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Sample records for hypertonic saline preinjection

  1. Comparison of wet radiofrequency ablation with dry radiofrequency ablation and radiofrequency ablation using hypertonic saline preinjection: ex vivo bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Hee Sun; Hur, Hurn; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shin, Kyung Sook

    2004-01-01

    We wished to compare the in-vitro efficiency of wet radiofrequency (RF) ablation with the efficiency of dry RF ablation and RF ablation with preinjection of NaCl solutions using excised bovine liver. Radiofrequency was applied to excised bovine livers in a monopolar mode for 10 minutes using a 200 W generator and a perfused-cooled electrode with or without injection or slow infusion of NaCl solutions. After placing the perfused-cooled electrode in the explanted liver, 50 ablation zones were created with five different regimens: group A; standard dry RF ablation, group B; RF ablation with 11 mL of 5% NaCl solution preinjection, group C; RF ablation with infusion of 11 mL of 5% NaCl solution at a rate of 1 mL/min, group D; RFA with 6 mL of 36% NaCl solution preinjection, group E; RF ablation with infusion of 6 mL of 36% NaCl solution at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. In groups C and E, infusion of the NaCl solutions was started 1 min before RF ablation and then maintained during RF ablation (wet RF ablation). During RF ablation, we measured the tissue temperature at 15 mm from the electrode. The dimensions of the ablation zones and changes in impedance, current and liver temperature during RF ablation were then compared between the groups. With injection or infusion of NaCl solutions, the mean initial tissue impedance prior to RF ablation was significantly less in groups B, C, D, and E (43-75 Ω) than for group A (80 Ω) (ρ 3 in group A; 12.4 ± 3.8 cm 3 in group B; 80.9 ± 9.9 cm 3 in group C; 45.3 ± 11.3 cm 3 in group D and 81.6 ± 8.6 cm 3 in group E. The tissue temperature measured at 15 mm from the electrode was higher in groups C, D and E than other groups (ρ < 0.05): 53 ± 12 .deg. C in group A, 42 ± 2 .deg. C in group B, 93 ± 8 .deg. C in group C; 79 ± 12 .deg. C in group D and 83 ± 8 .deg.C in group E. Wet RF ablation with 5% or 36% NaCl solutions shows better efficiency in creating a large ablation zone than does dry RF ablation or RF ablation with

  2. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telfer, N.; Ballard, C.S.; McKee, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22 Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  3. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  4. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  5. Hypertonic saline for cystic fibrosis: worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralski, Jennifer L; Donaldson, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Airway dehydration in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to chronic inflammation, ongoing infection and progressive lung disease. Restoration of airway hydration by inhalation of an osmotic agent (hypertonic saline) has been shown to be safe, effective and well-tolerated in adults with CF. Although the safety of hypertonic saline in infants and young children with CF has also been established, recent studies have reported inconclusive evidence about its efficacy. In this editorial, we discuss the evidence behind hypertonic saline use for adults, children and infants with CF.

  6. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  7. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  8. Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution for Patients in Traumatic Haemorrhagic Shock. ... The data were entered into a computer data base and analysed. Results: Forty five patients were enrolled and resuscitated with 250 mls 7.5% HSS. Among the studied patients, 88.9% recovered from shock ...

  9. Comparison of Radiofrequency Ablation with Saturated Saline Preinjection and Renal Artery Occlusion: In Vivo Study in Canine Kidneys Preinjection and Renal Artery Occlusion: In Vivo Study in Canine Kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byung Seok; Ahn, Moon Sang [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dept. of Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Gyeong Sik [Dept. of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University College of Medicine, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Mo [Dept. of Surgery, Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Chang [Dept. of Veterinary Radiology, Chonbuk National University College of VeterinaryMedicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    To compare the ablation zone after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with saturated saline preinjection and renal artery occlusion in canine kidneys. RFA was induced in the kidneys of six mongrel dogs. A total of 24 ablation zones were induced using a 1-cm tip internally cooled needle electrode in three groups: RFA (Control group), RFA with 0.5 mL saturated saline preinjection (SS group), and RFA with renal artery occlusion by atraumatic vascular clamp (Occlusion group). Ablation zone diameters were measured along transverse and longitudinal sections of the needle axis, and volumes were calculated. Temperature, applied voltage, current, and impedance during RFA were recorded automatically. The RFA zone volume was the largest in the SS group (1.33 {+-} 0.34 cm{sup 3}), followed by the Occlusion group (1.07 {+-} 0.38 cm{sup 3}) and then the Control group (0.62 {+-} 0.09 cm{sup 3}). Volumes for the SS and Occlusion groups were significantly larger than those for the Control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.012). There was no significant difference in volumes between the SS and Occlusion groups (p = 0.178). Saturated saline preinjection is as effective as renal arterial occlusion for expanding the ablation zone. RFA with saturated saline preinjection could help to treat large renal tumors.

  10. Comparison of Radiofrequency Ablation with Saturated Saline Preinjection and Renal Artery Occlusion: In Vivo Study in Canine Kidneys Preinjection and Renal Artery Occlusion: In Vivo Study in Canine Kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Seok; Ahn, Moon Sang; Park, Mi Hyun; Jeon, Gyeong Sik; Lee, Byung Mo; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Ho Jun; Ohm, Joon Young

    2012-01-01

    To compare the ablation zone after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with saturated saline preinjection and renal artery occlusion in canine kidneys. RFA was induced in the kidneys of six mongrel dogs. A total of 24 ablation zones were induced using a 1-cm tip internally cooled needle electrode in three groups: RFA (Control group), RFA with 0.5 mL saturated saline preinjection (SS group), and RFA with renal artery occlusion by atraumatic vascular clamp (Occlusion group). Ablation zone diameters were measured along transverse and longitudinal sections of the needle axis, and volumes were calculated. Temperature, applied voltage, current, and impedance during RFA were recorded automatically. The RFA zone volume was the largest in the SS group (1.33 ± 0.34 cm 3 ), followed by the Occlusion group (1.07 ± 0.38 cm 3 ) and then the Control group (0.62 ± 0.09 cm 3 ). Volumes for the SS and Occlusion groups were significantly larger than those for the Control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.012). There was no significant difference in volumes between the SS and Occlusion groups (p = 0.178). Saturated saline preinjection is as effective as renal arterial occlusion for expanding the ablation zone. RFA with saturated saline preinjection could help to treat large renal tumors.

  11. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Bendtzen, Klaus; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    with the other groups (Peffect on the postoperative concentration of selected plasma cytokines and the hormonal stress......BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...

  12. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carlos Flores-González

    Full Text Available There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay.A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011. Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively.In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before.EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  13. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  14. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  15. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2011-06-01

    Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking.

  16. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl) causes minor immunological changes in normovolaemic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Aage Kølsen; Nielsen, J O D; Bendtzen, K

    2004-01-01

    Haemorrhagic shock is treated effectively by infusion of hypertonic saline/colloid solutions. Furthermore, previous studies found hypertonicity to affect immune responses in animals and in human blood cell cultures. It is unknown, however, whether hypertonic saline infusion affects immune responses...

  17. Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation Modulates Neutrophil Adhesion Molecule Expression of Post-Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rizoli, Sandro B; Rhind, Shawn G; Shek, Pang N; Inaba, Kenji; Filips, Dennis; Tien, Homer; Brenneman, Fred; Rotstein, Ori D

    2004-01-01

    .... Experimental data suggests that hypertonic saline/dextran (HSD, 7.5% NaCl in 6% dextran-70) exerts antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, reduces multiorgan dysfunction and improves outcome...

  18. Hypertonic Saline Suppresses NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Promotes Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajantha Nadesalingam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonicity of saline (NaCl is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis. For this purpose, we purified human neutrophils and induced NETosis using agonists such as diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS, calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin from Streptomyces conglobatus, and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We then analyzed neutrophils and NETs using Sytox green assay, immunostaining of NET components and apoptosis markers, confocal microscopy, and pH sensing reagents. This study found that hypertonic NaCl suppresses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH2 or NOX2-dependent NETosis induced by agonists PMA, Escherichia coli LPS (0111:B4 and O128:B12, and P. aeruginosa. Hypertonic saline also suppresses LPS- and PMA- induced reactive oxygen species production. It was determined that supplementing H2O2 reverses the suppressive effect of hypertonic saline on NOX2-dependent NETosis. Many of the aforementioned suppressive effects were observed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of choline chloride and osmolytes (d-mannitol and d-sorbitol. This suggests that the mechanism by which hypertonic saline suppresses NOX2-dependent NETosis is via neutrophil dehydration. Hypertonic NaCl does not significantly alter the intracellular pH of neutrophils. We found that hypertonic NaCl induces apoptosis while suppressing NOX2-dependent NETosis. In contrast, hypertonic

  19. [Effect of compound hypertonic saline solution on septic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi; Cai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of compound hypertonic saline solution ( HSD ) on sepsis. 133 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, sham operation group ( n = 15 ), cecal ligation and puncture ( CLP ) group ( n = 45 ), CLP plus normal saline ( NS ) group ( n = 45 ), and CLP plus HSD group ( n = 28 ). A rat model of sepsis was reproduced by CLP, and the rats in sham operation group received celiotomy without ligation and puncture. All rats in four groups received subcutaneous injection of 30 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride after laparotomy. The rats in CLP plus NS group and CLP plus HSD group received infusion of 5 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride or 7.5% sodium chloride/6% dextran post CLP via jugular vein for 3 hours, with the infusion rate of 0.4 mL×kg(-1)×min(-1). The survival rate of each group was observed 9 hours and 18 hours after laparotomy. Mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) at 0, 9, 18 hours were monitored. Blood specimens were collected from all rats 0, 9 and 18 hours after laparotomy, respectively, for measurement of the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), interleukin-1β ( IL-1β ), and procalcitonin ( PCT ). The rats were all sacrificed, and their lung tissues were harvested for the neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF ), myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) activity in lung tissue, wet/dry weight ratio ( W/D ) of lung, and pathological changes in lung tissue. There was no death in the sham operation group. The survival rates at 9 hours and 18 hours were 62.2% and 31.1% in the CLP group, 57.8% and 35.6% in the CLP plus NS group, 85.7% and 64.3% in the CLP plus HSD group, and they were all significantly higher compared with those of the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group ( Pmicroscope, no pathobiological changes were found in sham operation group. The lung tissues in the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group showed congestion, edema, infiltrating inflammatory changes, while the inflammatory changes in the lung tissue in the CLP plus HSD group

  20. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    chloride (n = 12) induced significantly more pain than isotonic saline (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001). Compared to control injections, hypertonic saline and potassium chloride induced a significant reduction in pressure-pain threshold (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.05). Forty-eight percent...

  1. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  2. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs

  3. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  4. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  5. Prehospital guidelines for use of hypertonic saline are not followed systematically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbaek, Julie; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) was introduced in our physician-based mobile emergency care unit (MECU) in September 2006 for patients with severe traumatic brain injury and hypotension. HS has, however, rarely been used and we sought to identify barriers to its implementation....

  6. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    RATIONALE: Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiinflammatory effect of hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment within the CF lung by focusing on IL-8. METHODS: Degradation of IL-8 in CF lung secretions after treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and HTS was analyzed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. The ex vivo chemotactic activity of purified neutrophils in response to CF airway secretions was evaluated post nebulization of HTS (7% saline). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In vivo CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-8 levels were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BALF displaced IL-8 from glycosaminoglycan matrices, rendering the chemokine susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. High sodium concentrations also liberate IL-8 in CF BALF in vitro, and in vivo in CF sputum from patients receiving aerosolized HTS, resulting in degradation of IL-8 and decreased neutrophil chemotactic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycans possess the ability to influence the chemokine profile of the CF lung by binding and stabilizing IL-8, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment disrupts the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis, thereby facilitating resolution of inflammation.

  7. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  8. Hyaluronic acid improves "pleasantness" and tolerability of nebulized hypertonic saline in a cohort of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonpensiero, Paolo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Sepe, Angela; Di Pasqua, Antonio; Ferri, Pasqualina; Siano, Maria; Terlizzi, Vito; Raia, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Inhaled hypertonic saline improves lung function and decreases pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. However, side effects such as cough, narrowing of airways and saltiness cause intolerance of the therapy in 8% of patients. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of an inhaled solution of hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline with hypertonic solution alone on safety and tolerability. A total of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years and over received a single treatment regimen of 7% hypertonic saline solution or hypertonic solution with 0.1% hyaluronate for 2 days nonconsecutively after a washout period in an open crossover study. Cough, throat irritation, and salty taste were evaluated by a modified ordinal score for assessing tolerability; "pleasantness" was evaluated by a five-level, Likert-type scale. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was registered before and after the end of the saline inhalations. All 20 patients (nine males, 11 females, mean age 13 years, range 8.9-17.7) completed the study. The inhaled solution of 0.1% hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline significantly improved tolerability and pleasantness compared to hypertonic saline alone. No major adverse effects were observed. No difference was documented in pulmonary function tests between the two treatments. Hyaluronic acid combined with hypertonic saline solution may contribute to improved adherence to hypertonic saline therapy. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. Considering the extraordinary versatility of hyaluronic acid in biological reactions, perspective studies could define its applicability to halting progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

  9. A comparison of sputum induction methods: ultrasonic vs compressed-air nebulizer and hypertonic vs isotonic saline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, L C; Eg, K P; Puspanathan, P; Tang, S P; Yip, K S; Vijayasingham, P; Thayaparan, T; Kumar, S

    2004-03-01

    Airway inflammation can be demonstrated by the modem method of sputum induction using ultrasonic nebulizer and hypertonic saline. We studied whether compressed-air nebulizer and isotonic saline which are commonly available and cost less, are as effective in inducing sputum in normal adult subjects as the above mentioned tools. Sixteen subjects underwent weekly sputum induction in the following manner: ultrasonic nebulizer (Medix Sonix 2000, Clement Clarke, UK) using hypertonic saline, ultrasonic nebulizer using isotonic saline, compressed-air nebulizer (BestNeb, Taiwan) using hypertonic saline, and compressed-air nebulizer using isotonic saline. Overall, the use of an ultrasonic nebulizer and hypertonic saline yielded significantly higher total sputum cell counts and a higher percentage of cell viability than compressed-air nebulizers and isotonic saline. With the latter, there was a trend towards squamous cell contaminations. The proportion of various sputum cell types was not significantly different between the groups, and the reproducibility in sputum macrophages and neutrophils was high (Intraclass correlation coefficient, r [95%CI]: 0.65 [0.30-0.91] and 0.58 [0.22-0.89], p compressed-air nebulizers and isotonic saline. We conclude that in normal subjects, although both nebulizers and saline types can induce sputum with reproducible cellular profile, ultrasonic nebulizers and hypertonic saline are more effective but less well tolerated.

  10. Modulation of jaw muscle spindle afferent activity following intramuscular injections with hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    2001-05-01

    Transient noxious chemical stimulation of small diameter muscle afferents modulates jaw movement-related responses of caudal brainstem neurons. While it is likely that the effect is mediated from the spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) via the caudally projecting Probst's tract, the mechanisms of pain induced modulations of jaw muscle spindle afferents is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that jaw muscle nociceptors gain access to muscle spindle afferents in the same muscle via central mechanisms and alter their sensitivity. Thirty-five neurons recorded from the Vmes were characterized as muscle spindle afferents based on their responses to passive jaw movements, muscle palpation, and electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve. Each cell was tested by injecting a small volume (250 microl) of either 5% hypertonic and/or isotonic saline into the receptor-bearing muscle. Twenty-nine units were tested with 5% hypertonic saline, of which 79% (23/29) showed significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during one or more phases of ramp-and-hold movements. Among the muscle spindle primary-like units (n = 12), MFRs of 4 units were facilitated, five reduced, two showed mixed responses and one unchanged. In secondary-like units (n = 17), MFRs of 9 were facilitated, three reduced and five unchanged. Thirteen units were tested with isotonic saline, of which 77% showed no significant changes of MFRs. Further analysis revealed that the hypertonic saline not only affected the overall output of muscle spindle afferents, but also increased the variability of firing and altered the relationship between afferent signal and muscle length. These results demonstrated that activation of muscle nociceptors significantly affects proprioceptive properties of jaw muscle spindles via central neural mechanisms. The changes can have deleterious effects on oral motor function as well as kinesthetic sensibility.

  11. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

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    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  12. Nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo or hypertonic saline in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2015-01-01

    a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing nebulised dornase alfa with placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality...... of the primary estimate was assessed by TSA. RESULTS: Two trials (n = 63) were included; both were judged to have high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality (random effects model RR (95 % CI) 0.73 (0.09-5.77); P = 0.24; I (2) = 30 %). TSA could not be conducted because less...

  13. Clinical application of multislice CT enterography with hypertonic mannitol saline as oral contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guixin; Wang Haitao; Chen Wenjing; Liu Wenya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and value of multislice CT enterography (MSCTE) with large dose economy and convenience orally administered hypertonic mannitol salt water (2.5% mannitol and 1.5% NaCl salt water) as negative contrast in demonstrating normal and abnormal small bowel. Methods: 81 patients suffered from digestive disease and suspected of various kinds of small intestinal diseases were examined (male/female=47/34, 26-81 years old, average 57.8 years). About 1500 ml∼3000 ml hypertonic mannitol saline was oral administered within 90 minutes and 20 mg of raceanisodamine hydrochloride injection was injected intramuscularly. CT scanning was performed 20 minutes later. Imaging data were post processed with coronal, sagittal and oblique reconstruction, multiplanar reformation (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and volumer rendering technique (VRT). The filling degree of stomach, intestine and colon was classified as satisfactory, better and unsatisfactory. The length and superposition of small intestine was classified as dense-type, uniformity-type and straggling-type. The maximum outer diameters of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured respectively in different segments. The degree of bowel wall enhancement in arterial phase and venous phase was classified as obvious enhancement (>90 HU), medium enhancement (60-90 HU) and mild enhancement (<60 HU). CT features of various kinds of small bowel diseases were analyzed. Results: The hypertonic mannitol saline was acceptable by patients, except 5 patients with diarrhea. The filling degree of stomach, intestine and and colon was classified as satisfactory in 46 cases, better in 23 cases and unsatisfactory in 12 cases. The maximum outer diameters of small bowel in different segments were 24 mm ± 4.5 mm at duodenum, 24 mm ±3.9 mm at jejunum and 23 mm ±3.3 mm at ileum respectively. The length and superposition of small intestine were classified as dense-type in 7 cases, uniformity-type in 58

  14. Oral Hypertonic Saline Is Effective in Reversing Acute Mild-to-Moderate Symptomatic Exercise -Associated Hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Eileen; Altherwi, Tawfeeq; Correa, José A; Hew-Butler, Tamara

    2018-01-23

    To determine whether oral administration of 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) is as efficacious as intravenous (IV) 3% saline in reversing symptoms of mild-to-moderate symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in athletes during and after a long-distance triathlon. Noninferiority, open-label, parallel-group, randomized control trial to IV or oral HTS. We used permuted block randomization with sealed envelopes, containing the word either "oral" or "IV." Annual long-distance triathlon (3.8-km swim, 180-km bike, and 42-km run) at Mont-Tremblant, Quebec, Canada. Twenty race finishers with mild to moderately symptomatic EAH. Age, sex, race finish time, and 9 clinical symptoms. Time from treatment to discharge. We successfully randomized 20 participants to receive either an oral (n = 11) or IV (n = 9) bolus of HTS. We performed venipuncture to measure serum sodium (Na) at presentation to the medical clinic and at time of symptom resolution after the intervention. The average time from treatment to discharge was 75.8 minutes (SD 29.7) for the IV treatment group and 50.3 minutes (SD 26.8) for the oral treatment group (t test, P = 0.02). Serum Na before and after treatment was not significantly different in both groups. There was no difference on presentation between groups in age, sex, or race finish time, both groups presented with an average of 6 symptoms. Oral HTS is effective in reversing symptoms of mild-to-moderate hyponatremia in EAH.

