performed with a large ion collider experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific

  11. Proton pump inhibitors and osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarne Nesgaard; Johansen, Per Birger; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months and a di......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months...... and a discussion of these findings and how this has influenced our understanding of this association, the clinical impact and the underlying pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have further strengthened existing evidence linking use of PPIs to osteoporosis. Short-term use does not appear to pose a lower...... risk than long-term use. There is a continued lack of conclusive studies identifying the pathogenesis. Direct effects on calcium absorption or on osteoblast or osteoclast action cannot at present plausibly explain the mechanism. SUMMARY: The use of PPIs is a risk factor for development of osteoporosis...

  12. The ATLAS Forward Proton Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebinski, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton Programme - talk for the Low-x 2012 Meeting Quartic anomalous couplings measurement at μ = 46 and a total luminosity of 300 fb−1 is possible. The full AFP simulation in presence of pile-up confirms the gain in sensitivity between one and two orders of magnitude with respect to the standard (non-AFP) ATLAS methods. The use of the AFP allows reaching the values expected in Higgs-less or extra-dimension models. The production of exclusive dijet for μ = 23 and a total luminosity of 40 fb−1 the measurement is possible and interesting due to the huge model uncertainties at present level of the theory understanding. The measurement of the W asymmetry in a specific configuration at low μ allows to get a decisive understanding on the diffractive exchange. For all physics cases, AFP capabilities in terms of proton tagging and timing resolution are key and unique features unprecedented sensitivity to quartic anomalous coupling or novel QCD measurements.

  13. Centroid theory of transverse electron-proton two-stream instability in a long proton bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Sen F. Wang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of the transverse electron-proton (e-p two-stream instability in a proton bunch propagating through a stationary electron background. The equations of motion, including damping effects, are derived for the centroids of the proton beam and the electron cloud by considering Lorentzian and Gaussian frequency spreads for the particles. For a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we derive the asymptotic solution of the coupled linear centroid equations in the time domain and study the e-p instability in proton bunches with nonuniform line densities. Examples are given for both uniform and parabolic proton line densities.

  14. The quark fraction of the proton spin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandula, J.E. (Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of High Energy Physics)

    1992-05-01

    We report on a lattice QCD estimate of the fraction of the proton spin that the quark spin is responsible for. The estimate is arrived at by means of a lattice QCD simulation of the polarized proton matrix element of the anomaly, F[sub [mu][nu

  15. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  16. LHC Availability 2017: Standard Proton Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period from restart to the end of standard proton physics in 2017. This covers the whole standard proton physics production period. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  17. Proton Therapy Research and Treatment Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodnight, J.E. Jr. (University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States). Cancer Center); Alonso, J.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This Grant proposal outlines the steps that will be undertaken to bring the UC Davis Proton Therapy Research and Treatment, known locally as the Proton Therapy Facility (PTF), through its design and construction phases. This application concentrates on the design phase of the PTF project.

  18. Electron and proton transport by NADPH oxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaurex, Nicolas; Petheö, Gábor L

    2005-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase is the main weapon of phagocytic white blood cells that are the first line of defence of our body against invading pathogens, and patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from severe and recurrent infections. The oxidase is a multisubunit enzyme complex that transports electrons from cytoplasmic NADPH to molecular oxygen in order to generate superoxide free radicals. Electron transport across the plasma membrane is electrogenic and is associated with the flux of protons through voltage-activated proton channels. Both proton and electron currents can be recorded with the patch-clamp technique, but whether the oxidase is a proton channel or a proton channel modulator remains controversial. Recently, we have used the inside–out configuration of the patch-clamp technique to record proton and electron currents in excised patches. This approach allows us to measure the oxidase activity under very controlled conditions, and has provided new information about the enzymatic activity of the oxidase and its coupling to proton channels. In this chapter I will discuss how the unique characteristics of the electron and proton currents associated with the redox activity of the NADPH oxidase have extended our knowledge about the thermodynamics and the physiological regulation of this remarkable enzyme. PMID:16321802

  19. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    been carried out to study the proton radioactivity from proton-rich nuclei [2]. The existing theoretical studies can be classified into two broad categories. In the first category different theoretical approaches are based on quantum mechanical foun- dation such as transmission through a potential barrier [3], distorted wave Born.

  20. Configuration Manual Polarized Proton Collider at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, I.; Allgower, C.; Bai, M.; Batygin, Y.; Bozano, L.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Cameron, P.; Courant, E.; Erin, S.; Escallier, J.; Fischer, W.; Gupta, R.; Hatanka, K.; Huang, H.; Imai, K.; Ishihara, M.; Jain, A.; Kanavets, V.; Katayama, T.; Kawaguchi, T.; Kelly, E.; Kurita, K.; Lee, S. Y.; Luccio, A.; MacKay, W. W.; Mahler, G.; Makdisi, Y.; Mariam, F.; McGahern, W.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Okamura, M.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsin, V.; Ratner, L.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satoh, H.; Shatunov, Y.; Spinka, H.; Svirida, D.; Syphers, M.; Tepikian, S.; Tominaka, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Wu, H.; Yokosawa, A.; Zelenski, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we present our design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. We provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  1. CONFIGURATION MANUAL POLARIZED PROTON COLLIDER AT RHIC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROSER,T.; MACKAY,W.W.; ALEKSEEV,I.; BAI,M.; BROWN,K.; BUNCE,G.; CAMERON,P.; COURANT,E.; ET AL.

    2001-03-01

    In this report, the authors present their design to accelerate and store polarized protons in RHIC, with the level of polarization, luminosity, and control of systematic errors required by the approved RHIC spin physics program. They provide an overview of the physics to be studied using RHIC with polarized proton beams, and a brief description of the accelerator systems required for the project.

  2. [Interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsze, A.M.; Boer, A. de; Boot, H.; Deneer, V.H.; Heringa, M.; Mol, P.G.; Schalekamp, T.; Verduijn, M.M.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Comte, M. le

    2011-01-01

    The drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel has been the subject of much study in recent years. Contradictory results regarding the effect of proton pump inhibitors on platelet reactivity and on clinical outcome in clopidogrel-treated patients have been reported in

  3. Electron injection by relativistic protons in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Marek; Kirk, John G.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Schneider, Peter

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that protons with Lorentz factors larger than about 1,000,000 are cooled very rapidly by collisions with soft photons in the environment of an AGN. If the energy distribution of accelerated protons is sufficiently flat, then most of the energy contained in relativistic protons will be transformed to pairs, and then to radiation. Under these conditions, proton cooling due to p-gamma interactions is much more important than energy losses due to inelastic proton-proton collisions.

  4. Track Reconstruction and the Proton Radius Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven; Cline, Ethan; Gilman, Ron; MUSE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    In 2010, Pohl et al. measured the proton charge radius to be 0.84184(67) fm using muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. This value differs about 5 σ from the CODATA proton radius from measurements with electrons. Other experiments with muons and electrons have confirmed the difference and the discrepancy has been termed the `Proton Radius Puzzle.' Currently there are no explanations for the puzzle. The MUon proton Scattering Experiment (MUSE) will make a significant measurement of the proton radius with muon scattering for the first time. The experiment tracks elastic scattering of electrons and muons off of liquid hydrogen. Particle tracks are reconstructed with track fitting software GenFit. Using a simulation of MUSE, GenFit has been determined to be proficient at track reconstruction. This project has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation Grant PHY-1560077.

  5. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elangovan, S [South Jordan, UT; Nair, Balakrishnan G [Sandy, UT; Small, Troy [Midvale, UT; Heck, Brian [Salt Lake City, UT

    2011-09-06

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  6. Status of the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

    CERN Document Server

    Choi Byung Ho

    2005-01-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) approved and launched by the Korean government in July 2002 includes a 100MeV proton linear accelerator development and a program for its utilization. The first phase of the project, running from 2002 to 2005, was the design of a 100MeV proton linear accelerator and a part of development to 20 MeV. This consists of a 50 keV proton injector, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and a 20MeV drift tube linac (DTL). The 50 keV injector and the 3 MeV RFQ has been installed and tested, and the 20 MeV DTL is being assembled and tuned for beam tests. At the same time, the utilization programs using the proton beam have been planned, and some are now under way. The status and progress of the project are reported in detail.

  7. Studies of Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals: Quantification of Capping Ligands and the Coupling of Protons and Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carolyn N.

    The energetics of semiconductors are widely relevant to technologies ranging from chemical- and photo-catalysis to charge injection in photovoltaic materials. In these processes involving electron transfer, protons often play a critical but overlooked role in facilitating charge transfer. For example, the conduction band energies of most metal oxides in contact with an aqueous solution demonstrate a Nernstian pH dependence, an observation that cannot be explained by surface protonation models. Given that a Nernstian dependence is typically attributed to proton coupled electron transfer (PCET), we are interested in determining if the reduction of metal oxides can also be described by PCET. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocrystals (NCs) were chosen as a model system given the broad range of previous research on bulk and nanocrystalline forms of ZnO, the relative ease of synthesis and characterization, and their use in developing a fundamental understanding of interfacial electron transfer. We demonstrate that photochemically reduced NCs react with hydrogen-atom acceptors, indicating that both electrons and protons are transferred by the NCs. To isolate the influence of a proton coupled to the extra electron in the conduction band, the NCs have also been reduced chemically. Addition of an excess of the one-electron reductant CoCp*2 (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl, -1.94 V vs. Fc/Fc+) gives NCs that contain extra electrons in the conduction band, without protons that arise from photoreduction. Protons can also be individually added stoichiometrically to the NCs by either a photoreduction/oxidation sequence or by addition of acid. Using these methods, we have shown that the presence of one extra proton drastically alters the redox potential of the NCs. With the addition of acid the NC orbitals are lowered, allowing the systematic variation of driving force for electron transfer from the reductant to the NCs. In the presence of excess reductant and acid, the number of electrons

  8. High density scintillating glass proton imaging detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. J.; Goranson, K.; Turney, A.; Xie, Q.; Tillman, I. J.; Thune, Z. L.; Dong, A.; Pritchett, D.; McInally, W.; Potter, A.; Wang, D.; Akgun, U.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, proton therapy has achieved remarkable precision in delivering doses to cancerous cells while avoiding healthy tissue. However, in order to utilize this high precision treatment, greater accuracy in patient positioning is needed. An accepted approximate uncertainty of +/-3% exists in the current practice of proton therapy due to conversions between x-ray and proton stopping power. The use of protons in imaging would eliminate this source of error and lessen the radiation exposure of the patient. To this end, this study focuses on developing a novel proton-imaging detector built with high-density glass scintillator. The model described herein contains a compact homogeneous proton calorimeter composed of scintillating, high density glass as the active medium. The unique geometry of this detector allows for the measurement of both the position and residual energy of protons, eliminating the need for a separate set of position trackers in the system. Average position and energy of a pencil beam of 106 protons is used to reconstruct the image rather than by analyzing individual proton data. Simplicity and efficiency were major objectives in this model in order to present an imaging technique that is compact, cost-effective, and precise, as well as practical for a clinical setting with pencil-beam scanning proton therapy equipment. In this work, the development of novel high-density glass scintillator and the unique conceptual design of the imager are discussed; a proof-of-principle Monte Carlo simulation study is performed; preliminary two-dimensional images reconstructed from the Geant4 simulation are presented.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Proton Loss from Carotenoid Radical Cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kispert, Lowell D [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Focsan, A Ligia [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Konovalova, Tatyana A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawrence, Jesse [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowman, Michael K [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dixon, David A [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Molnar, Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deli, Jozsef [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-06-11

    Carotenoids, intrinsic components of reaction centers and pigment-protein complexes in photosynthetic membranes, play a photoprotective role and serve as a secondary electron donor. Before optimum use of carotenoids can be made in artificial photosynthetic systems, their robust nature in living materials requires extensive characterization of their electron transfer, radical trapping ability, stability, structure in and on various hosts, and photochemical behavior. Pulsed ENDOR and 2D-HYSCORE studies combined with DFT calculations reveal that photo-oxidation of natural zeaxanthin (I) and violaxanthin (II) on silica-alumina produces not only the carotenoid radical cations (Car•+) but also neutral radicals (#Car•) by proton loss from the methyl groups at positions 5 or 5', and possibly 9 or 9' and 13 or 13'. Notably, the proton loss favored in I at the 5 position by DFT calculations, is unfavorable in II due to the epoxide at the 5, 6 position. DFT calculations predict the isotropic methyl proton couplings of 8-10 MHz for Car•+ which agree with the ENDOR for carotenoid α-conjugated radical cations. Large α-proton hyperfine coupling constants (>10 MHz) determined from HYSCORE are assigned from the DFT calculations to neutral carotenoid radicals. Proton loss upon photolysis was also examined as a function of carotenoid polarity [Lycopene (III) versus 8'-apo-β-caroten-8'-al (IV)]; hydrogen bonding [Lutein (V) versus III]; host [silica-alumina versus MCM-41 molecular sieve]; and substituted metal in MCM-41. Loss of H+ from the 5(5'), 9(9') or 13(13') methyl positions has importance in photoprotection. Photoprotection involves nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) in which 1Ch1* decays via energy transfer to the carotenoid which returns to the ground state by thermal dissipation; or via electron transfer to form a charge transfer state (I •+…Chl•-), lower in energy than 1Chl*. Formation of I •+ results in bond

  10. The amazing world of smashed protons and lead ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    When a single proton (p) is smashed against a lead ion (Pb), unexpected events may occur: in the most violent p-Pb collisions, correlations of particles exhibit similar features as in lead-lead collisions where quark-gluon plasma is formed. This and other amazing results were presented by the ALICE experiment at the SQM2013 conference held in Birmingham from 21 to 27 July.   Event display from the proton-lead run, in January 2013. This event was generated by the High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ALICE experiment. “Jet quenching” is one of the most powerful signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) formed in high-energy lead-lead collisions. QGP is expected to exist only in specific conditions involving extremely hot temperatures and a very high particle concentration. These conditions are not expected to apply in the case of less “dense” particle collisions such as proton-lead collisions. “When we observe the results of these collisions in ALICE, ...

  11. Protonation enhancement by dichloromethane doping in low-pressure photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinian; Zou, Yao; Xu, Ce; Li, Zhen; Sun, Wanqi; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Haixu; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Pengkun

    2016-12-01

    Doping has been used to enhance the ionization efficiency of analytes in atmospheric pressure photoionization, which is based on charge exchange. Compounds with excellent ionization efficiencies are usually chosen as dopants. In this paper, we report a new phenomenon observed in low-pressure photoionization: Protonation enhancement by dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) doping. CH2Cl2 is not a common dopant due to its high ionization energy (11.33 eV). The low-pressure photoionization source was built using a krypton VUV lamp that emits photons with energies of 10.0 and 10.6 eV and was operated at ~500-1000 Pa. Protonation of water, methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde was respectively enhanced by 481.7 ± 122.4, 197.8 ± 18.8, 87.3 ± 7.8, and 93.5 ± 35.5 times after doping 291 ppmv CH2Cl2, meanwhile CH2Cl2 almost does not generate noticeable ions itself. This phenomenon has not been documented in the literature. A new protonation process involving in ion-pair and H-bond formations was proposed to expound the phenomenon. The observed phenomenon opens a new prospect for the improvement of the detection efficiency of VUV photoionization.

  12. Proton induced luminescence of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Millan, A.; Calderon, T. [Depto. Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra. Colmenar, km. 15, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Beneitez, P. [Departamento Quimica Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Ruvalcaba S, J.L. [lFUNAM, Circuito de la lnvestigacion Cientifica s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of Ionoluminescence (IL) for several minerals commonly found in jewellery pieces and/or artefacts of historical interest. Samples including silicates and non-silicates (native elements, halide, oxide, carbonate and phosphate groups) have been excited with a 1.8 MeV proton beam, and IL spectra in the range of 200- 900 nm have been collected for each one using a fiber optic coupled spectrometer. Light emissions have been related to Cr{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Pr{sup 3+} ions, as well as intrinsic defects in these minerals. Results show the potential of IL for impurity characterization with high detection limits, local symmetry studies, and the study of the origin of minerals. (Author)

  13. Proton transport in additives to the polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cell application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toelle, Pia

    2011-03-21

    uptake and distribution of water molecules was estimated from classical molecular dynamic simulations and the local chemical environment was determined for different functional groups. The sulphonic acid functionalised silicon dioxide pores are more hydrophilic than the unfunctionalised and the imidazole functionalised systems. At lower hydration, the distribution of water is inhomogeneous and the surface of the pore is covered by a water layer for all systems. In addition to the interaction with water, an interaction of functional groups with the surface is observed which is shielded under hydration. Due to these interactions, the number of isolated groups and their stability is increased under the influence of the environment that reduces the proton transport mechanism which has been described before. Apart from the proton transport mechanism known from the vacuum system, two additional mechanisms occur under the chemical environment. These mechanism directly involve water molecules. One possibility is the complete deprotonation of the functional group, followed by water based proton transport as expected for acidic system, e.g. sulphonic acid. Another possibility is a water based proton transport over short distances from one proton conducting group to another. The three competing mechanisms are studied by free energy calculations and their occurance is evaluated according to the local environment conditions. The proton transport mechanisms involving water are more favourable in sulphonic acid functionalised particles, while the dominating mechanism is comparable to the mechanism in vacuum for imidazole system. (orig.)

  14. Proton-ion collisions: behind the scenes of an exotic interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Protons to the right, ions to the left: the basic principle of proton-ion collisions at the LHC might seem straightforward. However, this is an almost unprecedented mode of collider operation, certainly unique at the energy provided by the LHC. In addition to being a remarkable technical achievement, this interaction between a proton and an ion can potentially contribute a lot to the understanding of the properties of matter in its primordial state.   Prior to last week, the LHC had only collided protons with protons and lead ions with lead ions. These were indeed the two operational schemes the LHC was designed for. However, since science can often evolve in directions that were not necessarily expected at the beginning of a project, over the years the scientific community has become more and more interested in the hybrid type of interaction – that between protons and ions. Last week’s collisions were only a test for the teams involved in the operation of the LHC, in prepara...

