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Sample records for hypertrophic scar keratinocytes

  1. Keratinocyte-derived growth factors play a role in the formation of hypertrophic scars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, FB; Andriessen, MP; Schalkwijk, J; Visser, L; Timens, W

    2001-01-01

    In predisposed individuals, wound healing can lead to hypertrophic scar or keloid formation, characterized by an overabundant extracellular matrix. It has recently been shown that hypertrophic scars are accompanied by abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation, and significantly increas

  2. Treatment of Hypertrophic Scar in Human with Autologous Transplantation of Cultured Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts along with Fibrin Glue

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    Ehsan Taghiabadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hypertrophic scar involves excessive amounts of collagen in dermal layer and may be painful. Nowadays, we can’t be sure about effectiveness of procedure for hypertrophic scar management. The application of stem cells with natural scaffold has been the best option for treatment of burn wounds and skin defect, in recent decades. Fibrin glue (FG was among the first of the natural biomaterials applied to enhance skin deformity in burn patients. This study aimed to identify an efficient, minimally invasive and economical transplantation procedure using novel FG from human cord blood for treatment of hypertrophic scar and regulation collagen synthesis. Materials and Methods: In this case series study, eight patients were selected with hypertrophic scar due to full-thickness burns. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts derived from adult skin donors were isolated and cultured. They were tested for the expression of cytokeratin 14 and vimentin using immunocytochemistry. FG was prepared from pooled cord blood. Hypertrophic scars were extensively excised then grafted by simply placing the sheet of FG containing autologous fibroblast and keratinocytes. Histological analyses were performed using Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Masson’s Trichrome (MT staining of the biopsies after 8 weeks. Results: Cultured keratinocytes showed a high level of cytokeratin 14 expression and also fibroblasts showed a high level of vimentin. Histological analyses of skin biopsies after 8 weeks of transplantation revealed re-epithelialization with reduction of hypertrophic scars in 2 patients. Conclusion: These results suggest may be the use of FG from cord blood, which is not more efficient than previous biological transporters and increasing hypertrophic scar relapse, but could lead to decrease pain rate.

  3. Update on hypertrophic scar treatment

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    Felipe Bettini Rabello

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Scar formation is a consequence of the wound healing process that occurs when body tissues are damaged by a physical injury. Hypertrophic scars and keloids are pathological scars resulting from abnormal responses to trauma and can be itchy and painful, causing serious functional and cosmetic disability. The current review will focus on the definition of hypertrophic scars, distinguishing them from keloids and on the various methods for treating hypertrophic scarring that have been described in the literature, including treatments with clearly proven efficiency and therapies with doubtful benefits. Numerous methods have been described for the treatment of abnormal scars, but to date, the optimal treatment method has not been established. This review will explore the differences between different types of nonsurgical management of hypertrophic scars, focusing on the indications, uses, mechanisms of action, associations and efficacies of the following therapies: silicone, pressure garments, onion extract, intralesional corticoid injections and bleomycin.

  4. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea.

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    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected.She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  5. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea

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    Hamid Karimi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs .At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected. She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients.

  6. Evidence of a role for fibrocyte and keratinocyte-like cells in the formation of hypertrophic scars.

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    Curran, Terry-Ann; Ghahary, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Burn injuries affect millions of people every year, and dermal fibrosis is a common complication for the victims. This disfigurement has functional and cosmetic consequences and many research groups have made it the focus of their work to understand the mechanisms that underlie its development. Although significant progress has been made in wound-healing processes, the complexity of events involved makes it very difficult to come up with a single strategy to prevent this devastating fibrotic condition. Inflammation is considered one predisposing factor, although this phase is a necessary aspect of the wound-healing process. Inflammation, driven by infiltrated immune cells, begins minutes after the burn injury and is the prevalent phase of wound healing in the early stages. Accompanying the inflammatory infiltrate, there is evidence that subpopulations of bone marrow-derived cells are also present. These populations include fibrocytes and keratinocyte-like cells, derivatives of CD14 monocytes, a component of the peripheral blood mononuclear cell infiltrate. There is evidence that these cells contribute to regeneration and repair of the wound site, but it is interesting to note that there are also reports that these cells can have adverse effects and may contribute to the development of dermal fibrosis. In this article, the authors present a review of the origin and transdifferentiation of these cells from bone marrow stem cells, the environments that direct this transdifferentiation, and evidence to support their role in fibrosis, as well as potential avenues for therapeutics to control their fibrotic effects.

  7. Suppressed inflammatory gene expression during human hypertrophic scar compared to normotrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, L.J.; van der Veer, W.M.; de Jong, E.H.; Gibbs, S.; Niessen, F.B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar formation is a result of adverse cutaneous wound healing. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. A problem next to the lack of suitable animal models is that often normal skin is compared to hypertrophic scar (HTscar) and not to normotrophic

  8. Suppressed inflammatory gene expression during human hypertrophic scar compared to normotrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, L.J.; van der Veer, W.M.; de Jong, E.H.; Gibbs, S.; Niessen, F.B.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar formation is a result of adverse cutaneous wound healing. The pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar formation is still poorly understood. A problem next to the lack of suitable animal models is that often normal skin is compared to hypertrophic scar (HTscar) and not to normotrophic sca

  9. Prevention and curative management of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, M.C.; Veer, van der W.M.; Ulrich, M.; Zuijlen, van P.P.; Niessen, F.B.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Although hypertrophic scarring commonly occurs following burns, many aspects such as incidence of and optimal treatment for scar hypertrophy remain unclear. This review will focus on hypertrophic scar formation after burn in particular, exploring multiple treatment options and describing their prope

  10. Periostin induces fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast persistence in hypertrophic scarring.

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    Crawford, Justin; Nygard, Karen; Gan, Bing Siang; O'Gorman, David Brian

    2015-02-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is characterized by the excessive development and persistence of myofibroblasts. These cells contract the surrounding extracellular matrix resulting in the increased tissue density characteristic of scar tissue. Periostin is a matricellular protein that is abnormally abundant in fibrotic dermis, however, its roles in hypertrophic scarring are largely unknown. In this report, we assessed the ability of matrix-associated periostin to promote the proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation of dermal fibroblasts isolated from the dermis of hypertrophic scars or healthy skin. Supplementation of a thin type-I collagen cell culture substrate with recombinant periostin induced a significant increase in the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts but not normal dermal fibroblasts. Periostin induced significant increases in supermature focal adhesion formation, α smooth muscle actin levels and collagen contraction in fibroblasts cultured from hypertrophic scars under conditions of increased matrix tension in three-dimensional type-I collagen lattices. Inhibition of Rho-associated protein kinase activity significantly attenuated the effects of matrix-associated periostin on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Depletion of endogenous periostin expression in hypertrophic scar myofibroblasts resulted in a sustained decrease in α smooth muscle actin levels under conditions of reducing matrix tension, while matrix-associated periostin levels caused the cells to retain high levels of a smooth muscle actin under these conditions. These findings indicate that periostin promotes Rho-associated protein kinase-dependent proliferation and myofibroblast persistence of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and implicate periostin as a potential therapeutic target to enhance the resolution of scars.

  11. Scar management practice and science: a comprehensive approach to controlling scar tissue and avoiding hypertrophic scarring.

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    Widgerow, Alan David; Chait, Laurence A

    2011-12-01

    A meta-analysis of the literature forms the basis of a treatment regimen focused on the principles of support, controlled inflammation, hydration, and hastened collagen remodeling. The presented clinical trial avoided hypertrophic scarring in more than 80% of cases, validating the theory of targeting many areas of scar control in 1 approach.

  12. What is the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring following burns?

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    Bombaro, Kristine M; Engrav, Loren H; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Wiechman, Shelly A; Faucher, Lee; Costa, Beth A; Heimbach, David M; Rivara, Frederick P; Honari, Shari

    2003-06-01

    Hypertrophic scarring after burns remains a major problem and is considered to be "common". Pressure garments are commonly used as treatment even though there is little sound data that they reduce the prevalence or magnitude of the scarring. In 1999 we began a study of the efficacy of pressure garments on forearm burns. After studying 30 patients, mainly white adults, we found no hypertrophic scar in either those treated with pressure or without. This prompted us to review the literature on the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring after burns and found only four articles with a relatively small number of patients and only three geographical locations. It became clear that the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring is really unknown. We then did a retrospective study of 110 burn survivors and counted all hypertrophic scars of all sizes and locations in all races and found the prevalence hypertrophic scarring to be 67% which conflicts with the published reports and our prospective study and suggests that further research is necessary. We concluded that a worldwide, prospective survey is necessary to establish the prevalence of hypertrophic scarring after burns. In this article we are calling for and offering to organize this survey.

  13. Genetic risk factors for hypertrophic scar development.

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    Thompson, Callie M; Hocking, Anne M; Honari, Shari; Muffley, Lara A; Ga, Maricar; Gibran, Nicole S

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTSs) occur in 30 to 72% patients after thermal injury. Risk factors include skin color, female sex, young age, burn site, and burn severity. Recent correlations between genetic variations and clinical conditions suggest that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may be associated with HTS formation. The authors hypothesized that an SNP in the p27 gene (rs36228499) previously associated with decreased restenosis after coronary stenting would be associated with lower Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) measurements and decreased itching. Patient and injury characteristics were collected from adults with thermal burns. VSS scores were calculated at 4 to 9 months after injury. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for HTS as measured by a VSS score >7. Three hundred subjects had a median age of 39 years (range, 18-91); 69% were male and median burn size was 7% TBSA (range, 0.25-80). Consistent with literature, the p27 variant SNP had an allele frequency of 40%, but was not associated with reduced HTS formation or lower itch scores in any genetic model. HTS formation was associated with American Indian/Alaskan Native race (odds ratio [OR], 12.2; P = .02), facial burns (OR, 9.4; P = .04), and burn size ≥20% TBSA (OR, 1.99; P = .03). Although the p27 SNP may protect against vascular fibroproliferation, the effect cannot be generalized to cutaneous scars. This study suggests that American Indian/Alaskan Native race, facial burns, and higher %TBSA are independent risk factors for HTS. The American Indian/Alaskan Native association suggests that there are potentially yet-to-be-identified genetic variants.

  14. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

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    Qi Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars.

  15. Potential cellular and molecular causes of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Willem M.; Bloemen, Monica C. T.; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; Molema, Grietje; van Zuijlen, Paul P.; Middelkoop, Esther; Niessen, Frank B.

    2009-01-01

    A scar is an expected result of wound healing. However, in some individuals, and particularly in burn victims, the wound healing processes may lead to a fibrotic hypertrophic scar, which is raised, red, inflexible and responsible serious functional and cosmetic problems. It seems that a wide array o

  16. Potential cellular and molecular causes of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der W.M.; Bloemen, M.C.; Ulrich, M.; Molema, G.; Zuijlen, van P.P.; Middelkoop, E.; Niessen, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    A scar is an expected result of wound healing. However, in some individuals, and particularly in burn victims, the wound healing processes may lead to a fibrotic hypertrophic scar, which is raised, red, inflexible and responsible for serious functional and cosmetic problems. It seems that a wide arr

  17. Potential cellular and molecular causes of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Willem M.; Bloemen, Monica C. T.; Ulrich, Magda M. W.; Molema, Grietje; van Zuijlen, Paul P.; Middelkoop, Esther; Niessen, Frank B.

    A scar is an expected result of wound healing. However, in some individuals, and particularly in burn victims, the wound healing processes may lead to a fibrotic hypertrophic scar, which is raised, red, inflexible and responsible serious functional and cosmetic problems. It seems that a wide array

  18. Potential cellular and molecular causes of hypertrophic scar formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van der W.M.; Bloemen, M.C.; Ulrich, M.; Molema, G.; Zuijlen, van P.P.; Middelkoop, E.; Niessen, F.B.

    2009-01-01

    A scar is an expected result of wound healing. However, in some individuals, and particularly in burn victims, the wound healing processes may lead to a fibrotic hypertrophic scar, which is raised, red, inflexible and responsible for serious functional and cosmetic problems. It seems that a wide

  19. Prosthodontist contribution in treating post-burn hypertrophic facial scars

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    Padmanabhan T

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypertrophic scars is common following healing of the burn wound, particularly in children. The face is one of the areas of the body most frequently affected by burns. Scar formation as a result of burn wounds leads to contraction of the formed granulation tissue, which causes both aesthetic and functional impairment for the patient. Scarring has major psychological and physical repercussions. Scarring on the face and visible regions of the body can be very distressing for the patient. Prevention of scars involves early and continuous use of a compressive orthesis. However, their efficacy is often limited to the facial region because of the contours of this area of body. This paper describes a clinical case of post-burn hypertrophic scars treated with silicone gel sheeting applied with pressure under custom made auto-polymerizing resin stent.

  20. Process of Hypertrophic Scar Formation: Expression of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Qing Yang; Si-Si Yang; Jiang-Lin Tan; Gao-Xing Luo; Wei-Feng He; Jun Wu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Hypertrophic scar is one of the most common complications and often causes the disfigurement or deformity in bum or trauma patients.Therapeutic methods on hypertrophic scar treatment have limitations due to the poor understanding of mechanisms of hypertrophic scar formation.To throw light on the molecular mechanism of hypertrophic scar formation will definitely improve the outcome of the treatment.This study aimed to illustrate the negative role ofeukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) in the process of human hypertrophic scar formation,and provide a possible indicator of hypertrophic scar treatment and a potential target molecule for hypertrophic scar.Methods:In the present study,we investigated the protein expression of eIF6 in the human hypertrophic scar of different periods by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.Results:In the hypertrophic scar tissue,eIF6 expression was significantly decreased and absent in the basal layer of epidermis in the early period,and increased slowly and began to appear in the basal layer of epidermis by the scar formation time.Conclusions:This study confirmed that eIF6 expression was significantly related to the development of hypertrophic scar,and the eIF6 may be a target molecule for hypertrophic scar control or could be an indicator of the outcomes for other treatment modalities.

  1. Endostatin inhibits hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao REN; Hang HU; Yuan LI; Hong-fei JIANG; Xin-lei HU; Chun-mao HAN

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The present study was designed to use an in vivo rabbit ear scar model to investigate the efficacy of systemic administration of endostatin in inhibiting scar formation.Methods:Eight male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups.Scar model was established by making six full skin defect wounds in each ear.For the intervention group,intraperitoneal injection of endostatin was performed each day after the wound healed (about 15 d post wounding).For the control group,equal volume of saline was injected.Thickness of scars in each group was measured by sliding caliper and the scar microcirculatory perfusion was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry on Days 15,21,28,and 35 post wounding.Rabbits were euthanatized and their scars were harvested for histological and proteomic analyses on Day 35 post wounding.Results:Macroscopically,scars of the control group were thicker than those of the intervention group.Significant differences between the two groups were observed on Days 21 and 35 (p<0.05).Scar thickness,measured by scar elevation index (SEI) at Day 35 post wounding,was significantly reduced in the intervention group (1.09±0.19) compared with the controls (1.36±0.28).Microvessel density (MVD) observed in the intervention group (1.73±0.94) was significantly lower than that of the control group (5.63±1.78)on Day 35.The distribution of collagen fibers in scars treated with endostatin was relatively regular,while collagen fibers in untreated controls were thicker and showed disordered alignment.Western blot analysis showed that the expressions of type Ⅰ collagen and Bcl-2 were depressed by injection of endostatin.Conclusions:Our results from the rabbit ear hypertrophic scar model indicate that systemic application of endostatin could inhibit local hypertrophic scar formation,possibly through reducing scar vascularization and angiogenesis.Our results indicated that endostatin may promote the apoptosis of endothelial cells and block their

  2. Human hypertrophic and keloid scar models: principles, limitations and future challenges from a tissue engineering perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, L.J.; Limandjaja, G.C.; Niessen, F.B.; Gibbs, S.

    2014-01-01

    Most cutaneous wounds heal with scar formation. Ideally, an inconspicuous normotrophic scar is formed, but an abnormal scar (hypertrophic scar or keloid) can also develop. A major challenge to scientists and physicians is to prevent adverse scar formation after severe trauma (e.g. burn injury) and u

  3. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: Update and Future Directions

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    Chenyu Huang, MD, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The development of cutaneous pathological scars, namely, hypertrophic scars (HSs and keloids, involves complex pathways, and the exact mechanisms by which they are initiated, evolved, and regulated remain to be fully elucidated. The generally held concepts that keloids and HSs represent “aberrant wound healing” or that they are “characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles” have done little to promote their accurate clinicopathological classification or to stimulate research into the specific causes of these scars and effective preventative therapies. To overcome this barrier, we review here the most recent findings regarding the pathology and pathogenesis of keloids and HSs. The aberrations of HSs and keloids in terms of the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of the wound healing process are described. In particular, the significant roles that the extracellular matrix and the epidermal and dermal layers of skin play in scar pathogenesis are examined. Finally, the current hypotheses of pathological scar etiology that should be tested by basic and clinical investigators are detailed. Therapies that have been found to be effective are described, including several that evolved directly from the aforementioned etiology hypotheses. A better understanding of pathological scar etiology and manifestations will improve the clinical and histopathological classification and treatment of these important lesions.

  4. Pressure therapy upregulates matrix metalloproteinase expression and downregulates collagen expression in hypertrophic scar tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dong; SHEN Kuan-hong; WANG Hong-gang

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure therapy improves hypertrophic scar healing,but the mechanisms for this process are not well understood.We sought to investigate the differential expression of matrix metalloproteinases (Mmps) and collagen in posttraumatic hypertrophic scar tissue with mechanical pressure and delineate the molecular mechanisms of pressure therapy for hypertrophic scars.Methods Fibroblast lines of normal skin and scar tissue were established and a mechanical pressure system was devised to simulate pressure therapy.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting assays were used to compare differences in the mRNA and protein expression of Mmps and collagen in scar fibroblasts before and after pressure therapy.Results The expression differed between the hypertrophic scar cell line and the normal cell line.RT-PCR assays showed that Collagen I,highly expressed in the hypertrophic scar cell line,decreased significantly after pressure therapy.Mmp2,Mmp9,and Mmp12 expression in the hypertrophic scar tissue increased significantly after pressure therapy (P <0.05).Western blotting assays further revealed that Mmp9 and Mmp12 expression increased significantly in the hypertrophic scar tissue after pressure therapy (P <0.05) but not Mmp2 expression (P >0.05).Conclusion Mechanical pressure induces degradation of Collagen Ⅰ in hypertrophic scar tissue by affecting the expression of Mmp9 and Mmp12.

  5. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  6. Differences in collagen architecture between keloid, hypertrophic scar, normotrophic scar, and normal skin: An objective histopathological analysis.

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    Verhaegen, Pauline D H M; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Pennings, Noor M; van Marle, Jan; Niessen, Frank B; van der Horst, Chantal M A M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Normotrophic, hypertrophic, and keloidal scars are different types of scar formation, which all need a different approach in treatment. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between these types of scar, not only clinically but also histopathologically. Differences were explored for collagen orientation and bundle thickness in 25 normal skin, 57 normotrophic scar, 56 hypertrophic scar, and 56 keloid biopsies, which were selected on clinical diagnosis. Image analysis was performed by fast fourier transformation. The calculated collagen orientation index ranged from 0 (random orientation) to 1 (parallel orientation). The bundle distance was calculated by the average distance between the centers of the collagen bundles. The results showed that compared with all three types of scars, the collagen orientation index was significantly lower in normal skin, which indicates that scars are organized in a more parallel manner. No differences were found between the different scars. Secondly, compared with normal skin, normotrophic scar, and hypertrophic scar, the bundle distance was significantly larger in keloidal scar, which suggests that thicker collagen bundles are present in keloidal scar. This first extensive histological study showed objective differences between normal skin, normotrophic, hypertrophic, and keloidal scar.

  7. Nd: YAG Laser Treatment for Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars: An Analysis of 102 Cases

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    Sachiko Koike, MD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Hypertrophic scars responded significantly better to 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser treatment than keloids. However, keloid recurrence occurred when there was remaining redness and induration, even if only a small part of the scar was affected.

  8. Differences in collagen architecture between keloid, hypertrophic scar, normotrophic scar, and normal skin: An objective histopathological analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, P.D.; Zuijlen, van P.P.; Pennings, N.M.; Marle, van J.; Niessen, F.B.; Horst, C.; Middelkoop, E.

    2009-01-01

    Normotrophic, hypertrophic, and keloidal scars are different types of scar formation, which all need a different approach in treatment. Therefore, it is important to differentiate between these types of scar, not only clinically but also histopathologically. Differences were explored for collagen or

  9. Are TNF-α and IL-1β the cause of post-burn hypertrophic scar tissue one year later?

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    Patricia Mercadillo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Post-burn hypertrophic scar tissue (H is characterized by increased collagen synthesis, cellular growth and cell turnover. Its clinical characteristics exhibit aspects of chronic local inflammation, but the mechanism of its pathogenesis has not been clearly elucidated. In chronic skin inflammation, proinflammatory and profibrogenic cytokines play an important role in producing skin dysfunction. In this study, we examined changes in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β mRNA expression and its presence in post-burn hypertrophic scars. Results obtained in normotrophic scar tissue (N were compared to results obtained in normal skin (NS. Materials and Methods. Skin biopsies were obtained from 15 patients with (H who presented burns on over 10% of their skin surface, more than a year post-injury. N were obtained from 17 patients who experienced scarring in optimal conditions. NS were obtained from 11 patients who underwent cosmetic or reconstructive surgery. We performed histopathologic analysis with routine processing. TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression levels on all three types of biopsy were obtained by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Results. TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression was highly coordinated and was very similar in all the tissues processed and our histopathologic analysis yielded relatively low inflammatory infiltrate cell. But according to a semiquantitative analysis RT-PCR, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA expression was significantly decreased in hypertrophic scars when they were compared to NS and N. Conclusions. These results suggest, that there not a differential expression TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA in hypertrophic scars a one year post injury. Interestingly, the keratinocytes showed minus expression of IL-1β mRNA compared to other cell types, which suggests that they may play an important role in post-burn skin repair processes.

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE OCCURRENCE OF HYPERTROPHIC SCARS AMONG POSTOPERATIVE PATIENTS IN GARUT, INDONESIA

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    Andri Nugraha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scar causes physical and psychological problems. Thus understanding the factors related to the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue is needed. Little is known about its influencing factors in Indonesia, especially in Garut. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationships between hypertrophic scar and its influencing factors, and identify the most dominant factor of the occurrence of hypertrophic scars. Methods: This was an observational case control study using retrospective approach in Polyclinic of Surgery of Regional Public Hospital of dr. Slamet of Garut Regency. There were 40 samples recruited in this study by purposive sampling, which was divided to be case group (20 patients and control group (20 patients. Data were collected using Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale by observation and documentation of the medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis Results: Findings indicated that there were significant relationships between the surgical wound infection (p = 0.02, family history (p = 0.026, and type of suture (p = 0.043 with the occurrence of hypertrophic scars. The most dominant factor on the occurrence of hypertrophic scars was type of suture, acid polyglactin 910. The variables that had no significant relationships with the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue were age (p = 0.34, area of surgical wound (p = 0.177, and smoking habit (p = 0.479. Conclusion: There were significant relationships between infection of surgical wound, genetic history, the type of suture, and the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue. The most dominant factor that influenced the occurrence of hypertrophic scar tissue was the type of suture. Therefore, it is suggested to health professionals to modify the using of acid polyglactin 910 sutures, and nurses particularly need to provide the information regarding the family history and genetic-related hypertrophic scar, and prevent the

  11. STUDY ON FUNCTION OF FOCAL ADHENSIVE KINASE AND INTEGRIN α1 IN HYPERTROPHIC SCAR FIBROBLASTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Min-gang; PING Ping; FAN Zhi-hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the function of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in the formation of hyper-trophic scar and its interrelationship with integrin α1. Methods Original fibroblasts from human hypertrophic scar and human normal dermis were cultured, and immanocytochemistry was applied to detect localization of expres-sion of FAK and integrin α1 in hypertrophic scar and human normal skin fibroblasts. The expression of integrin α1 was detected before and after FAK antibody blocking hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFB) 48 h later. Meanwhile the collagen synthesis was evaluated by [3H] -proline incorporation and HSFB cell proliferation was measured by MTT method. Results The expression of FAK and integrin α1 of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was higher than that of the normal skin fibroblasts significantly (P <0. 01). The expression of integrinct, was reduced after FAK be-ing blocked (P<0.01). Meanwhile the collagen synthesis of human scar-derived fibroblasts by [3H] -proline incor-poration was depressed respectively (P<0.01). The cell proliferation was inhibited by using 1:100 and 1:200 FAK antibody with MTT method (P<0.01). Conclusion FAK is the key point of signal transmission pathway medi-ated by integrin α1, which regulates protein synthesis of integrin α1, it may play an important role in the prolifera-tion and constriction of hypertrophic scar. FAK antibody can inhibit the collagen synthesis and cell proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

  12. Time course of the angiogenic response during normotrophic and hypertrophic scar formation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, Willem M.; Niessen, Frank B.; Ferreira, Jose A.; Zwiers, Peter J.; de Jong, Etty H.; Middelkoop, Esther; Molema, Grietje

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that in hypertrophic scars (HSs), an excess of microvessels is present compared with normotrophic scars (NSs). The aim of our study was to quantify vascular densities in HSs and normotrophic scars and to provide an insight into the kinetics of changes in the expression of

  13. Hypertrophic scar formation is associated with an increased number of epidermal Langerhans cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, FB; Schalkwijk, J; Vos, H; Timens, W

    The exact pathogenesis of hypertrophic scar and keloid formation is still unknown and a good therapy to prevent or treat these scars is lacking. Because immunological processes seem to be important in excessive scar formation, immunological cells and parameters were studied in a standardized breast

  14. [Cause and prevention of surgical site infection and hypertrophic scars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Rei

    2012-03-01

    Surgical site infection (SSI) occurs at the site of surgery within 1 month of an operation or within 1 year of an operation if a foreign body is implanted as part of the surgery. Most SSIs (about 70%) are superficial infections involving the skin and subcutaneous tissues only. The remaining infections are more serious and can involve tissues under the skin, organs, or implanted material. Hypertrophic scars( HSs) occur frequently on particular sites, including the anterior chest wall. The anterior chest wall is frequently subjected to skin stretching caused by the natural daily movements of the body. Most cases of SSIs and HSs can be prevented by (1) suture technique modification to prevent high stretching tension and ischemia, and (2) appropriate wound care after surgery. It would be useful to avoid subjecting wounded skin to sustained mechanical force, thereby permitting the wound to rest and heal normally.

  15. Cubital tunnel syndrome caused by hypertrophic burn scarring: Sonographic envisage

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    Alparslan Bayram Carli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In nerve entrapment syndromes, an electrodiagnostic study during physical examination would usually suffice to assess localization of injury. However, in daily clinical practice, sometimes it may be necessary to depict the insight; in other words to use an imaging tool. From this point of view, with its manifold advantages, ultrasound (US is superior to other imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. According to a study, US increased the sensitivity of electrodiagnostic studies from 78% to 98%. By presenting a patient with cubital tunnel syndrome caused by hypertrophic scarring, we wanted to highlight the complementary role of US in nerve entrapment syndromes in confirming the entrapment, as well as the usefulness of it in the follow-up period of burn patients. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(2.000: 44-46

  16. The effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Soo; Jeon, Jong Hyun; Hong, Aram; Yang, Hyeong Tae; Yim, Haejun; Cho, Yong Suk; Kim, Do-Hern; Hur, Jun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chun, Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Seo, Cheong Hoon

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of burn rehabilitation massage therapy on hypertrophic scar after burn. One hundred and forty-six burn patients with hypertrophic scar(s) were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group. All patients received standard rehabilitation therapy for hypertrophic scars and 76 patients (massage group) additionally received burn scar rehabilitation massage therapy. Both before and after the treatment, we determined the scores of visual analog scale (VAS) and itching scale and assessed the scar characteristics of thickness, melanin, erythema, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum, and elasticity by using ultrasonography, Mexameter(®), Tewameter(®), Sebumeter(®), and Cutometer(®), respectively. The scores of both VAS and itching scale decreased significantly in both groups, indicating a significant intragroup difference. With regard to the scar characteristics, the massage group showed a significant decrease after treatment in scar thickness, melanin, erythema, TEWL and a significant intergroup difference. In terms of scar elasticity, a significant intergroup difference was noted in immediate distension and gross skin elasticity, while the massage group significant improvement in skin distensibility, immediate distension, immediate retraction, and delayed distension. Our results suggest that burn rehabilitation massage therapy is effective in improving pain, pruritus, and scar characteristics in hypertrophic scars after burn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Involvement of impaired desmosome-related proteins in hypertrophic scar intraepidermal blister formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianglin; He, Weifeng; Luo, Gaoxing; Wu, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Hypertrophic scar is one of the unique fibrotic diseases in human. Intraepidermal blister is a common clinical symptom following the hypertrophic scar formation. However, little is known about the reason of blister creation. In this study, we selected three patients with hypertrophic scar as manifested by raised, erythematous, pruritic, blister and thickened appearance undergoing scar resection. The first scar sample was 6 months after burn from the neck of a 3 years old male patient with 10 score by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). The second scar sample was 12 months after burn from the dorsal foot of a 16 years old female patient with 13 score by VSS. The third one was 9 months after burn from the elbow of a 34 years old male patients with 13 score by VSS. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of blister formation, we screened the different protein expression between hypertrophic scar and normal skin tissue by means of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technology and high throughput 2D LC-MS/MS. There were 48 proteins found to be downregulated in hypertrophic scar. Among the downregulated ones, plakophilin1 (PKP1), plakophilin3 (PKP3) and desmoplakin (DSP) were the desmosome-related proteins which were validated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting assay. Transmission electron microscopy further showed the considerably reduced size and intensity of hemidesmosome and desmosome in hypertrophic scar tissue, compared to control normal skin. Our data indicted for the first time that downregulation of DSP, PKP1 and PKP3 in hypertrophic scar might be responsible for intraepidermal blister formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Curative Effects of Oleanolic Acid on Formed Hypertrophic Scars in the Rabbit Ear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scarring is a common proliferative disorder of dermal fibroblasts characterized by collagen overproduction and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM. There is no consensus about the best therapeutics to produce complete and permanent improvement of scars with few side effects. To investigate the therapeutic effects of oleanolic acid (OA on hypertrophic scars and explore the possible mechanism of action involved, a rabbit ear model with hypertrophic scars was established. OA (2.5%, 5%, and 10% was given once daily to the scars for 28 consecutive days. As a result, OA significantly alleviated formed hypertrophic scars on rabbit ears. The levels of TGF-β1, MMP-1, TIMP-1, and collagens I and III were notably decreased, and the number of apoptosis cells and mRNA expression of MMP-2, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were markedly increased in the scar tissue. The scar elevation index (SEI was also evidently reduced. Histological findings exhibited significant amelioration of the collagen tissue. These results suggest that OA has the favorable curative effects on formed hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model, and the possible mechanism of action is that OA decreases HSFs proliferation and increases HSFs apoptosis by reduction of P311 gene expression and TGF-β1 production, inhibition of TIMP-1 secretion, enhancement of MMP-2 activity, and subsequently facilitation of degradation of collagen types I and III.

  19. Comparison of intralesional verapamil with intralesional triamcinolone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Shanthi F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The calcium channel blocker, verapamil stimulates procollagenase synthesis in keloids and hypertrophic scars. Aim : To study the effect of verapamil in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids and to evaluate the effect of verapamil on the rate of reduction of hypertrophic scars and keloids in comparison with triamcinolone. Methods : The study was a randomized, single blind, parallel group study in which 54 patients were allocated to to receive either verapamil or triamcinolone. Drugs were administered intralesionally in both groups. Improvement of the scar was measured using modified Vancouver scale and by using a centimeter scale serially till the scar flattened. Results : There was a reduction in vascularity, pliability, height and width of the scar with both the drugs after 3 weeks of treatment. These changes were present at one year of follow-up after stopping treatment. Scar pigmentation was not changed desirably by either drug. Length of the scars was also not altered significantly by either drug. The rate of reduction in vascularity, pliability, height and width of the scar with triamcinolone was faster than with verapamil. Adverse drug reactions were more with triamcinolone than with verapamil. Conclusion : Intralesional verapamil may be a suitable alternative to triamcinolone in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FIBRONECTIN GENE EXPRESSION IN TISSUES FROM HYPERTROPHIC SCARS AND DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付小兵; 杨银辉; 孙同柱; 王亚平; 盛志勇

    2002-01-01

    Objective.To explore the expression characteristic of fibronectin gene in hypertrophic scars and diabetic ulcer tissues.Methods.The biopsies from normal skins,hypertrophic scars and diabetic foot ulcers were taken.The technique of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to evaluate the gene expression of fibronectin in the above biopsies.Results.Fibronectin gene expression was enhanced in hypertrophic scars and decreased in diabetic foot ulcers compared with that in normal skins.Quantitative comparison showed about 2 fold increase of fibronectin mRNA level in hypertrophic scars and about 3 fold decrease of fibronectin mRNA level in diabetic ulcers as compared with that in normal skins.Conclusions.Fibronectin gene expression is influenced by the tissue environment.Different expression and synthesis of fibronectin may cause different outcomes in wound healing.

  1. Standard guidelines of care: Keloids and hypertrophic scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somesh Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Keloids and hypertrophic scars (HTS are the result of overgrowth of fibrous tissue, following healing of a cutaneous injury, and cause morbidity. There are several treatment modalities which are useful for the management of keloids, though no single modality is completely effective. The most commonly used modalities are pressure, silicone gel sheet, intralesional steroids, 5-fluorouracil (5 FU, cryotherapy, surgical excision, and lasers. They may be used either singly or, as is done more commonly, in combinations. Any qualified dermatologist who has attained postgraduate qualification in dermatology can treat keloids and HTS. Some procedures, such as cryosurgery and surgical excision, may require additional training in dermatologic surgery. Most modalities for keloids, including intralesional injections and mechanical therapies such as pressure and silicone gel based products, can be given/prescribed on OPD basis. Surgical excision requires a minor operation theater with the facility to handle emergencies. It is important to counsel the patient about the nature of the problem. One should realize that keloid will only improve and not disappear completely. Patients should be informed about the high recurrence rates. Different modalities carry risk of adverse effects and complications and the treating physician needs to be aware of these and patients should be informed about them.

  2. Anti-inflammatory cytokine TSG-6 inhibits hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Zhao; Li, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Li; Tang, Yue-Ling

    2015-03-15

    Hypertrophic scars are characterized by excessive fibrosis and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and can be functionally and cosmetically problematic; however, there are few satisfactory treatments for controlling hypertrophic scars. The inflammatory cells and cytokines involved in excessive inflammation during wound healing facilitate fibroblast proliferation and collagen deposition, leading to pathologic scar formation. TSG-6 exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. This study examined the effect of recombinant TSG-6 on inflammation in hypertrophic scars using a rabbit ear model. Six 7-mm, full-thickness, circular wounds were made on the ears of 12 rabbits. TSG-6 and PBS were intradermally injected into the right and left ear wounds, respectively. The methods of TEM and TUNEL were used to detect fibroblast apoptosis. The expressions of inflammatory factors: IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, were detected by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. Collagen I and III expression detected by immunohistochemistry and Masson׳s trichrome staining and SEI (scar elevation index) was used to evaluate the extent of scarring. TSG-6 injection mitigated the formation of a hypertrophic scar in the rabbit ear. TSG-6-treated wounds exhibited decreased inflammation compared with the control group, as evidenced by the lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and MPO. The SEI and the synthesis of collagens I and III were significantly decreased in the TSG-6-treated scars compared with control scars. The apoptosis rate was higher in the TSG-6-treated scars. TSG-6 exhibited anti-inflammatory effects during the wound healing process and cicatrization and significantly diminished hypertrophic scar formation in a rabbit ear model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Establishing a Reproducible Hypertrophic Scar following Thermal Injury: A Porcine Model

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    Scott J. Rapp, MD

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions: Deep partial-thickness thermal injury to the back of domestic swine produces an immature hypertrophic scar by 10 weeks following burn with thickness appearing to coincide with the location along the dorsal axis. With minimal pig to pig variation, we describe our technique to provide a testable immature scar model.

  4. MicroRNA 181b Regulates Decorin Production by Dermal Fibroblasts and May Be a Potential Therapy for Hypertrophic Scar

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Kwan; Jie Ding; Tredget, Edward E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is a frequent fibroproliferative complication following deep dermal burns leading to impaired function and lifelong disfigurement. Decorin reduces fibrosis and induces regeneration in many tissues, and is significantly downregulated in hypertrophic scar and normal deep dermal fibroblasts. It was hypothesized that microRNAs in these fibroblasts downregulate decorin and blocking them would increase decorin and may prevent hypertrophic scarring. Lower decorin levels were fo...

  5. Effect of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-sonodynamic therapy (HMME-SDT on hypertrophic scarring.

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    Hanjun Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to explore the potential for hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether-Sonodynamic Therapy (HMME-SDT treatment of hypertrophic scars within rabbit ears. METHODS: 60 white rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: (1 untreated controls, (2 lesioned, (3 lesioned + HMME, (4 lesioned + US (Ultrasound, and (5 lesioned +HMME-SDT. After induction of a lesion upon the ears of the rabbits, hypertrophic scars were assessed at 14, 28, 42 and 56 days post-lesion +/- treatment. Assessments consisted of visual inspection in the change of the skin, scar formation pathological morphology by hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining technique with optical microscopy, calculation of a hypertrophic index, fibroblastic density measures, and observation of collagen changes in the scar tissue by Van Gieson's (VGStain along with calculation of collagen area density. RESULTS: With continued HMME-SDT treatment there was a gradual improvement in all parameters over the duration of the experiment. The lesion-induced scars of rabbits receiving HMME-SDT treatment were soft, the size was reduced, hyperplasia was flat and the color pale. The fibroblasts and collagens were reduced and the collagens were light red, sparse and orderly. The hypertrophic index was reduced, since the fibroblastic density was lowered and collagen area density was decreased. CONCLUSION: HMME is an effective sonosensitizer and the combination of HMME-SDT treatment can exert significant benefits in reducing the formation of hypertrophic scars.

  6. MicroRNA-21 regulates hTERT via PTEN in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

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    Hua-Yu Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As an important oncogenic miRNA, microRNA-21 (miR-21 is associated with various malignant diseases. However, the precise biological function of miR-21 and its molecular mechanism in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells has not been fully elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR analysis revealed significant upregulation of miR-21 in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells compared with that in normal skin fibroblast cells. The effects of miR-21 were then assessed in MTT and apoptosis assays through in vitro transfection with a miR-21 mimic or inhibitor. Next, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten was identified as a target gene of miR-21 in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells. Furthermore, Western-blot and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that miR-21 increased the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. Introduction of PTEN cDNA led to a remarkable depletion of hTERT and PI3K/AKT at the protein level as well as inhibition of miR-21-induced proliferation. In addition, Western-blot and qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that hTERT was the downstream target of PTEN. Finally, miR-21 and PTEN RNA expression levels in hypertrophic scar tissue samples were examined. Immunohistochemistry assays revealed an inverse correlation between PTEN and hTERT levels in high miR-21 RNA expressing-hypertrophic scar tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that miR-21 regulates hTERT expression via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by directly targeting PTEN, therefore controlling hypertrophic scar fibroblast cell growth. MiR-21 may be a potential novel molecular target for the treatment of hypertrophic scarring.

  7. Topical Silicone Sheet Application in the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Iris; Pham, Hth; Niessen, Frank B

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Since the early 1980s, topical silicone sheets have been used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids.This study aimed to determine the optimal duration and application of these sheets. Design: multi-centered therapeutic study. Setting and participants: A total of 224 patients were included in this study; 205 patients with hypertrophic scars and 19 patients with keloids. Patients received treatment with a topical silicone sheet. Treated scars varied in age, ranging from two weeks to 62 years and treatment time ranged from one month to 16 months. Assessment of the scars was performed by the use of standardized study forms and digital photography. Measurements: Skin therapists objectively assessed the scars on its color, thickness, and elasticity. Patients themselves subjectively assessed their perception of their scar and their experience with the usage of the topical silicone sheet. Results: After applying the topical silicone sheet, all scars, regardless of type of scar and maturity, improved significantly in color, thickness, and elasticity. Conclusion: In this study, treatment with the topical silicone sheet showed significant improvement on both hypertrophic scars and keloids. Best results were reached when the silicone sheet was applied at least four hours per day.

  8. A novel elastic liposome for skin delivery of papain and its application on hypertrophic scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Lu, Ye-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hua; Tao, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Jing-Juan; Zhang, Xu

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of papain elastic liposomes (PEL) on hypertrophic scar through topical application. PEL were prepared using the reverse-phase evaporation method and optimized by response surface methodology. The transdermal absorption of optimized PEL was tested by vertical Franz diffusion cells in vitro. The effects of PEL were investigated in rabbit model of hypertrophic scar in vivo, histological analysis and scar-related proteins were detected to reveal potential scar repair mechanism. The best formulation of PEL had EE (43.8±1.4%), particle size (100.9±2.2nm), PDI (0.037±0.003), zeta potential (-26.3±1.3mV), and DI (21.9±3.1). PEL gave the cumulative amounts and steady state fluxes in the receiver solution of 381.9±32.4μg/cm(2), 11.4±1.5μg/cm(2)/h, and showed drug deposition in skin of 19.1±3.2% after 24h. After topical application, the scar elevation index, microvascular density, and collagen fiber were significantly decreased with regular arrangement. The expressions of TGF-β1, P-Smad-3, P-NF-κB p65, and P-IKBa in hypertrophic scar were significantly down regulated in contrast with those in model group. PEL were proven as an excellent topical preparation for hypertrophic scar treatment.

  9. Smac/DIABLO regulates the apoptosis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao-Heng; Chen, Liang; Li, Shi-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Xiang; Cheng, Wen-Guang

    2013-09-01

    In abnormal skin wound healing, hypertrophic scars (HS) are characterized by excessive fibroblast hypercellularity and an overproduction of collagen, leading to atypical extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. Although the exact mechanisms of HS remain unclear, decreased HS fibroblast (HSFB) apoptosis and increased proliferation are evident in the development of HS. In this study, the contribution of the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP)-binding protein with a low isoelectric point (pI) (Smac/DIABLO), an apoptosis-promoting protein released from the mitochondria, was investigated in human normal skin and HSFB cultures. The expression of Smac/DIABLO is usually decreased in many malignant tumors compared with normal tissues. Immunohistochemical analysis of skin tissues and the western blot analyses of fibroblasts revealed that the expression of Smac/DIABLO was lower in HS tissues compared with normal skin tissues. Of note, adenovirus-mediated Smac/DIABLO overexpression in the cultured HSFBs significantly reduced cell proliferation, as detected by the cell counting kit-8, and increased caspase-3 and -9 activity, as detected by spectrofluorimetry. In addition, it increased apoptosis, as detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Furthermore, we found that the silencing of Smac with siRNA in the HSFBs induced a noticeable decrease in caspase-3 and -9 activity, leading to a significant reduction in apoptosis. In addition, the mRNA expression of type I and III pro-collagen detected in the HSFBs was significantly increased following the silencing of Smac with siRNA and was inhibited following Smac/DIABLO overexpression, as shown by real-time RT-PCR. In conclusion, Smac/DIABLO decreases the proliferation and increases the apoptosis of HSFBs. To our knowledge, the data from our study suggest for the first time that Smac/DIABLO is a novel therapeutic target for HS.

  10. Thermal Injury Model in the Rabbit Ear with Quantifiable Burn Progression and Hypertrophic Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Emily E; Niknam-Bienia, Solmaz; Xie, Ping; Jia, Sheng-Xian; Hong, Seok Jong; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a major clinical outcome of deep-partial thickness to full thickness thermal burn injury. Appropriate animal models are a limitation to burn research due to the lack of, or access to, animal models which address the endpoint of hypertrophic scar. Lower species, such as rodents, heal mainly by contracture, which limits the duration of study. Higher species, such as pigs, heal more similarly to humans, but are associated with high cost, long duration for scar development, challenges in quantifying scar hypertrophy, and poor manageability. Here we present a quantifiable deep-partial thickness burn model in the rabbit ear. Burns were created using a dry-heated brass rod for 10 s and 20 s at 90°C. At the time of eschar excision on day 3, excisional wounds were made on the contralateral ear for comparison. Burn wound progression, in which the wound size expands over time is a major distinction between excisional and thermal injuries, was quantified at 1 h and 3 d after the injuries using calibrated photographs and histology and the size of the wounds was found to be unchanged from the initial wound size at 1 h, but 10% in the 20 s burn wounds at 3 d. A quantifiable hypertrophic scar, measured by histology as the scar elevation index, was present in both 20 s burn wounds and excisional wounds at day 35. ImageJ measurements revealed that the 20 s burn wound scars were 22% larger than the excisional wound scars and the 20 s burn scar area measurements from histology were 26% greater than in the excisional wound scar. The ability to measure both burn progression and scar hypertrophy over a 35-day time frame suits this model to screening early intervention burn wound therapeutics or scar treatments in a burn-specific scar model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced in Vivo Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil by Ethosomal Gels in Rabbit Ear Hypertrophic Scar Model

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    Yan Wo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Applying Ethosomal Gels (EGs in transdermal drug delivery systems has evoked considerable interest because of their good water-solubility and biocompatibility. However, there has not been an explicit description of applying EGs as a vehicle for hypertrophic scars treatment. Here, a novel transdermal EGs loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU EGs was successfully prepared and characterized. The stability assay in vitro revealed that 5-FU EGs stored for a period of 30 days at 4 ± 1 °C had a better size stability than that at 25 ± 1 °C. Furthermore, using confocal laser scanning microscopy, EGs labeled with Rhodamine 6 G penetrated into the deep dermis of the hypertrophic scar within 24 h in the rabbit ear hypertrophic model suggested that the EGs were an optional delivery carrier through scar tissues. In addition, the value of the Scar Elevation Index (SEI of 5-FU EGs group in the rabbit ear scar model was lower than that of 5-FU Phosphate Buffered Saline gel and Control groups. To conclude, these results suggest that EGs delivery system loaded 5-fluorouracil is a perfect candidate drug for hypertrophic scars therapy in future.

  12. Enhanced in Vivo Delivery of 5-Fluorouracil by Ethosomal Gels in Rabbit Ear Hypertrophic Scar Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Yan; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Kan; Mao, Xiaohui; Su, Weijie; Li, Ke; Cui, Daxiang; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Applying Ethosomal Gels (EGs) in transdermal drug delivery systems has evoked considerable interest because of their good water-solubility and biocompatibility. However, there has not been an explicit description of applying EGs as a vehicle for hypertrophic scars treatment. Here, a novel transdermal EGs loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU EGs) was successfully prepared and characterized. The stability assay in vitro revealed that 5-FU EGs stored for a period of 30 days at 4 ± 1 °C had a better size stability than that at 25 ± 1 °C. Furthermore, using confocal laser scanning microscopy, EGs labeled with Rhodamine 6 G penetrated into the deep dermis of the hypertrophic scar within 24 h in the rabbit ear hypertrophic model suggested that the EGs were an optional delivery carrier through scar tissues. In addition, the value of the Scar Elevation Index (SEI) of 5-FU EGs group in the rabbit ear scar model was lower than that of 5-FU Phosphate Buffered Saline gel and Control groups. To conclude, these results suggest that EGs delivery system loaded 5-fluorouracil is a perfect candidate drug for hypertrophic scars therapy in future. PMID:25501333

  13. Before and After Photos: Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  14. Keloid and Hypertrophic Scars Are the Result of Chronic Inflammation in the Reticular Dermis

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    Rei Ogawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Keloids and hypertrophic scars are caused by cutaneous injury and irritation, including trauma, insect bite, burn, surgery, vaccination, skin piercing, acne, folliculitis, chicken pox, and herpes zoster infection. Notably, superficial injuries that do not reach the reticular dermis never cause keloidal and hypertrophic scarring. This suggests that these pathological scars are due to injury to this skin layer and the subsequent aberrant wound healing therein. The latter is characterized by continuous and histologically localized inflammation. As a result, the reticular layer of keloids and hypertrophic scars contains inflammatory cells, increased numbers of fibroblasts, newly formed blood vessels, and collagen deposits. Moreover, proinflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are upregulated in keloid tissues, which suggests that, in patients with keloids, proinflammatory genes in the skin are sensitive to trauma. This may promote chronic inflammation, which in turn may cause the invasive growth of keloids. In addition, the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in pathological scars suggests that, rather than being skin tumors, keloids and hypertrophic scars are inflammatory disorders of skin, specifically inflammatory disorders of the reticular dermis. Various external and internal post-wounding stimuli may promote reticular inflammation. The nature of these stimuli most likely shapes the characteristics, quantity, and course of keloids and hypertrophic scars. Specifically, it is likely that the intensity, frequency, and duration of these stimuli determine how quickly the scars appear, the direction and speed of growth, and the intensity of symptoms. These proinflammatory stimuli include a variety of local, systemic, and genetic factors. These observations together suggest that the clinical differences between keloids and hypertrophic scars merely reflect differences in the intensity, frequency

  15. 5-Fluorouracil-Loaded Transfersome as Theranostics in Dermal Tumor of Hypertrophic Scar Tissue

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    Z. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the ability of transfersomal gel carrying the antiscarring agent (5-FU to permeate hypertrophic scars in vivo and in vitro, scar permeation studies were performed after the agent was labeled with the fluorescent agent, rhodamine 6GO. Laser confocal microscope was employed to dynamically observe the effects of transfersomal gel carrying 5-FU at different time points. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to analyze the contents of the agent in the scar tissues at different hours after administration. Scar elevation index (SEI was used to evaluate the changes of the ear scar models in rabbits. Compared with the PBS gel of 5-FU, the transfersomal gel displayed greater permeation rate and depth, as well as a higher content retention of the agent in scar tissues. Local administrations of the agent for some certain periods effectively inhibited the hyperplasia of ear scars in rabbits. Transfersomes can be chosen as a potential transdermal drug delivery system.

  16. Paclitaxel reduces formation of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang LP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Li-ping Huang,1* Guo-qi Wang,2* Zi-shan Jia,1 Jing-wen Chen,1 Gang Wang,1 Xing-lin Wang1   1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Orthopedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background and objective: The onset and progression of pathological scarring involves multiple cytokines and complex mechanisms. However, hyperplasia of fibroblasts and neovascularization plays important roles, which can be inhibited by paclitaxel. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of paclitaxel in the treatment of hypertrophic scars on rabbit ears. Methods: Rabbit ear models of hypertrophic scars were established to observe the therapeutic effects of paclitaxel at different concentrations (12 mg/L, 24 mg/L, 48 mg/L, 96 mg/L, 18 mg/L, 54 mg/L, 162 mg/L, 486 mg/L, 30 mg/L, 150 mg/L, 750 mg/L, 3,750 mg/L. The outcome measures included hypertrophic index (HI, density of fibroblasts, density of collagenous fibers, and microvessel density. Results: In comparison with the control group, the concentrations of 96 mg/L, 150 mg/L, and 162 mg/L significantly reduce the formation of hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear models. However, local necrosis was found in the rabbit ear models treated with paclitaxel solution >400 mg/L. Conclusion: Paclitaxel has strong inhibitory effects on the hyperplasia of fibroblasts, deposition of collagen, and microangiogenesis in hypertrophic scars on rabbit ears within the concentration range from 48 mg/L to 162 mg/L, without causing local necrosis. Keywords: hypertrophic scar, paclitaxel, rabbit ear model

  17. Endostatin inhibits hypertrophic scarring in a rabbit ear model*

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Hai-Tao; Hu, Hang; LI, YUAN; Jiang, Hong-fei; Hu, Xin-lei; Han, Chun-mao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to use an in vivo rabbit ear scar model to investigate the efficacy of systemic administration of endostatin in inhibiting scar formation. Methods: Eight male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups. Scar model was established by making six full skin defect wounds in each ear. For the intervention group, intraperitoneal injection of endostatin was performed each day after the wound healed (about 15 d post wounding). For the cont...

  18. Co-localization of LTBP-2 with FGF-2 in fibrotic human keloid and hypertrophic scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideek, Mohamed A; Teia, Abdulrahman; Kopecki, Zlatko; Cowin, Allison J; Gibson, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    We have recently shown that Latent transforming growth factor-beta-1 binding protein-2 (LTBP-2) has a single high-affinity binding site for fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and that LTBP-2 blocks FGF-2 induced cell proliferation. Both proteins showed strong co-localisation within keloid skin from a single patient. In the current study, using confocal microscopy, we have investigated the distribution of the two proteins in normal and fibrotic skin samples including normal scar tissue, hypertrophic scars and keloids from multiple patients. Consistently, little staining for either protein was detected in normal adult skin and normal scar samples but extensive co-localisation of the two proteins was observed in multiple examples of hypertrophic scars and keloids. LTBP-2 and FGF-2 were co-localised to fine fibrous elements within the extracellular matrix identified as elastic fibres by immunostaining with anti-fibrillin-1 and anti-elastin antibodies. Furthermore, qPCR analysis of RNA samples from multiple patients confirmed dramatically increased expression of LTBP-2 and FGF-2, similar TGF-beta 1, in hypertrophic scar compared to normal skin and scar tissue. Overall the results suggest that elevated LTBP-2 may bind and sequester FGF-2 on elastic fibres in fibrotic tissues and modulate FGF-2's influence on the repair and healing processes.

  19. Assessment of intralesional injection of botulinum toxin type A injection for hypertrophic scars

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    Alhasan M Elhefnawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scars are dermal fibroproliferative disorders that typically develop after a skin injury heals. They can cause physical, psychological, and cosmetic problems. The management of such scars remains a matter of debate due to lack of effective treatment methods and the inability to prevent recurrences. Recent reports have demonstrated that botulinum toxin type A improves wound healing so it may play a role in treating hypertrophic scars. Aims: We assessed the effectiveness of intralesional botulinum toxin type A injection for treating hypertrophic scars. Methods: This prospective clinical study included twenty patients with hypertrophic scars. Intralesional injection of botulinum toxin type A was given once a month for three months with a follow-up period of six months. Each lesion was injected until slight blanching occurred. Therapeutic satisfaction of the patient and physician were recorded. Lesions were assessed for erythema, itching and pliability. Each item was assessed on a 5-point scale. Results: Therapeutic satisfaction was recorded as 'good' in 14 patients and 'excellent' in the remaining six. The mean erythema score decreased from 3.2 to 1.0, the mean pliability score from 3.3 to 0.8 and the mean itching score from 2.7 to 0.7. All of these were statistically significant. Limitations: A larger sample size and longer follow-up period would have given a better evaluation but was not feasible due to the high expenses involved. Conclusion: Botulinum toxin type A is a novel and promising therapy for hypertrophic scars with few side effects.

  20. Comparative effect of topical silicone gel and topical tretinoin cream for the prevention of hypertrophic scar and keloid formation and the improvement of scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S Y; Park, S D; Park, K

    2014-08-01

    Numerous modalities have been used to treat keloids and hypertrophic scars; however, optimal treatment has not yet been established. Therefore, prevention is the mainstay. Recently, silicone gel and tretinoin cream have been shown to be useful for the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids. However, there has been no comparative study of the two topical agents thus far. To determine and compare the effectiveness of silicone gel and tretinoin cream for the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids resulting from postoperative wounds and for scar improvement. This study included 26 patients with 44 different wounds. The postoperative wounds were divided into two treatment groups and one control group. The patients in the first and second treatment group applied silicone gel and tretinoin cream, respectively, twice a day on their wounds after their stitches were removed. In contrast, the control group patients did not apply anything. We used the Modified Vancouver Scar Scale to quantitatively examine the effectiveness of silicone gel and tretinoin cream just after stitches removal, and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks after removal of the stitches. The silicone gel and tretinoin cream effectively prevented hypertrophic scars and keloids and improved scar effects in the two treatment groups compared with those in the control group. However, no significant difference was noted between the two treatment groups. To prevent hypertrophic scars and keloids and improve scars after surgery, application of a silicone gel or a tretinoin cream to the wounds is needed. © 2013 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  1. MicroRNA 181b regulates decorin production by dermal fibroblasts and may be a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

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    Peter Kwan

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scarring is a frequent fibroproliferative complication following deep dermal burns leading to impaired function and lifelong disfigurement. Decorin reduces fibrosis and induces regeneration in many tissues, and is significantly downregulated in hypertrophic scar and normal deep dermal fibroblasts. It was hypothesized that microRNAs in these fibroblasts downregulate decorin and blocking them would increase decorin and may prevent hypertrophic scarring. Lower decorin levels were found in hypertrophic scar as compared to normal skin, and in deep as compared to superficial dermis. A decorin 3' un-translated region reporter assay demonstrated microRNA decreased decorin in deep dermal fibroblasts, and microRNA screening predicted miR- 24, 181b, 421, 526b, or 543 as candidates. After finding increased levels of mir-181b in deep dermal fibroblasts, it was demonstrated that TGF-β1 stimulation decreased miR-24 but increased miR-181b and that hypertrophic scar and deep dermis contained increased levels of miR-181b. By blocking miR-181b with an antagomiR, it was possible to increase decorin protein expression in dermal fibroblasts. This suggests miR-181b is involved in the differential expression of decorin in skin and wound healing. Furthermore, blocking miR-181b reversed TGF-β1 induced decorin downregulation and myofibroblast differentiation in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

  2. MicroRNA 181b regulates decorin production by dermal fibroblasts and may be a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Peter; Ding, Jie; Tredget, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring is a frequent fibroproliferative complication following deep dermal burns leading to impaired function and lifelong disfigurement. Decorin reduces fibrosis and induces regeneration in many tissues, and is significantly downregulated in hypertrophic scar and normal deep dermal fibroblasts. It was hypothesized that microRNAs in these fibroblasts downregulate decorin and blocking them would increase decorin and may prevent hypertrophic scarring. Lower decorin levels were found in hypertrophic scar as compared to normal skin, and in deep as compared to superficial dermis. A decorin 3' un-translated region reporter assay demonstrated microRNA decreased decorin in deep dermal fibroblasts, and microRNA screening predicted miR- 24, 181b, 421, 526b, or 543 as candidates. After finding increased levels of mir-181b in deep dermal fibroblasts, it was demonstrated that TGF-β1 stimulation decreased miR-24 but increased miR-181b and that hypertrophic scar and deep dermis contained increased levels of miR-181b. By blocking miR-181b with an antagomiR, it was possible to increase decorin protein expression in dermal fibroblasts. This suggests miR-181b is involved in the differential expression of decorin in skin and wound healing. Furthermore, blocking miR-181b reversed TGF-β1 induced decorin downregulation and myofibroblast differentiation in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, suggesting a potential therapy for hypertrophic scar.

  3. Up-to-date approach to manage keloids and hypertrophic scars: a useful guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-11-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars occur anywhere from 30 to 90% of patients, and are characterized by pathologically excessive dermal fibrosis and aberrant wound healing. Both entities have different clinical and histochemical characteristics, and unfortunately still represent a great challenge for clinicians due to lack of efficacious treatments. Current advances in molecular biology and genetics reveal new preventive and therapeutical options which represent a hope to manage this highly prevalent, chronic and disabling problem, with long-term beneficial outcomes and improvement of quality of life. While we wait for these translational clinical products to be marketed, however, it is imperative to know the basics of the currently existing wide array of strategies to deal with excessive scars: from the classical corticotherapy, to the most recent botulinum toxin and lasers. The main aim of this review paper is to offer a useful up-to-date guideline to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars.

  4. Management of keloids and hypertrophic scars: current and emerging options

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    Gauglitz GG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gerd G GauglitzDepartment of Dermatology and Allergy, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, GermanyAbstract: In the context of growing aesthetic awareness, a rising number of patients feel disappointed with their scars and are frequently seeking help for functional and aesthetic improvement. However, excessive scarring following surgery or trauma remains difficult to improve despite a plethora of advocated treatment strategies as frequently observed in daily clinical routine. It is thus still preferable to prevent scarring by minimizing risk factors as much as possible. Hence, it remains crucial for the physician to be aware of basic knowledge of healing mechanisms and skin anatomy, as well as an appreciation of suture material and wound closure techniques to minimize the risk of postoperative scarring. Next to existing, well known prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for the improvement of excessive scarring, this article discusses emerging techniques such as intralesional cryotherapy, intralesional 5-fluorouracil, interferon, and bleomycin. Some of them have been successfully tested in well-designed trials and already have extended or may extend the current spectrum of excessive scar treatment in the near future. Innovative options such as imiquimod 5% cream, photodynamic therapy, or botulinum toxin A may also be of certain importance; however, the data currently available is too contradictory for definite recommendations.Keywords: intralesional cryotherapy, lasers, triamcinolone acetonide, TGF-β

  5. Comparative efficacy of intralesional verapamil hydrochloride and triamcinolone acetonide in hypertrophic scars and keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Chatterjee, Pallab

    2014-06-01

    There is not much level 1 evidence based literature to guide management of hypertrophic scars and keloids despite an array of therapeutic modalities at disposal. Intralesional (i/l) triamcinolone injections have remained a gold standard in non surgical management. Sporadic reports on use of i/l verapamil suggest its efficacy. Since verapamil has not found sufficient mention as an effective alternative modality, it was decided to undertake a randomized study which could also address some additional clinical parameters. A randomized, parallel group and observer blinded comparison with 40 patients (48 scars) was carried out to compare the effects of i/l triamcinolone (T) (22 scars) and verapamil injections (V) (26 scars). 1.5 ml was the maximum indicative volume decided in the study protocol for both the drugs (triamcinolone @40 mg/ml and verapamil @ 2.5 mg/ml). Patients included were aged between 15-60 years with scars ranging between 0.5-5 cm (but total area roughly scars under 2 years duration. Patients with keloidal diathesis were excluded. Injections were scheduled every three weeks until complete flattening of the scar or eight sessions, which ever came earlier. No concomitant therapies like massage, silicone gel or pressure garments were used. Scar evaluation at each stage was done by serial photographic records as well as by Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS). Comparative survival analysis between the two drugs was done using Kaplan Meier curves, and VSS scores were analyzed using Wilcoxon test and log rank test. Mean zero VSS scores were achieved with treatments in respect of scar height (T-12 weeks, V-21 weeks), vascularity (T-15 weeks, V-18 weeks) and pliability (T-15 weeks, V-21 weeks). The improvement in scar vascularity and pliability kept pace with decrease in scar height, in both the groups. There was not much difference in the rate of change of scar pigmentation with either drug but almost 60% patients in both the groups regained normal pigmentation. Our

  6. Hypertrophic scarring is associated with epidermal abnormalities : An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriessen, MP; Niessen, FB; Van de Kerkhof, PC; Schalkwijk, J

    1998-01-01

    The role of epidermal keratinocytes in the early phases of normal unimpaired wound healing has been studied extensively. However, little is known about the cell biological processes in the epidermis and the basal membrane zone during the later phases of dermal matrix formation and remodelling of the

  7. Hypertrophic scarring is associated with epidermal abnormalities : An immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriessen, MP; Niessen, FB; Van de Kerkhof, PC; Schalkwijk, J

    1998-01-01

    The role of epidermal keratinocytes in the early phases of normal unimpaired wound healing has been studied extensively. However, little is known about the cell biological processes in the epidermis and the basal membrane zone during the later phases of dermal matrix formation and remodelling of the

  8. Comparative effect and safety of verapamil in keloid and hypertrophic scar treatment: a meta-analysis

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    Li ZN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Zhouna Li, Zhehu Jin Department of Dermatology, Yanbian University Affiliated hospital, Yanji, Jilin, People’s Republic of China Background: Keloids and hypertrophic scars are the most common types of pathological scarring. Traditionally, keloids have been considered as a result of aberrant wound healing, involving excessive fibroblast participation that is characterized by hyalinized collagen bundles. However, the usefulness of this characterization has been questioned. In recent years, studies have reported the appropriate use of verapamil for keloids and hypertrophic scars.Methods: Searches were conducted on the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane, PubMed, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure from 2006 to July 2016. State12.0 was used for literature review, data extraction, and meta-analysis. Treatment groups were divided into verapamil and nonverapamil group. Nonverapamil group includes steroids and intense pulsed light (IPL therapy. Total effective rates include cure rate and effective rate. Cure: skin lesions were completely flattened, became soft and symptoms disappeared. Efficacy: skin lesions subsided, patient significantly reduced symptoms. Inefficient definition of skin was progression free or became worse. Random-effects model was used for the meta-analysis.Results: Six studies that included 331 patients with keloids and hypertrophic scars were analyzed. Analysis of the total effective rate of skin healing was performed. The total effective rates in the two groups were 54.07% (verapamil and 53.18% (nonverapamil, respectively. The meta-analysis showed that there was no difference between the two groups. We also compared the adverse reactions between the verapamil treatment group and the steroids treatment group in two studies, and the result indicated that the verapamil group showed less adverse reactions.Conclusion: There were no differences between the application of verapamil and nonverapamil group in keloids and

  9. Effect of BTXA on Inhibiting Hypertrophic Scar Formation in a Rabbit Ear Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Qing; Li, Xiao-Jing; Weng, Xiao-Juan

    2017-06-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HS) is a refractory skin disease caused by major physical damage or other inflammation. Some reports found that botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) could be an alternative treatment of the HS. Therefore, the authors studied the effects of BTXA on the treatment of HS and the dose response of BTXA. Hypertrophic scars were harvested from the ears of 18 young adult New Zealand big-eared rabbits and treated with BTXA or triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) in vivo experiment. The hypertrophic index (HI) was measured by histological examination. Collagen fibrils were checked by sirius red straining, and the cell nucleuses of fibroblasts were checked by Ki67. The HI of hypertrophic scars with BTXA treatment was lower than that with phosphate-buffered saline treatment (P Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  10. Time course of the angiogenic response during normotrophic and hypertrophic scar formation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, Willem M; Niessen, Frank B; Ferreira, José A; Zwiers, Peter J; de Jong, Etty H; Middelkoop, Esther; Molema, Grietje

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that in hypertrophic scars (HSs), an excess of microvessels is present compared with normotrophic scars (NSs). The aim of our study was to quantify vascular densities in HSs and normotrophic scars and to provide an insight into the kinetics of changes in the expression of angiogenic factors in time during wound healing and HS formation. Human presternal wound healing after cardiothoracic surgery through a sternotomy incision was investigated in a standardized manner. Skin biopsies were collected at consecutive time points, i.e., during surgery and 2, 4, 6, 12, and 52 weeks postoperatively. The expression levels of angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2, Tie-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and urokinase-type plasminogen activator were measured by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Quantification of angiogenesis and cellular localization of the proteins of interest were based on immunohistochemical analysis. Microvessel densities were higher in the HSs compared with the normotrophic scars 12 weeks (p=0.017) and 52 weeks (p=0.030) postoperatively. Angiopoietin-1 expression was lower in the hypertrophic group (pdecrease in the angiopoietin-1/angiopoietin-2 ratio in the hypertrophic group 4 weeks (p=0.053), 12 weeks (pscars.