  15. Hypertonic saline solution reduces the oxidative stress responses in traumatic brain injury patients

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    Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Hypertonic saline (HTS has advantages as being preferred osmotic agent, but few studies investigated oxidant and antioxidant effects of HTS in TBI. This study was designed to compare two different regimens of HTS 5% with mannitol on TBI-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three adult patients with TBI were recruited and have randomly received one of the three protocols: 125 cc of HTS 5% every 6 h as bolus, 500 cc of HTS 5%as infusion for 24 h or 1 g/kg mannitol of 20% as a bolus, repeated with a dose of 0.25-0.5 g/kg every 6 h based on patient′s response for 3 days. Serum total antioxidant power (TAP, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO were measured at baseline and daily for 3 days. Results: Initial serum ROS and NO levels in patients were higher than control(6.86± [3.2] vs. 1.57± [0.5] picoM, P = 0.001, 14.6± [1.6] vs. 7.8± [3.9] mM, P = 0.001, respectively. Levels of ROS have decreased for all patients, but reduction was significantly after HTS infusion and mannitol (3. 08 [±3.1] to 1.07 [±1.6], P = 0.001, 5.6 [±3.4] to 2.5 [±1.8], P = 0.003 respectively. During study, NO levels significantly decreased in HTS infusion but significantly increased in mannitol. TAP Levels had decreased in all patients during study especially in mannitol (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline 5% has significant effects on the oxidant responses compared to mannitol following TBI that makes HTS as a perfect therapeutic intervention for reducing unfavorable outcomes in TBI patients.

  16. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced pulmonary injury by aerosolized hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, C J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) provide potential strategies to attenuate inappropriate inflammatory reactions. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of intratracheal aerosolized HTS modulates the development of lung injury in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20% L-arginine (500 mg\\/100 g body weight). At 24 and 48 h, intratracheal aerosolized HTS (7.5% NaCl, 0.5 mL) was administered to 8 rats, while a further 8 received 0.5 mL of aerosolized normal saline (NS). At 72 hours, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and endothelial permeability (bronchoalveolar lavage and wet:dry weight ratios) were assessed. In addition, histological assessment of representative lung tissue was performed by a blinded assessor. In a separate experiment, polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) were isolated from human donors, and exposed to increments of HTS. Neutrophil transmigration across an endothelial cell layer, VEGF release, and apoptosis at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h were assessed. RESULTS: Histopathological lung injury scores were significantly reduced in the HTS group (4.78 +\\/- 1.43 vs. 8.64 +\\/- 0.86); p < 0.001). Pulmonary neutrophil sequestration (1.40 +\\/- 0.2) and increased endothelial permeability (6.77 +\\/- 1.14) were evident in the animals resuscitated with normal saline when compared with HTS (0.70 +\\/- 0.1 and 3.57 +\\/- 1.32), respectively; p < 0.04). HTS significantly reduced PMN transmigration (by 97.1, p = 0.002, and induced PMN apoptosis (p < 0.03). HTS did not impact significantly upon neutrophil VEGF release (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal aerosolized HTS attenuates the neutrophil-mediated pulmonary insult subsequent to pancreatitis. This may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.

  17. Hypertonic saline solution and high-dose furosemide infusion in cardiorenal syndrome: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ventrella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heart failure is frequently complicated by renal failure, and this association is a negative prognostic factor. These patients sometimes present oligo-/anuria and resistance to high-dose furosemide, a condition referred to as the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS. Acute or chronic reductions in left ventricular function result in decreased blood flow, with reduction of renal perfusion and activation of several neurohormonal systems, which cause resistance to diuretic therapy. This condition often requires ultrafiltration, which is an effective, but invasive and expensive procedure. Infusions of hypertonic saline solution (HSS and high-dose furosemide can be an effective alternative. Materials and methods From November 2009 through May 2010, our team treated 20 patients with CRS and resistance to iv boluses of high-dose furosemide. These patients were treated with small-volume (150-250 mL infusions of HSS (NaCl 1.57 – 4.5%, depending on serum Na values and high-dose furosemide twice a day. The aim of this treatment is to modify renal hemodynamics and the water-saline balance in the kidney by counteracting the extracellular fluid accumulation and eliminating symptoms of congestion. Results In 18 patients (90%, urine output was restored and renal function improved during the first hours of treatment. Clinical improvement was evident from the first day of therapy, and there were no adverse events. Two patients (10% did not respond to the treatment: one (who had been in critical condition since admission died; the other required regular sessions of ultrafiltration. Conclusions HSS combined with high-dose furosemide is a safe, effective, low-cost approach to the treatment of CRS that is resistant to diuretic therapy.

  18. Changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics, by an infusion of the serotonin receptor type 3 antagonist granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ioannidou, Kiriaki; Milosevic, Milena; Segerdahl, Märta; Ernberg, Malin

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether granisetron reduces masseter muscle pain and allodynia induced by hypertonic saline. Fifteen healthy women and 15 age-matched healthy men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. They first received bilateral injections of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscles (internal control). The evoked pain intensity and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) were recorded during 30 minutes. Granisetron was then injected on one side and placebo (normal saline) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter, the hypertonic saline injections were repeated. Pain and PPT were again recorded. The first injection of hypertonic saline induced pain of similar intensity, duration, and pain area on both sides, but with larger pain area in the women (P = .017). The PPT did not change significantly. The second injection of hypertonic saline induced considerably less pain (62.5%), of shorter duration (44.1%), and of smaller area (77.4%) on the side pretreated with granisetron (P = .005). The PPT was increased on the granisetron side in the men (P = .002). The results of this study show that local injection of a single dose of granisetron attenuates masseter muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline. This article presents the changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics by infusion of granisetron. It appears that the pain-inducing effect in this experimental pain model is partly due to activation of 5-HT3-receptors. Hence, the results indicate that granisetron might offer a new treatment approach for localized myofascial pain.

  19. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-05-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment to prevent the symptoms of the disease is inhalation of hypertonic saline solution, NaCl at concentrations higher than in the human body (~150 mM). This procedure clears the mucus in the lungs, bringing relief to the patient. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying this process are not entirely clear. We undertook a new experimental approach to understand the effects of sprayed saline solutions on model lung surfactants towards understanding the mechanisms of the treatment. The surface of lungs contains mainly 1,2-Dipalmitol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DPPC). As previously assumed by others, we considered that monolayer of DPPC at the air-water interface serves as model system for the lungs surface; we employed a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) trough and PM-IRRAS to measure surface-specific infrared spectra of the surfactant monolayers and effects on the interfacial tensions. We investigated spraying hyper-saline solutions onto surfactant monolayers at the airwater interface in two parts: (i) validation of our methodology and techniques with stearic acid and (ii) experiments with DPPC monolayers at the air-water interface. Remarkably, when micro-droplets of NaCl were sprayed to the monolayer of stearic acid, we observed enhanced organization of the surfactant, interpreted from the intensities of the CH2 peaks in the surface-specific IR spectra. However, our results with DPPC monolayers didn’t show an effect with the salt added as aerosol, possibly indicating that the experimental methodology proposed is not adequate for the phenomena studied. In parallel, we mimicked respiratory mucous by preparing salt solutions containing 1% (wt%) agar and measured effects on their viscosities. Interestingly, we found that NaCl was much

  20. Advances toward the elucidation of hypertonic saline effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Michon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nebulized hypertonic saline (HTS has beneficial effects including reducing pulmonary exacerbations in Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients. Several mechanisms may explain these effects but antimicrobial activity of NaCl remains largely unexplored. We aimed to measure the antimicrobial effect of NaCl on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the respiratory tract in CF patients. METHODS: NaCl minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for strains characterized for mucoidy, antimicrobial resistance, and ability to form biofilm using 0,9% to 15% NaCl solutions. NaCl effects on biofilm formation, preformed biofilm, and mobility were evaluated. Kinetics of antimicrobial effects was studied. RESULTS: The growth of all isolates (n = 85 from 34 patients was inhibited by 6% NaCl solution. A 10% concentration had a bactericidal activity on 90% of the isolates. Mucoid and multidrug resistant (MDR isolates displayed lower MICs compared to non-mucoid and to non-MDR isolates, respectively. Time-kill kinetics showed that NaCl exhibited a rapid, dose and growth phase dependent bactericidal effect. Three percent or more of NaCl inhibited biofilm formation for 69% of strongly adherent isolates. A dose-dependent decrease of preformed biofilm viability and an inhibitory activity on bacterial motility were observed. CONCLUSIONS: NaCl inhibited the growth of all isolates and killed 38% of tested isolates within concentration range currently used in therapeutics. Our results suggest that anti-pseudomonal activity is another mechanism of action of HTS to add to those already established. Clinical trials are needed to compare diverse HTS conditions of use (rhythm, dose and mode of delivery to obtain efficient and optimized anti-P. aeruginosa effects. More generally, NaCl effect on other opportunistic pathogens as well as on global microbiotae recovered during polymicrobial diseases warrants further investigations.

  1. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Jun; Ueyama, Masashi; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Ode, Yasumasa; Aoki, Yoshiki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock. Hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) infusion reduces early fluid requirements in burn shock, but the effects of HLS on intraabdominal pressure have not been clarified. Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2004 with burns > or =40% of the total body surface area without severe inhalation injury were entered into a fluid resuscitation protocol using HLS (n = 14) or lactated Ringer's solution (n = 22). Urine output was monitored hourly with a goal of 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg per hour. Hemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis, intrabladder pressure as an indicator of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and the peak inspiratory pressure were recorded. Pulmonary compliance and the abdominal perfusion pressure were also calculated. In the HLS group, the amount of intravenous fluid volume needed to maintain adequate urine output was less at 3.1 +/- 0.9 versus 5.2 +/- 1.2 mL/24 h per kg per percentage of total body surface area, and the peak IAP and peak inspiratory pressure at 24 hours after injury were significantly lower than those in the lactated Ringer's group. Two of 14 patients (14%) in the HLS group and 11 of 22 patients (50%) developed IAH within 20.8 +/- 7.2 hours after injury. In patients with severe burn injury, a large intravenous fluid volume decreases abdominal perfusion during the resuscitative period because of increased IAP. Our data suggest that HLS resuscitation could reduce the risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome with lower fluid load in burn shock patients.

  2. Hypertonic saline (HTS versus standard (isotonic fluid therapy for traumatic brain injuries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrit Lourens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the foremost causes of mortality secondary to trauma. Poorer outcomes are associated with secondary insults, after the initial brain injury occurred. The management goal of TBI is to prevent or minimise the effects of secondary brain injuries. The primary objective of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to assess the effects of Hypertonic Saline (HTS compared to Standard Fluid Therapy (SFT in the treatment and resuscitation of TBI patients. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (from 1966, EBSCOhost, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Proquest Medical Library and EMBASE (from 1980 in May 2010 and updated searches in February 2011. Data were assessed and extracted by two independent authors. Risk ratios (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI were used as the effect measure. The review included three RCTs (1184 participants of which two were of high to moderate quality (1005 participants. HTS was not found to be associated with a reduction in mortality (3 RCTs, 1184 participants, RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.76 to 1.09 and morbidity in TBI patients. No significant improvement in haemodynamical stability was found whereas insufficient data were available to indicate a reduction in the intracranial pressure (ICP. In the HTS group, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP (MD 3.83 mmHg, 95%CI 1.08 to 6.57 and serum sodium level (MD 8 mEq/L, 95%CI 7.47 to 8.53 were higher. Existing studies show no indication that HTS, in comparison to SFT, reduces mortality or morbidity after the occurrence of TBI. Against this backdrop, some uncertainties still exist in terms of the use of different concentrations and volumes of HTS, the timing of administration as well as the benefit in specific injury profiles. As a result, formulating conclusive recommendations is complex.

  3. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

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    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  5. Intravenous hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) and oral electrolytes to treat of calves with noninfectious diarrhea and metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M L R; Fialho, S S; Cyrillo, F C; Bertagnon, H G; Ortolani, E L; Benesi, F J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of treating osmotic diarrhea and dehydration in calves with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) IV, isotonic electrolyte solution (IES) PO, and a combination of these 2 solutions (HSS + IES). Eighteen male calves 8-30 days of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of 3 methods of fluid therapy after induction of osmotic diarrhea and dehydration. The diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administration of saccharose, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide for 48 hours. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Group 1: 7.2% hypertonic saline solution-HSS (5 mL/kg IV); Group 2: oral isotonic electrolyte solution IES (60 mL/kg PO); or Group 3: HSS+IES. Clinical signs and laboratory finding observed 48 hours post-induction (Time 0) included diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis. Calves treated with HSS + IES experienced decreases in hematocrit, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma volume as well as increases in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, and central venous pressure between 1 and 3 hours post-treatment. These findings also were observed in animals treated with IES, however, at a slower rate than in the HSS + IES-treated animals. Animals treated with HSS continued to display signs of dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis 24 hours post-treatment. Treatment with a combination of HSS and IES produced rapid and sustainable correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis in calves with noninfections diarrhea and dehydration. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Production of consistent pain by intermittent infusion of sterile 5% hypertonic saline, followed by decrease of pain with cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Blaine C; Knight, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Ty; Parcell, Allen C; Feland, J Brent

    2012-08-01

    It is suggested that postinjury pain is difficult to examine; thus, investigators have developed experimental pain models. To minimize pain, cryotherapy (cryo) is applied, but reports on its effectiveness are limited. To investigate a pain model for the anterior knee and examine cryo in reducing the pain. Controlled laboratory study. Therapeutic modality laboratory. 30 physically active healthy male subjects who were free from any lower extremity orthopedic, neurological, cardiovascular, or endocrine pathologies. Perceived pain was measured every minute. Surface temperature was also assessed in the center of the patella and the popliteal fossa. There was a significant interaction between group and time (F68,864 = 3.0, P = .0001). At the first minute, there was no difference in pain between the 3 groups (saline/cryo = 4.80 ± 4.87 mm, saline/sham = 2.80 ± 3.55 mm, no saline/cryo = 4.00 ± 3.33 mm). During the first 5 min, pain increased from 4.80 ± 4.87 to 45.90 ± 21.17 mm in the saline/cryo group and from 2.80 ± 3.55 to 31.10 ± 20.25 mm in the saline/sham group. Pain did not change within the no-saline/cryo group, 4.00 ± 3.33 to 1.70 ± 1.70 mm. Pain for the saline/sham group remained constant for 17 min. Cryo decreased pain for 16 min in the saline/cryo group. There was no difference in preapplication surface temperature between or within each group. No change in temperature occurred within the saline/sham. Cooling and rewarming were similar in both cryo groups. Ambient temperature fluctuated less than 1°C during data collection. Intermittent infusion of sterile 5% hypertonic saline may be a useful experimental pain model in establishing a constant level of pain in a controlled laboratory setting. Cryotherapy decreased the induced anterior knee pain for 16 min.

  7. Hypertonic saline enhances host response to bacterial challenge by augmenting receptor-independent neutrophil intracellular superoxide formation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether hypertonic saline (HTS) infusion modulates the host response to bacterial challenge. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in 30 Balb-C mice by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli (5 x 107 organisms per animal). In 10 mice, resuscitation was performed at 0 and 24 hours with a 4 mL\\/kg bolus of HTS (7.5% NaCl), 10 animals received 4 mL\\/kg of normal saline (0.9% NaCl), and the remaining animals received 30 mL\\/kg of normal saline. Samples of blood, spleen, and lung were cultured at 8 and 36 hours. Polymorphonucleocytes were incubated in isotonic or hypertonic medium before culture with E. coli. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow cytometry, whereas intracellular bacterial killing was measured after inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin B. Intracellular formation of free radicals was assessed by the molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and ERK-1 phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation were determined. Data are represented as means (SEM), and an analysis of variance test was performed to gauge statistical significance. RESULTS: Significantly reduced bacterial culture was observed in the animals resuscitated with HTS when compared with their NS counterparts, in blood (51.8 +\\/- 4.3 vs. 82.0 +\\/- 3.3 and 78.4 +\\/- 4.8, P = 0.005), lung (40.0 +\\/- 4.1 vs. 93.2 +\\/- 2.1 and 80.9 +\\/- 4.7, P = 0.002), and spleen (56.4 +\\/- 3.8 vs. 85.4 +\\/- 4.2 and 90.1 +\\/- 5.9, P = 0.05). Intracellular killing of bacteria increased markedly (P = 0.026) and superoxide generation was enhanced upon exposure to HTS (775.78 +\\/- 23.6 vs. 696.57 +\\/- 42.2, P = 0.017) despite inhibition of MAP kinase and NFkappaB activation. CONCLUSIONS: HTS significantly enhances intracellular killing of bacteria while attenuating receptor-mediated activation of proinflammatory cascades.

  8. Evaluating the effect of administrating hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions on clinical improvement, serum electrolyte concentrations and renal function of calves affected by diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hasanpour

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted on 40 calves under the age of one mouth with 30 calves affected by diarrhea allocated to 3 treatment groups of 10 calves each and the control group consisting of 10 calves. The control group received neither treatment nor any injections. In the first treatment group, only antibiotics were administered without any fluid therapy. In the second treatment group, apart from antibiotic therapy of diarrhea, hypertonic saline solution (7.5% was administered at a dose of 5 ml/kg as slow intravenous infusion alongside oral ORS solution whereas in the third treatment group isotonic saline solution (0.9% was given intravenously according to the formula (Body weight × %Dehydration alongside oral ORS solution. In all groups, clinical examination and blood sampling was undertaken at times 0, 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours following treatment. At time 0, the diarrhea had resulted in clinical and laboratory signs such as a fever, the dehydration, tachycardia, oligopnea, increased packed sell volume, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, increased serum creatinine and BUN values. Following treatment, fever subsided and the dehydration was corrected and this correction occurred faster in calves which had received hypertonic saline solution. Correction of sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus and calsium imbalance occurred faster in patients which were treated by hypertonic solution. Fluid therapy with saline solutions prevented the increase in serum creatinine and BUN values. In conclusion, the administration of hypertonic saline solutions leads to much faster and more reliable clinical improvement and electrolyte imbalance correction in calves affected by diarrhea.