  15. Insights into the Proton Transfer Mechanism of a Bilin Reductase PcyA Following Neutron Crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masaki; Ishikawa-Suto, Kumiko; Kusaka, Katsuhiro; Tamada, Taro; Hagiwara, Yoshinori; Sugishima, Masakazu; Wada, Kei; Yamada, Taro; Tomoyori, Katsuaki; Hosoya, Takaaki; Tanaka, Ichiro; Niimura, Nobuo; Kuroki, Ryota; Inaka, Koji; Ishihara, Makiko; Fukuyama, Keiichi

    2015-04-29

    Phycocyanobilin, a light-harvesting and photoreceptor pigment in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, is synthesized from biliverdin IXα (BV) by phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PcyA) via two steps of two-proton-coupled two-electron reduction. We determined the neutron structure of PcyA from cyanobacteria complexed with BV, revealing the exact location of the hydrogen atoms involved in catalysis. Notably, approximately half of the BV bound to PcyA was BVH(+), a state in which all four pyrrole nitrogen atoms were protonated. The protonation states of BV complemented the protonation of adjacent Asp105. The "axial" water molecule that interacts with the neutral pyrrole nitrogen of the A-ring was identified. His88 Nδ was protonated to form a hydrogen bond with the lactam O atom of the BV A-ring. His88 and His74 were linked by hydrogen bonds via H3O(+). These results imply that Asp105, His88, and the axial water molecule contribute to proton transfer during PcyA catalysis.

  16. Early Clinical Outcomes Using Proton Radiation for Children With Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Amorim Bernstein, Karen; Sethi, Roshan; Trofimov, Alexei; Zeng, Chuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fullerton, Barbara [Department of Otology and Laryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Yeap, Beow Y. [Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ebb, David [Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J.; Yock, Torunn I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); MacDonald, Shannon M., E-mail: smacdonald@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is an uncommon and aggressive tumor that often affects infants. Irradiation improves survival but has traditionally been avoided in patients under the age of 3 due to the increasing risk of neurocognitive side effects. We report the first cohort of AT/RT patients treated with proton therapy. Methods and Materials: All patients with AT/RT treated at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Frances H. Burr Proton Beam Therapy Benter between July 2004 and November 2011 were included in this study. All patients were treated with 3-dimensional conformal proton therapy (3D-CPT). Results: Ten consecutive patients of a median 2.3 years of age and with a median follow-up of 27.3 months (range, 11.3-99.4 months) were identified. Two patients suffered distant relapse; 1 patient was successfully treated with involved field irradiation and chemotherapy, while the second patient died of disease. At last follow-up, 9 patients were alive without evidence of disease. Proton radiation demonstrated increasing sparing of the cerebrum, temporal lobe, cochlea, and hypothalamus. Conclusions: Initial clinical outcomes with proton therapy are favorable. The advantages of proton therapy are particularly suited to the treatment of AT/RT, a tumor that often requires irradiation treatment at an age when avoiding irradiation to healthy tissues is most desirable.

  17. Advanced proton-exchange materials for energy efficient fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Cy H.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Hickner, Michael A.; Cornelius, Christopher James; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Hibbs, Michael R.

    2005-12-01

    The ''Advanced Proton-Exchange Materials for Energy Efficient Fuel Cells'' Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project began in October 2002 and ended in September 2005. This LDRD was funded by the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy strategic business unit. The purpose of this LDRD was to initiate the fundamental research necessary for the development of a novel proton-exchange membranes (PEM) to overcome the material and performance limitations of the ''state of the art'' Nafion that is used in both hydrogen and methanol fuel cells. An atomistic modeling effort was added to this LDRD in order to establish a frame work between predicted morphology and observed PEM morphology in order to relate it to fuel cell performance. Significant progress was made in the area of PEM material design, development, and demonstration during this LDRD. A fundamental understanding involving the role of the structure of the PEM material as a function of sulfonic acid content, polymer topology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and electrode electrolyte ink development was demonstrated during this LDRD. PEM materials based upon random and block polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes were created and evaluated for improvements in proton conductivity, reduced swelling, reduced O{sub 2} and H{sub 2} permeability, and increased thermal stability. Results from this work reveal that the family of polyphenylenes potentially solves several technical challenges associated with obtaining a high temperature PEM membrane. Fuel cell relevant properties such as high proton conductivity (>120 mS/cm), good thermal stability, and mechanical robustness were demonstrated during this LDRD. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and results of this LDRD.

  18. Search for Dark Matter with LHC proton Beam Dump

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ashok; Sharma, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter (DM) comprising particles in the mass range of a few MeV to GeV is waiting to be explored, given the many theoretical models accommodating cosmological abundance. We hereby propose an experiment with the LHC proton beam of 7 TeV striking onto the beam dump target, emitting neutrinos and possibly, Dark Matter candidates. This experiment would also permit to observe signatures involving elastic and inelastic processes involving DM candidates, electrons and strongly interacting particles present in nuclei of the dump target. There will be residual neutrino background present in each of these signatures, hence the proposed experimental detector sub-systems would be such that they would involve as final states, elastically or inelasticity scattered, standard model particles. The bump or the excess in the tail of the kinematic distributions will eventually give us glimpse of presence of new particles which could possibly be Dark Matter candidates. Given the parameters of the LHC machine, the sensitivity...

  19. Extracellular protons enable activation of the calcium-dependent chloride channel TMEM16A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rangel, Silvia; De Jesús-Pérez, José J; Aréchiga-Figueroa, Iván A; Rodríguez-Menchaca, Aldo A; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Hartzell, H Criss; Arreola, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A provides a pathway for chloride ion movements that are key in preventing polyspermy, allowing fluid secretion, controlling blood pressure, and enabling gastrointestinal activity. TMEM16A is opened by voltage-dependent calcium binding and regulated by permeant anions and intracellular protons. Here we show that a low proton concentration reduces TMEM16A activity while maximum activation is obtained when the external proton concentration is high. In addition, protonation conditions determine the open probability of TMEM16A without changing its calcium sensitivity. External glutamic acid 623 (E623) is key for TMEM16A's ability to respond to external protons. At physiological pH, E623 is un-protonated and TMEM16A is activated when intracellular calcium increases; however, under acidic conditions E623 is partially protonated and works synergistically with intracellular calcium to activate the channel. These findings are critical for understanding physiological and pathological processes that involve changes in pH and chloride flux via TMEM16A. Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), also known as ANO1, the pore-forming subunit of a Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) channel (CaCC), is activated by direct, voltage-dependent, binding of intracellular Ca(2+) . Endogenous CaCCs are regulated by extracellular protons; however, the molecular basis of such regulation remains unidentified. Here, we evaluated the effects of different extracellular proton concentrations ([H(+) ]o ) on mouse TMEM16A expressed in HEK-293 cells using whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp recordings. We found that increasing the [H(+) ]o from 10(-10) to 10(-5.5)  m caused a progressive increase in the chloride current (ICl ) that is described by titration of a protonatable site with pK = 7.3. Protons regulate TMEM16A in a voltage-independent manner, regardless of channel state (open or closed), and without altering its apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity. Noise analysis

  20. Proton–proton fusion in lattice effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupak, Gautam, E-mail: grupak@u.washington.edu; Ravi, Pranaam, E-mail: pr340@msstate.edu

    2015-02-04

    The proton–proton fusion rate is calculated at low energy in a lattice effective field theory (EFT) formulation. The strong and the Coulomb interactions are treated non-perturbatively at leading order in the EFT. The lattice results are shown to accurately describe the low energy cross section within the validity of the theory at energies relevant to solar physics. In prior works in the literature, Coulomb effects were generally not included in non-perturbative lattice calculations. Work presented here is of general interest in nuclear lattice EFT calculations that involve Coulomb effects at low energy. It complements recent developments of the adiabatic projection method for lattice calculations of nuclear reactions.

  1. Dielectron production in proton-proton collisions with ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Markus Konrad

    2015-10-01

    Ultrarelativistic hadron collisions, such as delivered since a couple of years at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), provide new insights into the properties of strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities, which is expected to have existed a few of a millionth seconds after the big bang. Electromagnetic probes, such as leptons and photons, are emitted during the entire collision. Since they do not undergo strong interactions, they reflect the entire evolution of the collision. Pairs of leptons, so called dileptons, have the advantage compared to real photons, that they do not only carry momentum, but also have a non-zero invariant mass. The invariant mass spectrum of dileptons is a superposition of several components and allows to address different characteristics of the medium. To understand dielectron production in heavy-ion collisions, reference measurements in proton-proton (pp) collisions are necessary. pp collisions reflect the vacuum contribution of the particles produced in heavy-ion collisions. The analysis of pp collisions is an essential step towards the extraction of medium influences on the vector meson spectral functions and the thermal radiation in heavy-ion collisions. In this thesis, the production of electron-positron pairs (dielectrons) in pp collisions at a collision energy of 7 TeV in the ALICE central barrel is analysed. ALICE has unique particle identification capabilities at low momentum. Electrons and positrons are identified with a high purity and combined to pairs. The invariant mass distribution of dielectrons is corrected for detector effects and the selection criteria in the analysis with Monte Carlo simulations. The dielectron invariant mass spectrum of known hadronic sources is calculated based on the cross sections measured in other decay channels using the known decay kinematics. This so called hadronic cocktail represents the dielectron spectrum at the moment of kinematic freeze-out and can be compared to the

  2. Proton induced defect formation in quartz glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulamova, R.R.; Gasanov, E.M.; Alimov, R. [Uzbekian AS, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics

    1996-12-31

    The contributions of ionization energy losses and elastic collisions to radiation induced defect formation along the proton track were considered in quartz glasses irradiated by protons with different energies. It is shown that on a larger part of the proton track the color and luminescence center formation by means of recharging of the native defects is due to the ionization energy losses. Generation of structural defects like displaced atoms and their vacancies by elastic collisions with protons and recoil atoms dominates for proton energies < 5 MeV. At proton energies > 10 MeV the color and luminescence center formation due to ionization energy losses prevails, and generation of the alumina-alkaline centers, causing an increase of the optical absorption at 550 nm and the thermoluminescence peak at 360 C and a band at 460 nm, occurs. At the proton energies E{sub p} < 10 MeV generation of the displaced atoms and their vacancies by elastic collisions dominates, leading to an increase of the E{prime}-centers and to the destruction and transformation of the alumina-alkaline centers.

  3. Absolute proton affinity of some polyguanides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksic; Kovacevic

    2000-06-02

    The problem of the absolute proton affinity (APA) of some polyguanides is addressed by the MP2(fc)/6-311+G//HF/6-31G theoretical model. It is shown that the linear chain polyguanides exhibit increased basicity as a function of the number of guanide subunits. However, the saturation effect yields an asymptotic APA value of 254 kcal/mol. Branched polyguanides on the other hand have higher APAs than their linear counterparts. The largest proton affinity is found in a doubly bifurcated heptaguanide, being as high as 285 kcal/mol, thus potentially representing one of the strongest organic bases. Finally, it is found that all polyguanides protonate at imino nitrogen atoms, since they are apparently susceptible the most to the proton attack. The origin of their very high intrinsic basicity is traced down to a dramatic increase in the resonance interaction of the corresponding conjugate bases. For instance, the increase in the resonance energy in the protonated guanidine is estimated to be in a range of 24-27 kcal/mol, which is higher than the aromatic stabilization in benzene. The proton affinity of some polycyclic guanides including Schwesinger proton sponge and porphine is briefly discussed.

  4. Nerve Conduction Through Dendrites via Proton Hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier, Lemont B

    2017-01-01

    In our previous studies of nerve conduction conducted by proton hopping, we have considered the axon, soma, synapse and the nodes of Ranvier. The role of proton hopping described the passage of information through each of these units of a typical nerve system. The synapse projects information from the axon to the dendrite and their associated spines. We have invoked the passage of protons via a hopping mechanism to illustrate the continuum of the impulse through the system, via the soma following the dendrites. This is proposed to be a continuum invoked by the proton hopping method. With the proposal of the activity through the dendrites, via proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve function is invoked. At each step to the way, a water pathway is present and is invoked in the proposed model as the carrier of the message via proton hopping. The importance of the dendrites is evident by the presence of a vast number of spines, each possessing the possibility to carry unique messages through the nervous system. With this model of the role of dendrites, functioning with the presence of proton hopping, a complete model of the nerve system is presented. The validity of this model will be available for further studies and models to assess it's validity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Phenyl-Adenine, Identified in a LIGHT-DEPENDENT SHORT HYPOCOTYLS4-Assisted Chemical Screen, Is a Potent Compound for Shoot Regeneration through the Inhibition of CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE Activity1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Hans; Galuszka, Petr; Spíchal, Lukáš; Tarkowski, Petr; Plíhal, Ondřej; Šmehilová, Mária; Jaworek, Pavel; Vereecke, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In vitro shoot regeneration is implemented in basic plant research and commercial plant production, but for some plant species, it is still difficult to achieve by means of the currently available cytokinins and auxins. To identify novel compounds that promote shoot regeneration, we screened a library of 10,000 small molecules. The bioassay consisted of a two-step regeneration protocol adjusted and optimized for high-throughput manipulations of root explants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) carrying the shoot regeneration marker LIGHT-DEPENDENT SHORT HYPOCOTYLS4. The screen revealed a single compound, the cytokinin-like phenyl-adenine (Phe-Ade), as a potent inducer of adventitious shoots. Although Phe-Ade triggered diverse cytokinin-dependent phenotypical responses, it did not inhibit shoot growth and was not cytotoxic at high concentrations. Transcript profiling of cytokinin-related genes revealed that Phe-Ade treatment established a typical cytokinin response. Moreover, Phe-Ade activated the cytokinin receptors ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE3 and ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 in a bacterial receptor assay, albeit at relatively high concentrations, illustrating that it exerts genuine but weak cytokinin activity. In addition, we demonstrated that Phe-Ade is a strong competitive inhibitor of CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE enzymes, leading to an accumulation of endogenous cytokinins. Collectively, Phe-Ade exhibits a dual mode of action that results in a strong shoot-inducing activity. PMID:23288884

  6. Phenyl-adenine, identified in a LIGHT-DEPENDENT SHORT HYPOCOTYLS4-assisted chemical screen, is a potent compound for shoot regeneration through the inhibition of CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Hans; Galuszka, Petr; Spíchal, Lukáš; Tarkowski, Petr; Plíhal, Ondrej; Šmehilová, Mária; Jaworek, Pavel; Vereecke, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan; Geelen, Danny

    2013-03-01

    In vitro shoot regeneration is implemented in basic plant research and commercial plant production, but for some plant species, it is still difficult to achieve by means of the currently available cytokinins and auxins. To identify novel compounds that promote shoot regeneration, we screened a library of 10,000 small molecules. The bioassay consisted of a two-step regeneration protocol adjusted and optimized for high-throughput manipulations of root explants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) carrying the shoot regeneration marker LIGHT-DEPENDENT SHORT HYPOCOTYLS4. The screen revealed a single compound, the cytokinin-like phenyl-adenine (Phe-Ade), as a potent inducer of adventitious shoots. Although Phe-Ade triggered diverse cytokinin-dependent phenotypical responses, it did not inhibit shoot growth and was not cytotoxic at high concentrations. Transcript profiling of cytokinin-related genes revealed that Phe-Ade treatment established a typical cytokinin response. Moreover, Phe-Ade activated the cytokinin receptors ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE3 and ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 in a bacterial receptor assay, albeit at relatively high concentrations, illustrating that it exerts genuine but weak cytokinin activity. In addition, we demonstrated that Phe-Ade is a strong competitive inhibitor of CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE enzymes, leading to an accumulation of endogenous cytokinins. Collectively, Phe-Ade exhibits a dual mode of action that results in a strong shoot-inducing activity.

  7. Investigation of Proton Focusing and Conversion Efficiency for Proton Fast Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartal, Teresa Jean

    Recent advances in generating high energy (> 50 MeV) protons from intense laser-matter interactions has opened up new areas of research, with applications in radiography, high energy density physics, and ion-proton beam fast ignition (FI). The ability to focus the proton beam has made these applications more attractive. Fast ignition (FI) is an evolved concept of conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). In proton FI, a collimated beam of protons is used to deliver the necessary ignition energy to the compressed Deuterium-Tritium (DT) fuel capsule instead of the original concept of a beam composed of relativistic electrons. In cone-guided FI, a cone is embedded into the side of the fuel capsule where the proton source foil is placed within the cone. The cone provides a clear path to the dense core and protects the proton source foil from radiation during the compression of the capsule. The proton source foil is a segment of a hemispherical shell target used to help focus the proton beam to the core to spark ignition. The viability of proton FI requires focusing of the generated proton beam to a 40 mum spot at the compressed fuel and a laser to proton conversion efficiency of ˜15%. Here, proton focusing and the laser to proton conversion efficiency are investigated using flat foils and hemispherical shell targets. Experiments were conducted on the 200 TW short pulse laser at Los Alamos Laboratory. The 1053 nm laser pulse delivered 70--80 J on target in 500--600 fs focused by an f/8 parabolic mirror. The generated proton beam from the target was examined by placing a mesh downstream of the target, which the proton beam would pass though and then imaged with a pack of radiochromic film (RCF). A 3D ray-tracing technique was developed to determine the focal position and focal spot size of the generated proton beam by tracing the proton trajectories from the image of the mesh collected by the RCF back through the mesh to the central axis. The focal position

  8. Proton computed tomography images with algebraic reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzzi, M. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Civinini, C.; Scaringella, M. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Bonanno, D. [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chemistry and Pharmacy Department, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Presti, D. Lo [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Maccioni, G. [INFN – Cagliari Division, Cagliari (Italy); Pallotta, S. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN - Catania Division, Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Chemistry and Pharmacy Department, University of Sassari, Sassari (Italy); Talamonti, C. [INFN - Florence Division, Florence (Italy); Department of Biomedical, Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Florence, Florence (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E. [Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Senese, Siena (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    A prototype of proton Computed Tomography (pCT) system for hadron-therapy has been manufactured and tested in a 175 MeV proton beam with a non-homogeneous phantom designed to simulate high-contrast material. BI-SART reconstruction algorithms have been implemented with GPU parallelism, taking into account of most likely paths of protons in matter. Reconstructed tomography images with density resolutions r.m.s. down to ~1% and spatial resolutions <1 mm, achieved within processing times of ~15′ for a 512×512 pixels image prove that this technique will be beneficial if used instead of X-CT in hadron-therapy.

  9. The quark fraction of the proton spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    We report on a lattice QCD estimate of the fraction of the proton spin that the quark spin is responsible for. The estimate is arrived at by means of a lattice QCD simulation of the polarized proton matrix element of the anomaly, F μνoverlineFμν. The preliminary result of the simulation is that this fraction is rather small. This is in accord with the interpretation of the EMC experiment that the quark spins are responsible for very little, if any, of the proton spin.

  10. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results in an unus......Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results......, associated with an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process....