  11. Handheld SFDI/polarimetric imaging device for objective evaluation of hypertrophic scars (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Montejo, Karla; Sevilla, Nicole; Stoff, Susan; Gonzalez, Mariacarla; Chue-Sang, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    Scars can be debilitating and cause serious functional limitations, significantly reduced physical function and loss of ability to perform normal daily activities. Scar formation is not fully understood and the treatment options have been hampered by the lack of an objective diagnostic tool to assess scars. Presently, assessment of hypertrophic scars has been based on subjective clinician rankings using a four-parameter scale called the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) or the Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) but no objective, standardized tool for quantifying scar severity is available, despite known inadequacies of the subjective scales. We have developed a hand-held multi modal system consisting of a combined Spatial Frequency Domain Imager (SFDI) used for the assessment of tissue molecular components and a polarimeter for structural measurements. The SFDI capability is provided by an Arduino board controlled spectrally and polarimetric diverse Light Emitting Diodes (LED) ring illuminator. For SFDI imagery, the LEDs are combined with sinusoidal patterns. A single pattern snapshot SFDI approach is used to observe and quantify the biological components in the scar tissue including: oxygenated and de oxygenated hemoglobin, water, and melanin. The SFDI system is integrated with a reduced Mueller Matrix polarimetric system, whose illumination is also included in the LED's ring, and providing for the assessment of collagen orientation through Mueller Matrix decomposition. The design of the system and experimental work on phantoms will be presented.

  12. Exposure to Varying Strain Magnitudes Influences the Conversion of Normal Skin Fibroblasts Into Hypertrophic Scar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ruixia; Wang, Zhiguo; Xu, Quanchen; Cai, Xia; Liu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Mechanical strain is a key contributor in the pathogenesis of hypertrophic scarring, whose optimal stretch magnitudes to initiate the differentiation of normal skin fibroblasts into aberrant fibroblasts phenotype remains largely unresolved. Influence of varying cyclic strain magnitudes on cultured human normal skin fibroblasts and its transformation into hypertrophic scar fibroblast-like phenotype is investigated in this study. Cultured fibroblasts isolated from hypertrophic scar and normal skin tissue were subjected to cyclic mechanical stretching under individual 10%, 15%, and 20% strain magnitudes at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 24 hours. Stretched normal skin fibroblasts demonstrated significantly increased rates of cell proliferation, and also apparently oriented away nearly perpendicular to the applied stretching direction. Interestingly, the applied 10% strains magnitude resulted in a markedly enhanced cell proliferative ability compared with that of 20% strain magnitude. Parameters involving the mechanotransduction signaling, such as integrin β1 and P130Cas, were significantly improved at both mRNA and protein levels in the stretched normal skin fibroblasts, which was demonstrated in a negative magnitude-dependent manner. In addition, 10% strains magnitude triggered the highest expression levels of growth factor TGF-β1 and collagen matrix in stretched normal skin fibroblasts. Collectively, these results indicate that the 10% stretching magnitude, of the 3 strain magnitudes studied, is most effective for triggering the optimal mechanotransduction effects and biological responses inside cultured skin fibroblasts. The demonstrable conversion of normal skin fibroblasts into hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was also observed when 10% stretching magnitude was applied to cultured fibroblasts in vitro.

  13. A Systematic Review on the Effect of Mechanical Stretch on Hypertrophic Scars after Burn Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-ting Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: From extensive literature search, there was no strong evidence indicating the positive effect of mechanical stretch using stretching exercise, massage, or splinting on hypertrophic scars. A firm conclusion cannot be drawn for the discrepancy of outcome measures and varied effectiveness. Most of the included studies lacked objective evaluation or control group for comparison. Further high quality studies with larger sample size and using standardized measurements are needed.

  14. Amentoflavone inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells and stimulates apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinli; Liu, Zhihe; Cao, Wenjuan; Chen, Liying; Xiong, Xifeng; Qin, Shengnan; Zhang, Zhi; Li, Xiaojian; Hu, Chien-an A

    2014-08-01

    Amentoflavone (8-[5-(5,7-dihydroxy-4-oxo-chromen-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-phenyl]-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) chromen-4-one; AF) is a biflavonoid derived from the extracts of Selaginella tamariscina. It has been shown that AF has diverse biological effects such as antitumour, etc. It is well known that high cell proliferation, viability, angiogenesis and low apoptosis are key factors in hypertrophic scar formation. In this study, we report that AF inhibited viability and stimulated apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs). Incubation of HSFBs with AF showed its inhibitory effect on cell viability and the exhibition of a series of cellular changes that were consistent with apoptosis. By Western-blot analysis, our data indicated significant increases in the amounts of cleaved caspases 3, 8, 9 and Bax, several apoptotic promoters and a significant decrease in translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP), an apoptotic inhibitor, in HSFBs treated with AF. Furthermore, AF showed significant inhibitions on the viability, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are associated with angiogenesis. In conclusion, this study suggests that AF stimulates apoptosis in HSFBs and inhibits angiogenesis of endothelial cells. Therefore, AF is a promising molecule that can be used in hypertrophic scar treatment.

  15. Therapeutic effects of liposome-enveloped Ligusticum chuanxiong essential oil on hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model.

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    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scarring, a common proliferative disorder of dermal fibroblasts, results from an overproduction of fibroblasts and excessive deposition of collagen. Although treatment with surgical excision or steroid hormones can modify the symptoms, numerous treatment-related complications have been described. In view of this, we investigated the therapeutic effects of essential oil (EO from rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (Umbelliferae on formed hypertrophic scars in a rabbit ear model. EO was prepared as a liposomal formulation (liposome-enveloped essential oil, LEO and a rabbit ear model with hypertrophic scars was established. LEO (2.5, 5, and 10% was applied once daily to the scars for 28 days. On postoperative day 56, the scar tissue was excised for masson's trichrome staining, detection of fibroblast apoptosis, assays of the levels of collagens I and III, and analysis of the mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, caspase-3 and -9, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1. In addition, the scar elevation index (SEI was also determined. As a result, LEO treatment significantly alleviated formed hypertrophic scars on rabbit ears. The levels of TGF-β(1, MMP-1, collagen I, and collagen III were evidently decreased, and caspase -3 and -9 levels and apoptosis cells were markedly increased in the scar tissue. SEI was also significantly reduced. Histological findings exhibited significant amelioration of the collagen tissue. These results suggest that LEO possesses the favorable therapeutic effects on formed hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model and may be an effective cure for human hypertrophic scars.

  16. Comparative proteomic analysis of extracellular matrix proteins secreted by hypertrophic scar with normal skin fibroblasts

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    Li Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The formation of hypertrophic scars (HSs is a fibroproliferative disorder of abnormal wound healing. HSs usually characterize excessive proliferation of fibroblasts, abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM during wound healing, associated with cosmetic, functional, and psychological problems. Owing to the role of ECM proteins in scar formation, we comparatively analyzed matrix proteins secreted by normal skin fibroblasts (NSFs and HS fibroblasts (HSFs. The acetone-extracted secreted proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, and identified by mass spectrometry (MS. Based on Go annotation of MS data, the profiling of ECM proteins was established and scar-related proteins have been screened out. The functions of several ECM proteins identified by MS have been discussed, such as collagens I, VI, XII, fibronectin, decorin, lumican, and protein procollagen C endopeptidase enhancer 1 (PCPE-1. Among them, the MS result of PCPE-1 was supported by Western blotting that PCPE-1 from HSFs were significantly upregulated than that from NSFs. It is suggested that PCPE-1 could be a potential target for scar treatment. The exploration of scar related proteins may provide new perspectives on understanding the mechanism of scar formation and open a new way to scar treatment and prevention.

  17. Topical application of a film-forming emulgel dressing that controls the release of stratifin and acetylsalicylic acid and improves/prevents hypertrophic scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani-Neishaboor, Elham; Jallili, Reza; Hartwell, Ryan; Leung, Victor; Carr, Nicholas; Ghahary, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Here, we evaluate the efficacy of an emulgel dressing to control the release of an antifibrogenic factor, stratifin (SFN), along with an anti-inflammatory drug, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), to be used as a wound dressing with hypertrophic scar reducing features. Emulgel dressings were prepared by dispersing positively charged submicron vesicles in carboxymethyl cellulose gel. Release kinetics of SFN/ASA and toxicity for primary skin cells were assessed in vitro. Antifibrogenic efficacy of medicated emulgel dressings was tested on a rabbit ear fibrotic model. Following topical application on the wounds, emulgels formed an occlusive film and controlled the release of SFN and ASA for 7 and 24 hours, respectively. Wounds treated with SFN/ASA-containing emulgel dressings showed an 80% reduction in scar elevation compared with untreated controls. Topical formulations were nontoxic for cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Inflammation was significantly controlled in treated wounds, as shown by a reduced number of infiltrated CD3(+) T cells (p emulgel dressings that control the release of antifibrogenic and anti-inflammatory factors provide an excellent treatment option for postburn hypertrophic scar management. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  18. Ablative fractional laser treatment for hypertrophic scars: comparison between Er:YAG and CO2 fractional lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Eun; Oh, Ga Na; Kim, Jong Yeob; Seo, Soo Hong; Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kye, Young Chul

    2014-08-01

    Nonablative fractional photothermolysis has been reported to show early promise in the treatment of hypertrophic scars, but there are few reports on ablative fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. To evaluate and compare the efficacy and safety of Er:YAG fractional laser (EYFL) and CO2 fractional laser (CO2FL) for treatment of hypertrophic scars. Thirteen patients with hypertrophic scars were treated with 2,940 nm EYFL, and ten were treated with 10,600 nm CO2FL. An independent physician evaluator assessed the treatment outcomes using Vancouver scar scale (VSS) and 5-point grading scale (grade 0, no improvement; grade 1, 1-25%; grade 2, 26-50%; grade 3, 51-75%; grade 4, 76-100% improvement). Patients are queried about their subjective satisfaction with the treatment outcomes. After the final treatment, average percentage changes of VSS were 28.2% for EYFL and 49.8% for CO2FL. Improvement was evident in terms of pliability, while insignificant in terms of vascularity and pigmentation. Based on physician's global assessment, mean grade of 1.8 for EYFL and 2.7 for CO2FL was achieved. Patient's subjective satisfaction scores paralleled the physician's objective evaluation. CO2FL is a potentially effective and safe modality for the treatment of hypertrophic scars, particularly in terms of pliability.

  19. Logistics of building a laser practice for the treatment of hypertrophic burn scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultman, Charles Scott; Edkins, Renee E; Cairns, Bruce A; Meyer, Anthony A

    2013-05-01

    Although lasers can improve burn scars, such treatment has not been adopted universally, due to operational challenges starting a practice and the perception that such a program is not financially viable. We report the logistics of building a laser practice for the treatment of hypertrophic burn scars. We analyzed the clinical, operational, and financial components of our laser practice, focusing on treatment of hypertrophic burn scars, using pulsed dye laser, fractional CO2 laser, and intense pulsed light. Cases were performed in an operating room, with anesthesia, after preauthorization. We examined professional charges and collections, case time, variable and indirect expenses, and breakeven volumes. Our practice grew as follows: 2008, 1 case; 2009, 44 cases; 2010, 169 cases; and 2011, 415 cases. Overall collection rate was 32.1%. Expenses incurred by the provider, per 8-hour session, included laser rental/lease ($2375), personnel salaries ($1900), and physician overhead ($808), for a total cost of $5083. Mean charge was $1642 per case; mean collection was $527 per case. Median case time (procedure plus turnover) was 40 minutes. In this model, breakeven volume is 9.7 cases per day; breakeven time is 49.7 minutes. Provider profit margin for 10 cases per day, or 83% capacity utilization, is $187 per day (income - expenses = $5270 - $5083). Despite high costs associated with starting and operating a laser practice for the treatment of hypertrophic burn scars, a sustainable enterprise can be achieved when the provider has accrued enough volume to batch cases over an entire day. Critical to achieving breakeven is preauthorization, controlling overhead, and efficient throughput.

  20. Ablative fractional photothermolysis for the treatment of hypertrophic burn scars in adult and pediatric patients: a single surgeon's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Anjay; Yelvington, Miranda; Tang, Xinyu; Brown, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Many patients develop hypertrophic scarring after a burn injury. Numerous treatment modalities have been described and are currently in practice. Photothermolysis or laser therapy has been recently described as an adjunct for management of hypertrophic burn scars. This study is a retrospective chart review of adult and pediatric patients undergoing fractional photothermolysis at a verified burn center examining treatment parameters as well as pre- and post-Vancouver Scar Scale scores. Forty-four patients underwent fractional photothermolysis during the study period of 8 months. Mean pretreatment score was 7.6, and mean posttreatment score was 5.4. The mean decrease in score was 2.2, which was found to be statistically significant. There were no complications. Fractional photothermolysis is a safe and efficacious adjunct therapy for hypertrophic burn scars. Prospective trials would be beneficial to determine optimal therapeutic strategies.

  1. Nonlinear spectral imaging of human hypertrophic scar based on two-photon excited fluorescence and second-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Chen, J; Zhuo, S; Xiong, S; Zeng, H; Jiang, X; Chen, R; Xie, S

    2009-07-01

    A noninvasive method using microscopy and spectroscopy for analysing the morphology of collagen and elastin and their biochemical variations in skin tissue will enable better understanding of the pathophysiology of hypertrophic scars and facilitate improved clinical management and treatment of this disease. To obtain simultaneously microscopic images and spectra of collagen and elastin fibres in ex vivo skin tissues (normal skin and hypertrophic scar) using a nonlinear spectral imaging method, and to compare the morphological structure and spectral characteristics of collagen and elastin fibres in hypertrophic scar tissues with those of normal skin, to determine whether this approach has potential for in vivo assessment of the pathophysiology of human hypertrophic scars and for monitoring treatment responses as well as for tracking the process of development of hypertrophic scars in clinic. Ex vivo human skin specimens obtained from six patients aged from 10 to 50 years old who were undergoing skin plastic surgery were examined. Five patients had hypertrophic scar lesions and one patient had no scar lesion before we obtained his skin specimen. A total of 30 tissue section samples of 30 mum thickness were analysed by the use of a nonlinear spectral imaging system consisting of a femtosecond excitation light source, a high-throughput scanning inverted microscope, and a spectral imaging detection system. The high-contrast and high-resolution second harmonic generation (SHG) images of collagen and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) images of elastin fibres in hypertrophic scar tissues and normal skin were acquired using the extracting channel tool of the system. The emission spectra were analysed using the image-guided spectral analysis method. The depth-dependent decay constant of the SHG signal and the image texture characteristics of hypertrophic scar tissue and normal skin were used to quantitatively assess the amount, distribution and orientation of their

  2. In vitro study of ethosome penetration in human skin and hypertrophic scar tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Wo, Yan; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Danru; He, Rong; Chen, Huijin; Cui, Daxiang

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize a novel transdermal delivery carrier, ethosomes containing 5-fluorouracil. The delivery of drugs from ethosomes in human hypertrophic scar (HS) and the mechanisms of action of ethosomes in human HS were investigated. Percutaneous ethosome permeation was evaluated in vitro in human HS and skin using a Franz's cell. The amount of 5-fluorouracil that permeated HS and skin after 24 hours was most abundant in ethosomes via HS (E-Scar), followed by hydroethanolic solution via HS (H-Scar), ethosomes via skin (E-Skin), and hydroethanolic solution via skin (H-Skin). The penetration of ethosomes in HS and skin was analyzed by ethosomes fluorescently labeled with rhodamine 6GO using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescence intensity after application for 24 hours was highest in E-Scar, followed by E-Skin, H-Scar, and H-Skin, which indicates the penetration of ethosomes in HS was greatest. In conclusion, we consider that ethosomes are a highly efficient carrier in HS.

  3. High sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

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    Tetsuo Konno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardial scarring can be assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and by endomyocardial biopsy. However, accuracy of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens remains unknown in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart reflects microscopic myocardial scarring in the small biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who were examined both by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by endomyocardial biopsy were retrospectively studied. The right interventricular septum was the target site for endomyocardial biopsy in all patients. Late gadolinium enhancement in the ventricular septum had an excellent sensitivity (100% with a low specificity (40% for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. The sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart remained 100% with a specificity of 27% for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. Quantitative assessments of fibrosis revealed that the extent of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart was the only independent variable related to the microscopic collagen fraction in biopsied specimens (β  =  0.59, 95% confident interval: 0.15 - 1.0, p  =  0.012. CONCLUSIONS: Although there was a compromise in the specificity, the sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement was excellent for prediction of microscopic myocardial scarring in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Moreover, the severity of late gadolinium enhancement was independently associated with the quantitative collagen fraction in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These findings indicate that late gadolinium enhancement can reflect both the presence and the extent of microscopic myocardial scarring in the small

  4. High sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Kenshi; Fujino, Noboru; Nagata, Yoji; Hodatsu, Akihiko; Masuta, Eiichi; Sakata, Kenji; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kawashiri, Masa-aki; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial scarring can be assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement and by endomyocardial biopsy. However, accuracy of late gadolinium enhancement for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens remains unknown in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We investigated whether late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart reflects microscopic myocardial scarring in the small biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Twenty-one consecutive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who were examined both by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by endomyocardial biopsy were retrospectively studied. The right interventricular septum was the target site for endomyocardial biopsy in all patients. Late gadolinium enhancement in the ventricular septum had an excellent sensitivity (100%) with a low specificity (40%) for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. The sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart remained 100% with a specificity of 27% for predicting microscopic myocardial scarring in biopsied specimens. Quantitative assessments of fibrosis revealed that the extent of late gadolinium enhancement in the whole heart was the only independent variable related to the microscopic collagen fraction in biopsied specimens (β  =  0.59, 95% confident interval: 0.15 - 1.0, p  =  0.012). Although there was a compromise in the specificity, the sensitivity of late gadolinium enhancement was excellent for prediction of microscopic myocardial scarring in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Moreover, the severity of late gadolinium enhancement was independently associated with the quantitative collagen fraction in biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These findings indicate that late gadolinium enhancement can reflect both the presence and the extent of microscopic myocardial scarring in the small biopsied specimens in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  5. Comparison between Stromal Vascular Fraction and Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Remodeling Hypertrophic Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maumus, Marie; Toupet, Karine; Frouin, Eric; Rigau, Valérie; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Magalon, Guy; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are characterized by excessive amount of collagen deposition and principally occur following burn injuries or surgeries. In absence of effective treatments, the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, which have been shown to attenuate fibrosis in various applications, seems of interest. The objectives of the present study were therefore to evaluate the effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) on a pre-existing HTS in a humanized skin graft model in Nude mice and to compare the efficacy of hASCs versus stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We found that injection of SVF or hASCs resulted in an attenuation of HTS as noticed after clinical evaluation of skin thickness, which was associated with lower total collagen contents in the skins of treated mice and a reduced dermis thickness after histological analysis. Although both SVF and hASCs were able to significantly reduce the clinical and histological parameters of HTS, hASCs appeared to be more efficient than SVF. The therapeutic effect of hASCs was attributed to higher expression of TGFβ3 and HGF, which are important anti-fibrotic mediators, and to higher levels of MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio, which reflect the remodelling activity responsible for fibrosis resorption. These results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of hASCs for clinical applications of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:27227960

  6. Development of a Best Evidence Statement for the Use of Pressure Therapy for Management of Hypertrophic Scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Patricia A; Pan, Brian; Yakuboff, Kevin P; Rothchild, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Pressure therapy has been considered standard, first-line intervention for the treatment of hypertrophic scars since its introduction in the 1960s. Although widely used, this scar management technique has historically been based on a wide array of anecdotal evidence as opposed to strong scientific support. Evidence has become more prevalent in recent years, necessitating a synthesis to develop an evidence-based clinical guideline. The clinical question was asked, "Among individuals with or at risk to develop active hypertrophic scars, does treatment with pressure therapy improve aesthetic and functional outcomes?" An evidence-based practice project was completed with aims to synthesize relevant literature to determine recommendations for the use of pressure therapy in individuals at risk for hypertrophic scars. A systematic search of the literature was conducted for the dates January 1950 to February 2014 of the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Database for Systematic Reviews, Burntherapist.com, Cochrane Libraries, Ebsco, Google Scholar, OT Seeker, Ovid, MedLine, PEDro.org, Pubmed.gov, Pubmed Clinical Queries, and hand search of relevant articles through use of reference lists. Search terms included scar, hypertroph*, pressure therapy, compression therapy, pressure garment, burn, scald, trauma as well as MeSH terms cicatrix and hypertrophic. Articles were reviewed in terms of ability to answer the clinical question as well as strength of conclusions. A total of 45 articles were found and critiqued, 28 of which were relevant to the clinical question. Evidence strength ranged from level 1 to level 5. Results from the studies were synthesized to create clinical recommendations to guide treatment. Based on best available evidence, it is recommended that pressure therapy is utilized to decrease scar height and erythema that it is used for grafts and wounds requiring 14 to 21 days to heal, for 23 hours/day for 12 months, fit to achieve 20 to 30 mm Hg of

  7. A new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of pediatric hypertrophic burn scars: An observational study.

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    Żądkowski, Tomasz; Nachulewicz, Paweł; Mazgaj, Maciej; Woźniak, Magdalena; Cielecki, Czesław; Wieczorek, Andrzej Paweł; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of hypertrophic scars arising as a result of thermal burns in children is still a big problem. The results of the treatment are not satisfactory for patients and parents, and new methods of treatment are still investigated.We present the use of one of the most modern carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers (Lumenis Encore laser equipped with a Synergistic Coagulation and Ablation for Advanced Resurfacing module) in the treatment of hypertrophic scars in children after burns.From March to April of 2013, a group of 47 patients aged 6 to 16 years underwent 57 laser surgery treatments. The average time from accident was 7.5 years. The results of treatment were investigated in 114 areas. The assessed areas were divided into 2 groups: 9-cm area 1, where the thickness of the scar measured by physician was the lowest and 9-cm area 2, where the thickness of the scar was the biggest. The results were considered on the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) independently by the surgeon and by parents 1, 4, and 8 months after the procedure. In addition, ultrasound evaluation of the scar thickness before and after laser procedure was made.VSS total score improved in all areas assessed by both the physician and parents. The biggest change in total VSS score in area 1 in the evaluation of the investigator was obtained at follow-up after the 1st month of treatment (average 7.23 points before and 5.18 points after the 1st month after surgery-a difference of 2.05 points). Scar ratings by parents and the physician did not differ statistically (P CO2 laser in the treatment of hypertrophic scars in children is an effective and safe method. The use of a CO2 laser improves the appearance and morphology of scarring assessed using the VSS by both the parents and the physician. The treatment also reduced the thickness of scars evaluated by ultrasound.

  8. The effect of p38MAPK on cyclic stretch in human facial hypertrophic scar fibroblast differentiation.

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    Qi-cui Du

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scars (HTS, the excessive deposition of scar tissue by fibroblasts, is one of the most common skin disorders. Fibroblasts derived from surgical scar tissue produce high levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. However, the molecular mechanisms for this phenomenon is poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of HTS and their potential therapeutic implications. Fibroblasts derived from skin HTS were cultured and characterized in vitro. The fibroblasts were synchronized and randomly assigned to two groups: cyclic stretch and cyclic stretch pre-treated with SB203580 (a p38MAPK inhibitor. Cyclic stretch at 10% strain was applied at a loading frequency of 10 cycles per minute (i.e. 5 seconds of tension and 5 seconds of relaxation for 0 h, 6 h and 12 h. Cyclic stretch on HTS fibroblasts led to an increase in the expression of α-SMA and TGF-β1 mRNA and protein and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK. SB203580 reversed these effects and caused a decrease in matrix contraction. Furthermore, HTS fibroblast growth was partially blocked by p38MAPK inhibition. Therefore, the mechanism of cyclic stretch involves p38 MAPK, and its inhibition is suggested as a novel therapeutic strategy for HTS.

  9. The effect of p38MAPK on cyclic stretch in human facial hypertrophic scar fibroblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qi-cui; Zhang, Dai-zun; Chen, Xiu-juan; Lan-Sun, Gui; Wu, Min; Xiao, Wen-lin

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS), the excessive deposition of scar tissue by fibroblasts, is one of the most common skin disorders. Fibroblasts derived from surgical scar tissue produce high levels of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). However, the molecular mechanisms for this phenomenon is poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of HTS and their potential therapeutic implications. Fibroblasts derived from skin HTS were cultured and characterized in vitro. The fibroblasts were synchronized and randomly assigned to two groups: cyclic stretch and cyclic stretch pre-treated with SB203580 (a p38MAPK inhibitor). Cyclic stretch at 10% strain was applied at a loading frequency of 10 cycles per minute (i.e. 5 seconds of tension and 5 seconds of relaxation) for 0 h, 6 h and 12 h. Cyclic stretch on HTS fibroblasts led to an increase in the expression of α-SMA and TGF-β1 mRNA and protein and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK. SB203580 reversed these effects and caused a decrease in matrix contraction. Furthermore, HTS fibroblast growth was partially blocked by p38MAPK inhibition. Therefore, the mechanism of cyclic stretch involves p38 MAPK, and its inhibition is suggested as a novel therapeutic strategy for HTS.

  10. Morphological and distribution characteristics of sweat glands in hypertrophic scar and their possible effects on sweat gland regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-bing; SUN Tong-zhu; LI Xiao-kun; SHENG Zhi-yong

    2005-01-01

    Background In hypertrophic scar tissue, no sweet gland and hair follicle exist usually because of the dermal and epidermal damage in extensive thermal skin injury, thus imparing regulation of body temperature. This study was designed to reveal the morphological and distributional characteristics of the sweat glands in normal skin and hypertrophic scar obtained from children and adults, and to study the possible interfering effects of the scar on regeneration of the sweat gland after burn injury. Methods Biopsies of hypertrophic scar were taken from four children (4-10 years) and four adults (35-51 years). Normal, uninjured full-thickness skin adjacent to the scar of each patient was used as control. Keratin 19 (K19) was used as the marker for epidermal stem cells and secretory portion of the sweat glands, and keratin 14 (K14) for the tube portion, respectively. Immunohistochemical and histological evaluations were performed. Results Histological and immunohistochemical staining of skin tissue sections from both the children and adults showed K19 positive cells in the basement membrane of epidermis of normal skin. These cells were seen only single layer and arranged regularly. The secretory or duct portion of the eccrine sweat glands was situated in the dermis and epidermal layer. However, in the scar tissue, K19 positive cells were scant in the basal layer, and the anatomic location of the secretory portion of sweat glands changed. They were located between the border of the scar and reticular layer of the dermis. These secretory portions of sweat glands were expanded and were organized irregularly. But a few K14 positive cells were scattered in the scar tissues in cyclic form.Conclusions There are some residual sweat glands in scar tissues, in which the regeneration process of active sweat glands is present. Possibly the sweat glands could regenerate from adult epidermal stem cells or residual sweat glands in the wound bed after burn injury.

  11. In-the-bag decentration of an intraocular lens in a patient with a tendency to hypertrophic scarring

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    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report a case of rapid anterior lens capsular contraction leading to decentration of a hydrophilic acrylic lens with stiff haptics (Rayner design). To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate early capsular contraction with folding of the haptic over the optic in a patient with a tendency toward hypertrophic scar formation. PMID:27330480

  12. Postburn galactorrhea with refractory hypertrophic scars: role of obesity under scrutiny.

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    Saraiya, Hemant

    2003-01-01

    Postburn galactorrhea, although relatively uncommon, is a complex problem to treat. Three of 25 female premenopausal patients who were admitted during the years 1995 to 2001 with more than 40% TBSA burns developed this problem. All three patients were obese according to body mass index and other clinical criteria. It was observed that the additional disturbance of equilibrium of hypothalamus because of burn injury, which is already disturbed as per se in obese patients, precipitates sustained release of prolactin, leading to galactorrhea. Hyperinsulinemia because of obesity and associated reactive metabolic response of burn trauma contribute to the stimulation of prolactin secretion and sustained hyperprolactinemia. Interestingly, our patients who developed postburn galactorrhea also developed refractory hypertrophic scars not readily amenable to preventive and conservative therapeutic treatment methods. The responsible factor for its development can be a rise in prolactin levels with interplay of other hormones, such as melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), from the anterior pituitary. Repeated serum prolactin measurements and early control of rising levels during the burn treatment, particularly in obese patients, are recommended. Early and vigorous measures to prevent scar hypertrophy also are advocated. In our study, we failed to correlate chest wall burns with galactorrhea.

  13. Normal skin and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts differentially regulate collagen and fibronectin expression as well as mitochondrial membrane potential in response to basic fibroblast growth factor

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    Rui Song

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF regulates skin wound healing; however, the underlying mechanism remains to be defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of bFGF on the regulation of cell growth as well as collagen and fibronectin expression in fibroblasts from normal human skin and from hypertrophic scars. We then explored the involvement of mitochondria in mediating bFGF-inducedeffects on the fibroblasts. We isolated and cultivated normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from tissue biopsies of patients who underwent plastic surgery for repairing hypertrophic scars. The fibroblasts were then treated with different concentrations of bFGF (ranging from 0.1 to 1000 ng/mL. The growth of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts became slower with selective inhibition of type I collagen production after exposure to bFGF. However, type III collagen expression was affected in both normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Moreover, fibronectin expression in the normal fibroblasts was up-regulated after bFGF treatment. bFGF (1000 ng/mL also induced mitochondrial depolarization in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P < 0.01. The cellular ATP level decreased in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P < 0.05, while it increased in the normal fibroblasts following treatment with bFGF (P < 0.01. These data suggest that bFGF has differential effects and mechanisms on fibroblasts of the normal skin and hypertrophic scars, indicating that bFGF may play a role in the early phase of skin wound healing and post-burn scar formation.

  14. Hypertrophic scarring in cleft lip repair: a comparison of incidence among ethnic groups

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    Soltani AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ali M Soltani, Cameron S Francis, Arash Motamed, Ashley L Karatsonyi, Jeffrey A Hammoudeh, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, John F Reinisch, Mark M UrataDivision of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA, USA; The Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Although hypertrophic scar (HTS formation following cleft lip repair is relatively common, published rates vary widely, from 1% to nearly 50%. The risk factors associated with HTS formation in cleft patients are not well characterized. The primary aim of this retrospective study of 180 cleft lip repairs is to evaluate the frequency of postoperative HTS among various ethnic groups following cleft lip repair.Methods: A retrospective chart view of patients undergoing primary cleft lip repair over a 16-year period (1990–2005 by the senior surgeon was performed. The primary outcome was the presence of HTS at 1 year postoperatively. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate potential risk factors for HTS, including ethnicity, type and laterality of cleft, and gender.Results: One hundred and eighty patients who underwent cleft lip repair were included in the study. The overall rate of postoperative HTS formation was 25%. Ethnicity alone was found to be an independent predictor of HTS formation. Caucasian patients had the lowest rate of HTS formation (11.8% and were used as the reference group. HTS rates were significantly higher in the other ethnicities, 32.2% in Hispanic patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–8.85, and 36.3% for Asian patients (OR 4.27; 95% CI: 1.36–13.70. Sex, cleft type, and cleft laterality were not associated with increased rates of HTS.Conclusions: Differences in ethnic makeup of respective patient populations may be a major factor influencing the wide variability of reported

  15. Clinical and histological results in the treatment of atrophic and hypertrophic scars using a combined method of radiofrequency, ultrasound, and transepidermal drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trelles, Mario A; Martínez-Carpio, Pedro A

    2016-08-01

    Scars are problematic for thousands of patients. Scarring is a natural part of the healing process after an injury. However, the appearance of a scar and its treatment depend on multiple factors and on the experience of the therapist and the options available. Despite a plethora of rapidly evolving treatment options and technical advances, the management of atrophic and hypertrophic scars remains difficult. Innovative technologies provide an attractive alternative to conventional methods in the treatment of scars. The purpose of this trial was to determine the clinical and histological results of a method of treatment that combines radiofrequency, ultrasound, and transepidermal drug delivery. This was a prospective study conducted on 14 patients with scars of different sizes, types, and characteristics. All patients underwent six treatment sessions with the Legato device. Atrophic scars were treated with retinoic acid and hypertrophic scars with triamcinolone. Photographs and biopsies were taken before treatment and at 6 months after the last treatment session. The scars improved significantly (P < 0.0001). The mean attenuation in the severity of scars was 67% (range: 50-75%), where 100% indicates complete disappearance of the scar. Clinical and histological images of scar tissue in six patients in whom attenuation in the range of 55-75% was achieved are shown. Biopsies show regenerative changes in the scar tissue, in both the epidermis and dermis. The method makes it possible to treat extensive, heterogeneous scars on different sites with good results that are similar and predictable.

  16. A prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, double blind study of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar at donor site of skin grafting

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    Ravi Kumar Chittoria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertrophic scarring at donor site of skin grafting is prevalent among Asians. The effectiveness of silicone gel in scar prevention may influence the surgeons and patients regarding its routine use during the postoperative period. Aims and Objectives: To study the efficacy of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scars at donor site of skin grafting. Design: Prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study. Setting: The study was conducted in the department of Plastic Surgery, Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences (SVIMS University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India from June 2007 to June 2009. Patients were recruited during follow-up in the OPD. Materials and Methods: The susceptibility to scar development varied among patients; therefore, donor site scars were divided into upper half and lower half. Two types of coded gel prepared by an independent pharmacist were used on either half. Thus, selection and assessment biases and confounders were eliminated. Results: 100 scars in 50 patients were randomized into two arms, 50 control and 50 silicone gel. The median age was 25.5 years and there were 30 men (60% and 20 women (40%. Thirty-seven patients (74% had good compliance. The overall incidence of donor site hypertrophic scar was 94% (47 out of 50. At the second month postoperatively, the silicone gel scars were scored lower when compared with the control scars. The differences were statistically significant in all parameters, including pigmentation ( P = 0.001, Vascularity ( P = 0.010, pliability ( P = 0.001, and height ( P = 0.010. Conclusion: The effect of silicone gel in prevention of hypertrophic scar development in donor site scars is promising. Success of silicone gel in its prophylactic role will create its routine use in all types of surgery to minimize the formation of hypertrophic scars in the early postoperative period.

  17. Comparison of therapeutic response of keloids and hypertrophic scars to cryotherapy plus intralesional steroid and bleomycin tattoo

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    Farahnaz Fatemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Keloids and hypertrophic scars are abnormal responses of body to skin injuries. Overproduction of compacted fibrous tissue is the basic cause of these lesions. In this study the result of treatment of these skin conditions with bleomycin tattoo are compared with cryotherapy and triamcinolone injection. This study involved 45 patients with hypertrophic scar or keloid. Patients were divided into two groups consecutively. Group A (23 patients was treated with bleomycin tattoo and the group B with cryotherapy and triamcinolone injection. There were four therapeutic sessions one month apart. All patients were followedup for three month after the end of treatment .The therapeutic response was determined as reduction of lesion size or flattening relative to initial size. Therapeutic response was 88.3±14% in group A and 67.4 ±22.5% in group B (p<0.001. In group A 69%, but in group B only 49% of patients were asymptomatic after the end of treatment. In group A there was no relation between therapeutic response and lesion size (p=0.58 but in group B lesions those were smaller (<100mm2 had better therapeutic response than larger ones (p=0.007. It was concluded that bleomycin tattoo is more effective in treatment of hypertrophic scar and keloid than traditional treatment, cryotherapy plus triamcinolone injection especially in larger ones.

  18. Keloid: A case report and review of pathophysiology and differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunasgi, Santosh; Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M; Shamala, Ravikumar

    2013-01-01

    Keloids extend beyond the borders of the original wound invading normal skin. Usually appear as firm nodules, often pruritic and painful, and generally do not regress spontaneously. Most often occur on the chest, shoulders, upper back, back of the neck, and earlobes. The aim of the paper is to discuss a case of keloid, review the pathophysiology and also to highlight the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars. A 26-year-old female complains of swelling on ear lobe since 3 years. Swelling was firm, non-tender, dumbell-shaped with central wooden stick still present, measuring 3 cm in diameter medial to the inferior part of the helix. A clinical diagnosis of keloid was given. Histopathological sections showed hyperorthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with deep dermal sclerosis showing large dense bundle of glassy collagen diagnostic of Keloid. Special stain like Van Gieson's was used to identify collagen bundles. The sections were also subjected to immunohistochemical markers such as α-SMA (alpha Smooth muscle actin), Desmin, and S-100. Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of keloids remains incompletely understood. Recent studies indicate that TGF-β (Transforming growth factor beta) and PDGF (Platelet-derived growth factor) play an integral role in the formation of keloids. In future, development of selective inhibitors of TGF-β might produce new therapeutic tools with enhanced efficacy and specificity for the treatment of keloids. Patients with a previous history of keloid or other risk-factors should avoid body piercing and elective cosmetic procedures. Keloid scars should be sent for histopathology in order to avoid missing potentially malignant conditions particularly those showing unusual features. PMID:23798844

  19. Keloid: A case report and review of pathophysiology and differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars

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    Santosh Hunasgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keloids extend beyond the borders of the original wound invading normal skin. Usually appear as firm nodules, often pruritic and painful, and generally do not regress spontaneously. Most often occur on the chest, shoulders, upper back, back of the neck, and earlobes. The aim of the paper is to discuss a case of keloid, review the pathophysiology and also to highlight the differences between keloid and hypertrophic scars. A 26-year-old female complains of swelling on ear lobe since 3 years. Swelling was firm, non-tender, dumbell-shaped with central wooden stick still present, measuring 3 cm in diameter medial to the inferior part of the helix. A clinical diagnosis of keloid was given. Histopathological sections showed hyperorthokeratinized stratified squamous epithelium with deep dermal sclerosis showing large dense bundle of glassy collagen diagnostic of Keloid. Special stain like Van Gieson′s was used to identify collagen bundles. The sections were also subjected to immunohistochemical markers such as α-SMA (alpha Smooth muscle actin, Desmin, and S-100. Despite decades of research, the pathophysiology of keloids remains incompletely understood. Recent studies indicate that TGF-β (Transforming growth factor beta and PDGF (Platelet-derived growth factor play an integral role in the formation of keloids. In future, development of selective inhibitors of TGF-β might produce new therapeutic tools with enhanced efficacy and specificity for the treatment of keloids. Patients with a previous history of keloid or other risk-factors should avoid body piercing and elective cosmetic procedures. Keloid scars should be sent for histopathology in order to avoid missing potentially malignant conditions particularly those showing unusual features.

  20. Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars Can Now Be Cured Completely: Recent Progress in Our Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Keloids and Hypertrophic Scars and the Most Promising Current Therapeutic Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Rei; Akaishi, Satoshi; Kuribayashi, Shigehiko; Miyashita, Tsuguhiro

    2016-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are fibroproliferative disorders of the skin that are caused by abnormal healing of injured or irritated skin. It is possible that they are both manifestations of the same fibroproliferative skin disorder and just differ in terms of the intensity and duration of inflammation. These features may in turn be influenced by genetic, systemic, and local risk factors. Genetic factors may include single nucleotide polymorphisms, while systemic factors may include hypertension, pregnancy, hormones, and cytokines. The most important local factor is tension on the scar. Over the past 10 years, our understanding of the pathogenesis of keloids and hypertrophic scars has improved markedly. As a result, these previously intractable scars are now regarded as being treatable. There are many therapeutic options, including surgery, radiation, corticosteroids, 5-fluorouracil, cryotherapy, laser therapy, anti-allergy agents, anti-inflammatory agents, bleaching creams and make-up therapies. However, at present, we believe that the following combination of three therapies most reliably achieves a complete cure: surgery, followed by radiation and the use of steroid tape/plaster.

  1. Comparing the effects of conventional method, pulse dye laser and erbium laser for the treatment of hypertrophic scars in Iranian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmod Omranifard

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scar is an elevated scar with ugly appearance that isn’t acceptable even in reconstructive surgery. Unfortunately, there is no standard and effective treatment for it. Conventional treatments such as corticosteroid injection and garment usage have limited effectiveness. In recent year, laser is suggested for reduction of the volume and height of these scars. But in different studies, different results from very effective to ineffective were reported for this type of treatment.
    METHODS: This study was a single blind randomized clinical trial that was done on three groups. In each group, 40 patients with hypertrophic scar were included. In group one PDL, group 2 Erbium laser and in group 3 corticosteroid were used. Scar improvement was assessed by the amount of decrease in Vancouver burn scar (VBS score; the higher the decrease, the better the improvement.
    RESULTS: Although the mean VBS score significantly decreased in all three groups after treatment, the decrease in mean VBS score in group 3 was significantly lower than the decrease in mean VBS scores of groups 1 and 2 (P values were 0.037 and 0.041, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Some types of laser such as PDL and erbium can improve elevation and vascularity of hypertrophic scar. These types of treatment can use in hypertrophic scar management when vascularity and elevation of scar are unfavorable.
    KEY WORDS: PDL, hypertrophic scar, erbium laser, conventional treatment.

  2. Comparing the effects of conventional method, pulse dye laser and erbium laser for the treatment of hypertrophic scars in Iranian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmod Omranifard; Mehdi Rasti

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scar is an elevated scar with ugly appearance that isn’t acceptable even in reconstructive surgery. Unfortunately, there is no standard and effective treatment for it. Conventional treatments such as corticosteroid injection and garment usage have limited effectiveness. In recent year, laser is suggested for reduction of the volume and height of these scars. But in different studies, different results from very effective to ineff...

  3. The Incidence of Hypertrophic Scarring and Keloid Formation Following Laser Tattoo Removal with a Quality-switched Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Dylan B.; Chen, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Laser tattoo removal using quality switched technology is widely accepted as the standard of care. Determining the risk of hypertrophic scarring and keloid formation more precisely delineates the safety of this procedure and improves patient education regarding the risk of scarring. Objective: To investigate the incidence of hypertrophic scarring and keloids in a large patient population following treatment with a Q-switched neodymium-doped:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Design: In November 2012, after a single Institutional Review Board approved retrospective chart review, 1,041 charts demonstrating greater than five treatment sessions were analyzed. All patients in the current retrospective study were treated under one study protocol. Results: An overall incidence of 0.28 percent (3/1,041) of patients receiving a minimum of five laser tattoo treatments with a Q-switched neodymium-doped:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser developed clinical evidence of hypertrophic scarring. None of the 1,041 patients in this study developed keloid scars. Conclusion: With the Q-switched neodymium-doped:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser utilizing accurate, protocol-based settings, the incidence of hypertrophic scarring following laser tattoo removal treatments was 0.28 percent (3/1,041) and the incidence of keloid scarring was 0.00 percent (0/1,041). PMID:27386045

  4. Study of microvascular structure in keloid and hypertrophic scars: density of microvessels and the efficacy of three-dimensional vascular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Norifumi; Ueda, Koichi; Tsuji, Motomu

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated the blood vessels in keloids and hypertrophic scars, both morphologically and statistically. We also tried to construct three-dimensional images of blood vessels in a keloid and hypertrophic scar to clarify the vascular patterns. Keloids (n = 16) and hypertrophic scars (n = 12) were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained with anti-CD31 antibody. The capillary density (number/1.0 mm(2)) and length of the major and minor axes were measured, and the major:minor axis ratio was calculated. Eighty serial sections were prepared from the preparations. Using image preparation software (Realia, INTAGE), the 80 input images were superimposed to construct a three-dimensional image of blood vessels in the tissue. We initially succeeded in constructing three-dimensional images of blood vessels in a keloid and hypertrophic scar. By statistical analysis of the vascular density and morphology, we clarified that there were fewer capillaries in keloids than in hypertrophic scars (p < 0.01), and that the vascular lumen was flattened. Capillaries in the central region of keloids tended to flat, compared with those in the marginal region. Three-dimensional images suggested that there was no microvascular communication in keloids; there was also an inadequate blood supply in keloid tissue. These findings may be a result of the growth of collagen and fibroblasts with keloid maturation.

  5. Notch信号在增生性瘢痕表皮中的表达%Expression of Notch receptors, ligands and downstream target genes in epidermis of hypertrophic scar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏炜; 潘宝华; 刘宾; 张曦; 马福成; 王映梅; 杨晓婷; 刘丹; 郭树忠

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the expression of Notch receptors, ligands and downstream target genes in hypertrophic scar and normal skin, and to investigate its role in the development of hypertrophic scar. Methods By immunohistochemistry, the expression of epidermal differentiation markers-β1 integrin, keratin 14 (K14) and keratin 19 (K19), as well as Notch 1-4 and Jagged1 were examined in hypertrophic scars and normal skins. The expression of Notch downstream genes- P21 and P63 was analyzed with real-time quantitative PCR and immtmohistechemistry staining. Results Histological analysis revealed a significant epidermal thickening in the hypertrophic scars, with excessive cell layers above the basal layer. Compared to the normal epidermis, the expression of β1 integrin, K19 and K14 decreased in hypertrophic scars (P<0.05). Positive expression rate of Notch1 and Jagged1 in keratinocytes was significantly higher in hypertrophic scar than in normal skin (P<0.05), while there was no difference in Notch2 and 3 positive expression rate. Furthermore, the expression of P21 was significantly up-regulated, while the expression of P63 was down-regulated in keratinocytes of hypertrophic scar (P<0.05). Conclusions Notch signal may play an important role in hypertrophic scar pathogenesis. Over-defferentiation of Keratinocytes in hypertrophic scar may be related to the overexpression of Notch1 and Jagged1, up-regalation of P21 gene and down-regulation of P63 gene.%目的 研究Notch信号相关分子在增生性瘢痕表皮中的表达情况,探讨其是否参与增生性瘢痕的形成. 方法 收集年龄、性别、部位互为对照的增生性瘢痕和健康皮肤组织各8例.行免疫组织化学检测:①表皮分化标志物,包括整合素β1、角蛋白14(K14)和19(K19);②Notch受体1~4以及配体Jagged1.行Real-time PCR和免疫组织化学检测Notch下游基因P21和P63的表达以及定位. 结果 组织学检测发现增生性瘢痕表皮较健康表皮明显增厚,

  6. Preparation of ethosomes and deformable liposomes encapsulated with 5-fluorouracil and their investigation of permeability and retention in hypertrophic scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wo, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Danru; Pu, Zheming; Su, Weijie; Qian, Yunliang; Li, Yunwu; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-09-01

    With the aim of comparing scar penetration efficiency and retention between ethosomes and deformable liposomes both encapsulated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), the 5-FU ethosomal suspensions (5-FU ES, 81.74 +/- 9.37 nm) and the 5-FU Deformable Liposomal Suspensions (5-FU DS, 73.7 +/- 9.45 nm) were prepared respectively by Touitou method and Cevc method, their sizes were determined by Particle Sizer System (PSS), and their entrapment Efficiency (EE) was detected by ultracentrifugation and microcolumn centrifugation. Their transdermal delivery experiments were done in hypertrophic scars in vitro. The permeated amount of 5-FU and retention contents of 5-FU were both calculated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Fluorescence intensities of ES and DS labeled with Rodanmin 6GO (Rho) were measured by Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM). The control groups such as the 5-FU and empty ethosomal vesicles (5-FU + EEV), the 5-FU and empty deformable liposomal vesicles (5-FU + EDV) and 5-FU PBS Solution (5-FU Sol) were set up. Results showed that, prepared 5-FU ES was 81.74 +/- 9.37 nm in size, 5-FU DS was 73.7 +/- 9.45 nm, EE of 5-FU ES was 10.95%, EE of 5-FU DS was 15.05%. Within 24 hours, in the group of 5-FU ES, the penetration amount of 5-FU in scar was 14.12 +/- 0.1 microg/mL/cm2, the retention contents of 5-FU was 10.74 +/- 1.17 microg/cm2, and the fluorescence intensity of Rho in hypertrophic scar tissues were 182 +/- 18.3; in the group of 5-FU DS: the penetration amount of 5-FU was 12.35 +/- 1.21 microg/mLcm2; the retention contents of 5-FU was 17.48 +/- 0.82 microg/cm2, and the fluorescence intensity of Rho was 241.45 +/- 7.63; there existed statistical difference between penetration amount in the group of 5-FU ES and that in the group of 5-FU DS as well as control groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), the penetration amount in the group of ES is markedly higher than DS group or control groups. Conversely, the retention contents of 5-FU and the fluorescence intensity of

  7. Toll-like receptors expressed by dermal fibroblasts contribute to hypertrophic scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, JianFei; Hori, Keijiro; Ding, Jie; Huang, Yue; Kwan, Peter; Ladak, Adil; Tredget, Edward E

    2011-05-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HTS), a fibroproliferative disorder (FPD), complicates burn wound healing. Although the pathogenesis is not understood, prolonged inflammation is a known contributing factor. Emerging evidence suggests that fibroblasts regulate immune/inflammatory responses through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through adaptor molecules, leading to nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells and mitogen-activated protein kinases activation, cytokine gene transcription and co-stimulatory molecule expression resulting in inflammation. This study explored the possible role of TLR4 in HTS formation. Paired normal and HTS tissue from burn patients was collected and dermal fibroblasts isolated and cultured. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissues demonstrated increased TLR4 staining in HTS tissue. Quantitative RT-PCR of three pairs of fibroblasts demonstrated mRNA levels for TLR4 and its legend myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in HTS fibroblasts were increased significantly compared with normal fibroblasts. Flow cytometry showed increased TLR4 expression in HTS fibroblasts compared with normal. ELISA demonstrated protein levels for prostaglandin E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly increased in HTS fibroblasts compared to normal. When paired normal and HTS fibroblasts were stimulated with LPS, significant increases in mRNA and protein levels for MyD88, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 were detected. However, when transfected with MyD88 small interfering RNA (siRNA), then stimulated with LPS, a significant decrease in mRNA and protein levels for these molecules compared to only LPS-stimulated fibroblasts was detected. In comparison, a scramble siRNA transfection did not affect mRNA or protein levels for these molecules. Results demonstrate LPS stimulates proinflammatory cytokine expression in dermal fibroblasts and MyD88 siRNA eliminates the expression. Therefore

  8. What score on the Vancouver Scar Scale constitutes a hypertrophic scar? Results from a survey of North American burn-care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Callie M; Sood, Ravi F; Honari, Shari; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Gibran, Nicole S

    2015-11-01

    Reliable characterization of a hypertrophic scar (HTS) is integral to epidemiologic studies designed to identify clinical and genetic risk factors for HTS. The Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) has been widely used for this purpose; however, no publication has defined what score on this scale corresponds to a clinical diagnosis of HTS. In a survey of 1000 burn care providers, we asked respondents what VSS score indicates a HTS and asked them to score scar photos using the VSS. We used receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curves to evaluate VSS sub-scores and their combinations in diagnosis of HTS. Of 130 responses (13.5%), most were physicians (43.9%) who had worked in burn care for over 10 years (63.1%) and did not use the VSS in clinical practice (58.5%). There was no consensus as to what VSS score indicates a diagnosis of HTS. VSS height score (0-3) performed best for diagnosis of HTS; using a cut-off of ≥1, height score was 99.5% sensitive and 85.9% specific for HTS. Burn clinicians do not routinely use the VSS and perceptions vary widely regarding what constitutes a HTS. When a dichotomous variable is needed, the VSS height score with a cut-off of ≥1 may be optimal. Our findings underscore the need for an objective tool to reproducibly characterize HTS across burn centers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Management of Hypertrophic Burn Scar: A Comparison between the Efficacy of Exercise-Physiotherapy and Pressure Garment-Silicone on Hypertrophic Scar

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Our study aims to investigate the effectiveness of other treatment methods for burn related scarring and to determine the possibility of their routine administration in similar clinical settings. Methods Through a prospective study, 66 patients were enrolled to receive either the conventional pressure garment therapy (PGT) and Silicone (control group) or exercise and physiotherapy (case group). Patients were visited regularly to be examined for the status of their scars’ regression, l...

  10. Efficacy and safety of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing in non-hypertrophic traumatic and burn scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Majid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractional photothermolysis is one of the most effective treatment options used to resurface scars of different aetiologies. Aim: To assess the efficacy and safety of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing treatment in the management of non-hypertrophic traumatic and burn scars. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients affected by non-hypertrophic traumatic and burn scars were treated with four sessions of fractional CO 2 laser resurfacing treatment at 6-weekly intervals. Patients were photographed at each visit and finally, 3 months after the end of treatment schedule. Response to treatment was assessed clinically as well as by comparing the initial photograph of the patient with the one taken at the last follow-up visit 3-months after the final treatment session. Changes in skin texture, surface irregularity and pigmentation were assessed on a quartile grading scale and scored individually from 0 to 4. A mean of the three individual scores was calculated and the response was labelled as ′excellent′ if the mean score achieved was >2. A score of 1-2 was labeled as good response while a score below 1 was labeled as ′poor′ response. The subjective satisfaction of each patient with the treatment offered was also assessed at the last follow-up visit. Results: The commonest site of scarring treated was the face followed by hands. Response to treatment was rated as excellent in 60% (15/25 patients while 24% (6/25 and 16% (4/25 patients were labeled as good and poor responders, respectively. Skin texture showed better response than other variables with average score of 2.44. Linear post-traumatic scars were seen to respond less than other morphological types. Majority of the patients (19 out of 25 were highly satisfied with the treatment offered. No long-term adverse effects were noted in any patient. Conclusions: Fractional photothermolysis with a fractional CO 2 laser gives excellent results in patients with post-burn scars with

  11. Loureirin B inhibits fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition in hypertrophic scar via TGF-β/Smad pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaozhi; He, Ting; Liu, Jiaqi; Wang, Yunchuan; Fan, Lei; Tao, Ke; Shi, Jihong; Tang, Chaowu; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-05-01

    The ethanolic extract of Resina Draconis (RDEE) has been reported beneficial to normal wound healing yielding more regularly arranged collagen fibres. Loureirin B, a major component in RDEE, has been supposed to be effective on the prevention and treatment of pathological scars. To investigate the therapeutic effects of loureirin B on hypertrophic scar (HS), fibroblasts from human HS and normal skin (NS) were isolated. Results showed that loureirin B dose-dependently downregulated both mRNA and protein levels of type I collagen (ColI), type III collagen (ColIII) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in HS fibroblasts. Loureirin B also suppressed fibroblast proliferative activity and redistributed cell cycle, but did not affect cell apoptosis. In vivo rabbit ear scar model, loureirin B significantly improved the arrangement and deposition of collagen fibres, decreased protein levels of ColI, ColIII and α-SMA and suppressed myofibroblast differentiation and scar proliferative activity. In NS fibroblasts, loureirin B effectively inhibited TGF-β1-induced upregulation of ColI, ColIII and α-SMA levels, myofibroblast differentiation and the activation of Smad2 and Smad3. Loureirin B also affected mRNA levels of major MMPs and TIMPs in TGF-β1-stimulated fibroblasts. Taken together, this study demonstrates that loureirin B could downregulate the expression of fibrosis-related molecules by regulating MMPs and TIMPs levels, inhibit scar fibroblast proliferation and suppress TGF-β1-induced fibrosis, during which TGF-β1/Smad2/3 pathway is likely involved. These findings suggest that loureirin B is a potential therapeutic compound for HS treatment.

  12. Microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with triamcinolone improved the therapeutic effect on Chinese patients with hypertrophic scar and reduced the risk of tissue atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shui Yu, Hengjin Li Department of Dermatology, Chinese People’s Liberation Army General Hospital and Hainan Branch, Sanya, People’s Republic of China Objective: The current study aimed to assess the value of microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with triamcinolone for the therapy of Chinese patients with hypertrophic scar. Methods: A total of 120 participants with hypertrophic scars were enrolled in the current study. Participants were divided into two groups based on sex, and then randomly and evenly divided into four groups (Groups A, B, C, and D. Participants in Group A received microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with triamcinolone. Participants in Group B received microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with normal saline. Participants in Groups C and D received triamcinolone (40 and 10 mg/mL injected directly into scar. Experienced physicians evaluated the condition of scars according to the Vancouver Scar Scale 1 month before and after the therapy. Results: There was no difference in age, sex, area, height and location of scars, and Vancouver Scar Scale scores before the therapy between any groups (P>0.05 for all. Vancouver Scar Scale scores after the therapy were significantly lower than those before the therapy in all groups (P<0.05 for all. Vancouver Scar Scale scores after the therapy in Group A were significantly lower than those after the therapy in Groups B and C (P<0.05 for all. Vancouver Scar Scale scores after the therapy in Group B were significantly higher than those after the therapy in Group C (P<0.05 for all and similar to those after the therapy in Group D (P>0.05 for all. Incidences of tissue atrophy after the therapy were significantly lower in Groups A and B than in Group C (P<0.05 for all and similar among Groups A, B, and D (P>0.05 for all. Conclusion: Microplasma radiofrequency technology combined with triamcinolone improved the therapeutic effect on Chinese patients with

  13. Anti-fibrotic actions of interleukin-10 against hypertrophic scarring by activation of PI3K/AKT and STAT3 signaling pathways in scar-forming fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihong Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hypertrophic scar (HS is a serious fibrotic skin condition and a major clinical problem. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 has been identified as a prospective scar-improving compound based on preclinical trials. Our previous work showed that IL-10 has anti-fibrotic effects in transforming growth factor (TGF-β1-stimulated fibroblasts, as well as potential therapeutic benefits for the prevention and reduction of scar formation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying IL-10-mediated anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement actions. OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression of the IL-10 receptor in human HS tissue and primary HS fibroblasts (HSFs, and the molecular mechanisms contributing to the anti-fibrotic and scar-improvement capabilities of IL-10. METHODS: Expression of the IL-10 receptor was assessed in HS tissue and HSFs by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Primary HSFs were treated with IL-10, a specific phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 or a function-blocking antibody against the IL-10 receptor (IL-10RB. Next, Western blot analysis was used to evaluate changes in the phosphorylation status of AKT and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT 3, as well as the expression levels of fibrosis-related proteins. RESULTS: HS tissue and primary HSFs were characterized by expression of the IL-10 receptor and by high expression of fibrotic markers relative to normal controls. Primary HSFs expressed the IL-10 receptor, while IL-10 induced AKT and STAT3 phosphorylation in these cells. In addition, LY294002 blocked AKT and STAT phosphorylation, and also up-regulated expression levels of type I and type III collagen (Col 1 and Col 3 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA in IL-10-treated cells. Similarly, IL-10RB reduced STAT3/AKT phosphorylation and blocked the IL-10-mediated mitigation of fibrosis in HSFs. CONCLUSION: IL-10 apparently

  14. MRP1 knockdown down-regulates the deposition of collagen and leads to a reduced hypertrophic scar fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yang, Longlong; Zheng, Zhao; Shi, Jihong; Wu, Xue; Guan, Hao; Jia, Yanhui; Tao, Ke; Wang, Hongtao; Han, Shichao; Gao, Jianxin; Zhao, Bin; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) belongs to ATP-binding cassette transporters family. The overexpression of MRP1 is predominantly related with the failure of chemo-radiotherapy in various tumors. However, its possible role in hypertrophic scar (HS) is hardly investigated. Here we showed that the mRNA level and protein expression of MRP1 were higher in HS and HS derived fibroblasts (HSFs) than that in normal skin (NS) and NS derived fibroblasts (NSFs). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence showed that the percentage of positive cells was higher in HS and HSFs. Meanwhile, the co-localization of MRP1 and α-SMA was stronger in HS. MRP1 knockdown in HSFs provoked a significant reduction in the protein expressions of collagen 3 and α-SMA in vitro. Moreover, MRP1 siRNA transfection could decrease the deposition of collagen in cultured tissues ex vivo and inhibit the scar formation in rabbit ear scar model in vivo. H&E staining and Masson trichrome staining revealed thinner and more orderly arranged collagen fiber in the MRP1 siRNA transfection group. The appearance of scar was improved as well. All these results indicate that MRP1 plays an important role in the formation of HS, MRP1 knockdown could be a potential method to reduce the accumulation of collagen and to improve the abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix in HS, which indicates that down-regulation of MRP1 has the potential therapeutic effect in the treatment and prophylaxis of HS.

  15. Kaempferol inhibits fibroblast collagen synthesis, proliferation and activation in hypertrophic scar via targeting TGF-β receptor type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Yuebing; Gao, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HPS) formation is a debilitating condition that results in pain, esthetic symptom and loss of tissue function. So far, no satisfactory therapeutic approach has been available for HPS treatment. In this study, we discovered that a natural small molecule, kaempferol, could significantly inhibit HPS formation in a mechanical load-induced mouse model. Our results also demonstrated that kaempferol remarkably attenuated collagen synthesis, proliferation and activation of fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis further revealed that kaempferol significantly down-regulated Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. At last, we found that such bioactivity of kaempferol which resulted from the inhibition of TGF-β1/Smads signaling was induced by the selective binding of kaempferol to TGF-β receptor type I (TGFβRI). These findings suggest that kaempferol could be developed into a promising agent for the treatment of HPS or other fibroproliferative disorders.

  16. [Effects of silencing Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 on the function of human hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Kuang, F; Liu, C L; Chen, B; Tang, W B; Li, X J

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To explore the effects of silencing Smad ubiquitination regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) on the secretion of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β(1)), alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and collagen type Ⅰ by human hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts. Methods: The human normal skin-derived fibroblasts and hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts were cultured with explant culture technique from the normal skin and hypertrophic scar tissue, which was obtained from 9 patients with hypertrophic scars after burn. Two kinds of fibroblasts of the third passage were both divided into 6 groups according to the random number table, with 9 wells in each group. Fibroblasts in blank control group were cultured for 72 h without transfection of any small interfering RNA (siRNA), fibroblasts in negative control group were for cultured for 72 h after transfected with non-target siRNA, fibroblasts in Smurf2 siRNA group were cultured for 72 h after transfected with 100 nmol/L Smurf2 siRNA, fibroblasts in blank control+ TGF-β(1) group were cultured for 72 h without transfection of any siRNA and then treated with 10 ng/mL TGF-β(1) for 6 h, fibroblasts in negative control+ TGF-β(1) group were cultured for 72 h after transfected with non-target siRNA and then treated with 10 ng/mL TGF-β(1) for 6 h, fibroblasts in Smurf2 siRNA+ TGF-β(1) group were cultured for 72 h after transfected with Smurf2 siRNA and then treated with 10 ng/mL TGF-β(1) for 6 h. (1) The protein and mRNA expression levels of Smurf2 of the two kinds of cells in blank control group, negative control group, and Smurf2 siRNA group were assessed by Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. (2) The content of TGF-β(1) in the cell culture supernatant of the two kinds of cells in blank control group and Smurf2 siRNA group was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (3) The protein expression levels of α-SMA of the two kinds of cells in

  17. Functional characterization of TRAP1-like protein involved in modulating fibrotic processes mediated by TGF-β/Smad signaling in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Chu, J. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Wen, C.J.; Fu, S.B.; Qian, Y.L. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Wo, Y. [Department of Anatomy, Institutes of Medical Sciences, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, C., E-mail: wangchen2369@163.com [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Wang, D.R., E-mail: wangdanru@126.com [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2015-03-15

    The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β)-mediated signaling pathway is believed to be closely associated with wound healing and scar formation, in which TRAP1-like protein (TLP) plays a role in regulating the balance of Smad2 vs. Smad3 signaling. Our previous study revealed the relation between TLP and collagen synthesis in normal human skin fibroblasts. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the effects of TLP on the process of hypertrophic scar formation and contraction. To explore and verify a contribution of TLP to the pathological mechanism of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFb), we constructed lentiviral vectors that either overexpressed TLP or encoded small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting TLP, then we transfected them into HSFb. TLP knockdown in HSFb resulted in reduced levels of cell contraction, type I and type III collagen mRNA transcripts and protein expression, and higher levels of fibronectin (FN) compared to control groups. In addition, knockdown of TLP promoted the phosphorylation of Smad3 but repressed Smad2 and Erk-1/2 phosphorylation in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts compared to control groups. The reduction of TLP did not interfere with HSF proliferative ability, but exogenous TLP cooperated with TGF-β1 to increase cell viability. Together, our findings demonstrate evidence for a contribution of TLP expression in hypertrophic scar formation and contraction. - Highlights: • TLP acted different roles in the activating of Smad2- and Smad3-dependent signaling. • TLP may induce TGF-β1-mediated collagens expression through Smad signalings and MAPK signaling. • TLP may enhance HSFb contraction by increasing the expression of α-SMA. • Exogenous TLP can cooperate with TGF-β1 to increase cell viability.