  9. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  10. Reposição de volume na sepse com solução salina hipertônica Sepsis volume reposition with hypertonic saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Friedman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão discute os efeitos hemodinâmicos e imunomoduladores da solução hipertônica em choque experimental e em pacientes com sepse. Comentamos sobre os mecanismos de ação da solução hipertônica, recorrendo a dados sobre choque hemorrágico e séptico. Atuações específicas da solução salina hipertônica aplicáveis a sepse grave e choque séptico são enfatizadas. Os dados disponíveis corroboram os benefícios em potencial da infusão de solução salina hipertônica em vários aspetos da fisiopatologia da sepse, inclusive hipoperfusão dos tecidos, consumo reduzido de oxigênio, disfunção endotelial, depressão miocárdica e presença de um amplo elenco de citocinas próinflamatórias e várias espécies de oxidantes. Uma terapia que, ao mesmo tempo, bloqueie os componentes prejudiciais da sepse terá um impacto no seu tratamento. Estudos prospectivos adequadamente desenhados poderão no futuro comprovar o papel benéfico da solução salina hipertônica.The present review discusses the hemodynamic and immune-modulatory effects of hypertonic saline in experimental shock and in patients with sepsis. We comment on the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline, calling upon data in hemorrhagic and septic shock. Specific actions of hypertonic saline applicable to severe sepsis and septic shock are highlighted. Data available support potential benefits of hypertonic saline infusion in various aspects of the pathophysiology of sepsis, including tissue hypoperfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac depression, and the presence of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines and various oxidant species. A therapy that simultaneously blocks the damaging components of sepsis will have an impact on the management of sepsis. Proper designed prospective studies may prove a beneficial role for hypertonic saline solution in the future.

  11. Expansions of the neurovascular scleral canal and contained optic nerve occur early in the hypertonic saline rat experimental glaucoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2016-04-01

    To characterize early optic nerve head (ONH) structural change in rat experimental glaucoma (EG). Unilateral intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced in Brown Norway rats by hypertonic saline injection into the episcleral veins and animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later by perfusion fixation. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded from 1 (normal) to 5 (extensive injury) by 5 masked observers. ONHs with peripapillary retina and sclera were embedded, serial sectioned, 3-D reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall and animal-specific EG versus Control eye ONH parameter differences were assessed globally and regionally by linear mixed effect models with significance criteria adjusted for multiple comparisons. Expansions of the optic nerve and surrounding anterior scleral canal opening achieved statistical significance overall (p < 0.0022), and in 7 of 8 EG eyes (p < 0.005). In at least 5 EG eyes, significant expansions (p < 0.005) in Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (range 3-10%), the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (8-21% and 5-21%, respectively), and the optic nerve at the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (11-30% and 8-41%, respectively) were detected. Optic nerve expansion was greatest within the superior and inferior quadrants. Optic nerve expansion at the posterior scleral canal opening was significantly correlated to optic nerve damage (R = 0.768, p = 0.042). In the rat ONH, the optic nerve and surrounding BMO and neurovascular scleral canal expand early in their response to chronic experimental IOP elevation. These findings provide phenotypic landmarks and imaging targets for detecting the development of experimental glaucomatous optic neuropathy in the rat eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. LL-37 complexation with glycosaminoglycans in cystic fibrosis lungs inhibits antimicrobial activity, which can be restored by hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2009-07-01

    There is an abundance of antimicrobial peptides in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Despite this, individuals with CF are susceptible to microbial colonization and infection. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial response within the CF lung, focusing on the human cathelicidin LL-37. We demonstrate the presence of the LL-37 precursor, human cathelicidin precursor protein designated 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein, in the CF lung along with evidence that it is processed to active LL-37 by proteinase-3. We demonstrate that despite supranormal levels of LL-37, the lung fluid from CF patients exhibits no demonstrable antimicrobial activity. Furthermore Pseudomonas killing by physiological concentrations of exogenous LL-37 is inhibited by CF bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid due to proteolytic degradation of LL-37 by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin D. The endogenous LL-37 in CF BAL fluid is protected from this proteolysis by interactions with glycosaminoglycans, but while this protects LL-37 from proteolysis it results in inactivation of LL-37 antimicrobial activity. By digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BAL fluid, endogenous LL-37 is liberated and the antimicrobial properties of CF BAL fluid restored. High sodium concentrations also liberate LL-37 in CF BAL fluid in vitro. This is also seen in vivo in CF sputum where LL-37 is complexed to glycosaminoglycans but is liberated following nebulized hypertonic saline resulting in increased antimicrobial effect. These data suggest glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 complexes to be potential therapeutic targets. Factors that disrupt glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 aggregates promote the antimicrobial effects of LL-37 with the caveat that concomitant administration of antiproteases may be needed to protect the now liberated LL-37 from proteolytic cleavage.

  13. Minocycline Prevents Muscular Pain Hypersensitivity and Cutaneous Allodynia Produced by Repeated Intramuscular Injections of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy Human Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Mohamad Samir; Nagi, Saad Saulat; Shortland, Peter John; Mahns, David Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Minocycline, a glial suppressor, prevents behavioral hypersensitivities in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. However, clinical trials of minocycline in human studies have produced mixed results. This study addressed 2 questions: can repeated injections of hypertonic saline (HS) in humans induce persistent hypersensitivity? Can pretreatment with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with microglial inhibitory effects, prevent the onset of hypersensitivity? Twenty-seven healthy participants took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, consisting of 6 test sessions across 2 weeks. At the beginning of every session, pressure-pain thresholds of the anterior muscle compartment of both legs were measured to determine the region distribution and intensity of muscle soreness. To measure changes in thermal sensitivity in the skin overlying the anterior muscle compartment of both legs, quantitative sensory testing was used to measure the cutaneous thermal thresholds (cold sensation, cold pain, warm sensation, and heat pain) and a mild cooling stimulus was applied to assess the presence of cold allodynia. To induce ongoing hypersensitivity, repeated injections of HS were administered into the right tibialis anterior muscle at 48-hour intervals. In the final 2 sessions (days 9 and 14), only sensory assessments were done to plot the recovery after cessation of HS administrations and drug washout. By day 9, nontreated participants experienced a significant bilateral increase in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants experienced a bilateral 70% alleviation in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants showed cold allodynia. This study showed that repeated injections of HS can induce a hypersensitivity that outlasts the acute response, and the development of this hypersensitivity can be reliably attenuated with minocycline pretreatment. Four repeated injections of HS at 48-hour intervals induce a state of persistent hypersensitivity in

  14. Hypertonic Saline in Conjunction with High-Dose Furosemide Improves Dose-Response Curves in Worsening Refractory Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Salvatore; Di Gaudio, Francesca; La Rocca, Vincenzo; Balistreri, Fabio; Greco, Massimiliano; Torres, Daniele; Lupo, Umberto; Rizzo, Giuseppina; di Pasquale, Pietro; Indelicato, Sergio; Cuttitta, Francesco; Butler, Javed; Parrinello, Gaspare

    2015-10-01

    Diuretic responsiveness in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is better assessed by urine production per unit diuretic dose than by the absolute urine output or diuretic dose. Diuretic resistance arises over time when the plateau rate of sodium and water excretion is reached prior to optimal fluid elimination and may be overcome when hypertonic saline solution (HSS) is added to high doses of furosemide. Forty-two consecutively hospitalized patients with refractory CHF were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to furosemide doses (125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg) so that all patients received intravenous furosemide diluted in 150 ml of normal saline (0.9%) in the first step (0-24 h) and the same furosemide dose diluted in 150 ml of HSS (1.4%) in the next step (24-48 h) as to obtain 3 groups as follows: Fourteen patients receiving 125 mg (group 1), fourteen patients receiving 250 mg (group 2), and fourteen patients receiving 500 mg (group 3) of furosemide. Urine samples of all patients were collected at 30, 60, and 90 min, and 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after infusion. Diuresis, sodium excretion, osmolality, and furosemide concentration were evaluated for each urine sample. After randomization, 40 patients completed the study. Two patients, one in group 2 and one in group 3 dropped out. Patients in group 1 (125 mg furosemide) had a mean age of 77 ± 17 years, 43% were male, 6 (43%) had heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and 64% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV; the mean age of patients in group 2 (250 mg furosemide) was 80 ± 8.1 years, 15% were male, 5 (38%) had HFpEF, and 84% were in NYHA class IV; and the mean age of patients in group 3 (500 mg furosemide) was 73 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 6 (46%) had HFpEF, and 69% were in NYHA class IV. HSS added to furosemide increased total urine output, sodium excretion, urinary osmolality, and furosemide urine delivery in all patients and at all time points. The percentage increase was 18,14, and

  15. A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic saline can ameliorate cerebral edema more effectively than mannitol. Results Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were subjected to permanent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 10% HS, 20% mannitol or D-[1-3H(N]-mannitol. Brain water content (BWC as analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats decreased more significantly after 10% HS treatment compared with 20% mannitol. Concentration of serum Na+ and plasma crystal osmotic pressure of the 10% HS group at 2, 6, 12 and 18 h following permanent MCAO increased significantly when compared with 20% mannitol treated group. Moreover, there was negative correlation between the BWC of the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere and concentration of serum Na+, plasma crystal osmotic pressure and difference value of concentration of serum Na+ and concentration of brain Na+ in ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere in the 10% HS group at the various time points after MCAO. A remarkable finding was the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue. Conclusions We conclude that 10% HS is more effective in alleviating cerebral edema than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. This is because 10% HS contributes to establish a higher osmotic gradient across BBB and, furthermore, the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue counteracts its therapeutic efficacy on cerebral edema.

  16. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5%) does not change neutrophil oxidative burst or expression of endothelial adhesion molecules after abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Rasmussen, Torsten Bøgh; Krog, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of leukocyte and differential count, neutrophil membrane expression of endothelial adhesion molecules by flow cytometry, and O2- -generation by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of cytochrome C. RESULTS: Surgery induced well-known changes in the number and distribution of white blood cells, reduced...... the expression of adhesion molecules, and halved the superoxide production unrelated to the tonicity or volume of the infused fluids. CONCLUSION: Infusion of a clinically relevant dose of hypertonic saline has no detectable effect on the membrane expression of endothelial adhesion molecules or O2- -generation...

  17. Fourteen-Day Subacute Intravenous Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/ Dextran 70 (Trade name) and its Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran 70C and its Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits," Toxicology Series 248, was audited on 20 October 1989. CAROLYNM...at tA "e a .6 L C C o L a L Lm .. .. a. a4 1 . . ao 3.&ow2 aCCa .0 00 c -C a- 4;. *; a 0O .. t x.T 2Cu u . u uu0 0 Uc L 01 2.:4A.1 4xa&C -I - -N .CA -e

  18. Combined radiofrequency ablation and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution instillation: an in vivo study of rabbit liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Han, Joon-Koo; Kim, Se-Hyung; Choi, Byung-Ihn [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Kon; Kim, Sang-Won [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    We wanted to determine whether combined radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution (AHS) instillation can increase the extent of thermally mediated coagulation in in vivo rabbit liver tissue. We also wished to determine the optimal concentration of the solution in order to maximize its effect on extent of the RFA-induced coagulation. Forty thermal ablation zones were produced in 40 rabbits by using a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode with a 1-cm active tip under ultrasound guidance. The rabbits were assigned to one of four groups: group A: RFA alone (n=10); group B: RFA with 50% AHS instillation (n=10); group C: RFA with 25% AHS instillation (n=10); group D: RFA with 15% AHS instillation (n=10). A range of acetic acid concentrations diluted in 36% NaCl to a total volume of 2 mL were instilled into the liver before RFA. The RF energy (30W) was applied for three minutes. After RFA, in each group, the maximum diameters to the thermal ablation zones in the gross specimens were compared. Technical success and the complication that arose were evaluated by CT and on the basis of autopsy findings. All procedures are technically successful. There were six procedure-related complications (6/40; 15%); two localized perihepatic hematomas and four chemical peritonitis. The incidence of chemical peritonitis was highest for group B with the 50% AHS solution instillation (30%). With instillation of 15% AHS solution, a marked decrease of tissue impedance (24.5 {+-} 15.6 {omega}) and an increase of current (250 mA) occurred as compared to RFA alone. With instillation of the solutions before RFA (group B, C and D). this produced a greater mean diameter of coagulation necrosis than the diameters for rabbits not instilled with the solution (group A) ({rho}<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between group B, C, and D. Combined AHS instillation and RFA can increase the dimension of coagulation necrosis in the liver with a single

  19. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  20. Immune-Inflammatory and Metabolic Effects of High Dose Furosemide plus Hypertonic Saline Solution (HSS Treatment in Cirrhotic Subjects with Refractory Ascites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Tuttolomondo

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin.We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites.59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125-250mg⁄bid plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38, or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21. Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment.Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge.Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients.

  1. Prehospital resuscitation with hypertonic saline-dextran modulates inflammatory, coagulation and endothelial activation marker profiles in severe traumatic brain injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Laurie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI initiates interrelated inflammatory and coagulation cascades characterized by wide-spread cellular activation, induction of leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and release of soluble pro/antiinflammatory cytokines and thrombotic mediators. Resuscitative care is focused on optimizing cerebral perfusion and reducing secondary injury processes. Hypertonic saline is an effective osmotherapeutic agent for the treatment of intracranial hypertension and has immunomodulatory properties that may confer neuroprotection. This study examined the impact of hypertonic fluids on inflammatory/coagulation cascades in isolated head injury. Methods Using a prospective, randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of prehospital resuscitation of severe TBI (GCS vs 0.9% normal saline (NS, on selected cellular and soluble inflammatory/coagulation markers. Serial blood samples were drawn from 65 patients (30 HSD, 35 NS at the time of hospital admission and at 12, 24, and 48-h post-resuscitation. Flow cytometry was used to analyze leukocyte cell-surface adhesion (CD62L, CD11b and degranulation (CD63, CD66b molecules. Circulating concentrations of soluble (sL- and sE-selectins (sL-, sE-selectins, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, pro/antiinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-10], tissue factor (sTF, thrombomodulin (sTM and D-dimers (D-D were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Twenty-five healthy subjects were studied as a control group. Results TBI provoked marked alterations in a majority of the inflammatory/coagulation markers assessed in all patients. Relative to control, NS patients showed up to a 2-fold higher surface expression of CD62L, CD11b and CD66b on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs and monocytes that persisted for 48-h. HSD blunted the expression of these cell-surface activation/adhesion molecules at all time-points to

  2. A comparative experimental study of the in-vitro efficiency of hypertonic saline-enhanced hepatic bipolar and monopolar radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Sohn, Kyu Li; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Ah, Su Kyung; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2003-01-01

    To compare the in-vitro efficiency of a hypertonic saline (HS)- enhanced bipolar radiofrequency (RF) system with monopolar RF applications by assessing the temperature profile and dimensions of RF-created coagulation necrosis in bovine liver. A total of 27 ablations were performed in explanted bovine livers. After placement of two 16-gauge open-perfused electrodes at an interelectrode distance of 3 cm, 5% HS was instilled into tissue at a rate of 1 mL/min through the electrode. Seventeen thermal ablation zones were created in the monopolar mode (groups A, B), and ten more were created using the two open-perfused electrodes in the bipolar mode (group C). RF was applied to each electrode for 5 mins (for a total of 10 mins, group A) or 10 mins (for a total of 20 mins, group B) at 50W in the sequential monopolar mode, or to both electrodes for 10 min in the bipolar mode (group C). During RF instillation, we measured tissue temperature at the midpoint between the two electrodes. The dimensions of the thermal ablation zones and changes in impedance and wattage during RFA were compared between the groups. With open-perfusion electrodes, the mean accumulated energy output value was lower in the bipolar mode (group C: 26675±3047 Watt's) than in the monopolar mode (group A: 28778±1300 Watt's) but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the bipolar mode, there were impedance rises of more than 700 Ω during RF energy application, but in the monopolar modes, impedance did not changed markedly. In the bipolar mode, however, the temperature at the mid-point between the two probes was higher (85 .deg. C) than in the monopolar modes (65 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C for group A, B, respectively) (p<0.05). In addition, in HS-enhanced bipolar RFA (group C), the shortest diameter at the midpoint between the two electrodes was greater than in either of the monopolar modes: 5.4±5.6 mm (group A); 28.8±8.2 mm (group B); 31.2±7.6 mm (group C) (p<0.05) Using an open

  3. Avaliação da hiperresponsividade brônquica à solução salina hipertônica em crianças e adolescentes Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypertonic saline challenge in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Kussek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a hiperresponsividade brônquica à solução salina hipertônica a 4,5% como método alternativo a outros agentes broncoconstritores e sua relação com a sensibilização alérgica do paciente. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, experimental, com 85 indivíduos assim distribuídos: 45 no grupo de asmáticos e 17 no grupo controle não asmáticos e não alérgicos, que completaram o teste. Para nebulizar a solução salina hipertônica foi utilizado um nebulizador ultra-sônico de grande volume, sucessivamente durante 0,5, 1, 2, 4 e 8 minutos até haver queda > 15% em relação ao volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo basal. A dosagem de imunoglobulina E específica ao Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus por ImmunoCap foi considerada positiva quando > 0,35 kU/L. RESULTADOS: No grupo de asmáticos, 36 apresentaram queda média do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo de 27,4% após nebulização de solução salina hipertônica. Nenhum do grupo controle (imunoglobulina E OBJECTIVE: To assess airway hyperresponsiveness to 4.5% hypertonic saline solution in comparison to that obtained through challenge with other bronchoconstriction agents and in relation to patient allergic sensitization. METHODS: A cross-sectional, experimental study was conducted, initially involving 85 subjects. After exclusions, the final sample consisted of 62 patients, divided into two groups: a study group of those with asthma (n = 45 and a control group of those with no asthma or allergies (n = 17. Hypertonic saline was nebulized using an ultrasonic nebulizer and administered successively for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 minutes until a drop in forced expiratory volume in one second of = 15% was achieved in relation to the baseline value. The level of specific immunoglobulin E to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus level was determined by ImmunoCAP assay and was considered positive when > 0.35 kU/L. RESULTS: In the 36 asthma group subjects presenting a

  4. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H

    1999-01-01

    extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour...

  5. Operating room use of hypertonic solutions: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Azoubel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions have been widely used during prehospital care of trauma patients and have shown positive hemodynamic effects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in intra-operative use of hypertonic solutions. We reviewed 30 clinical studies on the use of hypertonic saline solutions during surgeries, with the majority being cardiac surgeries. Reduced positive fluid balance, increased cardiac index, and decreased systemic vascular resistance were the main beneficial effects of using hypertonic solutions in this population. Well-designed clinical trials are highly needed, particularly in aortic aneurysm repair surgeries, where hypertonic solutions have shown many beneficial effects. Examining the immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic solutions should also be a priority in future studies.