  11. Neutron scattering from polarised proton domains

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Brandt, B; Kohbrecher, J; Konter, J A; Mango, S; Glattli, H; Leymarie, E; Grillo, I; May, R P; Jouve, H; Stuhrmann, H B; Stuhrmann, H B; Zimmer, O

    2002-01-01

    Time-dependent small-angle polarised neutron scattering from domains of polarised protons has been observed at the onset of dynamic nuclear polarisation in a frozen solution of 98% deuterated glycerol-water at 1 K containing a small concentration of paramagnetic centres (EHBA-Cr sup V). Simultaneous NMR measurements show that the observed scattering arises from protons around the Cr sup V -ions which are polarised to approx 10% in a few seconds, much faster than the protons in the bulk. (authors)

  12. Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihovilovič Miha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.

  13. Superfocusing of channeled protons and crystal rainbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neskovic, N. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: nnesko@vinca.rs; Petrovic, S.; Borka, D. [Laboratory of Physics, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2009-08-15

    This study is devoted to the effect of superfocusing of protons having the energy of 2 MeV in a <1 0 0> channel of a Si crystal. The analysis is performed by the theory of crystal rainbows. We analyze the superfocusing effect in the first rainbow cycle. The evolution of the spatial distribution of channeled protons is examined by the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion in the transverse position plane. We demonstrate that the superfocusing effect is a reduced crystal rainbow effect, in which the rainbow line comes to a point.

  14. Space Environments and Effects: Trapped Proton Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, S. L.; Kauffman, W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An improved model of the Earth's trapped proton environment has been developed. This model, designated Trapped Proton Model version 1 (TPM-1), determines the omnidirectional flux of protons with energy between 1 and 100 MeV throughout near-Earth space. The model also incorporates a true solar cycle dependence. The model consists of several data files and computer software to read them. There are three versions of the mo'del: a FORTRAN-Callable library, a stand-alone model, and a Web-based model.

  15. Probing the Spin Structure of the Proton Using Polarized Proton-Proton Collisions and the Production of W Bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumier, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This thesis discusses the process of extracting the longitudinal asymmetry, A$W±\\atop{L}$ describing W → μ production in forward kinematic regimes. This asymmetry is used to constrain our understanding of the polarized parton distribution functions characterizing $\\bar{u}$ and $\\bar{d}$ sea quarks in the proton. This asymmetry will be used to constrain the overall contribution of the sea-quarks to the total proton spin. The asymmetry is evaluated over the pseudorapidity range of the PHENIX Muon Arms, 2.1 < |η| 2.6, for longitudinally polarized proton-proton collisions at 510 GeV √s. In particular, I will discuss the statistical methods used to characterize real muonic W decays and the various background processes is presented, including a discussion of likelihood event selection and the Extended Unbinned Maximum Likelihood t. These statistical methods serve estimate the yields of W muonic decays, which are used to calculate the longitudinal asymmetry.

  16. Protonic conductors for proton exchange membrane fuel cells: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurado Ramon Jose

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, Nation, which is a perfluorinated polymer, is one of the few materials that deliver the set of chemical and mechanical properties required to perform as a good electrolyte in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs. However, Nation presents some disadvantages, such as limiting the operational temperature of the fuel system (So°C, because of its inability to retain water at higher temperatures and also suffers chemical crossover. In addition to these restrictions, Nation membranes are very expensive. Reducing costs and using environmentally friendly materials are good reasons to make a research effort in this field in order to achieve similar or even better fuel-cell performances. Glass materials of the ternary system SiO2-ZrO2-P2O5, hybrid materials based on Nation, and nanopore ceramic membranes based on SiO2 TiO2, Al2O3, etc. are considered at present, as promising candidates to replace Nation as the electrolyte in PEMFCs. These types of materials are generally prepared by sol-gel processes in order to tailor their channel-porous structure and pore size. In this communication, the possible candidates in the near future as electrolytes (including other polymers different than Nation in PEMFCs are briefly reviewed. Their preparation methods, their electrical transport properties and conduction mechanisms are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of these materials with respect to Nation are also discussed.

  17. Effect of protons on the mechanical response of rat muscle nociceptive fibers and neurons in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Norio; Kubo, Asako; Mizumura, Kazue

    2015-03-01

    Strong exercise makes muscle acidic, and painful. The stimulus that activates muscle nociceptors in such instance may be protons. Reportedly, however, not many afferents are excited by protons alone. We, therefore, posited that protons sensitize muscular nociceptors to mechanical stimuli. We examined effects of protons on mechanical sensitivity of muscle nociceptors by single-fiber recording from rat muscle-nerve preparations in vitro and by whole cell patch-clamp recording of mechanically activated (MA) currents from cultured rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. We recorded 38 Aδ- and C-fibers. Their response magnitude was increased by both pH 6.2 and pH 6.8; in addition the mechanical threshold was lowered by pH 6.2. Decrease in the threshold by pH6.2 was also observed in MA currents. Presently observed sensitization by protons could be involved in several types of ischemic muscle pain, and may also be involved in cardiovascular and respiratory controls during exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermodynamic Study on the Protonation Reactions of Glyphosate in Aqueous Solution: Potentiometry, Calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bijun; Dong, Lan; Yu, Qianhong; Li, Xingliang; Wu, Fengchang; Tan, Zhaoyi; Luo, Shunzhong

    2016-03-10

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] has been described as the ideal herbicide because of its unique properties. There is some conflicting information concerning the structures and conformations involved in the protonation process of glyphosate. Protonation may influence the chemical and physical properties of glyphosate, modifying its structure and the chemical processes in which it is involved. To better understand the species in solution associated with changes in pH, thermodynamic study (potentiometry, calorimetry and NMR spectroscopy) about the protonation pathway of glyphosate is performed. Experimental results confirmed that the order of successive protonation sites of totally deprotonated glyphosate is phosphonate oxygen, amino nitrogen, and finally carboxylate oxygen. This trend is in agreement with the most recent theoretical work in the literature on the subject (J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119, 5241-5249). The result is important because it confirms that the protonated site of glyphosate in pH range 7-8, is not on the amino but on the phosphonate group instead. This corrected information can improve the understanding of the glyphosate chemical and biochemical action.

  19. Microsecond light-induced proton transfer to flavin in the blue light sensor plant cryptochrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbacher, Thomas; Immeln, Dominik; Dick, Bernhard; Kottke, Tilman

    2009-10-14

    Plant cryptochromes are blue light photoreceptors that regulate key responses in growth and daily rhythm of plants and might be involved in magnetoreception. They show structural homology to the DNA repair enzyme photolyase and bind flavin adenine dinucleotide as chromophore. Blue light absorption initiates the photoreduction from the oxidized dark state of flavin to the flavin neutral radical, which is the signaling state of the sensor. Previous time-resolved studies of the photoreduction process have been limited to observation of the decay of the radical in the millisecond time domain. We monitored faster, light-induced changes in absorption of an algal cryptochrome covering a spectral range of 375-750 nm with a streak camera setup. Electron transfer from tryptophan to flavin is completed before 100 ns under formation of the flavin anion radical. Proton transfer takes place with a time constant of 1.7 micros leading to the flavin neutral radical. Finally, the flavin radical and a tryptophan neutral radical decay with a time constant >200 micros in the millisecond and second time domain. The microsecond proton transfer has not been observed in animal cryptochromes from insects or photolyases. Furthermore, the strict separation in time of electron and proton transfer is novel in the field of flavin-containing photoreceptors. The reaction rate implies that the proton donor is not in hydrogen bonding distance to the flavin N5. Potential candidates for the proton donor and the involvement of the tryptophan triad are discussed.

  20. A CGC/saturation approach for angular correlations in proton-proton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Potashnikova, I. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departamento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-09-15

    We generalized our model for the description of hard processes, and calculate the value of the azimuthal angular correlations (Fourier harmonics v{sub n}), for proton-proton scattering. The energy and multiplicity independence, as well as the value of v{sub n}, turns out to be in accord with the experimental data, or slightly larger. Therefore, before making extreme assumptions on proton-proton collisions, such as the production of a quark-gluon plasma in large multiplicity events, we need to understand how these affect the Bose-Einstein correlations, which have to be taken into account since the Bose-Einstein correlations are able to describe the angular correlations in proton-proton collisions, without including final state interactions. (orig.)

  1. Role of Scalar Protons in Metabolic Energy Generation in Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lolkema, J.S.; Poolman, B.; Konings, W.N.

    Lactic acid bacteria are able to generate a protonmotive force across the cytoplasmic membrane by various metabolic conversions without involvement of substrate level phosphorylation or proton pump activity. Weak acids like malate and citrate are taken up in an electrogenic process in which net

  2. Extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, V.

    1977-01-01

    A method is presented for extracting hadron-neutron scattering amplitudes from hadron-proton and hadron-deuteron measurements within the framework of the Glauber approximation. This method, which involves the solution of a linear integral equation, is applied to pn collisions between 15 and 275 GeV/c. Effects arising from inelastic intermediate states are estimated.

  3. What Really Prevents Proton Transport through Aquaporin? Charge Self-Energy versus Proton Wire Proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Burykin, Anton; Warshel, Arieh

    2003-01-01

    The nature of the control of water/proton selectivity in biological channels is a problem of a fundamental importance. Most studies of this issue have proposed that an interference with the orientational requirements of the so-called proton wire is the source of selectivity. The elucidation of the structures of aquaporins, which have evolved to prevent proton transfer (PT), provided a clear benchmark for exploring the selectivity problem. Previous simulations of this system have not examined,...

  4. Centroid theory of transverse electron-proton two-stream instability in a long proton bunch

    OpenAIRE

    Tai-Sen F. Wang; Channell, Paul J.; Robert J. Macek; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of the transverse electron-proton (e-p) two-stream instability in a proton bunch propagating through a stationary electron background. The equations of motion, including damping effects, are derived for the centroids of the proton beam and the electron cloud by considering Lorentzian and Gaussian frequency spreads for the particles. For a Lorentzian frequency distribution, we derive the asymptotic solution of the coupled linear centroid equation...

  5. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenhua; Lim, Gino; Liao, Li; Li, Yupeng; Jiang, Shengpeng; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Zhu, X. Ronald; Gomez, Daniel; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-10-01

    Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) is commonly delivered via the spot-scanning technique. To ‘scan’ the target volume, the proton beam is controlled by varying its energy to penetrate the patient’s body at different depths. Although scanning the proton beamlets or spots with the same energy can be as fast as 10-20 m s-1, changing from one proton energy to another requires approximately two additional seconds. The total IMPT delivery time thus depends mainly on the number of proton energies used in a treatment. Current treatment planning systems typically use all proton energies that are required for the proton beam to penetrate in a range from the distal edge to the proximal edge of the target. The optimal selection of proton energies has not been well studied. In this study, we sought to determine the feasibility of optimizing and reducing the number of proton energies in IMPT planning. We proposed an iterative mixed-integer programming optimization method to select a subset of all available proton energies while satisfying dosimetric criteria. We applied our proposed method to six patient datasets: four cases of prostate cancer, one case of lung cancer, and one case of mesothelioma. The numbers of energies were reduced by 14.3%-18.9% for the prostate cancer cases, 11.0% for the lung cancer cases and 26.5% for the mesothelioma case. The results indicate that the number of proton energies used in conventionally designed IMPT plans can be reduced without degrading dosimetric performance. The IMPT delivery efficiency could be improved by energy layer optimization leading to increased throughput for a busy proton center in which a delivery system with slow energy switch is employed.

  6. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  7. Hydrogen-bond dynamics and proton transfer in nanoconfinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loop, T.H.

    2015-01-01

    Proton transfer is of fundamental importance to both biology and chemistry. Much is known about proton transfer in large water volumes but often proton transfer reactions take place in very small nanometer sized volumes for example between lipid layers and in proton channels in mitochondria and

  8. A NOVEL PROTON TRANSFER COMPOUND (A NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2011-11-22

    . ITS X-RAY STRUCTURE. Iran Sheikhshoaie* and Mahdeieh Ghazizadeh. Department of Chemistry, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran. (Received November 22, 2011; revised August 14, 2012). ABSTRACT. A novel proton transfer ...

  9. Solvent control of intramolecular proton transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Y.; Marciniak, Heinz; Tschierlei, S.

    2017-01-01

    The solvent dependent excited state dynamics of 4-hydroxy-3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)-1-naphthaldehyde (compound 2), a candidate for a molecular switch based on intramolecular proton transfer, was investigated by ultrafast spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations. In acetonitrile a mixture...... of molecules in the enol and zwitterionic proton transfer (PT) form exists in the ground state. However, the zwitterion is the energetically favored one in the electronically excited state. Optical excitation of the enol form results in intramolecular proton transfer and formation of the PT form within 1.4 ps....... In addition we observe the appearance of a long living species with a rate of 1/(330 ps) which returns to the original ground state on time scales beyond 2 ns and which is attributed to the triplet state. In toluene the enol form is the only observed ground state tautomer, but no light induced proton transfer...

  10. Proton tunnelling in intermolecular hydrogen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsewill, A.J. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom); Johnson, M.R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France); Trommsdorff, H.P. [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France)

    1997-04-01

    The wavefunctions of particles extend beyond the classically accessible regions of potential energy-surfaces (PES). A manifestation of this partial delocalization is the quantum-mechanical tunneling effect which enables a particle to escape from a metastable potential-well. Tunnelling is most important for the lightest atoms, so that the determination of its contribution to proton transfer, one of the most fundamental chemical reactions, is an important issue. QENS and NMR techniques have been employed to study the motion of protons in the hydrogen bond of benzoic-acid crystals, a system which has emerged as a particularly suitable model since proton transfer occurs in a near symmetric double-well potential. The influence of quantum tunnelling was revealed and investigated in these experiments. This work provides an experimental benchmark for theoretical descriptions of translational proton-tunnelling. (author). 7 refs.

  11. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene membrane prepared by plasma polymerization process. BHABESH KUMAR NATH, AZIZ KHAN, JOYANTI CHUTIA. ∗. , ARUP RATAN PAL,. HEREMBA BAILUNG, NEELOTPAL SEN SARMA, DEVASISH CHOWDHURY and NIRAB CHANDRA ADHIKARY.

  12. Physics at a new Fermilab proton driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    In 2004, motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics, the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future. At the end of 2004 the APS ''Study on the Physics of Neutrinos'' concluded that the future US neutrino program should have, as one of its components, ''A proton driver in the megawatt class or above and neutrino superbeam with an appropriate very large detector capable of observing Cp violation and measuring the neutrino mass-squared differences and mixing parameters with high precision''. The presently proposed Fermilab Proton Driver is designed to accomplish these goals, and is based on, and would help develop, Linear Collider technology. In this paper the Proton Driver parameters are summarized, and the potential physics program is described.

  13. Investigation of proton response of CR-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics; Abu-Jarad, F.; Hallak, A.B.; Coban, A.; Islam, M. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Laboratory, Research Inst.

    1993-12-31

    CR-39 type super grade PM-355 samples have been irradiated at normal incidence with monoenergetic protons at selected energies in the range of 0.2 to 5 MeV. The sensitivity function and its variation with energy have been experimentally determined. A clear shift was observed in the maximum sensitivity towards higher proton energies with the increase in etching time. The critical angle for proton registration decreases rapidly between 0.2 MeV and 0.5 to 0.8 MeV depending on the etching time. For higher energies the critical angle increases gradually. The CR-39 detection efficiency for protons was fond to be about 100% within experimental accuracy for all energies in comparison with that of a surface barrier detector. (author).

  14. Investigation of proton response of CR-39

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. (Dept. of Physics, King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)); Abu-Jarad, F.; Hallak, A.B.; Coban, A.; Islam, M. (Energy Research Lab., Research Inst., King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-04-01

    CR-39 type super grade PM-355 samples have been irradiated at normal incidence with monoenergetic protons at selected energies in the range from 0.2 to 5 MeV. The sensitivity function and its variation with energy have been experimentally determined. A clear shift was observed in the maximum sensitivity towards higher proton energies with the increase in etching time. The critical angle for proton registration decreases rapidly between 0.2 MeV and 0.5 to 0.8 MeV depending on the etching time. For higher energies for critical angle increases gradually. The CR-39 detection efficiency for protons was found to be about 100% within the experimental accuracy for all energies in comparison with that of a surface barrier detector. (orig.).

  15. Constraining the proton structure at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Tricoli, Alessandro; Viehhauser, Georg

    Particle physics is at a pivotal moment: the origin of mass and new physics scenarios beyond the Standard Model or particle physics could be unveiled in the coming year. In 2007 the most powerful particl e accelerator, the Large Hadron Coolider (LHC), will start colliding proton beams reaching the ihghest energy and luminosity ever in collider particle physics. The ATLAS detector is one of two general pu rpose detectors placed along the collider ring to fully exploit the LHC potential. The theoretical uncertainties on most of the LHC physics progream are dominated by the proton structure uncertaintiy. This thesis demonstrates that $W^{\\pm}$ boson productionis an ideal process to constr ain the proton strcuture uncertainty. The rapidity distributions of electrons and positrons originating respectively from the $W^-$ and $W^+$ decays have been analysed. The results show that the current uncertainty on the gluon content of the proton can be reduced by a very significant amount if the total systematic uncertaint...

  16. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  17. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, H.E.S., E-mail: helge.pettersen@helse-bergen.no [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Postbox 1400, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Alme, J. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Biegun, A. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Brink, A. van den [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Chaar, M.; Fehlker, D. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Meric, I. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Bergen University College, Postbox 7030, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Odland, O.H. [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Postbox 1400, 5021 Bergen (Norway); Peitzmann, T.; Rocco, E. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ullaland, K. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Wang, H. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yang, S. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Zhang, C. [Nikhef, Utrecht University, Postbox 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Röhrich, D. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2017-07-11

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2–3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeter was originally designed for the reconstruction of high-energy electromagnetic showers for the ALICE-FoCal project. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost of a proton CT system assembly, and it is a unique feature of the Digital Tracking Calorimeter concept. Data from the AGORFIRM beamline at KVI-CART in Groningen in the Netherlands and Monte Carlo simulation results are used to in order to develop a tracking algorithm for the estimation of the residual ranges of a high number of concurrent proton tracks. High energy protons traversing the detector leave a track through the sensor layers. These tracks are spread out through charge diffusion processes. A charge diffusion model is applied for acquisition of estimates of the deposited energy of the protons in each sensor layer by using the size of the charge diffused area. A model fit of the Bragg Curve is applied to each reconstructed track and through this, estimating the residual range of each proton. The range of the individual protons can at present be estimated with a resolution of 4%. The readout system for this prototype is able to

  18. The PRIMA (PRoton IMAging) collaboration: Development of a proton Computed Tomography apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaringella, M., E-mail: scaringella@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Brianzi, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze biomediche, sperimentali e cliniche, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Carpinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); INFN sezione di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Cuttone, G. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lo Presti, D. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Pallotta, S. [INFN—Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze biomediche, sperimentali e cliniche, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); SOD Fisica Medica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, Firenze (Italy); Pugliatti, C. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [Centro Studi e Ricerche e Museo Storico della Fisica, Rome (Italy); Sipala, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Sassari, Sassari (Italy); INFN sezione di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); and others

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a proton Computed Tomography (pCT) apparatus able to reconstruct a map of stopping power useful for accurate proton therapy treatment planning and patient positioning. This system is based on two main components: a silicon microstrip tracker and a YAG:Ce crystal calorimeter. Each proton trajectory is sampled by the tracker in four points: two upstream and two downstream the object under test; the particle residual energy is measured by the calorimeter. The apparatus is described in details together with a discussion on the characterization of the hardware under proton beams with energies up to 175 MeV.