  18. Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  19. A novel immune competent murine hypertrophic scar contracture model: a tool to elucidate disease mechanism and develop new therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Magdy; Bond, Jennifer; Bergeron, Andrew; Miller, Kyle J; Ehanire, Tosan; Quiles, Carlos; Lorden, Elizabeth R; Medina, Manuel A; Fisher, Mark; Klitzman, Bruce; Selim, M Angelica; Leong, Kam W; Levinson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HSc) contraction following burn injury causes contractures. Contractures are painful and disfiguring. Current therapies are marginally effective. To study pathogenesis and develop new therapies, a murine model is needed. We have created a validated immune-competent murine HSc model. A third-degree burn was created on dorsum of C57BL/6 mice. Three days postburn, tissue was excised and grafted with ear skin. Graft contraction was analyzed and tissue harvested on different time points. Outcomes were compared with human condition to validate the model. To confirm graft survival, green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were used, and histologic analysis was performed to differentiate between ear and back skin. Role of panniculus carnosus in contraction was analyzed. Cellularity was assessed with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Collagen maturation was assessed with Picro-sirius red. Mast cells were stained with Toluidine blue. Macrophages were detected with F4/80 immune. Vascularity was assessed with CD31 immune. RNA for contractile proteins was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Elastic moduli of skin and scar tissue were analyzed using a microstrain analyzer. Grafts contracted to ∼45% of their original size by day 14 and maintained their size. Grafting of GFP mouse skin onto wild-type mice, and analysis of dermal thickness and hair follicle density, confirmed graft survival. Interestingly, hair follicles disappeared after grafting and regenerated in ear skin configuration by day 30. Radiological analysis revealed that panniculus carnosus doesn't contribute to contraction. Microscopic analyses showed that grafts show increase in cellularity. Granulation tissue formed after day 3. Collagen analysis revealed increases in collagen maturation over time. CD31 stain revealed increased vascularity. Macrophages and mast cells were increased. qRT-PCR showed up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta, alpha smooth muscle

  20. Missense Variant in MAPK Inactivator PTPN5 Is Associated with Decreased Severity of Post-Burn Hypertrophic Scarring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi F Sood

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scarring (HTS is hypothesized to have a genetic mechanism, yet its genetic determinants are largely unknown. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are important mediators of inflammatory signaling, and experimental evidence implicates MAPKs in HTS formation. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in MAPK-pathway genes would be associated with severity of post-burn HTS.We analyzed data from a prospective-cohort genome-wide association study of post-burn HTS. We included subjects with deep-partial-thickness burns admitted to our center who provided blood for genotyping and had at least one Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS assessment. After adjusting for HTS risk factors and population stratification, we tested MAPK-pathway gene SNPs for association with the four VSS variables in a joint regression model. In addition to individual-SNP analysis, we performed gene-based association testing.Our study population consisted of 538 adults (median age 40 years who were predominantly White (76% males (71% admitted to our center from 2007-2014 with small-to-moderate-sized burns (median burn size 6% total body surface area. Of 2,146 SNPs tested, a rare missense variant in the PTPN5 gene (rs56234898; minor allele frequency 1.5% was significantly associated with decreased severity of post-burn HTS (P = 1.3×10-6. In gene-based analysis, PTPN5 (P = 1.2×10-5 showed a significant association and BDNF (P = 9.5×10-4 a borderline-significant association with HTS severity.We report PTPN5 as a novel genetic locus associated with HTS severity. PTPN5 is a MAPK inhibitor expressed in neurons, suggesting a potential role for neurotrophic factors and neuroinflammatory signaling in HTS pathophysiology.

  1. Missense Variant in MAPK Inactivator PTPN5 Is Associated with Decreased Severity of Post-Burn Hypertrophic Scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ravi F; Arbabi, Saman; Honari, Shari; Gibran, Nicole S

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HTS) is hypothesized to have a genetic mechanism, yet its genetic determinants are largely unknown. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are important mediators of inflammatory signaling, and experimental evidence implicates MAPKs in HTS formation. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MAPK-pathway genes would be associated with severity of post-burn HTS. We analyzed data from a prospective-cohort genome-wide association study of post-burn HTS. We included subjects with deep-partial-thickness burns admitted to our center who provided blood for genotyping and had at least one Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) assessment. After adjusting for HTS risk factors and population stratification, we tested MAPK-pathway gene SNPs for association with the four VSS variables in a joint regression model. In addition to individual-SNP analysis, we performed gene-based association testing. Our study population consisted of 538 adults (median age 40 years) who were predominantly White (76%) males (71%) admitted to our center from 2007-2014 with small-to-moderate-sized burns (median burn size 6% total body surface area). Of 2,146 SNPs tested, a rare missense variant in the PTPN5 gene (rs56234898; minor allele frequency 1.5%) was significantly associated with decreased severity of post-burn HTS (P = 1.3×10-6). In gene-based analysis, PTPN5 (P = 1.2×10-5) showed a significant association and BDNF (P = 9.5×10-4) a borderline-significant association with HTS severity. We report PTPN5 as a novel genetic locus associated with HTS severity. PTPN5 is a MAPK inhibitor expressed in neurons, suggesting a potential role for neurotrophic factors and neuroinflammatory signaling in HTS pathophysiology.

  2. The heme-heme oxygenase system in wound healing; implications for scar formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.A.D.T.G.; Scharstuhl, A.; Tyrrell, R.M.; Hoff, J.W. von den; Jozkowicz, A.; Dulak, J.; Russel, F.G.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing is an intricate process requiring the concerted action of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Here, we review the literature on normal wound healing and the pathological forms of wound healing, such as hypertrophic or excessive scar formation, with special e

  3. Effects of Shrimp Blood on the Hypertrophic Scar in Rabbit Ears%虾血对兔耳瘢痕模型的防治作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹纯; 陈嵘祎; 李明勇; 朱小敏; 梁志鹏; 陈卯仲; 黄河孟

    2013-01-01

    为探讨虾血对抑制兔耳瘢痕增生的影响,以成年新西兰大耳白兔建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型,将增生性瘢痕块分为对照组(A组)、虾血治疗组1(B组)和虾血治疗组2(C组),以不同组瘢痕组织石蜡包埋HE染色,观察虾血治疗对瘢痕组织中成纤维细胞、胶原纤维的影响。结果表明:肉眼观察虾血治疗组的瘢痕较空白对照组有改善;光镜下见虾血治疗组成纤维细胞减少,胶原纤维含量降低且排列较规则有序,差异具有显著性(p<0.001);虾血治疗组2微血管均数较少,抑制疤痕增生效应最好(p<0.01);虾血可能具有抑制兔耳增生瘢痕的形成及瘢痕组织增生的作用。%To investigate the effects of shrimp blood on the hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears, New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish the models of hypertrophic scar in rabbits ears. After epithelialization, the models of hypertrophic scar were divided into the control group received no special treatment (group A), shrimp blood-treated group one (group B) and the shrimp blood-treated group two (group C). The fibroblast and collagen fibers were observed, after HE staining. Results showed thatthe hypertrophic scars in the shrimp blood-treated group are different compared with the control group under macroscopic observation. The fibroblasts and collagen fibers were decreased and in the shrimp blood-treated group under light microscope. Shrimp blood may have an inhibition effect on hyperplastic scar formation and scar tissue hyperplasia in rabbit ears model.

  4. Preparation and characterization of different sizes of ethosomes encapsulated with 5-fluorouracil and its experimental study of permeability in hypertrophic scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaohui; Wo, Yan; He, Rong; Qian, Yunliang; Zhang, Yixin; Cui, Daxiang

    2010-07-01

    With the aim of investigating scar penetration efficiency of different sizes of ethosomes encapsulated with Fluorouracil, three kinds of ethosomes with different sizes were prepared by extruding the vesicles through polycarbonate membrane filters, their encapsulation efficiency of Fluorouracil (5-FU) were investigated by dialysis method, their scar-penetration efficiencies were analyzed by filling Rodanmin 6GO into ethosomes and using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The prepared ethosomes were 216 +/- 19 nm, 107 +/- 13 nm, and 65 +/- 10 nm in diameter respectively, and exhibited good dispersibility. Their encapsulation efficiency of 5-FU were 12%, 34%, and 41%, respectively. The results indicated that the 5-FU penetration was reversely related to the size of the size of the ethosomes. The ethosomes of 65 nm in diameter exhibited maximal fluorescence penetration efficiency which could reach the deep layer of dermis of hypertrophic scar. In conclusion, three different sizes of 5-FU ethosomes were prepared successfully, the ethosomes of 65 nm in diameter with 5-FU can penetrate scar high efficiently, which has potential in application such as anti-scar drug carriers in scar therapy in near future.

  5. 非编码RNA与增生性瘢痕的研究进展%Research progress of non-coding RNA in hypertrophic scar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 李倩; 高艳丽; 周蓓(综述); 李景云(审校)

    2015-01-01

    增生性瘢痕不仅影响美观,特殊部位的瘢痕还会影响患者的生活质量,给他们带来生理和心理的双重压力。目前,其治疗手段从单纯的手术治疗逐渐转向联合治疗以及基因治疗。近年来,非编码RNA的研究如火如荼,其在增生性瘢痕中的作用亦逐渐被重视,研究非编码RNA有可能为增生性瘢痕的治疗提供新的思路和方向。%Hypertrophic scar is a great challenge for the burn and plastic surgery,as it not only affects the appearance,but also affects the quality of life of patients,and brings them physical and psychological pressure.Nowadays there are surgical resection,pressure treatment,local corticosteroid injection and other methods to treat the scar.Combination therapy and gene therapy obtained much more attention.In recent years,studies of non-encoding RNA grow vigorously.The role of non-encoding RNA in hypertrophic scar has attached much more importance.Thus non-coding RNA has the potential to explore hypertrophic scar pathogenesis and resistance mechanisms to provide new ideasand direction.

  6. 兔耳增生性瘢痕的形态学观察与羟脯氨酸含量变化%Morphological observation and changes of hydroxyproline content in hypertrophic scar of rabbits ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒彬; 郝林林; 吴宗耀; 黄显凯; 沈岳; 袁纯; 唐其敏

    2002-01-01

    Objective To establish animal model for hypertreophic scar and study the characteristics of its morphology and collagen metabolism.Methods A total of 64 wounds(diameter of 6 mm each ) with total skin loss were made on the ventral side of rabbit ear using a trephine. Morphology and collagen metabolism of scar wound were studied at 14,21,35,70 and 98 days after operation,respectively.Results There were 76% elevated scars developed (45/59 wounds) on the ventral side of rabbit ear on 21st and 35 days.The number of fibroblast decreased,but irregular-arranged fibers still presented in the elevated scars at 70 and 98 days after operation. Hydroxyproline content in elevated scars at 21 days was higher than that in normal skin(P< 0.05),and at 35 days was 3 times as that in normal skin and at 98 days was also markedly higher than that in normal skin(P< 0.05).Conclusion Excessive deposition of collagen is a characteristic of hypertrophic scar in rabbits. The conversion of normal scarring to hypertrophic scarring in rabbits occurs at 14~ 21 days after operation. Both development and regression of hypertrophic scar in rabbit are quicker than that in human.

  7. An improved animal model of hypertrophic scarring%一种改进型增生性瘢痕动物模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓伟; 刘宏亮; 武继祥

    2009-01-01

    目的 对传统的增生性瘢痕动物模型进行改进,为增生性瘢痕发病机制的研究建立更实用的动物模型.方法 将20只裸鼠随机分成观察组和对照组,每组10只.观察组裸鼠背部皮下移植人全厚皮肤,皮片存活后用加热的铜柱造成深Ⅱ度烧伤;对照组裸鼠如同观察组移植人全厚皮片,但未予热烧伤,观察皮片存活、创面愈合与瘢痕增生情况.结果 观察组裸鼠存活9只,移植存活皮片与正常成人皮肤相比,无明显差异;烧伤后有8只可见明显、持续的瘢痕增生,其外观和组织学特点与人体增生性瘢痕相似,组织学观察可见丰富胶原纤维和炎症浸润.对照组存活8只,皮片干痂脱落后,有6只出现类似瘢痕样增生.结论 与以往模型相比,改进后模型的组织来源更可靠,皮片存活率及瘢痕复制率更高,建立周期更短,且瘢痕增生明显,可用于观察创面愈合至瘢痕形成的全过程,因此是一种较理想的研究增生性瘢痕的动物模型.%Objective To improve the animal model of hypertrophic scars for studying their pathology. Methods Twenty nude mice were divided randomly into two groups of 10. In group one every mouse received a full thickness piece of human skin grafted into the subcutaneous tissue of their hack. After the graft had survived 14d after transplantation, a burn was caused on the graft with a heated copper cylinder. The mice in the second group received the transplant but no burn. The status of the grafts and scars was observed, and histological examinations of the grafts were performed. Results Nine mice in group one survived, of which eight developed obvious and persistent hyper-trophic scars after the burns. These were hard and rose above the surrounding skin. Eight nude mice survived in group two, of which only six developed hypertrophic sear analogues after transplantation. Histological examinations showed abundant collagen deposition and inflammatory infiltration

  8. 纳米级5-FU变形脂质体的体外透瘢痕试验%Experimental Study of Transfersomes in Hypertrophic Scar Penetration in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振; 沃雁; 章一新; 毛小慧; 钱云良; 王丹茹; 贺蓉; 崔大祥

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar has its special tissue structures. Drug penetration in the local is the key role of topical effect. The purpose of this study is to characterize a novel transdermal delivery carrier: transfer-somes containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to investigate the delivery of drugs from transfersomes in human hypertrophic scar in vitro. Cumulative 5-FU that permeated hypertrophic scar and skin after 24 h is: transfersomes via hypertrophic scar (T-Scar) > 5-FU solution via hypertrophic scar (C-Scar) > transfersomes via skin (T-Skin) > 5-FU solution via skin (C-Skin). The depositions of 5-FU and intensities of fluorescence after application for 24 hours are: T-scar> T-skin> Oscar> C-skin. Conclusively, the delivery ability of transfersomes is most efficient in human hypertrophic scar. The test results indicate thattransfersome is a high efficient carrier in hypertrophic scar.%为了研究变形脂质体在增生性瘢痕中的渗透作用,制备载抗瘢痕药物5-氟尿嘧啶(5-FU)的纳米级变形脂质体,用荧光剂罗丹明6GO标记,进行体外透皮、透瘢痕试验,通过高效液相色谱分析检测不同作用时间后皮肤和增生性瘢痕的累积药物透过量以及24 h后皮肤和瘢痕组织内的药物滞留量,并采用激光共聚焦显微镜分析荧光强度.各组24 h药物累积透过量由大至小的排序为:5-FU变形脂质体透瘢痕组(T-scar)、5-FU水溶液透瘢痕组(C-scar)、5-FU变形脂质体透皮肤组(T-skin)、5-FU水溶液透皮肤组(C-skin);24 h后皮肤和瘢痕组织内的药物滞留量以及荧光强度由大至小的排序为:T-scar、T-skin、C-scar、C-skin.结果表明:变形脂质体在增生性瘢痕中的渗透能力最强,对于增生性瘢痕来说,变形脂质体是一种高效的载药渗透材料.

  9. The role of the epidermis in the control of scarring: evidence for mechanism of action for silicone gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandara, Andrea A; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2008-10-01

    Hypertrophic scars can be reduced by the application of silicone dressing; however, the detailed mechanism of silicone action is still unknown. It is known that silicone gel sheets cause a hydration of the epidermal layer of the skin. An in vitro co-culture experiment has shown that hydration of keratinocytes has a suppressive effect on the metabolism of the underlying fibroblasts resulting in reduced collagen deposition. We tested the hypothesis that silicone sheeting in vivo has a beneficial effect on scarring by reducing keratinocyte stimulation, with a resulting decrease in dermal thickness, hence scar hypertrophy. Silicone adhesive gel sheets were applied to scars in our rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scarring 14 days postwounding for a total of 16 days. Scarring was measured in this model by the scar elevation index (SEI), a ratio of the area of newly formed dermis to the area of the dermis of unwounded skin, and the epidermal thickness index (ETI), a ratio of the averaged epidermal height of the scar to the epidermal thickness of normal epidermis. Specific staining [anti-PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and Masson trichrome] was performed to reveal differences in scar morphology. SEIs were significantly reduced after silicone gel sheet application versus untreated scars corresponding to a 70% reduction in scar hypertrophy. Total occlusion reduced scar hypertrophy by 80% compared to semi-occlusion. ETIs of untreated scars were increased by more than 100% compared to uninjured skin. Silicone gel treatment significantly reduced epidermal thickness by more than 30%. Our findings demonstrate that 2 weeks of silicone gel application at a very early onset of scarring reduces dermal and epidermal thickness which appears to be due to a reduction in keratinocyte stimulation. Oxygen can be ruled out as a mechanism of action of silicone occlusive treatment. Hydration of the keratinocytes seems to be the key stimulus.

  10. Primary observation of therapeutic effect of collagenase on hypertrophic scar%肥厚性瘢痕胶原酶治疗效果的初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武继祥; 刘青山; 周贤丽; 汪琴; 刘宏亮; 吴宗耀

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic scar results from imbalance between local collagen synthesis and degradation and abnormal aggregation of collagen after burn and trauma.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of collagenase on collagen degradation in nude mice with graft of hypertrophic scar and its therapeutic effects on hyertrophic scar.DESIGN: Controlled experiment was designed.SETTING: Department of Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy,Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA MATERIALS: The experiment was performed in Experimental Center of the Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from July 1995 to April 1997, in which, 10 specimens of hypertrophic scar were employed, collected from the removed hypertrophic scars in Department of Plastic Surgery.All of patients were in the known before the operation. Experimental animals were 15 BACB/C nude mice, of which, 8 mice were male and 7 mice female.Totally 15 mice were grafted with hypertrophic scar tissue, 10 mice of which were survived after once graft; with second graft in the rest mice, 2 mice were survived and 3 mice were dead. The survival nude mice were randomized into experimental group and the control, 6 mice in each one.METHODS: The removed hypertrophic scars in plastic operation were grafted in the wound on the dorsum of nude mice to establish graft model of hypertrophic scar. In experimental group, 1% collagenase was injected locally in scar tissue; in the control group, collagease solvent was injected locally, once a week, for 4 weeks totally. After treatment, the materials were collected for macrogcopic observation and observation and analysis with optic and electronic microscopes.scar tissue before and after treatment.RESULTS: Twelve nude mice were survived after scar graft and all of them entered result analysis, 6 mice of which were in experimental group was smaller in size, thinner in thickness and softer in quality compared staining, Van Gieson's collagenous fiber staining

  11. The expression and significance of PPAR-γ in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts%PPAR-γ在增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘姝; 李叶扬; 戴丽冰; 黄粤

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of peroxisome proliferator -activated receptor gamma(PPAR-γ) in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and normal skin fibroblasts. Methods The expression of PeAR -γ gamma were examined by immtmocytochemistry in 3 cases of hypertrophic scar and normal skin. Results Immunocytochemistry showed that PPAR -γ was expressed in both hypertrophic scar and normal skin fibroblasts. The level of PeAR -γ protein in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts significantly decreased. Conclusion The expression of PeAR -γ is lower in human hy-pertrophic scar fibroblasts than that in normal skin fibroblasts. Activating PPAR -γ may be a novel approach for the treat-ment of hypertrophic scar.%目的 探讨核转录因子过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体-γ(PPAR-γ)在增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞中的表达状况及其意义.方法 应用免疫细胞化学检测3例增生性瘢痕和正常皮肤成纤维细胞中PPAR-γ的表达.结果 免疫细胞化学显示PPAR-γ蛋白在增生性瘢痕和正常皮肤成纤维细胞中均有表达,但是在增生性瘢痕中表达较正常皮肤低.结论 核内受体PPAR-γ在增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞中呈下调表达,提示激活PPAR-γ可能是增生性瘢痕治疗的一种新方法.

  12. Effect of intense pulsed light in hypertrophic scars in rabbit ear%强脉冲光治疗兔耳增生性瘢痕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李石峰; 谭军; 李高峰; 黄泽春

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect and mechanisms of intense pulsed light (IPL) in treating hypertrophic scars on rabbit ear.Methods Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were incruited in this study.Two hypertrophic scar models were made in the ventral surface of the rabbit ears with two lesions on each ear.The rabbits were divided randomly into two groups:the treatment group and the control group.Rabbits in the treatment groups were treated by IPL at the 3rd,5th,7th week after operation.Rabbits in the control groups were untreated.Morphological appearances of the hypertrophic scar were observed,and biopsies of scar were taken for HE stain and immunohistochemistry for the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF),proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and α-SMA,microvessel density was calculated by the expression of α-SMA at the 3rd,5th,7th,9th week after operation.At the 9th week after the operation,the ventral surface skin from two normally-fed rabbits were collected to undergo the same examination above.Results Comparing with the control group,the height of scars was reduced significantly in the IPL treatment group.The scars becaming soften and completely flat needed less time in the IPL treatment group.Comparing with the control group,the level of α-SMA,MVD,VEGF and PCNA expression in the treatment group obviously decreased over the same period (P<0.05).Conclusions IPL is of great therapeutic effect on treating hypertrophic scar of rabbit ear.%目的 探讨强脉冲光(intense pulsed light,IPL)对兔耳增生性瘢痕的作用及机制.方法 选取新西兰大白兔30只,在每只兔耳腹侧面制作2个增生性瘢痕模型,随机分为治疗组和对照组.治疗组瘢痕在建立模型第3、5、7周采用IPL进行治疗,对照组不进行治疗.观察各组瘢痕形态变化,并且于建立模型第3、5、7周IPL治疗前及建立模型第9周采集各组瘢痕组织标本,苏木精-伊红(HE)染色,采用免疫组织化学方法检测

  13. Human melanocytes mitigate keratinocyte-dependent contraction in an in vitro collagen contraction assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakar, Jonathan; Krammer, Markus P; Kratz, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    Scarring is an extensive problem in burn care, and treatment can be especially complicated in cases of hypertrophic scarring. Contraction is an important factor in scarring but the contribution of different cell types remains unclear. We have investigated the contractile behavior of keratinocytes, melanocytes and fibroblasts by using an in vitro collagen gel assay aimed at identifying a modulating role of melanocytes in keratinocyte-mediated contraction. Cells were seeded on a collagen type I gel substrate and the change in gel dimensions were measured over time. Hematoxylin & Eosin-staining and immunohistochemistry against pan-cytokeratin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor showed that melanocytes integrated between keratinocytes and remained there throughout the experiments. Keratinocyte- and fibroblast-seeded gels contracted significantly over time, whereas melanocyte-seeded gels did not. Co-culture assays showed that melanocytes mitigate the keratinocyte-dependent contraction (significantly slower and 18-32% less). Fibroblasts augmented the contraction in most assays (approximately 6% more). Non-contact co-cultures showed some influence on the keratinocyte-dependent contraction. Results show that mechanisms attributable to melanocytes, but not fibroblasts, can mitigate keratinocyte contractile behavior. Contact-dependent mechanisms are stronger modulators than non-contact dependent mechanisms, but both modes carry significance to the contraction modulation of keratinocytes. Further investigations are required to determine the mechanisms involved and to determine the utility of melanocytes beyond hypopigmentation in improved clinical regimes of burn wounds and wound healing.

  14. Pressure therapy in the treatment of post-burn hypertrophic scar--a critical look into its usefulness and fallacies by pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J C; Evans, J H; Leung, K S; Clark, J A; Choy, T T; Leung, P C

    1984-02-01

    Pressure therapy is generally accepted as the best noninvasive means of preventing and controlling hypertrophic scarring after burn injury. Most studies in the past have failed to correlate clinical response with magnitude of the garment-scar interface pressure. This study looked critically at our usual techniques of pressure therapy using pressure 'sensors' manufactured locally and based on electro-pneumatic principles. Many pitfalls, such as large variations of pressure at different geometric sites on the body, elastic deterioration in garments, problems of garment manufacture, and the unfavourable properties of the Lycra garments, were observed. Recommendations on pressure treatment were made based on our experiences, to improve the present technique of pressure therapy. These included the standardization of measurement techniques and garment tailoring, the regular checking of pressure at the garment-scar interface using pressure transducers, the appropriate garment adjustments, a strict regimen for garment wearing, and the intelligent use of pressure-padding and reinforcement. Areas of further research are also discussed.

  15. Race and Melanocortin 1 Receptor Polymorphism R163Q Are Associated with Post-Burn Hypertrophic Scarring: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ravi F; Hocking, Anne M; Muffley, Lara A; Ga, Maricar; Honari, Shari; Reiner, Alexander P; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Gibran, Nicole S

    2015-10-01

    The genetic determinants of post-burn hypertrophic scarring (HTS) are unknown, and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) loss-of-function leads to fibrogenesis in experimental models. To examine the associations between self-identified race and MC1R single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with severity of post-burn HTS, we conducted a prospective cohort study of burned adults admitted to our institution over 7 years. Subjects were evaluated using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), asked to rate their itching, and genotyped for 8 MC1R SNPs. Testing for association with severe HTS (VSS>7) and itch severity (0-10) was based on multivariate regression with adjustment for known risk factors. Of 425 subjects analyzed, 77% identified as White. The prevalence of severe HTS (VSS>7) was 49%, and the mean itch score was 3.9. In multivariate analysis, Asian (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.54; 95% CI: 1.13-2.10), Black/African American (PR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.42-2.45), and Native American (PR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.48-2.35) race were independently associated with severe HTS. MC1R SNP R163Q was also significantly (P<0.001) associated with severe HTS. Asian race (linear regression coefficient 1.32; 95% CI: 0.23-2.40) but not MC1R SNP genotype was associated with increased itch score. We conclude that MC1R genotype may influence post-burn scarring.

  16. Trifluoperazine decreases scar thickness in a rabbit model of hypertrophic scar ear%三氟拉嗪干预兔耳增生性瘢痕模型:降低瘢痕厚度的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关键; 王冶

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Conventional treatments for hypertrophic scars include excision, steroid hormones, anti-metabolite drugs, immunosuppressive agents and radiation therapy. Easy to relapse or serious reaction limits their clinical use. In recent years, application of calcium channel blockers in treatment of hypertrophic scars has made more good progresses, but little adverse reactions are obtained. OBJECTIVE:To explore the effects of calcium channel blocker trifluoperazine on hypertrophic scar of rabbit ears. METHODS:A total of 24 rabbits were enrol ed in this study. After 1 week of accommodation, models of rabbit ear scar were established in accordance with the method of Morris and Li et al. Rabbit models were randomly assigned to three group (n=8). At 30 days after model induction, when scar formed, trifluoperazine and triamcinolone acetonide groups received trifluoperazine and triamcinolone acetonide injection. Blank control group was left intact. Changes in hyperplastic scar, hypertrophic index, levels of matrix metal oproteinase-2, tissue inhibitor of metal oproteinase-2, transforming growth factorβ1,α-smooth muscle actin and proliferating cellnuclear antigen were compared and observed in each group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:At 10 and 20 days after treatment, in the three groups, skin bulge was visible in rabbit ears and no rabbit hair grew. Rabbit ears had obvious softening in the trifluoperazine group compared with the triamcinolone acetonide group, showing dark red. In the blank control group, rabbit ear scar was evident and showed red color. At 20 days after treatment, scar thickness and scar index were lower in the trifluoperazine and triamcinolone acetonide groups than in the blank control group. Matrix metal oproteinase 2 expression was significantly higher, but tissue inhibitor of metal oproteinase-2 and transforming growth factorβ1 levels were lower in the trifluoperazine and triamcinolone acetonide groups than in the blank control group. Results indicated

  17. 增生性瘢痕水泡液β转化生长因子的变化及意义%TGF-β change in blister fluid of hypertrophic scar and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢有富; 陈辉; 黎庆梅; 梁达荣

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate of the tissue TGF-β changes at early stage of hypertrophic scar formation and the value of scar blisters in hypertrophic scar.Methods The TGF-β1 content in the blister fluid and the blood were quantified with ELISA,patients(n=15)with hypertrophy scar after depth burn were included,three time point(each n=5)on early stage(0.01),the TGF-β1 in the blister of normal skin was also not elevated(P>0.01),but TGF-β1 level in the scarblisters hypertrophic scar was elevated significantly[90 d,(534.4±125.9)pg/L,P0.01);增生性瘢痕水泡液TGF-β1含量显著高于其血液和正常皮肤水泡液(P均<0.01),而且瘢痕增生早期(1~3个月)组织TGF-β1逐渐升高(P<0.01).结论 瘢痕形成早期组织TGF-β含量增高可能是瘢痕增生的重要因素;瘢痕水泡液可作为研究增生性瘢痕的新途径.

  18. 褪黑素与增生性瘢痕的研究进展%Study Progress of Melatonin and Hypertrophic Scarring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜高伟

    2012-01-01

    褪黑素是一种神经内分泌激素,具有多种生理功能,参与调节昼夜节律,有镇静、抗氧化应激、抗肿瘤、增强免疫等作用.皮肤是褪黑素作用的靶器官,皮肤组织可分泌代谢褪黑素和表达褪黑素受体,在维护皮肤结构和功能中发挥重要作用.褪黑素及受体参与皮肤创面愈合过程,影响创面的愈合速度和质量.增生性瘢痕是皮肤创面愈合的病理性产物.因此,皮肤褪黑素系统与增生性瘢痕形成有关.%Melatonin,as a neurohormone,displays many physiological functions including regulating day and night rhythms,sedating,antioxidant,anti-tumor and strengthening immunity. The skin,as a targeted organ of circulation melatonin,can secrete melatonin and express melatonin receptor,which plays an important role in preserving the skin structure and physiological function. The number of studies indicated that the melatonin and its receptor participate in modulating the process of the wound healing and increase the speed and quality of wound healing. The hypertrophic scar is an aberrant wound healing. The skin melatonin system is one of hypertrophic scarring factors.

  19. Hypertrophic Scar Formation on Application of Terpenoid Fraction of Tuberous Root of Mirabilis jalapa L. on Excision Wound Model in Wistar Albino Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Chattopadhayay, Pronobesh; Kumar Rai, Ashok; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydromethanolic extract of tuberous root of M. jalapa and its terpenoid and flavonoid fractions on cutaneous wound healing in Wistar Albino rats. The hydromethanolic extract was subfractionated by sequential extraction in solvents (moderately nonpolar to polar). The extract and its (terpenoid and flavonoid) fractions were used for cutaneous wound healing studies by using excision wound model on rat. Their effects on wound contraction rate, biochemical and histological changes, and expression of growth factors such as collagen 3A, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were investigated. The results indicated that flavonoid treated group showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in antioxidant enzyme level as compared to control in wound healing process, whereas terpenoid fraction showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in expression of growth factor levels but regeneration and remodeling stages were delayed due to formation of thicker ulcus layer and also there were no hair follicle-like blood capillaries formation which ultimately may lead to formation of hypertrophic scar of wound. Therefore, from this study, it can be concluded that terpenoid fraction prolongs proliferation phase and hence may have tendency to convert the wound into hypertrophic wound. PMID:27379322

  20. 增生性瘢痕和瘢痕疙瘩中PTK活性测定%Activity of protein tyrosine kinase in hypertrophic scar and keloid tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳大烈; 张选奋; 鲁开化; 李荟元; 张阳

    2001-01-01

    目的测定增生性瘢痕和瘢痕疙瘩组织中PTK 活性变化,探讨PTK在瘢痕形成中的作用。方法利用活化的PTK催化底物多肽磷酸化,再计数底物中掺入32P的放射活性的原理,测定增生性瘢痕、瘢痕疙瘩、成熟瘢痕和正常皮肤组织中PTK活性。结果增生性瘢痕和瘢痕疙瘩组织中PTK 的活性显著高于正常成熟瘢痕和正常皮肤(P<0.001,分别高出正常皮肤150.80 %和313 .80 %),瘢痕疙瘩高于增生性瘢痕(P<0.001,高出65.01 %)而成熟瘢痕和正常皮肤间没有差异(P>0.05)。结论瘢痕组织中PTK活性升高且与增生程度相关,PTK介导生长刺激的信号转导使细胞增殖和合成物质的功能增强而发生瘢痕增生。%Objective To monitor the activity of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) in hypertrophic scar (HS) and keloid (K) tissue and to study effects of PTK on scar formation. Methods The principle of activated- PTK to transfer phosphorus (32p) into substrate was used to calculate activity of PTK by detecting radioa ctivity of substrate with scintillation counter. Six cases of HS and K were measured. Mature scar (MS) and normal skin (NS) were used as control.Results  Activity of PTK in HS and K was obviously elevated to compare with ones in MS and NS (P<0.001); one of K was more higher. When proliferation of scar tissue deceased activity of PTK reduced consistently. The difference between MS and NS is also significant (P<0.001).Conclusion Activi ty of PTK in scar tissue was elevated and increasing degree of PTK might be related to proliferate level of scar.

  1. 增生性瘢痕和瘢痕疙瘩中PKC活性测定%Activity of protein kinase C in hypertrophic scar and keloid tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张选奋; 鲁开化; 李荟元; 季少平

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the activity of protein kinase C(PKC) in hypertrophic scar(HS) and keloid(K) tissue and to study the effects of PKC on scar formation. Methods The principle of activated-PKC to transfer phosphorus (32P) into substrate was used to calculate activity of PKC by detecting radioactivity of substrate with scintillation counter. Six cases of HS and K were studied. Mature scar (MS) and normal skin (NS) were used as control. Results Activity of PKC in HS and K was obviously elevated as compared with that in MS and NS (P<0.001): and in keloid its activity was higher than in prolifenative scar. The difference between MS and NS was insignificant (P>0.05). Conclusion Activity of PKC in scar tissue is elevated and increasing degree of PKC may be related to proliferative level of scar.%目的 测定增生性瘢痕和瘢痕疙瘩等瘢痕组织中PKC活性变化,探讨PKC在瘢痕形成中的作用。方法 利用PKC活化后催化底物多肽磷酸化,然后计数底物中掺入32P的放射活性的原理,测定增生性瘢痕、瘢痕疙瘩、成熟瘢痕和正常皮肤组织中PKC活性。结果 增生性瘢痕和瘢痕疙瘩组织中PKC的活性显著高于成熟瘢痕和正常皮肤(P<0.001,分别高出正常皮肤318.30%和519.07%),瘢痕疙瘩高于增生性瘢痕(P<0.001,高出48.60%)而成熟瘢痕和正常皮肤间没有差异(P>0.05)。结论 瘢痕组织中PKC活性升高且与增生程度相关,提示PKC可能参与了细胞增殖和合成物质的信号转导。

  2. 细菌纤维素减轻兔耳增生性瘢痕的作用%Effects of bacterial cellulose on reducing hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱竣; 柳大烈; 张阳; 王晋煌; 奚廷斐; 张志雄; 赖琛; 钟春燕; 盛高铭

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial cellulose (BC) as a kind of new biological materials for the wound healing before scarring has been reported in the world, but the efficacy of bacterial cellulose used in hypertrophic scar after wound healing remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of BC on reducing rabbit ear hypertrophic scar.METHODS: Hypertrophic scar model were established in rabbit ears. At 21 days postoperative wound epithelization was observed, five different scars of each rabbit ear which were given different treatments were randomly divided into five groups:patching absorbent film (water holding capacity: 1:5, 1:6, 1:8) as the BC treated-groups, patching silicone scar film as a positive control group, without sticking any litter and natural growth of scar as a negative control group. At 0, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56 days of givening scar surface different treatments, the development process of hypertrophic scar was observed grossly and histologicallyRESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The scars tissue hyperplasia thickness of the BC treated groups was lower than that of negative control group, but higher than that of positive control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the negative control group, the dermal thickness in scars was thinner, number of fibroblasts was fewer, collagen fibers in scars were losser and more regular in the BC treated groups; compared with the positive control group, number of fibroblasts was slightly increased, collagen fibers in scars were slightly denser and irregular in the BC treated groups. The number of fibroblasts and the scars tissue thickness in the BC treated-group were compared, the BC (1: 5) treated-group > the BC (1: 6) treated-group > the BC (1: 8) treated-group (P < 0.05).It has been proved that BC effectively inhibits the rabbit ear hyperplastic scar after the wound healing. And the more water content the BC has, the better effect it appears in hypertrophic scar.%背景:国内外已有研究报道细菌纤维素对皮肤创伤

  3. 大功率氦氖激光治疗增生性瘢痕的实验研究%Research of irradiation of high-power He-Ne laser on hypertrophic scar in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒彬; 郝林林; 吴宗耀; 黄显凯; 袁纯; 唐其敏

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of high power He Ne laser irradiation on hypertrophic scar(HS) in rabbits by setting up hypertrophic scar animal model.Methods 32 round wounds(diameter of 6 mm) and skin layer loss were made on ventral side of rabbits' ears using a trephine.21 days after the operation,10 projecting scars were irradiated with He Ne laser for 30 minutes every other day,for two weeks.Another 10 projecting scars were as control group.35 days later,cell apoptosis rate and PCNA protein expression of the scar histology were measured by TUNEL technique and immunohistochemistry method,respectively.Results In He Ne laser group,scars became much thinner than those in control group(P< 0.05).Cell apoptosis rate increased greatly while PCNA protein expression decreased a lot.There were significant difference between the two groups(both P < 0.05).Conclusion It shows that high power He Ne laser could inhibit the growth of HS in rabbits by inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation probable.

  4. Recombinant nAG (a Salamander-Derived Protein Decreases the Formation of Hypertrophic Scarring in the Rabbit Ear Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Al-Qattan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available nAG (newt-Anterrior Gradient protein is the key mediator of regrowth of amputated limbs in salamanders. In a previous work in our lab, a new nAG gene (suitable for humans was designed and cloned. The cloned vector was transfected into primary human fibroblasts. The expression of nAG in human primary fibroblasts was found to suppress collagen expression. The current study shows that local injection of recombinant nAG reduces scar hypertrophy in the rabbit ear model. This is associated with lower scar elevation index (SEI, lower levels of collagen I & III, higher levels of MMP1, and a higher degree of scar maturation in experimental wounds compared to controls.

  5. 蛇床子素诱导人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞凋亡及其机制研究%Study of the apoptosis induction and mechanism of osthole on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓华; 陈虹; 曹波; 王毅铮

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究蛇床子素在体外实验中诱导人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞凋亡及其机制.方法 体外原代培养人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞,以不同浓度的蛇床子素作用于FB,应用MTT法检测蛇床子素对细胞增殖活性的影响.Hoechst 33342荧光染色后,荧光显微镜下观察细胞核的变化.以DNA ladder和流式细胞仪进行凋亡检测.采用RT-PCR法检测蛇床子素对FB相关凋亡基因Bcl-2和Bax的mRNA表达的影响.结果 在蛇床子素作用下,人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的生长受到抑制,MTT法检测的IC50为(15.5±2.2)μmol/L.荧光显微镜观察到了凋亡小体;DNA ladder法检测到细胞凋亡时DNA降解形成的梯带,流式细胞仪观察到细胞周期的变化.蛇床子素作用于成纤维细胞后可上调促凋亡基因Bax的表达,同时下调抑凋亡基因Bcl-2的表达.结论 蛇床子素对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞有很强的生长抑制作用并可以诱导其凋亡,其作用机制可能与影响Bcl-2、Bax等凋亡调控基因的表达有关.%Objective To study the apoptosis induction and mechanism of osthole on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Methods Hypertrophic scar fibroblasts cells were treated by osthole at different concentration in vitro. The growth inhihitory effects were observed by MTT assay. The characteristic of apoptosis was detected under the fluorescent microscopes by the staining of Hoechst 33342, also by DNA gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry. RT-PCR investigated the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA, Bax mRNA in hypertrophic scar fibrohlasts exposed to osthole. Results Osthole induced apoptosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and inhibited cell proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. MTT assay showed that its IC50 value toward hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was ( 15. 5 ±2. 2 ) μmol/L. Inducing apoptosis by Osthole in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was assessed by various morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell shrinkage

  6. Progress in Research of Laser’ s Effect on Collagen Types of Hypertrophic Scar%激光对增生性瘢痕胶原类型的影响与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斐; 谭军

    2014-01-01

    将近年来各种类型激光治疗对增生性瘢痕中Ⅰ型及Ⅲ型胶原表达与比例变化的影响及研究进展进行较为系统的分析、总结和归纳,为临床上选择有效的增生性瘢痕的治疗方案提供参考。%Systematic analysis, summary and conclusion was done in terms of the influences of various laser thera-pies on expression and ratio of collagen type Ⅰ and Ⅲ in hypertrophic scar as well as related research progress, providing reference for selecting effective therapeutic regimen of hypertrophic scars in clinic.

  7. Research progress of effects of botulinum toxin type A on hypertrophic scar%A 型肉毒毒素对增生性瘢痕影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓娟; 周国富; 向小燕; 张兰

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a hyper-proliferative disorder of the fibrous connective tissues,which protrudes above the skin surface.Patients with hypertrophic scars are clinically characterized with deformity, restricted range of motion,pain and pruritus.Although multiple treatments are currently available including surgical excision,steroid injection,radiation therapy,laser and pressure therapy,the most effective option re-mains to be explored.In recent years,many scholars have demonstrated that botulinum toxin type A can pre-vent and treat hypertrophic scar.This article reviewed the research progress on the relationship between botuli-num toxin type A and hypertrophic scar,and briefly summarized the correlation between botulinum toxin type A,cytokines and skin tension.%增生性瘢痕是纤维结缔组织过度增生性疾病,突出于皮肤表面,临床表现为畸形、功能障碍、疼痛和瘙痒等,治疗方法有手术、激素、放射治疗、激光及压力疗法等,目前尚无有效的方法。近年陆续有不同学者研究发现 A 型肉毒毒素能够预防和治疗增生性瘢痕,该文通过综述近年来 A 型肉毒毒素与增生性瘢痕关系的研究进展,简要总结 A 型肉毒毒素与细胞因子、皮肤张力之间的关系。

  8. Shengjiyuhong ointment inhibits hypertrophic scar formation%生肌玉红膏对增生性瘢痕的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂芳; 张晓芬; 李红昌; 潘丽芸; 陈亚峰; 徐可; 奉典旭

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Shengjiyuhong ointment has been reported to inhibit hypertrophic scarring. OBJECTIVE:To verify the effects of Shengjiyuhong ointment on hypertrophic scarring of in a rabbit ear model. METHODS:Each ear of thirty-six Japanese rabbits was used to make four 1-cm-diameter circular ful-thickness skin wounds with the entire perichondrium removed. Final y, 288 wounds were made and randomly divided into 6 groups:model, negative control (no drugs were administered), low-, moderate-, high-crude herbal dose drugs (Shengjiyuhong ointment was administered topical y at concentrations of 8.39%, 25.18%, and 75.54%), and positive control (recombinant bovine basic fibroblast growth factor was administered topical y). Shengjiyuhong ointment was administered twice daily til wound healing. The wounds were evaluated by the Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Scar elevation index (SEI) of scar specimens was calculated under a microscope at 40× magnification. mRNA expression levels of type I and III col agen, connective tissue growth factor, fibronectin, andα-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were determined by fluorescent quantitative PCR. Protein expression levels of type I and III col agen andα-SMA were detected by western blot assay.α-SMA immunoreactivity was determined by immunofluorescent staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:VSS scores and SEI were significantly increased in each group at 30 days (P<0.05). VSS scores and SEI were significantly decreased in the moderate-and high-crude herbal dose drug groups and positive control groups compared with the model, negative control, and low-crude herbal dose drug groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). mRNA expression levels of type I and III col agen, connective tissue growth factor and fibronectin, and protein expression levels of type I and III col agen andα-SMA were significantly inhibited after moderate-crude herbal dose Shengjiyuhong ointment and positive drug treatment (P<0.01). These findings suggest that Shengjiyuhong ointment can reduce

  9. 维甲酸对增生性瘢痕动物模型生物性状的影响%Effects of retinoic acid on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋强; 雍海溟

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察维甲酸对增生性瘢痕动物模型生物性状的影响。方法:建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型,用不同浓度的维甲酸作用于动物模型,检测MTT值,观察其形态学,组织学及Ⅰ型胶原含量的改变,利用半定量RT-PCR分析用药前后cyclinD1的mRNA表达的变化。结果:维甲酸能抑制瘢痕中成纤维细胞的增殖,使动物模型瘢痕体积缩小,组织结构向普通瘢痕转化,降低瘢痕中Ⅰ型胶原含量及cyclinD1的mRNA表达。结论:维甲酸可以抑制成纤维细胞增殖及降解增生性瘢痕的Ⅰ型胶原含量,对增生性瘢痕有一定的治疗作用。%Objective To investigate the effects of retinoic acid on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears. Methods After treated with the models of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears on different concentration of retinoic acid,the morphology,histology,and type Ⅰ collagen content of the scar tissues were examined afer the administration.meanwhile,inhibition rate and mRNA expression of cyclinD1,were detected by MTT assayand semi-quantitative RT-PCR respectively. Results Retinoic acid can significantly inhibit the fibroblasts from keloid,reduce the volume of the impanted pathological scars in the animal models,and histologically,the scar tissue exhibited a transition to the normal scar architecture with decreased type I collagen content and the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA. Conclusion Retinoic acid can inhibite the proliferation of fibroblast and degrade the content of type I collagen of hypertrophic.these results suggested that retinoic acid may has therapeutical effect on hypertrophic scar.

  10. Myocardial scarring on cardiovascular magnetic resonance in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients with “pure” apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung-Hee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables state-of-the-art in vivo evaluations of myocardial fibrosis. Although LGE patterns have been well described in asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, conflicting results have been reported regarding the characteristics of LGE in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (ApHCM. This study was undertaken to determine 1 the frequency and distribution of LGE and 2 its prognostic implication in ApHCM. Methods Forty patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic pure ApHCM (age, 60.2 ± 10.4 years, 31 men were prospectively enrolled. LGE images were acquired using the inversion recovery segmented spoiled-gradient echo and phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequence, and analyzed using a 17-segment model. Summing the planimetered LGE areas in all short axis slices yielded the total volume of late enhancement, which was subsequently presented as a proportion of total LV myocardium (% LGE. Results Mean maximal apical wall thickness was 17.9±2.3mm, and mean left ventricular (LV ejection fraction was 67.7 ± 8.0%. All but one patient presented with electrocardiographic negative T wave inversion in anterolateral leads, with a mean maximum negative T wave of 7.2 ± 4.7mm. Nine patients (22.5% had giant negative T waves, defined as the amplitude of ≥10mm, in electrocardiogram. LGE was detected in 130 segments of 30 patients (75.0%, occupying 4.9 ± 5.5% of LV myocardium. LGE was mainly detected at the junction between left and right ventricles in 12 (30% and at the apex in 28 (70%, although LGE-positive areas were widely distributed, and not limited to the apex. Focal LGE at the non-hypertrophic LV segments was found in some ApHCM patients, even without LGE of hypertrophied apical segments. Over the 2-year follow-up, there was no one achieving the study end-point, defined as all-cause death, sudden cardiac death and hospitalization for heart failure

  11. 烧伤后增生性瘢痕压力治疗及相关研究%Pressure therapy of hypertrophic scar after burns and related research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李曾慧平; 冯蓓蓓; 李奎成

    2010-01-01

    regression analysis. (4) Study on application of SPMS. Thirty-six patients with hypertrophic scars once treated with the conventional garment were recruited and they were prescribed with the regime of wearing SPMS for one month. Feedback from all participants in rating conventional garment and SPMS was obtained using self-reported questionnaire. The interface pressure of pressure garment was measured using the Pliance X system. Data were processed with Wilcoxon Sign-Ranks test. Results ( 1 ) Scar thickness, color, and VSS score were significantly improved in pressure treatment group after twomonth of pressure intervention. VSS score of the scars in pressure treatment group was lower than that in control group two months after treatment. (2) The growth rate of scar fibroblasts under 5.6 mm Hg pressure was obviously lower than that under 0 mm Hg pressure 2 days after pressure loading ( mean deviation = 0. 086,P =0. 001 ). Growth rates of fibroblasts under 2.8 and 5.6 mm Hg pressure were obviously lower than that under 0 mm Hg pressure 3 days after pressure loading ( with mean deviation respectively 0. 060 and 0.118,P =0.003, P <0.001 ). (3) Scar thickness was significantly reduced upon pressure, and a negative relationship between scar thickness and pressure level was observed ( r = -0.96, P <0.01 ). (4) The results of SPMS study showed a reduction in both static pressure ( 19.5% ) and dynamic pressure ( 11.9% ) after one month of usage; while there was nearly 50.0% reduction in pressure in conventional garment. SPMS was rated significantly higher than conventional garment in terms of comfort, permeability and clinical efficacy ( P ≤0. 001 ). Conclusions Pressure therapy can effectively inhibit the growth of hypertrophic scar,while its exact mechanism needs further study for verification. SPMS is convenient to apply for patients. It takes less time to fabricate and adjust when compared to the conventional garment. Its clinical effect is positive and it may expand its

  12. Histology of collagen nodules from hypertrophic scars%增生性瘢痕中胶原结节的组织学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英开; 王西樵; 宋菲; 王志勇; 原博; 青春; 陆树良

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect the histological characteristics of collagen nodules from hypertrophic scars (HS) and investigate the origin of collagen nodules.Methods The scar tissues were collected from patients with plastic operation.Morphological characteristics of collagen nodules were observed by light microscopy of HE-stained sections; expressions of type Ⅰ /Ⅲ collagens were observed by polarized light microscopy of sirius red-stained sections; expression and distribution of myofibroblasts (MFb)-specific protein (α-smooth muscle actin,α-SMA) were observed by immunostaining in order to observe level of local tissue tension.Results Collagen nodules varied in shape,not only sphereshaped,and in size.Moreover,abundant fibroblasts (Fb) with large and light-stained nuclei were seen in the nodules compared to non-nodule area,indicating that the cells located in the modules were active.Some collagen nodules were composed largely of collagen type Ⅲ (green),but some mainly contained collagen type Ⅰ (red or yellow),indicating the difference in the time of nodule formation.α-SMA was expressed mainly in the deep dermis equivalent to the level of reticular layer of the new scar tissues (2 months after injury) ; α-SMA was expressed mainly in the nodules of the old scar tissues (2-10 years after injury),but almost not in non-nodule areas except for a strongly positive staining in the vessels.Moreover,α-SMA presented a heterogeneous distribution in the collagen nodules,with stronger expression in the epidermal end than in the subcutaneous tissue end and stronger expression in the superficial dermis than that in the deeper part.It was suggested that there existed massive amount of MFb and high tension in the nodules arid that the tension distribution was not uniform in or between the nodules.Conclusions Collagen nodules are of varying shape and size and collagen types are associated with the time of nodule formation.Moreover,Formation of the collagen nodules may be closely

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist inhibits collagen synthesis in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by targeting Smad3 via miR-145

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hua-Yu; Li, Chao; Zheng, Zhao; Zhou, Qin; Guan, Hao; Su, Lin-Lin; Han, Jun-Tao; Zhu, Xiong-Xiang; Wang, Shu-yue; Li, Jun, E-mail: lijunfmmu@163.com; Hu, Da-Hai, E-mail: hudahaifmmu@aliyun.com

    2015-03-27

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) functions to regulate cell differentiation and lipid metabolism. Recently, its agonist has been documented to regulate extracellular matrix production in human dermal fibroblasts. This study explored the underlying molecular mechanisms and gene interactions in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs) in vitro. HSFBs were cultured and treated with or without PPAR-γ agonist or antagonist for gene expression. Bioinformatical analysis predicted that miR-145 could target Smad3 expression. Luciferase assay was used to confirm such an interaction. The data showed that PPAR-γ agonist troglitazone suppressed expression of Smad3 and Col1 in HSFBs. PPAR-γ agonist induced miR-145 at the gene transcriptional level, which in turn inhibited Smad3 expression and Col1 level in HSFBs. Furthermore, ELISA data showed that Col1 level in HSFBs was controlled by a feedback regulation mechanism involved in PPAR-γ agonist and antagonist-regulated expression of miR-145 and Smad3 in HSFBs. These findings indicate that PPAR-γ-miR-145-Smad3 axis plays a role in regulation of collagen synthesis in HSFBs. - Highlights: • PPAR-γ agonist inhibits collagen synthesis in HSFBs. • Smad3 and type I collagen expression are decreased by PPAR-γ agonist. • miR-145 expression is increased by PPAR-γ agonist in HSFBs. • Increased miR-145 inhibits collagen synthesis by targeting Smad3. • miR-145 regulates collagen synthesis.

  14. Morphological observation and changes of hydroxyproline content in hypertrophic scar of rabbits%兔耳增生性瘢痕的形态学观察与羟脯氨酸含量变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒彬; 郝林林; 吴宗耀; 黄显凯; 沈岳; 袁纯; 唐其敏

    2001-01-01

    目的 建立动物增生性瘢痕实验模型,并探讨其胶原代谢特点与形态学变化规律。方法 用圆形钻刀在兔耳腹面产生直径6 mm的全层皮肤缺损创面64个,分别在术后14、21、35、70和98 d进行形态学观察与羟脯氨酸含量测定。结果 术后21 d,76%的创面(45/59)有突出瘢痕形成,术后35 d,瘢痕增生达高峰,厚度平均为2.05 mm,术后70 d,瘢痕变薄,术后98 d,46%的突出瘢痕(11/24)消失;组织学观察示术后21、35 d有大量增殖成纤维细胞和旋涡状排列胶原纤维,术后70、98 d突出瘢痕内成纤维细胞减少,但不规则排列纤维仍存在;术后21 d,瘢痕组织内羟脯氨酸含量增加,显著高于正常兔耳皮肤(P<0.05),35 d时羟脯氨酸含量约为正常皮肤的3倍,术后98 d的羟脯氨酸含量亦显著高于正常皮肤(P<0.05)。结论 胶原大量沉积是动物增生性瘢痕的胶原代谢特征;动物正常愈合瘢痕转化为增生性瘢痕发生在术后14~21 d;动物增生性瘢痕形成快,消退亦快。%Objective To establish animal model for hypertrophic scar and study the characters of its morphology and collagen metabolism. Methods A total of 64 round wounds (diameter of 6 mm each) with total skin loss were made on the ventral side of rabbit ear using a trephine. Morphology and collagen metabolism of scar wounds were studied at 14,21,35,70 and 98 days after operation, respectively. Results There were 76% elevated scars developed (45/59 wounds) on the ventral side of rabbit ear at 21 days and 46% elevated scars disappeared (11/24) at 98 days after operation. There were numerous fibroblast proliferation and whorl-arranged collagen fibers at 21 and 35 days. The number of fibroblast decreased, but irregular-arranged fibers still presented in the elevated scars at 70 and 98 days after operation. Hydroxyproline content in elevated scars at 21 days was higher than that in

  15. Eficacia de un apósito autoadhesivo de poliuretano para prevenir la formación de cicatrices hipertróficas Efficacy of a polyurethane self-adhesive dressing in preventing hypertrophic scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bisbal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Valoramos la eficacia de un apósito autoadhesivo para prevenir las cicatrices hipertróficas sobre un grupo de pacientes sometidas a cirugía de reducción mamaria. Tras la curación de las heridas, aplicamos en todas las pacientes un protocolo preventivo mediante compresión y apósito adhesivo: 66 pacientes (35,6±10,8 años de edad utilizaron Trofolastin® reductor de cicatrices como adhesivo (sujetos y 47 pacientes (38,7±12 años de edad fueron tratadas con otros adhesivos (controles. En el grupo control, el 23,4 % de los casos presentó cicatrices hipertróficas, mientras que en el grupo de sujetos el porcentaje fue sólo del 9,1 % (p Our goal is to evaluate the efficacy of a polyurethane self-adhesive dressing in preventing hypertrophic scars in a group of patients undergoing breast reduction surgery. After the initial wound healing period, all patients were submitted to the preventive procedure with compression and adhesive dressing: 66 patients (35.6±10.8 years old used Trofolastin® reduction scar as adhesive (subjects and 47 patients (38.7±12 years old were treated with other adhesives (controls. In the control group, 23.4 % of patients presented hypertrophic scars, whereas this percentage was only 9.1 % in subjects (p < 0.05. Moreover, 27 patients of the control group (56.5 % presented scars with a Vancouver score equal or higher than 4 in contrast with only 6 cases (9.1 % in the group of subjects (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the prophylactic use of Trofolastin® reduction scar, once the initial wound healing period is complete, significantly reduces the risk of hypertrophic scars (relative risk 6.32 [95 % CI 2.83-14.09], according the Fisher's exact test.

  16. Antisense CTGF inhibits the expression of CTGF in hypertrophic scar of rabbit ears%药物抑制兔耳病理性瘢痕中结缔组织生长因子的实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少华; 李健; 王燕华; 吕建平; 李记森; 王勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate a medicine which can inhibit the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in hypertrophic scar of rabbit ears. Methods 24 bigears white rabbits were used to establish a model of hypertrophic scar of rabbit ears, which was randomly divided into four groups. The hypertrophic scar was injected intralesionally with antisense CTGF (group A), betamethason (group B), triamcinolone acetonide (group C) and physiological saline (group D). Some scar tissue samples were sectioned in every group when the scar was treated after 7, 14, 30, and 60 days, respectively. The expression of CTGF mRNA in the scar was assessed by in situ hybridization and hematoxylin and eosin stain (HE stain) in every samples. Results The expression of CTGF mRNA and the counting of fibroblasts decreased in group A, which showed statistical difference as compared with groups B, C and D. Conclusions The results suggesz that antisense CTGF is able to inhibit the proliferation process of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears and to remarkably decrease the degree of fiborsis in the scar.%目的 探讨能有效抑制结缔组织生长因子(CTGF)的药物,以便为治疗病理性瘢痕提供依据.方法 选择24只大耳白兔建立兔耳病理性瘢痕模型,随机分为4组:A组注射CTGF反义寡核苷酸,B组注射复方倍他米松,C组注射醋酸曲安奈得,D组为对照组,仅注射生理盐水.通过原位杂交法分别检测瘢痕组织中不同治疗组不同时段的CTGF表达,并通过苏木精-伊红(HE)染色法检测瘢痕组织中不同治疗组不同时段的成纤维细胞数.结果 A、B、C 3组在同一时段其CTGF表达均比D组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),A组较B、C两组CTGF表达低,差异也具有统计学意义(P<0.05).B、C两组之间CTGF表达差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).成纤维细胞计数结果与以上结果基本一致.结论 CTGF反义寡核苷酸、复方倍他米松、醋酸曲安奈得均可抑制病理性瘢痕

  17. Change of serum concentration of amino-terminal propeptide of procol agen type Ⅲ(PⅢNP) of hypertrophic scar at excessive stages and its clinical significance%不同时期增生性瘢痕患者血清中PⅢNP的浓度变化在瘢痕临床治疗中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤刚; 刘婕婷; 沈锐; 徐路生; 陈晓东; 阮树斌; 杨荣华; 林颜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To research the dose and the significances of amino-terminal propeptide of procol agen type Ⅲ (PⅢNP) in the serum of hypertrophic scar patients at excessive stages and favor making therapeutic regimen to cure hypertrophic scar. Methods Col ect the serum samples of 100 cases inpatients admitted in our hospital from 2010,9 to 2012,9 suffering from long-persisting post-burned hypertrophic scar at various stages. Hypertrophic scar patients are divided into 5 groups according to the phase of scar and detect the concentrations of PⅢNP in serum of the trials using the sensitive ELISA method and analysis the relation between the doses of PⅢNP and proliferation degree of the scar. Results The dose of PⅢNP begin to rise in 1 to 4 months scar group and increases gradual y during the process of immature hypertrophic scar to mature scar before it achieves summit concentration in 5 to 8 months scar group. The concentration of PⅢNP degreases gradual y with the maturation of hypertrophic scar. Conclusions The dose of PⅢNP is synonymous with the ongoing process of hypertrophic scar. PⅢNP may be a satisfactory marker in discerning the growth and development of post-burn hypertrophic scar and have great significance to guide our clinical treatment to cure hypertrophic scars. The change of the dose of PⅢNP in serum of hypertrophic scar patients can be taken as standard to evaluate curative effect of different therapies and can be used for rapid screening favorable curative methods.%目的:研究不同时期增生性瘢痕患者血清中PⅢN P浓度变化的意义及其对临床瘢痕治疗的指导意义。方法:选择2010年9月-2012年9月我科收治住院的增生性瘢痕患者共100例,根据瘢痕增生的不同时期分5组。应用ELISA法检测患者血清中Ⅲ型前胶原氨基端肽(PⅢNP)的浓度变化,并比较PⅢN P的血清含量与瘢痕增生时段之间的关系。结果:不同时期增生性瘢痕患者血清中PⅢN P

  18. 氨甲喋呤对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖和胶原合成的影响%Effects of methotrexate on proliferation and collagen synthesis of hypertrophic scar fibroblast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军; 陈发国; 吴毅平

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨氨甲喋呤对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖和胶原合成的影响.方法:以体外培养的人瘢痕成纤维细胞为实验模型,将氨甲喋呤(10-9mol/L、10-8mol/L、10-7mol/L、10-6mol/L、10-5mol/L)加入细胞培养液中进行干预并与空白对照组比较,用乳酸脱氢酶实验检测药物的细胞毒性,并通过MTT实验和羟脯氨酸测定实验分别检测药物对成纤维细胞增殖活性和胶原合成的影响.结果:10-6mol/L、10-5mol/L的氨甲喋呤对成纤维细胞的生长有抑制作用,与对照组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01),10-9mol/L ~ 10-5mol/L的氨甲喋呤对瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成具有抑制作用(P<0.01).结论:氨甲喋呤在体外对瘢痕成纤维细胞细胞增殖和胶原合成具有抑制作用.%Objective The paper explore the effects of Methotrexate on proliferation and collagen synthesis of fibroblast derived from human hypertrophic scar. Methods Scar -derived human fibroblasts were cultured in vitro, the hypertrophic scar(HS) fibroblast (from the 4th to 6th passages were treated with various concentrations of Methotrexate, cell culture solution as negative control, toxic reaction of Methotrexate on HS fibroblast was examined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. The effects of Methotrexate on HS fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis were examined by MTT colorimetric cell proliferation assay and Hydroxyproline (Hrp) determination. Results Firstly, Methotrexate with 10-6mol/L and 10-5mol/L doses significantly inhibited proliferation hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, compared with control group (P<0.01). Secondly, Methotrexate with 10-7mol/L~10-5mol/L doses had cytotoxicity on hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (P<0.05).Thirdly, Methotrexate with 10-9mol/L~10-5mol/L doses inhibited collagen synthesis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, compared with control group (P<0.01). Conclusion Methotrexate can significantly inhibits the proliferation and collagen synthesis

  19. Preparation of Modified 5-FU Liposomes with Cholesterol and Its Penetration Study in Hypertrophic Scar Penetration%胆固醇改性5-FU脂质体的制备及透瘢痕实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛小慧; 沃雁; 章一新; 贺蓉; 崔大祥

    2009-01-01

    为了解脂质体抗瘢痕药物在增生性瘢痕中的透皮作用,应用胆固醇对5-FU脂质体进行改性处理.应用挤出仪控制粒径的大小后,观察粒径对包封率的影响,并进行体外透瘢痕实验,观察粒径对于渗透深度的影响作用.结果表明:脂质体成均一的大单层球形结构,包封率随粒径的变小而增大.粒径越小,透瘢痕能力越强.本实验证明经胆固醇改性之后的小粒径脂质体是一种较好的抗瘢痕药物载体,它的透瘢痕机制主要是变形作用和融合作用.%To investigate liposomes anti-scarring drug's ability in hypertrophic scar penetration, the 5-FU liposomes were modified with cholesterol. After the sizes of liposomes were controlled by extrusion equipment , the encapsulation efficiency of 5-FU in the liposomes was then investigated and observed. In vitro experiments of the liposomes to penetrate into human skin and scar were performed to find out whether the sizes of the liposomes would affect the depth of scar-penetration. The results show that with the decrease of the vesicle size, the encapsulation efficiency of 5-Fu increases gradually. The smaller the size of liposomes is, the stronger its permeating ability would be. The experiment proves that the modified smallsized liposomes are fine anti-scar drug carrier which can enhance their ability to penetrate into scar by the deformation and integration mechanisms.