  6. Out-of-Hospital Hypertonic Resuscitation Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Eileen M.; May, Susanne; Brasel, Karen J.; Schreiber, Martin; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Newgard, Craig; Slutsky, Arthur; Coimbra, Raul; Emerson, Scott; Minei, Joseph P.; Bardarson, Berit; Kudenchuk, Peter; Baker, Andrew; Christenson, Jim; Idris, Ahamed; Davis, Daniel; Fabian, Timothy C.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Callaway, Clifton; Williams, Carolyn; Banek, Jane; Vaillancourt, Christian; van Heest, Rardi; Sopko, George; Hata, J. Steven; Hoyt, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Hypertonic fluids restore cerebral perfusion with reduced cerebral edema and modulate inflammatory response to reduce subsequent neuronal injury and thus have potential benefit in resuscitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids improves neurologic outcome following severe TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 114 North American emergency medical services agencies within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, conducted between May 2006 and May 2009 among patients 15 years or older with blunt trauma and a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less who did not meet criteria for hypovolemic shock. Planned enrollment was 2122 patients. Intervention A single 250-mL bolus of 7.5% saline/6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline), or 0.9% saline (normal saline) initiated in the out-of-hospital setting. Main Outcome Measure Six-month neurologic outcome based on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) (dichotomized as >4 or ≤4). Results The study was terminated by the data and safety monitoring board after randomization of 1331 patients, having met prespecified futility criteria. Among the 1282 patients enrolled, 6-month outcomes data were available for 1087 (85%). Baseline characteristics of the groups were equivalent. There was no difference in 6-month neurologic outcome among groups with regard to proportions of patients with severe TBI (GOSE ≤4) (hypertonic saline/dextran vs normal saline: 53.7% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.2% [95% CI, −4.5% to 9.0%]; hypertonic saline vs normal saline: 54.3% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, −4.0% to 9.7%]; P=.67). There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of GOSE category or Disability Rating Score by treatment group. Survival at 28 days was 74.3% with hypertonic saline

  7. Less impairment of hemostasis and reduced blood loss in pigs after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock using the small-volume concept with hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch as compared to administration of 4% gelatin or 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Thorsten; Fries, Dietmar; Holz, Carmen; Innerhofer, Petra; Streif, Werner; Klingler, Anton; Hanke, Alexander; Velik-Salchner, Corinna

    2008-04-01

    Small-volume resuscitation using hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.62 (HS-HES) has been shown to be an effective alternative to the administration of crystalloids or colloids in trauma patients. All i.v. fluids cause dose-related dilutional coagulopathy and show intrinsic effects on the hemostatic system, but only few data refer to functional consequences after small-volume resuscitation. Using thrombelastometry (ROTEM), we studied 30 pigs (weighing 35-45 kg) after withdrawal of 60% of blood volume [1484 mL (1369-1624 mL)] and receiving 4 mL/kg HS-HES for compensation of blood loss or 4% gelatin or 6% HES 130/0.4 in a 1:1 ratio to lost blood volume. To compare the ROTEM variables (coagulation time, clot formation time, alpha angle, clot firmness, and fibrinogen polymerization) with bleeding tendency, a hepatic incision was made and blood loss was measured. Median (25th, 75th percentile) fibrinogen polymerization was significantly higher after HS-HES infusion [11 mm (10, 11), P = 0.0034] when compared with administration of 4% gelatin [4.5 mm (3.0, 5.8)] or HES 130/0.4 [3.5 mm (2.3, 4.0)]. Median blood loss after liver incision was 725 mL (900, 375) after HS-HES, 1625 mL (1275, 1950) after 4% gelatin, and 1600 mL (1500, 1800) after 6% HES 130/0.4 (P = 0.004). Hemodynamic stabilization was traceable in all groups but showed differences regarding filling pressures. Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with HS-HES 200/0.62 results in less impairment of clot formation when compared with compensation of blood loss by administering 6% HES 130/0.4 or 4% gelatin.

  8. Effect of helium preinjection and prior thermomechanical treatment on the microstructure of Type 316 SS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohyama, A.; Ayrault, G.; Turner, A.P.L.; Igata, N.

    1982-10-01

    Samples of 316 SS were preinjected with 15 appM helium either hot (650 0 C) or cold (room temperature) and irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + ions to a dose level of 25 dpa at 625 0 C in order to test the validity of helium preinjection as a means of simulation of transmutant helium production. Results for preinjected and single-ion irradiated samples were compared to samples irradiated with 3 MeV Ni + and simultaneously injected with helium at a rate of 15 appM He/dpa (dual-ion irradiated samples). Preinjected samples exhibited bimodal cavity size distributions. Preinjected samples of solution annealed or solution annealed and aged material showed lower swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples. However, He preinjection in 20% cold worked samples showed greater swelling than dual-ion irradiated samples 9 figures, 1 table

  9. Use of Pre-Injection Diffusion of Local Anaesthetic as a Means of Reducing Needle Penetration Discomfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Sandalli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine if pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution influences the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate. Methods: A placebo-controlled, randomised, doubleblind split-mouth investigation was conducted. 25 healthy adult volunteers were recruited and each received two needle penetrations in a random order during one visit. The penetration sites were 1 cm from the gingival margin of the first maxillary premolars on each side of the mouth. 30 gauge-13 mm needles which were attached to syringes that contained either 2% lidocaine with 0.125mg/ml epinephrine or physiological saline were used. For each penetration an operator encouraged a drop of solution to appear at the end of the needle and placed this drop with the bevel of the needle flat on the palate for 20 seconds. The discomfort was noted on a 100 mm visual analogue scale with end points marked “No pain” and “Unbearable pain”. Results: There was no significant difference in penetration discomfort between solutions, (mean VAS = 26.80±19.36mm for lidocaine and 26.20±18.39mm for saline however the 2nd penetration was significantly more uncomfortable than the first (mean VAS = 31.00±19.84 mm and 22.00±16.65 mm respectively. Conclusion: Pre-injection diffusion of local anaesthetic solution did not influence the discomfort of needle penetration in the palate.

  10. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Use of Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution at Surgery under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data available in the references on different aspects of using hypertonic sodium chloride solution during surgery under extracorporeal circulation in cardiosurgical care. The hypertonic solution is shown to lower positive fluid balance in the perioperative period, to increase cardiac output with simultaneously decreased vascular resistance, to improve lung oxygenating function, and to normalize tissue blood circulation and neurological status in patients exposed to artificial perfusion. There is evidence for its effect on the immune system and capillary endothelium. It is suggested that it is necessary to study the effect of the hypertonic solution on the incidence of complications and death rates during surgery under extracorporeal circulation and it is proposed to use the solution under long-term extracorporeal circulation. Key words: hypertonic saline, sodium chloride, extracorporeal circulation.

  12. Small volume resuscitation with hypertonic sodium chloride solution in cattle undergoing surgical correction of abomasal volvulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickinger, M.; Doll, K.; Roloff, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    .5±2.1 vs. 10.3±3.3cm H2O, respectively). Within the first 60min, the base excess decreased from 5.5±6.9 to 4.7±6.2mmol/L in the hypertonic group whereas it increased from 5.6±5.7 to 6.8±5.4mmol/L in the isotonic group. These results suggest that for cows with abomasal volvulus, IV therapy with hypertonic...... had a significantly greater reduction in volume deficit within the first 10min of therapy than cows treated with isotonic saline (from 5.9±4.8 to 2.1±4.4L/100kg vs. 7.0±4.5 to 4.9±3.8L/100kg, respectively). The central venous pressure (CVP) of the cows given the hypertonic saline rose within the first...... 10 min of therapy from 7.3±3.5 to 10.8±3.4cm H2O, while the CVP of the cattle treated with isotonic saline did not increase significantly during this time.Sixty minutes after the start of the infusion, the CVP of the isotonic group was still significantly lower than that of the hypertonic group (9...

  13. Millimeter wave therapy in hypertonic disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter wave therapy in hypertonic disease treatment promotes disappearance of negative clinical symptoms, normalization of arterial pressure indicators, improvement of system and cerebral hemodynamic. In spite of active using of wideband equipment in treatment for cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertonic disease, the procedures generalizing experience in their use are not enough. Thus further investigation, searching of new treatment methods using up-to-date physiotherapy technology seem to be actual.

  14. Effect of diesel pre-injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics of compression ignited natural gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Min; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Hongfei; An, Tao; Zhang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-injection timing on combustion and emission of CING engine are studied. • Closely pre-injection operations leads to increase of combustion intensity. • Early pre-injection operations leads to lower combustion intensity. • Early pre-injection modes provide better NO x emission. - Abstract: Pre-injection strategy is considered to be one of the most important ways to improve diesel engine performance, emission and combustion. It is the same important factor in pilot diesel compression ignition natural gas (CING) engine. In this study, effects of pre-injection timing on combustion and emission performances were experimentally studied in a CING engine which was modified from a turbocharged six-cylinder diesel engine. The experiments were conducted at constant speed of 1400 rpm and different engine loads with a constant fuel injection pressure of 1100 bar. Main injection timing was fixed at 10 °CA BTDC in the advance process of pre-injection timing. The cylinder pressure, heart release rate (HRR), pressure rise rate (PRR), start of combustion (SOC) and coefficient of variation (COV IMEP ), as well as NO x , HC and CO emissions were analyzed. The results indicated that closely pre-injection operations lead to the advance of SOC which intensified combustion of in-cylinder mixture, thereby resulting in higher cylinder pressure, HRR and PRR, as well higher NO x emissions and lower HC and CO emissions. However, early pre-injection operations lead to lower cylinder pressure, HRR and PRR due to decreasing in combustion intensity. Pre-injection timing of 70 °CA BTDC is a conversion point in which influence of pre-injection fuel on ignition and combustion of natural gas nearly disappeared and lowest NO x emission could be obtained. Compared with single injection ignition mode, NO x emissions at the conversion point were reduced by 33%, 38% and 7% at engine load of 38%, 60% and 80% respectively. This is important for the conditions that ignition fuel

  15. Hot Hypertonic Saline and Compression Device: A Novel Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    plastic spatula was then padded/bolstered with gauze and then secured on the border ... heat energy that causes disruption of the intima and eventually collapse and ... to occlude and seal off the vessels, and with this, it became possible to ...

  16. Effects of hypertonic dextrose injections in the rabbit carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Schmelzer, James D; Low, Phillip A; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of different doses of hypertonic dextrose injection on the carpal tunnel subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) and median nerve in a rabbit model. Thirty-eight New Zealand white rabbits weighing 4.0-4.5 kg were used. One forepaw carpal tunnel was randomly injected with one of five different treatments: saline-single injection; saline-two injections 1 week apart; 10% dextrose-single injection; 20% dextrose-single injection; or 10% dextrose-two injections 1 week apart. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks after the initial injection and were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), SSCT mechanical testing and histology. There were significant increases in the energy absorption of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline injection groups. SSCT stiffness was also significantly increased in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the other groups. There was a significant increase in the thickness of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group and a significant decrease in the nerve short-long diameter ratio in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group. There were no changes in EP among the groups. SSCT fibrosis is present for up to 12 weeks after dextrose injection; multiple injections have bigger effects, including what appears to be a secondary change in nerve flattening. This model may be useful to study the effects of external fibrosis on nerve morphology and physiology, such as occurs clinically in carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  17. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tromethamine (THAM has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP. Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  18. Inalação de solução salina hipertônica como coadjuvante da fisioterapia respiratória para reversão de atelectasia no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica Inhalation of hypertonic saline solution as coadjuvant in respiratory physiotherapy to reverse atelectasis in the postoperative of pediatric heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Luisa Saiki da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Criança de 11 meses, sexo feminino, submetida à operação de fechamento de comunicação interventricular, comunicação interatrial e ligadura de canal arterial. Evoluiu no pós-operatório com atelectasia persistente em base pulmonar à direita, não respondendo às manobras fisioterapêuticas convencionais, efetuadas seis vezes ao dia. Após associação, como coadjuvante, da inalação de solução salina hipertônica com NaCl a 6%, imediatamente antes e após o atendimento fisioterápico, observou-se crises de tosse produtiva, com maior indução do escarro e resolução completa da atelectasia, com três dias de tratamento.The case of an eleven-month-old female child is presented diagnosed as having congenital heart disease with pulmonary hyperflow, who was submitted to a surgery to close an interventricular communication, interatrial communication and arterial canal ligature. The infant evolved with persistent atelectasis at the right lung base in the postoperative period which did not respond to conventional physiotherapeutic measures. Inhalation of hypertonic saline solution with 6% NaCl was associated as a coadjuvant therapy, giving a total cure of the atelectasis after three days of treatment.

  19. Phosphoinositolphosphate (PIP) cascade induction by hypertonic stress of plant tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Jacoby, B.

    1989-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) was determined by competition with [ 3 H]-IP 3 for binding to an IP 3 specific protein. A hypertonic mannitol, sorbitol or lactose shock induced an increase in the rate of K + uptake and raised the IP 3 content of Beta vulgaris slices, excised Vigna mungo and Sorghum bicolor roots, as well as attached V. mungo roots. Increased K + uptake could also be induced by compounds that artificially induce the PIP cascade, or mimic it's products. A hypertonic shock, administered to intact B. vulgaris slices, further enhanced the phosphorylation of a 20 kD protein in the plasmalemma. Maximal IP 3 content was found 10 min after hypertonic induction and maximal K + uptake was obtained 10 min later. The effect of a continuous hypertonic treatment on IP 3 content, but not on K + uptake, was transient. Li + decreased the rate of IP 3 metabolism

  20. New Form of Hypertonic Solution for Nebulization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytic, expectorative and antitussive drugs are traditionally used in acute or chronic respiratory episodes affected by acute respiratory infections. Today, preference is given to drugs in a form of solutions for nebulization therapy. The article presents data on the new dosage form of 7% inhalation hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid used in mucostasis therapy for chronic respiratory diseases. The information on the properties and the favorable effect of hyaluronic acid is provided. We discuss the evidence base of inhalation of the hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid in cystic fibrosis.

  1. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  2. Analgesic effects of preinjection low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT) before third molar surgery: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, Jacco G. C.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; Mertens, Ine C.; Keleş, Zühal; Lindeboom, Jérôme A. H.; Milstein, Dan M. J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on preinjection sites in patients scheduled for third molar removal. This double-blind randomized controlled trial included 163 healthy patients undergoing third molar extractions. The study participants

  3. Transperitoneal transport of sodium during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Brahm, J

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of transperitoneal sodium transport during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis were evaluated by kinetic modelling. A total of six nested mathematical models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective and lymphatic convective solute transport....... Experimental results were obtained from 26 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The model validation procedure demonstrated that only diffusive and non-lymphatic convective transport mechanisms were identifiable in the transperitoneal transport of sodium. Non-lymphatic convective sodium...

  4. Erythroid differentiation and commitment in rat erythroleukemia cells with hypertonic culture conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Y; Kluge, N; Ostertag, W; Furusawa, M

    1981-01-01

    Cell cultures of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat erythroleukemia can be stimulated to synthesize hemoglobin when cultured in hypertonic media. During hypertonic treatment the intracellular osmotic conditions immediately readjust to those of the extracellular medium. None of the Friend virus-induced mouse erythroleukemia cell lines was inducible for differentiation with the same hypertonic culture conditions used for rat cells. Earliest commitment to erythroid terminal differentiati...

  5. What are the effects of hypertonic saline plus furosemide in acute heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Zepeda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de nuevas terapias para resolver la resistencia a los diuréticos en insuficiencia cardiaca aguda se ha planteado la adición de suero hipertónico. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen nueve estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Se concluye que el suero hipertónico asociado a furosemida probablemente disminuye la mortalidad, estadía y reingreso hospitalario en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada.

  6. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-01-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment

  7. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Anas M; Turner, Michael R; Mager, Donald E; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2015-03-01

    The subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after s.c. administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyperosmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as the animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) on the plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after s.c. administration. An increase was observed in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, compared with isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to the improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph nodes in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatics, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05% in isotonic buffer to 13% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. The data suggest that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option for improving s.c. bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy: time for changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zunjia; Wu, Chao; Cui, Feifei; Zhang, Haiying; Mei, Binbin; Shen, Meifen

    2016-12-09

    Saline fluid nebulization is highly recommend to combat the complications following tracheostomy, yet the understandings on the role of osmolality in saline solution for nebulization remain unclear. To investigate the biological changes in the early stage after tracheostomy, to verify the efficacy of saline fluid nebulization and explore the potential role of osmolality of saline nebulization after tracheostomy. Sprague-Dawley rats undergone tracheostomy were taken for study model, the sputum viscosity was detected by rotational viscometer, the expressions of TNF-α, AQP4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed by western blot analysis, and the histological changes in endothelium were evaluated by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Study results revealed that tracheostomy gave rise to the increase of sputum viscosity, TNF-α and AQP4 expression, mucosa and cilia damage, yet the saline fluid nebulization could significantly decrease the changes of those indicators, besides, the hypertonic, isotonic and hypertonic saline nebulization produced different efficacy. Osmolality plays an important role in the saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy, and 3% saline fluid nebulization seems to be more beneficial, further studies on the role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization are warranted.

  9. Upper Limb Hypertonicity in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review Study on Medical and Rehabilitative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rassafiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypertonicity is the most common type of cerebral palsy consists of 85% of the affected children. It has a very complex nature making intervention and management very difficult. This article tries to make reader familiar with various types of intervention and introduce a new intervention process to help clinicians decide better. Literature was reviewed with two criteria including: identifying various interventions and their effects on upper limb hypertonicity and level ofinvasiveness of each intervention. This paper suggested a new way of looking at hypertonicitybased on its two components (i.e., neural and biomechanical and effectiveness of each intervention on these components. In the treatment and management of hypertonicity, clinicians are required tolook at all aspects of hypertonicity and then based on the provided decision tree, decide which kind of treatment to be used for the child.

  10. Involvement of TRPV1 and AQP2 in hypertonic stress by xylitol in odontoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, M; Fujisawa, M; Miyashita, K; Kawakami, Y; Morimoto-Yamashita, Y; Torii, M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the responses of mouse odontoblast-lineage cell line (OLC) cultures to xylitol-induced hypertonic stress. OLCs were treated with xylitol, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol, arabinose and lyxose. Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium assay. The expression of transient receptor potential vanilloids (TRPV) 1, 3 and 4 was detected using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The expression of aquaporin (AQP) 2 was detected using immunofluorescence and Western blotting analysis. The expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) under xylitol-induced hypertonic stress was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for AQP-2 was used to inhibition assay. Xylitol-induced hypertonic stress did not decrease OLC viability, unlike the other sugars tested. OLCs expressed TRPV1, 3 and 4 as well as AQP2. Xylitol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 expression after 3 h of hypertonic stress. TRPV1 mRNA expression was upregulated by xylitol. Costimulation with HgCl2 (AQP inhibitor) and Ruthenium red (TRPV1 inhibitor) decreased cell viability with xylitol stimulation. OLCs treated with siRNA against TRPV1 exhibited decreased cell viability with xylitol stimulation. OLCs have high-cell viability under xylitol-induced hypertonic stress, which may be associated with TRPV1 and AQP2 expressions.

  11. Modification of permeability of frog perineurium to [14C]-sucrose by stretch and hypertonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method has been developed to determine quantitatively the permeability of the perineurium to radiotracers at room temperature. The permeability to [ 14 C]sucrose of the isolated perineurium of the sciatic nerve of the frog, Rana pipiens, was measured at rest length, when the perineurium was stretched and after the perineurium had been subjected to hypertonic treatment. Mean permeability at rest length was calculated to be 5.6 +- 0.27 (S.E.M., n=45)x10 -7 cm/sec, and both stretch and hypertonic treatment increased the permeability. A 10% stretch increased permeability reversibly, whereas a 20% stretch or immersion of the perineurium in a hypertonic bath increased permeability irreversibly. Altered permeability under these conditions might be related to changes in the ultrastructure of tight junctions in the perineurium. (Auth.)

  12. Regional deposition of saline aerosols of different tonicities in normal and asthmatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, P.R.; Gonda, I.; Anderson, S.D.; Bailey, D.; Bautovich, G.