  19. Two-Photon Interactions in Proton$-$Proton Collisions with the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)703452; Przybycien, Mariusz

    As a significant part of the thesis, measurement of exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow \\ell^+\\ell^- (\\ell=e,~\\mu)$ production cross section in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV is presented using 4.6 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. The results are compared to the theory predictions that take into account proton absorptive effects (due to the finite size of colliding protons). Moreover, the simulated performance of fully integrated ATLAS+AFP (upgrade) detector setup is detailed.

  20. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, H. E. S.; Alme, J.; Biegun, A.; van den Brink, A.; Chaar, M.; Fehlker, D.; Meric, I.; Odland, O. H.; Peitzmann, T.; Rocco, E.; Ullaland, K.; Wang, H.; Yang, S.; Zhang, C.; Röhrich, D.

    2017-07-01

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2-3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeter was originally designed for the reconstruction of high-energy electromagnetic showers for the ALICE-FoCal project. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost of a proton CT system assembly, and it is a unique feature of the Digital Tracking Calorimeter concept. Data from the AGORFIRM beamline at KVI-CART in Groningen in the Netherlands and Monte Carlo simulation results are used to in order to develop a tracking algorithm for the estimation of the residual ranges of a high number of concurrent proton tracks. High energy protons traversing the detector leave a track through the sensor layers. These tracks are spread out through charge diffusion processes. A charge diffusion model is applied for acquisition of estimates of the deposited energy of the protons in each sensor layer by using the size of the charge diffused area. A model fit of the Bragg Curve is applied to each reconstructed track and through this, estimating the residual range of each proton. The range of the individual protons can at present be estimated with a resolution of 4%. The readout system for this prototype is able to

  1. Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries in Proton-Proton Collisions at the AFTER@LHC Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kanazawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results for transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions at kinematics relevant for AFTER, a proposed fixed-target experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. These include predictions for pion, jet, and direct photon production from analytical formulas already available in the literature. We also discuss specific measurements that will benefit from the higher luminosity of AFTER, which could help resolve an almost 40-year puzzle of what causes transverse single-spin asymmetries in proton-proton collisions.

  2. Antiproton-Proton Glory Scattering

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment measures @*p and K|-p backwards scattering between 8 and 16 GeV/c in the Omega spectrometer using the S1 beam, with sensitivities of several events per nanobarn. The mechanism responsible for backward scattering in channels not mediated by particle exchange is not understood, and could be almost energy-independent glory scattering, especially since relatively high cross sections of 190~(@*p) and 120~(K|-p)nb have been measured earlier at 5~GeV/c. @p|-p backwards scattering is measured for monitoring purposes. The trigger requires a forward particle of momentum close to the beam momentum. Absence of light in the two forward Cerenkov counters indicates that the particle is a proton. Combinations of an incident @p|- and an outgoing K|+, or an incident K|- or @* and an outgoing @p|+, cover the following byproducts: @*p~@A~@p|+@p|- which is an (allowed) baryon exchange reaction, and the exotic exchange reactions @p|-p~@A~K|+Y K|-p~@A~@p|+Y|-, where Y|- may be the @S|- or the Y*|-(1385).

  3. Proton MRS in neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonavita, S.; Di Salle, F.; Tedeschi, G

    1999-05-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) permits the acquisition of the signal arising from several brain metabolites. At long echo-time (TE) {sup 1}H MRS can detect N-acetyl-aspartate containing compounds, choline containing compounds, creatine+phosphocreatine and lactate. At short TE, lipids, tryglicerides, alanine, glutamate, glutamine, GABA, scyllo-inositol, glucose, myo-inositol, carnosine and histydine are visible. {sup 1}H MRS can be performed with single-voxel, multivoxel, single slice and multislice techniques. With single voxel {sup 1}H MRS it is possible to measure metabolites relaxation time, which allows the measurement of metabolite concentrations. This technique can be useful in the study of focal lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy (pre-surgical identification of epileptic focus), brain tumors (evaluation of recurrence and radiation necrosis), stroke, multiple sclerosis, etc. Single slice and multislice {sup 1}H MRS imaging ({sup 1}H MRSI) can be performed only at long TE and permits the mapping of the brain metabolites distribution which makes them particularly useful in studying diffuse diseases and heterogeneous lesions of the CNS. {sup 1}H MRS can also be useful in the evaluation of 'ischemic penumbra' of stroke; developmental (myelin and neuronal dysgenesis); head trauma (evaluation of cerebral damage not visible with MRI); degenerative disorders (identification of microscopic pathology not visible with MRI); and metabolic diseases (metabolic disturbances with specific metabolic patterns)

  4. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  5. Proton-driven sucrose symport and antiport are provided by the vacuolar transporters SUC4 and TMT1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Alexander; Beyhl, Diana; Marten, Irene; Wormit, Alexandra; Neuhaus, Ekkehard; Poschet, Gernot; Büttner, Michael; Schneider, Sabine; Sauer, Norbert; Hedrich, Rainer

    2011-10-01

    The vacuolar membrane is involved in solute uptake into and release from the vacuole, which is the largest plant organelle. In addition to inorganic ions and metabolites, large quantities of protons and sugars are shuttled across this membrane. Current models suggest that the proton gradient across the membrane drives the accumulation and/or release of sugars. Recent studies have associated AtSUC4 with the vacuolar membrane. Some members of the SUC family are plasma membrane proton/sucrose symporters. In addition, the sugar transporters TMT1 and TMT2, which are localized to the vacuolar membrane, have been suggested to function in proton-driven glucose antiport. Here we used the patch-clamp technique to monitor carrier-mediated sucrose transport by AtSUC4 and AtTMTs in intact Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll vacuoles. In the whole-vacuole configuration with wild-type material, cytosolic sucrose-induced proton currents were associated with a proton/sucrose antiport mechanism. To identify the related transporter on one hand, and to enable the recording of symporter-mediated currents on the other hand, we electrophysiologically characterized vacuolar proteins recognized by Arabidopsis mutants of partially impaired sugar compartmentation. To our surprise, the intrinsic sucrose/proton antiporter activity was greatly reduced when vacuoles were isolated from plants lacking the monosaccharide transporter AtTMT1/TMT2. Transient expression of AtSUC4 in this mutant background resulted in proton/sucrose symport activity. From these studies, we conclude that, in the natural environment within the Arabidopsis cell, AtSUC4 most likely catalyses proton-coupled sucrose export from the vacuole. However, TMT1/2 probably represents a proton-coupled antiporter capable of high-capacity loading of glucose and sucrose into the vacuole. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Treatment planning optimisation in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, S E; Burnet, N G; Lomax, A J

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The goal of radiotherapy is to achieve uniform target coverage while sparing normal tissue. In proton therapy, the same sources of geometric uncertainty are present as in conventional radiotherapy. However, an important and fundamental difference in proton therapy is that protons have a finite range, highly dependent on the electron density of the material they are traversing, resulting in a steep dose gradient at the distal edge of the Bragg peak. Therefore, an accurate knowledge of the sources and magnitudes of the uncertainties affecting the proton range is essential for producing plans which are robust to these uncertainties. This review describes the current knowledge of the geometric uncertainties and discusses their impact on proton dose plans. The need for patient-specific validation is essential and in cases of complex intensity-modulated proton therapy plans the use of a planning target volume (PTV) may fail to ensure coverage of the target. In cases where a PTV cannot be used, other methods of quantifying plan quality have been investigated. A promising option is to incorporate uncertainties directly into the optimisation algorithm. A further development is the inclusion of robustness into a multicriteria optimisation framework, allowing a multi-objective Pareto optimisation function to balance robustness and conformity. The question remains as to whether adaptive therapy can become an integral part of a proton therapy, to allow re-optimisation during the course of a patient's treatment. The challenge of ensuring that plans are robust to range uncertainties in proton therapy remains, although these methods can provide practical solutions. PMID:23255545

  7. Characterization of the IOTA Proton Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Samantha [Chicago U.

    2017-08-11

    This project focuses on characterizing the IOTA proton source through changing the parameters of four various components of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT). Because of an inecient lament, current was limited to 2 mA when 40 mA is ultimately desired. Through an investigation of the solenoids and trims of the LEBT, we sought more knowledge about the optimum settings for running the IOTA proton source.

  8. Periods of High Intensity Solar Proton Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.; Jordan, Thomas M.; Adams, James H.; Dietrich, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis is presented for times during a space mission that specified solar proton flux levels are exceeded. This includes both total time and continuous time periods during missions. Results for the solar maximum and solar minimum phases of the solar cycle are presented and compared for a broad range of proton energies and shielding levels. This type of approach is more amenable to reliability analysis for spacecraft systems and instrumentation than standard statistical models.

  9. Proton-induced noise in digicons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. C.; Becher, J.; Fowler, W. B.; Flemming, K.

    1981-01-01

    The Space Telescope, which carries four Digicons, will pass several times per day through a low-altitude portion of the radiation belt called the South Atlantic Anomaly. This is expected to create interference in what is otherwise anticipated to be a noise-free device. Two essential components of the Digicon, the semiconductor diode array and the UV transmitting window, generate noise when subjected to medium-energy proton radiation, a primary component of the belt. These trapped protons, having energies ranging from 2 to 400 Mev and fluences at the Digicon up to 4,000 P+/sec-sq cm, pass through both the window and the diode array, depositing energy in each. In order to evaluate the effect of these protons, engineering test models of Digicon tubes to be flown on the High Resolution Spectrograph were irradiated with low-flux monoenergetic proton beams at the University of Maryland cyclotron. Electron-hole pairs produced by the protons passing through the diodes or the surrounding bulk caused a background count rate. This is the result of holes diffusing over a distance of many diode spacings, causing counts to be triggered simultaneously in the output circuits of several adjacent diodes. Pulse-height spectra of these proton-induced counts indicate that most of the bulk-related counts overlap the single photoelectron peak. A geometrical model will be presented of the charge collection characteristics of the diode array that accounts for most of the observed effects.

  10. Proton conductivity in ampullae of Lorenzini jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josberger, Erik E; Hassanzadeh, Pegah; Deng, Yingxin; Sohn, Joel; Rego, Michael J; Amemiya, Chris T; Rolandi, Marco

    2016-05-01

    In 1678, Stefano Lorenzini first described a network of organs of unknown function in the torpedo ray-the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). An individual ampulla consists of a pore on the skin that is open to the environment, a canal containing a jelly and leading to an alveolus with a series of electrosensing cells. The role of the AoL remained a mystery for almost 300 years until research demonstrated that skates, sharks, and rays detect very weak electric fields produced by a potential prey. The AoL jelly likely contributes to this electrosensing function, yet the exact details of this contribution remain unclear. We measure the proton conductivity of the AoL jelly extracted from skates and sharks. The room-temperature proton conductivity of the AoL jelly is very high at 2 ± 1 mS/cm. This conductivity is only 40-fold lower than the current state-of-the-art proton-conducting polymer Nafion, and it is the highest reported for a biological material so far. We suggest that keratan sulfate, identified previously in the AoL jelly and confirmed here, may contribute to the high proton conductivity of the AoL jelly with its sulfate groups-acid groups and proton donors. We hope that the observed high proton conductivity of the AoL jelly may contribute to future studies of the AoL function.

  11. EURISOL 100 kW Target Stations Operation and Implications for its Proton Driver Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Noah, Etam; Lettry, Jacques; Lindroos, Mats; Stora, Thierry

    EURISOL, the next European radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility calls for the development of target and ion source assemblies to dissipate deposited heat and to extract and ionize isotopes of interest efficiently. The EURISOL 100 kW direct targets should be designed for a goal lifetime of up to three weeks. Target operation from the moment it is installed on a target station until its exhaustion involves several phases with specific proton beam intensity requirements. This paper discusses operation of the 100 kW targets within the ongoing EURISOL Design Study, with an emphasis on the requirements for the proton driver beam.

  12. Proton clouds to measure long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnige, Tessa; Daniëls, Mark; Baldus, Marc; Weingarth, Markus

    2014-03-26

    We show that selective labeling of proteins with protonated amino acids embedded in a perdeuterated matrix, dubbed 'proton clouds', provides general access to long-range contacts between nonexchangeable side chain protons in proton-detected solid-state NMR, which is important to study protein tertiary structure. Proton-cloud labeling significantly improves spectral resolution by simultaneously reducing proton line width and spectral crowding despite a high local proton density in clouds. The approach is amenable to almost all canonical amino acids. Our method is demonstrated on ubiquitin and the β-barrel membrane protein BamA.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations of a nozzle for the treatment of ocular tumours with high-energy proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhauser, Wayne; Koch, Nicholas; Hummel, Stephen; Ziegler, Matthias; Titt, Uwe

    2005-11-21

    By the end of 2002, 33 398 patients worldwide had been treated with proton radiotherapy, 10 829 for eye diseases. The dose prediction algorithms used today for ocular proton therapy treatment planning rely on parameterizations of measured proton dose distributions, i.e., broad-beam and pencil-beam techniques, whose predictive capabilities are inherently limited by severe approximations and simplifications in modelling the radiation transport physics. In contrast, the Monte Carlo radiation transport technique can, in principle, provide accurate predictions of the proton treatment beams by taking into account all the physical processes involved, including coulombic energy loss, energy straggling, multiple Coulomb scattering, elastic and nonelastic nuclear interactions, and the transport of secondary particles. It has not been shown, however, whether it is possible to commission a proton treatment planning system by using data exclusively from Monte Carlo simulations of the treatment apparatus and a phantom. In this work, we made benchmark comparisons between Monte Carlo predictions and measurements of an ocular proton treatment beamline. The maximum differences between absorbed dose profiles from simulations and measurements were 6% and 0.6 mm, while typical differences were less than 2% and 0.2 mm. The computation time for the entire virtual commissioning process is less than one day. The study revealed that, after a significant development effort, a Monte Carlo model of a proton therapy apparatus is sufficiently accurate and fast for commissioning a treatment planning system.

  14. Who and What Does Involvement Involve?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jeppe Oute; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric systema family site, a clinical site and a policy sitethe first author (J.O.) investigated how...... theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis...... is constituted by a broader discourse of neoliberalism and market orientation, which justifies involvement as a subtle institutionalization of social control. The article highlights that the role of the relative as a co-therapist may be contested by the families' discourse, which emphasizes issues concerning...

  15. ENDOSCOPIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC GASTRIC CHANGES IN CHRONIC USERS OF PROTON-PUMP INHIBITORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Maria Perrone CAMILO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Proton-pump inhibitors have been used for at least two decades. They are among the most commonly sold drugs in the world. However, some controversy remains about the indications for their use and the consequences of their prolonged use. Objectives To evaluate and compare the endoscopic and histopathologic gastric changes in chronic users of proton-pump inhibitors to changes in non-users. Methods A prospective study performed at a tertiary Public Hospital involving 105 patients undergoing upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy. Subjects included 81 proton-pump inhibitor users and 24 non-users (control group. Biopsies of the antral-type mucosa, the antral-fundic transition, and the fundus were evaluated by the Sydney System. The presence of erosion or ulceration, lymphatic follicles, reactive gastropathy, and polypoid or epithelial hyperplasia was also determined. Serum levels of gastrin were measured. Results We found two polyps, one in each group, both of which were negative for Helicobacter pylori. There were two cases of parietal cell hyperplasia in users of proton-pump inhibitors. Gastrin was elevated in 28 users of proton-pump inhibitors and in four members of the control group. We did not find statistically significant differences in the endoscopic or histopathologic findings between the two groups. Conclusions Chronic use of proton-pump inhibitors for the duration examined was not associated with significant gastric changes. An interesting finding was that the 4 chronic users of proton-pump inhibitors who had serum gastrin levels above 500 pg/mL also had positive serology for Chagas disease.

  16. Proton tracking in a high-granularity Digital Tracking Calorimeter for proton CT purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Pettersen, Helge Egil Seime; Brink, Anthony van den; Chaar, Mamdouh; Fehlker, Dominik; Meric, Ilker; Odland, Odd Harald; Peitzmann, Thomas; Rocco, Elena; Wang, Hongkai; Yang, Shiming; Zhang, Chunhui; Röhrich, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy with protons as of today utilizes information from x-ray CT in order to estimate the proton stopping power of the traversed tissue in a patient. The conversion from x-ray attenuation to proton stopping power in tissue introduces range uncertainties of the order of 2-3% of the range, uncertainties that are contributing to an increase of the necessary planning margins added to the target volume in a patient. Imaging methods and modalities, such as Dual Energy CT and proton CT, have come into consideration in the pursuit of obtaining an as good as possible estimate of the proton stopping power. In this study, a Digital Tracking Calorimeter is benchmarked for proof-of-concept for proton CT purposes. The Digital Tracking Calorimeteris applied for reconstruction of the tracks and energies of individual high energy protons. The presented prototype forms the basis for a proton CT system using a single technology for tracking and calorimetry. This advantage simplifies the setup and reduces the cost o...

  17. Modeling the Proton Radiation Belt With Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical model of the proton radiation belt is constructed from data taken during 2013-2017 by the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes on the Van Allen Probes satellites. The model intensity is a function of time, kinetic energy in the range 18-600 MeV, equatorial pitch angle, and L shell of proton guiding centers. Data are selected, on the basis of energy deposits in each of the nine silicon detectors, to reduce background caused by hard proton energy spectra at low L. Instrument response functions are computed by Monte Carlo integration, using simulated proton paths through a simplified structural model, to account for energy loss in shielding material for protons outside the nominal field of view. Overlap of energy channels, their wide angular response, and changing satellite orientation require the model dependencies on all three independent variables be determined simultaneously. This is done by least squares minimization with a customized steepest descent algorithm. Model uncertainty accounts for statistical data error and systematic error in the simulated instrument response. A proton energy spectrum is also computed from data taken during the 8 January 2014 solar event, to illustrate methods for the simpler case of an isotropic and homogeneous model distribution. Radiation belt and solar proton results are compared to intensities computed with a simplified, on-axis response that can provide a good approximation under limited circumstances.