  20. Inhibitory effect of small proteoglycan, decorin, on hypertrophic scars in rabbit ears%小分子蛋白多糖decorin对兔耳增生性瘢痕的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维娜; 毛凯平; 崔童星; 柳大烈

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the inhibitory effect of decorin on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears. Methods Full-thickness excisional wounds, 8 mm in diameter, were made over the ventral side of ears in 8 adult New Zealand white rabbits, and 48 hypertrophic scars in total. Then the rabbits were divided into two groups: group A, experimental group (decorin, 10 mg/L); group B, control group (physiological saline). At the 20th and 30th day after operation, the hypertrophic scars were injected with decorin (group A) and saline (group B) intralesionally. Samples were harvested 20 days after the last injection (50th day) for measurement of scar elevation index (SEI). The expression of type Ⅰ collagen protein and type Ⅰ pro-collagen mRNA was assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respectively. Results Compared with group B, the scars appeared to be flatter,softer, and lighter in color in group A. The SEI in group A and group B was 2. 8970 ±0. 2066 and 3. 5210 ±0. 1960 respectively. The expression of type Ⅰ collagen protein and type Ⅰ pro-collagen mRNA in group A was 0. 221 20 ±0. 027 06 and 0. 372 50 ±0.026 78 respectively, and that in group B was 0. 336 90 ±0.030 74 and 0.645 60 ±0.029 94 respectively ( all P < 0.05). Conclusion Decorin can inhibit the proliferation process of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears and remarkably decrease the degree of fibrosis in the scar.%目的 观察小分子蛋白多糖decorin(DCN)局部注射对兔耳增生性瘢痕的抑制作用.方法 新西兰大白兔8只,建立增生性瘢痕动物模型,随机分成两组.两组均于术后第20天、第30天行瘢痕内注射,实验组(A组)注射decorin,对照组(B组)注射生理盐水.末次注射后20 d取材,观察瘢痕增生;苏木素-伊红(HE)染色比较瘢痕增生指数,免疫组织化学检测瘢痕组织中Ⅰ型胶原蛋白表达;逆转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测Ⅰ型前胶原mRNA表达.结果 A组上皮角化

  1. c-fos与c-jun癌蛋白在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面联合表达的特征与意义%Expression of oncoproteins c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨c-fos与c-jun两种原癌基因产物在溃疡与增生性瘢痕创面表达的特征与规律以及与不同组织修复结局发生的关系。 方法 16例标本均取自于外科手术患者,其中增生性瘢痕8例,溃疡创面8例,另有正常对照皮肤5例取自增生性瘢痕患者作为对照。用免疫组化法(ABC法)检测c-fos与c-jun两种癌蛋白以及bFGF在三种组织切片的分布特征。 结果在正常皮肤c-fos与c-jun的阳性表达主要见于表皮基底细胞和少量皮下成纤维细胞,但在相应部位c-jun的表达较c-fos为弱。在增生性瘢痕,c-fos与c-jun均出现强阳性表达,主要见于成纤维细胞。在溃疡组织,c-fos与c-jun的联合表达多见于毛细血管内皮细胞、部分炎症细胞以及成纤维细胞胞浆。 结论增生性瘢痕与溃疡创面c-fos与c-jun表达量与部位同正常皮肤存在显著差异,提示这两种原癌基因产物在影响和调控组织修复中有重要作用。%Objective To explore the characteristics of oncoprotein expression of c-fos and c-jun in hypertrophic scars and chronic dermal ulcers and their regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Methods Tissues of hypertrophic scars (n=8), chronic dermal ulcers (n=8) and normal skin (n=5) were taken from 21 patients with burns and chronic dermal ulcers in operation. The ABC immunohistochemical method was used to characterize the gene product expression of c-fos, c-jun and bFGF in the above tissues. Results In normal skin, both c-fos and c-jun protein expression and bFGF protein expression were observed. The signals of both oncoproteins were localized mainly in subcutaneous fibroblasts, but, positive expression of the bFGF protein was mainly in keratinocytes. In hypertrophic scars, positive expression of both oncoproteins could be found mainly in fibroblasts, but bFGF was mainly in fibroblasts and endothelial cells. In chronic dermal ulcers, endothelial cells, some

  2. 新型免疫抑制剂芬戈莫德对增生性瘢痕抑制作用的研究%Effects of fingolimod on hypertrophic scar of rabbit′s ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马达; 唐冰; 石芬; 曹小玲; 朱家源

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究新型免疫抑制剂芬戈莫德对增生性瘢痕的抑制作用。方法40只新西兰兔(雌雄各半)于兔耳腹侧面瘢痕造模,每只兔每侧耳造模创面2个。按照完全随机的分组原则将所有兔分为5组,每组8只,每组32个瘢痕创面,按照溶剂、不同浓度芬戈莫德分别注射的处理方式分为:空白对照组、溶剂对照组、芬戈莫德2.5 mg/mL 组、芬戈莫德5.0 mg/mL 组、芬戈莫德10.0 mg/mL 组。瘢痕造模成功后一次性给药,观察并记录各组创面瘢痕大小变化,给药后第5天取材,对瘢痕组织进行组织学染色,量化并比较两组瘢痕创面的瘢痕表皮厚度、瘢痕胶原蛋白沉积情况及转化生长因子-β、结缔组织生长因子的蛋白表达情况。结果芬戈莫德各浓度组兔耳余量瘢痕面积比明显缩小;芬戈莫德2.5 mg/mL组瘢痕表皮厚度为(120.250±6.042)μm,瘢痕表皮增厚明显,胶原沉积率降低,分别与芬戈莫德5.0 mg/mL 组、芬戈莫德10.0 mg/mL 组比较,芬戈莫德2.5 mg/mL 组与瘢痕增生相关的转化生长因子-β、结缔组织生长因子含量下降,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论新型免疫抑制剂芬戈莫德对瘢痕形成增生有抑制作用,芬戈莫德浓度为2.5 mg/mL 时效果最为显著。%Objective To determine the therapeutic effect of fingolimod on hypertrophic scars. Methods Forty New zealand rabbits were used to construct hypertrophic scar models on the ears,and two masses of hypertrophic scars on each ear.The rabbits were divided into 5 groups by handling method:negative control group,solvent control group,fingolimod 2.5 mg/mL group,fingolimod 5.0 mg/mL group, fingolimod 1 0.0 mg/mL group,each group had 8 rabbits and 32 scare wound.The thickness and mass of hypertrophic scars were measured respectively,on the 5th day after injecting drug,the hypertrophic scars were harvested

  3. 苦参碱对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞超微结构的影响%THE FIBROBLASTIC ULTRASTRUCTURE INFLUENCE OF MATRINE ON HYPERTROPHIC SCAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤苏阳; 黄高升; 蔡宝仁

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of fibroblastic ultrastructure after applying the matrine on the hypertrohic scar. Methods: The fibroblasts were cultured in vitro, to observe the morphology changes of cell by Electron microscopy (SEM and TEM)after applying matrine. Results:Compared with the untreated fibroblast from hypertrophic scar, the rough endoplasmic reticulums were decreased, the ribosome were appeared degranulation and depolymerization and lysosomes were lncreased respectively. The nuclear chromations were condensed to gather to the side of nuclear membranes. Conclusion:Mat could inhibit the function of hypertrophic fibroblasts and induce the apoptosis of hypertrophic fibroblasts and changed the altrastructural significantly.%目的:研究苦参碱(Matrine,Mat)对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞超微结构的影响。方法:将Mat作用于体外培养的增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞,利用透视电镜、扫描电镜观察细胞的形态变化。结果:Mat可使增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的超微结构发生变化;细胞内粗面质网减少,核糖体有部分脱粒、解聚现象,溶解体酶,核染色质浓缩集聚至核膜周边,出现凋亡早期的改变。细胞外表面较用药前光滑,合成分泌的基质明显减少。结论:Mat在体外能明显抑制增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的功能并引起其超微结构发生改变

  4. Study of the inhibitory effects of recombinant human endostatin on hypertrophic scars%重组人内抑素抑制创面瘢痕增生的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建; 张晓明; 黄学应; 邓雪飞; 李小静; 焦轶

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察重组人内抑素( rhEndostatin)对兔耳瘢痕增生的抑制作用,探讨其部分作用机制。方法建立兔耳增生性瘢痕(HS)模型,瘢痕块内局部注射 rhEndostatin (1.25、2.5、5 g/L),观察瘢痕大体形态及组织学变化,免疫组织化学检测瘢痕组织Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原表达,电镜观察瘢痕组织成纤维细胞凋亡。结果与模型组和生理盐水组比较,2.5 g/L和5 g/L rhEndostatin组瘢痕平坦,面积减小,质地变软,瘢痕增生指数降低( P<0.05);微血管密度降低( P<0.05);Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原表达水平降低( P<0.05);成纤维细胞凋亡。结论rhEndostatin 可抑制 HS 形成,该作用可能与 rhEndostatin抑制血管生成,进而促进增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞( HSFs)凋亡,减少胶原的产生与沉积有关。%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effects of recombinant human endostatin ( rhEndostatin ) on hypertrophic scar ( HS ) and explore the possible mechanism of action involved. Methods A rabbit ear model with hypertrophic scars was established. Recombinant human endostatin injections were applied to the scars of the experimental group topically in different concentrations (1. 25, 2. 5, 5 g/L). The changes of macroscopic charac-teristics of scars were examined. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for histomorpho-metric analysis. The levels of collagens Ⅰ and Ⅲ were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results Compared with physiological saline group and model group, group treated with rhEndostatin 2. 5 g/L and 5. 0 g/L showed sig-nificant reduction in height, volume and hardness, it resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the scar ele-vation index, the microvessel density and the expression of type Ⅰ and Ⅲ collagens (P<0. 05). An observation under transmission electron microscopy revealed that some fibroblasts nucleus ruptured and disintegrated and apop-totic body were observed in rhEndostatin 5 g/L group, but

  5. Effects of mitomycin C on apoptosis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts%丝裂霉素C影响增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓明; 孙奎; 张宏霞; 孙喜平; 耿琪瑛; 李树松

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mitomycin C has been gradually used in hyperplastic scar therapy. But the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of mitomycin C on hyperplastic scar via cell apoptosis is reported few. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of mitomycin C on fibroblasts apoptosis in hypertrophic scar. METHODS: Hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were cultured in vitro with five different concentrations of mitomycin C (2.5, 12.5, 50, 100, 200 mg/L). Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of fibroblasts were detected by Annexin V-PI, and the protein expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 in fibroblasts were detected with Western blotting. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Mitomycin C blocked the growth of hyperplastic scar fibroblasts in G0/G1 period, and induced apoptosis of hyperplastic scar fibroblasts in an obvious concentration-dependent manner. Bax protein expression levels increased and Bcl-2 protein expression levels decreased in hyperplastic scar fibroblasts after treated with 2.5-200 mg/L mitomycin C for 24 hours (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that mitomycin C has the possibility to promote fibroblasts apoptosis through increasing Bax expression and decreasing Bcl-2 expression in hyperplastic scar fibroblasts.%背景:丝裂霉素C已逐渐开始应用于治疗增生性瘢痕领域中,但针对丝裂霉素C通过细胞凋亡作用于增生性瘢痕分子机制报道很少.目的:探讨丝裂霉素C对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞凋亡的影响.方法:应用2.5,12.5,50,100和200 mg/L 丝裂霉素C作用于体外培养的增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞,采用流式细胞仪检测成纤维细胞的周期分布和凋亡情况;通过Western blot法检测细胞中Bax和Bcl-2蛋白表达水平.结果与讨论:丝裂霉素C可使增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的生长阻滞于G0/G1期,并且能够诱导增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞发生凋亡,有着明显的浓度依赖性.经2.5~200 mg/L丝裂霉素C作用24 h后,增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞中Bax蛋白表达增高,Bcl-2

  6. 水蛭素对瘢痕成纤维细胞基质金属蛋白酶作用的实验研究%Effect of Hirudin on Matrix Metalloproteinases of Human Hypertrophic Scar Fibroblast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李开通; 刘达恩; 李顺堂; 鲁海强; 陈晓婷; 高兴新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of hirudin on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases of the human hypertrophic scar fibroblast. Methods 10 cases of hypertrophic scar tissue were taken from the operated patients who were within 6 months after injury . Fibroblasts of hypertrophic scar tissue were cultured by tissue block method. The cells after 4~7generations were used in experiments, which were interfered with exposure to 0U/ml,1U/ml,10U/ml or 50U/ ml hirudin for 24 and 48 hours. We detected the effect of hirudin on the proliferation of fibroblasts by MTT method and the expression of MMP-2,MMP-9 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results ①Hirudin could inhibit the proliferation of scar fibroblasts in the group of 1,10,50U/ml (P<0.05).The effect of inhibition of hirudin with 50U/ml was most significant (the inhibition rates of 24,48hours were 14.75% and 15.42%). ②The level of expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was increased with the role of hirudin on fibroblasts after 24h,especially it was most significant with 1U/ml and 50U/ml.The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).After 48hours the expression of MMP-2 was decreased, meanwhile the expression of MMP -9 was increased but no significance. Conclusion Hirudin can inhibit the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts,promote the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) by hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and will help to promote the degradation and reduction of the extracellular matrix.%目的:探讨水蛭素对体外培养的增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞基质金属蛋白酶(matrix metalloproteinases,MMPs)表达水平的影响.方法:取10例烧伤愈合后6个月内瘢痕挛缩需手术治疗的患者的瘢痕组织,采用组织块法分离培养增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞.取第4~7代细胞实验,加入0、1、10、50U/ml的水蛭素干预.观察加药后24h、48h成纤维细胞形态学变化,利用MTT(四甲基偶氮唑蓝)比色法及

  7. Effect of local injection of endostatin on hypertrophic scar of rabbit ear%内皮抑素局部注射对兔耳增生性瘢痕的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王西樵; 刘英开; 宋菲; 徐连菊; 青春; 陆树良

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of local injection of endostatin on hypertrophic scar of rabbit ear, and explore the mechanism. Methods Models of hypertrophic scar of rabbit ear were established. Four weeks after model establishment, scar tissues of right rabbit ears were injected with endostatin once a week for three weeks (experiment group, n = 10), and scar tissues of left rabbit ears were injected with normal saline once a week for three weeks (control group, n = 10). Seven weeks after model establishment, scar tissues of rabbit ears in experiment group and control group were obtained, histomorphological changes were observed with HE staining, expression of microvessel marker CD34 was determined by immunohistochemistry, and apoptosis of fibroblasts was detected by TUNEL. Umbilical endothelial cells were cultured in vitro and seeded on Martrigel culture system with different concentrations of endostatin, and vessel tube formation of endothelial cells was observed. Results Compared with control group, the area of hypertrophic scar in experiment group significantly reduced, the number of fibroblasts in scar tissues decreased and collagen density became loose. The percent of cells with positive expression of CD34 in scar tissues in experiment group was significantly lower than that in control group [(2.21 ±0.39)% vs (6.11 ±1.32)%, P<0.0S], while the percent of apoptotic cells in experiment group was significantly higher than that in control group [(9.06 ±1.54)% vs (5.21 ±1.11)%, P<0.05]. In vitro observation revealed that more microvessel branches formed in Martrigel culture system without endostatin, and the number of microvessel tube formation gradually decreased with the increase of mass concentration of endostatin. Conclusion Local injection of endostatin may inhibit hypertrophic scar development and promote scar regression, which may be correlated with the inhibition of microvessel tube formation.%目的 探讨内皮抑素局部注射对兔耳增生

  8. Prevention and treatment of early hypertrophic scars with botulinum toxin type A%A型肉毒毒素预防与治疗早期增生性瘢痕的临床初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于波; 陈敏亮; 刘文阁; 徐永成; 孙同柱

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of botulinum toxin type A(BTXA)in the treatment of early hypertrophic scars(HTS).Methods BTXA was injected into and around the eady HTS,and then the modal and histological changes of the scars as well as the clinical reaction were observed in the patient.BTXA was also injected into muscle around the incision and effect on the cicatrization observed.Results Injection of BTXA could obviously alleviate ache and pruritus of eady HTS and could impel the atrophy and inteneration of eady HTS.Changes were found in paraffin-embedded tissue section by the hemetoxylin and eosin(HE)staining.Injection of BTXA into muscle around the cut could can reduce occurrence of HTS.Conclusion BTXA can help prevent the early HTS to a certain extent.The mechanism underlying this effect may be related to the reducing the tension around scars and proliferative activity,interfering with the signal transduction of small nerves,affecting the proliferation and apoptosis of fibroblasts and subsequently decreasing the collagen synthesis.%目的 探索A型肉毒毒素(botulinum toxin type A,BTXA)对早期增生性瘢痕(hypertrophic scar,HTS)的临床预防及治疗效果.方法 早期HTS周围及组织内注射BTXA,观察瘢痕注射药物后形态学变化、组织学变化及临床症状表现;手术切口缝合后即刻向周围肌肉浅层注射BTXA,观察远期瘢痕愈合情况.结果 局部注射BTXA可以明显减轻早期HTS疼痛和瘙痒症状,促使瘢痕组织萎缩、软化;组织切片HE染色显示HTS组织内结构有所变化.同时,手术切口周围肌肉浅层注射BTXA可以降低术后切口HTS的发生、发展概率.结论 BTXA对早期HTS具有一定程度的治疗和预防作用,其疗效可能是通过降低瘢痕两侧张力及活动,干扰瘢痕内小神经传导,以及影响成纤维细胞增殖分化,促进凋亡进而减少胶原合成而起作用.

  9. 水蛭素对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞细胞周期的影响%Effects of hirudin on cell circle of fibroblasts in hypertrophic scar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章开衡; 邢新

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the biological effects of hirudin on the cell circle of fibroblasts in hypertrophic scar.Methods Fibroblasts were taken from normal skin and hypertrophic scar,and cultured in vitro with various concentrations of hirudin.Then,flow cytometry was used for observing cellcycles,and Western blot for some proteins (p27 and cyclin E) related with cell circle.Results With the increasing of the concentrations of hirudin,fibroblasts on G1 phase increased and on S phase decreased,and the expression of protein p27 increased,but that of protein cyclin E decreased.Conclusion Hirudin can influence the cell circle of fibroblasts derived from normal skin and hypertrophic scar by means of the expression of some proteins related with celI circle.Hirudin causes G1 phase arrest and inhibits the production of fibroblasts.Therefore,it seems that hypertrophic scar could be prevented and treated with hirudin.%目的 探讨水蛭素对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞细胞周期的影响,为临床应用水蛭素治疗增生性瘢痕提供理论基础.方法 用消化法进行人增生性瘢痕和正常皮肤成纤维细胞的体外培养,用流式细胞仪检测不同浓度水蛭素对不同来源的成纤维细胞细胞周期的影响,用Western印迹法检测部分与细胞周期相关的蛋白(细胞周期蛋白依赖性激酶抑制蛋白p27及细胞周期蛋白E(cyclin-E)的表达.结果 随着水蛭素浓度的增加,人体正常皮肤及增生性瘢痕组织成纤维细胞G1期细胞增加而S期细胞则减少,周期蛋白依赖性激酶抑制蛋白p27的表达上调,细胞周期蛋白E的表达下调.结论 水蛭素通过影响细胞周期调控蛋白的表达,使正常皮肤和增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的周期分布发生改变,导致细胞周期G1期阻滞(G1 phase arrest),从而抑制成纤维细胞增生,因此水蛭素对于瘢痕的防治有一定的作用.

  10. Laser scar revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Jason R; Alster, Tina S

    2002-01-01

    A variety of lasers can be used to treat scars and striae effectively. It is of paramount importance that the type of scar be properly classified on initial examination so that the most appropriate method of treatment can be chosen. Classification also allows the laser surgeon to discuss with the patient the anticipated response to treatment. The 585-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) is the most appropriate system for treating hypertrophic scars, keloids, erythematous scars, and striae. The PDL carries a low risk of side effects and complications when operated at appropriate treatment parameters and time intervals. Atrophic scars are best treated with ablative CO2 and Er:YAG lasers; however, proliferative keloids and hypertrophic scars should not be vaporized because of the high risk of scar recurrence or progression. The appropriate choice and use of lasers can significantly improve most scars. As research in laser-skin interaction continues, further refinements in laser technology coupled with the addition of alternate treatment procedures will allow improved clinical efficacy and predictability.

  11. The experimental study of anti-inflammatory cytokine TSG-6 inhibits hypertrophic scar formation in rabbit ears model%抗炎因子TSG-6抑制兔耳瘢痕增生的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 李小静; 陈钊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of tumor necrosis factorαstimulated gene-6 ( TSG-6 ) on hypertrophic scarring by using a rabbit ear model. Methods TSG-6 and PBS were injected intradermally in the right and left ear wounds, respectively. Collagen I and III expression detected by immunohistochemistry and scar elevation index ( SEI) was used to evaluate the extent of scarring. The expression of inflammatory factors interleukin-1β( IL-1β) , interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) and tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) was detected by immunohistochemistry and reverse tran-scription polymerase chain reaction. Transmission electron microscope ( TEM) and TUNEL analyses were used to detect fibroblast apoptosis. Results Compared with control scars, TSG-6-treated wounds exhibited decreased in-flammation significantly as evidenced by the lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6 , TNF-α. The apoptosis rate was higher and the SEI and the synthesis of collagens I and III were significantly decreased in the TSG-6-treated scars ( P<0. 05 ) . Conclusion Immediate topical injection of TSG-6 during the wound healing process can reduce the severity of hy-pertrophic scarring in a rabbit model. The anti-cicatrix effect of TSG-6 may result from controlling inflammation, in-ducing fibroblast apoptosis and promoting collagen degradation.%目的:通过建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型,研究肿瘤坏死因子α刺激基因-6( TSG-6)在增生性瘢痕形成过程中的作用及机制。方法建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型,右侧耳创面为实验组,注射TSG-6,左侧均注射等量PBS作为对照组,通过比较各组瘢痕指数( SEI)及Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原表达的不同来评价瘢痕增生程度的差异。采用免疫组化法及逆转录聚合酶链反应( RT-PCR)法检测炎症因子白细胞介素-1β( IL-1β)、白细胞介素-6(IL-6)及肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)在各组中的表达;以透射电镜观察及TUNEL法检测瘢痕组织成纤维细胞凋亡的变化。结果与PBS对照组比较,TSG-6

  12. 咪喹莫特对兔耳增生性瘢痕动物模型的影响%Effects of Imiquimod on the Formation of Hypertrophic Scar in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 夏群力; 郑捷

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨咪喹莫特对全层皮肤缺损诱导的兔耳增生性瘢痕模型组织学变化的影响及可能的作用机制.方法 24只新西兰白兔双耳腹面手术切除2.Ocm×5.Ocm全层皮肤至筋膜,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型后,随机分成两组,每组12只,将每只兔左耳分别于伤后每日和隔日应用咪喹莫特,共8周,右耳为空白组(非用药组).结果 与非用药组相比较,经咪喹莫特应用8周后,每日用药组的瘢痕厚度(431.22±92.03)、胶原含量(46.56±19.02)和瘢痕指数(0.36±0.31),TIMP-1(16.64±2.14),aSMA(3.85±1.26)和PCNA(5.68±1.07)均有显著下降(P0.05);无论每日还是隔日应用咪喹莫特对TGF-в1的表达均无影响(P>0.05).结论 在创伤早期应用咪喹莫特可降低瘢痕厚度和胶原含量.%Objective To study the histological effects of imiquimod on the development of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears induced by excision of full-thickness skin.Methods Hypertrophic scar model was established by excision of full-thickness skin ( 2cm × 5cm) on the ventral surface of rabbits ears.A total of 24 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 2 equal groups with imiquimod on the left ears for 8 weeks.The right ears served as control without imiquimod.Results Compared with non-drug exposed, the dermal thickness (431.22 ± 92.03 ), collagen content ( 46.56 ± 19.02 ), scar index ( 0.36 ± 0.31 ), TIM P-1 ( 16.64 ± 2.14 ), α-SMA( 3.85 ± 1.26) and PCNA (5.68 ± 1.07 ) significantly decreased in scar with imiquimod daily ( P < 0.05 ); while the dermal thickness ( 621.91 ± 96.81 ), scar index( 0.79 ± 0.34 ), α-SMA (7.13 ± 1.16) and TIMP-1 (24.77 ±4.17)were not significantly decreased in imiquimod every other day( P >0.05 ) beside the collagen content dermal collagen content(49.48 ± 17.35 ).Conclusion Imiquimod may decrease the dermal thickness and collagen content histologically and suppress collagen synthesis and myofibroblasts production through downregnlatian of

  13. 2940 nm点阵铒激光对兔耳增生性瘢痕血管内皮生长因子的影响%Effect of 2940 nm fractional erbium laser on VEGF in rabbit ear's hypertrophic scar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王家亮; 徐阳; 李海涛; 祝贺; 敖俊红; 杨蓉娅

    2013-01-01

      Objective To study the effect of 2940nm fractional erbium laser on hypertrophic scars of rabbit ears. Methods Establish rabbit ears hyperplastic scar models. The models of rabbit ears were divided into laser group ( group A) and control group ( group B). The 2940 nm fractional erbium laser was used to treat hyperplastic scar in group A, the control group without treatment. Gross observation time of wound healing and hyperplasia scar. The laser group before and after the treatment of 7, 14, 30 days respectively to collect specimens, and the control group at the same time points and scar natural growth after 70 days were collected specimens, using the specimens to measure the scar elevation index of scar(SEI ) and observed the pathological changes of scars with HE staining and test the level of Vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) with immunohistochemistry. Results Laser treatment group after treatment 7, 14, 30 days of scar proliferation index were (2.52 ± 0.13)mm, (1.67 ± 0.09)mm, (1.18 ± 0.10)mm, the control group were (2.64 ± 0.57)mm, (2.76 ± 0.38)mm, (2.78 ± 0.29)mm, the laser group after treatment of 3 time points scar gradually decreased, compared with the control group decreased significantly. HE staining showed vascular in the scar tissue changes from coarse to fine in group A. Collagen fiber arranged from irregularity to regular, there was no change in control group;Immunohistochemistry showed that the level of VEGF decreased gradually in laser group, while the control group had no obvious change. Conclusion The effectiveness of 2940 nm laser treatment may be related to down-regulation of cytokine VEGF expression which was associated with hypertrophic scar.%  目的研究2940 nm点阵铒激光对兔耳增生性瘢痕组织的影响。方法建立兔耳腹侧增生性瘢痕模型;将兔耳创面分为激光组(A组)和对照组(B组),A组用2940 nm点阵铒激光治疗,B组不予治疗;观察创面愈合时间和瘢痕增

  14. Effects of UVA1 radiation on the formation of hypertrophic scar in rabbits%强功率UVA1照射对增生性瘢痕动物模型瘢痕形成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 夏群力; 郑捷

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨不同剂量UVA1对全层皮肤缺损诱导的兔耳增生性瘢痕模型的影响情况.方法 18只新西兰白兔双耳腹面手术切除2 cm×5 cm全层皮肤至筋膜,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型后,随机分成3组,每组6只兔,将每只兔左耳分别于伤后即刻、1个月、2个月开始用不同剂量大功率UVA1照射,右耳为非照射组.各照射组又分为两个剂量照射组,兔耳分别每次照射UVA1 60 J/cm2、110 J/cm2,连续30次.结果 创伤建模1个月、2个月后开始照射UVA1组,与照射前比较,高剂量组照射后瘢痕处真表皮厚度(282.32±58.60;336.50±98.34)和真皮胶原含量(24.91±16.88;34.47±8.90)均显著降低(P<0.05);照射组与非照射组在UVA1照射前后差值的比较,高剂量组照射后瘢痕处表真皮厚度差值(-143.52±42.91;-142.44±49.96)和真皮胶原含量差值(-56.39±15.04;-48.35±10.44)的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);各照射组UVA1对瘢痕皮肤厚度(811.68±79.03;659.08±178.98)和胶原含量(67.80±9.06;61.35±12.91)的影响均存在剂量依赖性(P<0.05).而创伤建模的同时照射UVA1组,两种剂量的UVA1照射后瘢痕处皮肤厚度和胶原含量较非照射耳均显著增加(P<0.05).结论 上皮化后开始UVA1照射可使瘢痕变软,皮肤变薄,胶原含量降低.创伤同时照射UVA1不仅不能阻止瘢痕模型的建立,反而加重瘢痕.%Objective To study the effects of different doses of UVA1 on the development of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears induced by excision of full-thickness skin. Methods A hypertrophic scar model was established by excision of full-thickness skin (2 cm×5 cm) on the ventral surface of rabbit ears. A total of 18 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 3 equal groups to receive UVA1 radiation on the left ears immediately, 1 month, and 2 months after the excision, respectively, and every group were classified into two subgroups to be irradiated with 60 and 110 J/cm2 of UVA1, respectively

  15. Dose-effect relationship of antisense oligonucleotide of type Ⅰ procollagen on hypertrophic scar%Ⅰ型前胶原基因反义核酸对增生性瘢痕作用的量效关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁少海; 利天增; 谢举临; 贲晓松; 唐冰; 罗超权; 何洁华

    2001-01-01

    目的了解Ⅰ型前胶原基因反义寡聚核苷酸对人增生性瘢痕的作用,探讨增生性瘢痕的基因治疗。方法选择120只裸鼠建立增生性瘢痕动物模型,将模型随机分为空白对照组(C组,6只)、RPMI1640组(R组,6只)、反义寡聚核苷酸1(ASONs1)治疗组(54只)及反义寡聚核苷酸2(ASONs1)治疗组(54只),后两组又分为25,50,100 μg/100 μl三个剂量组,每个剂量组又分为治疗7,10,14 d 3组;分别合成位于Ⅰ型前胶原基因5'端翻译区域21 bp的ASONs1和位于第1个外显子与第1个内含子之间22 bp ASONs2,用微注射法分别将两基因片段作用于动物模型,通过测定增生性瘢痕Ⅰ型胶原含量变化、瘢痕体积变化以及运用光、电镜研究不同剂量反义寡聚核苷酸的抑制作用。结果 ASONs1和ASONs2能使瘢痕体积缩小,在治疗10,14 d后,瘢痕组织中Ⅰ型胶原含量降低,与C组和R组比较,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05);光、电镜下见瘢痕结构疏松,胶原纤维变小,成纤维细胞的粗面内质网和线粒体减少,而C组和R组无明显变化。结论 ASONs1和ASONs2能够有效抑制Ⅰ型胶原蛋白的合成,从而抑制瘢痕增生。Z%Objective To investigate the effect of antisense oligonucleotide of type Ⅰ procollagen on hypertrophic scar and to explore a new gene therapy to hypertrophic scar.  Methods The scar models were established in 120 nude mice by a microinjection of ASONs1 and ASONs2. All the mice were divided into blank control group (6 mice), RPMI1640 group (6 mice), ASONs1 treatment group (54 mice) and ASONs2 treatment group (54 mice). The latter 2 groups were subdivided into 25, 50 and 100 μg/μl groups which were further assigned into 3 groups, i.e., 7, 10 and 14 days after treatment. The phosphorothioate ASONs1 and ASONs2 for type Ⅰ collagen used in this study were complementary to type Ⅰ collagen mRNA at the translationregion (21 bp) and at the

  16. Experimental and clinical study on treatment of hypertrophic scars with 90Sr radiation%90Sr治疗增生性瘢痕的基础与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支燕; 付晋凤; 袁卫红; 陈斌; 李玲; 危群; 佟颖

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the potential mechanism of preventive and therapeutic effects of 90Sr on hypertrophic scar,and to observe its clinical effect.Methods Fibroblasts isolated from human hypertrophic scar were cultured in vitro and radiated by 90Sr with the dose varying from 0 Gy ( control group)to 5 Gy ( LD group),10 Gy ( MD group),and 15 Gy ( HD group).The cell cycle and apoptosis rate were determined by flow cytometry at post radiation hour ( PRH ) 24,48,and 72,The concentration of type Ⅰ collagen in cell supernatant was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ).Therapeutic effects of 90Sr radiation were evaluated among 348 patients with hypertrophic scars,40 patients with keloids,and 114 patients for scar prevention after surgical operation.The number of fibroblasts after HE staining was compared among normal skin tissue,hypertrophic scar,and hypertrophic scar treated with 90Sr radiation.Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and q test,Results (1)Apoptotic rates in MD and HD groups at PRH 48 were higher than those at PRH 24,and the apoptotic rate was similar between MD group and HD group at PRH 72.Apoptotic rate in LD group at PRH 48 was significantly higher than that at PRH 24,but it decreased rapidly at PRH 72,which was significantly lower than those in MD and HD groups ( with F values all equal to 916.711,P values all below 0.01 ).( 2 ) At PRH 24,cell ratios of each phase in LD and HD groups were similar,and cell ratio of S phase in HD group [ (48.1 ± 1.0)% ] was higher than those in the other three groups ( with F values all equal to 200.277,P values all below 0.01 ).At PRH 72,cell ratio of S phase in MD and HD) groups was respectively ( 85.7 ± 5.2 ) %,( 73.0 ± 8.4 ) %.implying that cells were blocked in S phase,and the values were all higher than those in control and LD groups ( with F values all equal to 111.105,P values all below 0.01 ).(3) At the same time point,the concentration of type Ⅰ collagen decreased

  17. Effect of skin multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment on abdominal burn hypertrophic scar%皮肤康复综合治疗腹部瘢痕增生的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 卢军玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of skin multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment on abdominal burn hypertrophic scar. Methods Sixty abdominal burned deep Ⅱ degree patients were randomly divided into control, treatment, and improved group, 20 cases for each. Comprehensive treatment and effect observation began after skin wound healed. In control group, asiaticoside ointment was applied to the scar once a day. In treatment group, Chinese herbal medicine ion spray machine spray treatment with asiaticoside ointment massage was applied to scar firstly, and then the Chinese herbal medicine mask was used for 30 min, washed and coated with a little asiaticoside ointment at last. In improved group, BA2008-I intermediate frequency treatment instrument was firstly used on the scar, 20 min once a time, after that, the treatment group as well. Those treatments required 5 courses, 10 times for each.Results After 6 months skin rehabilitation treatment, the cure rates in the improved,treatment and control group were, 80%, 60% and 10%, respectively and the three groups showed statistically significant differences with each other. Conclusions In comparison with traditional sethods, skin multidisciplinary rehabilitation treatment showed significant efficacy on preventing and promoting softening of the abdominal burn hypertrophic scars.%目的 探讨皮肤康复综合治疗对减轻烧伤后腹部皮肤瘢痕增生的作用.方法 将腹部深Ⅱ度烧伤患者60例随机分为对照、治疗、改进3个组,每组20例,创面愈合后即开始皮肤康复治疗并进行观察.对照组外用积雪苷霜软膏,涂于瘢痕处,每日1次.治疗组利用中草药离子喷雾机对瘢痕进行喷雾,以适量积雪苷霜软膏进行按摩,然后涂中草药化斑面膜30 min,洗净后再涂少许积雪苷霜软膏.改进组先采用BA2008-I电脑中频治疗仪对瘢痕处进行护理每次20 min,此后操作同治疗组.10次为一疗程,连续治疗5个疗程.结果

  18. 早期注射丹参酮ⅡA磺酸钠可抑制兔耳增生性瘢痕%Early application of sodium tanshinoneⅡA sulfonate can depress hypertrophic scar of rabbit ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 欧斌贤; 蒙诚跃

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium tans hinone 0 Asulfonate (STS) play effects on anti-oxidant. And depression of fibration.OBJECT FVE: To investigate the effect of early injection of STS on hypertrophic scar (HS) of rabbit ear.METHODS: Scar model were established by removing the skin and perichondrium in rabbits ears on facies ventralt;. STS0.05 mg. 0.1 mg. 0.2 mg (or 40ul normal saline, respectiveiy, experimental groups), normal saline 40 μL(control group) wereinjected into early rabbits ears scars, once a week. 3 weeks all together.RESULT SAND CONCLUSION: After 3 weeks STS injection, the hyperplasia and the thickness were decreased; the quantity ofwere decreased under electron microscope. That indicated that earrly STS injection could depress HS in rabbits scar ears.%背景:丹参酮ⅡA磺酸钠具有抗氧化、抑制纤维化等作用.目的:观察丹参酮ⅡA磺酸钠早期局部注射对兔耳增生性瘢痕的影响.方法:于兔耳腹侧面切除全层皮肤及软骨膜建立瘢痕模型,造模后28 d,分别在创面瘢痕内注射0.05,0.1,0.2 mg的丹参酮ⅡA磺酸钠或生理盐水,每周注射1次,共3周.结果与结论:丹参酮ⅡA磺酸钠注射3周,兔耳瘢痕增生较轻,瘢痕厚度变薄;苏木精-伊红染色见瘢痕组织中胶原纤维减少,血管数目减少;Masson染色检测见瘢痕组织胶原纤维分布面积减少;电镜下瘢痕组织成纤维细胞数量减少,体积相对变小.说明早期注射丹参酮ⅡA磺酸钠对兔耳瘢痕增生有抑制作用.

  19. 人增生性瘢痕组织内下丘脑—垂体—肾上腺皮质轴成分的表达%Expression of secretions of bypothalamus-pltuitary-adreanal axis in human hypertrophic scar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思隽; 谢有富; 戴丽冰; 杜高伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression and significance of secretions of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in human hypeorophic scar.Methods Hypertrphic scar tissues obtained from 12 patients with deep-partial thickness burn or full-thickness burn and normal skin tissues from the same 7 patients with hypertrophic scar were harvested for determination of gene expression of corticotrophinreleasing hormone (CRH),CRH receptor 1 (CRH-R1),pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC),melanocortin receptor 2 ( MC-2R),and glucocorticoid receptor α ( GR-α ) by real-time fluorecence quantitative PCR.After addition of corresponding antibodies,distribution differences of CRH,CRH-R1,adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ATCH ),MC-2R,and CR-α were observed with immunohistochemical staining,Data were processed with t test.Results The mRNA expression of CRH,CRH-R1,POMC,and GR-α in hypertrophie scar was respectively 3.1 ± 0.8,0.05 ± 0.03,0.020 ± 0.007,and 0.0030 ± 0.0010,which were significantly lower than those in normal skin ( 20.6 ± 4.7,0.30 ± 0.12,0.060 ± 0.020,and 0.0200 ± 0.0070,with t values from 2.10 to 4.75,P values all below 0.05 ).There was no statistical difference in MC-2R mRNA expression between hypertrophic scar and normal skin ( t=1.48,P =0.15).Immunohiatochemical observation showed CRH,CRH-R1,ACTH,MC-2R,and GR-α in hypertphic scar were located in basal layer of epidermis,fibroblast of dermis,and tube wall of sweat gland.Expressions of these indexes could also be observed in sebaceous gland and hair follicle besides above-mentioned structures.Conclusions Decreasing expression of active material of HPA axis may be related to formation of hypertrophic scar.%目的 探讨增生性瘢痕组织中下丘脑-垂体-肾上腺皮质(HPA)轴成分的表达及意义.方法 应用实时荧光定量PCR法,检测人增生性瘢痕(12例)和正常皮肤(7例)组织中HPA轴的活性物质促肾上腺皮质素释放激素(CRH)、促肾上腺皮质素释放激素受体1(CRH-R1)、阿片-

  20. 腺苷A2A受体基因敲除小鼠瘢痕胶原亚型的变化%Detection of collagens in hypertrophic scars of adenosine receptor A2A knockout mice by picrosirius polarization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖虎; 李少华; 王德昌; 霍然; 王一兵; 冯永强; 李强

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent study shows that the adenosine receptor agonists can promote the collagen synthesis, and the adenosine receptor antagonists can inhibit the collagen synthesis and reduce the proliferation of skin collagen fiber. The expression of transforming growth factorβ (TGF-β) in hypertrophic scar of adenosine A2A knockout mice models is decreased. OBJECTIVE: To observe the changes of collagens in hypertrophic scars of adenosine receptor A2A knockout mice and its mechanism by picric acid-sirius red polarization method. METHODS: The models of hypertrophic scars were made by adenosine A2A knockout mice and wild-type mice. The character and the distribution of the collagen in the hypertrophic scars were observed by picric acid-sirius red polarization method, and the type of the collagen, distribution, arrangement and content was confirmed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A large amount of eosinophilic collagen protein fibers were observed under polarizing microscope in the hypertrophic scars of wild-type control group. Type collagen fibers were in red and compact bunchiness and Ⅰexhibited strong double refraction, the hypertrophic scars of adenosine A2A knockout mice were lack of thick collagen bundles and was in sparse bunchiness, and the collage bundles were well-arranged and well-distributed. Compared with the wild-type control group, adenosine A2A knockout mice showed significantly lower typecollagen fibers levⅠel (P < 0.01), as well as the hypertrophic scars. It indicated that adenosine A2A receptors played an active role in the proliferation of scars and could prevent the proliferation of scars.%背景:作者前期研究发现腺苷受体激动剂可以刺激胶原合成,腺苷受体拮抗剂可以抑制胶原合成,并且可以减轻皮肤胶原纤维增生.腺苷A2A 受体基因敲除小鼠瘢痕转化生长因子β表达降低.目的:利用苦味酸-天狼星红偏振光法观察腺苷A2A 受体基因敲除小鼠瘢痕胶原亚型的变化并

  1. Expression and significance ofα-smooth muscle actin and plaminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the hyper-trophic scar%α-平滑肌肌动蛋白及纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1在增生性瘢痕中的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周璐; 范巨峰

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过检测分析α-平滑肌肌动蛋白及纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1在增生性瘢痕及正常皮肤组织中表达的差异,阐明α-平滑肌肌动蛋白及纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1与增生性瘢痕的关系及意义。方法通过荧光免疫组织化学的方法检测9例增生性瘢痕和9例正常皮肤组织中α-平滑肌肌动蛋白和纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1的含量与分布,用共聚焦显微镜观察并拍照,用 ImageJ 软件处理共聚焦显微镜图像分别获得正常皮肤组织与增生性瘢痕中α-平滑肌肌动蛋白和纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1的平均荧光强度。通过荧光免疫组化、共聚焦显微镜及 ImageJ 软件3种方法,定量分析α-平滑肌肌动蛋白和纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1与增生性瘢痕的关系。结果α-平滑肌肌动蛋白和纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1在正常组织与增生性瘢痕组织中均有表达,但表达量及分布有所差别。通过分析荧光免疫组化图像中α-平滑肌肌动蛋白和纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1的平均荧光强度发现:①α-平滑肌肌动蛋白在增生性瘢痕中的表达量较正常皮肤组织明显增高,差异有显著的统计学意义(P 0.01)。结论在正常皮肤与增生性瘢痕中,均有α-平滑肌肌动蛋白和纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1的表达,α-平滑肌肌动蛋白在增生性瘢痕中的表达量明显高于正常皮肤组织,表明α-平滑肌肌动蛋白对增生性瘢痕的形成有一定意义;纤溶酶原激活物抑制物-1在增生性瘢痕与正常皮肤组织中的表达量差异无明的显统计学意义。%Objective Expression and significance ofα-smooth muscle actin and plaminogen activator inhibitor-1 in hypertrophic scar.To illustrate the expression and significance ofα-smooth muscle actin and plaminogen activator inhibitor-1 in hypertrophic scar,we detect and analyze the expression quantity of α- and plaminogen activator inhibitor

  2. Study on BTXA on the expression of TGF-β1 and collagenⅠin hypertrophic scar%A型肉毒毒素对增生性瘢痕组织中TGF-β1和Ⅰ型胶原蛋白mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武凤莲; 朱东来; 蒋韬; 王连英

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨A型肉毒毒素(botulinum toxin A,BTXA)对增生性瘢痕组织成纤维细胞中TGF-β1和Ⅰ型胶原蛋白表达的影响。方法:组织块法培养增生性瘢痕组织及正常皮肤组织的成纤维细胞,用不同浓度的BTXA作用于体外培养的人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞,检测MTT值;将浓度为0.2U/ml、0.4U/ml、0.8U/mlBTXA作用于增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞48h,利用RT-PCR检测BTXA对TGF-β1和Ⅰ型胶原蛋白mRNA的表达量。结果:BTXA在体外能明显抑制增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的增殖,随着药物浓度的增加及时间的延长,其抑制作用明显增强,能够减少TGF-β1和Ⅰ型胶原蛋白mRNA的表达,且随着药物浓度的增加,TGF-β1和Ⅰ型胶原蛋白mRNA的表达量呈下降趋势。结论:BTXA通过抑制瘢痕组织中成纤维细胞的增殖,减少TGF-β1和Ⅰ型胶原蛋白mRNA的表达,减少细胞外基质的异常沉积来影响增生性瘢痕的形成。%Objective To investigate the effect of botulinum toxin A (BTXA)on the expression of TGF-β1 and collagenⅠin hypertrophic scar fibroblast. Methods After treated with different concertrations of BTXA,the inhibition rate of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were detected by MTT assay,0.2U/ml,0.4 U/ml and 0.8U/ml of BTXA was added in cultured hypertrophic scar fibroblast for 48h,the expression of TGF-β1 and collagenⅠin hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was respectively detected with RT-PCR. Results BTXA can significantly inhibit the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibroblast,and the expression of TGF-β1and collagenⅠcould be inhibited significantly,the levels of the proliferation of hypertrophic scar fibro⁃blast and the expression of TGF-β1 and collagenⅠdecreased along with the increase in BTXA concer⁃tration. Conclusion BTXA inhibits hypertrophic scar formation through inhibiting the proliferation of hy⁃pertrophic scar fibroblast and down-regulating the expression of TGF-β1 and

  3. Pirfenidone effects on human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts cultured in vitro%细胞因子抑制剂吡非尼酮对体外培养人瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝蔚; 李孝建; 纪雪亮; 易先锋; 刘衍智; 涂荣梅

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that cytokine inhibitor pirfenidone can inhibit biological activity of fibroblasts by regulating a variety of cytokines. It has made good progress in the research and application of anti-fibrosis of internal organs, but the effect and mechanism for hypertrophic scars and skin fibroblasts are unclear. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of pirfenidone on human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. METHODS:Human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were cultured using tissue culture method. Passages 3-6 cel s grew wel in the logarithmic growth phase were col ected. Cel s were divided into the control group (0 g/L pirfenidone), 0.15, 0.3 and 1 g/L pirfenidone groups according to different mass concentrations. Cel s were intervened for 12, 36 and 48 hours. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:MTT, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results demonstrated that compared with the control group, cel proliferation, transforming growth factorβ1 mRNA expression, types I and III col agen secretion were decreased in the 0.15, 0.3 and 1 g/L pirfenidone groups (P<0.05), and the decrease was most significant in the 1 g/L pirfenidone group (P<0.05). At 24, 48 and 72 hours after intervention, significant differences in inhibitory rate of cel proliferation and the secretion of types I and III col agen were detected among 0.15, 0.3 and 1 g/L pirfenidone groups (P<0.05). Results confirmed that pirfenidone apparently inhibited the secretion of col agen of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts cultured in vitro, transforming growth factorβ1 expression and cel proliferation and viability.%背景:有研究表明细胞因子抑制剂吡非尼酮通过调控多种细胞因子,抑制成纤维细胞的生物学活性,其在内脏器官的抗纤维化作用的研究和应用取得了良好的进展,但对于皮肤增生性瘢痕及成纤维细胞是否有影响及其机制尚不清楚。目的:观察细胞因子抑制剂吡非尼酮对人

  4. The therapy function of low concentration 5-Fu associate with steroid to hypertrophic scar%低浓度5-氟尿嘧啶联合糖皮质激素在增生性瘢痕的应用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭东

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察低浓度5-氟尿嘧啶与糖皮质激素联合局部注射治疗增生性瘢痕的疗效及安全性.方法 研究分两组,单纯激素治疗组48例增生性瘢痕患者进行单纯曲安奈德注射瘢痕内注射,1次/2周.联合治疗组42例增生性瘢痕患者将0.6 m1 5-FU与5 ml曲安奈德、1ml 2%利多卡因混合后局部注射于瘢痕全层,1次/2~4周.瘢痕完全萎缩后逐渐降低药物浓度并延长注射间歇期.结果 在治疗6个月以上的患者中,5-氟尿嘧啶联合糖皮质激素治疗增生性瘢痕的总有效率为97.62%,其中完全缓解者占45.23%,极大缓解者占47.62%,部分缓解者占4.72%,未缓解者为2.38%.结论 低浓度5-氟尿嘧啶与糖皮质激素联合局部注射治疗增生性瘢痕的疗效显著.%Objective To monitor the therapeutic action and security of 5-FU associate with steroid injected to hypertrophic scar. Methods 48 patients was treated merely with corticosteroid injection to hypertrophic scar, once/2weeks. The other 42 patients around sternal area were treated with intralesional injection of a mixture of 0.6 ml 5-FU ,5 ml corticosteroid and 1 ml 2% lidocaine once per 2-4 weeks. After hypertrophic scar became flattened, drug concentration was decreased with prolonged intermission of drug injection. Results The total therapy efficacy of 5-FU associate with steroid to hypertrophic scar is 97.62%. Of them the complete remission percentage is 45.23%, the large remission percentage is 47.62%, part remission percentage is 4.72%, and the inefficacy percentage is 2.38%. Conclusion It is more effective that the combination therapy to hypertrophic scar of low concentration 5-FU and steroid.

  5. 蛇床子素干预人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖及转化生长因子β1的表达%Effects of osthole on fibroblast proliferation and transforming growth factor beta 1 expression in hypertrophic scar tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓华; 陈虹; 曹波

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osthole exhibits inhibitory effects on human fibroblast proliferation and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-1) expression in hypertrophic scar tissue, but the precise mechanisms remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of osthole on human fibroblast proliferation and TGF-1 expression in hypertrophic scar tissue. METHODS: Human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts cells were cultured in vitro and then treated by osthole at different concentrations. The growth inhibitory effects were observed by MTT assay and cell growth curve. The expression of TGF-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Osthole could obviously inhibit the growth of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. MTT assay showed that osthole IC50 value toward hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was 15.2±2.0 μmol/L. Furthermore, the results of cell growth curve matched with the above results. Immunohistochemistry results showed that osthole could obviously inhibit TGF-1 expression in the fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar tissue compared with the control group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that osthole strongly inhibits the growth of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts and decreases the expression of TGF-1.%背景:蛇床子素对体外培养人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖和细胞分泌的转化生长因子β1 有抑制作用,但其具体作用机制尚待进一步研究.目的:体外观察蛇床子素对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖以及对细胞转化生长因子β1 的影响.方法:体外原代培养人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞,以不同浓度的蛇床子素作用于成纤维细胞,观察细胞形态的变化,应用MTT 法和生长曲线法检测蛇床子素对细胞增殖活性的影响.免疫组织化学检测细胞转化生长因子β1 的表达.结果与结论:蛇床子素能明显抑制人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的生长.MTT 法检测的IC50 为(15.2±2.0) μmol/L,可以明显下

  6. Fillers for the improvement in acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollina U

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Uwe Wollina,1 Alberto Goldman2 1Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital, Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Acne is a common inflammatory disease. Scarring is an unwanted end point of acne. Both atrophic and hypertrophic scar types occur. Soft-tissue augmentation aims to improve atrophic scars. In this review, we will focus on the use of dermal fillers for acne scar improvement. Therefore, various filler types are characterized, and available data on their use in acne scar improvement are analyzed. Keywords: acne, scars, dermal fillers, injection, extracellular matrix

  7. The study on the fibroblasts biology in the hypertrophic scar formation and progression%增生性瘢痕发生和演变过程中成纤维细胞生物学功能变化及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江万里; 林炜栋; 钱雄; 刘伟伟; 吴昊; 王西樵; 陆树良; 陈向芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of fibroblast biology in the progression of human hypertrophic scar progression. Methods The human hypertrophic scar of different stage as early, proliferative,regressive and mature scars were harvested and processed for HE staining and cell isolation. The isolated fibroblasts were cultured, and the total RNA was extracted for mRNA detection of TGF- β1, VEGF and collagen Ⅰ,Ⅲ. Normal skin as control was included in the analysis. Results HE staining showed that in normal skin there was small amount of fibroblasts and microvessels which increased in early scar, and some inflammatory cells could be seen in this stage. There was a large amount of microvessels and fibroblasts in proliferative scar and decreased in regressive scar with microvessels partially or totally occluded. In mature scar, there was a small amount of microvessels and fibroblasts which was more like normal skin. RT-PCR detection revealed that in normal fibroblasts there was lower expression of TGF-β1, VEGF, collagen Ⅰ, and collagen Ⅲ mRNA and increased in early scar. In hypertrophic scar, four cytokines mRNA expression reached a peak, and then decreased significantly in the regressive scar. The lowest level of expression was seen in mature scar. Conclusion The fibroblast biology changed in the scar progression which elevated in scar f'ormation and decreased in scar progression.%目的 探索增生性瘢痕在发生和演变过程中,成纤维细胞生物学功能变化的规律及其意义.方法 选取人不同时期增生性瘢痕组织和正常皮肤组织,进行HE染色观察.另外,分离和培养不同时期瘢痕和正常皮肤中成纤维细胞,RT-PCR分别检测成纤维细胞在转移生长因子(TGF-β1)、血管内皮细胞生长因子(VEGF)、和Ⅰ、Ⅲ胶原mRNA表达水平的变化.结果 HE染色可见正常皮肤细胞和微血管数目较少,早期瘢痕增多,炎症细胞浸润明显.增生期瘢痕成纤维细胞和微血管增多.

  8. Effects of Abnormal Savda Munziq-Total Flavonoids (ASMq-TF)on the migration ability of fibroblasts derived from Hypertrophic Scar in vitro%ASMq-TF对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞迁移能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王虎军; 钱璇; 方荃; 马少林

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨维药异常胆质成熟剂提取物总黄酮(Abnormal Savda Munziq-Total Flavonoids,ASMq-TF)在体外对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞(Hypertrophic scar,Fibrofblasts,HSFbs)迁移能力的影响。方法培养人来源增生性瘢痕和正常皮肤成纤维细胞,将实验设计分为6组:正常皮肤组、空白对照组、实验组(ASMq-TF 0.2、0.35、0.5 mg/mL)和5-氟尿嘧啶(0.25 mg/mL)阳性组;通过细胞划痕实验方法,分别在24、48 h后,观察ASMq-TF对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的迁移率的影响。结果在同一时间,与正常皮肤组比较,空白对照组增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的迁移率明显增加(P <0.05);与空白对照组比较,随着实验组 ASMq-TF浓度的增加,增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞迁移率逐渐减少(P <0.05);与ASMq-TF 0.2 mg/mL实验组比较,5-氟尿嘧啶阳性组对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞的迁移率减少(P <0.05)。结论增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞迁移率明显高于正常皮肤成纤维细胞;随着 ASMq-TF浓度的增加,增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞迁移率逐渐被抑制,同时也影响成纤维细胞过度增殖,进一步减少增生性瘢痕形成。%Objective To investigate the effect of Abnormal Savda Munziq-Total Flavonoids (ASMq-TF)on the migratory ability of hypertrophic scar fibroblast in vitro.Methods To primary culture the normal skin and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from human sources in vitro,the experiment was grouped into six:the fibroblast from normal skin group,the fibroblast from hypertrophic scar blank control group and three ex-perimental groups (the different concentration of ASMq-TF was 0.2,0.35,0.5 mg/mL and the postitive control group (treated with 5-FU 0.25 mg/mL)after effect on 24,48 h.cell scratch test method was used to observe the mobility ratio of fibroblasts from hypertrophic scar treated with ASMq-TF.Results There was significant difference

  9. Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor on expressions of collagen and fibronectin in normal skin and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts%碱性成纤维细胞生长因子对增生性瘢痕与正常皮肤成纤维细胞胶原、纤维连接蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋瑞; 卞徽宁; 赖文; 陈德华; 赵克森

    2010-01-01

    hypertrophic scar formation.METHODS:Normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts from tissue biopsies from 5 patients who underwent plastic surgery for repairing hypertrophic scars were isolated and cultured.The expressions of collagen,fibronectin and protein synthesis were detected by RT-PCR and ELISA.The mitochonddal membrane potential changes were measured using JC-1 staining and flow cytometry.Simultaneously,adenosine tdphosphate(ATP)levels were determined by chemiluminescence method.The effects of bFGF on these indexes of normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were observed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Hypertrophic scar fibroblasts become slower after being exposed to bFGF,which selectively inhibited type Ⅰ collagen production in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts(P<0.05).Although bFGF inhibited type]collagen production,it had no effect on type Ⅲ collagen expression in both normal and hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.However,fibronectin expression in the normal fibroblasts was up-reguleted after bFGF treatment(P<0.05).In addition,the mitochonddal membrane potential tended to depolarization,although no statistical difference,in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts treated with bFGF(10 or 100 μg/L).bFGF treatment increased the cellular ATP levels in the normal fibroblasts,while there were no significant alterations in the hypertrophic scar fibroblasts over a treatment of bFGF(10 or 100 μg/L,P<0.05).The results suggest that there are differential effects and mechanisms on the skin fibroblasts with bFGF treatment in normal wound healing and hypertrophic scar formation.

  10. Suppression of scar formation in a murine burn wound model by the application of non-thermal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon Lee, Dae; Lee, Jae-Ok; Jeon, Wonju; Choi, Ihn-Geun; Kim, Jun-Sub; Hoon Jeong, Je; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Hoon Seo, Cheong

    2011-11-01

    Suppression of hypertrophic scar generation in an animal model by treatment with plasma is reported. Contact burn following mechanical stretching was used to induce scar formation in mice. Exposure to the plasma tended to reduce the scar area more rapidly without affecting vitality. The treatment resulted in decreased vascularization in the scar tissue. Plasma-treated scars showed mild decrease in the thickness of hypertrophic tissues as shown by histological assessment. Finally, we showed that plasma treatment induced cell death and reactive oxygen species generation in hypertrophic scar fibroblast. All of the results support that plasma treatment can control scar generation.

  11. Effect of botulinum toxin type A injection on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear model%A型肉毒毒素局部应用对兔耳增生性瘢痕创面愈合和瘢痕增生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 邰宁正; 范志宏

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究A型肉毒毒素对兔耳增生性瘢痕组织的影响.方法 8只日本大耳白兔,体重3 kg,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型.将兔耳创面分为A型肉毒毒素治疗组(T组)和瘢痕组(S组),每组48个创面.大体观察创面愈合时间和瘢痕增生情况.术后28 d,同法另取4只兔子的兔耳腹面健康皮肤为空白组(B组),收集标本.测量S、T组标本HE切片的瘢痕增生指数HI,流式细胞仪分析2组标本中成纤维细胞的细胞周期,western-blot检测S、T、B组标本中Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原的蛋白表达.结果 ①T组标本的瘢痕增生指数HI较S组显著降低,P<0.01;②蛋白水平上,T组的胶原Ⅰ、Ⅲ蛋白表达和胶原Ⅰ/Ⅲ比值均较s组显著降低,P<0.01;③S组分布于G2-M期和S期的成纤维细胞较T组显著增多,而静止期G0-G1的细胞则显著减少,P<0.05.结论 A型肉毒毒素局部应用能抑制兔耳增生瘢痕的形成.抑制成纤维细胞的增殖活性,减少瘢痕组织中Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原的合成,降低胶原Ⅰ/Ⅲ比值,为其治疗增生性瘢痕的临床应用提供了一定的理论依据.%Objective To investigate the effect of botulinum toxin type A (Botox A) injection on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear model. Methods The hypertrophic scar model was established in 16 Japanese rabbits' ears. These wounds were divided into two groups as group T(treated with Botox A, n =48) and group S (not treated, n = 48). The wounds healing times and scar hypertrophy were observed with 8 specimen of normal skin at the rabbit ears as sham group B. HE stain was used to assess the hypertrophic index(HI). The expression of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ was tested by western-blot. The cell cycle of fibroblasts was studied by flow cytometry. Results The [] was significantly lower in group T than in group S(P < 0.01). The expression of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ, as well as the ratio of Ⅰ to Ⅲ, was markedly stronger in group S than in group T(P < 0.01). Compared with group T, more

  12. 牛蒡苷元通过调节 MMP-2,MMP-9表达抑制增生性瘢痕的形成%Arctigenin Preventsthe Formation of Hypertrophic Scars by Reducing the Expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜志超; 王姗; 卢兹凡; 王玉琨; 汪莉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of arctigenin on the formation of hypertrophic scars and the possible mechanism. Methods Twenty-five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: control group, model group, 0. 5 mg / mL arctigenin group, 2 mg / mL arctigenin group and 6 mg / mL arctigenin group. Hypertrophic scars were induced on the ventral surface of rabbit ears and treated with arctigenin at different doses. The wound healing and hyperplasia of the scars were ob-served. The scar tissues were removed for histopathological detection with HE staining, Sirius red staining and Masson staining and for detection of expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 with Western blotting 6 weeks after treatment. Results HE staining, Sirius red staining and Masson staining showed that arctigenin (2 mg / mL) could significantly inhibit the hyperplasia of the scars. The scars were flatter, the number of fibroblasts and the density of collagen were less in the arctigenin-treated groups than in the model group. Western blotting showed that the expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were significantly decreased in 2 mg / mL arctigenin group. Conclusion Arctigenin may prevent the formation of hypertrophic scars by reducing the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9 and it may be used to treat hyperplastic scars.%目的:观察牛蒡苷元对增生性瘢痕(hypertrophic scar)形成的作用,并探讨其抑制增生性瘢痕形成的机制。方法新西兰大耳兔25只,将其分为对照组( A 组),模型组(B 组),牛蒡苷元治疗组(0.5 mg/ ml)(C 组),牛蒡苷元治疗组(2 mg/ ml)(D 组),牛蒡苷元治疗组(6 mg/ ml)(E 组),在兔耳腹侧面建立增生性瘢痕模型,术后按组别进行相应处理,观察创面愈合和瘢痕的增生情况。用药后在第6周取材,进行 HE 染色,天狼猩红染色和 Masson 染色,并用 Western 印迹检测 MMP-2, MMP-9表达情况。结果 HE 染色,天狼星红染色和 Masson 染色结果表明,牛蒡苷元治疗组(2 mg/ ml)可以明显抑制增

  13. 烧伤后不同类型胶原在增生性瘢痕发生中的作用研究%The function of different collogens in hypertrophic scars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘策励; 赵雄飞; 黎鳌; 李世荣

    2001-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was toinvestigate the dynamic changes of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ in the formation of hypertrophic scar afterbum. Method The sirius red and polarizationmicroscopy was used to detected the collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ fibers in scar tissues in vary periods. Radial immunology assay methods were used to evaluatethe contents of procollagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ in vary periodsin HS tissue. Result Collagen Ⅲ fiber is the main collagen in normalskin. There were no collagen fibers been found in granulation tissue. Collagen Ⅰ increased significantly in scar tissue 1 month after burn, increased much more in 3 months than in 1 month. The collagen were nearly thick collagen Iin HS tissue 1.5 year afterburn and only a little collagen Ⅲ were found. The RIA result showed that the ratio of procollagen Ⅰ/Ⅲ were increased gradually but the contents of collagen Ⅲ were much higher than normal skin. Conclusion In the process of HS forming after burn collagen Ⅰ increase and collagen Ⅲ decrease gradually and at last the collagens in HS were almost collagen Ⅰ. The zchanges of procollagcn can not reflect the changes of collagen fibers.%目的观察烧伤后瘢痕形成过程中Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原纤维的动态变化。方法采用苦味酸天狼猩红染色法对不同时期的瘢痕组织进行Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原纤维观察,RIA法对瘢痕组织中的Ⅰ、Ⅲ型前胶原进行检测。结果偏光观察正常皮肤中以Ⅲ型纤维为主,1月以后Ⅰ型纤维明显增加,1年以后的瘢痕组织中几乎全部为粗大的Ⅰ型纤维,极少Ⅲ型纤维。放免结果:Ⅰ/Ⅲ型前胶原比例逐渐增加,但Ⅲ型前胶原的含量仍然较高;晚期瘢痕中Ⅰ、Ⅲ型前胶原含量均显著降低。结论烧伤后瘢痕形成过程中Ⅰ型胶原逐渐增加,Ⅲ型胶原逐渐减少,后期几乎完全为Ⅰ型胶原纤维取代,前胶原的变化与胶原纤维的变化不吻合,不能反映胶原纤维的实际情况。

  14. Acne Scars: Pathogenesis, Classification and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Fabbrocini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne has a prevalence of over 90% among adolescents and persists into adulthood in approximately 12%–14% of cases with psychological and social implications. Possible outcomes of the inflammatory acne lesions are acne scars which, although they can be treated in a number of ways, may have a negative psychological impact on social life and relationships. The main types of acne scars are atrophic and hypertrophic scars. The pathogenesis of acne scarring is still not fully understood, but several hypotheses have been proposed. There are numerous treatments: chemical peels, dermabrasion/microdermabrasion, laser treatment, punch techniques, dermal grafting, needling and combined therapies for atrophic scars: silicone gels, intralesional steroid therapy, cryotherapy, and surgery for hypertrophic and keloidal lesions. This paper summarizes acne scar pathogenesis, classification and treatment options.

  15. The changes of apoptosis rate of fibroblasts and VEGF secretion after the treatment of fractional CO2 laser on hypertrophic scars model in rabbit ear%点阵CO2激光治疗兔耳增生性瘢痕后成纤维细胞凋亡及VEGF变化规律的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭军; 郭君; 李高峰; 朱轶; 丁卫

    2012-01-01

    目的:①通过点阵CO2激光对兔耳增生性瘢痕治疗的实验研究,验证其有效性;②观察点阵CO2激光治疗兔耳增生性瘢痕后治疗组与对照组成纤维细胞凋亡及VEGF表达情况的变化.方法:新西兰大白兔20只双侧耳制作兔耳增生性瘢痕的动物模型并分组,造模后三周治疗组行点阵CO2激光治疗,对照组无干预.两组切取治疗后1h、治疗后3天、7天、14天、28天瘢痕组织,TUNEL法检测成纤维细胞凋亡率变化,免疫组化检测VEGF的表达变化.结果:点阵CO2激光治疗组瘢痕软化、变平所需时间较对照组缩短,治疗后瘢痕组织中成纤维细胞凋亡增多、VEGF表达减少.结论:点阵CO2激光治疗可以促进兔耳增生性瘢痕软化、变平,瘢痕组织中成纤维细胞凋亡增加、VEGF的表达降低,其治疗增生性瘢痕的机理之一可能在于其启动了增生性瘢痕中过度增殖的成纤维细胞的凋亡程序,加速凋亡,进而影响VEGF的表达,促进瘢痕的萎缩.%Objective To prove the efficacy of fractional CO2 laser on hypertrophic scars in the rabbit ear model and analyse the changes of the apoptosis rate of fibroblasts and VEGF secretion after the treatment of fractional CO2 laser on hypertrophic scars. Methods Establish the hypertrophic scar models on rabbit ear in 20 rabbits.Set the treatment group and control group randomly.The treatment group were treated with fractional CO2 laser three weeks after the surgery,the control group got no special treatment.Take photos on day 1,3,7,14,28 after the laser treatment group got the laser treatment and cut off the scar specimen. To detect the the changs of the fibroblasts apoptosis rate with TUNEL and the changs of VEGF with ElivisionTM plus immunohistochemical method. Results The time of hyprotrophic scar became soft and smooth in treatment group is shorter than in control group.Fibroblast apoptosis rate increase and VEGF expression decrease after the laser treatment

  16. Effect of 15-deoxy-△~(12,14)-prostagliandxin J2 on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear%15-脱氧-△~(12,14)-前列腺素J2对兔耳增生性瘢痕的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘姝; 李叶扬; 方力; 梁佩红; 戴丽冰; 李建平; 张琰; 李罡; 张涛

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨r过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体(peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-r,PPAR-r)的配体15-脱氧-△~(12,14)-前列腺素J2(15-deoxy-△~(12,14)-prostagliandxin J2,15d-PGJ2)对兔耳增生性瘢痕Ⅰ型胶原、结缔组织生长因子(connective tissue growth factor,CTGF)、a平滑肌肌动蛋白(a-smooth muscle actin,a-SMA)表达的影响,探讨15d-PGJ2防治增生性瘢痕的可能性.方法 选取新西兰大白兔18只,在兔耳腹侧面制作2 cm× 3 cm全层皮肤缺损创面,每耳2个,共计72个,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕动物模型,随机分为2组,一组为实验组,另一组为对照组,分别用15d-PGJ2和生理盐水行瘢痕内注射,1次/d,共7次.停药后第7、14、21天两组同时取材;每组每次切取12个组织块.应用免疫组织化学检测Ⅰ型胶原、CTGF和a-SMA的表达.结果 各组兔耳腹侧创面愈合后均不同程度出现类似人增生性瘢痕的组织块.与对照组相比,15d-PGJ2注射后瘢痕体积缩小,变软变平,色泽轻度变浅.在各个时间点15d-PGJ2组Ⅰ型胶原、CTGF和a-SMA的表达均较对照组低,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 PPAR-r的配体15d-PGJ2可降低瘢痕内Ⅰ型胶原、CTGF和a-SMA的含量,引起瘢痕萎缩,有一定防治瘢痕的作用,可能为临床治疗增生性瘢痕提供一条新的途径.%Objective To investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on the expression of collagen type,CTGF and a-SMA in the hypertrophic scar in the rabbit ear,and the possibility of hypertrophic scar treated by 15d-PGJ2.Methods 18 New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish a hypertrophic scar model on the rabbit ear.The wounds were established as follows:2 cm × 3 cm wounds with total skin loses on the ventral side,2 wounds for each ear,totally 72 wounds.The wounds were randomly divided into the 15d-PGJ2 treatment group and NS control group.20μl 15d-PGJ2 or NS was injected into the ear scar once a day for 7 days.At 7,14 and 21 days after the

  17. Overview of Surgical Scar Prevention and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram

    2014-01-01

    Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by...