    1994-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosols are frequently used in the diagnosis and therapy of lung disease. The purpose of this work was to study the difference in the pattern of deposition of aerosols containing aqueous solutions of different tonicities. 99m Technetium-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA)-labelled saline aerosols, with mass median aerodynamic diameter 3.7-3.8 μm and geometric standard deviation 1.4, were inhaled under reproducible breathing conditions on two occasions. Hypotonic and hypertonic solutions were used in 11 normals subjects, isotonic and hypertonic solutions in 9 asthmatics. The regional deposition was quantified by a penetration index measured with the help of a tomographic technique. There was a small but significant increase (6.7%) in the penetration index of the hypotonic as compared to the hypertonic aerosols in the normal subjects. The region that was markedly affected was the trachea. The differences in the penetration of the isotonic and hypertonic aerosols in the asthmatics appeared to be strongly dependent on the state of the airways at the time of the study. These findings can be interpreted in terms of effects of growth or shrinkage of nonisotonic aerosols, as well as of airway narrowing, on regional deposition of aerosols. Tonicity of aerosols appears to affect their deposition both through physical and physiological mechanisms. This should be taken into account when interpreting the effects of inhaled aqueous solutions of various tonicities in patients in vivo. (au) (44 refs.)

  13. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Inducible nucleosome depletion at OREBP-binding-sites by hypertonic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith H Y Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osmotic Response Element-Binding Protein (OREBP, also known as TonEBP or NFAT5, is a unique transcription factor. It is hitherto the only known mammalian transcription factor that regulates hypertonic stress-induced gene transcription. In addition, unlike other monomeric members of the NFAT family, OREBP exists as a homodimer and it is the only transcription factor known to bind naked DNA targets by complete encirclement in vitro. Nevertheless, how OREBP interacts with target DNA, also known as ORE/TonE, and how it elicits gene transcription in vivo, remains unknown. METHODOLOGY: Using hypertonic induction of the aldose reductase (AR gene activation as a model, we showed that OREs contained dynamic nucleosomes. Hypertonic stress induced a rapid and reversible loss of nucleosome(s around the OREs. The loss of nucleosome(s was found to be initiated by an OREBP-independent mechanism, but was significantly potentiated in the presence of OREBP. Furthermore, hypertonic induction of AR gene was associated with an OREBP-dependent hyperacetylation of histones that spanned the 5' upstream sequences and at least some exons of the gene. Nevertheless, nucleosome loss was not regulated by the acetylation status of histone. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings offer novel insights into the mechanism of OREBP-dependent transcriptional regulation and provide a basis for understanding how histone eviction and transcription factor recruitment are coupled.

  15. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  16. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentration of fruit have direct effects on the dehydration rate and also inverse influence on the dehydration duration. The geometrical parameters of fruit and water concentration in hypertonic solution showed direct effect on the dehydration duration as well as inverse effect on the dehydration rate. The presented model seems to be useful tool to predict the dehydration kinetics of cone-shaped fruit during osmotic dehydration process and to optimize the process prior to perform the experiments.

  17. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-01-01

    Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentratio...

  18. [The effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhifeng; Xu, Yu; Ou, Jin; Xiang, Rong; Tao, Zezhang

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model, and explore the possible mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis. We used Der pl to make allergic rhinitis model of BALB/c mice, and divided them into three groups randomly. Nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater (HS) or isotonic seawater (IS) in the treatment group 1-14 days after modeling, and black control (BC) group was given no treatment after modeling. Normal control (NC) group was given no treatment, the number of rubs and sneezings in each group were counted in 30 min after the last nasal irrigation. Mice were then killed 24 h after the last therapy. The noses of mice from each group were removed and fixed, then the slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the others were observed by transmission electron microscope. Mice with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater were significantly improved in rubs and sneezings compared to the black control group (P 0. 05); Ciliated columnar epithelium cells in mucosal tissues of HS group and IS group were arranged trimly, better than that in the black control group. Morphology and microstructure in nasal mucosal of HS group was closer to the normal group than in IS group. The injury of nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium was significantly improved by nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater, and the former is better than the latter, the mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis may rely on repairing the injured nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium, thereby the symptoms of nasal was reduced.

  19. [The role of arteriovenous interrelations in the formation of clinical-pathogenetic variants of hypertonic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, L A

    2012-01-01

    We studied 209 patients with chronic brain ischemia due to arterial hypertension (hypertonic encephalopathy). 93 patients (44.5%) had clinical-anamnestic features of constitutional phlebopathy and 116 (55.5%) had not. Based on the conception of 5 functional-morphological levels of the vascular brain system, a complex ultrasound study was conducted. The control group included 30 people without cerebrovascular pathology. In hypertonic encephalopathy, pathological processes developing in the 1st and 2nd structural-functional levels (extra- and intracerebral arteries) correspond to remodeling, that is characteristic of arterial hypertension, and do not depend on the presence of the constitutional venous insufficiency. Changes in parameters of the blood flow in the 3rd, 4th and 5th structural-functional levels of the brain's blood supply (microcirculatory bed, head venous system, jugular and spine veins) form a dopplerographic pattern of the cerebral venous dyscirculation which is mostly pronounced in constitutional phlebopathy in patients with hypertonic encephalopathy. This pattern includes the reduction of linear blood flow velocity in nitroglycerine test, lower values of the resistance index and the increase in the linear blood flow velocity in the sinus transversus and Rosenthal vein, lack of ostial valves of the inner jugular veinas well as the decrease of linear and increase in the volume blood flow velocity along it. The methodology of the system approach based on using clinical and instrumental method in the study of cerebral hemodynamics is important for treatment optimization in patients with chronic brain ischemia.

  20. EXPERIENCE OF SEA WATER HYPERTONIC SOLUTION APPLICATION FOR TOPICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Karpova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effectiveness of sea water hypertonic solution (Aqua Maris troath and oral cavity spray, Jadran, Croatia medication to treat chronic tonsillitis of the compensated form on 84 children aged between 5 and 15. All children had their tonsil lacunae rinsed in a day № 6–8. 64 children had them rinsed with the sea water hypertonic solution (main group, while 20 children had them rinsed with the nitrofural solution (comparison group. Treatment effectiveness was determined according to dynamics of main symptoms (odynophagia, dysphagia, hyperemia and mucosa infiltration of pillars of the fauces, as well as the degree of tonsil bacterial number before and after treatment (by the 14th day. The dynamic analysis of subjective data during treatment revealed more significant and positive changes among the children of the main group if compared with patients from the comparison group. After treatment the researchers noticed reduction of tonsil bacterial number among 90,62% of children from the main group, whereas this rate made up 60% in the comparison group. Acquired data allowed recommending this medication for the multimodality therapy of infant adenoid disease.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, treatment, children, sea water hypertonic solution.

  1. Local Irritation Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran 70 (Trade Name) and Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    34 Toxicology Series 244, was audited on 21 November 1988. CAROLYN M. LEWIS, MS Diplomate, American Board of Toxicology Chief, Quality Assurance vi TABLE OF...a aa O l-4 i)’ a a a Lia _ at . acca - ).a *a a a a ...j a0 ~ mal- a a 4 0. 4 a a a a I Da~ a a a o _a a a 0.a ~ a a a a ja a a a U a aa EA- a aa a- 0

  2. Pre-injection of hyaluronic acid does not affect the systemic effects of intra-articular depot betamethasone injection at the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, George; Khatib, Muhamad; Sakas, Fahed; Artul, Suheil; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen

    2017-01-01

    Intra-articular injection (IAI) of both hyaluronic acid (HA) and depot-steroid preparations had the advantage of quick and prolonged favorable effects on pain relief among patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK). The effect of IAI of HA on the systemic effects of the intra-articular steroids had not been investigated. Non-selected patients attending the rheumatology clinic with symptomatic OAK who failed NSAIDS and physical therapy were offered an IAI of HA at the knee joint followed 20 min later by an IAI of 1 ml of Celestone Chronodose at the same joint (group 1). Morning serum levels of cortisol were obtained just prior to the IAI and 1, 2 and 8 days later. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were obtained also from all the patients. Age- and sex-matched group of patients from the same clinic were recruited as a control group (group 2). Mean baseline serum cortisol levels in group 1 was 381 ± 154 mmol/l vs. 376 ± 119 in group 2 (p = 0.954). Morning serum cortisol levels at day 1 and day 2 were 24 ± 6 and 22 ± 6 mmol/l, respectively, in group 1 patients vs. 27 ± 5.8 (p = 0.214) and 25 ± 5.6 mmol/l (p = 0.200), respectively, in group 2. These levels were significantly lower than baseline levels in each group. Morning serum cortisol levels at day 8 in group 1 and group 2 were 349 ± 128 and 314 ± 99 mmol/l, respectively (p = 0.419). Pre-injection of HA at the knee joint did not affect the systemic effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of IAI of Celestone Chronodose.

  3. [Changes induced by hypertonic solutions in the transportation of calcium by the cardiac reticular sarcoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M; Holguín, J A

    1979-01-01

    In the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the myocardium, celular organell which function is to regulate the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium in contraction and relaxation, we have studied the effect of hypertonic solutions of sucrose between 1 and 6.96 times the normal tonicity in order to observe the behavior of the internal linked or free calcium of this structure, as well as to prove the hypothesis that hypertonic solutions encourage the calcium exit of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with the resulting signs of contractures. The following results were obtained: 1. The ATP hydrolisis and calcium transport rate are 14% and 90% respectively of the maximum speeds of 10(-5) M in calcium, while for concentrations of 10(-7) M or ess of the said cation, the transport rates and the ATPase do not reach 5% of the maximum values. 2. Between 1 and 2.54 times of the normal tonicity the calcium uptake remains between 400 and 500 nmoles of calcium/mg protein/min, the transported amount of calcium varies between 14 and 16 nmoles/mg protein and the rate of the ATP hydrolysis increases a 37% to 0.4 M in sucrose. 3. Between 0.4 and 1.2 M in sucrose of 2.54 to 6.96 times the isotonicity, the calcium transport rate velocity as well as the ATP hydrolisis are strongly inhibited. The vesicles volume minimizes and the amount of linked calcium remains within the control values, proving that the capacity of linking this cathion is independent from sarcoplasmic reticulum volume. These results show that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is involved in the contractures induced by hypertonic solutions in intact cells, since the osmolarity increase produces changes of volume which results in a decrease of the calcium transportation velocity or in an increase of the exit of said cathion.

  4. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  5. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  6. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The osmolyte type affects cartilage associated pathologic marker expression during in vitro mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis under hypertonic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadyan, Sorour; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Tasharofi, Noushin; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Kehtari, Mousa; Hajari Zadeh, Athena; Soleimani, Masoud; Farazmand, Ali; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2018-02-28

    Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition. Calcium deposition and TNF-α secretion as markers associated with hypertrophy and inflammation were then assayed. While both hyperosmotic conditions upregulated chondrogenic markers, sorbitol had a nearly three times higher chondro-promotive effect and a lesser hypertrophic effect compared to NaCl. Also, a significantly lesser calcium deposition was observed in sorbitol hypertonic group. NaCl showed an anti-proinflammatory effect while sorbitol had no effect on inflammatory markers. The ossification potential and cartilage associated pathologic markers were affected differentially by the type of the osmolyte. Thus, a vigilant application of the osmotic agent is inevitable in order to avoid or reduce undesired hypertrophic and inflammatory phenotype acquisition by MSC during chondrogenic differentiation. Our findings are a step towards developing a more reliable chondrogenic regimen using external hypertonic cues for MSC chondrogenesis with potential applications in chondral lesions cell therapy.

  8. Assessment Impact of Foot Sensory Modulation on Inhibition of Hypertonicity of the Lower Limb in Children with Diplegia Spastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Fatoureh-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess impact of foot sensory modulation on inhibition of hypertonicity of the lower limb in children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: 24 selected children (aged 2.5 to 4.5 years were randomly assigned to a control and experimental groups. Muscle tone was assessed using modified Ashworth scale, passive Range of motion by goniameter (Pedretti, neurodevelopmental level by Bobath scale. All children were pre-post tested in an interval of ten weeks. Results: Significant reduction was observed in hypertonicity of hip extensor (p<0/1 and ankle planter flexor (P<0/05. Significant increase was observed in passive Range of motion of hip flexion (P<0/1, knee extension (P<0/05 and ankle dorsi flexion (P<0/05. There was found no significant difference of reduction in hypertonicity of knee flexor and improvement neurodevelopmental level. Meaningful relationship was observed between reduction hypertonicity of the hip extensor (P<0/05 and improvement of neurodevelopmental level (P<0/05. Conclusion: Impact of sensory modulation on children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy reduces spasticity of lower limb and also extends joints domain of motion.

  9. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  10. The transport systems of Ventricaria ventricosa: hypotonic and hypertonic turgor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, M A; Beilby, M J

    2002-11-01

    The time course of hypertonic and hypotonic turgor regulation was studied in Ventricaria (Valonia) using pressure probe and I/V(current-voltage) analysis. Of 11 cells, 9 exhibited hypertonic turgor regulation, ranging from 100% regulation in 150 min to 14% regulation (14% recovery of the decrease in turgor) in 314 min. Some cells began regulating immediately, others took up to 90 min to begin. The resting PD (potential difference) became more positive in most cells. The I/V characteristics became more nonlinear with high resistance between -150 and -20 mV and negative conductance region near -70 mV. Prolonged (16 sec) voltage clamps to negative levels (-100 to -150 mV) showed progressively more rapid current turn-off, but subsequent I/V characteristics were not affected. Clamping to +150 mV, however, abolished the high conductance between -50 and +100 mV to yield a uniform high resistance I/V characteristic, similar to that in high [K+]o. Decreasing illumination from 2.02 micromol sec(-1) m(-2) to 0.5 micromol sec(-1)1 m(-2) had a similar effect. Two out of a total of three cells exhibited hypotonic turgor regulation. Both cells started regulating within minutes and achieved near 50% regulation within 50 min. The PD became more negative. The I/V curves exhibited high resistance between +50 and +150 mV. The characteristics were similar to those in cells exposed to low [K+]o. Prolonged voltage clamps to both negative and positive levels showed slow current increase. Decreased illumination increased the membrane resistance.

  11. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Quintard, Hervé ; Patet, Camille; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Suys, Tamarah; Bouzat, Pierre; Pellerin, Luc; Meuli, Reto; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy

  12. Hypertonic-induced lamin A/C synthesis and distribution to nucleoplasmic speckles is mediated by TonEBP/NFAT5 transcriptional activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, Nicolas O.; Sterin Speziale, Norma B.; Fernandez Tome, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Lamin A/C is the most studied nucleoskeletal constituent. Lamin A/C expression indicates cell differentiation and is also a structural component of nuclear speckles, which are involved in gene expression regulation. Hypertonicity has been reported to induce renal epithelial cell differentiation and expression of TonEBP (NFAT5), a transcriptional activator of hypertonicity-induced gene transcription. In this paper, we investigate the effect of hypertonicity on lamin A/C expression in MDCK cells and the involvement of TonEBP. Hypertonicity increased lamin A/C expression and its distribution to nucleoplasm with speckled pattern. Microscopy showed codistribution of TonEBP and lamin A/C in nucleoplasmic speckles, and immunoprecipitation demonstrated their interaction. TonEBP silencing caused lamin A/C redistribution from nucleoplasmic speckles to the nuclear rim, followed by lamin decrease, thus showing that hypertonicity induces lamin A/C speckles through a TonEBP-dependent mechanism. We suggest that lamin A/C speckles could serve TonEBP as scaffold thus favoring its role in hypertonicity

  13. Generating chimeric mice from embryonic stem cells via vial coculturing or hypertonic microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The generation of a fertile embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived or F0 (100 % coat color chimerism) mice is the final criterion in proving that the ESC is truly pluripotent. Many methods have been developed to produce chimeric mice. To date, the most popular methods for generating chimeric embryos is well sandwich aggregation between zona pellucida (ZP) removed (denuded) 2.5-day post-coitum (dpc) embryos and ESC clumps, or direct microinjection of ESCs into the cavity (blastocoel) of 3.5-dpc blastocysts. However, due to systemic limitations and the disadvantages of conventional microinjection, aggregation, and coculturing, two novel methods (vial coculturing and hypertonic microinjection) were developed in recent years at my laboratory.Coculturing 2.5-dpc denuded embryos with ESCs in 1.7-mL vials for ~3 h generates chimeras that have significantly high levels of chimerism (including 100 % coat color chimerism) and germline transmission. This method has significantly fewer instrumental and technological limitations than existing methods, and is an efficient, simple, inexpensive, and reproducible method for "mass production" of chimeric embryos. For laboratories without a microinjection system, this is the method of choice for generating chimeric embryos. Microinjecting ESCs into a subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos can generate germline-transmitted chimeras including 100 % coat color chimerism. However, this method is adopted rarely due to the very small and tight space between ZP and blastomeres. Using a laser pulse or Piezo-driven instrument/device to help introduce ESCs into the subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos demonstrates the superior efficiency in generating ESC-derived (F0) chimeras. Unfortunately, due to the need for an expensive instrument/device and extra fine skill, not many studies have used either method. Recently, ESCs injected into the large subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos in an injection medium containing 0.2-0.3 M sucrose very efficiently generated

  14. Chondrogenic Effect of Intra-articular Hypertonic-Dextrose (Prolotherapy) in Severe Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, Gastón Andrés; Podesta, Leandro Ariel; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Giraldo, Marcia Mallma; Johnson, Lanny L; Grasso, Raul; Jamín, Alexis; Clark, Tom; Rabago, David

    2016-11-01

    Dextrose injection is reported to improve knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-related clinical outcomes, but its effect on articular cartilage is unknown. A chondrogenic effect of dextrose injection has been proposed. To assess biological and clinical effects of intra-articular hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in painful KOA. Case series with blinded arthroscopic evaluation before and after treatment. Physical medicine and day surgery practice. Symptomatic KOA for at least 6 months, arthroscopy-confirmed medial compartment exposed subchondral bone, and temporary pain relief with intra-articular lidocaine injection. Four to 6 monthly 10-mL intra-articular injections with 12.5% dextrose. Visual cartilage growth assessment of 9 standardized medial condyle zones in each of 6 participants by 3 arthroscopy readers masked to pre-/postinjection status (total 54 zones evaluated per reader); biopsy of a cartilage growth area posttreatment, evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Safranin-O stains, quantitative polarized light microscopy, and immunohistologic cartilage typing; self-reported knee specific quality of life using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, 0-100 points). Six participants (1 female and 5 male) with median age of 71 years, WOMAC composite score of 57.5 points, and a 9-year pain duration received a median of 6 dextrose injections and follow-up arthroscopy at 7.75 months (range 4.5-9.5 months). In 19 of 54 zone comparisons, all 3 readers agreed that the posttreatment zone showed cartilage growth compared with the pretreatment zone. Biopsy specimens showed metabolically active cartilage with variable cellular organization, fiber parallelism, and cartilage typing patterns consistent with fibro- and hyaline-like cartilage. Compared with baseline status, the median WOMAC score improved 13 points (P = .013). Self-limited soreness after methylene blue instillation was noted. Positive clinical and chondrogenic effects were seen

  15. Expression and Trafficking of the γ Subunit of Na,K-ATPase in Hypertonically Challenged IMCD3 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihakaski-Maunsbach, Kaarina; Nonaka, Shoichi; Maunsbach, Arvid B.