  18. On electromagnetic off-shell effects in proton-proton bremsstrahlung

    OpenAIRE

    Kondratyuk, S.; Martinus, G.; Scholten, O.

    1997-01-01

    We study the influence of the off-shell structure of the nucleon electromagnetic vertex on proton-proton bremsstrahlung observables. Realistic choices for these off-shell effects are found to have considerable influences on observables such as cross sections and analyzing powers. The rescattering contribution diminishes the effects of off-shell modifications in negative-energy states.

  19. Proton-proton bremsstrahlung cross-sections including the kinematical singularity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J. C. S.; Castelijns, R.; Ermisch, K.; van Garderen, E. D.; Gasparic, I.; Harakeh, M. N.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kis, M.; Loehner, H.; Scholten, O.

    Integrated cross-section data for proton-proton bremsstrahlung including the points with the phase-space singularity, which occurs close to the maximum non-coplanarity angle, are presented. A numerical integration of theoretical cross-sections is performed over the non-coplanarity angle to integrate

  20. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  1. Two-Pion Production in Proton--Proton Collisions Near Threshold at CELSIUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, R.; Brodowski, W.; Calen, H.; Clement, H.; Dyring, J.; Ekstroem, C.; Fransson, K.; Greiff, J.; Gustafsson, L.; Haeggstroem, S.; Hoeistad, B.; Johanson, J.; Johansson, A.; Johansson, T.; Khoukaz, A.; Kilian, K.; Koch, I.; Kullander, S.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Morosov, B.; Moertsell, A.; Oelert, W.; Ruber, R.; Schubert, U.; Shwartz, B.; Stepaniak, J.; Sukhanov, A.; Sundberg, P.; Turowiecki, A.; Wagner, G.; Wilhelmi, Z.; Zabierowski, J.; Zernov, A.; Zlomanczuk, J.

    1998-11-01

    Two-pion production reactions in proton-proton collisions near threshold are measured using an internal cluster-jet hydrogen target and the WASA/PROMICE detector at the CELSIUS storage ring. Four out of the five possible two-pion production reactions are measured simultaneously.

  2. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M; Pluth, Janice M; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1.

  3. Channeling of protons through carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borka, D; Petrovic, S; Neskovic, N [Laboratory of Physics (010), Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, P. O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mowbray, D J; Miskovic, Z L [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: dusborka@vin.bg.ac.yu

    2008-10-01

    We investigate how dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons influences both the angular and spatial distributions of protons channeled in a (11, 9) single-wall carbon nanotube placed in vacuum and in different dielectric media. Proton speeds between 3 and 10 a.u., corresponding to energies of 0.223 and 2.49 MeV, are chosen with the nanotube length varied between 0.1 and 1 {mu}m. In all performed calculations we describe the interaction between proton and carbon atoms on the nanotube wall using the Doyle-Turner potential. The image force on a proton is calculated using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for the dynamic response of the nanotube valence electrons and the dielectric media surrounding the nanotube. The angular distributions of channeled protons are generated using a computer simulation method which solves the proton equations of motion in the transverse plane numerically. The best level of ordering and straightening of carbon nanotube arrays is often achieved when they are grown in a dielectric matrix. Consequently, we investigate here how the dynamic polarization of carbon valence electrons in the presence of various surrounding dielectric media affects the angular distributions of protons channeled through (11, 9) single-wall carbon nanotubes. Our analysis shows that the inclusion of the image interaction, gives rise to a number of rainbow maxima in the corresponding angular and spatial distribution. Our analysis shows that the presence of dielectric media surrounding the nanotube influences the positions and appearance of rainbows in the corresponding angular and spatial distributions. In addition, we analyze the possibility of production of nano-sized beams by carbon nanotubes.

  4. The photomorphogenic factors UV-B RECEPTOR 1, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5, and HY5 HOMOLOGUE are part of the UV-B signalling pathway in grapevine and mediate flavonol accumulation in response to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Rodrigo; Herrera, Daniela; Mas, Abraham; Wong, Darren Chern Jan; Höll, Janine; Cavallini, Erika; Amato, Alessandra; Azuma, Akifumi; Ziegler, Tobias; Aquea, Felipe; Castellarin, Simone Diego; Bogs, Jochen; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Peña-Neira, Alvaro; Czemmel, Stefan; Alcalde, José Antonio; Matus, José Tomás; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2016-10-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is a species well known for its adaptation to radiation. However, photomorphogenic factors related to UV-B responses have not been molecularly characterized. We cloned and studied the role of UV-B RECEPTOR (UVR1), ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), and HY5 HOMOLOGUE (HYH) from V. vinifera We performed gene functional characterizations, generated co-expression networks, and tested them in different environmental conditions. These genes complemented the Arabidopsis uvr8 and hy5 mutants in morphological and secondary metabolic responses to radiation. We combined microarray and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data with promoter inspections to identify HY5 and HYH putative target genes and their DNA binding preferences. Despite sharing a large set of common co-expressed genes, we found different hierarchies for HY5 and HYH depending on the organ and stress condition, reflecting both co-operative and partially redundant roles. New candidate UV-B gene markers were supported by the presence of HY5-binding sites. These included a set of flavonol-related genes that were up-regulated in a HY5 transient expression assay. We irradiated in vitro plantlets and fruits from old potted vines with high and low UV-B exposures and followed the accumulation of flavonols and changes in gene expression in comparison with non-irradiated conditions. UVR1, HY5, and HYH expression varied with organ, developmental stage, and type of radiation. Surprisingly, UVR1 expression was modulated by shading and temperature in berries, but not by UV-B radiation. We propose that the UV-B response machinery favours berry flavonol accumulation through the activation of HY5 and HYH at different developmental stages at both high and low UV-B exposures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Dataset showing the impact of the protonation states on molecular dynamics of HIV protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemberg O. Soares

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data described here supports the research article “Unraveling HIV Protease Flaps Dynamics by Constant pH Molecular Dynamics Simulations” (Soares et al., 2016 [1]. The data involves both standard Molecular Dynamics (MD and Constant pH Molecular Dynamics (CpHMD to elucidate the effect of protonation states of catalytic dyad on the HIV-PR conformation. The data obtained from MD simulation demonstrate that the protonation state of the two aspartic acids (Asp25/Asp25′ has a strong influence on the dynamics of the HIV-PR. Regarding the CpHMD simulation, we performed pka calculations for HIV-PR and the data indicate that only one catalytic aspartate should be protonated.

  6. Cobalt-porphine catalyzed CO2 electro-reduction: a novel protonation mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cang Lang; Li, Jian Chen; Gao, Wang; Jiang, Qing

    2017-06-14

    The urgent need for artificially fixing CO2 calls for catalysts of high efficiency. The transition metal functionalized porphyrin (TMP) is one of the most important types of organic catalysts for CO2 reduction. However, the catalytic mechanisms of TMP in CO2 reduction still remain controversial. Starting from the previously neglected catalyst self-protonation model, we uncover a new CO2 reduction mechanism on cobalt-porphine, which involves an indirect proton transfer step occurring at the beginning of the reduction cycle. Based on this protonation mechanism, we demonstrate the different correlations between producing rate and pH for the formation of CO and methane, in good agreement with available experimental observations. Our results reveal how pH and potential affect the CO2 reduction process, providing important clues and insights for further optimization of TMP catalysts.

  7. Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-28

    In the core of the Sun, energy is released through sequences of nuclear reactions that convert hydrogen into helium. The primary reaction is thought to be the fusion of two protons with the emission of a low-energy neutrino. These so-called pp neutrinos constitute nearly the entirety of the solar neutrino flux, vastly outnumbering those emitted in the reactions that follow. Although solar neutrinos from secondary processes have been observed, proving the nuclear origin of the Sun's energy and contributing to the discovery of neutrino oscillations, those from proton-proton fusion have hitherto eluded direct detection. Here we report spectral observations of pp neutrinos, demonstrating that about 99 per cent of the power of the Sun, 3.84 × 10(33) ergs per second, is generated by the proton-proton fusion process.

  8. Inelastic and diffraction dissociation cross-sections in proton-proton collisions with ALICE

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    ALICE results on proton-proton inelastic and diffractive cross-section measurements performed at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9 TeV, 2.76 TeV and 7 TeV are presented. The relative rates of single- and double- diffractive processes are measured by studying properties of gaps in the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles. ALICE trigger efficiencies are determined for various classes of events, using a detector simulation validated with experimental data. The results are presented together with earlier measurements at proton-antiproton and proton-proton colliders at lower energies and with the measurements by other LHC experiments. Predictions by different theoretical models are compared to the data. We will also discuss the main theoretical problems in the field and present some of the recent developments.

  9. Mixing of Proton and Electron Scales - Effects of Proton Temperature Anisotropy on the Electron Firehose Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A. F.; Poedts, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    We perform kinetic linear theory instability analysis in a non-drifting anisotropic electron-proton plasma to study the effects of proton temperature anisotropies on the electron firehose instability in the collisionless solar wind. We solve the Vlasov linear theory dispersion relation for hot highly anisotropic electron-proton plasma in high-beta regime to study the behavior of the solar wind plasma close to the instability thresholds as observed by different spacecraft at 1 AU. We consider temperature and anisotropy regimes for which the electrons and the protons can interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters simultaneous electron and proton firehose instabilities can be observed with the growth rate of the electron firehose instability extending towards the proton scales. The co-existance of the proton and the electron firehose and the mixing of scales for the electromagnetic fluctuations excited by the two instabilities depends on the initial temperatures, anisotropies and angle of propagation. In the case of parallel wave propagation both left and right-hand polarized waves are simultaneously excited. As we increase the angle of propagation the electron firehose starts to dominate with excitation of large-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations over a large range of wave-numbers, starting at the protons scales and extending up to the smaller electron scales. We calculate the maximum growth rate of the oblique electron firehose as a function of the proton temperature anisotropy and discuss the implications of the electron-proton scale mixing for the observed plasma properties and instability thresholds in the undisturbed solar wind.

  10. Recent STAR results in high-energy polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Surrow, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is carrying out a spin physics program in high-energy polarized $\\vec{p}+\\vec{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200-500\\,$GeV to gain a deeper insight into the spin structure and dynamics of the proton. One of the main objectives of the spin physics program at RHIC is the extraction of the polarized gluon distribution function based on measurements of gluon initiated processes, such as hadron and jet production. The STAR detector is well suited for the reconstruction of various final states involving jets, $\\pi^{0}$, $\\pi^{\\pm}$, e$^{\\pm}$ and $\\gamma$, which allows to measure several different processes. Recent results will be shown on the measurement of jet production and hadron production at $\\sqrt{s}=200\\,$GeV. The RHIC spin physics program has recently completed the first data taking period in 2009 of polarized $\\vec{p}+\\vec{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=500\\,$GeV. This opens a new era in the study of the spin-flavor str...

  11. Maskless proton beam writing in gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, P. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom) and Nano-Electronics Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.mistry@surrey.ac.uk; Gomez-Morilla, I. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Smith, R.C. [Nano-Electronics Centre, Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thomson, D. [Advanced Technology Institute, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Grime, G.W. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Webb, R.P. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Gwilliam, R. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jeynes, C. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Cansell, A. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Merchant, M. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Kirkby, K.J. [Ion Beam Centre, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Proton beam writing (PBW) is a direct write technique that employs a focused MeV proton beam which is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a target material which is subsequently electrochemically etched or chemically developed. By changing the energy of the protons the range of the protons can be changed. The ultimate depth of the structure is determined by the range of the protons in the material and this allows structures to be formed to different depths. PBW has been successfully employed on etchable glasses, polymers and semiconductor materials such as silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs). This study reports on PBW in p-type GaAs and compares experimental results with computer simulations using the Atlas (copy right) semiconductor device package from SILVACO. It has already been proven that hole transport is required for the electrochemical etching of GaAs using Tiron (4,5-dihydroxy-m-benzenedisulfonic acid, di-sodium salt). PBW in GaAs results in carrier removal in the irradiated regions and consequently minimal hole transport (in these regions) during electrochemical etching. As a result the irradiated regions are significantly more etch resistant than the non-irradiated regions. This allows high aspect ratio structures to be formed.

  12. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  13. Percolation Model for Proton Immobility in Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikrajuddin Abdullah

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple Ising model and a statistical theory of gel formation in a polymer matrix were combined to explain the effect of temperature on the mobility of protons in ice. Cowin et al observed that protons in ice bulk were immobile at temperatures below 190 K, and suddenly become mobile at temperatures above 190 K [Nature 398, 405 (1999]. We proposed here that the transport of protons is controlled by a percolation mechanism. The proton transport is facilitated by the occurrence of easily reoriented water molecules in the ice bulk. The fraction of this molecule depends on temperature and was calculated using a simple Ising model. The formation of network of these molecules which provides pathways for proton transport was calculated using a statistical theory of gel formation in a polymeric system. Our model succeeded to reproduce the variation of potential difference between the ice film surfaces with respect to temperature as observed by Cowin et al based on a soft landing experiment.

  14. The proton as seen by TOTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    TOTEM, one of the smaller experiments at the LHC, has recently recorded the first candidates of proton-proton elastic scattering at a collision energy of 7 TeV. Studying the elastic scattering between two protons is a powerful way of exploring the inner structure of the proton, one of the most common, yet still poorly understood, particles we observe in Nature.   One of the first elastic event candidates recorded by the TOTEM experiment. The proton tracks are reconstructed in the Roman Pots detectors 220m away from the intersection point IP5 (not to scale). The elastic scattering between two colliding particles is a process in which the kinetic energy of the particles is the same before and after the interaction; only their direction of propagation is modified by the scattering. In more scientific terms, this means that particles transfer part of their momentum in the interaction but not their energy. By studying these kinds of processes, physicists can infer the inner structure of the interacti...

  15. Proton channels and exchangers in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Sonveaux, Pierre; Stock, Christian; Perez-Sayans, Mario; De Milito, Angelo; Avnet, Sofia; Garcìa, Abel Garcìa; Harguindey, Salvador; Fais, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    Although cancer is characterized by an intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, a totally deranged pH control is a common feature of most cancer histotypes. Major determinants of aberrant pH gradient in cancer are proton exchangers and transporters, including V-ATPase, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) and carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Thanks to the activity of these proton transporters and exchangers, cancer becomes isolated and/or protected not only from the body reaction against the growing tumor, but also from the vast majority of drugs that when protonated into the acidic tumor microenvironment do not enter into cancer cells. Proton transporters and exchangers represent a key feature tumor cells use to survive in the very hostile microenvironmental conditions that they create and maintain. Detoxifying mechanisms may thus represent both a key survival option and a selection outcome for cells that behave as unicellular microorganisms rather than belonging to an organ, compartment or body. It is, in fact, typical of malignant tumors that, after a clinically measurable yet transient initial response to a therapy, resistant tumor clones emerge and proliferate, thus bursting a more malignant behavior and rapid tumor progression. This review critically presents the background of a novel and efficient approach that aims to fight cancer through blocking or inhibiting well characterized proton exchangers and transporters active in human cancer cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Proton emission from a laser ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cavallaro, S.; Cutroneo, M.; Margarone, D.; Gammino, S.

    2012-02-01

    At intensities of the order of 1010 W/cm2, ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed.

  17. Proton emission from a laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Cavallaro, S.; Gammino, S. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Cutroneo, M. [Dip.to di Fisica, Universita di Messina, V.le F.S. D' Alcontres 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics, ASCR, v.v.i., 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2012-02-15

    At intensities of the order of 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}, ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed.

  18. Proton emission from a laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L; Cavallaro, S; Cutroneo, M; Margarone, D; Gammino, S

    2012-02-01

    At intensities of the order of 10(10) W∕cm(2), ns pulsed lasers can be employed to ablate solid bulk targets in order to produce high emission of ions at different charge state and kinetic energy. A special interest is devoted to the production of protons with controllable energy and current from a roto-translating target irradiated in repetition rate at 1-10 Hz by a Nd:Yag pulsed laser beam. Different hydrogenated targets based on polymers and hydrates were irradiated in high vacuum. Special nanostrucutres can be embedded in the polymers in order to modify the laser absorption properties and the amount of protons to be accelerated in the plasma. For example, carbon nanotubes may increase the laser absorption and the hydrogen absorption to generate high proton yields from the plasma. Metallic nanostrucutres may increase the electron density of the plasma and the kinetic energy of the accelerated protons. Ion collectors, ion energy analyzer, and mass spectrometers, used in time-of-flight configuration, were employed to characterize the ion beam properties. A comparison with traditional proton ion source is presented and discussed.

  19. A Detector for Proton Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazey, G.; et al.

    2013-12-06

    Radiation therapy is a widely recognized treatment for cancer. Energetic protons have distinct features that set them apart from photons and make them desirable for cancer therapy as well as medical imaging. The clinical interest in heavy ion therapy is due to the fact that ions deposit almost all of their energy in a sharp peak – the Bragg peak- at the very end of their path. Proton beams can be used to precisely localize a tumor and deliver an exact dose to the tumor with small doses to the surrounding tissue. Proton computed tomography (pCT) provides direct information on the location on the target tumor, and avoids position uncertainty caused by treatment planning based on imaging with X-ray CT. The pCT project goal is to measure and reconstruct the proton relative stopping power distribution directly in situ. To ensure the full advantage of cancer treatment with 200 MeV proton beams, pCT must be realized.