  18. Microtubule stabilization reduces scarring and causes axon regeneration after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Hellal (Farida); A. Hurtado (Andres); J. Ruschel (Jörg); K.C. Flynn (Kevin); C.J. Laskowski (Claudia); M. Umlauf (Martina); L.C. Kapitein (Lukas); D. Strikis (Dinara); V. Lemmon (Vance); J. Bixby (John); C.C. Hoogenraad (Casper); F. Bradke (Frank)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHypertrophic scarring and poor intrinsic axon growth capacity constitute major obstacles for spinal cord repair. These processes are tightly regulated by microtubule dynamics. Here, moderate microtubule stabilization decreased scar formation after spinal cord injury in rodents through va

  19. 深Ⅱ度烧伤愈合后Bcl-xl、Bax蛋白表达与增生性瘢痕的相关性%The relationship of hypertrophic scar with the expression of Bcl-xl and Bax proteins in deep Ⅱ burns coalesce skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泰然; 王振宇; 孟庆延; 骆宁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨Bcl-xl和Bax蛋白在深Ⅱ度烧伤愈合后不同时期增生性瘢痕中的表达特点.方法 人深Ⅱ度烧伤愈合后不同时期的增生性瘢痕皮肤40例,正常皮肤组织10例.分为增生期组、减退早期组、减退晚期组、成熟期组,正常对照组.免疫组织化学染色,检测Bcl-xl和Bax蛋白的表达.结果 深Ⅱ度烧伤创面愈合后,Bcl-xl和Bax蛋白主要表达于表皮基底细胞和真皮层成纤维细胞,增生期和减退早期Bcl-xl和Bax蛋白产物光密度值明显高于正常皮肤(P<0.01),减退晚期和成熟期随瘢痕成熟而逐渐递减接近正常皮肤.结论 Bcl-xl和Bax蛋白表达与深Ⅱ度烧伤创面愈合后增生性瘢痕的发生和瘢痕成熟相关.%Objective To study the expression and histological distribution of apoptosis-related gene Bel-xl and Bax in hypertrophic scars (HS) in deep Ⅱ burns coalesce skin. Method Ten specimens of normal skin (NS), 40 skin specimens of hypertrophic scars (HS) in deep II bums coalesce skin were divided into four groups: hypertrophic phase group (1-6 months after burned), early hypotrophic group (7-12 months after burned), later hypotrophic group (13-18 months after burned) and full recovered stage group (longer than 18 months). Immunochemistry was used to detect the expressions of Bcl-xl and Bax protein. Results The Bcl-xl and Bax positive product was found mainly in the fibroblast cytoplasm and nucleus of the basal layer in normal skin and deep II burns coalesce skin. The average optical density values of Bcl-xl and Bax protein product were significantly higher in the hypertrophic phase group and early hypotrophic group than in control group (P< 0.01), but decreased gradually to normal skin in later hypotrophic group and full recovered stage group. Conclusion The expressions of Bcl-xl and Bax proteins are related to the occurrence of hvpertrophic scars and wound healing in deep II burns coalesce skin.

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Ethosomes Encapsulated with 5-Fluorouracil on Human Hypertrophic Scar Fibroblasts%5-氟尿嘧啶醇脂体抑制瘢痕成纤维细胞的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铮; 沃雁; 张振; 毛小慧; 苏薇洁; 濮哲铭; 张艳; 章一新

    2014-01-01

    目的:构建纳米级载5-氟尿嘧啶醇脂体(5-FU ES),观察其对瘢痕成纤维细胞的抑制作用。方法采用Touitou法制备5-FU ES悬液并进行质量评价。体外培养增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞,荧光素RhoB标记醇脂体,进行体外透细胞实验,以水醇溶液为对照。激光共聚焦显微镜(CLSM)观察不同作用时间后细胞内荧光分布和强度。CCK-8检测不同浓度5-FU ES对成纤维细胞活性的影响,计算载5-FU ES对成纤维细胞活性的半数抑制浓度(IC50)。CCK-8检测醇脂体对瘢痕成纤维细胞生长的影响。结果制备所得5-FU ES粒径为(87.5±5.4) nm,分散系数为0.151±0.27,包封率为(10.03±2.12)%。 CLSM图像显示,醇脂体促进RhoB进入细胞内,可见荧光分布和强度均较水醇溶液组增多增强;经Image-Pro Plus 6.0图像分析软件计算单位面积光密度值,RhoB标记醇脂体组(Rho ES)细胞内荧光光密度显著高于水醇溶液组(Rho HA)(P<0.01)。随着5-FU浓度增加,5-FU HA 和5-FU ES对成纤维细胞的生长抑制率逐渐增强;5-FU ES和5-FU HA对成纤维细胞的半数抑制浓度(IC50)分别为(9.2582±1.2329)μg/mL和(18.0352±2.3145)μg/mL,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时,醇脂体本身对细胞活性无明显抑制作用。结论醇脂体可有效携带5-FU向瘢痕成纤维细胞内递送,促进5-FU对成纤维细胞的活性抑制作用。醇脂体作为经皮给药载体,是一种安全有效的透细胞药物载体。%Objective To establish ethosomes encapsulated with 5-Fluorouracil and to explore the inhibitory effects of 5-FU on human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Methods Ethosomes encapsulated with 5-Fluorouracil was prepared by Touitou method and was evaluated. Human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were cultured in vitro, the penetration of the fluorescent probes into fibroblasts was examined by CLSM, and hydroalcoholic solution was

  1. The effect of the anti-allergic agent avil on abnormal scar fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, J; Ramakrishnan, M; Habibullah, C M; Babu, M

    1999-05-01

    Abnormal wound healing in humans leads to the formation of hypertrophic scar and keloids. These abnormal scars accumulate excessive extracellular matrix proteins through increased synthesis as well as decreased degradation. In order to find a therapeutic control for scar formation, we investigated the effect of avil (pheniramine maleate) on fibroblasts cultured from abnormal scars in comparison to normal skin. We observed a decrease in the proliferation rate in cells from normal skin (39%), hypertrophic scar (44%), keloid (63%) and in DNA synthesis in cells from normal skin (50%), hypertrophic scar (55%) and keloid (63%) treated with 8 mM avil (72 h). The rate of decrease in collagen synthesis in normal skin (44%), hypertrophic scar (74%) and keloid fibroblast (73%) correlated with changes in DNA synthesis.

  2. PPAR-γ激动剂15d-PGJ2对兔耳增生性瘢痕的影响%Effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activator 15d-PGJ2 on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘姝; 赵孝开; 谢有富; 方力; 戴丽冰

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体-γ(peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ, PPAR-γ)的配体l5-脱氧-△12,14-前列腺素J2(15-deoxy-△12,14-prostagliandxin J2,15d-PGJ2)对兔耳增生性瘢痕CD34及转化生长因子-β1(transforming growth factor-β1,TGF-β1)的影响,探讨15d-PGJ2防治增生性瘢痕的机制和可行性。方法选取新西兰大白兔9只,在兔耳腹侧面制作2 cm×2 cm全层皮肤缺损创面,每耳2个,共计36个,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕动物模型,随机分为实验组和对照组,分别用15d-PGJ2及生理盐水行瘢痕内注射,1次/d,连续注射7 d。停止注射后第3、6、17天取材。应用免疫组织化学方法检测CD34和TGF-β1的表达。结果兔耳创面愈合后均出现不同程度类似人增生性瘢痕组织块,与对照组比较,实验组注射15d-PGJ2后瘢痕逐渐变平变软,颜色变浅,在各时间点CD34及TGF-β1的表达均较对照组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 PPAR-γ的配体15d-PGJ2可减少瘢痕内CD34、TGF-β1的含量,引起瘢痕萎缩,有一定的防治瘢痕增生的作用,为其治疗增生性瘢痕的临床应用提供了一定的理论依据。%Objective To investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on the expression of CD34 and TGF-β1 on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear and the possibility of hypertrophic scar treated by 15d-PGJ2. Methods 9 New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish a hypertrophic scar model on the rabbit ear.The wounds were established as follows:2 cm×2 cm wounds with total skin loses on the ventral side, 2 wounds for each ear, totally 36 wounds. The wounds were randomly divided into the 15d-PGJ2 treatment group and normal saline control group. 10μl 15d-PGJ2 or normal saline was injected into the ear scar once a day for 7 days. At 3, 6 and 17 days after the injection, the expression of CD34 and TGF-β1 was detected by immunohistochemical method. Results

  3. l5-脱氧-△12,14-前列腺素J2对兔耳增生性瘢痕转化生长因子-β1及微血管的影响%Effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γactivator 15d-PGJ2 on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘姝; 赵孝开; 谢有富; 方力; 戴丽冰

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体-γ的配体l5-脱氧-△12,14-前列腺素 J2对兔耳增生性瘢痕CD34及转化生长因子-β1(transforming growth factor-β1,TGF-β1)的影响,探讨15d-PGJ2防治增生性瘢痕的机制和可行性。方法选取新西兰大白兔9只,在兔耳腹侧面制作2cm ×2cm全层皮肤缺损创面,每耳2个,共计36个,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕动物模型,随机分为实验组和对照组,分别用15d-PGJ2及生理盐水行瘢痕内注射,1次/d ,连续注射7d。停止注射后第3、6、17天取材。应用免疫组织化学方法检测CD34和 TGF-β1的表达。结果兔耳创面愈合后均出现不同程度类似人增生性瘢痕组织块,与对照组比较,实验组注射15d-PGJ2后瘢痕逐渐变平变软,颜色变浅。在各时间点CD34及TGF-β1的表达均较对照组低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 PPAR-γ的配体15d-PGJ2可减少瘢痕内CD34、TGF-β1的含量,引起瘢痕萎缩,有一定的防治瘢痕增生的作用,为其治疗增生性瘢痕的临床应用提供了一定的理论依据。%Objective To investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on the expression of CD34 ,TGF-β1 andα-SMA on hypertrophic scar in rabbit ear and the possibility of hypertrophic scar treated by 15d-PGJ2.Methods 9 New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish a hypertrophic scar model on the rabbit ear .The wounds were established as follows :2cm × 2cm wounds with total skin loses on the ventral side ,2 wounds for each ear ,totally 36 wounds .The wounds were randomly divided into the 15d-PGJ2 treatment group and normal saline control group .10μL 15d-PGJ2 or normal saline was injected into the ear scar once a day for 7 days .At 3 ,6 and 17 days after the injection .The expression of CD34 and TGF-β1 was detected by immuno-histochemical method .Results Excessive dermal scars on rabbit ear that were similar to human hypertrophic scar appeared in the two

  4. Experimental research of correlation between anatomy structure of rabbit ear and creating hypertrophic scar animal model%兔耳解剖特点与成功建立增生性瘢痕模型的相关性实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱桂英; 徐斌; 蔡景龙

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察兔耳不同部位的解剖结构特点,探讨不同手术方式以及术后处理方法对兔耳增生性瘢痕形成的影响,为成功建立增生性瘢痕动物模型提供理论依据.方法 新西兰白兔25只,切取5只兔10只耳60份全层组织标本,进行正常组织学观察;20只兔40只耳,每只兔耳腹侧各建立直径为8mm的全层皮肤缺损6个,总计240个创面.其中10只兔120个创面随机分为4组,手术后7d给予不同处理;另外10只兔120个创面术后不做处理.连续观察创面愈合以及瘢痕增生情况6个月,分别于手术后4、8周留取瘢痕组织行病理学检查和测量瘢痕增生指数.结果 正常兔耳不同部位的解剖结构特点不一致;建立兔耳瘢痕模型,部位宜选择在双侧兔耳腹侧内侧缘中、下侣部位,创伤深度宜破坏软骨膜,瘢痕形成率高,瘢痕增生指数高,持续时间长;术后剥痂可促进创面愈合,不利于瘢痕形成与增生.结论 兔耳自身的解剖结构特点与成功建立增生性瘢痕模型有一定的相关性,选择合适的建模部位、合理的创伤深度、术后恰当的处理均可影响瘢痕的形成和增生程度,可以提高增生性瘢痕建模成功率.%Objective To observe the anatomy structure of rabbit ear and the effect of different operation methods and post-operative treatments on the formation of hypertrophic scar.Methods The experimental animals were 25 New Zealand white rabbits.6 pieces of full skin specimens were obtained from each of the ears in 5 rabbits for histoiogical examination.6 full-thickness skin wounds(d=8 mm)were made on different sites of ventral side of each ear in the other 20 rabbits.The total number of the wounds was 240.120 wounds in 10 rabbits were divided into 4 groups randomly to receive different treatments on day 7 postoperatively.No treatment was performed in the other 120 wounds.The wounds healing and the scar formation were observed for six months.The scars were

  5. Preliminary research on the relationship between inhibitory effect of Triamcinolone Acetonide on hypertrophic scar and oxygen free radicals in rabbits%曲安奈德抑制兔耳瘢痕增生与氧自由基作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫; 李伟人; 孔豫苏; 王伟

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解曲安奈德局部注射对兔耳增生性瘢痕组织中丙二醛含量的影响,并探讨曲安奈德抑制兔耳增生性瘢痕的作用与氧自由基的关系. 方法 新西兰兔共18只,随机选取其中的14只制作兔耳增生性瘢痕模型,4只作为正常兔耳皮肤组织标本,共8例;兔耳增生性瘢痕组织标本28例,随机分为曲安奈德组(10例)、生理盐水组(10例)、空白对照组(8例).制模术后6周予曲安奈德原液(1 ml:40 mg)分点注射于瘢痕样组织内,每处2~3点,总量0.3~0.4 ml,每周1次,3次为一疗程.制模术后9周取材,显微镜下记数成纤维细胞,并用测微尺测量瘢痕的相对增生厚度,以计算瘢痕增生指数,采用分光光度法测定丙二醛含量变化. 结果 ①大体形态学变化:曲安奈德局部治疗3周后,瘢痕颜色接近兔耳的正常肤色,略高出皮面,表面平整,触之质软.②组织学变化:与空白对照组、生理盐水组比较,曲安奈德组胶原纤维多为平行排列,数量减少.③成纤维细胞密度与瘢痕增生指数变化:与正常皮肤组比较,空白对照组以及生理盐水组成纤维细胞密度增高(P<0.05),而曲安奈德组则无显著性差异(P>0.05);生理盐水组与空白对照组间成纤维细胞密度及瘢痕增生指数比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),与此两组比较,曲安奈德组则显著降低(P<0.05).④丙二醛含量变化:与空白对照组、生理盐水组、正常皮肤组比较,曲安奈德组丙二醛含量明显增高(P<0.05);生理盐水组与空白对照组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);与正常皮肤组比较,空白对照组和生理盐水组丙二醛含量增高(P<0.05). 结论 曲安奈德局部注射引起兔耳增生性瘢痕组织中氧自由基水平进一步升高.%Objective To investigate the relationship between inhibitory effect of triamcinolone acetonide(TA)on hypertrophic scar and oxygen free radicals in rabbits. Methods 18 New

  6. 15-脱氧-△12,14-前列腺素J2对兔耳增生性瘢痕Ⅰ型胶原表达的影响%Effects of 15-deoxy-△12,14-prostagliandxin J2 on the expression of type Ⅰ collagen in hypertrophic scar of rabbit ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘姝; 李罡; 李叶扬; 方力; 祁少海; 舒斌; 梁佩红; 戴丽冰; 李建平; 张琰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of 15d-PGJ2 on the expression of type Ⅰ collagen in hypertrophic scar of rabbit ears, and the possibility of hypertrophic scar treated by 15d-PGJ2. Methods Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were used to establish the hypertrophic scar models on the rabbit ears. The wounds were created as follows: 2 cm × 3 cm wounds with total skin loses on the ventral side, 2wounds for each ear, total 72 wounds. The wounds were randomly divided into the 15d-PGJ2 treatment group and NS control group. A total of 20 μl 15d-PGJ2 or NS was injected into the ear scar once a day for 7 days. At the 14th and 21st day after the injection, 18 scars in each group were harvested. The expression levels of type Ⅰ collagen was detected by immunohistochemistry, fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. Results Compared with the NS control group, the 15d-PGJ2-treated scars appeared to be smaller, softer, flatter and lighter in color. The expression of type Ⅰcollagen was mainly distributed in matrix, fibroblast cytoplasma and the vascular wall. The mRNA and protein levels of type Ⅰ collagen were significantly decreased in the 15d-PGJ2-treated group as compared with those in the NS control group at different time points (P < 0. 05). Conclusion 15d-PGJ2, the ligand of PPAR-γ, can reduce the expression of type Ⅰ collagen in hypertrophic scar of rabbit ears and plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scar. It offers a new way for treating the hypertrophic scar clinically.%目的 观察过氧化物酶体增殖物激活受体γ(PPARγ)的配体15-脱氧-△12,14-前列腺素J2(15d-PGJ2)对兔耳增生性瘢痕Ⅰ型胶原表达的影响,探讨15d-PGJ2防治增生性瘢痕的可行性.方法 选取新西兰大白兔18只,在兔耳腹侧面制作2 cm×3 cm全层皮肤缺损创面,每耳2个,共计72个,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕动物模型,随机分组,分别用15d-PGJ2及

  7. 声触诊组织量化技术无创动态评估兔耳增生性瘢痕硬度%Virtual touch tissue quantification in noninvasive assessment of hypertrophic scar stiffness of rabbit ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游玉芳; 王志刚; 郑元义; 张花; 宋卫香

    2013-01-01

    Objective To noninvasively assess the stiffness changes during the process of rabbit ear hypertrophic scar (HS) with virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) technique.Methods HS shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by using VTQ during the day before surgery and the 1st,3rd,5th,7th,11th,16th,20th,28th,36th,45th,60th,90th,120th day postoperatively,respectively.The values of SWV were compared between the two adjacent times.B-mode grey scale was also tested and analyzed with SWV.Results Except the 1st preoperative day vs.the 1st postoperative day (P=0.099),the 60th postoperative day vs.the 90th postoperative day (P=0.053),the differences were all statistical between each other two time points (all P<0.05).Positive correlation (r=0.568,P<0.001) was found between HSSWV and Bmode grey scale on the whole process of rabbit ear HS.Significant,direct,linear correlation (r=0.813,P<0.001) was found between HSSWV and B-mode grey scale during the 11 th day to the 45 th day postoperatively.Conclusion VTQ technique has important application value in the noninvasive assessment of HS stiffness.%探讨声触诊组织量化(VTQ)技术无创评估兔耳增生性瘢痕(HS)形成过程中的硬度变化.方法 运用VTQ技术在兔耳HS模型形成过程的不同时间点(术前1天,术后第1、3、5、7、11、16、20、28、36、45、60、90、120天)测量其剪切波速度(SWV),比较相邻时间点的SWV值,同时测量二维图灰阶值,对HS剪切波速度值(HSSWV)及灰阶值进行对比分析.结果 HS形成过程中SWV值比较:除术前1天与术后第1天(P=0.099)、术后第60天与术后第90天(P=0.053)差异无统计学意义外,其余相邻时间点差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.05).兔耳HS形成过程中,HSSWV值与灰阶值呈正相关(r=0.568,P<0.001);而在兔耳HS增生期(术后11~45天),HSSWV值与灰阶值高度相关(r=0.813,P<0.001).结论 应用VTQ技术测得的HSSWV值在量化评估HS硬度改变方面有重要应用价值.

  8. Observation on the effect of botulinum toxin type A combined with triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of hypertrophic scar%A型肉毒毒素联合曲安奈德治疗增生性瘢痕效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真真; 李琳

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨A型肉毒毒素联合曲安奈德治疗增生性瘢痕的效果。方法:收治增生性瘢痕患儿74例,分为观察组与对照组各37例。对照组给予曲安奈德注射治疗,观察组给予A型肉毒毒素联合曲安奈德治疗。结果:治疗后1周两组VAS评分均较治疗前降低(P<0.05)。治疗后3、6个月对照组VAS评分与观察组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗后6个月,观察组总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:A型肉毒毒素联合曲安奈德治疗增生性瘢痕效果优于单纯曲安奈德治疗。%Objective:To investigate the effect of botulinum toxin type A combined with triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of hypertrophic scar.Methods:74 children with hypertrophic scar were divided into the observation group and the control group, with 37 cases in each group.Patients in the control group were given triamcinolone acetonide injection treatment,while in the observation group were treated with botulinum toxin type A combined with triamcinolone acetonide therapy.Results:After 1 weeks treatment,the VAS scores in the two groups were significantly lower than before the treatment(P<0.05).At the 3th and 6th months after the treatment,there were significant difference in VAS score between the observation group and the control group(P<0.05). After 6 months of treatment,the total effective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group(P<0.05). Conclusion:Botulinum toxin type A combined with triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of hypertrophic scar has better effect than only using triamcinolone acetonide.

  9. Influence of Ad-METH-1 on microvessel and relative cytokine of hypertrophic scar%重组血管生成抑制因子-1对增生性瘢痕组织血管及其相关因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋保强; 鲁开化; 郭树忠; 韩岩; 张阳; 胡佩珍

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究基因转染血管生成抑制对兔耳增生性瘢痕组织血管及其相关因子表达的影响.方法 将基因重组血管抑制剂Ad-METH-1作用于兔耳增生性瘢痕,用微循环显微镜检、组织学染色、免疫组织化学染色等方法,研究Ad-METH-1对兔耳瘢痕组织增生、血管生成及血管内皮细胞生长因子(vascular endothelial cell growth factor,VEGF)、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(basic fibroblast growth factor,bFGF)表达的影响,探讨基因转染血管生成抑制对增生性瘢痕的影响.结果 Ad-METH-1注射后30 d,实验组瘢痕组织微血管计数为12.38±2.56,VEGF阳性细胞百分比为17.64%,bFGF阳性细胞为18.24%;对照组微血管计数为48.12±6.46,VEGF阳性细胞百分比为31.34%,bFGF阳性细胞为28.26%.结果 显示,实验组瘢痕组织微血管计数低于对照组,两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);实验组瘢痕组织VEGF及bFGF的阳性细胞百分比均低于对照组,两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 Ad-METH-1对兔耳瘢痕组织增生、血管生成及VEGF、bFGF表达产生了明确的抑制作用,早期行血管抑制治疗可抑制增生性瘢痕的形成.基因转染血管抑制治疗有望成为一种有效的增生性瘢痕防治方法.%Objective To investigate the influence of gene transfection antiangiogenesis on microvessel and relative cytokine of hypertrophic scar of rabbits' ear.Methods The hypertrophic scar of rabbtis' ear was reproduced.On the 10th day after epithelization,Ad-METH-1 was injected into tissue of scar.30 days later,the microvessel of scar-tissue was detected by microcirculation microscope.Meanwhile.H&E and immunohistochemical stains were performed.Then the results were analyzed.Results 30 days after Ad-METH-1 injection.in experimental groups,the microvascular count of scar tissue was 12.38±2.56,the percentage of VEGF positive cells was 17.64%,and the percentage of bFGF positive cell was 18.24%:while in the control

  10. 黑布药膏对兔耳增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖与凋亡的影响%Effect of Heibu Ointment on Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis of Fibroblats in Hypertrophic Scarring Model in Rabbit Ears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽; 王莹; 关洪全

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of Heibu Ointment on proliferative activity and apoptosis of fibroblasts in the hypetrrophic scarring model in rabbit ears. Method: Twenty-four white rabbits were used to establish the model of hypertrophic scar in ears. After twenty-one days, the model rabbits were randomly divided into Heibu Ointment treatment group and model group. In Heibu Ointment treatment group, Heibu Ointment was plastered on the hypetrrophic scars once in every three days. The treatment course lasted for fifty-six days. The scar tissue was sampled on the second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth week for the two groups. The changes in fibroblasts treated with Heibu Ointment were compared with that of the controls during the forming of hypertrophic scars. The expression of proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was measured by immunohistochemistry technique, and the apoptosis was measured by TUNEL. Result: The expression of PCNA in the Heibu Ointment treatment group was obviously weaker than that of the controls ( P < 0.05 ), and the apoptosis was increased in Heibu Ointment treatment group (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion: Heibu Ointment can inhibit the proliferation of fibroblasts and accelerate cell apoptosis in hypertrophic scars in rabbit ears.%目的:探讨黑布药膏对兔耳增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖与凋亡的影响.方法:成年大耳白兔24只,建立兔耳增生性瘢痕动物模型,21 d后,将瘢痕动物模型随机分为黑布药膏治疗组和瘢痕模型组,在黑布药膏治疗组瘢痕局部涂抹黑布药膏,每3 d 1次,连续用药56 d.在用药第2,4,6,8周分别切取两组瘢痕组织,对比研究在瘢痕形成过程中黑布药膏对兔耳瘢痕成纤维细胞的影响,采用免疫组化方法检测增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)蛋白表达和细胞凋亡的原位检测.结果:按不同时间段取材进行免疫组化染色,高倍镜下观察,结果显示:黑布药膏治疗组和模型对照组比

  11. Effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of type α1(Ⅰ) precollagen gene on the biological characteristics of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts%α1(Ⅰ)型前胶原基因反义寡聚脱氧核苷酸对人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞生物学特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢帮荣; 利天增; 谢举临; 徐盈斌; 祁少海

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of type α1 (Ⅰ) precollagen gene on growth and the collagen synthesis of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Methods The HF were divided into 3 groups according to the transfection liquids: the experimental group with lipofectAMINETM and type α1 (Ⅰ) precollagen gene antisense oligodeoxynucleotides, the control group 1 with only LipofectAMINETM and the control group 2 with only DMEM culture medium as the control group. At 0. 5, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after transfection, different measures were adopted to evaluate the biological characteristics of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts, such as the fibroblast growth curve protracted by the cell count technique, the ultra-structure observed by transmission eletron microscopy (TEM) , total RNA of the hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were extracted and the expression level of type α1 (Ⅰ) precollagen mRNA was detected by RT-PCR,the type I collagen synthesis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts was tested by the western-bloting and compared with the control group. Results ①The fibroblast proliferation was not inhibited by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.②The organelles for the protein synthesis in the experimental group was not in active state. ③Compared with the control group, the expression level of type α1 (Ⅰ) precollege mRNA and protein synthesis of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts in the experimental group were obviously decreased. Conclusion The anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibits availably the expression level of type α1 (Ⅰ) precollagen mRNA and the protein synthesis of Ⅰ collagen of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts cultured in vitro, which can inhibint the scar hyperplasia.%目的 探讨应用α1(Ⅰ)型前胶原基因反义寡聚脱氧核苷酸对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞生长、胶原合成等生物学特性的影响.方法 根据转染液分3组,实验组为脂质体加α1(Ⅰ)型前胶原基因反义寡聚脱氧核苷酸;对照组1

  12. Acne Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ... Skin Scars Skin Growths Skin Lesions Spider Veins Stretch Marks Sun-damaged Skin Unwanted Hair Unwanted Tattoos Varicose ...

  13. Effects of genistein on PCNA expression and cell cycle in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts in vitro%5,7,4′-三羟基异黄酮对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖细胞核抗原表达及细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹川; 李世荣; 姚恒; 冯智; 戴霞; 陈艳清; 李晓格; 陈亮

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察5,7,4′-三羟基异黄酮(genistein)对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖细胞核抗原(proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA)及细胞周期的影响,探讨5,7,4′-三羟基异黄酮抑制增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖的机制.方法 分离培养人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞,分别加入25、50、100 μmol/L浓度的5,7,4′-三羟基异黄酮共培养48 h,免疫细胞化学法观察成纤维细胞PCNA蛋白的表达,流式细胞术检测细胞周期的变化.结果 各组5,7,4′-三羟基异黄酮作用后细胞PCNA的表达均降低(P<0.05),50 μmol/L及100 μmol/L浓度组的抑制作用最为显著(P<0.01);随药物浓度的增加,G0~G1期细胞比例逐渐下降,G2~M期细胞比例增加,表明细胞分裂受到抑制;100 μmol/L组的S期细胞数量比例也有增加,并于G1期前出现亚二倍体凋亡峰.结论 5,7,4′-三羟基异黄酮可通过影响细胞分裂与DNA合成抑制瘢痕增生.%Objective To observe the effects of genistein on PCNA expression and cell cycle in fibroblasts derived from human hypertrophic scar in order to explore the mechanism of its inhibition on hypertrophic scar (HS) fibroblast proliferation. Methods The human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts were cultured in vitro. Genistein with various concentrations (25, 50, 100 μmol/L) was co-cultured in the medium for 48 hours. The expression of PCNA was detected with immunocytochemical staining method and the cell cycle was measured with flow cytometry. Results Genistein could significantly decrease PCNA expression in HS fibroblasts, especially when its concentration at 50 μmol/L or 100 μmol/L. The cell percentage of G0~G1 phase decreased with drug′s concentration, and G2~M percentage increased conversely, implying the suspension of mitosis. In 100 μmol/L group, most cells blocked at S phase and a hypodiploid apoptosis peak could be observed ahead of G1 phase. Conclusion Genistein can inhibit the proliferation of human

  14. Effect of Small Needle-knife Therapy on the Fibroblasts in Human Hypertrophic Scar Tissues Transplanted into Nude Mice%针刀松解法对移植于裸鼠的人皮肤增生性瘢痕组织中成纤维细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐岩; 聂芳菲; 陈东明; 赵霞; 李枫; 毕振伍; 唐军民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effect of small needle-knife therapy on the biological characteristics of fibroblasts of the hypertrophic scar tissues subcutaneously transplanted into nude mice by detecting the expressions of PCNA, collagen type I and Ⅲ , bcl-2 and bax in the fibroblasts. Methods To establish the animal model of hypertrophic scar on nude mice, 6 samples of hypertrophic scar tissues without cuticle were respectively divided into three pieces and transplanted subcutaneously into the back of 18 nude mice. Ten days after the operation, the mice were treated with saline (control group) , 0. 1 mg/ml triamcinolone (triamcinolone group ) , or small needle-knife ( small needle-knife group ) , respectively ( n = 6 in each). After 14-day treatment, pathological changes and the number of the fibroblasts positively expressed PCNA, I collagen, Ⅲ collagen , bcl-2 and bax in the hypertrophic scar tissues were detected by HE staining and immunohistochemistry. Results HE staining showed that, compared with the control group (913. 33 ± 148. 95)/mm2 , the number of fibroblast were reduced in the triamcinolone (853. 33 ±62. 82)/mm2 and small needle-knife groups (863. 33 ±75. 28)/mm , but no significant difference was found among the groups (P > 0. 05). Immunohistochemistry indicated that, in the triamcinolone and small needle-knife groups, the number of fibroblast that were positively stained with PCNA, and I and Ⅲ collagen were significantly lower than those in the control (P 0. 05 ). Conclusions Small needle-knife therapy can inhibit the proliferating, synthesizing and secreting abilities of the fibroblasts in hypertrophic scar tissues transplanted into nude mice. It has no influence on the expressions of bcl-2 and bax in the fibroblasts in human hypertrophic scar tissues,nor on the bcl-2/bax ratios.%目的 观察针刀松解法对移植于裸鼠皮下人增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖细胞核抗原(proliferation cell nuclear antigen,PCNA

  15. 大鼠背部脊柱两侧全层皮肤圆形创面增生性瘢痕愈合过程中臭氧的作用%Effect of ozone on hypertrophic scar during the healing of bilateral circular full-thickness skin wounds on the back of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧陕兴; 李小荣; 张莉; 俞志坚

    2012-01-01

    背景:预防硬膜外瘢痕的形成,可减少腰椎手术失败综合征的发生.臭氧应用于腰椎间盘突出症的治疗已取得较好的临床效果.目的:观察臭氧对大鼠伤口瘢痕愈合过程的影响.方法:外科切口法制备大鼠背部脊柱两侧圆形全层皮肤创面增生性瘢痕模型,分为3 组,纯氧组及臭氧组分别注射纯氧及30~40 mg/L 臭氧,总量均为5 mL,空白组不注射任何药物,每周2 次,4 周后取瘢痕/肉芽组织标本,利用苏木精-伊红染色及免疫组化方法,对比观察各组标本瘢痕/肉芽组织外观及肿瘤坏死因子α、碱性成纤维细胞生长因子表达的变化.结果与结论:与空白组及纯氧组相比,臭氧组愈后瘢痕面积较小,上皮生成较多,炎性细胞浸润较少,胶原纤维较纤细,且断裂较多;臭氧组肿瘤坏死因子α阳性细胞数较低(P < 0.01),碱性成纤维细胞生长因子阳性细胞数较高(P < 0.01).提示臭氧通过其抗炎作用,减少炎性细胞浸润,并可通过抑制成纤维细胞及巨噬细胞释放的肿瘤坏死因子α以及提高碱性成纤维细胞生长因子的表达,减少胶原的过度合成,从而起到抑制肉芽组织炎症及瘢痕组织增生的作用.%BACKGROUND: The prevention of epidural scar formation can reduce the incidence of failed back surgery syndromes. Ozone has been applied in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, and has achieved good effect. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ozone on the healing of wound and hypertrophic scar in rats. METHODS: Hypertrophic scar models of bilateral circular full-thickness skin wounds were made on the back of rats using surgical incision method, and then the rats were divided into three groups: blank control group with no treatment, oxygen group treated with 5 mL pure oxygen and ozone group treated with 5 mL of 30-40 mg/L ozone. Rats in the latter two groups were injected twice a week; After 4 weeks, hypertrophic scar/granulation tissue samples

  16. 脉冲掺钕钇铝石榴石激光对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成的影响%Effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser on collagen synthesis in hypertrophic scar derived fibroblast cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒彬; 郝林林; 曾登芬

    2002-01-01

    Objective In order to explore the selectively inhibitory effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation on collagen production of scar fibroblasts in vitro.Methods Cultured fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scars(HS) and normal human skin were irradiated with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 1 064 nm,pulse width 150 μ s) at various energy density levels (500,1 000,1 500 and 2 000 J/cm2).At 24 hours after laser irradiation, collagen production of fibroblasts was measured by the incorporation of 3H proline. The expression of proα 1(I)procollagen mRNA was investigated by blot hybridization techniques. Results Collagen production of HS fibroblasts was significantly increased, as 2 times as that of normal skin fibroblasts. Type I procollagen mRNA level in HS fibroblasts was markedly elevated, as 3 times as that in normal skin fibroblasts.Conclusion Pulsed Nd:YAG laser at energy density of 1 000 J/cm2 can selectively suppress collagen synthesis and type I procollagen mRNA level of HS fibroblasts.

  17. He-Ne激光重复照射抑制培养增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成的实验研究%Inhibitory effects of He Ne laser repeated irradiation on collagen synthesis in hypertrophic scar derived fibroblasts in culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏珍; 杨西川

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the inhibitory effects of He Ne laser repeated irradiation on the collagen synthesis of cultured scar fibroblasts. Method Cultured fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scars(HS) were irradiated with He Ne laser for 30 minutes at various power densities(10,50,100 and 150 mW/cm2),once a day for 3 consecutive days.In 24 hours after repeated irradiation collagen production and type I procollagen mRNA level of fibroblasts were measured with the incorporation of 3H proline and blot hybridization techniques espectively.Results Collagen synthesis and type I procollagen mRNA level remained unchanged when the laser was irradiated at the power density of 10 mW/cm2 or 50 mW/cm2.Compared with control,collagen synthesis and type I procollagne mRNA level were significantly decreases at the power density of 100 mW/cm2 or 150mW/cm2(P< 0.05).Type I procollagen mRNA level at the power densityof 150 mW/cm2 was lower than that at the 100 mW/cm2 (P< 0.05).Conclusion Repeated He Ne laser irradiation at the power density of 100 mW/cm2 or 150 mW/cm2 can suppress collagen synthesis of cultured fibroblasts in HS.The cause of suppression may be associated with down regulation of type I procollagen mRNA expression.

  18. 积雪苷霜软膏对兔耳增生性瘢痕组织中S mad4蛋白表达的影响%Effects of asiaticoside ointment on Smad4 protein expression in rabbit's hypertrophic scars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江宇峰; 伍超; 吴佳俊; 王极宇; 庄文豪; 马腾飞; 江洁美; 杨雁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of asiaticoside ointment on Smad4 protein expression in rabbit's hypertrophic scars. Methods The eighteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly distributed into the control group,the model group and the asiaticosi-de ointment treatment group.The scars were established on the ventral surface of rabbits'ears in the model and asiaticoside ointment treatment group.On post-operative day 21,the scars of asiaticoside ointment treatment group were thinly daubed with asiaticoside oint-ment twice a day for 28 days.Meanwhile,those of the control and model groups were applied with ointment base.Morphological charac-teristics were observed and recorded by a camera every week.All animals were executed and the scars or corresponding skin tissues were harvested for histopathology,hydroxyproline and Smad4 protein detection on post-operative day 49.Results The growth of scars in the model group was more rapid than that of the asiaticoside ointment treatment group.Pathological evaluation shows that representative fibrosis occurred in the scars of the model group,while that was markedly alleviated in the scars of the asiaticoside ointment treatment group.The hydroxyproline content of scars in the model group observably increased compared with that in the control group(P<0.01), while significantly decreased in the asiaticoside ointment treatment group(P<0.01).The expression of Smad4 protein was remarkably up-regulated in hypertrophic scar tissue.Nevertheless,it was notably decreased in asiaticoside ointment treatment(P<0.01 ).Conclu-sions The mechanisms of anti-hypertrophic scar effects of asiaticoside maybe involve inhibiting Smad4 protein expression.%目的:探讨积雪苷霜软膏对兔耳增生性瘢痕组织中Smad4蛋白表达的影响。方法新西兰大耳白兔18只,随机分为正常对照组、模型组、积雪苷霜软膏组。模型组和积雪苷霜软膏组建立兔耳腹侧面增生性瘢痕模型,术后21 d,积雪苷霜

  19. 黄芪对家兔增生性瘢痕转化生长因子β1表达及其Smad 3信号途径的影响%Effects of radix astragali on expression of transforming growth factor β 1 and Smad 3 signal pathway in hypertrophic scar of rabbit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 邱林; 李明勇

    2010-01-01

    hypertrophic scar of rabbits, and to analyze its therapeutic effect and mechanism on hypertrophic scar. Methods Twenty healthy adult Japanese big ear rabbits were inflicted with 4 full-thickness skin defects on ventral side of each ear, which formed scar later. Rabbits were divided into 5 groups: 1.00,0.50, 0.25 g/mL radix astragali treatment groups [ injected with radix astragali on post injury day (PID)21, 25, 32, and 36 respectively] , physiological saline group (PS, injected with 0.2 mL physiological saline in the same volume at the same time points as above groups), and blank control group ( BC, without treatment) according to the random number table, with 32 scars in each group. Another 4 rabbits were enrolled as normal control group (NC). Structural changes of hypertrophic scar was observed with HE and Masson staining. Thickness and hardness of hypertrophic scar on PID 32 and 43 were respectively examined by chromoscope ultrasonic diagnostic equipment and hardness tester. Protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1and Smad 3 in hypertrophic scar was respectively detected with RT-PCR and immunohistochemical analysis.Data were processed with t test and one-way analysis of variance. Results Compared with that in PS and BC groups, dermis of hypertrophic scar became thinner in radix astragali treatment groups on PID 32, 43,with fibroblasts and collagenous fibers arranged regularly on PID 43. Thickness and hardness of hyperthophic scar, levels of mRNA and protein of TGF-β1 and Smad 3 decreased along with the increase in radix astragali concentration. Compared with those in PS group, levels of mRNA of TGF-β1 and Smad 3 in 1.00 g/mL radix astragali treatment group on PID 32 decreased 26.1% and 28.2%. Protein levels of TGF-β1 and Smad 3 in 1.00 g/mL radix astragali treatment group were 3.15 ± 0.80 and 4.72 ± 1.06, which were obviously lower than those in PS group (6.06 ±0.85, 8.04 ±0.63, with F value respectively 27. 230 and 33. 525, P <0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). There was

  20. Contents and ratios of type I and type III collagens in normal skin and hypertrophic scar in people of different ages%正常皮肤与增生性瘢痕中Ⅰ型和Ⅲ型胶原的含量与比例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成; 荣艳华; 沈余明; 张国安

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the contents of type I and III collagens and their ratios in normal skin and hyper-trophic scar in people of different ages,and to explore the rule and cause of changes.Methods Normal human skin specimens and hypertrophic scar specimens were obtained from spontaneously aborted fetus and people of different ages, including the children and adolescent group (≤18 years),adult group (19-50 years),elderly group (>50 years). The total collagen contents were determined by hydroxyproline method.The ratios of types I and III collagens were ex-amined by immunohistochemistry,and their contents were calculated.Results The difference of the contents of types I and III collagens and their ratios in normal skin were statistically significant among different age groups (P=0.01 ). Their ratios increased with the increase of age,and the differences were statistically significant among different age groups (P=0.02).The difference of contents of types I and III collagens and their ratios in hypertrophic scars were statistically significant among all groups,also between any two groups (P=0.03).In every age group,the difference of the contents of types I and III collagens and their ratios between normal skin and hypertrophic scar was statistically significant (P=0.02).Conclusion With age increasing,the changes of the ratios of types I and III collagens in the normal skin changes,which results in changes of the tension and elasticity of skin and the healing process after injury. The contents of types I and III collagens and their ratios significantly changes in hypertrophic scars,resulting in different structure of scar from normal skin.%目的:测定各年龄组人正常皮肤及增生性瘢痕中Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原的含量及比值,分析其变化规律和原因。方法采集流产胎儿的皮肤标本及儿童青少年组、成年组、老年组的正常皮肤标本和增生性瘢痕标本,采用免疫组织化学染色法测定Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原比值

  1. New innovations in scar management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widgerow, A D; Chait, L A; Stals, R; Stals, P J

    2000-01-01

    As current aesthetic surgical techniques become more standardized and results more predictable, a fine scar may be the demarcating line between acceptable and unacceptable aesthetic results. With this in mind, a scar management program has been adopted based on the modalities of wound support, hydration, and hastened maturity, all factors gleaned from scientific evidence published over the past 25 years. Tension on a scar in one axis will result in a stretched scar, probably initiated by neutrophils and their neutral proteases [18,26]. Tension on a scar from many directions or intermittently will result in a hypertrophic scar, possibly initiated by lymphocytes but definitely related to a prolongation of the inflammatory process, with increased fibroblast activity and overabundant extracellular matrix secretion [24,26]. The common initiating factor is the tension on the scar, and the critical element needed to counteract this tension is scar support. Clinical experience has shown us that the most reliable way to support a scar is by using microporous tape. Hydration is a second beneficial influence on scar control and is the basis of the use of silicone sheeting and gel [7,29,36]. Alpha Centella cream has two main components. The first is an extract from the plant Bulbine frutescens. This increases hydration under the tape by leaving a layer of fatty vesicles of glycoprotein on the skin surface. This also has antibacterial properties. The second component is the principal terpenoids extracted from the Centella asiatica plant. These include asiatic acid, madecassic acid, and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica has been documented to aid wound healing in a large number of scientific reports [5,12,21,22,33,34,40]. The most beneficial effect appears to be the stimulation of maturation of the scar by the production of type I collagen [4,19] and the resulting decrease in the inflammatory reaction and myofibroblast production. Thus these components have been incorporated into

  2. Effect and M echanism of TGF-β Mediated Signal Pathway Modulated by microRNA-21 in Hypertrophic Scars%microRNA-21调控TGF-β通路促进增生性瘢痕形成的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奇; 王琛

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨microRNA-21在增生性瘢痕(Hypertrophic scars,HS)形成中的作用及机制,为生物学防治提供新靶点。方法收集临床患者正常皮肤及HS标本,组织学检测、组织胶原定量检测;免疫组化、Real-time PCR检测正常细胞外基质Col 1 A1、Col 3 A1、Fibronectin (FN)及α-SMA的表达;Real-time PCR检测microRNA-21 mRNA表达水平;培养HS成纤维细胞,构建microRNA-21反义表达载体,并加入TGF-β诱导,Real-time PCR检测Col 1 A1、Col 3 A1及microRNA-21的表达。结果 HS中胶原的含量及细胞外基质表达明显高于正常皮肤;HS组织中microRNA-21表达高于正常皮肤组织;TGF-β可增强HS成纤维细胞中microRNA-21的表达,而瘢痕成纤维细胞转染microRNA-21反义表达载体后可明显降低瘢痕相关基因的表达。结论皮肤创伤愈合后局部microRNA-21表达升高,促进了细胞外基质的合成,而TGF-β进一步加强了microRNA-21对瘢痕形成的促进作用,可能是导致HS形成的重要原因。%Objective To evaluate the effect and mechanism of microRNA-21 in hypertrophic scars (HS) formation and to provide novel target in biological control of HS. Methods Normal skin tissue and HS tissue were harvested. Collagen quantitative detection and histological observation were carried out. The expression of collagen 1A1 (Col1A1), collagen 3A1 (Col3A1), Fibronectin (FN) and α-SMA were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression of microRNA-21 mRNA in normal skin tissue and HS tissue were also detected. Cells isolated from normal skin tissues and HS tissues were cultured, the microRNA-21 antisense RNA interference vector were constructed, while TGF-β was added at the same time. Furthermore, the effects of inhibitor-microRNA-21 and TGF-β on the biological characteristics of fibroblasts were observed. Results The content of collagen in hypertrophic scar was higher than that in normal skin. The expression of

  3. Pressotherapy of a postoperative scar with the application of non-sterile silicone dressings in a 56-year-old woman treated for breast cancer in the Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Macek; Małgorzata Terek-Derszniak; Anna Lipińska; Ewa Błaszkiewicz; Halina Król; Stanisław Głuszek; Stanisław Góźdź

    2016-01-01

    Scarring is a natural process of wound healing. In some cases, however, there is formation of hypertrophic scars and keloids that are the result of collagen decomposition and synthesis. A disturbed scarring process causes functional, aesthetic, and psychological disorders in the patient. Silicone dressings in the form of plasters or gel are used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. A case of pressotherapy of a postoperative scar with the use of non-sterile silicone dressings in...

  4. 黄芪对兔耳瘢痕组织中信号转导分子Smad3活性的影响及意义%The effects of radix astragali on transcriptional activity of Smad3 in hypertrophic scar of rabbits' ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱林; 张艳; 李明勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 检测不同浓度黄芪注射液对兔耳瘢痕组织的影响及信号转导分子Smad3活性的影响并探讨其意义.方法 用日本大耳白兔建立兔耳瘢痕动物模型,随机分为5组,除空白对照组外,余4组均采用兔耳瘢痕局部注射黄苠或生瑶盐水.分别在伤后不同时间点测量瘢痕厚度、硬度,并切取瘢痕组织做HE、Masson三色法胶原检测,采用RT-PCR、免疫组织化学法观察瘢痕组织中Smac3mRNA水平和蛋白的变化.结果 与空白对照组比较,成纤维细胞数术后32 d和43 d分别为57.87±11.31、56.93±10.75,胶原面密度术后32 d和43 d分别为69.001±8.74、68.58±5.58,经HE和Masson染色黄芪治疗组能明显减少兔耳瘢痕组织中的成纤维细胞,术后32 d中、高浓度组分别为37.89±9.49、36.26±100.04,术后43 d中、高浓度组分别为35.72±8.75、33.92±11.21;胶原术后32 d中、高浓度组分别为54.76±7.81、52.38±4,56,术后43 d中、高浓度组分别为51.58±6.27、49.34±9.49(P<0.05).RT-PCR分析Smad3mRNA的表达在各黄芪治疗组均明显减少(空白对照组在术后32 d和43 d为100,低、中、高各浓度组在术后32 d和43 d分别为93.2、85.6、71.8和84.7、67.1、42.2),同时免疫组织化学分析表明Smac3蛋白的表达在各黄芪治疗组均明显减少(空白对照组在术后32d和43d分别为7.996±0.640、7.919±0.62,低、中、高各浓度组在术后32d和43 d分别为6.865±0.773、5.834±1.366、4.719±1.056和5.765±1.406、4.531±0.879、3.196±0.785.结论 黄芪注射液有抑制瘢痕组织中成纤维细胞增殖和降低胶原纤维含量的作用,对增生性瘢痕可能有治疗作用.%Objective To observe the effects of radix astragali on hypertrophic scar of rabbits' ear transcriptional and activity of Smad3 in hypertrophic scar of rabbits' ear. Methods Healthy adult Japanese big ear rabbits were given hypertrophic scar over the ventral surface of the ears and randomly divided into five group

  5. β-内啡肽在增生性瘢痕组织中的表达及其与瘢痕瘙痒关系的研究%EXPRESSION OF β-ENDORPHIN IN HYPERTROPHIC SCAR AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH PRURITUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江婷; 程飚; 刘宏伟; 唐建兵; 项晓飞; 彭艳

    2012-01-01

    目的 阿片肽与增生性瘢痕患者感觉异常有关,通过比较β-内啡肽在人正常皮肤与增生性瘢痕组织中的表达情况,探讨其在增生性瘢痕感觉异常发生、发展中所起作用. 方法 取42例增生性瘢痕患者自愿捐赠的增生性瘢痕组织;男15例,女27例;年龄16~50岁,平均32.6岁;瘢痕形成时间1~20年,平均4.5年.根据患者感觉情况,将瘢痕组织分为3组,无痛痒组(n=20)、单纯痒组(n=14)及痛痒组(n=8).另取行植皮手术患者自愿捐赠的正常皮肤组织5例作为正常对照组,男3例,女2例;年龄15~37岁,平均24.6岁.采用免疫荧光染色观察β-内啡肽定位情况,ELISA法检测组织中β-内啡肽含量. 结果 各组组织中均可见β-内啡肽表达,主要位于真皮层周围神经末梢、成纤维细胞和单核样细胞;其中单纯痒组和痛痒组β-内啡肽表达明显强于无痛痒组与正常对照组.无痛痒组、单纯痒组、痛痒组及正常对照组组织β-内啡肽含量分别为(617.401±97.518)、(739.543±94.149)、(623.294±149.613)、(319.734±85.301) pg/mL,其中无痛痒组、单纯痒组及痛痒组β-内啡肽含量均显著高于正常皮肤组(P<0.05),单纯痒组高于无痛痒组及痛痒组(P<0.05),无痛痒组与痛痒组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). 结论 增生性瘢痕中β-内啡肽的高表达,可能与其瘙痒发生有关.%Objective To identify the effect of p-endorphin in the development of paresthesia in hypertrophic scar by detecting the expression and content of P-endorphin in human normal skin and hypertrophic scar. Methods Hypertrophic scar samples were collected from 42 patients with hypertrophic scar for 1-20 years (mean, 4.5 years), including 15 males and 27 females with an average age of 32.6 years (range, 16-50 years). According to the kind of paresthesia, they were divided into 3 gourps: non-pain-pruritus group (n=20), pruritus group (n=14), and pain-pruritus group (n=8). Normal

  6. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision Understanding Facial Scar Treatment When the skin is injured from a cut or tear the body heals by forming scar tissue. The appearance of the scar can range from ...

  7. Bimodal spectroscopy for in vivo characterization of hypertrophic skin tissue : pre-clinical experimentation, data selection and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Gisquet, H; Blondel, W; Guillemin, F

    2012-12-01

    This study aims at investigating the efficiency of bimodal spectroscopy in detection of hypertrophic scar tissue on a preclinical model. Fluorescence and Diffuse Reflectance spectra were collected from 55 scars deliberately created on ears of 20 rabbits, amongst which some received tacrolimus injection to provide non-hypertrophic scar tissue. The spectroscopic data measured on hypertrophic and non-hypertrophic scar tissues were used for developing our classification algorithm. Spectral features were extracted from corrected data and analyzed to classify the scar tissues into hypertrophic or non-hypertrophic. The Algorithm was developed using k-NN classifier and validated by comparing to histological classification result with Leave-One-Out cross validation. Bimodal spectroscopy showed promising results in detecting hypertrophic tissue (sensibility 90.5%, specificity 94.4%). The features used for classification were extracted from the autofluorescence spectra collected at 4 CEFS with excitations at 360, 410, and 420 nm. This indicates the hypertrophic process may involve change in concentration of several fluorophores (collagen, elastin and NADH) excited in this range, or modification in volume of explored tissue layers (epidermis and dermis) due to tissue thickening.

  8. 5-氨基酮戊酸介导的光动力疗法预防兔耳瘢痕增生的初步探讨%Prevention of hypertrophic scars by 5 -aminolaevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy in a rabbit ear model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡丽; 李昕; 黄惠真; 李伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨5-氨基酮戊酸介导的光动力疗法抑制兔耳瘢痕增生的效果。方法建立兔耳增生性瘢痕模型后,将108个增生性瘢痕块随机分为4组:空白对照组、单纯激光组、单纯5-氨基酮戊酸组及5-氨基酮戊酸介导的光动力治疗组。5-氨基酮戊酸介导的光动力治疗组在局部注射5-氨基酮戊酸后5 h 行半导体激光照射,波长635 nm,功率密度100 mW/cm2,照射20 min。治疗后观察3周瘢痕的生长情况,测量瘢痕厚度及红斑指数,取材后行 HE 染色,观察真皮层厚度的变化,计算各组瘢痕增生指数, Masson 染色观察胶原纤维排列情况,TUNEL 染色观察成纤维细胞凋亡情况。结果5-氨基酮戊酸介导的光动力治疗组瘢痕厚度与红斑指数较其他3组均降低(P <0.05);真皮层厚度明显变薄,瘢痕增生指数较其他3组明显降低(P <0.05);Masson 染色显示,5-氨基酮戊酸介导的光动力治疗组真皮层内胶原纤维较其他3组减少,且排列整齐有序;TUNEL 染色显示,5-氨基酮戊酸介导的光动力治疗组成纤维细胞凋亡数量较其他3组明显增多(P <0.05)。结论应用5-氨基酮戊酸介导的光动力疗法可以预防兔耳瘢痕增生。%Objective To investigate the effects of 5 - aminolaevulinic acid- mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT)on hypertrophic scars in a rabbit ear model.Methods The acute model of dermal hypertrophic scar was established in the rabbit ears.Totally 108 scar wounds were randomly divided into 4 groups:the blank control group,the laser treatment group,the ALA injection group and the ALA-PDT group.In the ALA-PDT group,5 h after intra-dermal injection of ALA,the scars were irradia-ted at 635 nm wavelength, 100 mW/cm2 for 20 min.Three weeks after treatment,the scars thickness and erythema index were measured,and the specimens were harvested for histological analysis by HE and Masson staining.Results The thickness,erythema index and the scar elevation

  9. Overview of surgical scar prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Daegu; Harijan, Aram

    2014-06-01

    Management of incisional scar is intimately connected to stages of wound healing. The management of an elective surgery patient begins with a thorough informed consent process in which the patient is made aware of personal and clinical circumstances that cannot be modified, such as age, ethnicity, and previous history of hypertrophic scars. In scar prevention, the single most important modifiable factor is wound tension during the proliferative and remodeling phases, and this is determined by the choice of incision design. Traditional incisions most often follow relaxed skin tension lines, but no such lines exist in high surface tension areas. If such incisions are unavoidable, the patient must be informed of this ahead of time. The management of a surgical incision does not end when the sutures are removed. Surgical scar care should be continued for one year. Patient participation is paramount in obtaining the optimal outcome. Postoperative visits should screen for signs of scar hypertrophy and has a dual purpose of continued patient education and reinforcement of proper care. Early intervention is a key to control hyperplastic response. Hypertrophic scars that do not improve by 6 months are keloids and should be managed aggressively with intralesional steroid injections and alternate modalities.

  10. Scar revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 21. Lorenz P, Bari AS. Scar prevention, treatment, and revision. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 16. Read More Contracture deformity Keloids Review Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  11. Updated scar management practical guidelines: non-invasive and invasive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstrey, Stan; Middelkoop, Esther; Vranckx, Jan Jeroen; Bassetto, Franco; Ziegler, Ulrich E; Meaume, Sylvie; Téot, Luc

    2014-08-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids can be aesthetically displeasing and lead to severe psychosocial impairment. Many invasive and non-invasive options are available for the plastic (and any other) surgeon both to prevent and to treat abnormal scar formation. Recently, an updated set of practical evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids was developed by an international group of 24 experts from a wide range of specialities. An initial set of strategies to minimize the risk of scar formation is applicable to all types of scars and is indicated before, during and immediately after surgery. In addition to optimal surgical management, this includes measures to reduce skin tension, and to provide taping, hydration and ultraviolet (UV) protection of the early scar tissue. Silicone sheeting or gel is universally considered as the first-line prophylactic and treatment option for hypertrophic scars and keloids. The efficacy and safety of this gold-standard, non-invasive therapy has been demonstrated in many clinical studies. Other (more specialized) scar treatment options are available for high-risk patients and/or scars. Pressure garments may be indicated for more widespread scarring, especially after burns. At a later stage, more invasive or surgical procedures may be necessary for the correction of permanent unaesthetic scars and can be combined with adjuvant measures to achieve optimal outcomes. The choice of scar management measures for a particular patient should be based on the newly updated evidence-based recommendations taking individual patient and wound characteristics into consideration.

  12. Effect of botulinum toxin type A injection on the expression of substance P, TGF-β1 and α-SMA in rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scar%A型肉毒毒素对兔耳增生性瘢痕组织中P物质、β1转移生长因子、α平滑肌肌动蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 邰宁正; 范志宏

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of botulinum toxin type A injection on the expres-sion of substance P, TGF-β1 and α-SMA in rabbit ear model of hypertrophic scar. Methods The hyper-trophic sear model was established in 24 Japanese rabbits'ears. The wounds in ventral surface of ear were divided in Group I (lateral wounds) and Group S (medial wounds), 3 wounds each side per ear, totally 72 wounds each group. The wound-healing time and the growth of scar were observed and recorded. On post-wounding day 28, the wounds were created in another 6 rabbits in the same way and the normal skin were harvested as Group C. Likewise, the scar samples in Groups I and S were harvested. The mRNA expression of substance P, TGF-β1 and α-SMA were detected quantitatively by using real-time PCR and α-SMA was also detected with Western blot. Results No difference between the ratio of healed or infec-tious wounds on post-wounding day 14. The mRNA expression of SP, TGF-β1 and α-SMA in Group I was significantly lower than Group S, but higher than those in Group C (PI组>C组.结论 BTA注射不延迟创面愈合,并减少了兔耳增生瘢痕中SP、TGF-β1和α-SMA的mRNA表达,为其治疗增生性瘢痕的临床应用提供了一定的理论依据.

  13. Evaluation of nonablative fractional laser treatment in scar reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Hilal

    2017-08-12

    Fractional lasers have been used for the improvement of scar tissue in the recent years but there has not been extensive research on their impact. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nonablative fractional laser (NAFL) on acne, burn, and surgery/traumatic scar. The scars were also categorized as atrophic, hypertrophic, and keloid, and treatment efficacy was investigated accordingly. This is a retrospective, single-center study. Scar tissues were treated using a nonablative fractional 1550-nm Erbium glass laser in high-energy parameters at 4-week interval for 4-8 sessions. The scar regression score (SRS) was used to determine the decrease in scar appearance. Forty-six patients with acne (n:18), burn (n:13), or surgery/traumatic (n:15) scar were included. The number of sessions was higher for burn patients while SRS in burn patients was lower than in patients with acne or a surgical/traumatic scar. Evaluation according to scar types showed that atrophic scars had a significantly better response to NAFL treatment. This study indicates that NAFL treatment with the high-energy parameters has better outcomes in atrophic acne scars, while the success rate is considerably low in post-burn and keloid scars.

  14. Effect of Oxymatrine on Cell Proliferation, Apoptosis, Cell Cycle and ERK1 Expression of the Fibroblasts Derived from Hypertrophic Scar and Keloids%氧化苦参碱对病理性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江群; 聂兴举; 秦泽莲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of oxymatrine (OM) and hydrocortisone (HC) on the function of the fibroblasts from keloid (KFb) , hypertrophic scar (HFb) , and normal skin (NFb).At mean time, to observe the differences in cell proliferation,apoptosis, cell cycle and the expression of ERK1 among KFb, HFb, and NFb.Methods KFb, HFb and NFb were derived from patients and then cultured in vitro.MTT were used to examine cell proliferation.Flow cytometry and FITC-Annexin V-PI doubled staining were employed to analyze cell apoptosis, cell cycle, and the expression of ERK1.Results OM decreased cell proliferation of KFb, HFb and NFb ( inhibition rates were 12% , 14% , and 10% , respectively) but increased apoptosis by 72% in KFb.HC decreased cell proliferation of KFb, HFb and NFb (inhibition rates were 21%, 21% and 15%, respectively), but increased cell apoptosis of KFb, HFb and NFb by 184% , 121% , and 148% , respectively.Above data were significant in statistics.There were no any difference in cell cycle and ERK1 expression among the groups.Conclusions Similarly with HC, OM can control keloid and hypertrophic scar by suppressing fibroblast proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis.%目的 观察氧化苦参碱(oxymatrine,OM)对人病理性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖、凋亡、细胞周期及细胞外信号调节激酶1(ERK1)的影响,并且与瘢痕治疗常规药物氢化可的松(hydrocortisone,HC)的作用进行比较. 方法 原代的瘢痕疙瘩、增生性瘢痕和正常皮肤的成纤维细胞(KFb、HFb、NFb)采用组织块培养法培养,将氧化苦参碱(2×10-6 mol/L)、氢化可的松(5.5×10-9 mol/L)分别作用于KFb、HFb、NFb,用四甲基偶氮唑蓝微量酶反应比色法(MTT)检测细胞增殖活力,流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡、细胞周期、ERK1的变化.结果 OM能明显抑制KFb、HFb和NFb的增殖活性(抑制率分别为12%,14%,10%),促进KFb的凋亡(增加72%).HC明显抑制KFb、HFb、NFb

  15. Signal roles of protein tyrosine kinase in transforming growth factor-β1 or interferon-γ regulated proliferation and collagen synthesis by fibroblasts from hypertrophic scar and normal dermis%TGF-β1或IFN-γ影响增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞增殖和胶原合成中PTK的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张选奋; 李荟元; 鲁开化; 郭树忠; 张琳西

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨蛋白酪氨酸激酶(protein tyrosine kinase,PTK)在TGF-β1刺激或IFN-γ抑制增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞(hypertrophic scar fibroblast,HS-FB)和正常人皮肤成纤维细胞(normal skin fibroblast,NS-FB)增殖和合成胶原中的作用.方法用TGF-β1或IFN-γ处理培养的HS-FB和NS-FB,用32P掺入底物法测定PTK活性,MTT法测定细胞增殖,放射免疫法测定胶原合成.结果TGF-β1不活化PTK但呈时间依赖性刺激HS-FB和NS-FB增殖和胶原合成,5,7,45-三羟(基)异黄酮(异黄酮)不影响TGF-β1的作用.短暂使用IFN-γ增加HS-FB和NS-FB增殖和胶原合成,伴有PTK活化,随后PTK活性恢复,细胞增殖和胶原合成也被抑制;异黄酮可逆转IFN-γ的作用.HS-FB的酶活性、增殖和合成胶原能力稍强于NS-FB,但P>0.05.结论PTK不介导TGF-β1的信号,但部分介导IFN-γ短期升高FB增殖和胶原合成的效应,而PTK与IFN-γ的长期抑制效应无关.抑制或活化PTK可抑制或刺激FB增殖和合成胶原.