    2008-01-01

    The γ subunit (FXYD2) of Na,K-ATPase is an important regulator of the sodium pump. In this investigation we have analysed the trafficking of γ to the plasma membrane in cultures of inner medullary collecting duct cells (IMCD3) following acute hypertonic challenge and brefeldin A (BFA) treatment. Following hypertonic challenging for 24 hr immunofluorescence labeling revealed initial co-localization of the γ subunit and 58K Golgi protein in the cytoplasm, but no co-localization of α1 and Golgi protein. Exposure of the challenged cells to BFA prevented the subsequent incorporation of γ into the basolateral plasma membrane. The γ subunit instead remained in cytoplasmic vesicles while cell proliferation and cell viability decreased simultaneously. Following removal of BFA from the hypertonic medium the IMCD3 cells recovered with distinct expression of γ in the basolateral membrane. The α1 subunit was only marginally influenced by BFA. The results demonstrate that the γ subunit trafficks to the plasma membrane via the Golgi apparatus, despite the absence of a signal sequence. The results also suggest that the γ and α subunits do not traffic together to the plasma membrane, and that the γ and α subunit have different turnover rates during these experimental conditions

  16. Saline-induced natriuresis and renal blood flow in conscious dogs: effects of sodium infusion rate and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study focused on static and dynamic changes in total renal blood flow (RBF) during volume expansion and tested whether a change in RBF characteristics is a necessary effector mechanism in saline-induced natriuresis. METHODS: The aortic flow subtraction technique was used to measure RBF...... continuously. Identical amounts of NaCl (2.4 mmol kg(-1)) were given as slow isotonic (Iso, 120 min), slow hypertonic (Hyper, 120 min), and rapid isotonic loads (IsoRapid, 30 min). RESULTS: During Iso and IsoRapid, arterial blood pressure increased slightly (6-7 mmHg), and during Hyper it remained unchanged...... saline loading simulating daily sodium intake, the rate of sodium excretion may increase 10-20-fold without any change in mean arterial blood pressure or in RBF. Regulatory responses to changes in total body NaCl levels appears, therefore, to be mediated primarily by neurohumoral mechanisms and may occur...

  17. Adaptations of semen characteristics and sperm motility to harsh salinity: Extreme situations encountered by the euryhaline tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii (Dumeril, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Marc; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Dzyuba, Boris; Linhart, Otomar; Prokopchuk, Galina; Cochet, Christophe; Dugué, Rémi; Cosson, Jacky

    2016-09-15

    In most teleost fishes, sperm cells are quiescent in the seminal plasma and are activated by either a drop (fresh water fish) or an increase in osmolality (marine fish) when released in the water. It is most interesting to examine how the mechanisms of sperm motility activation can adapt to a broad range of salinities, as applies to some euryhaline species, and particularly to the tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, which can reproduce at salinities from 0 up to 120 in the wild. Here, the gonado-somatic index, semen characteristics, and the osmotic and ionic requirements of sperm motility activation were compared in S. m. heudelotii reared in fresh water (FW), sea water (SW), or hypersaline water (HW; salinities of 0, 35, and 70, respectively). No salinity-dependent differences were found in gonado-somatic index or semen characteristics, except for an increase of seminal plasma osmolality with increasing salinity (from 318 to 349 mOsm kg(-1) in FW and HW fish, respectively). The osmolality range allowing the highest percentages of sperm activation broadened and shifted toward higher values with increasing fish ambient salinity (150-300, 300-800, and 500-1200 mOsm kg(-1), for FW, SW, and HW fish, respectively). Nevertheless, at the three fish rearing salinities, sperm could be activated in media that were hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic relative to the seminal plasma, at least when some calcium was present above a threshold concentration. The [Ca(2+)] required for the activation of S. m. heudelotii sperm is (1) higher in fish reared at a higher salinity (2) higher in hypertonic than that in hypotonic activation media, whatever the fish rearing salinity, and (3) higher in the presence of Na(+) or K(+), the negative effects of which increased with an increase in fish rearing salinity. The [Ca(2+)]/[Na(+)] ​ ratios allowing for maximal sperm motility in SW or HW fish are close to those observed in natural environments, either in sea or hypersaline

  18. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  19. Role of permissive hypotension, hypertonic resuscitation and the global increased permeability syndrome in patients with severe hemorrhage: adjuncts to damage control resuscitation to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Juan C; Kaplan, Lewis J; Balogh, Zsolt J; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are closely related to fluid resuscitation. IAH causes major deterioration of the cardiac function by affecting preload, contractility and afterload. The aim of this review is to discuss the different interactions between IAH, ACS and resuscitation, and to explore a new hypothesis with regard to damage control resuscitation, permissive hypotension and global increased permeability syndrome. Review of the relevant literature via PubMed search. The recognition of the association between the development of ACS and resuscitation urged the need for new approach in traumatic shock management. Over a decade after wide spread application of damage control surgery damage control resuscitation was developed. DCR differs from previous resuscitation approaches by attempting an earlier and more aggressive correction of coagulopathy, as well as metabolic derangements like acidosis and hypothermia, often referred to as the 'deadly triad' or the 'bloody vicious cycle'. Permissive hypotension involves keeping the blood pressure low enough to avoid exacerbating uncontrolled haemorrhage while maintaining perfusion to vital end organs. The potential detrimental mechanisms of early, aggressive crystalloid resuscitation have been described. Limitation of fluid intake by using colloids, hypertonic saline (HTS) or hyperoncotic albumin solutions have been associated with favourable effects. HTS allows not only for rapid restoration of circulating intravascular volume with less administered fluid, but also attenuates post-injury oedema at the microcirculatory level and may improve microvascular perfusion. Capillary leak represents the maladaptive, often excessive, and undesirable loss of fluid and electrolytes with or without protein into the interstitium that generates oedema. The global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS) has been articulated in patients with persistent systemic inflammation failing

  20. US-Approved Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid Injections are Safe and Effective in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Saline-Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry E.; Block, Jon E.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized saline-controlled trials to determine the safety and efficacy of US-approved intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IAHA) injections for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. A total of 29 studies representing 4,866 unique subjects (IAHA: 2,673, saline: 2,193) were included. IAHA injection resulted in very large treatment effects between 4 and 26 weeks for knee pain and function compared to pre-injection values, with standardized mean difference (SMD) values ranging from 1.07–1.37 (all P injection of US-approved HA products is safe and efficacious in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24027421

  1. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nebesarova, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Hrubanova, Kamila; Milerova, Miluse; Marova, Ivana

    2017-10-25

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) intracellularly as a storage material. It has also been proposed that PHB accumulation improves bacterial stress resistance. Cupriavidus necator and its PHB non-accumulating mutant were employed to investigate the protective role of PHB under hypertonic conditions. The presence of PHB granules enhanced survival of the bacteria after exposure to hypertonic conditions. Surprisingly, when coping with such conditions, the bacteria did not utilize PHB to harvest carbon or energy, suggesting that, in the osmotic upshock of C. necator, the protective mechanism of PHB granules is not associated with their hydrolysis. The presence of PHB granules influenced the overall properties of the cells, since challenged PHB-free cells underwent massive plasmolysis accompanied by damage to the cell membrane and the leakage of cytoplasm content, while no such effects were observed in PHB containing bacteria. Moreover, PHB granules demonstrated "liquid-like" properties indicating that they can partially repair and stabilize cell membranes by plugging small gaps formed during plasmolysis. In addition, the level of dehydration and changes in intracellular pH in osmotically challenged cells were less pronounced for PHB-containing cultures, demonstrating the important role of PHB for bacterial survival under hyperosmotic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic cost of osmoregulation in a hypertonic environment in the invasive African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Peña-Villalobos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aquatic invertebrates reveal that salinity affects feeding and growth rates, reproduction, survival, and diversity. Little is known, however, about how salinity impacts the energy budget of vertebrates and amphibians in particular. The few studies focused on this topic in vertebrates suggest that the ingestion of salts and the resulting osmoregulatory activity is energetically expensive. We analyzed the effect of saline acclimation on standard metabolic rates (SMR and the activities of metabolic enzymes of internal organs and osmoregulatory variables (plasma osmolality and urea plasma level in females of Xenopus laevis by means of acclimating individuals to an isosmotic (235 mOsm NaCl; ISO group and hyper-osmotic (340 mOsm NaCl; HYP group environment for 40 days. After acclimation, we found that total and mass-specific SMR was approximately 80% higher in the HYP group than those found in the ISO group. These changes were accompanied by higher citrate synthase activities in liver and heart in the HYP group than in the ISO group. Furthermore, we found a significant and positive correlation between metabolic rates and plasma urea, and citrate synthase activity in liver and heart. These results support the notion that the cost of osmoregulation is probably common in most animal species and suggest the existence of a functional association between metabolic rates and the adjustments in osmoregulatory physiology, such as blood distribution and urea synthesis.

  3. Effect of peritoneal cavity lavage with 0.9% and 3.0% saline solution in the lung and spleen of gerbils with induced peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Vinícius Rodrigues Taranto; Barbuto, Rafael Calvão; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Pena, Guilherme Nogueira; Rocha, Silvia Lunardi; de Siqueira, Lucas Tourinho; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; de Araujo, Ivana Duval

    2014-04-01

    Peritoneal cavity lavage is used widely in the treatment of peritonitis. Nonetheless, some studies question its rationale and prove it to be deleterious to the mesothelium. The present study aims to determine whether 0.9% and 3.0% saline lavage of the peritoneal cavity have an effect on the early systemic inflammatory response, namely, in the lung injury and splenic cellularity of gerbils with induced peritonitis. Thirty-four male gerbils were divided into four groups: Control (n=9), submitted to laparotomy at time zero, re-laparotomy after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start; untreated (n=8), submitted to peritonitis induction through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for drying of abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrifice after a total of 6 h from start; saline (n=8), submitted to peritonitis induction through CLP at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for warm 0.9% saline lavage of the abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start; and hypertonic (n=9), submitted to peritonitis induction through CLP at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for warm hypertonic saline (3.0%) lavage of the abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start. After sacrifice, we collected the left lung and the spleen for morphometric analysis. In the both the saline and hypertonic groups, there was significant decrease in the mean nuclei count in the lungs, compared with the untreated group (p0.05). The present study demonstrated that the peritoneal lavage with large volumes of warm 0.9% and 3.0% saline has a beneficial effect on the early systemic inflammatory response in infected animals, modulating and reducing the lung injury but having no effect on splenic cell count.

  4. Cultured cells from a severe combined immunodeficient mouse have a slower than normal rate of repair of potentially lethal damage sensitive to hypertonic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Terado, T.; Ikebuchi, M.; Aoyama, T.; Komatsu, K.; Nozawa, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of hypertonic 0.5 M NaCl treatment after irradiation on the repair of DNA damage were examined in fibroblasts of the severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse. These cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation because of a deficiency in the repair of double-strand breaks. Hypertonic treatment caused radiosensitization due to a fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) in scid cells, demonstrating that scid cells normally repair PLD. To assess the kinetics of the repair of PLD, hypertonic treatment was delayed for various times after irradiation. Potentially lethal damage was repaired during these times in isotonic medium at 37 degrees C. It was found that the rate of repair of PLD was much slower in scid cells than in BALB/c 3T3 cells, which have a open-quotes wild-typeclose quotes level of radiosensitivity. This fact indicates that the scid mutation affects the type of repair of PLD that is sensitive to 0.5 M NaCl treatment. In scid hybrid cells containing fragments of human chromosome 8, which complements the radiosensitivity of the scid cells, the rate of repair was restored to a normal level. An enzyme encoded by a gene on chromosome 8 may also be connected with PLD which is sensitive to hypertonic treatment. 29 refs., 3 figs

  5. The Impact of Cranios acral Therapy on Inhibition of Hypertonicity of the Lower Limb in Children with Dipelgia Spastic Cerebral Palsy of 3-8 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Pishyareh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitating impact of craniosacral therapy on inhibition of hypertonicity of the lower limb in children with spastic dipelgic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: 100 children with cerebral palsy were studied and 36 children selected, aged 3 to 8 years, were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group. Muscle tone was assessed using modified Ashworth scale, passive range of motion by goniometer, neurodevelopment level by Bobath scale. All children were Pre-Post-tested with in an interval of three months. Results: A further finding of the analyses revealed that significant reduction was observed in hypertonicity of the hip adductors and the ankle plantar flexors. Significant increase was observed in passive range of motion of the hip abduction and the ankle dorsiflexion. There was found no significant difference of reduction in hypertonicity of the knee flexors, of increase in passive range of motion of the knee extensor, of improvement neurodevelopmental level. Meaningful relationship was observed between reduction hypertonicity of the hip adductors and improvement of the neurodevelopmental level. Conclusion: It should be mentioned that in all above cases the was set at 5%. Implications for clinical O.T. are mentioned.

  6. Effect of equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic sodium lactate versus mannitol in craniectomy patients with moderate traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad R. Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain relaxation and prevention from cerebral edema are essential in craniectomy. Osmotherapy with 20% mannitol are generally used to withdraw fluid from the brain parenchyma, however may cause hemodynamic fluctuation, due to increase diuresis. On the other hand 0.5 M hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL appeared as an alternative of osmotherapy. This study  aimed to observe the effect of hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL on brain relaxation, blood glucose level and hemodynamic variables in craniectomy due to moderate brain injury.Methods: A randomized controlled study of 42 cases with moderate brain injury, aged 18 - 65 years, ASA 1 - 3, between September-November 2012, was carried out. The patients were divided into group M (n = 21 that received 2.5 mL/kg 20% mannitol and group HSL that received 2.5 mL/kg 0.5M HSL. Mean arterial pressures (MAP, central venous pressures (CVP and urine output were measured after induction, and at 15, 30, 45, 60 min after infusion. Brain relaxation was assessed at a four-point scale after opening the duramater. Blood glucose levels were measured before induction and at 60 min after the infusion. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. Unpaired t-test was used to compare hemodynamic and blood glucose level, and chi-square was used to compare brain relaxation.Results: MAP at 60 minute was significantly higher in HSL group than M group (81.66 ± 7.85 vs 74.33 ± 6.18 mmHg; p = 0.002. There was no difference in brain relaxation (p = 0.988. A significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in group HSL (17.95 ± 11.46 mg/dL; p = 0.001.Conclusion: Half-molar HSL was as effective as 20% mannitol in producing brain relaxation, with better hemodynamic stability and gave significant increase in blood glucose level.Keywords: brain relaxation, hemodynamic, hypertonic sodium lactate, mannitol, traumatic brain injury

  7. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  9. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Davis, C.W.; Boucher, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties......- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall....

  10. [Effect of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution infusion on tissue perfusion during surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskić, Ljiljana; Davidović, Lazar; Milicić, Biljana; Kocica, Mladen; Kovacević, Natasa; Simić, Tijana

    2007-10-01

    Decreasing of arterial flow below the critical level leads to capillary endothelium edema and to further worsening of tissue perfusion. Hypertonic solution infusion provides mild and short plasma osmolality increasing, while colloidal solutions intensify that effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution (HH) on the organs perfusion during reconstructive surgical procedure on the abdominal aorta (AA). The study included 40 patients submitted to AA reconstruction due to aneurysm or Leriche's syndrome. A clamp was put transversally to the aorta, under the outlets of the renal arterias. According to the solution received when a clamp was on the aorta, the patients were divided into two groups containing 20 patients each: the tested group (A) which received 4 ml/kg of the solution (7.2% NaCl/10% dextran), and the control group (B) which received 0.9% NaCl. The study excluded the patients with the preoperative creatinine level more than 139 micromol/l, and ejection heart fraction less than 40%. The mixed venous blood oxygen saturation increased from 73.3+/-7.33 to 74.95+/-6.19% in the group A, while it decreased from 65.35+/-10.39 to 62.65+/-10.42% in the group B (p = 0.001). The quantity of the provided oxygen in the group A increased significantly from 684.44+/-244.34 to 1362.45+/-2351.01 ml/min, while it decreased from 668.2+/-382.12 to 651.7+/-313.98 ml/min in the group B (p = 0.016). Alveolo-arterial difference in oxygen decreased from 23.12+/-14.74 to 21.1+/-10 mmHg in the group A, while it increased from 23.79+/-15.22 to 26.33+/-13.78 mmHg in the group B (p = 0.05). Satisfactory perfusion of organs during the AA surgery is obtained by using both HH and an isotonic solution. Due to maintaining the optimal values of the minute heart volume, saturation of vein blood blended with oxygen, and al-veolo-arterial difference in oxygen, it is recommended to use HH solution for reanimation of patients in declamping shock.

  11. Requirement for the eIF4E binding proteins for the synergistic down-regulation of protein synthesis by hypertonic conditions and mTOR inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Michael J; Elia, Androulla; Morley, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates the phosphorylation and activity of several proteins that have the potential to control translation, including p70S6 kinase and the eIF4E binding proteins 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2. In spite of this, in exponentially growing cells overall protein synthesis is often resistant to mTOR inhibitors. We report here that sensitivity of wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to mTOR inhibitors can be greatly increased when the cells are subjected to the physiological stress imposed by hypertonic conditions. In contrast, protein synthesis in MEFs with a double knockout of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 remains resistant to mTOR inhibitors under these conditions. Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) is blocked by the mTOR inhibitor Ku0063794 equally well in both wild-type and 4E-BP knockout cells, under both normal and hypertonic conditions. The response of protein synthesis to hypertonic stress itself does not require the 4E-BPs. These data suggest that under certain stress conditions: (i) translation has a greater requirement for mTOR activity and (ii) there is an absolute requirement for the 4E-BPs for regulation by mTOR. Importantly, dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and Akt is not sufficient to affect protein synthesis acutely.

  12. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  13. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  14. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca; Tripepi, Manuela; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na + /K + -ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  15. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  16. Productive use of saline lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water is essential for life, and not least for agricultural activity. It interacts with solar energy to determine the climate of the globe, and its interaction with carbon dioxide inside a plant results in photosynthesis on which depends survival of all life. Much of the water available to man is used for agriculture and yet its usage has not been well managed. One result has been the build up of soil salinity. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Department of Research and Isotopes, to make more productive use of salt-affected land and to limit future build up of salinity. (IAEA)

  17. [Clinical pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a preservative-free hypertonic ophthalmic solution for patients with symptomatic corneal edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouland, J-F

    2015-11-01

    This exploratory clinical trial aims to assess the effect on visual acuity and central corneal thickness of an unpreserved hypertonic ophthalmic solution containing sodium chloride (5%) and sodium hyaluronate, in patients with chronic corneal edema caused by endothelial disease reducing their visual acuity. Twenty patients were enrolled and treated with the hypertonic solution (1 to 2 drops per eye, 4 times a day over 28 days). Progression of visual acuity (ETDRS score) and corneal thickness (ultrasonic pachymetry) was measured from baseline (without treatment) through the treatment period (Day 7 and Day 28). The analyses were performed on 18 patients (Full Analysis Set [FAS] population). The causes of corneal edema were Fuchs endothelial dystrophy in 10 cases and post-cataract surgery endothelial decompensation in 8 patients. The mean visual acuity values for the FAS population compared between baseline (Day-7) and one week of treatment (Day+7) show a significant 5-point VA improvement (Psolution containing sodium chloride and sodium hyaluronate significantly improved ETDRS visual acuity after one week of use. In this clinical trial, the solution also showed excellent tolerability results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  19. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  20. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  1. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity...