  20. Potential regulatory phosphorylation sites in a Medicago truncatula plasma membrane proton pump implicated during early symbiotic signaling in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao T; Volkening, Jeremy D; Rose, Christopher M; Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J; Ané, Jean-Michel; Sussman, Michael R

    2015-08-04

    In plants and fungi the plasma membrane proton pump generates a large proton-motive force that performs essential functions in many processes, including solute transport and the control of cell elongation. Previous studies in yeast and higher plants have indicated that phosphorylation of an auto-inhibitory domain is involved in regulating pump activity. In this report we examine the Medicago truncatula plasma membrane proton pump gene family, and in particular MtAHA5. Yeast complementation assays with phosphomimetic mutations at six candidate sites support a phosphoregulatory role for two residues, suggesting a molecular model to explain early Nod factor-induced changes in the plasma membrane proton-motive force of legume root cells. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PREFACE: Transport phenomena in proton conducting media Transport phenomena in proton conducting media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikerling, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Proton transport phenomena are of paramount importance for acid-base chemistry, energy transduction in biological organisms, corrosion processes, and energy conversion in electrochemical systems such as polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The relevance for such a plethora of materials and systems, and the ever-lasting fascination with the highly concerted nature of underlying processes drive research across disciplines in chemistry, biology, physics and chemical engineering. A proton never travels alone. Proton motion is strongly correlated with its environment, usually comprised of an electrolyte and a solid or soft host material. For the transport in nature's most benign proton solvent and shuttle, water that is, insights from ab initio simulations, matured over the last 15 years, have furnished molecular details of the structural diffusion mechanism of protons. Excess proton movement in water consists of sequences of Eigen-Zundel-Eigen transitions, triggered by hydrogen bond breaking and making in the surrounding water network. Nowadays, there is little debate about the validity of this mechanism in water, which bears a stunning resemblance to the basic mechanistic picture put forward by de Grotthuss in 1806. While strong coupling of an excess proton with degrees of freedom of solvent and host materials facilitates proton motion, this coupling also creates negative synergies. In general, proton mobility in biomaterials and electrochemical proton conducting media is highly sensitive to the abundance and structure of the proton solvent. In polymer electrolyte membranes, in which protons are bound to move in nano-sized water-channels, evaporation of water or local membrane dehydration due to electro-osmotic coupling are well-known phenomena that could dramatically diminish proton conductivity. Contributions in this special issue address various vital aspects of the concerted nature of proton motion and they elucidate important structural and dynamic effects of solvent

  2. Proton irradiation impacts age-driven modulations of cancer progression influenced by immune system transcriptome modifications from splenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wage, Justin; Ma, Lili; Peluso, Michael; Lamont, Clare; Evens, Andrew M; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Hlatky, Lynn; Beheshti, Afshin

    2015-09-01

    Age plays a crucial role in the interplay between tumor and host, with additional impact due to irradiation. Proton irradiation of tumors induces biological modulations including inhibition of angiogenic and immune factors critical to 'hallmark' processes impacting tumor development. Proton irradiation has also provided promising results for proton therapy in cancer due to targeting advantages. Additionally, protons may contribute to the carcinogenesis risk from space travel (due to the high proportion of high-energy protons in space radiation). Through a systems biology approach, we investigated how host tissue (i.e. splenic tissue) of tumor-bearing mice was altered with age, with or without whole-body proton exposure. Transcriptome analysis was performed on splenic tissue from adolescent (68-day) versus old (736-day) C57BL/6 male mice injected with Lewis lung carcinoma cells with or without three fractionations of 0.5 Gy (1-GeV) proton irradiation. Global transcriptome analysis indicated that proton irradiation of adolescent hosts caused significant signaling changes within splenic tissues that support carcinogenesis within the mice, as compared with older subjects. Increases in cell cycling and immunosuppression in irradiated adolescent hosts with CDK2, MCM7, CD74 and RUVBL2 indicated these were the key genes involved in the regulatory changes in the host environment response (i.e. the spleen). Collectively, these results suggest that a significant biological component of proton irradiation is modulated by host age through promotion of carcinogenesis in adolescence and resistance to immunosuppression, carcinogenesis and genetic perturbation associated with advancing age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. Restrained Proton Indicator in Combined Quantum-Mechanics/Molecular-Mechanics Dynamics Simulations of Proton Transfer through a Carbon Nanotube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Adam W; Lin, Hai

    2017-09-14

    Recently, a collective variable "proton indicator" was purposed for tracking an excess proton solvated in bulk water in molecular dynamics simulations. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the position of this proton indicator as a reaction coordinate to model an excess proton migrating through a hydrophobic carbon nanotube in combined quantum-mechanics/molecular-mechanics simulations. Our results indicate that applying a harmonic restraint to the proton indicator in the bulk solvent near the nanotube pore entrance leads to the recruitment of water molecules into the pore. This is consistent with an earlier study that employed a multistate empirical valence bond potential and a different representation (center of excess charge) of the proton. We attribute this water recruitment to the delocalized nature of the solvated proton, which prefers to be in high-dielectric bulk solvent. While water recruitment into the pore is considered an artifact in the present simulations (because of the artificially imposed restraint on the proton), if the proton were naturally restrained, it could assist in building water wires prior to proton transfer through the pore. The potential of mean force for a proton translocation through the water-filled pore was computed by umbrella sampling, where the bias potentials were applied to the proton indicator. The free energy curve and barrier heights agree reasonably with those in the literature. The results suggest that the proton indicator can be used as a reaction coordinate in simulations of proton transport in confined environments.

  4. Multidimensional treatment of stochastic solvent dynamics in photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer processes: sequential, concerted, and complex branching mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudackov, Alexander V; Hazra, Anirban; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2011-10-14

    A theoretical approach for the multidimensional treatment of photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes in solution is presented. This methodology is based on the multistate continuum theory with an arbitrary number of diabatic electronic states representing the relevant charge distributions in a general PCET system. The active electrons and transferring proton(s) are treated quantum mechanically, and the electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces are represented as functions of multiple scalar solvent coordinates corresponding to the single electron and proton transfer reactions involved in the PCET process. A dynamical formulation of the dielectric continuum theory is used to derive a set of coupled generalized Langevin equations of motion describing the time evolution of these collective solvent coordinates. The parameters in the Langevin equations depend on the solvent properties, such as the dielectric constants, relaxation time, and molecular moment of inertia, as well as the solute properties. The dynamics of selected intramolecular nuclear coordinates, such as the proton donor-acceptor distance or a torsional angle within the PCET complex, may also be included in this formulation. A surface hopping method in conjunction with the Langevin equations of motion is used to simulate the nonadiabatic dynamics on the multidimensional electron-proton vibronic free energy surfaces following photoexcitation. This theoretical treatment enables the description of both sequential and concerted mechanisms, as well as more complex processes involving a combination of these mechanisms. The application of this methodology to a series of model systems corresponding to collinear and orthogonal PCET illustrates fundamental aspects of these different mechanisms and elucidates the significance of proton vibrational relaxation and nonequilibrium solvent dynamics. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. Statistical analysis of solar proton events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kurt

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A new catalogue of 253 solar proton events (SPEs with energy >10MeV and peak intensity >10 protons/cm2.s.sr (pfu at the Earth's orbit for three complete 11-year solar cycles (1970-2002 is given. A statistical analysis of this data set of SPEs and their associated flares that occurred during this time period is presented. It is outlined that 231 of these proton events are flare related and only 22 of them are not associated with Ha flares. It is also noteworthy that 42 of these events are registered as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs in neutron monitors. The longitudinal distribution of the associated flares shows that a great number of these events are connected with west flares. This analysis enables one to understand the long-term dependence of the SPEs and the related flare characteristics on the solar cycle which are useful for space weather prediction.

  6. Advanced proton imaging in computed tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Mattiazzo, S; Giubilato, P; Pantano, D; Pozzobon, N; Snoeys, W; Wyss, J

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the use of hadrons for cancer radiation treatment has grown in importance, and many facilities are currently operational or under construction worldwide. To fully exploit the therapeutic advantages offered by hadron therapy, precise body imaging for accurate beam delivery is decisive. Proton computed tomography (pCT) scanners, currently in their R&D phase, provide the ultimate 3D imaging for hadrons treatment guidance. A key component of a pCT scanner is the detector used to track the protons, which has great impact on the scanner performances and ultimately limits its maximum speed. In this article, a novel proton-tracking detector was presented that would have higher scanning speed, better spatial resolution and lower material budget with respect to present state-of-the-art detectors, leading to enhanced performances. This advancement in performances is achieved by employing the very latest development in monolithic active pixel detectors (to build high granularity, low material budget, ...

  7. Hydrogen Energy by Means of Proton Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    If we dare to take serious what we know today about climate issues the challenges to our energy systems are immense. If we really chose - also in practice - to phase out the fossil fuels major changes to the way we handle energy are required. The renewable energy resources are by far sufficient......, but matching supply and demand in time as well as in form calls for new engineering solutions. Hydrogen as energy carrier and energy storage medium has often been mentioned as an option for the future. A protons is an elementary particles, but at the same time the ion of hydrogen. When hydrogen (H2......) is extracted from water (H2O) it can happen via formation of protons (hydrogen ions, H+) which must be transported away by proton conducting materials to form molecular hydrogen (H2). This process is called electrolysis and converts electrical energy into the chemical energy of a fuel. The reverse process...

  8. An All-Organic Proton Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, Rikard; Sterby, Mia; Strømme, Maria; Sjödin, Martin

    2017-04-05

    Rechargeable batteries that use organic matter as the capacity-carrying material have previously been considered a technology for the future. Earlier batteries in which both the anode and cathode consisted of organic material required significant amounts of conductive additives and were often based on metal-ion electrolytes containing Li(+) or Na(+). However, we have used conducting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), functionalized with anthraquinone (PEDOT-AQ) or benzonquinone (PEDOT-BQ) pendant groups as the negative and positive electrode materials, respectively, to make an all-organic proton battery devoid of metals. The electrolyte consists of a proton donor and acceptor slurry containing substituted pyridinium triflates and the corresponding pyridine base. This slurry allows the 2e(-)/2H(+) quinone/hydroquinone redox reactions while suppressing proton reduction in the battery cell. By using strong (acidic) proton donors, the formal potential of the quinone redox reactions is tuned into the potential region in which the PEDOT backbone is conductive, thus eliminating the need for conducting additives. In this all-organic proton battery cell, PEDOT-AQ and PEDOT-BQ deliver 103 and 120 mAh g(-1), which correspond to 78% and 75%, respectively, of the theoretical specific capacity of the materials at an average cell potential of 0.5 V. We show that PEDOT-BQ determines the cycling stability of the device while PEDOT-AQ provides excellent reversibility for at least 1000 cycles. This proof-of-concept shows the feasibility of assembling all-organic proton batteries which require no conductive additives and also reveals where the challenges and opportunities lie on the path to producing plastic batteries.

  9. ISABELLE: A Proposal for Construction of a Proton--Proton Storage Accelerator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-05-01

    The construction of an Intersecting Storage Accelerator Facility (ISA or ISABELLE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is proposed. ISABELLE will permit the exploration of proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies continuously variable from 60 to 400 GeV and with luminosities of 1032 to 1033 cm-2 sec-1 over the entire range. An overview of the physics potential of this machine is given, covering the production of charged and neutral intermediate vector bosons, the hadron production at high transverse momentum, searches for new, massive particles, and the energy dependence of the strong interactions. The facility consists of two interlaced rings of superconducting magnets in a common tunnel about 3 km in circumference. The proton beams will collide at eight intersection regions where particle detectors will be arranged for studying the collision processes. Protons of approximately 30 GeV from the AGS will be accumulated to obtain the design current of 10A prior to acceleration to final energy. The design and performance of existing full-size superconducting dipoles and quadrupoles is described. The conceptual design of the accelerator systems and the conventional structures and buildings is presented. A preliminary cost estimate and construction schedule are given. Possible future options such as proton-antiproton, proton-deuteron and electron-proton collisions are discussed.

  10. Drug inhibition and proton conduction mechanisms of the influenza a M2 proton channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ruoxu; Liu, Limin Angela; Wei, Dongqing

    2015-01-01

    The influenza A virus matrix protein 2 (M2 protein) is a pH-regulated proton channel embedded in the viral membrane. Inhibition of the M2 proton channel has been used to treat influenza infections for decades due to the crucial role of this protein in viral infection and replication. However, the widely-used M2 inhibitors, amantadine and rimantadine, have gradually lost their efficiencies because of naturally-occurring drug resistant mutations. Therefore, investigation of the structure and function of the M2 proton channel will not only increase our understanding of this important biological system, but also lead to the design of novel and effective anti-influenza drugs. Despite the simplicity of the M2 molecular structure, the M2 channel is highly flexible and there have been controversies and arguments regarding the channel inhibition mechanism and the proton conduction mechanism. In this book chapter, we will first carefully review the experimental and computational studies of the two possible drug binding sites on the M2 protein and explain the mechanisms regarding how inhibitors prevent proton conduction. Then, we will summarize our recent molecular dynamics simulations of the drug-resistant mutant channels and propose mechanisms for drug resistance. Finally, we will discuss two existing proton conduction mechanisms and talk about the remaining questions regarding the proton-relay process through the channel. The studies reviewed here demonstrate how molecular modeling and simulations have complemented experimental work and helped us understand the M2 channel structure and function.

  11. Proton Conductivity of Proton Exchange Membrane Synergistically Promoted by Different Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhuang; Tang, Beibei; Wu, Peiyi

    2017-07-12

    In this study, two functionalized metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), UiO-66-SO3H and UiO-66-NH2, were synthesized. Then, different composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared by single doping and codoping of these two MOFs, respectively. It was found that codoping of these two MOFs with suitable sizes was more conducive to the proton conductivity enhancement of the composite PEM. A synergistic effect between these two MOFs led to the the formation of more consecutive hydration channels in the composite PEM. It further greatly promoted the proton conductivity of the composite PEM. The proton conductivity of the codoped PEM reached up to 0.256 S/cm under 90 °C, 95% RH, which was ∼1.17 times higher than that of the recast Nafion (0.118 S/cm). Besides, the methanol permeability of the codoped PEM was prominently decreased owing to the methanol trapping effect of the pores of these two MOFs. Meanwhile, the high water and thermal stabilities of these two MOFs were beneficial to the high proton conductivity stability of the codoped PEM under high humidity and high temperature. The proton conductivity of the codoped PEM was almost unchanged throughout 3000 min of testing under 90 °C, 95% RH. This work provides a valuable reference for designing different functionalized MOFs to synergistically promote the proton conductivities of PEMs.

  12. Proton beam characterization in the experimental room of the Trento Proton Therapy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasino, F.; Rovituso, M.; Fabiano, S.; Piffer, S.; Manea, C.; Lorentini, S.; Lanzone, S.; Wang, Z.; Pasini, M.; Burger, W. J.; La Tessa, C.; Scifoni, E.; Schwarz, M.; Durante, M.

    2017-10-01

    As proton therapy is becoming an established treatment methodology for cancer patients, the number of proton centres is gradually growing worldwide. The economical effort for building these facilities is motivated by the clinical aspects, but might be also supported by the potential relevance for the research community. Experiments with high-energy protons are needed not only for medical physics applications, but represent also an essential part of activities dedicated to detector development, space research, radiation hardness tests, as well as of fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics. Here we present the characterization of the beam line installed in the experimental room of the Trento Proton Therapy Centre (Italy). Measurements of beam spot size and envelope, range verification and proton flux were performed in the energy range between 70 and 228 MeV. Methods for reducing the proton flux from typical treatments values of 106-109 particles/s down to 101-105 particles/s were also investigated. These data confirm that a proton beam produced in a clinical centre build by a commercial company can be exploited for a broad spectrum of experimental activities. The results presented here will be used as a reference for future experiments.

  13. Proton bombarded reactions of Calcium target nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tel Eyyup

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, proton bombarded nuclear reactions calculations of Calcium target nuclei have been investigated in the incident proton energy range of 1–50 MeV. The excitation functions for 40Ca target nuclei reactions have been calculated by using PCROSS nuclear reaction calculation code. Weisskopf-Ewing and the full exciton models were used for equilibrium and for pre-equilibrium calculations, respectively. The excitation functions for 40Ca target nuclei reactions (p,α, (p,n, (p,p have been calculated using the semi-empirical formula Tel et al. [5].

  14. Protonic transistors from thin reflectin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Ordinario

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic transistors from organic and biological materials hold great promise for bioelectronics applications. Thus, much research effort has focused on optimizing the performance of these devices. Herein, we experimentally validate a straightforward strategy for enhancing the high to low current ratios of protein-based protonic transistors. Upon reducing the thickness of the transistors’ active layers, we increase their high to low current ratios 2-fold while leaving the other figures of merit unchanged. The measured ratio of 3.3 is comparable to the best values found for analogous devices. These findings underscore the importance of the active layer geometry for optimum protonic transistor functionality.

  15. Proton spin polarizabilities from polarized Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Pasquini; D. Drechsel; M. Vanderhaeghen

    2007-07-01

    Polarized Compton scattering off the proton is studied within the framework of subtracted dispersion relations for photon energies up to 300 MeV. As a guideline for forthcoming experiments, we focus the attention on the role of the proton's spin polarizabilities and investigate the most favorable conditions to extract them with a minimum of model dependence. We conclude that a complete separation of the four spin polarizabilities is possible, at photon energies between threshold and the $\\Delta(1232)$ region, provided one can achieve polarization measurements with an accuracy of a few percent.

  16. Proton Straggling in Thick Silicon Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.; Baker, D. N.; Kanekal, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Straggling functions for protons in thick silicon radiation detectors are computed by Monte Carlo simulation. Mean energy loss is constrained by the silicon stopping power, providing higher straggling at low energy and probabilities for stopping within the detector volume. By matching the first four moments of simulated energy-loss distributions, straggling functions are approximated by a log-normal distribution that is accurate for Vavilov k is greater than or equal to 0:3. They are verified by comparison to experimental proton data from a charged particle telescope.

  17. Kinetics of proton transport in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornyshev, A.A.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Spohr, E.

    2003-01-01

    +), (ii) proton transfer from hydronium to a neighboring water molecule, and (iii) structural diffusion of the Zundel complex (H5O2+), the processes all controlled by orientational fluctuations or hydrogen bond breaking in neighboring hydration shells. Spontaneous conversion of excess proton states...... are brought into the framework of quantum mechanical PT theory in condensed media. Both the nature of the elementary act and the reaction coordinates are, however, different for the two types of PT clusters. The corresponding rate constants are calculated and compared with MD simulations. Within the framework...

  18. Crystal Collimation with protons at injection energy

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Roberto; Masi, Alessandro; Mirarchi, Daniele; Montesano, Simone; Redaelli, Stefano; Valentino, Gianluca; Scandale, Walter; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    During this MD, performed on August 30th, 2015, bent silicon crystals were tested with protons beams for a possible usage of crystal-assisted collimation. Tests were performed at injection energy, using both horizontal and vertical crystals, providing a crucial test of the hardware for precise crystal angle adjustments (goniometers). Proton channeling was observed for the first time with LHC beams and the channeled beams were probed with scans performed with secondary collimators. Measurements of cleaning efficiency of a crystal-based collimation system were also performed.

  19. Proton Pumps: Mechanism of Action and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, Janos K.; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding molecular structures and mechanisms of action of proton pumps has paved the way to their novel applications in biotechnology. Proton pumps, in particular bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthases, are capable of continuous, renewable conversion of light to chemical, mechanical or electrical energy, which can be used in macro- or nano-scale devices. The capability of protein systems incorporated into liposomes to generate ATP, which can be further used to drive chemical reactions, and to act as molecular motors has been already demonstrated. Other possible applications of such biochemical devices include targeted drug delivery and biocatalytic re actors. All these devices might prove superior to their inorganic alternatives.