  16. 软骨形态发生蛋白1诱导的瘢痕成纤维细胞体内成软骨能力的实验研究%Chondrogenic Differentiation of Hypertrophic Scar -Derived Fibroblasts Initiated by Cartilage -derived Morphogenetic Protein 1 in Vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈聪聪; 柴岗; 曲淼; 侯亦康; 许祐荣; 张艳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨软骨形态发生蛋白1(CDMP1)诱导的瘢痕成纤维细胞在体内环境下的软骨构建能力。方法取瘢痕切除术后丢弃的增生性瘢痕组织,提取瘢痕成纤维细胞。将瘢痕成纤维细胞与PGA/PLA支架复合,CDMP1软骨诱导液(CDMP1终浓度为100 ng/mL)进行诱导培养2周,设为诱导组(n=10);将常规培养液培养的瘢痕成纤维细胞-材料复合物植入裸鼠体内作为阴性对照,设为非诱导组(n=4);将软骨细胞-材料复合物植入裸鼠体内作为阳性对照,设为软骨组(n=4)。分别于4周和8周后取材,进行各组湿重、糖胺聚糖(GAG)含量测定,HE染色、Safranine-O染色和Ⅱ型胶原免疫组化染色。结果体内培养4周、8周后各组湿重、GAG含量测定显示,诱导组均高于非诱导组(P<0.05)。体内培养4周后,诱导组HE染色结果显示,瘢痕成纤维细胞诱导后出现软骨细胞陷窝结构;Safranine-O染色结果示,GAG均匀分布于基质;免疫组织化学染色示部分瘢痕成纤维细胞基质中COLⅡ阳性表达。8周时,诱导组的类软骨结果相对4周时更加成熟,更加符合软骨结构分布。结论在CDMP1诱导下,瘢痕成纤维细胞与PGA/PLA材料复合,在体内可以形成类软骨组织,具备一定的成软骨能力。%Objective To explore the chondrogenesis potential of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs) induced by cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein 1 (CDMP1) in vivo. Methods Hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFBs) were isolated from discarded hypertrophic scar. HSFBs combining with PGA/PLA scaffold as HSFBs- PGA/PLA complex were induced by CDMP1 (100 ng/mL) for 2 weeks. Then the complex were transplanted into nude mice as induced group (n=10). The complex that not induced were treated as negative control, named as un-induced group ( n=4), while the chondrocytes-PGA/PLA complex were treated as positive control, named as

  17. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry: The rationale and design of an international, observational study of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Christopher M; Appelbaum, Evan; Desai, Milind Y; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; DiMarco, John P; Friedrich, Matthias G; Geller, Nancy; Heckler, Sarahfaye; Ho, Carolyn Y; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Ivey, Elizabeth A; Keleti, Julianna; Kim, Dong-Yun; Kolm, Paul; Kwong, Raymond Y; Maron, Martin S; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Piechnik, Stefan; Watkins, Hugh; Weintraub, William S; Wu, Pan; Neubauer, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common monogenic heart disease with a frequency as high as 1 in 200. In many cases, HCM is caused by mutations in genes encoding the different components of the sarcomere apparatus. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, myofibrillar disarray, and myocardial fibrosis. The phenotypic expression is quite variable. Although most patients with HCM are asymptomatic, serious consequences are experienced in a subset of affected individuals who present initially with sudden cardiac death or progress to refractory heart failure. The Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry study is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored 2,750-patient, 44-site, international registry and natural history study designed to address limitations in extant evidence to improve prognostication in HCM (NCT01915615). In addition to the collection of standard demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic variables, patients will undergo state-of-the-art cardiac magnetic resonance for assessment of left ventricular mass and volumes as well as replacement scarring and interstitial fibrosis. In addition, genetic and biomarker analyses will be performed. The Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Registry has the potential to change the paradigm of risk stratification in HCM, using novel markers to identify those at higher risk.

  18. Nonlinear optics for the study of human scar tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, D. P.; Vieira-Damiani, G.; Adam, R. L.; Cesar, C. L.; Metze, Konradin

    2012-03-01

    Collagen fibers are an essential component of the dynamic process of scarring, which accompanies various diseases. Scar tissue may reveal different morphologic expressions, such as hypertrophic scars or keloids. Collagen fibers can be visualized by fluorescent light when stained with eosin. Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) creates a non linear signal that occurs only in molecules without inversion symmetry and is particularly strong in the collagen fibers arranged in triple helices. The aim of this study was to describe the methodology for the analysis of the density and texture of collagen in keloids, hypertrophic scars and conventional scars. Samples were examined in the National Institute of Science and Technology on Photonics Applied to Cell Biology (INFABIC) at the State University of Campinas. The images were acquired in a multiphoton microscopy LSM 780-NLO Zeiss 40X. Both signals, two-photon fluorescence (TPEF) and SHG, were excited by a Mai-Tai Ti:Sapphire laser at 940 nm. We used a LP490/SP485 NDD filter for SHG, and a BP565-610 NDD filter for fluorescence In each case, ten images were acquired serially (512×512 μm) in Z-stack and joined together to one patchwork-image . Image analysis was performed by a gliding-box-system with in-house made software. Keloids, hypertrophic scars and normal scar tissue show different collagen architecture. Inside an individual case differences of the scar process may be found between central and peripheral parts. In summary, the use of nonlinear optics is a helpful tool for the study of scars tissue.

  19. Keratinocyte-derived follistatin regulates epidermal homeostasis and wound repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsiferova, Maria; Klatte, Jennifer E; Bodó, Enikö; Paus, Ralf; Jorcano, José L; Matzuk, Martin M; Werner, Sabine; Kögel, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Activin is a growth and differentiation factor that controls development and repair of several tissues and organs. Transgenic mice overexpressing activin in the skin were characterized by strongly enhanced wound healing, but also by excessive scarring. In this study, we explored the consequences of targeted activation of activin in the epidermis and hair follicles by generation of mice lacking the activin antagonist follistatin in keratinocytes. We observed enhanced keratinocyte proliferation in the tail epidermis of these animals. After skin injury, an earlier onset of keratinocyte hyperproliferation at the wound edge was observed in the mutant mice, resulting in an enlarged hyperproliferative epithelium. However, granulation tissue formation and scarring were not affected. These results demonstrate that selective activation of activin in the epidermis enhances reepithelialization without affecting the quality of the healed wound. PMID:19079322

  20. Cardiac sarcoid: a chameleon masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy in the same patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anushree; Sulemanjee, Nasir Z; Cheema, Omar; Downey, Francis X; Tajik, A Jamil

    2014-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology often seen in young adults, with cardiac involvement in more than one-quarter of sarcoid patients. The clinical presentation of cardiac sarcoid depends upon the location and extent of myocardium involved. Although cardiac sarcoid may produce asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, it is most commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. The hypertrophic stage of cardiac sarcoid is rarely seen. We describe a case of cardiac sarcoid in a young patient wherein a distinctive appearance of the cardiac sarcoid spectrum from "hypertrophic" stage to thinned/scarred stage, masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by dilated cardiomyopathy, is demonstrated.

  1. Regenerative healing, scar-free healing and scar formation across the species: current concepts and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud-Din, Sara; Volk, Susan W; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2014-09-01

    All species have evolved mechanisms of repair to restore tissue function following injury. Skin scarring is an inevitable and permanent endpoint for many postnatal organisms except for non-amniote vertebrates such as amphibians, which are capable of tissue regeneration. Furthermore, mammalian foetuses through mid-gestation are capable of rapid wound repair in the absence of scar formation. Notably, excessive cutaneous scar formation, such as hypertrophic and keloid scars, is a species limited clinical entity as it occurs only in humans, although wounds on the distal limbs of horses are also prone to heal with fibroproliferative pathology known as equine exuberant granulation tissue. Currently, there are no reliable treatment options to eradicate or prevent scarring in humans and vertebrates. The limited number of vertebrate models for either hypertrophic or keloid scarring has been an impediment to mechanistic studies of these diseases and the development of therapies. In this viewpoint essay, we highlight the current concepts of regenerative, scar-free and scar-forming healing compared across a number of species and speculate on areas for future research. Furthermore, in-depth investigative research into the mechanisms of scarless repair may allow for the development of improved animal models and novel targets for scar prevention. As the ability to heal in both a scarless manner and propensity for healing with excessive scar formation is highly species dependent, understanding similarities and differences in healing across species as it relates to the regenerative process may hold the key to improve scarring and guide translational wound-healing studies.

  2. New perspectives in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. Kofflard (Marcel)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractHypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a primary cardiac disorder with a heterogeneous expression. Although relatively uncommon, the disease has been studied extensively as appears from the numerous studies that have explored specific facets of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review will focus

  3. HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY IN MULTIMORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lakhonina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of diagnosis, difficulties in the diagnosis and optimal therapeutic strategies in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and comorbid conditions such as arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus type 2, stenosis of the left renal artery, obesity are reviewed on the example of clinical case. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy combined with multimorbidity conditions requires a high-quality medical management, where the main goal is to improve the quality and duration of patient's life. This goal is being achieved by optimizing patient's lifestyle and assigning only the minimum amount of medications. Necessity of careful diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, evaluation of the risk of sudden death and search of optimal treatment in patients with multimorbidity pathology are demonstrated in clinical case.

  4. Influences of human dermis derived mesenchymal stem cells on α-SMA and DCN expressions of hypertrophic scars fibroblasts%人真皮间充质干细胞对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞α-SMA和DCN表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文夺; 邓呈亮; 郭常敏; 聂开瑜; 唐修俊; 魏在荣; 王达利

    2016-01-01

    组变化较明显.结论 hDMSCs在体外培养体系中可下调HSFB α-SMA mRNA和蛋白的表达、上调DCN mRNA和蛋白的表达,并且对增生性瘢痕形成早期的成纤维细胞作用较明显,hDMSCs的抗纤维化作用有望用于提高创面愈合质量和病理性瘢痕的防治.%Objective To preliminarily explore the effects of human dermis derived mesenchymal stem cells (hDMSCs) on expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and decorin (DCN) in hypertrophic scars fibroblasts (HSFB) at different periods,and to explore the feasibility of MSCs in prevention and treatment of HSFBs.Methods hDMSCs were cultured with mechanical method combined with enzyme digestion.The cells of the third generation which were well grown were taken,and flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect CD molecules in hDMSCs.Immunocytochemistry was used to detect cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and vimentin and identify the separated cells.The cells were differentiated into lipoblasts,chondroblasts and osteoblasts.According to the formation course of hypertrophic scar,the scar specimens were divided into 6-month,l-year,and 2-year group with three cases in each group.HSFBs from different groups were co-cultured with well-adherent hDMSCs of the third generation in non-contact transwell co-culture system for 21 days.And HSFBs from the corresponding groups were cultured in normal six-well plate as the controls.Real-time fluorescent-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western Blot were used to detect the expressions of mRNA and proteins of α-SMA and DCN in HSFBs from different groups.Results hDMSCs highly expressed the surface markers including CD73,CD105,CD44 and CD90,etc.,but did not express hematopoietic stem cell surface markers including CD 14,CD34 and CD45.They positively expressed vimentin but not CK19.The cells can be differentiated into lipoblasts,chondroblasts and osteoblasts,which was in line with the minimum identification standards of mesenchymal stem cells.For HSFB cultured in normal six-well plates

  5. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deus-Silva Leonardo de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic pachymeningits is an unusual cause of neurological symptoms and is often secondary to infections, carcinomatosis or inflammatory diseases. It may also be idiopathic. We report a case of pachymeningitis which was manifested primarily by psychosis and visual loss with optic atrophy and destruction of nasal septum. The patient, a 45 year old woman was submitted to extensive investigation without evidence of any underlying disease. A meningeal biopsy was performed and showed a mostly unspecific inflammatory process with extensive fibrosis of the dura and few early stage granulomas. These findings suggest either neurosarcoidosis or idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis.

  6. Hypertrophic discoid lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley-Loftus, Rachel; Elmariah, Sarina B; Ralston, Jonathan; Kamino, Hideko; Franks, Andrew G

    2010-11-15

    Hypertrophic discoid lupus erythematosus is a distinct form of chronic cutaneous (discoid) lupus, which is characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques that typically are observed over the face, arms, and upper trunk. We present the case of a 43-year-old man with verrucous plaques that were distributed symmetrically over the face, who initially was treated with oral antibiotics and topical glucocorticoids for acne vulgaris. A biopsy specimen confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic discoid lupus erythematosus. The clinical and histopathologic features of this clinical variant are reviewed.

  7. 转化生长因子-β1/Smads 信号在增生性瘢痕形成中的作用研究进展%Review on the role of TGF-β1/Smads signaling in the formation of hypertrophic scar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂芳; 张晓芬; 陈亚峰; 奉典旭

    2015-01-01

    病理性的创面愈合常导致增生性瘢痕的形成,并伴随疼痛、瘙痒和挛缩,给患者带来生理和心理上的巨大痛苦。肌成纤维细胞的过度增殖及细胞外基质的过度沉积是增生性瘢痕的重要特征,其中 TGF (转化生长因子)-β1/Smads信号的调节发挥了重要作用。抑制TGF-β1/Smads可抑制细胞的过度增殖,减少细胞外基质的沉积。目前针对该信号通路抗增生性瘢痕形成的研究日益增多,为减少瘢痕的形成及减轻瘢痕提供了重要的依据。本文就肌成纤维细胞及细胞外基质在增生性瘢痕中的作用及TGF-β1/Smads在增生性瘢痕形成调节中发挥的重要作用作一综述。%Hypertrophic scars( HS) form as a result of pathological wound healing.By causing pain,pruri-tus and contractures,HS significantly affects the patients’ quality of life,both physically and psychologically.Over-proliferation of myofibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix are characteristics of the HS,which are dominantly regulated by transforming growth factor-β1/drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic proteins ( TGF-β1/Smads) signaling.By inhibiting the signaling of TGF-β1/Smads,HS can be alleviated.Multiple researches fo-cus on preventing or attenuating HS against the signaling,providing important basis for therapies of HS.In this pa-per we summarize the roles of myofibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the process of HS, and the regulation of TGF-β1/Smads signaling during HS formation.

  8. Comparison of the histological morphology between normal skin and scar tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shao-wei; Geng, Zhi-jun; Ma, Kui; Sun, Xiao-yan; Fu, Xiao-bing

    2016-04-01

    Skin wound healing is a complex event, and interrupted wound healing process could lead to scar formation. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological changes of scar tissue. Pathological staining (HE staining, Masson's trichrome staining, methenamine silver staining) was used to evaluate the morphological changes of regenerating epidermis in normal skin and scar tissue, and immunofluorescence staining to detect the expression of collagen IV, a component of basement membrane (BM), and the expression of integrinβ4, a receptor for BM laminins. Additionally, the expression of CK14, CK5, and CK10 was measured to evaluate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes in normal skin and scar tissue. The results showed that the structure of the skin was histologically changed in scar tissue. Collagen IV, expressed under the epidermis of normal skin, was reduced distinctly in scar tissue. Integrinβ4, expressed in the basal layer of normal skin, was found absent in the basal layer of scar tissue. Additionally, it was found that keratinocytes in scarring epidermis were more proliferative than in normal skin. These results indicate that during the skin wound healing, altered formation of BM may affect the proliferation of keratinocytes, reepithelial and tissue remodeling, and then result in scar formation. Thus, remodeling BM structure during wound repair may be beneficial for improving healing in cutaneous wounds during clinical practice.

  9. The utility of onion extract gel containing topical allantoin and heparin after surgical treatment of upper extremity burn scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ihsan Okur

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Although no significant difference was obtained with Contractubex gel treatment in this study, cosmetic and functional success can be achieved through excision of the scar and use of medium thickness skin graft in patients with upper extremity hypertrophic burn scarring that is resistant to conservative treatments. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(3.000: 74-79

  10. Opuntia Extract Reduces Scar Formation in Rabbit Ear Model: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Quan; Huang, Chunlan; You, Chuangang; Ma, Shaolin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of Opuntia stricta H (Cactaceae) extract on suppression of hypertrophic scar on ventral surface wounds of rabbit ears. Full thickness skin defection was established in a rabbit ear to simulate hypertrophic scar. Opuntia extract was sprayed on the wounds in the experimental group, and normal saline was used in the control group. After the wounds healed with scar formation, the hypertrophic scar tissue was harvested on days 22, 39, and 54 for histological analysis. The expression of type I and type III collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that the scar of the control group is more prominent compared with the opuntia extract group. The expression of type I collagen in the opuntia extract group was lower than the control group, while type III collagen in opuntia extract group gradually increased and exceeded control group. The expression of MMP-1 decreased in the opuntia extract group, while the control group increased over time, but the amount of MMP-1 was much higher than that in the control group on day 22. In conclusion, opuntia extract reduces hypertrophic scar formation by means of type I collagen inhibition, and increasing type III collagen and MMP-1.T he novel application of opuntia extract may lead to innovative and effective antiscarring therapies.

  11. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be donated to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Association. iGive.com - Online Shopping Joing iGive.com to earn money for the ... it works, check out the iGive website . AmazonSmile - Online Shopping Amazon donates 0.5% of the purchase price ...

  12. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Neess; Garne, Ester; Loane, Maria;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to present epidemiologic data on infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) from seven well-defined European regions, and to compare incidence and changes in incidence over time between these regions. METHODS: This was a population-based study using...

  13. Monitoring the influence of compression therapy on pathophysiology and structure of a swine scar model using multispectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Travis, Taryn E.; Shuppa, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Ramella-Romana, Jessica C.

    2014-03-01

    Scar contractures can lead to significant reduction in function and inhibit patients from returning to work, participating in leisure activities and even render them unable to provide care for themselves. Compression therapy has long been a standard treatment for scar prevention but due to the lack of quantifiable metrics of scar formation scant evidence exists of its efficacy. We have recently introduced a multispectral imaging system to quantify pathophysiology (hemoglobin, blood oxygenation, melanin, etc) and structural features (roughness and collagen matrix) of scar. In this study, hypertrophic scars are monitored in-vivo in a porcine model using the imaging system to investigate influence of compression therapy on its quality.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a heart condition characterized by thickening (hypertrophy) ...

  15. Mechanisms of influence of high-power UVA1 radiation on the formation of hypertrophic scar in rabbits%强功率UVA1对兔耳增生性瘢痕模型影响的机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彤; 夏群力; 郑捷

    2011-01-01

    possible mechanisms of influence of different doses of UVA1 on the development of hypertrophic scar in rabbit ears induced by excision of full-thickness skin. Methods A hypertrophic scar model was established by excision of full-thickness skin on the ventral surface of rabbit ears.A total of 24 New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups to receive UVA1 radiation on the left ear immediately (U0 group), 1 month (U1 group), 2 months (U2 group) and 3 months (U3 group) after the excision, respectively, and each group were classified into two subgroups to be irradiated with UVA1 of 60 (middle) and 110 (high) J/cm2, respectively, for 30 sessions. The right ears served as the control without irradiation. Skin samples were obtained from the ears of rabbits before the first and after the last irradiation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe the ultra-structure and morphology of collagen fiber and fibroblasts, and immunohistochemical staining was performed to measure the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in skin samples. Results Compared with the unirradiated skin, irradiated skin showed higher expression levels of MMP-1 (P < 0.05), which were 10.43 ± 1.61 and 11.16 ± 1.57 in middle- and high-U1 group, 8.63 ± 2.61 and 7.33 ± 1.58 in middle- and high-U2 gorup, 5.74 ± 1.43 and 3.11 ± 0.27 in middle- and high-U3 group respectively. The expression level of TGF-β1 in irradiated skin was 12.51 ± 4.13 and 12.02 ± 5.02 in middle- and high-U1 group, respectively, 18.74 ± 6.42 and 19.69 ± 4.52 in middle- and high-U2 group, respectively, 20.51 ± 1.78 and 29.45 ± 6.55 in middle- and high-U3 group, respectively. A significant decrease was observed in the expression of PCNA in irradiated skin in middle- and high-U1 group (2.67 ± 0.44 and 2.04 ± 0

  16. 脉冲掺钕钇铝石榴石激光对增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成的影响%Effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser on collagen synthesis in hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblast cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒彬; 郝林林; 袁纯; 唐其敏; 黄显凯; 沈岳; 吴宗耀

    2001-01-01

    目的 探讨脉冲掺钕钇铝石榴石(Nd:YAG)激光对体外培养瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成的选择性抑制作用。方法 以不同能量密度(500 J/cm2、1 000 J/cm2、1 500 J/cm2和2 000 J/cm2)Nd:YAG激光(波长1 064 nm,脉宽150 μs)照射体外培养增生性瘢痕和正常皮肤成纤维细胞,照射后24 h分别用3H-脯氨酸掺入法和斑点杂交法检测成纤维细胞胶原合成和I型前胶原基因表达。 结果 体外培养增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成高于正常皮肤,约为正常皮肤的2倍,I型前胶原基因表达亦明显高于正常皮肤,约为正常皮肤的3倍;以500 J/cm2激光照射,增生性瘢痕与正常皮肤成纤维细胞胶原合成、I型前胶原mRNA水平均无变化,以1 500 J/cm2、2 000 J/cm2能量密度激光照射,增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成、I型前胶原mRNA水平都显著降低(P<0.001,P<0.001);正常皮肤成纤维细胞胶原合成、I型前胶原mRNA水平在1 500 J/cm2激光照射后降低(P<0.001,P<0.01),2 000 J/cm2照射后亦显著降低(P<0.001,P<0.05);以1 000 J/cm2照射,增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成与I型前胶原基因表达显著下降(P<0.001),而正常皮肤成纤维细胞胶原合成和I型前胶原基因表达却无明显变化。结论 1 000 J/cm2脉冲Nd:YAG激光照射能选择性抑制增生性瘢痕成纤维细胞胶原合成和I型前胶原基因表达。%Objective In order to explore the selectively inhibitory effects of pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation on collagen production of scar fibroblasts in vitro. Methods Cultured fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scars (HS) and normal human skin were irradiated with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 1 064 nm, pulse width 150(μs) at various energy density levels (500 J/cm2, 1 000 J/cm2, 1 500 J/cm2 and 2 000 J/cm2). At 24 hours after laser irradiation, collagen production of fibroblasts was measured by the incorporation

  17. Pressotherapy of a postoperative scar with the application of non-sterile silicone dressings in a 56-year-old woman treated for breast cancer in the Holycross Cancer Centre in Kielce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Macek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scarring is a natural process of wound healing. In some cases, however, there is formation of hypertrophic scars and keloids that are the result of collagen decomposition and synthesis. A disturbed scarring process causes functional, aesthetic, and psychological disorders in the patient. Silicone dressings in the form of plasters or gel are used in the treatment of hypertrophic scars and keloids. A case of pressotherapy of a postoperative scar with the use of non-sterile silicone dressings in a 56-year-old patient treated for breast cancer is described herein. The use of a 2-month pressotherapy of the scar resulted in an improvement in all the assessed parameters. Pressotherapy of the postoperative scar in the patient after mastectomy proved to be an effective and promising method. However, the methods of the scar assessment before and after treatment need objectivity.

  18. Non-ablative fractional laser provides long-term improvement of mature burn scars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth H; Danielsen, Patricia L; Paulsen, Ida F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Non-ablative fractional laser-treatment is evolving for burn scars. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological long-term outcome of 1,540 nm fractional Erbium: Glass laser, targeting superficial, and deep components of mature burn scars......-Patient-and-Observer-Scar-Assessment-Scale (mPOSAS, 1 = "normal skin", 10 = "worst imaginable scar"). Secondary outcomes included histology, patient satisfaction (0-10), patient-assessed improvement, and safety. RESULTS: Study was completed by 17 of 20 randomized patients with normotrophic (n = 11), hypertrophic (n = 5) or atrophic (n = 1...... of scar-appearance. CONCLUSIONS: Combined superficial and deep non-ablative fractional laser-treatments induce long-term clinical and histological improvement of mature burn scars....

  19. Ultrasound assessed thickness of burn scars in association with laser Doppler imaging determined depth of burns in paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Mill, Julie; Kravchuk, Olena; Kimble, Roy M

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the ultrasound assessment of burn scars in paediatric patients and the association of these scar thickness with laser Doppler imaging (LDI) determined burn depth. A total of 60 ultrasound scar assessments were conducted on 33 scars from 21 paediatric burn patients at 3, 6 and 9 months after-burn. The mean of peak scar thickness was 0.39±0.032 cm, with the thickest at 6 months (0.40±0.036 cm). There were 17 scald burn scars (0.34±0.045 cm), 4 contact burn scars (0.61±0.092 cm), and 10 flame burn scars (0.42±0.058 cm). Each group of scars followed normal distributions. Twenty-three scars had original burns successfully scanned by LDI and various depths of burns were presented by different colours according to blood perfusion units (PU), with dark blue burns, with the thinnest scars for green coloured burns and the thickest for dark blue coloured burns. Within light blue burns, grafted burns healed with significantly thinner scars than non-grafted burns. This study indicates that LDI can be used for predicting the risk of hypertrophic scarring and for guiding burn care. To our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate the thickness of burns scars by ultrasound scan with burn depth determined by LDI.

  20. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more to fully heal and achieve maximum improved appearance. Facial plastic surgery makes it possible to correct facial flaws that can undermine self-confidence. Changing how your scar looks can help change ...

  1. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Kofoed, P E; Høst, A; Elle, B

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasound in hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) and to analyse the correlation between the dimensions of the pyloric muscle and the age and the weight of the child, 34 children with suspected HPS and 34 controls were examined. An overlap between the dimensions...... of the pyloric muscle in the HPS group and in the controls stresses the need to assess the muscle length, the muscle diameter, and the muscle wall thickness in establishing the sonographic diagnosis of HPS. We found the following criteria useful: muscle length greater than or equal to 19 mm, muscle diameter...... greater than or equal to 10 mm, and muscle wall thickness greater than or equal to 4 mm. The results did not confirm previous reports of increasing dimensions of the pyloric muscle with age and weight....

  2. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy South African Blacks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-19

    Feb 19, 1983 ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an important cardiac lesion to .... showed vigorous myocardial contraction with a markedly increased ejection ... There may be an inherited malformation of muscle in different parts of the ...

  3. In vivo terahertz reflection imaging of human scars during and after the healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuting; Ung, Benjamin S Y; Parrott, Edward P J; Wallace, Vincent P; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

    2017-09-01

    We use terahertz imaging to measure four human skin scars in vivo. Clear contrast between the refractive index of the scar and surrounding tissue was observed for all of the scars, despite some being difficult to see with the naked eye. Additionally, we monitored the healing process of a hypertrophic scar. We found that the contrast in the absorption coefficient became less prominent after a few months post-injury, but that the contrast in the refractive index was still significant even months post-injury. Our results demonstrate the capability of terahertz imaging to quantitatively measure subtle changes in skin properties and this may be useful for improving scar treatment and management. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Targeted killing of myofibroblasts by biosurfactant di-rhamnolipid suggests a therapy against scar formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Jiang, Lifang; Shao, Huawei; You, Chuangang; Zhang, Guoliang; Ding, Sitong; Bian, Tingwei; Han, Chunmao; Meng, Qin

    2016-01-01

    Pathological myofibroblasts are often involved in skin scarring via generating contractile force and over-expressing collagen fibers, but no compound has been found to inhibit the myofibroblasts without showing severe toxicity to surrounding physiological cells. Here we report that di-rhamnolipid, a biosurfactant secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, showed potent effects on scar therapy via a unique mechanism of targeted killing the myofibroblasts. In cell culture, the fibroblasts-derived myofibroblasts were more sensitive to di-rhamnolipid toxicity than fibroblasts at a concentration-dependent manner, and could be completely inhibited of their specific functions including α-SMA expression and collagen secretion/contraction. The anti-fibrotic function of di-rhamnolipid was further verified in rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models by presenting the significant reduction of scar elevation index, type I collagen fibers and α-SMA expression. In this regard, di-rhamnolipid treatment could be suggested as a therapy against skin scarring. PMID:27901027

  5. Imaging of skin birefringence for human scar assessment using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography aided by vascular masking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Chin, Lixin; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Liew, Yih Miin; Wood, Fiona M.; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate the in vivo assessment of human scars by parametric imaging of birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Such in vivo assessment is subject to artifacts in the detected birefringence caused by scattering from blood vessels. To reduce these artifacts, we preprocessed the PS-OCT data using a vascular masking technique. The birefringence of the remaining tissue regions was then automatically quantified. Results from the scars and contralateral or adjacent normal skin of 13 patients show a correspondence of birefringence with scar type: the ratio of birefringence of hypertrophic scars to corresponding normal skin is 2.2±0.2 (mean±standard deviation), while the ratio of birefringence of normotrophic scars to normal skin is 1.1±0.4. This method represents a new clinically applicable means for objective, quantitative human scar assessment.

  6. Genetic biomarkers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Caroline J; Elliott, Perry M

    2013-08-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a common inherited heart muscle disorder associated with sudden cardiac death, arrhythmias and heart failure. Genetic mutations can be identified in approximately 60% of patients; these are commonest in genes that encode proteins of the cardiac sarcomere. Similar to other Mendelian diseases these mutations are characterized by incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression. Our knowledge of this genetic diversity is rapidly evolving as high-throughput DNA sequencing technology is now used to characterize an individual patient's disease. In addition, the genomic basis of several multisystem diseases associated with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy phenotype has been elucidated. Genetic biomarkers can be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis and in identifying relatives at risk of developing the condition. In the clinical setting, genetic testing and genetic screening should be used pragmatically with appropriate counseling. Here we review the current role of genetic biomarkers in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, highlight recent progress in the field and discuss future challenges.

  7. Fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes with immunosuppressive properties for allogeneic cell-based wound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Thomas; Saiagh, Soraya; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Esbelin, Julie; Dréno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic properties of the fetal cells were investigated by allogeneic PBMC proliferation tests. In addition, the potential advantage of fibroblasts/keratinocytes co-application for wound healing stimulation has been examined in co-culture experiments with in vitro scratch assays and a multiplex cytokines array system. Based on keratin 14 and prolyl-4-hydroxylase expression analyses, purity of both clinical batches was found to be above 98% and neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells could be detected. Both cell types demonstrated strong immunosuppressive properties as shown by the dramatic decrease in allogeneic PBMC proliferation when co-cultured with fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes. We further showed that the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity is required for the immunoregulatory activity of fetal skin cells. Co-cultures experiments have also revealed that fibroblasts-keratinocytes interactions strongly enhanced fetal cells secretion of HGF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and to a lesser extent VEGF-A. Accordingly, in the in vitro scratch assays the fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-culture accelerated the scratch closure compared to fibroblast or keratinocyte mono-cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the combination of fetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be of particular interest for the development of a new allogeneic skin substitute with immunomodulatory activity, acting as a reservoir for wound healing growth factors.

  8. Fetal Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes with Immunosuppressive Properties for Allogeneic Cell-Based Wound Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Thomas; Saiagh, Soraya; Knol, Anne-Chantal; Esbelin, Julie; Dréno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic properties of the fetal cells were investigated by allogeneic PBMC proliferation tests. In addition, the potential advantage of fibroblasts/keratinocytes co-application for wound healing stimulation has been examined in co-culture experiments with in vitro scratch assays and a multiplex cytokines array system. Based on keratin 14 and prolyl-4-hydroxylase expression analyses, purity of both clinical batches was found to be above 98% and neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells could be detected. Both cell types demonstrated strong immunosuppressive properties as shown by the dramatic decrease in allogeneic PBMC proliferation when co-cultured with fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes. We further showed that the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) activity is required for the immunoregulatory activity of fetal skin cells. Co-cultures experiments have also revealed that fibroblasts-keratinocytes interactions strongly enhanced fetal cells secretion of HGF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and to a lesser extent VEGF-A. Accordingly, in the in vitro scratch assays the fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-culture accelerated the scratch closure compared to fibroblast or keratinocyte mono-cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the combination of fetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be of particular interest for the development of a new allogeneic skin substitute with immunomodulatory activity, acting as a reservoir for wound healing growth factors. PMID:23894651

  9. Fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes with immunosuppressive properties for allogeneic cell-based wound therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zuliani

    Full Text Available Fetal skin heals rapidly without scar formation early in gestation, conferring to fetal skin cells a high and unique potential for tissue regeneration and scar management. In this study, we investigated the possibility of using fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes to stimulate wound repair and regeneration for further allogeneic cell-based therapy development. From a single fetal skin sample, two clinical batches of keratinocytes and fibroblasts were manufactured and characterized. Tolerogenic properties of the fetal cells were investigated by allogeneic PBMC proliferation tests. In addition, the potential advantage of fibroblasts/keratinocytes co-application for wound healing stimulation has been examined in co-culture experiments with in vitro scratch assays and a multiplex cytokines array system. Based on keratin 14 and prolyl-4-hydroxylase expression analyses, purity of both clinical batches was found to be above 98% and neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells could be detected. Both cell types demonstrated strong immunosuppressive properties as shown by the dramatic decrease in allogeneic PBMC proliferation when co-cultured with fibroblasts and/or keratinocytes. We further showed that the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO activity is required for the immunoregulatory activity of fetal skin cells. Co-cultures experiments have also revealed that fibroblasts-keratinocytes interactions strongly enhanced fetal cells secretion of HGF, GM-CSF, IL-8 and to a lesser extent VEGF-A. Accordingly, in the in vitro scratch assays the fetal fibroblasts and keratinocytes co-culture accelerated the scratch closure compared to fibroblast or keratinocyte mono-cultures. In conclusion, our data suggest that the combination of fetal keratinocytes and fibroblasts could be of particular interest for the development of a new allogeneic skin substitute with immunomodulatory activity, acting as a reservoir for wound healing growth factors.

  10. Scar revision - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of scarring may be determined by the size, depth, and location of the wound; the age of ... anesthesia or general anesthesia). Massive injuries (such as burns) can cause loss of a large area of ...

  11. Comparison of the effectiveness of nonablative fractional laser versus ablative fractional laser in thyroidectomy scar prevention: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hei Sung; Lee, Ji Hae; Park, Young Min; Lee, Jun Young

    2012-04-01

    A scar is a mark that remains after the healing of a wound or other morbid processes. In the past, treatment was mainly focused on severe scarring, such as the hypertrophic and burn scars. However, scars from relatively minor wounds can also be stressful. The site of an open thyroidectomy is the anterior neck, a prominently exposed part of the body, where postoperative scarring can cause patients distress. The cosmetic outcome of the scar after thyroidectomy is of particular importance to women, who constitute the majority of patients with thyroid disease. Active prevention is more likely to yield better cosmetic results and would require fewer treatment sessions and less expense than scar revision procedures. Many interventions have been proposed, but there is yet no universal consensus on optimal treatment. Recently, focus has been made on 'laser scar prevention', where various types of lasers have been used to improve the appearance of scars. The purpose of this study was to improve the appearance of scars, by laser intervention of the wound healing process. In this pilot study, we comparatively examined the effect of non-ablative 1550-nm fractional Er: glass laser and ablative 2940-nm fractional Er: YAG laser on fresh surgical scars of patients with Fitzpatrick skin type III-IV.

  12. [Unusual breast scars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, F; Divaris, M; Guilbert, F

    1999-12-01

    The authors report the case of an unusual form of skin tattoo, discovered on the breasts of a young woman, corresponding to several scars forming a symbolic image, performed deliberately with a burning object. This form of mutilation is called "branding". Imported from England, it is developing in France as a result of fashion, but its followers could one day regret the permanent scars left by this deep burn.

  13. 压力疗法对烧伤患者增生性瘢痕中细胞增殖与凋亡的影响%Effects of pressure therapy on the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in hypertrophic scar of burn patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭加; 付晋凤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of pressure therapy on proliferation and apoptosis of cells in hypertrophic scar (HS) of burn patients.Methods Twenty patients who were hospitalized from September 2010 to September 2012 and started to wear pressure garment tailored by rehabilitation therapists over 20 hours a day beginning from two weeks after healing of burn wounds with the depth from deep partialthickness to full-thickness (early stage of formation of HS) were set as pressure treatment group (PT).Another group of patients who were hospitalized in the same period with HS formed 3,6,12,24 months (with 5 patients at each time point) after deep partial-thickness to full-thickness burns without receiving any treatment were set as control group.HS tissue samples from limbs and face were excised at post treatment month (PTM) 3,6,12,24 in group PT (with 5 patients at each time point),and 2 to 3 days after admission in control group.Five patients out of the above-mentioned 40 patients were selected according to the random number table,and normal skin tissue samples from abdomen and thigh were also obtained to serve as normal control.The expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in HS and normal skin tissue were determined with immunohistochemical staining.The apoptosis status was detected with situ end labeling technique.The mRNA expressions of P57kip2 and Cyclin E were determined with real-time fluorescence quantification PCR.Data were processed with t test,one-way analysis of variance,or LSD test.Results (1) In normal skin tissue,PCNA-positive cells were observed in the epidermal basal layer and prickle cell layer.In group PT and control group,PCNA-positive cells were observed in the epidermal basal layer,prickle cell layer,lower part of the granular cell layer,and dermis of HS.The percentages of PCNA-positive cells in HS in group PT were respectively (40.4 ±2.9)%,(28.2 ±6.2)%,(9.9 ±0.7)% at PTM 3,6,12,which were significantly lower than those of

  14. A study on scar revision

    OpenAIRE

    Ashutosh Talwar; Neerja Puri

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients. Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims:...

  15. Genetic basis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has matured from its cornerstone as a disease of the sarcomere to a compendium of diseases with various clinical, genetic and morphologic substrates. Research has provided us more insights into i) the pathogenetic development of HCM, ii) the pos

  16. Improving Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Vriesendorp (Pieter)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractImproving outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is focused on the improvement of the therapeutic strategies for patients with HCM. First it demonstrates that individual patient selection in patients with obstructive and symptomatic HCM can lead to near normal life-expectancy;

  17. Radiotherapy of hypertrophic connective tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, W.

    1982-10-11

    Peyronie's disease, Dupuytren's contractures and keloids produce similar pathologic-anatomic alterations of hypertrophic tissue. Different therapeutic modalities are presented in detail. The radiation therapy is one of the most effective treatments. Radiation technique, dose and fractionation are discussed. The results of the different modalities are reviewed.

  18. A study on scar revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Talwar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Scars are psychologically distressing for the patients and have an impact on the quality of life and self esteem of the patients. Scar revision is an aesthetic skill which is mastered by plastic surgeons and encroached now by dermatosurgeons. Scars on the face are aesthetically unacceptable and various techniques have been improvised for making a scar aesthetically acceptable. Various types of techniques are used for scar revision like W plasty, Z plasty and VY plasty. Aims: To see the efficacy of various scar revision techniques including Z plasty, VY plasty and W plasty in 30 patients with disfiguring scars. Methods: We selected twenty patients of disfiguring scars for the study. The scars from various causes including trauma and burns were included in our study. Various techniques of scar revision include Z plasty, W plasty and VY plasty were performed according to the type and site of scar. Results: Male: female was 1.5: 1. The scar revision surgery yielded excellent results with minimal complications including haematoma formation, secondary infection and delayed healing seen in 5% patients each. Regarding the efficacy of scar revision, excellent improvement was seen in 60% patients, moderate improvement was seen in 30% patients and mild improvement was seen in 10% patients. Conclusions: Dermatologists can employ a number of surgical scar revision techniques. While some are better suited to treat specific types of scars, they can be used in combination with each other or with adjunctive therapies to achieve optimal results.

  19. The correlation of in vivo burn scar contraction with the level of α-smooth muscle actin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Kravchuk, Olena; Winterford, Clay; Kimble, Roy M

    2011-12-01

    This study describes the direct association of in vivo burn scar contraction with the level of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in scar tissue, in a porcine burn model. The expression of α-SMA was investigated in 100 biopsies from 44 6-week old burn scars and in 85 biopsies from 16 2-week old burn wounds. Statistical analysis showed that the levels of α-SMA in 6-week old scars were significantly negatively correlated to scar size (r=-0.68) and the higher levels of α-SMA were observed in smaller scars. Moreover, α-SMA was also found to be significantly positively correlated to re-epithelialisation time (r=0.57) and scar thickness (r=0.58) and higher levels of α-SMA were detected in thicker scars with delayed wound closure. Further statistical analysis revealed that scar contraction can be explained best by the level of α-SMA expression and partially by scar thickness. Other variables, such as different dressings and individual pig, may also partly contribute to scar contraction. At week 2 after-burn, the level of α-SMA expression in 16 burn wounds was significantly related to the depth of burns and wound healing outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide in vivo evidence of the association of α-SMA expression with scar contraction, scar thickness, re-epithelialisation time and the depth of burn in a large animal burn model with scars similar to human hypertrophic scar.

  20. Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Madhuri Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Scar ectopic pregnancy is the rarest form of ectopic pregnancy and has been increasingly diagnosed all over the world. This is a life-threatening form of abnormal implantation of embryo within the myometrium and fibrous tissues in a previous scar on the uterus, especially following caesarean section. With the increasing rate of caesarean section, there is a substantial increase in this condition with better understanding of this disease. The early and accurate diagnosis with timely management can prevent pregnancy complications such as haemorrhage, uterine rupture and can preserve fertility.

  1. Cesarean scar pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Hoffmann, Elise; Rifbjerg Larsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study treatment modalities for cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs), focusing on efficacy and complications in relation to study quality. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 2,037 women with CSP. INTERVENTION(S): Review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Coch......OBJECTIVE: To study treatment modalities for cesarean scar pregnancies (CSPs), focusing on efficacy and complications in relation to study quality. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 2,037 women with CSP. INTERVENTION(S): Review of MEDLINE, EMBASE...

  2. Surgical scar revision: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Garg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scar formation is an inevitable consequence of wound healing from either a traumatic or a surgical intervention. The aesthetic appearance of a scar is the most important criteria to judge the surgical outcome. An understanding of the anatomy and wound healing along with experience, meticulous planning and technique can reduce complications and improve the surgical outcome. Scar revision does not erase a scar but helps to make it less noticeable and more acceptable. Both surgical and non-surgical techniques, used either alone or in combination can be used for revising a scar. In planning a scar revision surgeon should decide on when to act and the type of technique to use for scar revision to get an aesthetically pleasing outcome. This review article provides overview of methods applied for facial scar revision. This predominantly covers surgical methods.

  3. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acne, with nodules more likely to leave permanent scars than other types of acne. The best approach is to get ... time is shorter. Someone who has had this type of treatment may just look a bit sunburned for a couple of days. For "rolling" scars, doctors sometimes inject material under the scar to ...

  4. Foreskin-isolated keratinocytes provide successful extemporaneous autologous paediatric skin grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcheik, Jiad N; Barrault, Christine; Pedretti, Nathalie; Garnier, Julien; Juchaux, Franck; Levard, Guillaume; Morel, Franck; Lecron, Jean-Claude; Bernard, François-Xavier

    2016-03-01

    Severe burns in children are conventionally treated with split-thickness skin autografts or epidermal sheets. However, neither early complete healing nor quality of epithelialization is satisfactory. An alternative approach is to graft isolated keratinocytes. We evaluated paediatric foreskin and auricular skin as donor sources, autologous keratinocyte transplantation, and compared the graft efficiency to the in vitro capacities of isolated keratinocytes to divide and reconstitute epidermal tissue. Keratinocytes were isolated from surgical samples by enzymatic digestion. Living cell recovery, in vitro proliferation and epidermal reconstruction capacities were evaluated. Differentiation status was analysed, using qRT-PCR and immunolabelling. Eleven children were grafted with foreskin-derived (boys) or auricular (girls) keratinocyte suspensions dripped onto deep severe burns. The aesthetic and functional quality of epithelialization was monitored in a standardized way. Foreskin keratinocyte graft in male children provides for the re-epithelialization of partial deep severe burns and accelerates wound healing, thus allowing successful wound closure, and improves the quality of scars. In accordance, in vitro studies have revealed a high yield of living keratinocyte recovery from foreskin and their potential in terms of regeneration and differentiation. We report a successful method for grafting paediatric males presenting large severe burns through direct spreading of autologous foreskin keratinocytes. This alternative method is easy to implement, improves the quality of skin and minimizes associated donor site morbidity. In vitro studies have highlighted the potential of foreskin tissue for graft applications and could help in tissue selection with the prospect of grafting burns for girls. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Modulation of Wound Healing and Scar Formation by MG53 Protein-mediated Cell Membrane Repair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M.; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53−/− mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. PMID:26306047

  6. Measuring Scars of Periodic Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenon of periodic orbit scarring of eigenstates of classically chaotic systems is attracting increasing attention. Scarring is one of the most important ``corrections'' to the ideal random eigenstates suggested by random matrix theory. This paper discusses measures of scars and in so doing also tries to clarify the concepts and effects of eigenfunction scarring. We propose a new, universal scar measure which takes into account an entire periodic orbit and the linearized dynamics in its vicinity. This measure is tuned to pick out those structures which are induced in quantum eigenstates by unstable periodic orbits and their manifolds. It gives enhanced scarring strength as measured by eigenstate overlaps and inverse participation ratios, especially for longer orbits. We also discuss off-resonance scars which appear naturally on either side of an unstable periodic orbit.

  7. Anti-scarring properties of different tryptophan derivatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe-Sadat Poormasjedi-Meibod

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scars are associated with prolonged extracellular matrix (ECM production, aberrant ECM degradation and high tissue cellularity. Routinely used antifibrotic strategies aim to reduce ECM deposition and enhance matrix remodeling. Our previous study investigating the antifibrotic effects of indoleamine2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO led to the identification of kynurenine (Kyn as an antiscarring agent. A topical antifibrogenic therapy using Kyn is very attractive; however, it is well established that Kyn passes the blood brain barrier (BBB which causes complications including excitatory neuronal death. Here we investigated the antiscarring properties of kynurenic acid (KynA, a downstream end product of Kyn that is unlikely to pass the BBB, as an effective and safe replacement for Kyn. Our results indicated that while not having any adverse effect on dermal cell viability, KynA significantly increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1 and MMP3 and suppresses the production of type-I collagen and fibronectin by fibroblasts. Topical application of cream containing KynA in fibrotic rabbit ear significantly decreased scar elevation index (1.13±0.13 vs. 1.61±0.12 and tissue cellularity (221.38±21.7 vs. 314.56±8.66 cells/hpf in KynA treated wounds compared to controls. KynA treated wounds exhibited lower levels of collagen deposition which is accompanied with a significant decrease in type-I collagen and fibronectin expression, as well as an increase in MMP1 expression compared to untreated wounds or wounds treated with cream only. The results of this study provided evidence for the first time that KynA is promising candidate antifibrogenic agent to improve healing outcome in patients at risk of hypertrophic scarring.

  8. Keloid-derived keratinocytes acquire a fibroblast-like appearance and an enhanced invasive capacity in a hypoxic microenvironment in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyang; Chen, Jia; Xu, Bei; Long, Xiao; Qin, Han; Zhao, Robert Chunhua; Wang, Xiaojun

    2015-05-01

    A keloid scar is an overgrowth of dense fibrous tissue that develops around a wound. These scars are raised scars that spread beyong the margins of the orinigal wound to normal skin by invasion. Keloid tissue consists of both an epithelium and dermal fibroblasts. Recent studies have primarily focused on keloid fibroblasts; however, the precise role of keratinocytes in the invasion process of keloids remains to be identified. Hypoxia is a typical characteristic of keloid scars, as well as other solid tumors. The expression of the transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), is mainly induced by hypoxia and is known for its ability to induce proliferative and transformative changes in cells; its expression has been shown to correlate with tumor invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry, fluorescence staining and western blot analysis and demonstrated that HIF-1α was highly expressed in both the epithelial layer of keloid tissue specimens and in hypoxia-exposed keratinocytes, which suggested that the keloid keratinocytes underwent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in vitro. The high expression of mesenchymal markers, such as as vimentin and fibronectin was confirmed, as well as the reduced expression of E-cadherin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) during this process by detection at the protein and mRNA level. Moreover, siRNA targeting HIF-1α reversed the changes which had occurred in the morphology of the keratinocytes (cells had acquired a fibroblast-like appearance) and suppressed the invasive ability of the keratinocytes. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that the hypoxia/HIF-1α microenvironment provides a favorable environment for keloid-derived keratinocytes to adopt a fibroblast-like appearance through EMT. This transition may be responsible for the enhanced capacity of keloid keratinocytes to invade, allowing the keloids to extend beyond the wound margin.

  9. Human keratinocytes are vanilloid resistant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Pecze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Use of capsaicin or resiniferatoxin (RTX as analgesics is an attractive therapeutic option. RTX opens the cation channel inflammatory pain/vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1 permanently and selectively removes nociceptive neurons by Ca(2+-cytotoxicity. Paradoxically, not only nociceptors, but non-neuronal cells, including keratinocytes express full length TRPV1 mRNA, while patient dogs and experimental animals that underwent topical treatment or anatomically targeted molecular surgery have shown neither obvious behavioral, nor pathological side effects. METHODS: To address this paradox, we assessed the vanilloid sensitivity of the HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line and primary keratinocytes from skin biopsies. RESULTS: Although both cell types express TRPV1 mRNA, neither responded to vanilloids with Ca(2+-cytotoxicity. Only ectopic overproduction of TRPV1 rendered HaCaT cells sensitive to low doses (1-50 nM of vanilloids. The TRPV1-mediated and non-receptor specific Ca(2+-cytotoxicity ([RTX]>15 microM could clearly be distinguished, thus keratinocytes were indeed resistant to vanilloid-induced, TRPV1-mediated Ca(2+-entry. Having a wider therapeutic window than capsaicin, RTX was effective in subnanomolar range, but even micromolar concentrations could not kill human keratinocytes. Keratinocytes showed orders of magnitudes lower TRPV1 mRNA level than sensory ganglions, the bona fide therapeutic targets in human pain management. In addition to TRPV1, TRPV1b, a dominant negative splice variant was also noted in keratinocytes. CONCLUSION: TRPV1B expression, together with low TRPV1 expression, may explain the vanilloid paradox: even genuinely TRPV1 mRNA positive cells can be spared with therapeutic (up to micromolar doses of RTX. This additional safety information might be useful for planning future human clinical trials.

  10. Update on Postsurgical Scar Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chamata, Edward; Cox, Joshua; Dickey, Ryan M; Lee, Edward I

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative scar appearance is often a significant concern among patients, with many seeking advice from their surgeons regarding scar minimization. Numerous products are available that claim to decrease postoperative scar formation and improve wound healing. These products attempt to create an ideal environment for wound healing by targeting the three phases of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. With that said, preoperative interventions, such as lifestyle modifications and optimization of medical comorbidities, and intraoperative interventions, such as adherence to meticulous operative techniques, are equally important for ideal scarring. In this article, the authors review the available options in postoperative scar management, addressing the benefits of multimodal perioperative intervention. Although numerous treatments exist, no single modality has been proven superior over others. Therefore, each patient should receive a personalized treatment regimen to optimize scar management.

  11. Cutaneous Scar Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Bulushi, Taimoor

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous scarring is common after trauma, surgery and infection and occurs when normal skin tissue is replaced by fibroblastic tissue during the healing process. The pathophysiology of scar formation is not yet fully understood, although the degree of tension across the wound edges and the speed of cell growth are believed to play central roles. Prevention of scars is essential and can be achieved by attention to surgical techniques and the use of measures to reduce cell growth. Grading and classifying scars is important to determine available treatment strategies. This article presents an overview of the current therapies available for the prevention and treatment of scars. It is intended to be a practical guide for surgeons and other health professionals involved with and interested in scar management. PMID:26909210

  12. Endoscopic reconstruction of partial mastectomy defects using latissimus dorsi muscle flap without causing scars on the back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Renom, José M; Serra-Mestre, José M; Martinez, Lourdes; D'Andrea, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Results obtained with breast-conserving therapy are not always satisfactory. Reconstruction with a pure latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a useful option. The techniques described for endoscopic dissection of the flap create several scars on the back. As a result, they do not improve on the open approach, which causes a horizontal scar at the level of the bra strap. The authors' technique avoids all scars on the back using a single incision in the highest folds of the axilla, which also is used for the sentinel node biopsy or lymphadectomy and quadrantectomy. The study was performed with 23 patients. The tumor was extracted via a clockwise downward periareolar incision and via another incision in a fold of the axilla. Through this axillary incision, the sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymphadectomy was performed, and the external part of the latissimus dorsi muscle was harvested endoscopically for the reconstruction. Both the medical team and the patients reported high satisfaction with the aesthetic and functional results due to the preservation of the breast shape and the absence of any scarring on the back. Endoscopy-assisted techniques make either three small scars on the back or one long scar, with the muscle sectioned distally, or a vertical incision in the midaxillary line, which may form a hypertrophic or keloid scar. The authors' approach avoids the creation of these scars on the back because the endoscopy and the distal sectioning of the muscle flap are performed through the single axillary incision.

  13. Dune Avalanche Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    05 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows large, low albedo (dark) sand dunes in Kaiser Crater near 47.2oS, 340.4oW. The dunes are--ever so slowly--moving east to west (right to left) as sand avalanches down the steeper, slip face slopes of each. Avalanching sand in the Kaiser dune field has left deep scars on these slopes, suggesting that the sand is not loose but is instead weakly cemented. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  14. Facial dermabrasion in acne scars and genodermatoses-A study of 65 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savant S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available bermabrasion is sequential planing of the raised skin/lesions to the desired depth. Facial dermabrasion was carried out in 65 patients (acne scars -48, adenoma sebaceum 12, multiple trichoepitheliomas 4, barier′s diease-1. Preancillary acne scar revision in 34/48 patients and excision of larger papules and electrodesiccation was performed in 10/12 adenoma sebaceum. In acne scars, 35/48 showed good to excellent and 13/48 poor results. In adenoma sebaceum, 9/12 had excellent and 3 satisfactory results. Preancillary procedures enhanced results in both conditions. Excellent results were obtained in 3/4 multiple trichoepitheliomas and in barier′s disease. Repeat dermabrasion was helpful in 7/65 patients. Side effects seen were persistent hypopigmentation 41, persistent erythema 30, milia 20, hyperpigmentation 15 and exacerbation of acne 3. Complications encountered were small deep scars 8, recurrence of adenoma sebaceum 3, gouging 2, secondary infection 2, oval large atrophic hypo-depigmented scar I and hypertrophic linear scar 1. Facial dermabrasion is a useful dermatosurgical modality to treat various skin disorders.

  15. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Kamal; Jain, Sarika; Singh, Sunita

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in previously sensitized individuals with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a very large hypertrophic lupus vulgaris lesion over left side of chest since 22 years. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous infiltration without caseation necrosis. The Mantoux reaction was strongly positive. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris of such a giant size and that too at an unusual site is extremely rare and hence is being reported.

  16. Hypertrophic Nonunion Humerus Mimicking an Enchondroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Magu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although fractures of humeral shaft show excellent results with conservative management, nonunion does occur. Case Report. We bring forth the case of a young male with a 1.5-year-old hypertrophic nonunion of the humerus mimicking an enchondroma. The initial X-ray images of the patient appeared to be an enchondroma, which only on further evaluation and histopathological analysis was diagnosed conclusively to be a hypertrophic nonunion. Discussion. Enchondromas are often incidentally diagnosed benign tumours. It is however not common to misdiagnose a hypertrophic nonunion to be an enchondroma. We present this case to highlight the unique diagnostic dilemma the treating team had to face.

  17. 瘢痕表皮角蛋白的变化规律及正常表皮细胞培养液对成纤维细胞胶原合成的影响%The changes in keratins in epidermis and effects of medium for keratinocyte culture on synthesis of collagen in fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵园; 许明火; 宋慧锋; 高全文; 郝永红; 陈宝国; 柴家科

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the changes in keratins in scar or normal epidermis,and effects of the medium for normal keratinocyte culture on synthesis of collagen in scar or normal fibroblasts.Methods:Biopsy specimens were obtained from hypertrophic scar and adjacent unburned skin.The tissues were analyzed using histoimmunochemical staining for markers of keratinocyte proliferation,differentiation and activation (keratin 14,10 and 16 respectively).Medium for normal keratinocyte culture in different concentrations (0 %,5 %,10 %,20%) were collected to incubate normal and scar fibroblasts for 12 hours.Cell replication was quantified by MTT method.Collagen synthesis was quantified by the incorporation of 3 H-proline into collagen-sensitive protein.Results:A significantly higher expression of keratin 16 and weaker expression of keratin 10 were observed without significant change in keratin 14 in the epidermis of scars compared with normal control skin.Keratinocyte conditioned medium induced a significant increase in replication and a decrease in collagen synthesis in normal skin-derived fibroblasts than fibroblasts obtained from scar.Conclusions:Activation of keratinocytes plays an important role in the formation of scar; keratinocyte conditioned medium could promote replication of fibroblasts but alleviate the collagen synthesis by fibroblasts.%目的:研究增生性瘢痕和正常皮肤表皮角蛋白的变化规律以及正常表皮细胞培养液对瘢痕和正常皮肤成纤维细胞增殖和胶原合成的影响.方法:4例烧伤患者,每人取少量增生性瘢痕和临近的正常皮肤组织,用免疫组化法观察两种组织中与细胞增殖有关的角蛋白14、与细胞分化有关的角蛋白10和与细胞活化有关角蛋白16的变化.收集正常表皮细胞培养12h后的无血清培养液,用DMEM依次配成体积分数为0、5%、10%和20%,分别加入到加有正常和瘢痕组织成纤维细胞的培养板中.分别以MTT法测定吸

  18. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy screening in young athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappoport, W.J. [Arizona Heart Inst., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Steingard, P.M. [Phoenix Suns, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of sudden death during vigorous exercise. Early identification of this abnormality by ECG screening of high-school athletes before they participate in competitive sports helps save lives. (orig.)

  19. Saddle scars Existence and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R V

    1998-01-01

    A quantum scar is a wave function which displays an high intensity in the region of a classical unstable periodic orbit. Saddle scars are states related to the unstable harmonic motions along the stable manifold of a saddle point of the potential. Using a semiclassical method it is shown that, independently of the overall structure of the potential, the local dynamics of the saddle point is sufficient to insure the general existence of this type of scars and their factorized structure is obtained. Potentially useful situations are identified, where these states appear (directly or in disguise) and might be used for quantum control purposes.

  20. A comparative study evaluating the clinical efficacy of skin tapes versus silicone gel for the treatment of posttrauma scar in the rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin tape and silicone gel are two common over-the-counter preparations used to enhance the cosmesis of keloids and hypertrophic scars of posttrauma wounds. This animal study was performed to determine the clinical efficacy of skin tape versus silicone gel in subjects with scars. Materials and Methods: Three New Zealand rabbits that received total 12 incision wounds which two incision wounds on one ear side and subsequent primary suturing were studied. Stitches were removed after 1 week. Silicone gel was applied right upper side of the rabbit′s ear directly on surgical incision wounds, and skin tapes were also applied left upper side of the rabbit′s ear directly on another surgical incision wounds after 1 week of surgery. The lower incisions in both ears were covered with sterilized gauze and served as controls. We compared two experimental groups at binaural with using Vancouver Scar Scale, Manchester Scar Scale, and The Stony Brook Scar Evaluation Scale. These are widely used in clinical practice and research to document change in scar appearance. Results: We describe a rabbit model for incisional wounds and scarring outcome measures. The results of scar measuring devices demonstrated that skin tape reduced scar formation as well as silicone gel. Conclusions: The results of cosmetic demonstrated that skin tape reduced scar formation as well as silicone gel. However, the economical and effective materials were the important subject that suffices for clinical requirement. The application of these scar prevention devices to reduce scar formation after surgical incision is worthy of future investigation. Moreover, skin tape may represent a low-cost alternative and low scar formation for closure of surgical incisions.

  1. The impact of post-acne scars on the quality of life among young adults in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Yee Chuah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Post-acne scarring is a common and well-known sequelae of acne vulgaris. We aim to study the impact of post-acne scarring on the quality of life (QOL among young adults in Singapore. Settings and Design: This was a non-interventional prospective study. Materials and Methods: Patients aged 21-40 years with atrophic and hypertrophic acne scars who attended the National Skin Centre, Singapore were recruited in the study. They answered a simple questionnaire and the clinical severity of their acne scars were assessed by the doctor. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive analyses using absolute and percentage frequencies were performed on all data. The test of significance was two-sided and was set at 5% (P ≤ 0.05. Differential analyses were conducted using the parametric, independent two-sample t-test and non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. The statistical assessments were performed using SPSS version 18.0. Results: A total of 100 patients were studied. The mean patients′ subjective self-scoring on the severity of their post-acne scars was 5.78/10 and the mean Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI for post-acne scars was 5.61. Many (36%, n = 36 were self-conscious of their acne scars and 24%, (n = 24 felt that their acne scars was affecting their social activities. Conclusions: Our study showed that post-acne scars have a significant negative effect on the QOL of young adults. It highlights the need to increase public awareness of acne vulgaris and its sequelae through education programs and advocating early treatment to reduce the risk of scarring.

  2. 9 CFR 11.3 - Scar rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scar rule. 11.3 Section 11.3 Animals... WELFARE HORSE PROTECTION REGULATIONS § 11.3 Scar rule. The scar rule applies to all horses born on or after October 1, 1975. Horses subject to this rule that do not meet the following scar rule...

  3. Eumaios’ Knowledge of the Scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Anghelina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the scene of the fight with Iros, in which Odysseus bares his legs, Homer has carefully arranged the absence of those who know about Odysseus’ scar and so could have recognized his true identity.

  4. [The scars of Andy Warhol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, A

    1996-02-01

    The biographical and artistic documents describing to the attempted assassination of the artist Andy Warhol are reviewed. The visible scars are interpreted as symbols of the damaged integrity of the skin.

  5. Hypoxia Inhibits Hypertrophic Differentiation and Endochondral Ossification in Explanted Tibiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Moreira Teixeira, Liliana; Landman, Ellie; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes induces angiogenesis which alleviates hypoxia normally present in cartilage. In the current study, we aim to determine whether alleviation of hypoxia is merely a downstream effect of hypertrophic differentiation as previously

  6. Isolation, cultivation and transfection of human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Sona; Zarei, Mohammad Ali; Ghadimi, Tayyeb; Fathi, Fardin; Jalili, Ali; Hakhamaneshi, Mohammad Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Human keratinocytes could be used in the repair of damaged skin, in tissue engineering applications, gene therapy and recently, the generation of iPS cells. We isolated human keratinocytes from foreskin and subsequently cultured them on fibronectin, collagen type I, gelatin and laminin-coated dishes that contained three different types of serum-free medium (epilife, KSM or CnT). We developed improved conditions for efficient transfection of these human keratinocytes by testing three common transfection methods and a GFP plasmid vector. The isolated cells showed typical keratinocyte morphology and expressed the epithelial cell specific antigen, cytokeratin 14. Collagen type 1, epilife medium and lipofectamin 2000 gave the best results for isolation and transfection of human keratinocytes. Our protocol can be used as a reproducible, simple and efficient method for isolation, cultivation and genetic manipulation of human keratinocytes, which may be useful in cell and gene therapy applications.

  7. Mast cells in pathological and surgical scars

    OpenAIRE

    Beer, T; Baldwin, H; West, L; Gallagher, P.; Wright, D.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the role of mast cells in surgical and pathological scar reactions by their identification and quantification using immunohistochemistry.
METHODS—Surgical scars and pathological scar reactions were stained immunohistochemically for tryptase to identify mast cells. These were quantified in the scar tissue and surrounding dermis. Statistical analyses were performed to test the hypothesis that mast cell numbers were different in the varying types of scar reaction.
RESULTS—A si...

  8. Radiosensitivity of cultured human and mouse keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, E.K.; Hume, W.J.; Potten, C.S.

    1986-10-01

    Clonogenic survival assays after ..gamma..-radiation in vitro were performed on freshly isolated and subcultured keratinocytes from mouse skin, mouse tongue and human skin. Survival curves were constructed by fitting the data to a multi-target model of cell survival. When subcultured, keratinocytes from all sites produced survival curves which showed a reduced shoulder region and an increased D/sub 0/ when compared with their freshly isolated counterparts. Freshly isolated human skin keratinocytes were more radiosensitive than mouse keratinocytes from either skin or tongue.

  9. Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Association with PulmonaryArtery Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Peighambari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is an uncommon condition constituting 1% -2% of the cases with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM diagnosis. We interestingly report two patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in association with significant pulmonary artery hypertension without any other underlying reason for pulmonary hypertension. The patients were assessed by echocardiography, cardiac catheterization and pulmonary function parameters study.

  10. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Tomoya; Nishijima, Haruo; Haga, Rie; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Ueno, Tatsuya; Arai, Akira; Suzuki, Chieko; Nunomura, Jin-ichi; Baba, Masayuki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Tomiyama, Masahiko

    2015-10-15

    We report a case of idiopathic cerebral hypertrophic pachymeningitis accompanying neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. No other identifiable cause of pachymeningitis was detected. Corticosteroid therapy was effective for both diseases. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is closely related to autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. This case supports the hypothesis that hypertrophic pachymeningitis can be a rare comorbidity of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

  11. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Leptin Expression in Wound Healing: A Clue to Exuberant Scar Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleit, Iman; Bakry, Ola A; Samaka, Rehab M; Tawfik, Amira S

    2016-04-01

    Leptin has been recognized as an important factor for promoting normal cutaneous wound healing. The aim of this work was to explore leptin expression in keloid and hypertrophic scars (HS) compared with surgical scars and normal skin. The relationship of this expression with clinicopathologic parameters of studied cases was also evaluated. Using immunohistochemical techniques, leptin was analyzed in skin biopsies of 60 nonobese subjects without metabolic syndrome who presented with keloids (20), HS (20), and surgical scars (20). Twenty normal skin samples, from age-matched, sex-matched, and body mass index-matched subjects, were enrolled as a control group. Leptin showed positive immunoreactivity in epidermis in all cases of surgical scars and keloids and in 75% of HS cases. Dermal expression in fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, and endothelial cells was positive in all cases of surgical scars and keloids and in 70% of HS cases. Leptin was overexpressed in keloids and HS compared with normal skin in epidermis (P<0.001 for both) and dermis (P<0.001 for both) and to surgical scars both in epidermis (P=0.0006, P=0.01, respectively) and dermis (P=0.0001, P=0.001, respectively). Higher leptin H score was significantly associated with older age (P=0.02) and positive family history (P=0.002) in keloid cases and with axial site in keloid and HS cases (P=0.001, P=0.02, respectively). Significant positive correlation was noted between epidermal and dermal leptin H scores in keloids (r=+0.37, P=0.04) and HS (r=+0.39, P=0.02). This may be due to epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in scar pathogenesis. In conclusion, in situ leptin overexpression may increase the possibility of keloid and HS occurrence through altered cytokine production and prolonged healing phases with excessive deposition and delayed collagen degradation. This may open an avenue for research for new therapeutic modalities based on its inhibition.

  12. Multimodality imaging in apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosario; Parisi; Francesca; Mirabella; Gioel; Gabrio; Secco; Rossella; Fattori

    2014-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy(AHCM) is a relatively rare morphologic variant of HCM in which the hypertrophy of myocardium is localized to the left ventricular apex. Symptoms of AHCM might vary from none to others mimic coronary artery disease including acute coronary syndrome, thus resulting in inappropriate hospitalization. Transthoracic echocardiography is the firstline imaging technique for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathies. However, when the hypertrophy of the myocardium is localized in the ventricular apex might results in missed diagnosis. Aim of this paper is to review the different imaging techniques used for the diagnosis of AHCM and their role in the detection and comprehension of this uncommon disease.