  2. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  3. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  4. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock Soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field.O uso de soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque é um conceito relativamente novo. Baseou-se originalmente na idéia de que uma expansão volêmica significativa podia ser obtida às custas de um volume relativamente diminuto de infusão, aproveitando a propriedade física de osmose. Logo ficou claro que a capacidade fisiológica de produzir vasodilatação, compartilhada por todas as soluções hipertônicas, seria valiosa para reperfundir territórios tornados isquêmicos pelo choque, embora os malefícios da seq

  5. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  6. ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) seedlings to salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity stress on five cultivars of common bean: Bassbeer, Beladi, Giza 3, HRS 516 and RO21 were evaluated on a sand/peat medium with different salinity levels (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) applied 3 weeks after germination for duration of 10 days. Salinity had adverse effects not only on the biomass yield and ...

  7. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  8. Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides spatially continuous high-resolution surface salinity imagery in a synoptic manner from small aircraft. Its output complements data collected from...

  9. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  10. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  11. Estimation of salinity power potential in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    Salinity gradient as a source of energy has much potential, but this has been recognized only recently. The energy density of this source is equivalent to about 250 m water head for a salinity difference of 35 ppt. This source exists...

  12. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  13. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC 50 values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC 50 obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC 50 ). This LC 50 value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC 50 . For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC 50 and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC 50 of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC 50 values. In contrast, LC 50 determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature

  14. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC{sub 50} values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC{sub 50} obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC{sub 50}). This LC{sub 50} value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC{sub 50}. For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC{sub 50} and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC{sub 50} of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC{sub 50} values. In contrast, LC{sub 50} determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature.

  15. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  16. Influence of salinity and cadmium on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmoregulated at salinities between 5 and 25 and osmoconformed at salinities greater than 25. Chiromantes eulimene followed a hyper-hypo-osmoregulatory strategy; it hyper-regulated in salinities from 0 up to isosmotic conditions at about 28 (c.

  17. The effect of salinity on some endocommensalic ciliates from shipworms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    . Seasonal incidence and relative abundance of these ciliates showed that they were more abundant during the low saline than the high saline periods. Eventhough these ciliates can endure higher salinities through gradual acclimatization of their habitat...

  18. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrã o, Só nia; Schmö ckel, S. M.; Tester, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making

  19. Approaches to improving brain protection in cardiac and aortic surgery:an experimental study in a porcine model with hypertonic saline dextran, levosimendan, leukocyte depleting filter and different acid base management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaakinen, H. (Hanna)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In the repair of complex congenital heart defects or in surgery of the aortic arch, normal circulation may be temporarily halted to ensure a clean, bloodless operation field. The brain is the organ most vulnerable to ischemic injury during this no-flow period, and the mortality and morbidity of these procedures today consists mostly of neurological complications. Hypothermia decreases the need for oxygen and other metabolites, and cooling the patient with an extracorporeal heart-l...

  20. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1902-present, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  1. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water......A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... potential, but increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in both leaf and xylem sap. At each salinity level, incorporation of biochar increased shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, An, gs, midday leaf water potential, and decreased ABA concentration in the leaf and xylem sap as compared...

  2. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  3. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  4. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  5. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  6. N2-fixation in fababean (vicia faba l.) grown in saline and non saline conditions using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Kurdali, F.

    2002-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing fababean and barley under saline conditions, in terms of, dry matter yield, total nitrogen and, percentages and amount of N derived from soil, fertilizer and atmosphere using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three saline treatments were performed: First, plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss), Second, Plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss); and Third, Plants grown in non saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Sn). Furthermore, a control treatment was performed by using non-saline soil and non-saline water (Wn Sn). The different salinity treatments reduced plant growth and the reduction was more pronounced in fababean than in barley. However, under conditions of either saline soil-soft irrigation water or non saline soil-salty irrigation water, the relative growth reduction did not exceed 50% of the control; whereas, a significant negative effect was obtained when plants were grown under completely saline conditions of both soil and irrigation water. Percentage of N 2 -fixed (% Ndfa) was not negatively affected by saline conditions. However, our results clearly demonstrated that the effect of salinity in fababean was more evident on plant growth than on N 2 -fixing activity. Further studies are needed to obtain more salt tolerant faba bean genotypes in terms of growth and yield. This could be simultaneously improve yield and N 2 -fixation under sever saline conditions. (author)

  7. Salinity tolerance of the South African endemic amphipod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinities were prepared using natural seawater and synthetic sea salt. Grandidierella lignorum tolerated all salinities, but showed highest survival at salinities of 7–42. Salinity tolerance was modified by temperature, with highest survival occurring between 10 and 25 °C. These represent the range of conditions at which ...

  8. Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between Saline and ... Setting 4 dSm-1 as the limit between saline and non-saline soils in kriging algorithms resulted in a .... number of sample points within the search window,.

  9. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  10. The Effects of Stereotactic Cerebroventricular Administration of Albumin, Mannitol, Hypertonic Sodium Chloride, Glycerin and Dextran in Rats with Experimental Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Tuncay; Gezercan, Yurdal; Menekse, Guner; Turkoz, Yusuf; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Akyuva, Yener; Onal, Selami Cagatay

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous brain tissue in rats with experimental head trauma. The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200 and 250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups were administered 2 µl of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl), glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device. Rats were sacrificed 48 hours after the trauma, and brain tissues were extracted without damage. Biochemical analyses including reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were performed on the injured left hemisphere. Compared with the control group, the albumin, mannitol, 3% NaCl and glycerin treatment groups revealed dramatic increases in GSH levels (p < 0.001). Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of brain edema and lipid peroxidation, failed to show a statistically significant decrease, but there was a decreasing trend observed in the inter-group comparisons. NO levels were also decreased in the 3% NaCl treatment group. An analysis of TNF-α and IL-1β, two proinflammatory cytokines associated with the trauma, revealed that IL-1β decreased significantly in all treatment groups (p=0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in TNF-α levels. Cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents provides substantial effects on the treatment of brain edema.

  11. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Quintard, Hervé

    2015-09-30

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy of HL (3h infusion, 30-40 μmol/kg/min) in improving brain energetics (using cerebral microdialysis [CMD] glucose as a main therapeutic end-point) was dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state (assessed by CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR]) and cerebral blood flow (CBF, measured with perfusion computed tomography [PCT]). Using a prospective cohort of 24 severe TBI patients, we found CMD glucose increase during HL was significant only in the subgroup of patients with elevated CMD LPR >25 (n = 13; +0.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.19] mmol/L, p < 0.001; vs. +0.04 [-0.05-0.13] in those with normal LPR, p = 0.33, mixed-effects model). In contrast, CMD glucose increase was independent from baseline CBF (coefficient +0.13 [0.04-0.21] mmol/L when global CBF was <32.5 mL/100 g/min vs. +0.09 [0.04-0.14] mmol/L at normal CBF, both p < 0.005) and systemic glucose. Our data suggest that improvement of brain energetics upon HL seems predominantly dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state and support the concept that CMD LPR - rather than CBF - could be used as a diagnostic indication for systemic lactate supplementation following TBI. Copyright © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  12. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Pace, Michael L; Utz, Ryan M; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-23

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Dextrose saline compared with normal saline rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Norazilah, Mat Jin; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-02-01

    To compare 5% dextrose-0.9% saline against 0.9% saline solution in the intravenous rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum. Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours. Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different. Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes. ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409. I.

  14. Saline agriculture: A technology for economic utilization and improvement of saline environments (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Z.; Malik, K.A.; Khurshid, S.J.; Awan, A.R.; Akram, M.; Hashmi, Z.; Ali, Y.; Gulnaz, A.; Hussain, M.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    The salinity problem is one of the severe constraints for agriculture in Pakistan. In a socio-economic and salinity and drainage survey over an area of about 25000 acres of salt-affected land recently, crop production is found to be very low. Livestock is underfed and malnourished. Pakistan has spent and allocated over one billion US dollars on Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARP), of course, with dubious results. Over the years, a Saline Agriculture Technology has been developed as a cheap alternative at NIAB for comfortably living with salinity and to profitably utilize saline land rather than its reclamation. The soil improvement is a fringe benefit in this approach. The Saline Agriculture Technology has been tested at laboratory level, at field stations and at farms of some progressive farmers. Now we are sharing this technology with farming communities through a 'Saline Agriculture Farmer Participatory Development Project in Pakistan', with assistance from the National Rural Support Programme. The new project has been launched simultaneously in all four provinces of Pakistan on 25000 acres of salt-affected land. Under this project seeds of salt tolerant crop varieties wheat, cotton, rice, castor, brassica and barley and saplings of trees/shrubs, e.g. Acacia ampliceps, A. nilotica, Casuarina glauca, ber, jaman, etc selected for development work in various institutions of Pakistan are being provided to farmers. Know-how on new irrigation techniques like bed-and-corrugation and bed-and-furrow, agronomic practices like laser land leveling, planting on beds and in auger holes and soil/water amendment practices (use of gypsum and mineral acids) are being shared with farmers. These interventions are quite efficient, save water up to 40% and enable farmers to utilize bad quality water. In general, farmers are being familiarized with prevalent animal diseases, nutritional problems and prophylactic techniques. They are being helped in developing Saline

  15. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip...

  16. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  17. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  18. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.

    are described. Two of the maxima arise from the influence of Red Sea and the Persian Gulf Water. The third, which lies at the bottom of the Equatorial Surface Water, forms due to freshening at the surface of high salinity Arabian Sea near-surface waters...

  19. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  20. Routine saline infusion sonohysterography prior to assisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53.85%), 8 (30.77%) and 4 (15.38%) respectively. The average duration of the procedure was 6 minutes with a range of 4-9 minutes. Saline infusion sonohysterography is a reliable, cost effective and safe diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the ...

  1. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  2. Management of saline soils in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.

    1983-01-01

    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  3. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  4. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Physiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran ... indexes for screening bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance. ... published on screening methods in salinity tolerance in.

  5. Identification of Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Salicornia bigelovii

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben

    2017-01-01

    by providing a genome, transcriptomes, and organellar proteomes, contributing to salinity tolerance research overall. We identified a set of candidate genes for salinity tolerance with the aim of shedding some light on the mechanisms by which this plant thrives

  6. Time-dependence of salinity in monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijith, V.; Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    processes (diffusion, gravity current formation, impact of tidal asymmetries, etc.) is balanced by salinity-egress induced by runoff. Here we point out that the salinity field of the estuaries that are located on the coasts of the Indian subcontinent...

  7. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  8. Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) Data, 1985-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...

  9. Sustainable management of coastal saline soils in the Saloum river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conductivity, pH, water soluble cations and anions) were analysed to estimate the salinity level at each .... (floodplain, low terrace), saline soils are now .... Apart from having a high salt content, ..... permeability and thereby promotes continuous.

  10. Microbial Fuel Cells under Extreme Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon del Olmo, Oihane

    I developed a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that unprecedentedly works (i.e., produces electricity) under extreme salinity (≈ 100 g/L NaCl). Many industries, such as oil and gas extraction, generate hypersaline wastewaters with high organic strength, accounting for about 5% of worldwide generated effluents, which represent a major challenge for pollution control and resource recovery. This study assesses the potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat such wastewaters and generate electricity under extreme saline conditions. Specifically, the focus is on the feasibility to treat hypersaline wastewater generated by the emerging unconventional oil and gas industry (hydraulic fracturing) and so, with mean salinity of 100 g/L NaCl (3-fold higher than sea water). The success of this novel technology strongly depends on finding a competent and resilient microbial community that can degrade the waste under extreme saline conditions and be able to use the anode as their terminal electron acceptor (exoelectrogenic capability). I demonstrated that MFCs can produce electricity at extremely high salinity (up to 250 g/l NaCl) with a power production of 71mW/m2. Pyrosequencing analysis of the anode population showed the predominance of Halanaerobium spp. (85%), which has been found in shale formations and oil reservoirs. Promoting Quorum sensing (QS, cell to cell communication between bacteria to control gene expression) was used as strategy to increase the attachment of bacteria to the anode and thus improve the MFC performance. Results show that the power output can be bolstered by adding 100nM of quinolone signal with an increase in power density of 30%, for the first time showing QS in Halanaerobium extremophiles. To make this technology closer to market applications, experiments with real wastewaters were also carried out. A sample of produced wastewater from Barnet Shale, Texas (86 g/L NaCl) produced electricity when fed in an MFC, leading to my discovery of another

  11. Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential toxicity and influence of salinity on acute toxicity of copper sulphate and lead nitrate against Oreochromis niloticus. KA Bawa-Allah, F Osuala, J Effiong. Abstract. This study investigated the salinity-tolerance of Oreochromis niloticus and the influence of salinity changes on the acute toxicities of copper sulphate ...

  12. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  13. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Siemon, Bernhard; Voortman, Bernard R.; Gunnink, Jan; Van Baaren, Esther S.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence

  14. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  15. Modelling souring in a high salinity reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael; Crossland, Alan; Stott, Jim

    2006-03-15

    CAPCIS Ltd (Capcis) have developed a souring model for use in highly saline reservoirs where salinity limits the growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). Capcis have successfully applied the model to a field in North Africa. The conceptual basis of the model considers the course of the H2S from generation in the reservoir including dilution, sulphide retardation and scavenging and H2S fluid phase partitioning. At each stage mathematical equations governing the behaviour of the H2S were produced. In order to estimate the potential for H2S generation, it is required to know the chemistry of the injection and formation waters, as well as the properties of the indigenous SRB, i.e. the maximum salinity for their growth. This is determined by bottle testing of H2S generation by SRB at a range of injection/formation water ratios. The maximum salinity for SRB growth then determines the mixing ratios at which H2S generation takes place. Sulphide retardation due to adsorption at immobile interfaces was empirically modeled from reservoir data. Sulphide scavenging due to reaction with iron generated from corrosion was also modelled. Reservoir mineral scavenging was not modelled but could be incorporated in an extension to the model. Finally, in order to compute the gas-phase concentration of generated H2S, the H2S in the well stream is partitioned between the gas, oil and water phases. Capcis has carried out detailed computations of H2S solubility in crude oil and formation waters and the derivation of distribution ratios based on the respective partition coefficients using Gerard's line method, a modification of Henry's Law. (author) (tk)

  16. Finding a solution: Heparinised saline versus normal saline in the maintenance of invasive arterial lines in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, Matthew; Webber, Lucy; Penfold, Chris; Shah, Sanjoy; Freshwater-Turner, Dan

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the impact of heparinised saline versus 0.9% normal saline on arterial line patency. Maintaining the patency of arterial lines is essential for obtaining accurate physiological measurements, enabling blood sampling and minimising line replacement. Use of heparinised saline is associated with risks such as thrombocytopenia, haemorrhage and mis-selection. Historical studies draw variable conclusions but suggest that normal saline is at least as effective at maintaining line patency, although recent evidence has questioned this. We conducted a prospective analysis of the use of heparinised saline versus normal saline on unselected patients in the intensive care of our hospital. Data concerning duration of 471 lines insertion and reason for removal was collected. We found a higher risk of blockage for lines flushed with normal saline compared with heparinised saline (RR = 2.15, 95% CI 1.392-3.32, p  ≤ 0.001). Of the 56 lines which blocked initially (19 heparinised saline and 37 normal saline lines), 16 were replaced with new lines; 5 heparinised saline lines and 11 normal saline lines were reinserted; 5 of these lines subsequently blocked again, 3 of which were flushed with normal saline. Our study demonstrates a clinically important reduction in arterial line longevity due to blockages when flushed with normal saline compared to heparinised saline. We have determined that these excess blockages have a significant clinical impact with further lines being inserted after blockage, resulting in increased risks to patients, wasted time and cost of resources. Our findings suggest that the current UK guidance favouring normal saline flushes should be reviewed.

  17. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  18. Salinization mechanisms in semi-arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, M.M.F.

    1984-01-01

    During a period of three years the basins of the Pereira de Miranda and Caxitore dams, located in the crystalline rock area of Ceara, Brazil, were studied in order to determine the mechanisms of salinization of their waters. Isotope methods ( 18 O/ 16 O) and hidrochemistry (determination of the of the maior ions) were applied to surface, underground and rain water in this study. An isotope model was designed and applied to the determination of evaporation and percolation of dams in semi-arid zones during the dry season. The results are compared to those from a conventional chemical model. As causes of salinization of the water in the dams, the contributions of the rain itself and the lixiviation of the soil are quantified. An interaction between the dams and the underground water is imperceptible. The salinization of the underground water is attributed to recharge of the aquifer with rain water from the surface runoff followed by evaporation of the water rising, due to capilarity, in a one-directional flow to the surface. (Author) [pt

  19. The effectiveness of dispersants under various temperature and salinity regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2005-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dispersants in Arctic waters where salinity and temperature interactions play a critical role. In particular, Corexit 9500 was tested on Alaska North Slope oil at different temperatures and salinity using the ASTM standard test and variations of this test. Results were compared to the only historically reported test in which both temperature and salinity were changed over a range of values. This series of tests demonstrated that there is an interaction between salinity, temperature and dispersant effectiveness. It was shown that conventional and currently available dispersants are nearly ineffective at 0 salinity. Dispersant effectiveness peaks at 20 to 40 units of salinity, depending on the type of dispersant. Corexit is less sensitive to salinity, while Corexit 9527 is more sensitive to salinity. There is a smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and as it exceeds this value. Results from the 2 field trials in fresh water suggest that laboratory tests correctly conclude that the effectiveness of dispersants is very low in freshwater. The study also examined several analytical factors such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) versus relative petroleum hydrocarbon (RPH) methods, specific versus general calibration curves, and automatic versus manual baseline placement. The analytical variations of effectiveness by RPH or TPH methods do not affect the fundamental relationship between salinity and temperature. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, Sónia

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  1. Evaluation of salinity stress on morphophysiological traits of four salin tolarant wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila yadelerloo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For assessment the effects of salinity on morphophysiological traits of wheat an experiment with four caltivars (Karchia, Sorkh tokhm, Sholeh and Roshan and one line (1-66-22 in four salt concentrations(0, 60, 120, and 180 mM NaCl, were conducted by factorial analysis in a completely randomized design with three replications. The rate of leaf area were measured in four stages. In booting stage, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD meter, and in pollination phase the rate of Na+ and K+ iones in four leaves(up to down were assessed and finally stem length and total dry matter were measured. Results showed that salinity reduced leaf area, total dry matter stem length of plants and relative chlorophyll content. With increasing of salinity the rate of Na+ were increased but the rate of K+ iones were decreased. Also the salt exclusion was observed at nodes of stem that of 1-66-22 was spot form.

  2. Salinity fronts in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsun-Ying; Lagerloef, Gary S E

    2015-02-01

    This study delineates the salinity fronts (SF) across the tropical Pacific, and describes their variability and regional dynamical significance using Aquarius satellite observations. From the monthly maps of the SF, we find that the SF in the tropical Pacific are (1) usually observed around the boundaries of the fresh pool under the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), (2) stronger in boreal autumn than in other seasons, and (3) usually stronger in the eastern Pacific than in the western Pacific. The relationship between the SF and the precipitation and the surface velocity are also discussed. We further present detailed analysis of the SF in three key tropical Pacific regions. Extending zonally around the ITCZ, where the temperature is nearly homogeneous, we find the strong SF of 1.2 psu from 7° to 11°N to be the main contributor of the horizontal density difference of 0.8 kg/m 3 . In the eastern Pacific, we observe a southward extension of the SF in the boreal spring that could be driven by both precipitation and horizontal advection. In the western Pacific, the importance of these newly resolved SF associated with the western Pacific warm/fresh pool and El Niño southern oscillations are also discussed in the context of prior literature. The main conclusions of this study are that (a) Aquarius satellite salinity measurements reveal the heretofore unknown proliferation, structure, and variability of surface salinity fronts, and that (b) the fine-scale structures of the SF in the tropical Pacific yield important new information on the regional air-sea interaction and the upper ocean dynamics.