  20. Histidine in Continuum Electrostatics Protonation State Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Vernon; Stuchebruckhov, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    A modification to the standard continuum electrostatics approach to calculate protein pKas which allows for the decoupling of histidine tautomers within a two state model is presented. Histidine with four intrinsically coupled protonation states cannot be easily incorporated into a two state formalism because the interaction between the two protonatable sites of the imidazole ring is not purely electrostatic. The presented treatment, based on a single approximation of the interrelation between histidine’s charge states, allows for a natural separation of the two protonatable sites associated with the imidazole ring as well as the inclusion of all protonation states within the calculation. PMID:22072521

  1. Optimization of Proton CT Detector System and Image Reconstruction Algorithm for On-Line Proton Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chae Young Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to optimize a proton computed tomography system (pCT for proton range verification and to confirm the pCT image reconstruction algorithm based on projection images generated with optimized parameters. For this purpose, we developed a new pCT scanner using the Geometry and Tracking (GEANT 4.9.6 simulation toolkit. GEANT4 simulations were performed to optimize the geometric parameters representing the detector thickness and the distance between the detectors for pCT. The system consisted of four silicon strip detectors for particle tracking and a calorimeter to measure the residual energies of the individual protons. The optimized pCT system design was then adjusted to ensure that the solution to a CS-based convex optimization problem would converge to yield the desired pCT images after a reasonable number of iterative corrections. In particular, we used a total variation-based formulation that has been useful in exploiting prior knowledge about the minimal variations of proton attenuation characteristics in the human body. Examinations performed using our CS algorithm showed that high-quality pCT images could be reconstructed using sets of 72 projections within 20 iterations and without any streaks or noise, which can be caused by under-sampling and proton starvation. Moreover, the images yielded by this CS algorithm were found to be of higher quality than those obtained using other reconstruction algorithms. The optimized pCT scanner system demonstrated the potential to perform high-quality pCT during on-line image-guided proton therapy, without increasing the imaging dose, by applying our CS based proton CT reconstruction algorithm. Further, we make our optimized detector system and CS-based proton CT reconstruction algorithm potentially useful in on-line proton therapy.

  2. What really prevents proton transport through aquaporin? Charge self-energy versus proton wire proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burykin, Anton; Warshel, Arieh

    2003-12-01

    The nature of the control of water/proton selectivity in biological channels is a problem of a fundamental importance. Most studies of this issue have proposed that an interference with the orientational requirements of the so-called proton wire is the source of selectivity. The elucidation of the structures of aquaporins, which have evolved to prevent proton transfer (PT), provided a clear benchmark for exploring the selectivity problem. Previous simulations of this system have not examined, however, the actual issue of PT, but only considered the much simpler task of the transfer of water molecules. Here we take aquaporin as a benchmark and quantify the origin of the water/proton selectivity in this and related systems. This is done by evaluating in a consistent way the free energy profile for transferring a proton along the channel and relating this profile to the relevant PT rate constants. It is found that the water/proton selectivity is controlled by the change in solvation free energy upon moving the charged proton from water to the channel. The reason for the focus on the elegant concept of the proton wire and the related Grotthuss-type mechanism is also considered. It is concluded that these mechanisms are clearly important in cases with flat free energy surfaces (e.g., in bulk water, in gas phase water chains, and in infinitely long channels). However, in cases of biological channels, the actual PT mechanism is much less important than the energetics of transferring the proton charge from water to different regions in the channels.

  3. First Megascience Experiment at Fermilab: Through Hardship to Protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronskikh, Vitaly; Higgins, Valerie

    The E-36 experiment on the small angle proton-proton scattering that officially started in 1970, making use of the Main Ring beams and giving rise to a chain of similar experiments that continued after 1972, was the first experiment at the newly built NAL. It was also the first US/USSR collaboration in particle physics as well as the first experiment that can be confidently characterized as megascience. The experimental data were interpreted as an indication of the pomeron, a quasiparticle that had been named after the Soviet theorist I. Pomeranchuk. The idea of the experiment can be traced back to the Rochester conference held in 1970 in Kiev where two American and Soviet physicists met to develop it and later acquainted NAL director Robert Wilson with it. Wilson enthusiastically set the stage for the experiment at NAL. Involving a gas-jet target built at the Dubna machine shop of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and brought to Batavia, Illinois, the experiment established cooperation between the US and the Soviets in the spirit of their contemporary Apollo-Soyuz space program, thus breaking the ice of the Cold War from within high-energy physics. In this talk based on the Fermilab Archives and interviews, we discuss the financial and administrative obstacles raised by Soviet officials that the Russian collaborators had to overcome, interinstitutional tensions among the Soviets that accompanied the collaboration, NAL culture as well as the roles of scientists in megascience as ambassadors of peace.

  4. Quantum dynamics in continuum for proton transport II: Variational solvent-solute interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan; Chen, Zhan; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Proton transport plays an important role in biological energy transduction and sensory systems. Therefore, it has attracted much attention in biological science and biomedical engineering in the past few decades. The present work proposes a multiscale/multiphysics model for the understanding of the molecular mechanism of proton transport in transmembrane proteins involving continuum, atomic, and quantum descriptions, assisted with the evolution, formation, and visualization of membrane channel surfaces. We describe proton dynamics quantum mechanically via a new density functional theory based on the Boltzmann statistics, while implicitly model numerous solvent molecules as a dielectric continuum to reduce the number of degrees of freedom. The density of all other ions in the solvent is assumed to obey the Boltzmann distribution in a dynamic manner. The impact of protein molecular structure and its charge polarization on the proton transport is considered explicitly at the atomic scale. A variational solute-solvent interface is designed to separate the explicit molecule and implicit solvent regions. We formulate a total free-energy functional to put proton kinetic and potential energies, the free energy of all other ions, and the polar and nonpolar energies of the whole system on an equal footing. The variational principle is employed to derive coupled governing equations for the proton transport system. Generalized Laplace-Beltrami equation, generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and generalized Kohn-Sham equation are obtained from the present variational framework. The variational solvent-solute interface is generated and visualized to facilitate the multiscale discrete/continuum/quantum descriptions. Theoretical formulations for the proton density and conductance are constructed based on fundamental laws of physics. A number of mathematical algorithms, including the Dirichlet-to-Neumann mapping, matched interface and boundary method, Gummel iteration, and Krylov

  5. Proton radioactivity: The case for {sup 53m}Co proton-emitter isomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas - CBPF/MCT, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    The partial proton emission half-life for {sup 53m}Co unstable isomer is re-examined in the framework of a semiempirical model based on tunneling through a Coulomb-plus-centrifugal-plus-overlapping potential barrier within the spherical nucleus approximation. It is shown that the known measured half-life value of 17s is compatible with a large prolate shape for {sup 53m}Co proton emitter and a high angular momentum l=11 assigned to the proton transition to the ground state of {sup 52}Fe. (orig.)

  6. Proton radioactivity: the case for {sup 53m} Co proton-emitter isomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b

    2010-07-01

    The partial proton emission half-life for {sup 53m}Co unstable isomer is re-examined in the framework of a semiempirical model based on tunneling through a Coulomb-plus centrifugal- plus-overlapping potential barrier within the spherical nucleus approximation. It is shown that the known measured half-life value of 17 s is compatible with a large prolate shape for {sup 53m}Co proton emitter and a high angular momentum {iota} = 11 assigned to the proton transition to the ground-state of {sup 52}Fe. (author)

  7. Determining beam parameters in a storage ring with a cylindrical hodoscope using elastic proton proton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohdjeß, H.; Albers, D.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bollmann, R.; Büßer, K.; Diehl, O.; Dohrmann, F.; Engelhardt, H.-P.; Eversheim, P. D.; Gasthuber, M.; Greiff, J.; Groß, A.; Groß-Hardt, R.; Hinterberger, F.; Igelbrink, M.; Langkau, R.; Maier, R.; Mosel, F.; Müller, M.; Münstermann, M.; Prasuhn, D.; von Rossen, P.; Scheid, H.; Schirm, N.; Schwandt, F.; Scobel, W.; Trelle, H. J.; Wellinghausen, A.; Wiedmann, W.; Woller, K.; Ziegler, R.

    2006-01-01

    The EDDA-detector at the cooler-synchrotron COSY/Jülich has been operated with an internal CH2 fiber target to measure proton-proton elastic scattering differential cross-sections. For data analysis knowledge of beam parameters, like position, width and angle, are indispensable. We have developed a method to obtain these values with high precision from the azimuthal and polar angles of the ejectiles only, by exploiting the coplanarity of the two final-state protons with the beam and the kinematic correlation. The formalism is described and results for beam parameters obtained during beam acceleration are given.

  8. On the Significance of the Upcoming Large Hadron Collider Proton-Proton Cross Section Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the Regular Charge-Monopole Theory to the proton structure is described. The discussion relies on classicalelectrodynamics and its associated quantum mechanics. Few experimental data are used as a clue to the specific structure of baryons. This basis provides an explanation for the shape of the graph of the pre-LHC proton-proton cross section data. These data also enable a description of the significance of the expected LHC cross section measurements which will be known soon. Problematic QCD issues are pointed out.

  9. Decursin was Accelerated Human Lung Cancer Cell Death Caused by Proton Beam Irradiation via Blocking the p42/44 MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Myung Hwan; Ra, Se Jin; Kim, Kye Ryung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Decursin, which is one of the extract of Angelica gigas Nakai root, has been traditionally used in Korean folk medicine as a tonic and for treatment of anemia and other common diseases. There are some reports about the pharmacological properties of decursin showing anti-bacterial and anti-amnestic effect, depression of cardiac contraction, antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity. Cell death induced by proton beam is identified as apoptosis. The study investigated that genes involved in apoptosis are checked by RT-PCR and used LET instead of SPBP of proton beam. Apoptosis is the tight regulated by multi-protein action in physiological cell death program. Proton therapy is an attractive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumor. Recently, many researchers tried to new therapeutic strategy, combination of proton therapy and chemotherapy, in order to increase therapeutic effect. In this study, we investigate whether decursin can accelerate effect of human lung cell apoptosis in proton irradiated cancer cells

  10. Expression and function of proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors in inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chih-Shin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammatory pain, when not effectively treated, is a costly health problem and has a harmful effect on all aspects of health-related quality of life. Despite the availability of pharmacologic treatments, chronic inflammatory pain remains inadequately treated. Understanding the nociceptive signaling pathways of such pain is therefore important in developing long-acting treatments with limited side effects. High local proton concentrations (tissue acidosis causing direct excitation or modulation of nociceptive sensory neurons by proton-sensing receptors are responsible for pain in some inflammatory pain conditions. We previously found that all four proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are expressed in pain-relevant loci (dorsal root ganglia, DRG, which suggests their possible involvement in nociception, but their functions in pain remain unclear. Results In this study, we first demonstrated differential change in expression of proton-sensing GPCRs in peripheral inflammation induced by the inflammatory agents capsaicin, carrageenan, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA. In particular, the expression of TDAG8, one proton-sensing GPCR, was increased 24 hours after CFA injection because of increased number of DRG neurons expressing TDAG8. The number of DRG neurons expressing both TDAG8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 was increased as well. Further studies revealed that TDAG8 activation sensitized the TRPV1 response to capsaicin, suggesting that TDAG8 could be involved in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain through regulation of TRPV1 function. Conclusion Each subtype of the OGR1 family was expressed differently, which may reflect differences between models in duration and magnitude of hyperalgesia. Given that TDAG8 and TRPV1 expression increased after CFA-induced inflammation and that TDAG8 activation can lead to TRPV1 sensitization, it suggests that high concentrations of protons after

  11. Detection of laser-accelerated protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine

    2012-08-08

    Real-time (Online) detection of laser-accelerated protons is a challenge for any electronic detector system due to the peculiar time structure ({<=} ns) and high intensity ({>=}10{sup 7} p/cm{sup 2}) of the generated ion pulses. Besides considerable saturation effects, problems are expected by an electromagnetic interference pulse (EMP), generated during laser-plasma interaction. In the scope of this work, different detection systems were built-up with regard to specific demands of laser-ion-acceleration at the MPQ ATLAS laser, which allow the quantitative analysis of the generated proton beam. A cell irradiation experiment at the ATLAS laser was accomplished to demonstrate the usability of laser-accelerated protons for radiation therapy. Cells were irradiated with a single shot dose of few Gy for a proton energy of 5 MeV. The following cell analysis required the spatially resolved measurement of the dose distribution. Only radiation-sensitive films were applicable because of the small proton range, although they show significant quenching effects for the used proton energy. This was extensively studied in the 3-200 MeV energy range. A film-based dosimetry protocol for low-energy proton irradiations was developed, making the absolute dose determination in the cell experiment possible. The non-electronic detectors (nuclear track detectors, radiation-sensitive films) are still state of the art in laser-accelerated ion diagnostics, although these detectors only allow a delayed in time (offline) detection. A non-electronic system, based on image plates, was thoroughly characterized and calibrated for ongoing experiments at the ATLAS laser, for the first time. Main objective of this work, though, was the set-up of a real-time detection system, which is urgently required, owing to increasing repetition rate of the laser accelerator (>Hz), to advance the parameter optimisation of the laser-acceleration in an efficient way. Systems based on silicon pixel detectors are

  12. Microscopic theory of the two-proton radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, J; Okołowicz, J; Płoszajczak, M

    2005-07-22

    We formulate a theory of the two-proton radioactivity based on the real-energy continuum shell model. This microscopic approach is applied to describe the two-proton decay of the 1(-)(2) state in 18Ne.

  13. Energetic Proton Spectra Measured by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Shi, Run; Engebretson, Mark J.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Mitchell, Donald G.

    2017-10-01

    We test the hypothesis that pitch angle scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves can limit ring current proton fluxes. For two chosen magnetic storms, during 17-20 March 2013 and 17-20 March 2015, we measure proton energy spectra in the region 3 ≤ L ≤ 6 using the RBSPICE-B instrument on the Van Allen Probes. The most intense proton spectra are observed to occur during the recovery periods of the respective storms. Using proton precipitation data from the POES (NOAA and MetOp) spacecraft, we deduce that EMIC wave action was prevalent at the times and L-shell locations of the most intense proton spectra. We calculate limiting ring current proton energy spectra from recently developed theory. Comparisons between the observed proton energy spectra and the theoretical limiting spectra show reasonable agreement. We conclude that the measurements of the most intense proton spectra are consistent with self-limiting by EMIC wave scattering.

  14. An evaluation of a prototype proton CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plautz, Tia Elizabeth

    Since the 1990s, the number of clinical proton therapy facilities around the world has been growing exponentially. Because of this, and the lack of imaging support for proton therapy in the treatment room, a renewed interest in proton radiography and computed tomography (CT) has emerged. This imaging modality was largely abandoned in the 1970s and '80s in favor of the already successful x-ray CT, for reasons including long acquisition times and inadequate spatial resolution. Protons are particularly useful for radiotherapy because of their well-defined range in matter and their favorable energy profile which facilitates greater conformality than other radiotherapies; however, in order to realize the full potential of proton radiotherapy, the range of protons in the patient must be precisely known. Presently, proton therapy treatment planning is accomplished by taking x-ray CTs of the patient and converting each voxel into proton relative stopping power with respect to water (RSP) via a stoichiometrically-acquired calibration curve. However, since there is no unique relationship between Hounsfield values and RSP, this procedure has inherent uncertainties of a few percent in the proton range, requiring additional distal uncertainty margins in proton treatment plans. In contrast to x-ray CT, proton CT measures the RSP of an object directly, eliminating the need for Hounsfield-value-to-RSP conversion. In the prototype proton CT scanner that we have developed, a low-intensity beam of 200 MeV protons traverses a patient, entirely, and stops in a downstream energy/range detector. The entry and exit vectors of each proton are measured in order to determine a most-likely path of the proton through the object, and the response of the energy/range detector is converted to the water-equivalent path length of each proton in the object. These measurements are made at many angles between 0 and 360 degrees in order to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of proton RSP in the object

  15. Measurement of four-jet production in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Jones, John; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fantinel, Sergio; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Michelotto, Michele; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dudko, Lev; Gribushin, Andrey; Khein, Lev; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Proskuryakov, Alexander; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Favaro, Carlotta; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Ilic, Jelena; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Oliveros, Sandra; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sakharov, Alexandre; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H

    2014-05-28

    Measurements of the differential cross sections for the production of exactly four jets in proton-proton collisions are presented as a function of the transverse momentum $p_T$ and pseudorapidity $\\eta$, together with the correlations in azimuthal angle and the $p_T$ balance among the jets. The data sample was collected in 2010 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC, with an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns. The cross section for a final state with a pair of hard jets with $p_T \\gt$ 50 GeV and another pair with $p_T \\gt$ 20 GeV within abs(eta) $\\lt$ 4.7 is measured to be $\\sigma(pp \\to 4j + X)$ = 330 $\\pm$ 5 (stat.) $\\pm$ 45 (syst.) nb. The measured differential cross sections agree with predictions involving parton showers in only some regions of the phase space. It is found that including a contribution from double parton scattering in the models brings the predictions closer to the measurements.

  16. Relativistic protons for image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, M.; Stöcker, H.

    2012-07-01

    Bragg-peak radiosurgery and proton radiography have been used in radiotherapy over the past few years. Non-Bragg-peak (plateau) relativistic protons (E>1 GeV) can offer advantages both in terms of precision and target margin reduction, and especially thanks to the possible simultaneous use of high-resolution online proton radiography. Here we will present initial simulations and experiments toward image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery using GeV protons.

  17. Protons on the doorstep of the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Mertens, Volker

    2005-01-01

    The first of the two new beam transfer lines to the LHC was successfully commissioned in autumn 2004. At the first attempt a low-intensity proton beam passed down the line to a few meters before the LHC tunnel (3 pages)

  18. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Feenstra, Ettje T.; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or

  19. The role of protonation in protein fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, M.D.; Otzen, D.E.; Westh, P.

    2010-01-01

    buffer and the peptide hormone glucagon during fibrillation. Glucagon absorbs or releases protons to an extent which allows it to attain a net charge of zero in the fibrillar state, both at acidic and basic pH. Similar results are obtained for lysozyme. This suggests that side chain pKa values change...