  13. Modulation of wound healing and scar formation by MG53 protein-mediated cell membrane repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haichang; Duann, Pu; Lin, Pei-Hui; Zhao, Li; Fan, Zhaobo; Tan, Tao; Zhou, Xinyu; Sun, Mingzhai; Fu, Minghuan; Orange, Matthew; Sermersheim, Matthew; Ma, Hanley; He, Duofen; Steinberg, Steven M; Higgins, Robert; Zhu, Hua; John, Elizabeth; Zeng, Chunyu; Guan, Jianjun; Ma, Jianjie

    2015-10-02

    Cell membrane repair is an important aspect of physiology, and disruption of this process can result in pathophysiology in a number of different tissues, including wound healing, chronic ulcer and scarring. We have previously identified a novel tripartite motif family protein, MG53, as an essential component of the cell membrane repair machinery. Here we report the functional role of MG53 in the modulation of wound healing and scarring. Although MG53 is absent from keratinocytes and fibroblasts, remarkable defects in skin architecture and collagen overproduction are observed in mg53(-/-) mice, and these animals display delayed wound healing and abnormal scarring. Recombinant human MG53 (rhMG53) protein, encapsulated in a hydrogel formulation, facilitates wound healing and prevents scarring in rodent models of dermal injuries. An in vitro study shows that rhMG53 protects against acute injury to keratinocytes and facilitates the migration of fibroblasts in response to scratch wounding. During fibrotic remodeling, rhMG53 interferes with TGF-β-dependent activation of myofibroblast differentiation. The resulting down-regulation of α smooth muscle actin and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to reduced scarring. Overall, these studies establish a trifunctional role for MG53 as a facilitator of rapid injury repair, a mediator of cell migration, and a modulator of myofibroblast differentiation during wound healing. Targeting the functional interaction between MG53 and TGF-β signaling may present a potentially effective means for promoting scarless wound healing. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Changes in expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in pathological scar tissue of rabbit ears after scar-skin replantation%兔耳病理性瘢痕皮回植术后组织中基质金属蛋白酶-1及金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂-1表达的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪莲; 苏晓光; 张锤; 张春莉; 张卓男; 郑宝恒

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过建立兔耳模型观察基质金属蛋白酶-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-1,MMP-1)及金属蛋白酶组织抑制剂-1(tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1,TIMP-1)在病理性瘢痕皮回植术后组织中表达的变化,探讨瘢痕皮回植治疗病理性瘢痕的机制.方法 建立兔耳病理性瘢痕模型,共分为3组:正常皮肤组(对照组,A组)、病理性瘢痕组(B组)及瘢痕皮回植组(C组).切取标本行HE染色和Masson特殊组织化学染色及免疫组织化学染色,观察各组标本MMP-1、TIMP-1的表达情况.结果 病理性瘢痕经瘢痕皮回植术后,MMP-1及TIMP-1均较A组明显升高(P<0.01),MMP-1的表达较TIMP-1明显增强(P<0.01).结论 瘢痕皮回植术治疗瘢痕的机制与瘢痕组织内MMP-1和TIMP-1相互作用的失衡有关.%Objective To observe the changes of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in the pathological scar tissue after scar-skin replantation and to explore the mechanism of treating pathological scars with scar-skin replantation through a rabbit ear model.Methods Rabbit ears were used to establish the hypertrophic scar animal model in this study.Specimens were taken for three times:normal skin,hypertrophic scar and scar-skin replantion separately.We then performed HE staining,Masson staining and immunohistochemical staining to observe the expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in these three groups of specimens.Results The expression of both MMP-1 and TIMP-1 significantly increased in the hypertrophic scar tissue after scar-skin replantation compared with the control group (P<0.01).The expression of MMP-1 increased more significantly than that of TIMP-1 (P<0.01).Conclusions The mechanism of scar-skin replantation's effect in the treatment for hypertrophic scar is relevant to the imbalance in the interaction between MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in the scar tissue.

  15. Aortic biomechanics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Hala Mahfouz; Soltan, Ghada; Faheem, Nagla; Elnoamany, Mohamed Fahmy; Tawfik, Mohamed; Yacoub, Magdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventricular-vascular coupling is an important phenomenon in many cardiovascular diseases. The association between aortic mechanical dysfunction and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is well characterized in many disease entities, but no data are available on how these changes are related in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Aim of the work: This study examined whether HCM alone is associated with an impaired aortic mechanical function in patients without cardiovascular risk factors and the relation of these changes, if any, to LV deformation and cardiac phenotype. Methods: 141 patients with HCM were recruited and compared to 66 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects as control group. Pulse pressure, aortic strain, stiffness and distensibility were calculated from the aortic diameters measured by M-mode echocardiography and blood pressure obtained by sphygmomanometer. Aortic wall systolic and diastolic velocities were measured using pulsed wave Doppler tissue imaging (DTI). Cardiac assessment included geometric parameters and myocardial deformation (strain and strain rate) and mechanical dyssynchrony. Results: The pulsatile change in the aortic diameter, distensibility and aortic wall systolic velocity (AWS') were significantly decreased and aortic stiffness index was increased in HCM compared to control (P < .001) In HCM AWS' was inversely correlated to age(r = − .32, P < .0001), MWT (r = − .22, P < .008), LVMI (r = − .20, P < .02), E/Ea (r = − .16, P < .03) LVOT gradient (r = − 19, P < .02) and severity of mitral regurg (r = − .18, P < .03) but not to the concealed LV deformation abnormalities or mechanical dyssynchrony. On multivariate analysis, the key determinant of aortic stiffness was LV mass index and LVOT obstruction while the role LV dysfunction in aortic stiffness is not evident in this population. Conclusion: HCM is associated with abnormal aortic mechanical properties. The severity of cardiac

  16. A clinimetric overview of scar assessment scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, M B A; Verhaegen, P D H M; Middelkoop, E; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2012-01-01

    Standardized validated evaluation instruments are mandatory to increase the level of evidence in scar management. Scar assessment scales are potentially suitable for this purpose, but the most appropriate scale still needs to be determined. This review will elaborate on several clinically relevant scar features and critically discuss the currently available scar scales in terms of basic clinimetric requirements. Many current scales can produce reliable measurements but seem to require multiple observers to obtain these results reliably, which limits their feasibility in clinical practice. The validation process of scar scales is hindered by the lack of a "gold standard" in subjective scar assessment or other reliable objective instruments which are necessary for a good comparison. The authors conclude that there are scar scales available that can reliably measure scar quality. However, further research may lead to improvement of their clinimetric properties and enhance the level of evidence in scar research worldwide.

  17. A Review of the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars: Part II. Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Karagoz

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed the researches for new hopeful treatment modalities as well as the substances that are important to wound healing in the second part of this extensive review. The researchers have tried to find a way to scarless wound healing, and it seems likely that new therapies will be available within the next few years. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(1.000: 49-58

  18. Keratinocyte Apoptosis is Decreased in Psoriatic Epidermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Eskioğlu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes are the hallmarks of psoriasis vulgaris. Although psoriasis vulgaris is generally accepted as a disease of decreased keratinocyte apoptosis, the results are contradictory. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether decreased keratinocyte apoptosis contributes to the formation of a thickened epidermis as increased keratinocyte proliferation. Material and Method: Forty-three untreated psoriasis vulgaris patients and 20 healthy control subjects were included into the study. Biopsy specimens taken from the enrollee were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 expressions to show the proliferation of keratinocytes and by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL method to show the apoptotic keratinocytes. Results: Apoptotic index (percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was significantly lower in psoriatic epidermis (0.33±0.64 than in normal epidermis (0.75±0.85; whereas Ki-67 index (percentage of positively staining cells for Ki-67 was significantly higher in psoriatic epidermis (30.86±10.49 than in normal epidermis (11.65±2.98, (p=0.021 and p=0.00; respectively. Conclusion: Decreased keratinocyte apoptosis also contribute to increased epidermal thickness in psoriasis as well as increased keratinocyte proliferation.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of cardiac genes balance pro- and anti-hypertrophic mechanisms in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gennebäck

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy. HCM is often hereditary, but our knowledge of the mechanisms leading from mutation to phenotype is incomplete. The transcriptional expression patterns in the myocar - dium of HCM patients may contribute to understanding the mechanisms that drive and stabilize the hypertrophy. Cardiac myectomies/biopsies from 8 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM and 5 controls were studied with whole genome Illumina microarray gene expression (detecting 18 189 mRNA. When comparing HOCM myocardium to controls, there was significant transcriptional down-regulation of the MYH6, EGR1, APOB and FOS genes, and significant transcriptional up-regulation of the ACE2, JAK2, NPPA (ANP, APOA1 and HDAC5 genes. The transcriptional regulation revealed both pro- and anti-hypertrophic mechanisms. The pro-hypertrophic response was explained by the transcriptional down-regulation of MYH6, indicating that the switch to the fetal gene program is maintained, and the transcriptional up-regulation of JAK2 in the JAK-STAT pathway. The anti-hypertrophic response was seen as a transcriptional down-regulation of the immediate early genes (IEGs, FOS and EGR1, and a transcriptional up-regulation of ACE2 and HDAC5. This can be interpreted as a transcriptional endogenous protection system in the heart of the HOCM patients, neither growing nor suppressing the already hypertrophic myocardium.

  20. Contractile Dysfunction in Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, David H; Clark, Andrew L

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical phenotype of sarcomeric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are controversial. The development of cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension and aortic stenosis is usually described as a compensatory mechanism that normalizes wall stress. We suggest that an important abnormality in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is reduced contractile stress (the force per unit area) generated by myocardial tissue secondary to abnormalities such as cardiomyocyte disarray. In turn, a progressive deterioration in contractile stress provokes worsening hypertrophy and disarray. A maintained or even exaggerated ejection fraction is explained by the increased end-diastolic wall thickness producing augmented thickening. We propose that the nature of the hemodynamic load in an individual with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy could determine its phenotype. Hypertensive patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are more likely to develop exaggerated concentric hypertrophy; athletic individuals an asymmetric pattern; and inactive individuals a more apical hypertrophy. The development of a left ventricular outflow tract gradient and mitral regurgitation may be explained by differential regional strain resulting in mitral annular rotation.

  1. MT-CYB mutations in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Christian M; Aidt, Frederik H; Havndrup, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is a characteristic of heart failure. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA, particularly in MT-CYB coding for cytochrome B in complex III (CIII), have been associated with isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We hypothesized that MT-CYB mutations might play an important...

  2. Fabry Disease in Families With Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adalsteinsdottir, Berglind; Palsson, Runolfur; Desnick, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The screening of Icelandic patients clinically diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy resulted in identification of 8 individuals from 2 families with X-linked Fabry disease (FD) caused by GLA(α-galactosidase A gene) mutations encoding p.D322E (family A) or p.I232T (family B...

  3. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiology, Genetics and Invasive Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Michels (Michelle)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common inheritable cardiac disorder with a phenotypic prevalence of 1:500. It is defined by the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in the absence of loading conditions (hypertension, valve disease) sufficient to cause the observed

  4. Prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung O Cheng

    2004-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: I read with interest the recent article on cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) mutations in Chinese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by Wu et al.1 The authors cited a prevalence of HCM of 0.2% in general population, but did not indicate whether it referred to the general population in China or some other countries.

  5. Tuberculin reaction and BCG scar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To test the hypothesis that having a scar and a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) response after vaccination with Bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is associated with reduced infant mortality. Methods We studied cohorts of 2709 normal-birthweight (NBW) and 1102 low-birthweight (LBW......) infants in Guinea-Bissau. Children were enrolled in randomised trials between year 2002 and 2008 and received BCG vaccination at birth. BCG scars and TST responses were assessed at 2 and 6 months of age. The infants were followed for mortality to 12 months of age, and survival was analysed using Cox...... regression. Results At age 2 months, 88% of NBW children and 91% of LBW children had a BCG scar, and 36% and 17% had a TST response, respectively. The LBW infants had nearly twofold higher mortality (4.5%) than the NBW infants (2.8%) between 2 and 12 months of age. In the LBW cohort, the adjusted mortality...

  6. Rare complications of cesarean scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divyesh Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP and cesarean scar dehiscence (CSD are the most dreaded complications of cesarean scar (CS. As the incidence of CS is increasing worldwide, so is the incidence of CSP, especially in cases with assisted reproduction techniques. It is of utmost importance to diagnose CSP in the early first trimester, as it can lead to myometrial rupture with fatal outcome. On the other hand, CSD may be encountered during pregnancy or in the postpartum period. CSD in the postpartum period is very rare and can cause secondary postpartum hemorrhage (PPH leading to increased maternal morbidity or even death if not diagnosed and managed promptly. Both complications can be diagnosed on ultrasonography (USG and confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. These two conditions carry high morbidity and mortality. In this article, we highlight the role of imaging in the early diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  7. The Effect of Lipoaspirates on Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Sung; Gaul, Charel; Paul, Nora E; Dewor, Manfred; Stromps, Jan-Philipp; Hwang, Soo Seok; Nourbakhsh, Mahtab; Bernhagen, Jürgen; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Pallua, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    One increasingly important trend in plastic, reconstructive, and aesthetic surgery is the use of fat grafts to improve cutaneous wound healing. In clinical practice, lipoaspirates (adipose tissue harvested by liposuction) are re-injected in a procedure called lipofilling. Previous studies, however, mainly evaluated the regenerative effect of isolated adipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells, and excised en bloc adipose tissue on keratinocytes, whereas no study to date has examined the effect of lipoaspirates. The authors aimed to investigate differences in the regenerative property of en bloc adipose tissue and lipoaspirates on keratinocytes. Human keratinocytes, lipoaspirates, and en bloc adipose tissue from 36 healthy donors were isolated. In vitro proliferation, differentiation, migration, stratification, and wound healing of keratinocyte monolayers were measured. Furthermore, secreted levels of VEGF, bFGF, IGF-1, MMP-9, and MIF were detected by ELISA. Migration, proliferation, and wound healing of keratinocytes were increased by lipoaspirates. Interestingly, the effect of lipoaspirates on keratinocyte proliferation was significantly higher than by en bloc adipose tissue after 5 days. The differentiation of keratinocytes was equally attenuated by lipoaspirates and en bloc adipose tissue. Stratification of keratinocyte layers was enhanced by lipoaspirates and en bloc fat when compared to controls. Lipoaspirates secrete higher levels of bFGF, whereas higher levels of VEGF and IGF-1 are released by en bloc adipose tissue. We show that lipoaspirates and en bloc adipose tissue have a regenerative effect on keratinocytes. One reason for the higher effect of lipoaspirates on keratinocyte proliferation may be the secretion of different cytokines. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Gene therapy for pathological scar with hepatocyte growth factor mediated by recombinant adenovirus vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    哈小琴; 苑宾; 李元敏; 劳妙芬; 吴祖泽

    2003-01-01

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding human hepatocyte growth factor wasintroduced into a replication-defective type 5 adenovirus (lacking E1, E3 domains) vector by homologous recombination of intracellular plasmid DNA, thus a recombinant vector containing HGF (Ad-HGF) was obtained. Ad-HGF and Ad-GFP (adenovirus vector carrying green fluorescence protein gene) were expanded in 293 cells and purified by cesium chloride gradient centrifugation for large-scale preparation, then were infected to the primarily cultured scar fibroblast of rabbit ear to observe the transfer efficiency and expression level of HGF in vitro. To evaluate the effect of Ad-HGF on established scar Ad-HGF solution was injected into excessively formed scar, which bears some clinical and histologic similarities tohuman hypertrophic scars. The results showed that: (i) the transfer efficiency was 36.8%±14.1% on day 3 in primarily cultured scar fibroblasts treated with Ad-GFP and lasted more than 20 d; (ii) high-level expression of HGF protein was detected by means of ELISA in supernatant of scar fibroblasts treated with Ad-HGF,the amount of expression was 76 ng/4.0×105 cells on day 3; (iii) on day 32 after a single intradermal injection of Ad-HGF at different doses (8.6×109 pfu, 8.6×108 pfu, 8.6×107 pfu, 8.6×106 pfu) per scar, most of the scars in the former two dose groups were dramatically flattened, some were even similar to that ofthe normal skin. The value of HI (hypertrophic index) showed that there was a therapeutic effect of Ad-HGF on scars at the dose of 109 pfu and 108 pfu. Whereasno therapeutic effects were seen at lower dose (107 pfu and 106 pfu of Ad-HGF) groups. In addition, clusters of hair were observed to different extent on healed wound treated with Ad-HGF. Histopathologic examination revealed that in most healed wounds of Ad-HGF treated group, the dermal layer was thinner, the amount of fibrous tissue was much fewer, and hair follicles growth and sebaceous glands were observed

  9. 'Medical Tattoos' Help Hide Surgical Scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161132.html 'Medical Tattoos' Help Hide Surgical Scars Pigments can restore more ... scars from cancer surgeries may benefit from "medical tattoos" that can help restore some of the skin's ...

  10. Soft tissue trauma and scar revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Steven R; Sjogren, Phayvanh P

    2014-11-01

    Numerous techniques and treatments have been described for scar revision, with most studies focusing on the adult population. A comprehensive review of the literature reveals a paucity of references related specifically to scar revision in children. This review describes the available modalities in pediatric facial scar revision. The authors have integrated current practices in soft tissue trauma and scar revision, including closure techniques and materials, topical therapy, steroid injection, cutaneous laser therapy, and tissue expanders.

  11. Endometriosis in an episiotomy scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine islimye Taskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis that is defined as the presence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity is seen 5-10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis can be seen any other site of the body; but the most frequently affected areas are ovaries, pelvic peritoneum, uterosacral ligament and Douglas pouche. Several teories exist for the development of endometriosis including retrograde menstruation, venous or lymphatic metastasis and immun dysfunction. Endometriosis of the perineum and vulva are extremely rare with the most common sites being episiotomy scars. Scar endometriosis is likely to be caused by mechanical transplantation of endometrium from the uterine cavity into the wound at the time of the surgery. The primary treatment for scar endometriosis is total surgical excision of the lesion. It is important not to leave residual tissue during surgery to prevent the recurrence. Here we present a patient who had her vaginal delivery 5 years ago, have a complaint of painful vulvar lump at the right mediolateral episiotomy scar since 1 year during her every menstruation period and whose final diagnosis was endometriosis after surgical removal and histopathologic examination. Althought vulvar endometrosis is rare, it should be considered in the patients who had a vaginal delivery and complaining painful vulvar lump with swelling in her mestrual cycle. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 164-166

  12. Intrauterine endometriotic cyst at the site of previous cesarean scar; scar endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isci, H; Gonenc, G; Yigiter, A B; Guducu, N; Dünder, I

    2015-01-01

    Uterine scar endometriosis is an extremely rare entitiy. As the surgical procedures of the uterus increases through time, scar endometriosis may be diagnosed more often in the future. A case of uterine scar endometriosis is presented with complaints of menstruation lasting one day with associated pelvic pain. When a cystic mass in the site of previous surgery is diagnosed, scar endometriosis must be considered.

  13. A Second Trimester Caesarean Scar Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Sikka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesarean scar pregnancy, where conceptus is implanted on previous scar, is a rare entity. We present one such case of scar pregnancy presenting to us in the second trimester and was managed with methotrexate and uterine artery embolization, followed by hysterotomy. Uterus could be conserved and hysterectomy could be avoided.

  14. Differentiation of Keratinocytes Modulates Skin HPA Analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicka, Justyna M; Żmijewski, Michał A; Antoniewicz, Jakub; Sobjanek, Michal; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2017-01-01

    It is well established, that epidermal keratinocytes express functional equivalent of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) in order to respond to changing environment and maintain internal homeostasis. We are presenting data indicating that differentiation of primary neonatal human keratinocytes (HPEKp), induced by prolonged incubation or calcium is accompanied by significant changes in the expression of the elements of skin analog of HPA (sHPA). Expression of CRF, UCN1-3, POMC, ACTH, CRFR1, CRFR2, MC1R, MC2R, and GR (coded by NR3C1 gene) were observed on gene/protein levels along differentiation of keratinocytes in culture with similar pattern seen by immunohistochemistry on full thickness skin biopsies. Expression of CRF was more pronounced in less differentiated keratinocytes, which corresponded to the detection of CRF immunoreactivity preferentially in the stratum basale. POMC expression was enhanced in more differentiated keratinocytes, which corresponded to detection of ACTH immunoreactivity, predominantly in the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum. Expression of urocortins was also affected by induction of HPEKp differentiation. Immunohistochemical studies showed high prevalence of CRFR1 in well differentiated keratinocytes, while smaller keratinocytes showed predominantly CRFR2 immunoreactivity. MC2R mRNA levels were elevated from days 4 to 8 of in vitro incubation, while MC2R immunoreactivity was the highest in the upper layers of epidermis. Similar changes in mRNA/protein levels of sHPA elements were observed in HPEKp keratinocytes treated with calcium. Summarizing, preferential expression of CRF and POMC (ACTH) by populations of keratinocytes on different stage of differentiation resembles organization of central HPA axis suggesting their distinct role in physiology and pathology of the epidermis. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 154-166, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Single cell mechanics of keratinocyte cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulevich, Valentin; Yang, Hsin-ya; Isseroff, R Rivkah; Liu, Gang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Keratinocytes represent the major cell type of the uppermost layer of human skin, the epidermis. Using AFM-based single cell compression, the ability of individual keratinocytes to resist external pressure and global rupturing forces is investigated and compared with various cell types. Keratinocytes are found to be 6-70 times stiffer than other cell types, such as white blood, breast epithelial, fibroblast, or neuronal cells, and in contrast to other cell types they retain high mechanic strength even after the cell's death. The absence of membrane rupturing peaks in the force-deformation profiles of keratinocytes and their high stiffness during a second load cycle suggests that their unique mechanical resistance is dictated by the cytoskeleton. A simple analytical model enables the quantification of Young's modulus of keratinocyte cytoskeleton, as high as 120-340 Pa. Selective disruption of the two major cytoskeletal networks, actin filaments and microtubules, does not significantly affect keratinocyte mechanics. F-actin is found to impact cell deformation under pressure. During keratinocyte compression, the plasma membrane stretches to form peripheral blebs. Instead of blebbing, cells with depolymerized F-actin respond to pressure by detaching the plasma membrane from the cytoskeleton underneath. On the other hand, the compression force of keratinocytes expressing a mutated keratin (cell line, KEB-7) is 1.6-2.2 times less than that for the control cell line that has normal keratin networks. Therefore, we infer that the keratin intermediate filament network is responsible for the extremely high keratinocyte stiffness and resilience. This could manifest into the rugged protective nature of the human epidermis.

  16. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to differentiate scar tissue from peri-scar tissue: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquet, Damien; Houel, Nicolas; Bodnar, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Every human injury leads to a scar formation. The healing process leads to the formation of new tissue: the scar, which is different from the original tissue. This process is influenced by mechanical strength and the local vasculature is modified. The purpose of this study is to show that there are various temperatures between the scar and the peri-scar area associated with the healing process that can be estimated using the thermal infrared camera. In the study, 12 scars were stimulated by cold. Several changes of temperature were observed between scar and peri-scar area for 10 min. Scars appeared significantly colder with a Wilcoxon test (p = 0.01). Results showed that stimulated infrared thermography can be used to monitor the temperature difference between the scar and peri-scar tissue.

  17. Intrinsic differences between oral and skin keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Turabelidze

    Full Text Available Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles.

  18. Intrinsic Differences between Oral and Skin Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; Chung, Allison Yen; Chen, Lin; Dai, Yang; Marucha, Phillip T.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles. PMID:25198578

  19. Idiopathic chronic hypertrophic craniocervical pachymeningitis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, C; Orozco, M; Navarro, J; Riesgo, P

    1994-12-01

    A 55-year-old woman with a unique form of chronic hypertrophic pachymeningitis involving the posterior fossa and upper cervical spine is reported. Unlike other cases previously described, the clinical picture was dominated by signs of increased intracranial pressure, lower cranial nerve disorders, and a progressive cervical radiculomyelopathy. The diagnosis was made by means of a contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging scan and confirmed by histological examination of the excised dura. Surgical treatment with removal of the hypertrophic dura provided temporary relief, although the natural history of the disease was not modified. Exhaustive bacteriological and histopathological studies failed to identify a specific cause for this diffuse hypertrophy of the cranial and cervical dura. The literature is reviewed, and other histologically documented cases are discussed.

  20. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy: ultrasound and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brook; Kraft, Jeannette K. [Leeds Children' s Hospital at The Leeds General Infirmary, Clarendon Wing Radiology Department, Leeds, West Yorkshire (United Kingdom); Amin, Tania; Leone, Valentina; Wood, Mark [Leeds Children' s Hospital at The Leeds General Infirmary, Department of Paediatric Rheumatology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy is a rare genetic disorder related to failures in prostaglandin metabolism. Patients present with joint pain, limb enlargement, skin thickening and finger clubbing. Radiographs show characteristic periosteal reaction and thickening along the long bones. We present MRI and US findings in a child with the condition. Ultrasound showed echogenic tissue surrounding the long bones, presumably reflecting oedema and inflammatory tissue. Doppler sonograms demonstrated increased vascularity on the surface of some superficial bony structures. (orig.)

  1. The role of focal adhesion complexes in fibroblast mechanotransduction during scar formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Kristine C; Wong, Victor W; Gurtner, Geoffrey C

    2013-10-01

    Historically, great efforts have been made to elucidate the biochemical pathways that direct the complex process of wound healing; however only recently has there been recognition of the importance that mechanical signals play in the process of tissue repair and scar formation. The body's physiologic response to injury involves a dynamic interplay between mechanical forces and biochemical cues which directs a cascade of signals leading ultimately to the formation of fibrotic scar. Fibroblasts are a highly mechanosensitive cell type and are also largely responsible for the generation of the fibrotic matrix during scar formation and are thus a critical player in the process of mechanotransduction during tissue repair. Mechanotransduction is initiated at the interface between the cell membrane and the extracellular matrix where mechanical signals are first translated into a biochemical response. Focal adhesions are dynamic multi-protein complexes through which the extracellular matrix links to the intracellular cytoskeleton. These focal adhesion complexes play an integral role in the propagation of this initial mechanical cue into an extensive network of biochemical signals leading to widespread downstream effects including the influx of inflammatory cells, stimulation of angiogenesis, keratinocyte migration, fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. Increasing evidence has demonstrated the importance of the biomechanical milieu in healing wounds and suggests that an integrated approach to the discovery of targets to decrease scar formation may prove more clinically efficacious than previous purely biochemical strategies.

  2. Predicting severity of pathological scarring due to burn injuries: a clinical decision making tool using Bayesian networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchialla, Paola; Gangemi, Ezio Nicola; Foltran, Francesca; Haxhiaj, Arber; Buja, Alessandra; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Stella, Maurizio; Gregori, Dario

    2014-06-01

    It is important for clinicians to understand which are the clinical signs, the patient characteristics and the procedures that are related with the occurrence of hypertrophic burn scars in order to carry out a possible prognostic assessment. Providing clinicians with an easy-to- use tool for predicting the risk of pathological scars. A total of 703 patients with 2440 anatomical burn sites who were admitted to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Burn Center of the Traumatological Hospital in Torino between January 1994 and May 2006 were included in the analysis. A Bayesian network (BN) model was implemented. The probability of developing a hypertrophic scar was evaluated on a number of scenarios. The error rate of the BN model was assessed internally and it was equal to 24·83%. While classical statistical method as logistic models can infer only which variables are related to the final outcome, the BN approach displays a set of relationships between the final outcome (scar type) and the explanatory covariates (patient's age and gender, burn surface area, full-thickness burn surface area, burn anatomical area and wound-healing time; burn treatment options such as advanced dressings, type of surgical approach, number of surgical procedures, type of skin graft, excision and coverage timing). A web-based interface to handle the BN model was developed on the website www.pubchild.org (burns header). Clinicians who registered at the website could submit their data in order to get from the BN model the predicted probability of observing a pathological scar type. © 2012 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2012 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High-power helium-neon laser irradiation inhibits the growth of traumatic scars in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bin; Ni, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Lian-Yang; Li, Xiang-Ping; Jiang, Wan-Ling; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2013-05-01

    This study explored the inhibitory effect of the high-power helium-neon (He-Ne) laser on the growth of scars post trauma. For the in vitro study, human wound fibroblasts were exposed to the high-power He-Ne laser for 30 min, once per day with different power densities (10, 50, 100, and 150 mW/cm(2)). After 3 days of repeated irradiation with the He-Ne laser, fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis were evaluated. For in vivo evaluation, a wounded animal model of hypertrophic scar formation was established. At postoperative day 21, the high-power He-Ne laser irradiation (output power 120 mW, 6 mm in diameter, 30 min each session, every other day) was performed on 20 scars. At postoperative day 35, the hydroxyproline content, apoptosis rate, PCNA protein expression and FADD mRNA level were assessed. The in vitro study showed that the irradiation group that received the power densities of 100 and 150 mW/cm(2) showed decreases in the cell proliferation index, increases in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase, and decreases in collagen synthesis and type I procollagen gene expression. In the in vivo animal studies, regions exposed to He-Ne irradiation showed a significant decrease in scar thickness as well as decreases in hydroxyproline levels and PCNA protein expression. Results from the in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that repeated irradiation with a He-Ne laser at certain power densities inhibits fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis, thereby inhibits the growth of hypertrophic scars.

  4. Proliferation of Keratinocytes Induced by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on a Chitosan Scaffold and Its Role in Wound Healing, a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaralakshmi Gomathysankar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tissue engineering and reconstruction, the development of efficient biomaterial is in high demand to achieve uncomplicated wound healing. Chronic wounds and excessive scarring are the major complications of tissue repair and, as this inadequate healing continues to increase, novel therapies and treatments for dysfunctional skin repair and reconstruction are important. This paper reviews the various aspects of the complications related to wound healing and focuses on chitosan because of its unique function in accelerating wound healing. The proliferation of keratinocytes is essential for wound closure, and adipose-derived stem cells play a significant role in wound healing. Thus, chitosan in combination with keratinocytes and adipose-derived stem cells may act as a vehicle for delivering cells, which would increase the proliferation of keratinocytes and help complete recovery from injuries.

  5. Comparison of 532 nm Potassium Titanyl Phosphate Laser and 595 nm Pulsed Dye Laser in the Treatment of Erythematous Surgical Scars: A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaney, Terrence C; Tanzi, Elizabeth; Alster, Tina

    2016-01-01

    The pulsed dye laser (PDL) has long been used for treatment of erythematous and hypertrophic scars. Its effectiveness has been attributed in large part to its vascular-specificity. The vascular-specific potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser has also been reported to be clinically effective for scars, but has not been compared to the PDL. To compare the safety and clinical efficacy of a 532-nm KTP laser versus a 595-nm PDL in improving the appearance of erythematous surgical scars. Twenty patients with matched bilateral erythematous surgical scars or a single linear erythematous scar measuring longer than 5 cm were enrolled in the study. Single scars were divided into equal halves with each half randomized to receive 3 successive treatments at 6-week intervals with either a 532-nm KTP laser (Excel V; Brisbane, CA) or a 595-nm PDL (Cynergy; Cynosure Inc., Chelmsford, MA) at equivalent laser parameters. Bilateral matched scars were similarly randomized to receive three 532-nm KTP or 595-nm PDL treatments. Clinical efficacy was evaluated 12 weeks after the third (final) laser treatment by independent, blinded photographic scar assessments. Secondary evaluations included final investigator and subject treatment/satisfaction assessments, Vancouver scar scale (VSS) scores, subject scar symptoms, intraoperative pain scores, and incidence of side effects. Clinical improvement of erythematous surgical scars was observed with both 532-nm KTP and 595-nm PDL systems. No statistically significant differences between the 2 treatment arms were noted in the independent, blinded photographic scar assessments, investigator and subject treatment/satisfaction assessments, subject scar symptoms, and intraoperative pain scores. The KTP arm produced statistically significant improvement for the vascularity component of the VSS only. Side effects were limited to mild treatment discomfort and minimal transient post-treatment erythema and purpura. No vesiculation, infection, scarring or

  6. Proteome profiling of keratinocytes transforming to malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitschke, Verena; Gerner, Christopher; Hofstätter, Elisabeth; Mohr, Thomas; Mayer, Rupert Laurenz; Pehamberger, Hubert; Kunstfeld, Rainer

    2015-02-01

    To shed light on the multistep process of squamous cell carcinoma development and the underlying pathologic mechanisms, we performed comparative proteome analysis of keratinocytes, keratinocytes stimulated with Il-1beta, and A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells. Fractionation of the cells into supernatant, nucleus, and cytoplasm was followed by protein separation, proteolytic digest, and nano-LC separation, and fragmentation using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Specific bioinformatics tools were used to generate a list of keratinocyte-specific proteins. Ninety percent of these proteins were found to be upregulated in keratinocytes versus the A431 cells. Classification of the identified proteins by biologic function and gene set enrichment analysis revealed that keratinocytes produced more proteins involved in cell differentiation, cell adhesion, cell junction, calcium ion, calmodulin binding, cytoskeleton organization, and cytokinesis, whereas A431 produced more proteins involved in cell cycle checkpoint, cell cycle process, RNA processing and transport, DNA damage and repair, RNA and DNA binding, and chromatin remodeling. The protein signatures of A431 and normal keratinocytes treated with IL-1beta showed marked similarity, confirming that inflammation is an important step in malignant transformation in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Thus, proteome profiling and bioinformatic processing may support the understanding of the underlying mechanisms, with the potential to facilitate development of early biomarkers and patient-tailored therapy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  8. Quantification of scar margin in keloid different from atrophic scar by multiphoton microscopic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zheng, Liqin; Jiang, Xingshan; Chen, Jianxin; Lin, Bifang

    2011-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was applied to examine the marginal region at dermis of keloid compared with atrophic scar. High-resolution large-area image showed an obvious boundary at the scar margin and different morphological patterns of elastin and collagen on the two sides, further visualized by the focused three-dimensional images. Content alteration of elastin or collagen between the two sides of boundary was quantified to show significant difference between keloid and atrophic scar. Owing to the raised property of keloid with overproduced collagen on the scar side, the content alteration was positive for elastin and negative for collagen. On the contrary, the content alteration was negative for elastin and positive for collagen in the atrophic scar case due to the atrophic collagen on the scar side. It indicated that examination of the scar margin by MPM may lead a new way to discriminate different types of scars and better understand the scarring mechanisms.

  9. SCAR AFTER SURGICAL INCISION FOR APPENDECTOMY: S-SHAPE VS LINEAR INCISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M OMRANI FARD

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperthrophic scar and keloid is a big problem after many operation. Hypertrophic scar depended on many factor one of them is Incision. Method: This is a randomized clinical trial and sequential sampling in Alzahra hospital and Kashani hospital. we selected two groups, one group we used S shape incision and observed group linear incision. Age was between 10-30 years and dermatological problems and cigaret smoking was Negative in two groups perforated and secondly skin closure was excluded in our study. patient divided in two group each group was twenty and fllowed for one year. Patients satisfaction and skin collor normality and itchiny was evaluated in two groups. Results: Appearance of scar was different in collor much and shape. Normality for collor of incision in s shape groups were 68.4% but in linar incision was 31.6% (Pvalue= 0.026 with statically meaningful. Mean of scar width: In 5-shape =1.33+0.49mm in Linear shape = 2.23+0.92. P = 0.001. Prevalence of itching was same in both groups. Discussion: patients overall satisfaction and itching were the same for both groups. skin color normality was 68.4% in 5 shape incision groups versus 31.6% in linear incision groups which has been shown to be statistically meaningful using chi-square test so it seems reasonable to conclude that calor mathing is more favorable in 5 shape incisions rather than linear incision. Mean of scare width in licear incision group was 2.23+0.92 mm versus 1.32+0.49 mm in 5 shape incision group. this difference is also statistically meaningful using T test. 50 it can be concluded that using 5 shape incision is better because post operative scar is smaller and exposure is like linear incision.

  10. Expression, purification, and characterization of scar tissue neovasculature endothelial cell-targeted rhIL10 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jihong; Wan, Yi; Shi, Shan; Zi, Jing; Guan, Hao; Zhang, Yuejuan; Zheng, Zhao; Jia, Yanhui; Bai, Xiaozhi; Cai, Weixia; Su, Linlin; Zhu, Xiongxiang; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin 10 (IL10) plays a pivotal role in the anti-inflammatory response and immunosuppressive reactions. It has also been identified as a new promising therapy for scar formation. Treatment of scars with IL10 has significant effects, but there are some shortcomings, including poor tissue-binding specificity and low effectiveness. RGD peptide has been demonstrated to bind specifically to αvβ3 integrin on neovasculature endothelial cells, and the excess production of neovasculature is crucial to scar formation. To increase efficacy against scar formation and to decrease the side effects on normal tissues, a novel hybrid protein combining human IL10 with RGD was designed. The DNA sequence encoding the recombinant fusion protein IL10-RGD (rhIL10-RGD) was subcloned into a pET22b (+) vector for protein expression in E. coli strain BL21 (DE3). SDS-PAGE analysis displayed an induced expression product band at a molecular weight of 19.3 kDa, which constituted 30 % of the total bacterial protein. We developed a procedure to purify rhIL10-RGD from inclusion bodies and then renatured the protein using dialysis against urea with a step-down concentration procedure. Hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) were treated with rhIL10-RGD, and the fibrosis-related protein levels were assessed by Western blotting. The results indicated that rhIL10-RGD can downregulate the expression levels of Col1 and α-SMA in HSFs and suppress tube formation of HUVECs. These results indicate that rhIL10-RGD has anti-fibrosis effects and can potentially be used to treat the neovasculature in scar formation and improve the abnormal deposition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Thus, rhIL10-RGD may be a more effective candidate for scar-improvement and anti-fibrosis therapy.

  11. Psychosocial impact of specialized cardiac genetic clinics for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Lind, Joanne M; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Semsarian, Christopher

    2008-02-01

    The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an autosomal dominant chronic heart disease, can have significant implications, including increased risk of sudden death, exercise limitations, and risk of transmission to offspring. This study sought to describe the psychosocial factors associated with attending a specialty cardiac genetic clinic, and to determine whether these may be predictors of comorbid anxiety and depression in this population. Questionnaires were sent to 184 individuals attending the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Clinic. Questionnaires were anonymous and comprised demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient Experience Scales, and Patient Satisfaction Scales. Completed questionnaires were returned by 109 participants (59.2% response rate), of which 76.9% had a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, while 23.1% were at-risk relatives attending for clinical screening. Patient satisfaction scores were generally high to very high across all groups, though only 24% of HCM patients showed good adjustment to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 10% had low worry about hypertrophic cardiomyopathy scores. Within the disease group, logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, and education revealed adjustment to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and worry about hypertrophic cardiomyopathy scores to be significantly associated with anxiety, while adjustment scores and location of patient follow-up (i.e., Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy clinic or another cardiologist) to be significantly associated with depression scores. HCM patients who attend specialized cardiac genetic clinics are better adjusted and worry less, than those who do not attend. An integrated approach, including a genetic counselor, is important in the management of HCM families.

  12. Chiral scars in chaotic Dirac fermion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2013-02-08

    Do relativistic quantum scars in classically chaotic systems possess unique features that are not shared by nonrelativistic quantum scars? We report a class of relativistic quantum scars in massless Dirac fermion systems whose phases return to the original values or acquire a 2π change only after circulating twice about some classical unstable periodic orbits. We name such scars chiral scars, the successful identification of which has been facilitated tremendously by our development of an analytic, conformal-mapping-based method to calculate an unprecedentedly large number of eigenstates with high accuracy. Our semiclassical theory indicates that the physical origin of chiral scars can be attributed to a combined effect of chirality intrinsic to massless Dirac fermions and the geometry of the underlying classical orbit.

  13. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  14. Twice malignant transformation of hypertrophic lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowska, Dorota; Kozłowicz, Katarzyna; Kowal, Małgorzata; Kurylcio, Andrzej; Budzyńska-Włodarczyk, Jolanta; Polkowski, Wojciech; Chodorowska, Grażyna

    2012-01-01

    Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous T-cell-mediated disease, the cause of which remains unknown. The first case of lichen planus that transformed into squamous cell carcinoma was reported in 1903. The presented study concerns the case of a 62-year-old woman in whom twice malignant transformation of hypertrophic lichen planus in the dorsal part of the left foot developed. Several studies have pointed out the malignant transformation potential of lichen planus. Epidemiological studies from the last 20 years have revealed a malignant transformation rate of 0.27% per year, emphasizing the importance of the clinical follow-up of lichen planus patients.

  15. Experimental study on He- Ne laser irradiation to inhibit scar fibroblast growth in culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒彬; 吴宗耀; 郝林林; 曾登芬; 冯光锐; 林永辉

    2002-01-01

    To explore the inhibitory effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on fibroblast growth of hypertrophic scars in culture. Methods: He-Ne laser with wavelength of 632.8 nm,power density of 50 mW/cm2 and doses of 3 J/cm2,30 J/cm2, 90 J/cm2 and 180 J/cm2 was used to irradiate human scar fibroblasts in culture 1, 3 and 5 times respectively, and then the cell count and cell cycle analysis were done. Results: Repeated irradiation with He-Ne laser at dose of 180 J/cm2 three and five times led to an evident decrease in total cell number compared with that of the control group and there was a significant difference ( P <0.05). The cell cycle analysis showed after three and five times of irradiation with 180 J/cm2 He-Ne laser the cell number in S-phase decreased from 51% to 20% and 14% respectively, the cell number in G0/G1 phase increased from 28% to 55% and 60% respectively, and the cell percentage in Sub-G1 phase was 6.7% and 9.8% respectively. Conclusions: Repeated irradiation with 180 J/cm2 He-Ne laser can inhibit scar fibroblasts growth in culture.It may be that He-Ne laser irradiation causes cell stagnation in G0/G1 phase and apoptosis.

  16. Burn Scar Reconstruction of the Neck with FTSG Obtained from Lower Abdominal Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadrollah Motamed

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Burns account for a significant proportion of injuries, and of these the face, neck, and anterior torso are commonly affected. Burn scars remain a lasting reminder of the insult both for the patient and the outside world. There is little doubt that the change in appearance and the limitation imposed by a burn scar contribute to negative body image. Treatment of hypertrophic scars in the neck has been quite challenging if there is no intact tissue for local flaps. So application of full-thickness skin grafts could be of great value. We applied full-thickness grafts obtained from lower abdominal skin for treatment of severe neck contractures in four patients when other treatment modalities such as local flaps could not be used. Full-thickness skin graft of the neck is a safe and reliable treatment option with fairly good functional and aesthetic results. It has little donor site morbidity in spite of providing a large surface area of full-thickness skin.

  17. Fractals and Scars on a Compact Octagon

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, J; Levin, Janna; Barrow, John D.

    2000-01-01

    A finite universe naturally supports chaotic classical motion. An ordered fractal emerges from the chaotic dynamics which we characterize in full for a compact 2-dimensional octagon. In the classical to quantum transition, the underlying fractal can persist in the form of scars, ridges of enhanced amplitude in the semiclassical wave function. Although the scarring is weak on the octagon, we suggest possible subtle implications of fractals and scars in a finite universe.

  18. Cutaneous osteosarcoma arising from a burn scar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min A.; Yi, Jaehyuck [Kyungpook National University, Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kyungpook National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Tumors that develop in old burn scars are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Sarcomas have also been reported, albeit rarely. To our knowledge, there has been only one case report of an extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in a prior burn scar reported in the English-language literature, mainly discussing the clinicopathological features. Herein, we present a case of cutaneous osteosarcoma visualized as a mineralized soft-tissue mass arising from the scar associated with a previous skin burn over the back. This seems to be the first report describing the imaging features of a cutaneous osteosarcoma from an old burn scar. (orig.)

  19. Hypoxia inhibits hypertrophic differentiation and endochondral ossification in explanted tibiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen C H Leijten

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes induces angiogenesis which alleviates hypoxia normally present in cartilage. In the current study, we aim to determine whether alleviation of hypoxia is merely a downstream effect of hypertrophic differentiation as previously described or whether alleviation of hypoxia and consequent changes in oxygen tension mediated signaling events also plays an active role in regulating the hypertrophic differentiation process itself. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fetal mouse tibiae (E17.5 explants were cultured up to 21 days under normoxic or hypoxic conditions (21% and 2.5% oxygen respectively. Tibiae were analyzed on growth kinetics, histology, gene expression and protein secretion. RESULTS: The oxygen level had a strong influence on the development of explanted fetal tibiae. Compared to hypoxia, normoxia increased the length of the tibiae, length of the hypertrophic zone, calcification of the cartilage and mRNA levels of hypertrophic differentiation-related genes e.g. MMP9, MMP13, RUNX2, COL10A1 and ALPL. Compared to normoxia, hypoxia increased the size of the cartilaginous epiphysis, length of the resting zone, calcification of the bone and mRNA levels of hyaline cartilage-related genes e.g. ACAN, COL2A1 and SOX9. Additionally, hypoxia enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of the secreted articular cartilage markers GREM1, FRZB and DKK1, which are able to inhibit hypertrophic differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data suggests that oxygen levels play an active role in the regulation of hypertrophic differentiation of hyaline chondrocytes. Normoxia stimulates hypertrophic differentiation evidenced by the expression of hypertrophic differentiation related genes. In contrast, hypoxia suppresses hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes, which might be at least partially explained by the induction of GREM1, FRZB and DKK1 expression.

  20. Chitin modulates innate immune responses of keratinocytes.

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    Barbara Koller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chitin, after cellulose the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, is an essential component of exoskeletons of crabs, shrimps and insects and protects these organisms from harsh conditions in their environment. Unexpectedly, chitin has been found to activate innate immune cells and to elicit murine airway inflammation. The skin represents the outer barrier of the human host defense and is in frequent contact with chitin-bearing organisms, such as house-dust mites or flies. The effects of chitin on keratinocytes, however, are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that chitin stimulates keratinocytes and thereby modulates the innate immune response of the skin. Here we show that chitin is bioactive on primary and immortalized keratinocytes by triggering production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Chitin stimulation further induced the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR TLR4 on keratinocytes at mRNA and protein level. Chitin-induced effects were mainly abrogated when TLR2 was blocked, suggesting that TLR2 senses chitin on keratinocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We speculate that chitin-bearing organisms modulate the innate immune response towards pathogens by upregulating secretion of cytokines and chemokines and expression of MyD88-associated TLRs, two major components of innate immunity. The clinical relevance of this mechanism remains to be defined.

  1. The 50-Year History, Controversy, and Clinical Implications of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: From Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis to Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barry J Maron; Martin S Maron; E Douglas Wigle; Eugene Braunwald

    2009-01-01

    ...) clinical descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and has proved to be a complex phenomenon unique in many respects, as well as arguably the most visible and well-known pathophysiologic component of this heterogeneous disease...

  2. Karyotypic analysis of gene transformed human keratinocyte line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION In order to solve the difficult problem of long term in vitro culture of human keratinocytes, the technique of gene transfer was utilized to transform human keratinocytes with simian virus 40 (SV40).

  3. Expression of collagen genes in the cones of skin in the Duroc/Yorkshire porcine model of fibroproliferative scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kathy Q; Carrougher, Gretchen J; Couture, Oliver P; Tuggle, Christopher K; Gibran, Nicole S; Engrav, Loren H

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades there has been minimal improvement in prevention and treatment of hypertrophic scarring. Reasons include the lack of a validated animal model, imprecise techniques to dissect scar into the histologic components, and limited methodology for measurement of gene expression. These problems have been addressed with the Duroc/Yorkshire model of healing, laser capture microdissection, and the Affymetrix Porcine GeneChip. Here we compared collagen gene expression in fibroproliferative healing in the Duroc breed to nonfibroproliferative healing in the Yorkshires. We made shallow and deep dorsal wounds, biopsied at 1, 2, 3, 12, and 20 weeks. We sampled the dermal cones by laser capture microdissection, extracted and amplified the RNA, and hybridized Affymetrix Porcine GeneChips. We also obtained samples of human hypertrophic scar approximately 20 weeks postinjury. Data were normalized and statistical analysis performed with mixed linear regression using the Bioconductor R/maanova package. Genes for further analysis were also restricted with four biologic criteria, including that the 20-week deep Duroc expression match the human samples. Eleven collagen genes and seven collagen types were differentially over expressed in deep Duroc wounds including 1a1, 1a2, 3a1, 4a1, 4a2, 5a1, 5a2, 5a3, 6a3 (transcript variant 5), 14a1 and 15a1. COL7a1 gene was differentially under expressed in deep Duroc wounds. The results suggest that collagens I, III, IV, V, VI, VII, XIV, and XV [corrected] are involved in the process of fibroproliferative scarring. With these clues, we will attempt to construct the regulatory pathway(s) of fibroproliferative healing.

  4. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys (Aotus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlen, Grant G; Weller, Richard E; Perry, Ruby L; Baer, Janet F; Gozalo, Alfonso S

    2013-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common postmortem finding in owl monkeys. In most cases the animals do not exhibit clinical signs until the disease is advanced, making antemortem diagnosis of subclinical disease difficult and treatment unrewarding. We obtained echocardiograms, electrocardiograms, and thoracic radiographs from members of a colony of owl monkeys that previously was identified as showing a 40% incidence of gross myocardial hypertrophy at necropsy, to assess the usefulness of these modalities for antemortem diagnosis. No single modality was sufficiently sensitive and specific to detect all monkeys with cardiac hypertrophy. Electrocardiography was the least sensitive method for detecting owl monkeys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Thoracic radiographs were more sensitive than was electrocardiography in this context but cannot detect animals with concentric hypertrophy without an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Echocardiography was the most sensitive method for identifying cardiac hypertrophy in owl monkeys. The most useful parameters suggestive of left ventricular hypertrophy in our owl monkeys were an increased average left ventricular wall thickness to chamber radius ratio and an increased calculated left ventricular myocardial mass. Parameters suggestive of dilative cardiomyopathy were an increased average left ventricular myocardial mass and a decreased average ratio of left ventricular free wall thickness to left ventricular chamber radius. When all 4 noninvasive diagnostic modalities (physical examination, echocardiography, electrocardiography, and thoracic radiography) were used concurrently, the probability of detecting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in owl monkeys was increased greatly.

  5. Thermolysin in human cultured keratinocyte isolation

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    A. Gragnani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When treating extensively burned patients using cultured epidermal sheets, the main problem is the time required for its production. Conventional keratinocyte isolation is usually done using Trypsin. We used a modification of the conventional isolation method in order to improve this process and increase the number of colonies from the isolated epidermal cell population. PURPOSE: To compare the action of trypsin and thermolysin in the keratinocyte isolation using newborn foreskin. METHODS: This method used thermolysin as it selectively digests the dermo-epidermal junction. After dermis separation, the epidermis was digested by trypsin in order to obtain a cell suspension. RESULTS: Compared to the conventional procedure, these experiments demonstrated that in the thermolysin group, the epidermis was easily detached from the dermis, there was no fibroblast contamination and there were a larger number of keratinocyte colonies which had a significant statistical difference. CONCLUSION: The number of colonies in the thermolysin group was significantly greater than in the trypsin group.

  6. Clinical Utility of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by substantial genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, leading to considerable diversity in clinical course including the most common cause of sudden death in young people and a determinant of heart failure symptoms in patients of any age. Traditionally, two-dimensional echocardiography has been the most reliable method for establishing a clinical diagnosis of HCM. However, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), with its high spatial resolution and tomographic imaging capability, has emerged as a technique particularly well suited to characterize the diverse phenotypic expression of this complex disease. For example, CMR is often superior to echocardiography for HCM diagnosis, by identifying areas of segmental hypertrophy (ie., anterolateral wall or apex) not reliably visualized by echocardiography (or underestimated in terms of extent). High-risk HCM patient subgroups identified with CMR include those with thin-walled scarred LV apical aneurysms (which prior to CMR imaging in HCM remained largely undetected), end-stage systolic dysfunction, and massive LV hypertrophy. CMR observations also suggest that the cardiomyopathic process in HCM is more diffuse than previously regarded, extending beyond the LV myocardium to include thickening of the right ventricular wall as well as substantial morphologic diversity with regard to papillary muscles and mitral valve. These findings have implications for management strategies in patients undergoing invasive septal reduction therapy. Among HCM family members, CMR has identified unique phenotypic markers of affected genetic status in the absence of LV hypertrophy including: myocardial crypts, elongated mitral valve leaflets and late gadolinium enhancement. The unique capability of contrast-enhanced CMR with late gadolinium enhancement to identify myocardial fibrosis has raised the expectation that this may represent a novel marker, which may enhance risk stratification. At

  7. Clinical Utility of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maron Martin S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is characterized by substantial genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, leading to considerable diversity in clinical course including the most common cause of sudden death in young people and a determinant of heart failure symptoms in patients of any age. Traditionally, two-dimensional echocardiography has been the most reliable method for establishing a clinical diagnosis of HCM. However, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR, with its high spatial resolution and tomographic imaging capability, has emerged as a technique particularly well suited to characterize the diverse phenotypic expression of this complex disease. For example, CMR is often superior to echocardiography for HCM diagnosis, by identifying areas of segmental hypertrophy (ie., anterolateral wall or apex not reliably visualized by echocardiography (or underestimated in terms of extent. High-risk HCM patient subgroups identified with CMR include those with thin-walled scarred LV apical aneurysms (which prior to CMR imaging in HCM remained largely undetected, end-stage systolic dysfunction, and massive LV hypertrophy. CMR observations also suggest that the cardiomyopathic process in HCM is more diffuse than previously regarded, extending beyond the LV myocardium to include thickening of the right ventricular wall as well as substantial morphologic diversity with regard to papillary muscles and mitral valve. These findings have implications for management strategies in patients undergoing invasive septal reduction therapy. Among HCM family members, CMR has identified unique phenotypic markers of affected genetic status in the absence of LV hypertrophy including: myocardial crypts, elongated mitral valve leaflets and late gadolinium enhancement. The unique capability of contrast-enhanced CMR with late gadolinium enhancement to identify myocardial fibrosis has raised the expectation that this may represent a novel marker, which may enhance

  8. Serum concentration of amino-terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) as a prognostic marker for skin fibrosis after scar correction in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dietmar; Noah, Ernst-Magnus; Burchardt, Elmar Reinhardt; Atkins, Derek; Pallua, Norbert

    2002-12-01

    The amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen type III (PIIINP) has been proposed as a marker for fibrogenesis in patients with different fibroproliferative disorders, e.g. liver and lung fibrosis. In this study, serum concentrations of PIIINP were measured by ELISA as a marker for excessive cicatrization in burned patients before and after scar correction. All patients were followed 6 months to determine a new fibrotic reaction during the wound healing process using the Burn Scar Index and to correlate pre- and post-operative concentrations of PIIINP in their sera with the risk to develop a new severe tissue fibrosis leading to pathological scar formation. Furthermore, PIIINP was determined in the excised scar tissue by immunohistochemistry. The study included 38 patients. Nineteen patients (8 female, 11 male, average age 48.3+/-18.9 years) had hypertrophic scars after major burn injury (TBSA, 21+/-12%; Burn Scar Index, 10.4+/-3.7 points) and underwent scar correction. Nineteen patients (12 female, 7 male, average age 42.3+/-25.5 years) who underwent elective plastic-surgical operations served as the control group. Blood samples were drawn immediately before operation, at the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th post-operative days, as well as 1st, 3rd, and 6th months after operation.Pre-operatively, PIIINP was significantly elevated (P<0.05) in burned patients who underwent scar correction. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) of PIIINP in burned patients from 9.8+/-3.7ng/ml pre-operatively to 13.9+/-4.2ng/ml at the 7th post-operation day. Up to 3 months after operation, the 6 months after scar correction concentration remained at a significantly elevated level compared to pre-operative values. The burned patients had a Burn Scar Index of 7.8+/-3.6 points. Pre-operative PIIINP serum concentrations correlated with the Burn Scar Index (r(2)=0.7 and 0.68; P<0.05). Scar tissue stained intensively positive for PIIINP. There was a significant correlation between pre

  9. Is scar tenderness a reliable sign of scar complications in labor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Gutgutia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean section has come a long way from being a risky & restrictive surgery to one that is safe and quick. Due to a rise in the rates of primary caesarean section globally, repeat cesarean section has also become very common. The chief concern during labor with scarred uteri is that of scar rupture which can have devastating fetal and maternal consequences, including mortality. Several studies monitoring for the features of scar rupture like abnormal cardiotocography (CTG, severe abdominal pain persisting between contractions, acute onset scar tenderness, hematuria or abnormal vaginal bleeding, maternal tachycardia or shock, cessation of uterine activity and loss of station of the presenting part exist with the exception of scar tenderness which has not been evaluated separately in any study. The present prospective observational study was undertaken in a tertiary care hospital to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a sign of scar complications in labor. Methods: 78 women with one previous cesarean delivery in spontaneous labor at term undergoing trial of scar were monitored for progress of labor and observed for vaginal bleeding, scar tenderness, maternal pulse and blood pressure every 30 minutes. Scar tenderness was elicited by pressing below and behind the pubic symphysis in between uterine contractions while engaging the woman in conversation and noting for a visible wince. Fetal heart rate auscultation was done as per protocol. Trial of scar was terminated for scar tenderness, unexplained maternal tachycardia, fresh vaginal bleeding, fetal heart rate abnormalities and non-progress of labor. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of scar tenderness as a predictor of scar complications was 92.3% and 3.8%, while accuracy was 33.3%. The likelihood ratio of a positive sign of scar tenderness being associated with scar complications in labour is 1.48. Maternal tachycardia was not a significant predictor

  10. Clinical predictors of genetic testing outcomes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Sarina, Tanya; Yeates, Laura; Hunt, Lauren; Macciocca, Ivan; McCormack, Louise; Winship, Ingrid; McGaughran, Julie; Atherton, John; Semsarian, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been commercially available for almost a decade; however, low mutation detection rate and cost have hindered uptake. This study sought to identify clinical variables that can predict probands with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in whom a pathogenic mutation will be identified. Probands attending specialized cardiac genetic clinics across Australia over a 10-year period (2002-2011), who met clinical diagnostic criteria for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and who underwent genetic testing for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were included. Clinical, family history, and genotype information were collected. A total of 265 unrelated individuals with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were included, with 138 (52%) having at least one mutation identified. The mutation detection rate was significantly higher in the probands with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with an established family history of disease (72 vs. 29%, P < 0.0001), and a positive family history of sudden cardiac death further increased the detection rate (89 vs. 59%, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis identified female gender, increased left-ventricular wall thickness, family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and family history of sudden cardiac death as being associated with greatest chance of identifying a gene mutation. Multiple mutation carriers (n = 16, 6%) were more likely to have suffered an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death (31 vs. 7%, P = 0.012). Family history is a key clinical predictor of a positive genetic diagnosis and has direct clinical relevance, particularly in the pretest genetic counseling setting.

  11. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Robert A.; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case

  12. Endometriosis of episiotomy scar: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihmanli, V; Ózkan, T; Genc, S; Cetinkaya, N; Uctas, H

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by the presence of histologically normal endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Endometriosis predominantly locates on peritoneal surfaces, but it also affects the vagina, vulva, and perineum, usually secondary to surgical or obstetric trauma. Endometriosis in an episiotomy scar is a fairly rare phenomenon. The authors present a case of endometriosis in an episiotomy scar.

  13. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Robert A.; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case p

  14. The Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model: A Novel Human Model for Scar Research and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Steven T; Liu, Jing; Chavez-Munoz, Claudia; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the development and evaluation of therapeutic agents that improve the cosmetic appearance of scars. Existing nonhuman animal models to study scarring, while valuable, have well-acknowledged limitations, as it is accepted that the biology of human scarring differs significantly from scarring in other species. Moreover, human clinical trials of scarring require large numbers of subjects to achieve statistical power and are plagued by inherent intersubject variability because of the complex nature of wound healing in human beings. As a better alternative, we have developed the Northwestern Abdominoplasty Scar Model-a novel human clinical model that permits analysis of up to 20 cutaneous scars in a single subject and allows for not only visual scar comparison, but also histologic and molecular analyses of factors involved in scarring and wound healing. We have utilized this model in 5 early phase clinical trials designed to test the safety and efficacy of a variety of scar therapeutics without any complications to date. The model not only is applicable to scar therapeutics, but also can be utilized for other applications, such as the testing of implantable biomaterials, injectable products, therapies such as lasers, or even for in vivo study of wound healing processes in humans.

  15. Linear and Nonlinear Theory of Eigenfunction Scars

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    The theory of scarring of eigenfunctions of classically chaotic systems by short periodic orbits is extended in several ways. The influence of short-time linear recurrences on correlations and fluctuations at long times is emphasized. We include the contribution to scarring of nonlinear recurrences associated with homoclinic orbits, and treat the different scenarios of random and nonrandom long-time recurrences. The importance of the local classical structure around the periodic orbit is emphasized, and it is shown for an optimal choice of test basis in phase space, scars must persist in the semiclassical limit. The crucial role of symmetry is also discussed, which together with the nonlinear recurrences gives a much improved account of the actual strength of scars for given classical orbits and in individual wavefunctions. Quantitative measures of scarring are provided and comparisons are made with numerical data.

  16. Strong quantum scarring by local impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, Perttu J. J.; Drury, Byron; Klales, Anna; Kaplan, Lev; Heller, Eric J.; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-11-01

    We discover and characterise strong quantum scars, or quantum eigenstates resembling classical periodic orbits, in two-dimensional quantum wells perturbed by local impurities. These scars are not explained by ordinary scar theory, which would require the existence of short, moderately unstable periodic orbits in the perturbed system. Instead, they are supported by classical resonances in the unperturbed system and the resulting quantum near-degeneracy. Even in the case of a large number of randomly scattered impurities, the scars prefer distinct orientations that extremise the overlap with the impurities. We demonstrate that these preferred orientations can be used for highly efficient transport of quantum wave packets across the perturbed potential landscape. Assisted by the scars, wave-packet recurrences are significantly stronger than in the unperturbed system. Together with the controllability of the preferred orientations, this property may be very useful for quantum transport applications.

  17. Posterolateral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a rare, but clinically significant variant of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Atsuko; Perens, Gregory; Fishbein, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Posterolateral hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a rare variant of HCM. Segmental HCM is seen in 12% of cases of HCM. Among the patterns of segmental HCM, posterolateral HCM is the least common type. Our case of an 18-year old male documents this unusual type of cardiomyopathy. In this form of HCM, left ventricular thickness and the extent of hypertrophy might be underestimated by 2-dimensional echocardiography. This case illustrates the echocardiographic and pathologic features of posterolateral HCM.

  18. Genome-wide Association Study of Postburn Scarring Identifies a Novel Protective Variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ravi F; Hocking, Anne M; Muffley, Lara A; Ga, Maricar; Honari, Shari; Reiner, Alexander P; Gibran, Nicole S

    2015-10-01

    To identify genetic variants associated with the severity of postburn hypertrophic scarring (HTS) using a genome-wide approach. Risk of severe postburn HTS is known to depend on race, but the genetic determinants of HTS are unknown. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a prospective cohort of adults admitted with deep-partial-thickness burns from 2007 through 2014. Scar severity was assessed over time using the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS), and DNA was genotyped with a >500,000-marker array. We performed association testing of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.01 using linear regression of VSS height score on genotype adjusted for patient and injury characteristics as well as population genetic structure. Array-wide significance was based on Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Of 538 patients (median age 40 years, median burn size 6.0% of body surface area), 71% were men and 76% were White. The mean VSS height score was 1.2 (range: 0-3). Of 289,639 SNPs tested, a variant in the CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) gene (rs11136645; MAF = 0.49), was significantly associated with decreased scar height (regression coefficient = -0.23, P = 7.9 × 10). In the first published GWAS of HTS, we report that a common intronic variant in the CSMD1 gene is associated with reduced severity of postburn HTS. If this association is confirmed in an independent cohort, investigating the potential role of CSMD1 in wound healing may elucidate HTS pathophysiology.

  19. [Effect of trypsin on the rat keratinocyte separation and subculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, An-Li; Zhou, Yan; Hua, Ping; Tan, Wen-Song

    2002-01-01

    The effect of trypsin on the separation an subculture of the keratinocytes was investigated in this work. It was found that when 0.25% trypsin was employed for 5 minutes to separate keratinocytes, the number of active keratinocytes and the cells capable of forming colony were higher than those of other experimental conditions. The maximum attached ratio of primary keratinocytes was obtained when skin tissues were treated at 0.05% concentration of trypsin. With the increase of the trypsin concentrations, the attached ratio, attachment rate constant, and colony forming efficiency were all increased. Thus, 0.25% concentration of trypsin was recommended for separating and subculturing the keratinocytes.

  20. Functional effects of losartan in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Anna Karin Irene; Iversen, Kasper; Vejlstrup, Niels G.;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of disease-modifying treatments in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The aim of this randomised, placebo-controlled study was to assess if losartan could improve or ameliorate deterioration of cardiac function and exercise capacity. METHODS: Echocardiography, exercise...... test and MRI or CT were performed at baseline and after 12 months in 133 patients (52±13 years, 35% female) randomly allocated to losartan (100 mg/day) or placebo. RESULTS: Losartan had no effect on systolic function compared with placebo (mean difference for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 0......%, (95% CI -3% to -1%), p=0.037) and 4% of patients had end-stage HCM with a LVEF of less than 50% at the end of the study. CONCLUSION: Treatment with losartan had no effect on cardiac function or exercise capacity compared with placebo. Losartan fail to improve myocardial performance and failed to alter...

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiozaki, Afonso Akio; Parga, Jose Rodrigues; Arteaga, Edmundo; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Setor de Tomografia Computarizada e Ressonancia Magnetica Cardiovascular]. E-mail: rochitte@incor.usp.br; Kim, Raymond J. [Duke Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, Durham, NC (United States); Tassi, Eduardo Marinho [Diagnosticos da America S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Sector of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance and Computed Tomography

    2007-03-15

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most frequent genetic cardiac disease that causes sudden death in young people, with an incidence of 1:500 adults. The routinely used criteria for worst prognosis have limited sensitivity and specificity. Thus, the estimated risk of evolving to dilated cardiomyopathy or sudden death is somewhat inaccurate, leading to management uncertainty of HCM patients. Therefore, an accurate noninvasive method for the diagnosis of HCM with prognostic value is of great importance. In the last years, Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) emerged not only as a diagnostic tool, but also as a study with prognostic values, by characterizing myocardial fibrosis with great accuracy in HCM patients. Additionally, CMR identifies the types of hypertrophy, analyses the ventricular function, estimates the intraventricular gradient and allows the determination of differential diagnosis. Moreover, CMR can uniquely access myocardial fibrosis in HCM. (author)

  2. Hypertrophic Obesity and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the past 50 years, scientists have recognized that not all adipose tissue is alike, and that health risk is associated with the location as well as the amount of body fat. Different depots are sufficiently distinct with respect to fatty-acid storage and release as to probably play unique roles in human physiology. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. CONTENT: The limited expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue leads to inappropriate adipose cell expansion (hypertrophic obesity with local inflammation and a dysregulated and insulin-resistant adipose tissue. The inability to store excess fat in the subcutaneous adipose tissue is a likely key mechanism for promoting ectopic fat accumulation in tissues and areas where fat can be stored, including the intra-abdominal and visceral areas, in the liver, epi/pericardial area, around vessels, in the myocardium, and in the skeletal muscles. Many studies have implicated ectopic fat accumulation and the associated lipotoxicity as the major determinant of the metabolic complications of obesity driving systemic insulin resistance, inflammation, hepatic glucose production, and dyslipidemia. SUMMARY: In summary, hypertrophic obesity is due to an impaired ability to recruit and differentiate available adipose precursor cells in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Thus, the subcutaneous adipose tissue may be particular in its limited ability in certain individuals to undergo adipogenesis during weight increase. Inability to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis under periods of affluence would favor lipid overlow and ectopic fat accumulation with negative metabolic consequences. KEYWORDS: obesity, adipogenesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, adipocyte dysfunction.

  3. Analysis of Frequency of Use of Different Scar Assessment Scales Based on the Scar Condition and Treatment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hwan Bae

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale were reviewed and analyzed. The scar assessment scales were identified and organized by various criteria. Among the types of scar assessment scales, the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS was found to be the most frequently used scale. As for the assessment of newly developed operative scars, the POSAS was most used. Meanwhile, for categories depending on the treatment methods for preexisting scars, the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS was used in 6 studies following a laser treatment, the POSAS was used in 7 studies following surgical treatment, and the POSAS was used in 7 studies following a conservative treatment. Within the 12 categories of scar status, the VSS showed the highest frequency in 6 categories and the POSAS showed the highest frequency in the other 6 categories. According to our reviews, the POSAS and VSS are the most frequently used scar assessment scales. In the future, an optimal, universal scar scoring system is needed in order to better evaluate and treat pathologic scarring.

  4. The foundation study of microvasculoarchitecture of the human scar%瘢痕微血管构筑对瘢痕形成、发展及临床防治的基础研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小静; 孟刚; 宁金龙; 汪春兰; 高学宏

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the importance of the microvasculoarchitecture of the human scar on the formation,development and clinical treatment of the scar.Method This paper reports the study of the difference of microvascularartechitecture of the different scar,the different periods on the same kind scar and the different areas of the same scars,using immunohistohemistry“ the CD34 antibody” staining method.Results Microvessel density in the center area was 25.6± 10.4/mm2,44.2± 3.8/mm2 in the periphery area,18.6± 2.2/mm2 in the normal skin(Hypertrophic scar).Microvessel density of Hypertrophic scar was 44.2± 3.8/mm2 in the periphery area,that of Atrophic scar was 22.8± 2.7/mm2,Microvessel density of Hypertrophic scar in one year was 40.8± 4.5/mm2,that in the same as one year or more than one year was 27.2± 6.4/mm2(P< 0.01).Conclusion Microvessel density of Hypertrophic scars is higher than that of astrophy scars.Microvessel density is high,as time goes on it decreased in early stage scar.In the border of scar microvessel density is the highest.This area may represent the biological behavior of scars.%目的 探讨瘢痕微血管构筑在瘢痕形成、发展及临床防治中的意义。方法利用 CD34显示瘢痕的微血管构筑。结果增生性瘢痕微血管计数中央区为 25.6± 10.4/mm2,周围区为 44.2± 3.8/mm2,正常皮肤为 18.6± 2.2/mm2;小于或等于一年组的微血管密度为 40.8± 4.5/mm2,大于一年组为 27.2± 6.4/mm2;增生性瘢痕微血管计数周边区为 44.2± 3.8/mm2,萎缩性瘢痕周边区为 22.8± 2.7/mm2;不同类型瘢痕间、瘢痕不同区域及不同时期间微血管均有明显统计学差异 (P< 0.01)。结论增生性瘢痕明显高于萎缩性瘢痕内的微血管密度;瘢痕早期微血管密度高随着病程延长而逐渐减少;瘢痕交界处为较幼稚瘢痕,血管最为丰富,能代表整个瘢痕的生物学行为。

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus adaptation to human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soong, Grace; Paulino, Franklin; Wachtel, Sarah; Parker, Dane; Wickersham, Matthew; Zhang, Dongni; Brown, Armand; Lauren, Christine; Dowd, Margaret; West, Emily; Horst, Basil; Planet, Paul; Prince, Alice

    2015-04-21

    Skin is the most common site of Staphylococcus aureus infection. While most of these infections are self-limited, recurrent infections are common. Keratinocytes and recruited immune cells participate in skin defense against infection. We postulated that S. aureus is able to adapt to the milieu within human keratinocytes to avoid keratinocyte-mediated clearance. From a collection of S. aureus isolated from chronically infected patients with atopic dermatitis, we noted 22% had an agr mutant-like phenotype. Using several models of human skin infection, we demonstrate that toxin-deficient, agr mutants of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300 are able to persist within keratinocytes by stimulating autophagy and evading caspase-1 and inflammasome activation. MRSA infection induced keratinocyte autophagy, as evidenced by galectin-8 and LC3 accumulation. Autophagy promoted the degradation of inflammasome components and facilitated staphylococcal survival. The recovery of more than 58% agr or RNAIII mutants (P keratinocytes compared to control keratinocytes reflected the survival advantage for mutants no longer expressing agr-dependent toxins. Our results illustrate the dynamic interplay between S. aureus and keratinocytes that can result in the selection of mutants that have adapted specifically to evade keratinocyte-mediated clearance mechanisms. Human skin is a major site of staphylococcal infection, and keratinocytes actively participate in eradication of these pathogens. We demonstrate that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is ingested by keratinocytes and activates caspase-1-mediated clearance through pyroptosis. Toxin-deficient MRSA mutants are selected within keratinocytes that fail to induce caspase-1 activity and keratinocyte-mediated clearance. These intracellular staphylococci induce autophagy that enhances their intracellular survival by diminishing inflammasome components. These findings suggest that S. aureus mutants, by exploiting

  6. Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cyanobacteria-phytoplankton dynamics of a hypertrophic African lake

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zohary, T

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were recorded weekly or biweekly for nearly 7 years in a hypertrophic lake ( Hartbeespoort Dam, South Africa), together with a range of physical and chemical parameters. A total of 73 species were...

  8. [Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in a patient with Turner syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, M R; Bonfiglio, G; Orzan, F; Mangiardi, L; Camaschella, C; Alfarano, A; Brusca, A

    1995-12-01

    A case of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in a patient with Turner syndrome is reported. The most frequently associated cardiac anomalies are coarctation of the aorta and bicuspid aortic valve. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has never been reported in this syndrome but is frequent in Noonan syndrome. In these two conditions the phenotype may be indistinguishable but the cariotype is different: normal in Noonan and 45X in Turner syndrome. Our patient had the typical somatic features, and the cariotype was 45X in all examined cells. A familial form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was excluded by the normal clinical examination of other members of the family. The presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy also in Turner syndrome and the recent localization on the long arm of the chromosome 12 of the gene for Noonan syndrome might postulate a common pathogenesis of the two syndromes.

  9. diel vertical migration of zooplankton in a hypertrophic shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    In this investigation DVM by zooplankton is studied in a hypertrophic shallow lake in Germany. The ... they have intimately evolved through time. This ..... seemed to show similar patterns as the daphnids at ..... Estuaries 25(2):296–307. 8.

  10. Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septal Myectomy Surgery to Treat Obstructive Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a neonate associated with nemaline myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Arshid; Lemler, Matthew; Ramaciotti, Claudio; Blalock, Shannon; Ikemba, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy is a congenital nonprogressive skeletal muscle disorder with a characteristic rod body formation in the skeletal muscle fibers. Cardiac involvement in nemaline myopathy is rare, although both dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have been reported. We describe an infant diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypotonia on the first day of life. Muscle biopsy confirmed nemaline myopathy at 3 weeks of age. The diagnosis of nemaline myopathy precluded consideration of heart transplantation, thus shifting the focus to comfort care. This is the earliest presentation of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy reported in the literature in the setting of nemaline myopathy. The approach to determining an etiology for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an infant is reviewed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in hypertrophic obesity in man

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birgit Gustafson; Silvia Gogg; Shahram Hedjazifar; Lachmi Jenndahl; Ann Hammarstedt; Ulf Smith

    2009-01-01

    .... Here, we review recent findings linking hypertrophic obesity with inflammation and a dysregulated adipose tissue, including local cellular insulin resistance with reduced IRS-1 and GLUT4 protein content...

  13. Values of a Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale to Evaluate the Facial Skin Graft Scar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jin Kyung; Kim, Eun Jung; Park, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background The patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS) recently emerged as a promising method, reflecting both observer's and patient's opinions in evaluating scar. This tool was shown to be consistent and reliable in burn scar assessment, but it has not been tested in the setting of skin graft scar in skin cancer patients. Objective To evaluate facial skin graft scar applied to POSAS and to compare with objective scar assessment tools. Methods Twenty three patients, who diagnosed with facial cutaneous malignancy and transplanted skin after Mohs micrographic surgery, were recruited. Observer assessment was performed by three independent rates using the observer component of the POSAS and Vancouver scar scale (VSS). Patient self-assessment was performed using the patient component of the POSAS. To quantify scar color and scar thickness more objectively, spectrophotometer and ultrasonography was applied. Results Inter-observer reliability was substantial with both VSS and the observer component of the POSAS (average measure intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.76 and 0.80, respectively). The observer component consistently showed significant correlations with patients' ratings for the parameters of the POSAS (all p-values<0.05). The correlation between subjective assessment using POSAS and objective assessment using spectrophotometer and ultrasonography showed low relationship. Conclusion In facial skin graft scar assessment in skin cancer patients, the POSAS showed acceptable inter-observer reliability. This tool was more comprehensive and had higher correlation with patient's opinion. PMID:27746642

  14. Phase and Texture Characterizations of Scar Collagen Second-Harmonic Generation Images Varied with Scar Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guannan; Liu, Yao; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Cai, Jianyong; Chen, Rong; Xiong, Shuyuan; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-08-01

    This work developed a phase congruency algorithm combined with texture analysis to quantitatively characterize collagen morphology in second-harmonic generation (SHG) images from human scars. The extracted phase and texture parameters of the SHG images quantified collagen directionality, homogeneity, and coarseness in scars and varied with scar duration. Phase parameters showed an increasing tendency of the mean of phase congruency with scar duration, indicating that collagen fibers are better oriented over time. Texture parameters calculated from local difference local binary pattern (LD-LBP) and Haar wavelet transform, demonstrated that the LD-LBP variance decreased and the energy of all subimages increased with scar duration. It implied that collagen has a more regular pattern and becomes coarser with scar duration. In addition, the random forest regression was used to predict scar duration, demonstrating reliable performance of the extracted phase and texture parameters in characterizing collagen morphology in scar SHG images. Results indicate that the extracted parameters using the proposed method can be used as quantitative indicators to monitor scar progression with time and can help understand the mechanism of scar progression.

  15. A quantitative approach to scar analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia

    2011-02-01

    Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pol Robert A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2–3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. Case presentation A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months’ review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. Conclusions This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  17. Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma arising in a smallpox scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Robert A; Dannenberg, Hilde; Robertus, Jan-Lukas; van Ginkel, Robert J

    2012-07-16

    Cutaneous leiomyosarcoma (CLM) is a very rare smooth muscle tumour that accounts for about 2-3% of all superficial soft tissue sarcomas. Although the development of various malignancies in scar tissue is well known, we report the first case of a CLM developing in a small pox scar. A 66-year-old man presented with a painless, slow-growing lump in a small pox scar on his left shoulder. Histological biopsies showed the lesion to be a primary, well-differentiated cutaneous leiomyosarcoma. A CT scan of the thorax was conducted, which showed no signs of metastases. The complete lesion was then surgically excised, and histopathological examination revealed a radically excised cutaneous type leiomyosarcoma After 13 months' review the patient was doing well with no evidence of tumour recurrence. This is the first report of a CLM arising in a small pox scar. Although the extended time interval between scarring and malignant changes makes it difficult to advise strict follow-up for patients with small pox scars, one should be aware that atypical changes and/or symptoms occurring in a small pox scar could potentially mean malignant transformation.

  18. Scar assessment scales: a dermatologic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Nayla; Maibach, Howard I

    2009-02-01

    This overview critically compares subjective assessment tools and available objective measurement tools with potential devices becoming available. Our goal is to lay out the benefits of each scar assessment scale in order to propose good management skills for scars along with strong metric skills. Classifying a scar is important in daily clinical practice. Ultimately choosing which treatment modality best fits can become a challenge. Scar classification needs a more detailed and systematic approach. We researched all different factors contributing to scar formation to come up with a more detailed criteria. Such factors included pigmentation/vascularity, surface texture, surface area, thickness (scar height), and pliability. Few studies have assessed scars; each provided an assessment scale of their own. Each scale is compared on the basis of accuracy, reliability, convenience in terms of feasibility and price. There remains still no ideal objective measurement out there despite promise seen in subjective evaluation. Method refinement will however accelerate our knowledge and interventions - based on increasing study power with enhanced metrics.

  19. Characterization of signalling pathways in cardiac hypertrophic response

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Intracellular signalling cascades regulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophic response. Initially hypertrophy of individual myocytes occurs as an adaptive response to increased demands for cardiac work, e.g. during hypertension or after myocardial infarction, but a prolonged hypertrophic response, accompanied by accelerated fibrosis and apoptosis, predisposes the heart to impaired performance and the syndrome of heart failure. The goal of this work was to elucidate some of the main sig...

  20. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Oryshchyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A case report of apical left ventricular aneurysm in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction (diagnosis and surgical treatment is presented. We revealed apical aneurysm and mid-ventricular obstruction during echocardiography and specified anatomical characteristics of aneurysm during computer tomography. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease during coronary angiography. Taking into consideration multiple cerebral infarcts, aneurysm resection and left ventricular plastics was performed. Electronic microscopy of myocardium confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  1. Transdermal absorption enhancement of papain loaded in elastic niosomes incorporated in gel for scar treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Chankhampan, Charinya; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2013-02-14

    Papain is one of the protease enzymes from Carica papaya latex which is widely used in dermatology for scar treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the penetration of papain from gel formulations containing niosomes and nanospheres loaded with papain. The vesicular sizes of all niosomes and nanospheres in the gel formulations were in the range of 220.7-520.2 nm. Papain loaded in elastic niosomes and incorporated in gel exhibited the accumulate amounts and fluxes of 0.226 mg/cm² and 0.029 mg/cm²/h in the whole rat skin and 0.220 mg/cm² and 0.037 mg/cm²/h in the receiving solution, which were 3.10, 2.38 and 2.24, 2.25; 10.08, 7.78 and 4.92, 4.93; 4.86, 3.71 and 7.38, 7.38 times more than that from gel containing papain loaded in non-elastic niosomes, PLGA nanospheres and in solution, respectively, investigated by Franz diffusion cells at 6h. All gel formulations incorporated with papain loaded in niosomes and nanospheres gave no irritation on rabbit skin. Gel containing papain loaded in elastic niosomes gave superior chemical stability to gel containing free papain of 1.13, 1.29 and 1.35 times when stored at 4 ± 2, 27 ± 2 and 45 ± 2°C after 3 months, respectively. After 28 days of application, gel containing papain loaded in elastic niosomes (GEN) exhibited higher reduction of hypertrophic scars of the induced scar on rabbits' ears determined by a vernier caliper than gel base (GB), gel containing free papain (GS), and gel containing papain loaded in non-elastic niosomes (GNN) of 10.20, 2.73 and 2.31 times, respectively. For histological examination, the numbers of collagen fibres and the height of the scars treated with GEN were significantly decreased compared with the control group. This study has demonstrated the potential of niosomes, especially the elastic niosomes, for the enhancement of rat skin transdermal absorption of papain and the improvement of scar reduction in rabbit ear model which will be beneficial for the development of topical

  2. Rotation is the primary motion of paired human epidermal keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Sota; Imai, Matome; Matsushita, Natsuki; Nishimura, Emi K; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Nanba, Daisuke

    2015-09-01

    Collective motion of keratinocytes is involved in morphogenesis, homeostasis, and wound healing of the epidermis. Yet how the collective motion of keratinocytes emerges from the behavior of individual cells is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to find the cellular behavior that links single and collective motion of keratinocytes. We investigated the behavior of two-cell colonies of HaCaT keratinocytes by a combination of time-lapse imaging and image processing. The two-cell colonies of HaCaT cells were formed as a contacted pair of keratinocyte clones. Image analysis and cell culture experiments revealed that the rotational speed of two-cell colonies was positively associated with their proliferative capacity. α6 integrin was required for the rotational motion of two-cell keratinocyte colonies. We also confirmed that two-cell colonies of keratinocytes predominantly exhibited the rotational, but not translational, motion, two modes of motion in a contact pair of rotating objects. The rotational motion is the primary motion of two-cell keratinocyte colonies and its speed is positively associated with their proliferative capacity. This study suggests that the assembly of rotating keratinocytes generates the collective motion of proliferative keratinocytes during morphogenesis and wound healing of the epidermis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Frequency of placenta previa in previously scarred and non scarred uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Tayyaba; Waheed, Fatima; Mahmood, Zahid; Saba, Kanwal; Mahmood, Hamis; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain

    2015-01-01

    To determine the frequency of placenta Previa in patients coming to a tertiary care unit with previously scarred and non-scarred uterus. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried on 114 cases who underwent caesarean sections (37 cases out of 645 cases with non scarred uterus and 77 cases from 721 cases with scarred uterus) in the department of obstetrics and gynecology Lady Willingdon Hospital from January 2008- December 2011. Most patients (47.36%) were between 26-30 years age group, presented with gestational age between 36-40 weeks (70.17%), were mostly G2-4, while frequency of placenta Previa in non-scarred uterus was 32.45% (37 cases), and frequency in previously scarred uterus was 67.54% (77 cases). Major degree Previa was found in 88 cases (77.19%). There were 5.70% cases of placenta Previa from non-scarred uteruses and 10.67% cases of placenta Previa (10.67%) from already scarred uteruses. Stratification revealed a higher trend of the morbidity with the increase in number of previous caesarean sections. A significantly higher frequency of placenta Previa was found among patients coming to a tertiary care hospital with previously scarred uterus.

  5. Cesarean Scar Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Vahedpoor

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Previous cesarean scar pregnancy if not detected early can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the possibility of this pregnancy should be considered in pregnant women with uterine bleeding, abdominal pain as well as a history of cesarean section. It should be noted that after previous cesarean scar pregnancy was definitely diagnosed via ultrasound examination, treatment necessitates to be started utilizing methotrexate to ensure the future fertility of the mother.

  6. Endometriosis In Cesarean Scar: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Özgül

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A patient with surgical scar endometriosis, a rare condition, was presented. The patient was 30 years old, gave birth twice by cesarean section, her last delivery was seven years ago. She appealed to the outpatients’ clinic because of the complaints of pain, swelling and redness on the scar site, her complaints began one year after the last delivery and continued. The complaints did not alter by menstrual cycle. On the examination, there was a painful hyperemic lesion 2x2cm in size which was raised from the skin, located at the right of the scar, assumed to be associated with the fixed fascia and another lesion 2x2cm in size which could not be noticed by inspection but be palpated was found. The lesions described were totally excised. The result of paraffin block examination of the material was reported as endometriosis. Pain on the scar site with menstrual period, enlargement and discoloration of the lesions are classical signs of scar endometriosis. But the patients do not always present these findings. Endometriosis should also be remembered along with other reasons when lesions occur on the scar site after surgery.

  7. MicroRNA-143-3p inhibits hyperplastic scar formation by targeting connective tissue growth factor CTGF/CCN2 via the Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Shengzhi; Kang, Bei; Zeng, Weihui; Sun, Yaowen; Yang, Fan

    2016-05-01

    Post-traumatic hypertrophic scar (HS) is a fibrotic disease with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) production, which is a response to tissue injury by fibroblasts. Although emerging evidence has indicated that miRNA contributes to hypertrophic scarring, the role of miRNA in HS formation remains unclear. In this study, we found that miR-143-3p was markedly downregulated in HS tissues and fibroblasts (HSFs) using qRT-PCR. The expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) was upregulated both in HS tissues and HSFs, which is proposed to play a key role in ECM deposition in HS. The protein expression of collagen I (Col I), collagen III (Col III), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was obviously inhibited after treatment with miR-143-3p in HSFs. The CCK-8 assay showed that miR-143-3p transfection reduced the proliferation ability of HSFs, and flow cytometry showed that either early or late apoptosis of HSFs was upregulated by miR-143-3p. In addition, the activity of caspase 3 and caspase 9 was increased after miR-143-3p transfection. On the contrary, the miR-143-3p inhibitor was demonstrated to increase cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis of HSFs. Moreover, miR-143-3p targeted the 3'-UTR of CTGF and caused a significant decrease of CTGF. Western blot demonstrated that Akt/mTOR phosphorylation and the expression of CTGF, Col I, Col III, and α-SMA were inhibited by miR-143-3p, but increased by CTGF overexpression. In conclusion, we found that miR-143-3p inhibits hypertrophic scarring by regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of human HSFs, inhibiting ECM production-associated protein expression by targeting CTGF, and restraining the Akt/mTOR pathway.

  8. Death penalty for keratinocytes: apoptosis versus cornification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippens, S; Denecker, G; Ovaere, P; Vandenabeele, P; Declercq, W

    2005-11-01

    Homeostasis implies a balance between cell growth and cell death. This balance is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Homeostasis is controlled by several mechanisms including apoptosis, a process by which cells condemned to death are completely eliminated. However, in some cases, total destruction and removal of dead cells is not desirable, as when they fulfil a specific function such as formation of the skin barrier provided by corneocytes, also known as terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In this case, programmed cell death results in accumulation of functional cell corpses. Previously, this process has been associated with apoptotic cell death. In this overview, we discuss differences and similarities in the molecular regulation of epidermal programmed cell death and apoptosis. We conclude that despite earlier confusion, apoptosis and cornification occur through distinct molecular pathways, and that possibly antiapoptotic mechanisms are implicated in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes.

  9. Comparison among patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with hypertension and hypertensive heart disease by {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Satoshi; Sugihara, Hiroki; Ito, Kazuki [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)] [and others

    1997-12-01

    The usefulness of {sup 123}I-BMIPP myocardial SPECT in discriminating hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (46 patients), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with hypertension (23 patients), and hypertensive hypertrophic heart (20 patients) was studied. SPECT image was divided into 17 domains, and dimension of decreased accumulation was decided visually at each domain as four classes called defect score (DS). Summation of DS (TDS) of each group was used to compare frequency and dimension of decreased accumulation, and characteristic of each site. Frequency of decreased accumulation and TDS in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were similar in dimension with those in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with hypertension, and those data in hypertensive hypertrophic heart were lower than those in above-mentioned 2 groups. In the cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with hypertension, decreased accumulation site was similar and was anterior wall-septum junction, septum-posterior wall junction and apex of heart. In the case of hypertensive hypertrophic heart, decreased accumulation site was only the posterior wall. Frequency, dimension and site of decreased accumulation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were different from those in hypertensive hypertrophic heart, and BMIPP was thought to be useful in discriminating these diseases. (K.H.)

  10. Hepatocyte growth factor reduces CXCL10 expression in keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisadome, Mitsuhiro; Ohnishi, Tomokazu; Kakimoto, Kyoko; Kusuyama, Joji; Bandow, Kenjiro; Kanekura, Takuro; Matsuguchi, Tetsuya

    2016-10-01

    Keratinocytes secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angioregulatory chemokines during cutaneous wound healing. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) promotes skin re-epithelialization by increasing VEGF expression in keratinocytes. Here, we investigated the regulatory roles of HGF in the expression of genes encoding angiogenic and angiostatic chemokines in keratinocytes and found that HGF specifically inhibits mRNA expression of the angiostatic chemokine CXCL10 in both mouse primary keratinocytes and in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT through the MEK/ERK cascade. Furthermore, HGF inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-induced CXCL10 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in HaCaT cells. Thus, HGF may orchestrate angiogenesis in wounded skin by modulating both VEGF and CXCL10 expression in keratinocytes. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  11. MR imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Joong; Jeon, Pyung; Kim, Dong Ik [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) MR images of seven patients with HOD were retrospectively reviewed. Two were women and five were men, and they were aged between 48 and 65 (mean 58) years. Imaging examinations were performed with a 1.5-T unit, and the findings were used to evaluate the size and signal intensity of olivary lesions. The time interval from hemorrhagic ictus to MR imaging was between two and 30 months. Follow-up examinations were performed in two patients. All four patients with hemorrhages involving the central tegmental tract in the pons or midbrain showed ipsilateral HOD. Among these four, bilateral HOD was seen in one patient with hemorrhage involving the bilateral central tegmental tract, and in another with tegmental hemorrhage extending to the ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle. One patient with cerebellar hemorrhage involving the dentate nucleus had contralateral HOD. Two patients with multiple hemorrhages involving both the pons and cerebellum showed bilateral HOD. Axial MR images showed mild enlargement of the involved olivary mucleus, with high signal intensity on both proton density and T2 weighted images. There was no apparent enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted images. MR imaging can clearly distinguish secondary olivary degeneration from underlying pathology involving the central tegmental tract in the pons or midbrain and cerebellum. These olivary abnormalities should not, however, be mistaken for primary medullary lesions.

  12. Anomalous features of EMT during keratinocyte transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Geiger

    Full Text Available During the evolution of epithelial cancers, cells often lose their characteristic features and acquire a mesenchymal phenotype, in a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. In the present study we followed early stages of keratinocyte transformation by HPV16, and observed diverse cellular changes, associated with EMT. We compared primary keratinocytes with early and late passages of HF1 cells, a cell line of HPV16-transformed keratinocytes. We have previously shown that during the progression from the normal cells to early HF1 cells, immortalization is acquired, while in the progression to late HF1, cells become anchorage independent. We show here that during the transition from the normal state to late HF1 cells, there is a progressive reduction in cytokeratin expression, desmosome formation, adherens junctions and focal adhesions, ultimately leading to poorly adhesive phenotype, which is associated with anchorage-independence. Surprisingly, unlike "conventional EMT", these changes are associated with reduced Rac1-dependent cell migration. We monitored reduced Rac1-dependent migration also in the cervical cancer cell line SiHa. Therefore we can conclude that up to the stage of tumor formation migratory activity is eliminated.

  13. Analysis of Frequency of Use of Different Scar Assessment Scales Based on the Scar Condition and Treatment Method

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Seong Hwan; Bae, Yong Chan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of scars in various conditions is essential, but no consensus had been reached on the scar assessment scale to select for a given condition. We reviewed papers to determine the scar assessment scale selected depending on the scar condition and treatment method. We searched PubMed for articles published since 2000 with the contents of the scar evaluation using a scar assessment scale with a Journal Citation Report impact factor >0.5. Among them, 96 articles that conducted a scar evalu...

  14. Effectiveness of Onion Extract Gel on Surgical Scars in Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumutnart Chanprapaph

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Onion extracts have been shown in vitro to accelerate wound healing. Results from clinical studies on surgical scars in Caucasians were disappointing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of onion extract gel in improving the cosmetic and symptoms of surgical scars in Asians. Patients/Methods. Twenty Asians who had new Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scars were recruited in this prospective double-blinded, split-scar study. Each side was randomly assigned treatment with onion extract gel or placebo at 7 days after surgery. The product was applied three times daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and 4th and 12th weeks. Scar redness was assessed by calorimeter, scar height and pliability were assessed by blinded investigators, and scar symptoms and overall cosmetic improvement were assessed by subjects. Results. Sixteen subjects completed the study. A statistically significant difference between two sides of scar in terms of scar height and scar symptoms was found. There was no statistically significant difference in scar redness, scar pliability, and overall cosmetic appearance between two sides. Conclusions. The early use of topical 12% onion extract gel on Pfannenstiel’s cesarean section scar in Asians resulted in the improvement of scar height and scar symptoms.

  15. Histamine induces proliferation in keratinocytes from atopic dermatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzer, Franziska; Gschwandtner, Maria; Ehling, Sarah; Rossbach, Kristine; Janik, Katrin; Klos, Andreas; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Kietzmann, Manfred; Werfel, Thomas; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidermal hyperproliferation resulting in acanthosis is an important clinical observation in atopic dermatitis and its underlying mechanisms are not completely understood by now. Objective Since elevated levels of histamine are present in lesional skin, we investigated the effect of histamine, especially with regard to H4R activation, on the proliferation of human and murine keratinocytes. Methods The expression of H4R on human and murine keratinocytes was detected by real-time PCR. Keratinocyte proliferation was evaluated by different in vitro cell proliferation assays, scratch assays and measurement of epidermal thickness of murine skin. Results We detected H4R mRNA on foreskin keratinocytes and on outer root sheath keratinocytes; H4R mRNA was more abundant in keratinocytes from patients with atopic dermatitis as compared to non-atopic donors. Stimulation of foreskin keratinocytes, atopic dermatitis outer root sheath keratinocytes and H4R transfected HaCaT cells with histamine and H4R agonist resulted in an increase of proliferation, which was blocked with the H4R-specific antagonist JNJ7777120. Abdominal epidermis of H4R-deficient mice was significantly thinner and the in vitro proliferation of keratinocytes derived from H4R-deficient mice was lower compared to control mice. Interestingly, we only detected H4R expression on murine keratinocytes after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycane. Conclusion The H4R is highly expressed on keratinocytes from atopic dermatitis patients and its stimulation induces keratinocyte proliferation. This might represent a mechanism that contributes to the epidermal hyperplasia observed in atopic dermatitis. PMID:23932072

  16. No-visible-scar cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz M. Wróblewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS is a laparoscopic method providing a good cosmetic effect,but requiring the application of special ports and instruments enabling the surgeon to perform the procedure.We report three-ports cholecystectomy through umbilical and suprapubic incisions performed with typical laparos -copic instruments which calls no-visible-scar cholecystectomy (NVSC.Material and methods: Twenty patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were qualified for NVSC. Typical CO2 pneumoperitoneumwas done after umbilical skin incision. Two ports of 5 mm were inserted in the maximum externaledges of this incision. After cystic duct and cystic artery dissection the right one was exchanged for a port of 11 mm.The second incision for the 11-mm trocar for the laparoscope was done in the suprapubic median line within the hairarea.Results: Cholecystectomies were performed without any conversion to classical laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LCHor open surgery. They were not technically identical due to the gradual improvement in the access and manipulationof instruments. The time of the intervention ranged from 2 hours during the introduction of the new method to 50 minfor the last procedures. No postoperative complications were observed and all patients were discharged not later thanafter conventional LCH.Conclusions: NVSC is a three-port laparoscopic intervention performed with typical laparoscopic instruments. It ismore convenient for the surgeon than single incision LCH, because the placement of the optic in the suprapubic regiongives more space for the instruments. It also provides a very good cosmetic effect of the intervention. The describedprocedure is easy to learn and in case of technical problems additional ports can be applied (as in typical LCH.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis: significance of myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoseki, Akiko; Saji, Etsuji; Arakawa, Musashi; Kosaka, Takayuki; Hokari, Mariko; Toyoshima, Yasuko; Okamoto, Kouichirou; Takeda, Shigeki; Sanpei, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Hirohata, Shunsei; Akazawa, Kouhei; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Kawachi, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics, pathogenesis and treatment strategy of hypertrophic pachymeningitis that is associated with myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). We retrospectively investigated clinical, radiological, immunological and pathological profiles of 36 patients with immune-mediated or idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis, including 17 patients with myeloperoxidase-ANCA, four patients with proteinase 3-ANCA, six patients with other immune-mediated disorders, and nine patients with 'idiopathic' variety. Myeloperoxidase-ANCA-positive hypertrophic pachymeningitis was characterized by: (i) an elderly female predominance; (ii) 82% of patients diagnosed with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis) according to Watts' algorithm; (iii) a high frequency of patients with lesions limited to the dura mater and upper airways, developing headaches, chronic sinusitis, otitis media or mastoiditis; (iv) a low frequency of patients with the 'classical or generalized form' of granulomatosis with polyangiitis involving the entire upper and lower airways and kidney, or progressing to generalized disease, in contrast to proteinase 3-ANCA-positive hypertrophic pachymeningitis; (v) less severe neurological damage according to the modified Rankin Scale and low disease activity according to the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score compared with proteinase 3-ANCA-positive hypertrophic pachymeningitis; (vi) increased levels of CXCL10, CXCL8 and interleukin 6 in cerebrospinal fluids, and increased numbers of T cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, plasma cells and monocytes/macrophages in autopsied or biopsied dura mater with pachymeningitis, suggesting TH1-predominant granulomatous lesions in hypertrophic pachymeningitis, as previously reported in pulmonary or renal lesions of granulomatosis with polyangiitis; and (vii) greater efficacy of combination therapy with prednisolone and

  9. Midventricular Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy with Apical Aneurysm: Potential for Underdiagnosis and Value of Multimodality Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sivanandam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate a case of midventricle obstructive HCM and apical aneurysm diagnosed with appropriate use of multimodality imaging. A 75-year-old African American woman presented with a 3-day history of chest pain and dyspnea with elevated troponins. Her electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, left atrial enlargement, left ventricular hypertrophy, prolonged QT, and occasional ectopy. After medical therapy optimization, she underwent coronary angiography for an initial diagnosis of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Her coronaries were unremarkable for significant disease but her left ventriculogram showed hyperdynamic contractility of the midportion of the ventricle along with a large dyskinetic aneurysmal apical sac. A subsequent transthoracic echocardiogram provided poor visualization of the apical region of the ventricle but contrast enhancement identified an aneurysmal pouch distal to the midventricular obstruction. To further clarify the diagnosis, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with contrast was performed confirming the diagnosis of midventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with apical aneurysm and fibrosis consistent with apical scar on delayed enhancement. The patient was medically treated and subsequently underwent elective implantable defibrillator placement in the ensuing months for recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and was initiated on prophylactic oral anticoagulation with warfarin for thromboembolic risk reduction.

  10. Successful electrical cardioversion in a massive concentric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Servet; Altug Cakmak, Huseyin; Ozcan, Serhan; Ilhan, Erkan; Erer, Betul

    2012-05-01

    A 59-year-old man with a known history of nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to our clinic with weakness, palpitation, and exertional dyspnea. Electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with high ventricular rate (120 beats per minute), intraventricular conduction delay, and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy with ST-segment depression and inverted T waves. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed massive LV concentric hypertrophy. Although there was no gradient increase in the LV outflow tract, marked turbulent flow was seen in midventricular region by colored Doppler echocardiography. On the fourth day of admission, transesophageal echocardiography was done and showed no thrombus in the left atrium. Electrical cardioversion with 100 J was applied to the patient, and atrial fibrillation was returned to sinus rhythm. His control Doppler echocardiogram revealed peak systolic resting gradient of 54 mm Hg, with an increase to 84 mm Hg at Valsalva maneuver at the LV outflow. Cardiac magnetic resonance showed concentric LV hypertrophy with a 35-mm thickness in diastole, mild scar tissue in LV anterior wall midapical segments, and right ventricle wall thickness with a 10 mm in diastole. There was no bradycardia or tachycardia in 24-hour Holter and exercise electrocardiographic testing.

  11. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in a single family: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevaidis Stylianos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is an extremely heterogeneous disease. An under recognized and very often missed subgroup within this broad spectrum concerns patients with left ventricular (LV apical aneurysms in the absence of coronary artery disease. Case presentation We describe a case of HCM with midventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm formation in 3 patients coming from a single family. This HCM pattern was detected by 2D-echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in one of the patients because of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia detected in 24-h Holter monitoring and an abrupt drop in systolic blood pressure during maximal exercise test. The defibrillator activated 8 months after implantation by suppression of a ventricular tachycardia providing anti-tachycardia pacing. The patient died due to refractory heart failure 2 years after initial evaluation. The rest of the patients are stable after a 2.5-y follow-up period. Conclusion The detection of apical aneurysm by echocardiography in HCM patients may be complicated. Ventricular tachycardia arising from the scarred aneurysm wall may often occur predisposing to sudden death.

  12. Rest perfusion abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: correlation with myocardial fibrosis and risk factors for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiribiri, A; Leuzzi, S; Conte, M R; Bongioanni, S; Bratis, K; Olivotti, L; De Rosa, C; Lardone, E; Di Donna, P; Villa, A D M; Cesarani, F; Nagel, E; Gaita, F; Bonamini, R

    2015-05-01

    To measure the prevalence of abnormal rest perfusion in a population of consecutive patients with known hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) referred for cardiovascular MRI (CMR), and to assess any associations between abnormal rest perfusion and the presence, pattern, and severity of myocardial scar and the presence of risk factors for sudden death. Eighty consecutive patients with known HCM referred for CMR underwent functional imaging, rest first-pass perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Thirty percent of the patients had abnormal rest perfusion, all of them corresponding to areas of mid-myocardial LGE and to a higher degree of segmental hypertrophy. Rest perfusion abnormalities correlated with more extensive and confluent LGE. The subgroup of patients with myocardial fibrosis and rest perfusion abnormalities (fibrosis+/perfusion+) had more than twice the incidence of episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring in comparison to patients with myocardial fibrosis and normal rest perfusion (fibrosis+/perfusion-) and patients with no fibrosis and normal rest perfusion (fibrosis-/perfusion-). First-pass perfusion CMR identifies abnormal rest perfusion in a significant proportion of patients with HCM. These abnormalities are associated with the presence and distribution of myocardial scar and the degree of hypertrophy. Rest perfusion abnormalities identify patients with increased incidence of episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring, independently from the presence of myocardial fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Papular acne scars of the nose and chin: An under-recognised variant of acne scarring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal R Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scarring following acne vulgaris is common and can be of profound psychosocial consequence. Aims and Objectives: We have clinically noted a variant of acne scarring, overlooked by previous categorisation schemes, which we have denominated as papular acne scars of the nose and chin. We sought to characterise these novel entities further. Materials and Methods: Initially, we identified 14 patients with papular acne scars of the nose and chin in a cosmetic dermatology clinic, of whom two were female and rest were male. We then prospectively evaluated 100 consecutive patients attending our tertiary referral acne isotretinoin clinic and 49 patients attending a general dermatology clinic. Results: Amongst 149 patients, from a general dermatology and tertiary acne clinic, soft papular scars were noted in four patients, distributed on the nose and chin. Three of the four patients were male, three patients had additional acne scars and the median age was 23.5. Conclusions: We have identified 18 patients with papular acne scars of the nose and chin and propose that this new category should be added to acne scarring classification schemes. Future work should be directed at corroborating the epidemiology of such lesions and describing effective treatment modalities.

  14. Vertical scar versus the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty : A 10-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, Lesley R.; van der Biezen, Jan Jaap; Spronk, Cees A.; van der Lei, Berend

    2012-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to evaluate whether the initial outcome of two types of reduction mammaplasty techniques (vertical scar reduction mammaplasty vs. the inverted-T scar reduction mammaplasty) remains stable in the long term: Sixty-nine patients who had undergone breast reduction su

  15. Scar dechanneling: new method for scar-related left ventricular tachycardia substrate ablation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berruezo, A.; Fernandez-Armenta, J.; Andreu, D.; Penela, D.; Herczku, C.; Evertz, R.; Cipolletta, L.; Acosta, J.; Borras, R.; Arbelo, E.; Tolosana, J.M.; Brugada, J.; Mont, L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ventricular tachycardia (VT) substrate ablation usually requires extensive ablation. Scar dechanneling technique may limit the extent of ablation needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 101 consecutive patients with left ventricular scar-related VT (75 ischemic patients; left ven

  16. Reflectance confocal microscopy for scarring and non-scarring alopecia real-time assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardigò, Marco; Agozzino, Marina; Franceschini, Chiara; Donadio, Carlo; Abraham, Leonardo Spagnol; Barbieri, Luca; Sperduti, Isabella; Berardesca, Enzo; González, Salvador

    2016-07-01

    Clinical management of alopecia represents one of the major issues in dermatology. Scalp biopsies are not easily accepted because of the high bleeding and sensitive anatomical area. Trichoscopy is routinely used for diagnosis of alopecia, but in several cases lack to provide sufficient information on the status of the disease. Recently, reflectance confocal microscopy demonstrated its usefulness for the evaluation of several inflammatory skin condition and preliminary reports about alopecia have been proposed in the literature. The aim was to identify the confocal features characterizing scarring and non-scarring alopecia. Reflectance confocal microscopy from 86 patients affected by scarring (28 lichen planopilaris and 9 lupus erythematosus) and non-scarring alopecia (30 androgenic alopecia and 19 alopecia areata), were retrospectively, blinded evaluated. Good concordance between different readers on the confocal criteria has been assessed. Statistical significant features, specific for scarring alopecia and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. In this study, data on reflectance confocal microscopy features useful for the differential diagnosis between scarring and non-scarring alopecia have been identified. Further studies focusing on the use of this non-invasive technique in the therapeutic follow-up and distinction of sub-entities of alopecia are still required.

  17. Potential applications for transesophageal echocardiography in hypertrophic cardiomyopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widimsky, P; Ten Cate, F J; Vletter, W; van Herwerden, L

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential advantages of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in comparison with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in selected patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Ten patients with previously established or suspected diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were examined by TEE to solve specific clinical questions. TEE was well tolerated by all patients; no arrhythmias were seen during the procedure. The comparison of TTE and TEE showed the following: Advantages of TTE--better assessment of the left ventricle, myocardial thickness measurements available in all regions and sufficient for the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in nine out of 10 patients; advantages of TEE--precise assessment of mitral valve morphology and regurgitant jets, detailed evaluation of systolic anterior motion, and subaortic membrane (not seen by TTE) recognized in one patient. Clinically, in three patients TEE influenced the management (mitral leaflet perforation, subaortic membrane, and residual mitral regurgitation after valvuloplasty). Thus TEE enables more precise diagnosis in some patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and has the potential to influence their surgical management. However, for medical treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, TTE is sufficient.

  18. The subaortic tendon as a mimic of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ker James

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Originally described by Brock and Teare, today hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is clinically defined as left (or right ventricular hypertrophy without a known cardiac or systemic cause, such as systemic hypertension, Fabry's disease or aortic stenosis. Also appreciated today is the enormous genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of this disease with more than 300 mutations over more than 24 genes, encoding various sarcomeric, mitochondrial and calcium-handling proteins, all as genetic causes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Phenotypically, the disease can vary from negligible to extreme hypertrophy, affecting either the left and/or right ventricle in an apical, midventricular or subaortic location. Left ventricular false tendons are thin, fibrous or fibromuscular structures that traverse the left ventricular cavity. Recently, a case report was presented where it was shown that such a false tendon, originating from a subaortic location, was responsible for striking ST-segment elevation on the surface electrocardiogram. In this case report, a case is presented where such a subaortic tendon led to the classic echocardiographic appearance of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, thus in the assessment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, this entity needs to be excluded in order to prevent a false positive diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  19. HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY AS A SIDE-EFFECT OF DEXAMETHASONE TREATMENT FOR BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRAND, PLP; VANLINGEN, RA; BRUS, F; TALSMA, MD; ELZENGA, NJ

    1993-01-01

    We report three infants who developed hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy during dexamethasone treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In all three infants, echocardiography had ruled out cardiac abnormalities prior to the dexamethasone course. The hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy appea

  20. HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY AS A SIDE-EFFECT OF DEXAMETHASONE TREATMENT FOR BRONCHOPULMONARY DYSPLASIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRAND, PLP; VANLINGEN, RA; BRUS, F; TALSMA, MD; ELZENGA, NJ

    1993-01-01

    We report three infants who developed hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy during dexamethasone treatment for bronchopulmonary dysplasia. In all three infants, echocardiography had ruled out cardiac abnormalities prior to the dexamethasone course. The hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

  1. Mdivi-1 inhibits astrocyte activation and astroglial scar formation and enhances axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury in rats

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    gang li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After spinal cord injury (SCI, astrocytes become hypertrophic and proliferative, forming a dense network of astroglial processes at the site of the lesion. This constitutes a physical and biochemical barrier to axonal regeneration. Mitochondrial fission regulates cell cycle progression; inhibiting the cell cycle of astrocytes can reduce expression levels of axon growth-inhibitory molecules as well as astroglial scar formation after SCI. We therefore investigated how an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, Mdivi-1, would affect astrocyte proliferation, astroglial scar formation, and axonal regeneration following SCI in rats. Western blot and immunofluorescent double-labeling showed that Mdivi-1 markedly reduced the expression of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, and a cell proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in astrocytes 3 days after SCI. Moreover, Mdivi-1 decreased the expression of GFAP and neurocan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Notably, immunofluorescent labeling and Nissl staining showed that Mdivi-1 elevated the production of growth-associated protein-43 and increased neuronal survival at 4 weeks after SCI. Finally, hematoxylin-eosin staining and behavioral evaluation of motor function indicated that Mdivi-1 also reduced cavity formation and improved motor function 4 weeks after SCI. Our results confirm that Mdivi-1 promotes motor function after SCI, and indicate that inhibiting mitochondrial fission using Mdivi-1 can inhibit astrocyte activation and astroglial scar formation and contribute to axonal regeneration after SCI in rats.

  2. Keratinocyte growth factor and the expression of wound-healing-related genes in primary human keratinocytes from burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiski, Verônica; Gragnani, Alfredo; Bonucci, Jéssica; Correa, Silvana Aparecida Alves; Noronha, Samuel Marcos Ribeiro de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) treatment on the expression of wound-healing-related genes in cultured keratinocytes from burn patients. Keratinocytes were cultured and divided into 4 groups (n=4 in each group): TKB (KGF-treated keratinocytes from burn patients), UKB (untreated keratinocytes from burn patients), TKC (KGF-treated keratinocytes from controls), and UKC (untreated keratinocytes from controls). Gene expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) array was performed to compare (1) TKC versus UKC, (2) UKB versus UKC, (3) TKB versus UKC, (4) TKB versus UKB, (5) TKB versus TKC, and (6) UKB versus TKC. Comparison 1 showed one down-regulated and one up-regulated gene; comparisons 2 and 3 resulted in the same five down-regulated genes; comparison 4 had no significant difference in relative gene expression; comparison 5 showed 26 down-regulated and 7 up-regulated genes; and comparison 6 showed 25 down-regulated and 11 up-regulated genes. There was no differential expression of wound-healing-related genes in cultured primary keratinocytes from burn patients treated with keratinocyte growth factor.

  3. Inflammation drives renal scarring in experimental pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Birong; Haridas, Babitha; Jackson, Ashley R; Cortado, Hanna; Mayne, Nicholas; Kohnken, Rebecca; Bolon, Brad; McHugh, Kirk M; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Spencer, John David; Ching, Christina B; Hains, David S; Justice, Sheryl S; Partida-Sanchez, Santiago; Becknell, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Acquired renal scarring occurs in a subset of patients following febrile urinary tract infections and is associated with hypertension, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease. Limited knowledge of histopathology, immune cell recruitment, and gene expression changes during pyelonephritis restricts the development of therapies to limit renal scarring. Here, we address this knowledge gap using immunocompetent mice with vesicoureteral reflux. Transurethral inoculation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in C3H/HeOuJ mice leads to renal mucosal injury, tubulointerstitial nephritis, and cortical fibrosis. The extent of fibrosis correlates most significantly with inflammation at 7 and 28 days postinfection. The recruitment of neutrophils and inflammatory macrophages to infected kidneys is proportional to renal bacterial burden. Transcriptome analysis reveals molecular signatures associated with renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, immune cell chemotaxis, and leukocyte activation. This murine model recapitulates the cardinal histopathological features observed in humans with acquired renal scarring following pyelonephritis. The integration of histopathology, quantification of cellular immune influx, and unbiased transcriptional profiling begins to define potential mechanisms of tissue injury during pyelonephritis in the context of an intact immune response. The clear relationship between inflammatory cell recruitment and fibrosis supports the hypothesis that acquired renal scarring arises as a consequence of excessive host inflammation and suggests that immunomodulatory therapies should be investigated to reduce renal scarring in patients with pyelonephritis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. A method for the immortalization of newborn mouse skin keratinocytes

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    Brianna O Hammiller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolation and culture of mouse primary epidermal keratinocytes is a common technique that allows for easy genetic and environmental manipulation. However, due to their limited lifespan in culture, experiments utilizing primary keratinocytes require large numbers of animals, and are time consuming and expensive. To avoid these issues, we developed a method for the immortalization of primary mouse epidermal keratinocytes. Upon isolation of newborn epidermal keratinocytes according to established methods, the cells were cultured long-term in keratinocyte growth factor-containing medium. The cells senesced within a few weeks and eventually, small, slowly growing colonies emerged. After they regained confluency, the cells were passaged and slowly refilled the dish. With several rounds of subculture, the cells adapted to culture conditions, were easily subcultured, maintained normal morphology, and were apparently immortal. The immortalized cells retained the ability to differentiate with increased calcium concentrations, and were maintained to high passage numbers, while maintaining a relatively stable karyotype. Analysis of multiple immortalized cell lines as well as primary keratinocyte cultures, revealed increased numbers of chromosomes, especially in the primary keratinocytes, and chromosomal aberrations in most of the immortalized cultures and in the primary keratinocytes. Orthotopic grafting of immortalized keratinocytes together with fibroblasts onto nude mouse hosts produced skin while v-rasHa infection of the immortalized keratinocytes prior to grafting produced squamous cell carcinoma. In summary, this method of cell line generation allows for decreased use of animals, reduces the expense and time involved in research, and provides a useful model for cutaneous keratinocyte experimentation.

  5. RISK OF PATIENTS WITH HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY UNDERGOING NONCARDIAC SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-ming Xuan; Yong Zeng; Wen-ling Zhu

    2007-01-01

    To determine the risk of noncardiac surgery in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.Methods We reviewed the medical records of all patients who were diagnosed as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1998 to August 2006 and identified 24 patients who subsequently underwent noncardiac surgery.Results There were no intraoperative cardiac events. Postoperative cardiac events were identified in 3 patients including 1 death due to acute myocardial infarction and 2 episodes of transient hypotension.Conclusions The risk of anesthesia and noncardiac surgery is low in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.During the perioperative period, beta-blockers and/or calcium channel blockers should be given; vasodilator and inotropic agents should be avoided due to the side effects on hemodynamics.

  6. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Part 1 - Introduction, pathology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kerala Varma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease with many genotype and phenotype variations. Earlier terminologies, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and idiopathic hypertrophic sub-aortic stenosis are no longer used to describe this entity. Patients present with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT obstruction. Resting or provocative LVOT obstruction occurs in 70% of patients and is the most common cause of heart failure. The pathology and pathophysiology of HCM includes hypertrophy of the left ventricle with or without right ventricular hypertrophy, systolic anterior motion of mitral valve, dynamic and mechanical LVOT obstruction, mitral regurgitation, diastolic dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, and fibrosis. Thorough understanding of pathology and pathophysiology is important for anesthetic and surgical management.

  7. β-内啡肽与μ-阿片受体在正常皮肤与增生性瘢痕组织中的分布特征与生物学意义%The significance and characteristics of distribution of β-endorphin and μ-opioid receptors in normal skin and hyperplastic scar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程飚; 刘宏伟; 李勤; 付小兵; 盛志勇; 曹荣

    2008-01-01

    Objective To detect the distribution of β-endorphin and mu-opioid receptors(MOR)in normal skin tissue and scar tissue from healthy volunteers and patients with hypertrophic scar.Methods Normal skin samples from 10 healthy individuals and 10 patients with hypertrophic scar,and scar samples from the same 10 patients were investigated.The β-endorphin and MOR pmtem in the samples were detected by immunofluorescence(IF).The reverse transeriptiOn polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)was used to detect MOB mRNA.Results β-endorphin and MOR protein were expressed in all samples.There were no significant differences in the expression of β-endorphin and MOB pmtem between normal skin from healthy volunteers and patients with hypertrophic scar(P>0.05).The expression of β-endorphin,MOR protein and mPNA in hyperplastic scar was significantly stronger than that in normal skin(P0.05);而增生性瘢痕患处组织真皮与表皮内β-内啡肽和MOR的表达明显强于其他两组(P<0.01).同时,PCR的结果显示,瘢痕组织中MORmRNA的含量也远远高于正常皮肤.结论 β-内啡肽和MOB在正常皮肤与增生性瘢痕组织中的分布存在差异,这可能是造成瘢痕愈合后感觉异常的重要因素.

  8. Hyaluronan-Phosphatidylethanolamine Polymers Form Pericellular Coats on Keratinocytes and Promote Basal Keratinocyte Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin J. Symonette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged keratinocytes have diminished proliferative capacity and hyaluronan (HA cell coats, which are losses that contribute to atrophic skin characterized by reduced barrier and repair functions. We formulated HA-phospholipid (phosphatidylethanolamine, HA-PE polymers that form pericellular coats around cultured dermal fibroblasts independently of CD44 or RHAMM display. We investigated the ability of these HA-PE polymers to penetrate into aged mouse skin and restore epidermal function in vivo. Topically applied Alexa647-HA-PE penetrated into the epidermis and dermis, where it associated with both keratinocytes and fibroblasts. In contrast, Alexa647-HA was largely retained in the outer cornified layer of the epidermis and quantification of fluorescence confirmed that significantly more Alexa647-HA-PE penetrated into and was retained within the epidermis than Alexa647-HA. Multiple topical applications of HA-PE to shaved mouse skin significantly stimulated basal keratinocyte proliferation and epidermal thickness compared to HA or vehicle cream alone. HA-PE had no detectable effect on keratinocyte differentiation and did not promote local or systemic inflammation. These effects of HA-PE polymers are similar to those reported for endogenous epidermal HA in youthful skin and show that topical application of HA-PE polymers can restore some of the impaired functions of aged epidermis.

  9. Segmentation of scarred and non-scarred myocardium in LG enhanced CMR images using intensity-based textural analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotu, Lasya Priya; Engan, Kjersti; Eftestøl, Trygve; Ørn, Stein; Woie, Leik

    2011-01-01

    The Late Gadolinium (LG) enhancement in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging is used to increase the intensity of scarred area in myocardium for thorough examination. Automatic segmentation of scar is important because scar size is largely responsible in changing the size, shape and functioning of left ventricle and it is a preliminary step required in exploring the information present in scar. We have proposed a new technique to segment scar (infarct region) from non-scarred myocardium using intensity-based texture analysis. Our new technique uses dictionary-based texture features and dc-values to segment scarred and non-scarred myocardium using Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) based Bayes classification. Texture analysis aided with intensity values gives better segmentation of scar from myocardium with high sensitivity and specificity values in comparison to manual segmentation by expert cardiologists.

  10. Disseminated scar sarcoidosis may predict pulmonary involvement in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ozlem; Onsun, Nahide; Topukçu, Buğçe; Ozçelik, Hatice Kutbay; Cakıter, Alkım Unal; Büyükpınarbaşılı, Nur

    2013-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic, inflammatory, multi-organ disease of unknown origin that is characterized by non-caseating granuloma formation in affected organs. Cutaneous involvement is reported in 25% of patients with sarcoidosis. Scar sarcoidosis is rare but is clinically specific for skin sarcoidosis. Systemic involvement is seen in most patients with scar sarcoidosis. We present a case of scar sarcoidosis in a 30-year-old male that developed infiltrated nodules on old scars, including on his penile shaft, which is rare, and that also had pulmonary involvement. Scar sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of changes in all scar areas and should be investigated for systemic involvement.

  11. Fraxelated radiofrequency device for acne scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Babar K.; Khokher, Sairah

    2012-09-01

    Acne scars can be improved with various treatments such as topical creams, chemical peels, dermal fillers, microdermabrasion, laser, and radiofrequency devices. Some of these treatments especially lasers and deep chemical peels can have significant side effects such as post inflammatory hyperpigmentation in darker skin types. Fraxelated RF Laser devices have been reported to have lower incidence of side effects in all skin phototypes. Nine patients between ages 18 and 35 of various skin phototypes were selected from a private practice and treated with a RF fraxelated device (E-matrix) for acne scars. Outcomes were measured by physician observation, subjective feedback received by patients, and comparison of before and after photographs. In this small group of patients with various skin phototypes, fraxelated radiofrequency device improved acne scars with minimal side effects and downtime.

  12. Watermarking scar as an ultimate copy protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braci, Sofiane; Miraoui, Abdelkader; Delpha, Claude; Boyer, Remy, E-mail: sofiane.braci@lss.supelec.f, E-mail: Abdelkader.Miraoui@lss.supelec.f, E-mail: claude.delpha@lss.supelec.f, E-mail: remy.boyer@lss.supelec.f [University Paris-Sud 11, Laboratory of Signals and Systems, Supelec, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2010-02-01

    Strong and powerful attacks are able to make the watermark extraction impossible even if there is some watermarking. In this work, we call this residual information the scar and we use it to prove the existence of an attacked watermark. We evaluate the Scar by the mutual information between the embedded watermark and the attacked copies. It is well known that the mutual information between two random variables gives an evaluation of the shared information between the two variables. Thus, the attack can compromise the correct decoding by removing partially the watermarking information. However, it is possible to make the watermarking existence proof possible when the mutual information between the embedded message and the attacked copies is above a certain threshold. We propose a practical way to use the scar by measuring the correlation between the attacked watermark and the original one.

  13. Keratinocytes modify fibroblast metabolism in hereditary gingival fibromatosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, L.; Ye, X.; Fan, M.; Xiong, X.; Hoff, J.W. Von den; Bian, Z.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare benign disorder characterized by progressive fibrous overgrowth of the gingiva. The proliferation and expression of growth factors of HGF keratinocytes are abnormal. However, the exact role of keratinocytes in HGF pathogenesis is still unk

  14. ABDOMINAL SCAR ENDOMETRIOSIS: REPORT OF 28 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向阳; 郎景和; 王友芳; 黄荣丽; 连丽娟

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-eight cases of abdominal scar endometriosis from Janurary,1989 to December,1993 are reported.Of these patients,twenty-four underwent term cesarean section,and four underwent a midtrimester abortion by abdominal hysterotomy.The majority of patients manifested symptoms 1 year after the operation.The most common was a painful mass of scar tissue that became swollen and tender during menstruation.The pathogenesis,diagnosis and treatment are discussed.In correlation with the pathological findings,the effects of drug therapy are evaluated.It was found that surgical excision is the best method of treatment.

  15. Cesarean scar pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıddık Evsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy implantation to the cesarean scar could be the life threatening, although it is a rare event, its ratio increased along with the increasing rate of cesarean delivery. Early diagnosis and treatment may be lifesaving with preserving fertility in these patients. In transvaginal ultrasonography; presence of an empty uterine and cervical cavity, lack of continuity of myometrial setting at the anterior isthmic region and pregnancy implantation to this region should suggest the diagnosis. In this article, we aimed to present a patient with scar ectopic pregnancy with the review of the literature.

  16. Reduced FOXO1 expression accelerates skin wound healing and attenuates scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Ryoichi; Tanaka, Katsuya; de Kerckhove, Maiko; Okamoto, Momoko; Kashiyama, Kazuya; Tanaka, Katsumi; Kim, Sangeun; Kawata, Takuya; Komatsu, Toshimitsu; Park, Seongjoon; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Hirano, Akiyoshi; Martin, Paul; Shimokawa, Isao

    2014-09-01

    The forkhead box O (FOXO) family has been extensively investigated in aging and metabolism, but its role in tissue-repair processes remains largely unknown. Herein, we clarify the molecular aspect of the FOXO family in skin wound healing. We demonstrated that Foxo1 and Foxo3a were both up-regulated during murine skin wound healing. Partial knockout of Foxo1 in Foxo1(+/-) mice throughout the body led to accelerated skin wound healing with enhanced keratinocyte migration, reduced granulation tissue formation, and decreased collagen density, accompanied by an attenuated inflammatory response, but we observed no wound phenotype in Foxo3a(-/-) mice. Fibroblast growth factor 2, adiponectin, and notch1 genes were significantly increased at wound sites in Foxo1(+/-) mice, along with markedly altered extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. Similarly, transient knockdown of Foxo1 at the wound site by local delivery of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides enhanced skin wound healing. The link between FOXO1 and scarring extends to patients, in particular keloid scars, where we see FOXO1 expression markedly increased in fibroblasts and inflammatory cells within the otherwise normal dermis. This occurs in the immediate vicinity of the keloid by comparison to the center of the mature keloid, indicating that FOXO1 is associated with the overgrowth of this fibrotic response into adjacent normal skin. Overall, our data indicate that molecular targeting of FOXO1 may improve the quality of healing and reduce pathological scarring. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Insulin analogues display atypical differentiative activities in skin keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon Zemler, Ravid; Weingarten, Galina; Sarfstein, Rive; Laron, Zvi; Werner, Haim; Wertheimer, Efrat

    2015-02-01

    We have previously shown that both insulin and IGF1 lead to increased proliferation of keratinocytes. However, whereas insulin supports keratinocytes differentiation, IGF1 inhibits this process. The aim of the present study was to examine the proliferative and differentiative effects of insulin analogues (glargine, detemir, lispro and aspart) in primary keratinocytes in comparison with insulin and IGF1. Primary keratinocytes cultures were produced from newborn BALB/c mice skin. Proliferation rates were assessed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation and XTT assays and differentiation was evaluated by Western blots analysis. Insulin receptor and IGF1 receptor phosphorylation was assessed by immunoprecipitation assays. Treatment with glargine or detemir resulted in an insulin-like effect on the differentiation process whereas lispro and aspart treatment led to an IGF1-like effect. In addition, treatment of keratinocytes with aspart led to a rapid phosphorylation of the IGF1 receptor. Our study provides evidence that insulin analogues elicit atypical actions in the skin.

  18. Decorin gene expression and its regulation in human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velez-DelValle, Cristina; Marsch-Moreno, Meytha; Castro-Munozledo, Federico [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico); Kuri-Harcuch, Walid, E-mail: walidkuri@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07000 (Mexico)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} We showed that cultured human diploid epidermal keratinocytes express and synthesize decorin. {yields} Decorin is found intracytoplasmic in suprabasal cells of cultures and in human epidermis. {yields} Decorin mRNA expression in cHEK is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. {yields} Decorin immunostaining of psoriatic lesions showed a lower intensity and altered intracytoplasmic arrangements. -- Abstract: In various cell types, including cancer cells, decorin is involved in regulation of cell attachment, migration and proliferation. In skin, decorin is seen in dermis, but not in keratinocytes. We show that decorin gene (DCN) is expressed in the cultured keratinocytes, and the protein is found in the cytoplasm of differentiating keratinocytes and in suprabasal layers of human epidermis. RT-PCR experiments showed that DCN expression is regulated by pro-inflammatory and proliferative cytokines. Our data suggest that decorin should play a significant role in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, cutaneous homeostasis and dermatological diseases.

  19. Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis promote proliferation of keratinocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG An-mei; ZHONG Ren-qian; CHEN Sun-xiao; ZHOU Ye; KONG Xian-tao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of lymphocytes on proliferation of keratinocytes in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Lymphocytes in lesion and peripheral blood were isolated and amplified, then cultured together with normal keratinocytes. By MTT method, the living cells were quantified in the mixed culture.Results: Compared with normal controls, lymphocytes from lesion and peripheral blood of psoriasis both promote the proliferation of keratinocytes (P<0. 01 and P<0. 05 respectively). The concentrations of IL-2 and IFN-γ in the mixture of lesion lymphocytes and keratinocytes were significantly higher than that of controls.Tripterygium glycosides inhibited this promotion. Conclusion: Lymphocytes in patients with psoriasis (mainly Thl cell) play an important role in proliferation of keratinocytes. This psoriasis cell model is useful for studies on signal transduction in psoriasis.

  20. The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP enhances wound healing and inhibits scar formation via bidirectional regulation of transformation growth factor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qian; He, Wen-Jun; Hao, Hao-Jie; Han, Qing-Wang; Chen, Li; Dong, Liang; Liu, Jie-Jie; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Jing; Ma, Ying-Zhi; Han, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xiao-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The four-herb Chinese medicine ANBP is a pulverized mixture of four herbs including Agrimonia Eupatoria (A), Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn (N), Boswellia Carteri (B) and Pollen Typhae Angustifoliae (P). The combination of the four herbs was first described in Chinese canonical medicine about 2000 years ago for treatment of various trauma disorders, such as hemostasis, antiinflammatory, analgesia, and wound healing, etc. However, the precise mechanisms of ANBP are still unclear. In our study, using rabbit ear hypertrophic scar models of full-thickness skin defect, we showed that local ANBP treatment not only significantly enhanced wound healing by relieving inflammation, increasing formation of granulation tissue and accelerating re-epithelialization, but also reduced scar formation by decreasing collagen production, protuberant height and volume of scars, and increasing collagen maturity. We demonstrated that these effects of ANBP are associated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-mediated signalling pathways through Smad-depen