  20. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  1. Proton Therapy Dose Characterization and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    and a wire- frame rendering of the Transponder as implemented in Geant4 simulation. The total length is 8.5 mm. Because of the uncertainties...while stil l maintouni~ optimal rumor coverage. Proton radiolherapy, how· ev~r . .>.Uowed further heneHIS over !landard IMRT and adaptive IMRT

  2. Delayed-proton and -alpha emission

    CERN Document Server

    Feix, W

    1981-01-01

    Delayed-proton and delayed-alpha spectra and their branching ratios are theoretically studied for neutron deficient heavy nuclei, /sup 114,116/Cs. The results exhibit a strong model dependence of the analysis. This implies a difficulty of deducing details of the beta - strength function of the precursors from such an analysis. (0 refs).

  3. Infrared spectra of protonated neurotransmitters: dopamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagutschenkov, A.; Langer, J.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Dopfer, O.

    2011-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectrum of the isolated protonated neurotransmitter dopamine was recorded in the fingerprint range (570-1880 cm−1) by means of IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The spectrum was obtained in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer equipped

  4. Infrared spectra of protonated neurotransmitters: dopamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagutschenkov, A.; Langer, J.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.; Dopfer, O.

    2011-01-01

    The infrared (IR) spectrum of the isolated protonated neurotransmitter dopamine was recorded in the fingerprint range (570-1880 cm(-1)) by means of IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The spectrum was obtained in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

  5. Computer simulation of proton channelling in silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2000-06-12

    Jun 12, 2000 ... Computer simulation of proton channelling in silicon. N K DEEPAK, K RAJASEKHARAN* and K NEELAKANDAN. Department of Physics, University of Calicut, Malappuram 673 635, India. *. Department of Physics, Malabar Christian College, Kozhikode 673 001, India. MS received 11 October 1999; revised ...

  6. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY FOR AN ADVANCED HYDROTEST FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. MORRIS

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of data from BNL experiment 933 is presented. Results demonstrate that proton radiography can meet many of the requirements for an Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF). Results for background, position resolution, metrology, quantitative radiography, material identification, and edge resolution are presented.

  7. Enhancement of proton conductivity of sulfonated polystyrene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... water uptake, sulfonation rate, ion exchange capacity and thermal behaviour. The proton conductivity of the membranes is achieved up to 0.6 Scm-1, measured with the help of potentiostat/galvanostat. The thermogravimetric study of the plasma polymerized membrane shows the thermal stability up to 140 °C temperature.

  8. Thermodynamic modeling of naringenin protonation equilibria in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The protonation equilibria for the flavonoid naringenin were studied at 25°C using combined multiwavelength spectroscopic and pH-potentiometric methods as a function of the ionic strength. Over a wide range of ionic strengths, 0.10–3.00 mol dm−3, the investigation was performed in different aqueous solutions of NaClO4 ...

  9. Radiative proton capture on He-6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauvan, E.; Marqués, F.M.; Wilschut, H.W.; Orr, N.A.; Angelique, J.C.; Borcea, C.; Catford, W.N.; Clarke, N.M.; Descouvemont, P.; Diaz, J.; Grevy, S.; Kugler, A.; Kravchuk, V.; Labiche, M.; Le Brun, C.; Lienard, E.; Löhner, H.; Mittig, W.; Ostendorf, R.W.; Pietri, S.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Savajols, H.; Wagner, V.; Yahlali, N.

    2001-01-01

    Radiative capture of protons is investigated as a probe of clustering in nuclei far from stability. The first such measurement on a halo nucleus is reported here for the reaction He-6(p, gamma) at 40 MeV. Capture into Li-7 is observed as the strongest channel. In addition, events have been recorded

  10. Golden Jubilee Photos: Peering inside protons

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ The 50 m long BCDMS apparatus, with particle detectors sandwiched between slabs of magnetized iron, tracked the paths of muons after they scattered off atoms' nuclei. At first many doubted the results from CERN's BCDMS experiment, which ran from 1978 to 1985 and was a crucial early test of quantum chromodynamics, or QCD. This theory, which was still in its infancy at that time, describes the strong force that governs protons and neutrons. BCDMS slammed muons, heavier cousins of electrons, into the simplest atoms: hydrogen, with a lone proton in its nucleus, and deuterium, with a proton and neutron. When the muons showed a type of collision called deep inelastic scattering, they revealed the inner workings of protons and neutrons: the quarks and gluons. However, the measurements from BCDMS at lower energies didn't fit with those from other CERN experiments, the EMC muon experiment and the CDHS neutrino experiment. These were some of the pre-eminent experiments of the time on deep ...

  11. Quantitative proton radiography of an animal patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Dellert, Matthias; Pedroni, Eros; Pemler, Peter; Besserer, Juergen; Moosburger, Martin; Theiler, Prisca; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2003-06-01

    Images (with a spatial resolution of 1 mm x 1mm) were produced both, with range and range dilution information of the protons passing through a dog. The radiographies were taken prior to a proton radiotherapy treatment of a nasal tumor, while the dog patient was under anesthetics. The first image was created by calculating the mean range of the protons detected in each pixel. This image was compared to calculations of the treatment planning system based on a CT-scan of the dog. Errors in the calculated range could be detected. The second image was produced by calculating the width of the range spectrum in each pixel. This value is a measure of the dilution of the range due to tissue inhomogeneities. The dilution image can be used to indicate critical situations during proton therapy, to determine the safety margin around the tumor volume, or to optimise treatment. In a preliminary analysis of the radiography data we found range uncertainty and range dilution effects in the order of up to 10 mm.

  12. Infrared Spectra of Protonated Neurotransmitters: Serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagutschenkov, A.; Langer, J.; G. Berden,; Oomens, J.; Dopfer, O.

    2010-01-01

    The gas-phase IR spectrum of the protonated neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) was measured in the fingerprint range by means of IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum was recorded in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

  13. Infrared spectra of protonated neurotransmitters: serotonin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagutschenkov, A.; Langer, J.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Dopfer, O.

    2010-01-01

    The gas-phase IR spectrum of the protonated neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) was measured in the fingerprint range by means of IR multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy. The IRMPD spectrum was recorded in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

  14. The interaction region of high energy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Dremin, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial view of the interaction region of colliding high energy protons (in terms of impact parameter) is considered. It is shown that the region of inelastic collisions has a very peculiar shape. It saturates for central collisions at an energy of 7 TeV. We speculate on the further evolution with energy, which is contrasted to the "black disk" picture.

  15. Proton radioactivity with analytically solvable potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The phenomenon of proton emission is treated as a process of asymmetric fission through a one-dimensional potential barrier developed due to combined effects of the Coulomb potential, centrifugal potential and various renormalization processes. The barrier is simulated to an asymmetric, smooth and analytically solvable ...

  16. Proton-induced background in LEGRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, E.; Sánchez, F.; Lei, F.; Pérez, J. M.; Reglero, V.; Dean, A. J.

    The Low Energy Gamma Ray Imager (LEGRI) on board the Spanish MINISAT-01 mission is a position-sensitive γ-ray instrument with a 10 × 10 HgI2 elements array on the detector plane. This telescope is dedicated to imaging of astrophysical sources in the 20-200 keV spectral range. In the framework of LEGRI sensitivity evaluations, one of the focal points is the determination of the background noise induced by the cosmic and trapped proton flux. To achieve an accurate estimation of this background noise component, small HgI2 crystals were irradiated with high energy protons at SATURNE (Saclay, France). After the identification of the unstable isotopes generated by the proton flux, their production rates were calculated. The experimental data were compared with the results obtained by a Monte Carlo simulation code. Since a good agreement between both experimental and simulation results was observed, these last ones have been used to perform full calculations of the proton-induced background in LEGRI. The information provided by these calculations has been used to estimate an upper limit of LEGRI sensitivity.

  17. [Interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsze, Ankie M; de Boer, Anthonius; Boot, Henk; Deneer, Vera H M; Heringa, Mette; Mol, Peter G M; Schalekamp, Tom; Verduijn, Monique M; Verheugt, Freek W A; le Comte, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel has been the subject of much study in recent years. Contradictory results regarding the effect of proton pump inhibitors on platelet reactivity and on clinical outcome in clopidogrel-treated patients have been reported in literature. Concomitant use of omeprazole and clopidogrel was found to decrease the exposure (AUC) to clopidogrel's active metabolite by 50% and to sharply increase platelet reactivity, as a result of inhibition by omeprazole of CYP2C19, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme. Pantoprazole has a much weaker effect on clopidogrel's pharmacokinetics and on platelet reactivity during concomitant use. The influence of the other proton pump inhibitors when used simultaneously with clopidogrel has not yet been investigated in adequately randomized studies. Regulatory agencies state that the combination of clopidogrel and the CYP2C19 inhibitors omeprazole and esomeprazole should be avoided. To date, there is no conclusive evidence of a clinically-relevant interaction between any of the proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel.

  18. Jet measurements in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vajzer, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The study of jets, collimated sprays of particles associated with hard partons, is an important tool in testing perturbative quantum chromodynamics (pQCD) and probing hot and dense nuclear matter created in high energy heavy-ion collisions. Jets enable the study of hard scatterings, fragmentation and hadronisation and their modification in the presence of a nuclear medium with respect to baseline vacuum measurements, which is acquired from jet measurements in proton-proton collisions. We have analysed data from proton-proton collisions at s= \\sqrt{s} = 7 TeV measured by the ALICE experiment at the LHC and reconstructed the inclusive spectra of charged particle jets at mid- rapidity using anti-kT clustering algorithm. We present the jet spectra corrected for detector effects using several unfolding methods. Furthermore, we examine various properties of jets, such as their charged particle multiplicity and jet shapes.

  19. Charged jet spectra in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vajzer, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Jets are collimated sprays of particles resulting from fragmentation of hard scattered partons. They are measured in different types of collisions at different energies to test perturbative Quantum Chromodynamic calculations and are used to study the hard scattering, fragmentation and hadronisation of partons. These phenomena, measured in simple systems such as proton--proton collisions, serve as a baseline to investigate their modifications by hot and dense nuclear matter created in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We have analysed data from minimum bias proton--proton collisions at centre of mass energy of 2.76 and 7 TeV collected using the ALICE detector system at the LHC and reconstructed the inclusive jet cross section from charged tracks at midrapidity. We present jet spectra reconstructed using the infrared and colinear safe anti-kT algorithm with underlying event subtraction, corrected for detector effects via unfolding for both collision energies. Furthermore, results from analyses of fragmentation ...

  20. Energy dependence of negatively charged pion production in proton-proton interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)663936; Dominik, Wojciech; Gaździck, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents inclusive spectra of the negatively charged pions produced in inelastic proton-proton interactions measured at five beam momenta: 20, 31, 40, 80 and 158 GeV/c. The measurements were conducted in the NA61/SHINE experiment at CERN using a system of five Time Projection Chambers. The negatively charged pion spectra were calculated based on the negatively charged hadron spectra. Contribution of hadrons other than the primary pions was removed using EPOS simulations. The results were corrected for effects related to detection, acceptance, reconstruction efficiency and the analysis technique. Two-dimensional spectra were derived as a function of rapidity and transverse momentum or transverse mass. The spectra were parametrised by widths of the rapidity distributions, inverse slope parameters of the transverse mass distributions, mean transverse masses and the total pion multiplicities. The negatively charged pion spectra in proton-proton interactions belong to a broad NA61/SHINE programme of se...

  1. Proton induced deuteron break-up with emission of a fast forward proton pair

    CERN Document Server

    Dymov, S; Erven, W; Hartmann, M; Kacharava, A K; Khoukaz, A; Klehr, F; Koch, R; Komarov, V; Kulikov, A; Kurbatov, V; Lang, N; Macharashvili, G; Maier, R; Merzlyakov, S I

    2003-01-01

    A kinematically complete study of the pd yields (pp)//sn reaction with forward emission of an S-wave proton pair (pp), has been performed at six beam energies 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.95, 1.35 and 1.9 GeV. The experiment was carried out at the ANKE spectrometer installed at the internal beam of the proton synchrotron COSY (Julich). The 3- momenta of both final state protons have been measured and events with a relative proton energy less than 3 MeV were selected as **1S //0 diprotons. The differential cross sections of such pair production averaged over the c.m. polar angle of the total momentum of the pair in the range 0 degree -8.1 degree have been obtained. A comparison of the result with a theoretical model based on the mechanism of pd-backward elastic scattering is described as well. 17 Refs.

  2. Comparison of human lung cancer cell radiosensitivity after irradiations with therapeutic protons and carbon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keta, Otilija D; Todorović, Danijela V; Bulat, Tanja M; Cirrone, Pablo Ga; Romano, Francesco; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrović, Ivan M; Ristić Fira, Aleksandra M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of irradiations with the therapeutic proton and carbon ion beams in two non-small cell lung cancers, CRL5876 adenocarcinoma and HTB177 large cell lung carcinoma. The DNA damage response dynamics, cell cycle regulation, and cell death pathway activation were followed. Viability of both cell lines was lower after carbon ions compared to the therapeutic proton irradiations. HTB177 cells showed higher recovery than CRL5876 cells seven days following the treatments, but the survival rates of both cell lines were lower after exposure to carbon ions with respect to therapeutic protons. When analyzing cell cycle distribution of both CRL5876 and HTB177 cells, it was noticed that therapeutic protons predominantly induced G1 arrest, while the cells after carbon ions were arrested in G2/M phase. The results illustrated that differences in the levels of phosphorylated H2AX, a double-strand break marker, exist after therapeutic proton and carbon ion irradiations. We also observed dose- and time-dependent increase in the p53 and p21 levels after applied irradiations. Carbon ions caused larger increase in the quantity of p53 and p21 compared to therapeutic protons. These results suggested that various repair mechanisms were induced in the treated cells. Considering the fact that we have not observed any distinct change in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio following irradiations, it seemed that different types of cell death were involved in the response to the two types of irradiations that were applied.

  3. Comparison of human lung cancer cell radiosensitivity after irradiations with therapeutic protons and carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keta, Otilija D; Todorović, Danijela V; Bulat, Tanja M; Cirrone, Pablo GA; Romano, Francesco; Cuttone, Giacomo; Petrović, Ivan M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of irradiations with the therapeutic proton and carbon ion beams in two non-small cell lung cancers, CRL5876 adenocarcinoma and HTB177 large cell lung carcinoma. The DNA damage response dynamics, cell cycle regulation, and cell death pathway activation were followed. Viability of both cell lines was lower after carbon ions compared to the therapeutic proton irradiations. HTB177 cells showed higher recovery than CRL5876 cells seven days following the treatments, but the survival rates of both cell lines were lower after exposure to carbon ions with respect to therapeutic protons. When analyzing cell cycle distribution of both CRL5876 and HTB177 cells, it was noticed that therapeutic protons predominantly induced G1 arrest, while the cells after carbon ions were arrested in G2/M phase. The results illustrated that differences in the levels of phosphorylated H2AX, a double-strand break marker, exist after therapeutic proton and carbon ion irradiations. We also observed dose- and time-dependent increase in the p53 and p21 levels after applied irradiations. Carbon ions caused larger increase in the quantity of p53 and p21 compared to therapeutic protons. These results suggested that various repair mechanisms were induced in the treated cells. Considering the fact that we have not observed any distinct change in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio following irradiations, it seemed that different types of cell death were involved in the response to the two types of irradiations that were applied. PMID:27633574

  4. Protonation Reaction of Benzonitrile Radical Anion and Absorption of Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holcman, Jerzy; Sehested, Knud

    1975-01-01

    The rate constant for the protonation of benzonitrile radical anions formed in pulse radiolysis of aqueous benzonitrile solutions is (3.5 ± 0.5)× 1010 dm3 mol–1 s–1. A new 270 nm absorption band is attributed to the protonated benzonitrile anion. The pK of the protonation reaction is determined...

  5. Opportunities and problems in determining proton and light nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-30

    Oct 30, 2014 ... We briefly review the so-called `proton puzzle', i.e., the disagreement of the newly extracted value of the proton charge radius r p from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy with other extractions, its possible significance and related problems. After describing the conventional theory to extract the proton radius ...

  6. A comparative study of proton transport properties of zirconium (IV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical resistivity of these materials has been accessed in acids, bases and organic solvent media. The protons present in the structural hydroxyl groups indicate good potential for TMA salts to exhibit solid state proton conduction. The transport properties of these materials has been explored by measuring specific proton ...

  7. Technical Design Report for the ATLAS Forward Proton Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081009; Brandt, A; Bruschi, M; Grinstein, S; Lange, J; Rijssenbeek, M; Sicho, P; Staszewski, R; Sykora, T; Trzebiński, M; Chwastowski, J; Korcyl, K; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector provides measurements of the momentum and emission angle of very forward protons. This enables the observation and measurement of a range of processes where one or both protons remain intact. Such processes are associated with elastic and diffractive scattering.

  8. Theoretical study of the mechanism of proton transfer in tautomeric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 4 ... Proton transfers; tautomerism; dissociative process; direct proton transfer. Abstract. Semiempirical SCF-MO studies of tautomerism in alloxan preclude the possibility of direct proton transfer in the gas phase due to the strain in the four-centred transition ...

  9. Formation of H-atom in 2s excited state of proton-lithium and proton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The differential and total cross-sections have been investigated in the forma- tion of H-atom in the 2s excited state of proton-lithium and proton-sodium scattering by using the Coulomb projected Born (CPB) approximation in the energy range from 50 to. 10,000 keV. The results thus obtained are compared with the ...

  10. Proton-proton collisions at ultra-relativistic energies in quark-gluon string model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravina L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The microscopic Monte Carlo quark-gluon string model (QGSM is employed to study particle production in ultrarelativistic proton-proton collisions. The model is based on Reggeon Field theory accomplished by string phenomenology. Various observables, including multiplicity, rapidity and transverse momentum spectra, short-range, long-range and femtoscopy correlations, are described quite well in a wide span of the collision energy. Predictions are made for pp collisions at √s = 14 TeV.

  11. J/psi and Upsilon Production in 7 TeV Proton-Proton Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Scherzer, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    We present a measurement of the differential J/psi cross section and the ratio of prompt to non-prompt J/psis in 7 TeV proton-proton collisions. We find that the dependence of the cross section on J/psi pT and rapidity is well predicted by Pythia + NRQCD contributions. However the overall normalization is found to be almost an order of magnitude lower. The ratio measurement agrees well with theoretical expectations.

  12. Tandem cathode for proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahrostami, Samira; Björketun, Mårten E.; Strasser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    tandem cathode design where the full oxygen reduction, involving four electron-transfer steps, is divided into formation (equilibrium potential 0.70 V) followed by reduction (equilibrium potential 1.76 V) of hydrogen peroxide. The two part reactions contain only t