  3. Types, harms and improvement of saline soil in Songnen Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengjun; Zhuang, Jingjing; Zhao, Anping; Li, Xinxin

    2018-03-01

    Saline soil is an extremely difficult and modified soil, widely distributed around the world. According to UN-UNESCO and FAO, the world’s saline soil area is about 9.54×108hm2, and there is a growing trend, every year in 1.0×106-1.5×106hm2 speed growth, the effective utilization of land resources to the world is the most serious threat. The total area of saline-alkali land in China is about 9.91×107hm2, including the Songnen Plain, which is called one of the three major saline soil concentrations in the world. The Songnen plain is an important grain producing area in China, and the saline soil occupies most of the Songnen plain, so it is of great significance to study the saline soil and improvement in Songnen plain.

  4. Genome interrogation for novel salinity tolerant Arabidopsis mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Niels; Pinas, Johan; Schat, Henk; Hooykaas, Paul J J; van der Zaal, Bert J

    2016-12-01

    Soil salinity is becoming an increasingly large problem in agriculture. In this study, we have investigated whether a capacity to withstand salinity can be induced in the salinity sensitive plant species Arabidopsis thaliana, and whether it can be maintained in subsequent generations. To this end, we have used zinc finger artificial transcription factor (ZF-ATFs) mediated genome interrogation. Already within a relatively small collection Arabidopsis lines expressing ZF-ATFs, we found 41 lines that were tolerant to 100 mM NaCl. Furthermore, ZF-ATF encoding gene constructs rescued from the most strongly salinity tolerant lines were indeed found to act as dominant and heritable agents for salinity tolerance. Altogether, our data provide evidence that a silent capacity to withstand normally lethal levels of salinity exists in Arabidopsis and can be evoked relatively easily by in trans acting transcription factors like ZF-ATFs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Coagulation processes of kaolinite and montmorillonite in calm, saline water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Qing-He; Maa, Jerome P.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    A three dimensional numerical model for simulating the coagulation processes of colloids has been performed by monitoring the time evolution of particle number concentration, the size distribution of aggregates, the averaged settling velocity, the collision frequency, and the collision efficiency in quiescent water with selected salinities. This model directly simulates all interaction forces between particles based on the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, and thus, can reveal the collision and coagulation processes of colloidal suspensions. Although using perfect spherical particles in the modeling, the results were compared with those for kaolinite and montmorillonite suspensions to demonstrate the capability of simulating the responses of these particles with highly irregular shape. The averaged settling velocity of kaolinite aggregates in quiescent saline water reached a maximum of 0.16 mm/s when the salinity increasing to about 3, and then, exhibited little dependence on salinity thereafter. Model simulations results (by choosing specific values that represent kaolinite's characteristics) indicate a similar trend: rapid decrease of the particle number concentration (i.e., rapidly flocculated, and thus, settling velocity also increases rapidly) when salinity increases from 0 to 2, and then, only increased slightly when salinity was further increased from 5 to 20. The collision frequency for kaolinite only decreases slightly with increasing salinity because that the fluid density and viscosity increase slightly in sea water. It suggests that the collision efficiency for kaolinite rises rapidly at low salinities and levels off at high salinity. For montmorillonite, the settling velocity of aggregates in quiescent saline water continuedly increases to 0.022 mm/s over the whole salinity range 0-20, and the collision efficiency for montmorillonite rises with increasing salinities.

  6. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yongzhe; Xu, Yanhua; Teng, Wan; Li, Bin; Lin, Tongbao

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl co...

  7. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  8. Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of salinity tolerant Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus through traditional and modern breeding methods: II. Application of genetically modified breeding by introducing foreign DNA into fish gonads.

  9. Electrocapillary Phenomena at Edible Oil/Saline Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ohzono, Takuya; Shoji, Kohei; Yagihara, Shin; Hayashi, Masafumi; Tanaka, Hisao

    2017-03-01

    Interfacial tension between edible oil and saline was measured under applied electric fields to understand the electrocapillary phenomena at the edible oil/saline interfaces. The electric responses of saline droplets in edible oil were also observed microscopically to examine the relationship between the electrocapillary phenomena and interfacial polarization. When sodium oleate (SO) was added to edible oil (SO-oil), the interfacial tension between SO-oil and saline decreased. However, no decrease was observed for additive-free oil or oleic acid (OA)-added oil (OA-oil). Microscopic observations suggested that the magnitude of interfacial polarization increased in the order of additive-free oil oil oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena between OA- and SO-oils was closely related to the polarization magnitude. In the case of SO-oil, the decrease in interfacial tension was remarkably larger for saline (pH 5.4~5.6) than that for phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.2~7.4). However, no difference was observed between the electric responses of PBS and saline droplets in SO-oil. The difference in electrocapillary phenomena for PBS and saline could not be simply explained in terms of polarization magnitude. The ratio of ionized and non-ionized OA at the interfaces changed with the saline pH, possibly leading to the above difference.

  10. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  11. Soil salinity decreases global soil organic carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Raj; Gottschalk, Pia; Smith, Pete; Marschner, Petra; Baldock, Jeff; Setia, Deepika; Smith, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Saline soils cover 3.1% (397 million hectare) of the total land area of the world. The stock of soil organic carbon (SOC) reflects the balance between carbon (C) inputs from plants, and losses through decomposition, leaching and erosion. Soil salinity decreases plant productivity and hence C inputs to the soil, but also microbial activity and therefore SOC decomposition rates. Using a modified Rothamsted Carbon model (RothC) with a newly introduced salinity decomposition rate modifier and a plant input modifier we estimate that, historically, world soils that are currently saline have lost an average of 3.47 tSOC ha(-1) since they became saline. With the extent of saline soils predicted to increase in the future, our modelling suggests that world soils may lose 6.8 Pg SOC due to salinity by the year 2100. Our findings suggest that current models overestimate future global SOC stocks and underestimate net CO2 emissions from the soil-plant system by not taking salinity effects into account. From the perspective of enhancing soil C stocks, however, given the lower SOC decomposition rate in saline soils, salt tolerant plants could be used to sequester C in salt-affected areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  13. Absolute Salinity, "Density Salinity" and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Pawlowicz, R.; McDougall, T. J.; Feistel, R.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-08-01

    Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models. First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. The Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies. Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol SAdens; it stands out as the most appropriate representation of salinity for use in dynamical physical

  14. Absolute Salinity, ''Density Salinity'' and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale: present and future use in the seawater standard TEOS-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy and scope, including its use in the reduction of field data and in numerical models.

    First, in the TEOS-10 formulation for IAPSO Standard Seawater, the Gibbs function takes the Reference Salinity as its salinity argument, denoted SR, which provides a measure of the mass fraction of dissolved material in solution based on the Reference Composition approximation for Standard Seawater. We discuss uncertainties in both the Reference Composition and the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale on which Reference Salinity is reported. The Reference Composition provides a much-needed fixed benchmark but modified reference states will inevitably be required to improve the representation of Standard Seawater for some studies. However, the Reference-Composition Salinity Scale should remain unaltered to provide a stable representation of salinity for use with the TEOS-10 Gibbs function and in climate change detection studies.

    Second, when composition anomalies are present in seawater, no single salinity variable can fully represent the influence of dissolved material on the thermodynamic properties of seawater. We consider three distinct representations of salinity that have been used in previous studies and discuss the connections and distinctions between them. One of these variables provides the most accurate representation of density possible as well as improvements over Reference Salinity for the determination of other thermodynamic properties. It is referred to as "Density Salinity" and is represented by the symbol

  15. Salinity and spectral reflectance of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, A.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1991-01-01

    The basic spectral response related to the salt content of soils in the visible and reflective IR wavelengths is analyzed in order to explore remote sensing applications for monitoring processes of the earth system. The bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was determined at 10 nm of increments over the 520-2320-nm spectral range. The effect of salts on reflectance was analyzed on the basis of 162 spectral measurements. MSS and TM bands were simulated within the measured spectral region. A strong relationship was found in variations of reflectance and soil characteristics pertaining to salinization and desalinization. Although the individual MSS bands had high R-squared values and 75-79 percent of soil/treatment combinations were separable, there was a large number of soil/treatment combinations not distinguished by any of the four highly correlated MSS bands under consideration.

  16. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  17. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  18. CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifers; Stockage du CO{sub 2} dans les aquiferes salins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentham, M.; Kirby, G. [British Geological Survey (BGS), Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Saline aquifers represent a promising way for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Storage capacities of saline aquifers are very important around the world. The Sleipner site in the North Sea is currently the single case world-wide of CO{sub 2} storage in a saline aquifer. A general review is given on the specific risks for CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifer. The regional distribution of CO{sub 2} storage potential is presented. Finally, the knowledge gaps and the future research in this field are defined. (authors)

  19. Modeling carbon dioxide sequestration in saline aquifers: Significance of elevated pressures and salinities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.E.; Strazisar, B.R.; Soong, Y.; Hedges, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    The ultimate capacity of saline formations to sequester carbon dioxide by solubility and mineral trapping must be determined by simulating sequestration with geochemical models. These models, however, are only as reliable as the data and reaction scheme on which they are based. Several models have been used to make estimates of carbon dioxide solubility and mineral formation as a function of pressure and fluid composition. Intercomparison of modeling results indicates that failure to adjust all equilibrium constants to account for elevated carbon dioxide pressures results in significant errors in both solubility and mineral formation estimates. Absence of experimental data at high carbon dioxide pressures and high salinities make verification of model results difficult. Results indicate standalone solubility models that do not take mineral reactions into account will underestimate the total capacity of aquifers to sequester carbon dioxide in the long term through enhanced solubility and mineral trapping mechanisms. Overall, it is difficult to confidently predict the ultimate sequestration capacity of deep saline aquifers using geochemical models. (author)

  20. Effect of Different Alternate Irrigation Strategies using Saline and Non-Saline Water on Corn Yield, Salinity and Moisture Distribution in Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of water and deterioration in the quality of soil and water resources are considered to be the prime cause of reduced crop yield in arid and semi-arid regions ‘More crop per drop’ by trickle irrigation, deficit irrigation, and uncommon water are the best strategies for mitigating water crises. Different irrigation management strategies are needed to increase production in different areas. In areas where sufficient water is available, a full irrigation strategy could be a suitable option, while in areas where water is limited, deficit irrigation would be an appropriate method, and finally in areas where water resources are saline, management strategies for achieving sustainable production as well as economic yields would be suitable. Maize is the third most important grain crop in the world following wheat and rice and it is the main source of nutrition for humans and animals. Because of the importance of maize in the world, increasing maize production under environmental stresses is a big challenge for agricultural scientists. Different methods of irrigation and the use of saline water that had satisfactory results for increasing agricultural production have been studied by several investigators . The main objective of this study was to establish an efficient use of limited water resources as well as to explore the possibility of replacing saline water with fresh water using different management techniques. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted over two maize cropping seasons (2012–2013 in northern Iran (Gorgan Agricultural Research Station to compare different alternate irrigation scenarios using saline water on corn yield, salinity and soil moisture distribution in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were: T1 and T2 = 100 and 50 % of crop water requirement with non-saline water, respectively; T3 and T4 = variable and fixed full irrigation with saline and non-saline

  1. Modelling the salinization of a coastal lagoon-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, N.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a coastal area constituted by alternations of saline-brackish lagoons and freshwater bodies was studied and modelled to understand the hydrological processes occurring between the lagoons, the groundwater system of the Po River Delta (Italy) and the Adriatic Sea. The contribution of both evaporation and anthropogenic factors on groundwater salinization was assessed by means of soil, groundwater and surface water monitoring. Highresolution multi-level samplers were used to capture salinity gradients within the aquifer and surface water bodies. Data were employed to calibrate a density-dependent numerical transport model implemented with SEAWAT code along a transect perpendicular to the coast line. The results show that the lagoon is hydraulically well connected with the aquifer, which provides the major source of salinity because of the upcoming of paleo-seawater from the aquitard laying at the base of the unconfined aquifer. On the contrary, the seawater (diluted by the freshwater river outflow) creates only a limited saltwater wedge. The increase in groundwater salinity could be of serious concern, especially for the pinewood located in the dune near the coast, sensitive to salinity increases. This case study represents an interesting paradigm for other similar environmental setting, where the assumption of classical aquifer salinization from a saltwater wedge intruding from the sea is often not representative of the actual aquifer’s salinization mechanisms.

  2. Effect of salinity on growth of juvenile silver kob, Argyrosomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conclude that silver kob perform at least as well at reduced salinities as in full strength seawater. This could lead to significant cost savings when rearing fish inland using artificial seawater. Keywords: fish physiology; mariculture; mulloway; osmolality; salinity tolerance. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2008, 33(2): ...

  3. Morphological responses of forage sorghums to salinity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties to salinity and irrigation frequency were studied from December 2007 to December 2009. Two forage sorghum varieties (Speedfeed and KFS4) were grown under salinity levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 and irrigated when the leaf water potential ...

  4. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  5. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  6. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    biodegradation of oily sludge by hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) at salinity (NaCl ... petroleum waste. In recent times, several literatures have shown that bioremediation has high potentials for restoring polluted media with least negative impact on the ..... salinity, bacterial consortium is highly stable in immo-.

  7. A Geology-Based Estimate of Connate Water Salinity Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    poses serious environmental concerns if connate water is mobilized into shallow aquifers or surface water systems. Estimating the distribution of...groundwater flow and salinity transport near the Herbert Hoover Dike (HHD) surrounding Lake Okeechobee in Florida . The simulations were conducted using the...on the geologic configuration at equilibrium, and the horizontal salinity distribution is strongly linked to aquifer connectivity because

  8. Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity guidelines for irrigation: Case studies from Water Research Commission projects along the Lower Vaal, Riet, Berg and Breede Rivers. ... It is suggested that a more dynamic approach be used for managing salinity under irrigation at farm level, i.e. the use of models. Amongst others, future research should focus on ...

  9. Bacteriophage Infectivity Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Saline Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Scarascia, Giantommaso; Yap, Scott A.; Kaksonen, Anna H.; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2018-01-01

    at different temperature, pH, and salinity. Bacteriophages showed optimal infectivity at a multiplicity of infection of 10 in saline conditions, and demonstrated lytic abilities over all tested temperature (25, 30, 37, and 45°C) and pH 6–9. Planktonic P

  10. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two consecutive seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), field experiments were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and Biosaline Agricultural Research Station, Pakka Aana, Pakistan. During 2007-08, 103 wheat landrace genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance. During 2008-09, 47 selected ...

  11. Irrigation and drainage in agriculture: a salinity and environmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Stofberg, S.F.; Yang, X.; Liu, Y.; Islam, M.N.; Hu, Yin Fei

    2017-01-01

    Whereas irrigation and drainage are intended to address the shortage and surplus of soil water, respectively, an important aspect to address is also the management of salinity. Plants have a limited tolerance for soil water salinity, and despite significant gaps in our practical knowledge, an

  12. Salinity controls on Na incorporation in Red Sea planktonic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, E. M.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Boer, W.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas several well-established proxies are available for reconstructing past temperatures, salinity remains challenging to assess. Reconstructions based on the combination of (in)organic temperature proxies and foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes result in relatively large uncertainties, which may be reduced by application of a direct salinity proxy. Cultured benthic and planktonic foraminifera showed that Na incorporation in foraminiferal shell calcite provides a potential independent proxy for salinity. Here we present the first field calibration of such a potential proxy. Living planktonic foraminiferal specimens from the Red Sea surface waters were collected and analyzed for their Na/Ca content using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the Red Sea as a natural laboratory, the calibration covers a broad range of salinities over a steep gradient within the same water mass. For both Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer calcite Na/Ca increases with salinity, albeit with a relatively large intraspecimen and interspecimen variability. The field-based calibration is similar for both species from a salinity of 36.8 up to 39.6, while values for G. sacculifer deviate from this trend in the northernmost transect. It is hypothesized that the foraminifera in the northernmost part of the Red Sea are (partly) expatriated and hence should be excluded from the Na/Ca-salinity calibration. Incorporation of Na in foraminiferal calcite therefore provides a potential proxy for salinity, although species-specific calibrations are still required and more research on the effect of temperature is needed.

  13. Zinc, nitrogen and salinity interaction on agronomic traits and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... percentage decreased due to nitrogen, zinc and salinity in the first year but .... Analysis of variance on canola traits affected by nitrogen, zinc and salinity at ...... a result less of the latter are available for fat synthesis ... Na+ and Cl- in plant tissues, effects of nitrogen and zinc ... Zinc alleviates cadmium-induced.

  14. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening a large number of plants for salinity tolerance is not easy, therefore this investigation was performed to evaluate and screen 186 F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between Superhead#2 (Super Seri) and Roshan wheat varieties for salinity tolerance. All the individuals were evaluated under ...

  15. Dynamics of rainwater lenses on upward seeping saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeman, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Fresh water is generally a limited resource in coastal areas which are often densely populated. In low-lying areas, groundwater is mostly saline and both agriculture and freshwater nature depend on a thin lens of rainwater that is formed by precipitation surplus on top of saline, upward seeping

  16. Spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of saline water and possible sources of intrusion into Lekki lagoon and transitional effects on the lacustrine ichthyofaunal characteristics were studied during March, 2006 and February, 2008. The water quality analysis indicated that, salinity has drastically increased recently in the lagoon (0.007 to ...

  17. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes: Perspectives for saline agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, B.; Rozema, J.

    2013-01-01

    Saline agriculture provides a solution for at least two environmental and social problems. It allows us to return to agricultural production areas that have been lost as a consequence of salinization and it can save valuable fresh water by using brackish or salt water to irrigate arable lands. Sea

  18. Effects of salinity on growth and metabolism in blue tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were taken to analyse plasma sodium, chloride, potassium, total protein and triglycerides. Liver and muscle samples were collected for HSI and moisture values. Plasma sodium chloride increased in parallel with salinity rise. Total protein and triglycerides significantly reduced as salinity increased. Glucose ...

  19. Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoǧlu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Yılmaz), Serpil

    2014-05-01

    Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity α (Λi-1 / Λj-1) * (Λk-1 / Λm-1) (i

  20. SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN CLUJ-NAPOCA SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. CZELLECZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saline waters are usually researched in those places where it is used for balneotherapy or other industrial purposes. The aim of this study is to describe the saline water sources from less known areas, as they are an important natural mineral water resource. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed from Cojocna-Pata-Sopor region, thirteen of them can be considered saline waters. The visited locations are 21, 15 and 3 km far from Cluj-Napoca. Highly concentrated springs are to be found in the old mine area from Pata village and in the slough from Cojocna. Beside the well known saline lakes from Cojocna, five other saline lakes were identified; most of them are having artificial origin.

  1. Salinity and resource management in the Hunter Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creelman, R.A.; Cooke, R.; Simons, M. [RA Creelman & Associates (Australia)

    1995-08-01

    If excess water salinity is to be managed in the Hunter Valley, its causes and behaviour must be understood. Although Hunter Valley hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry require further study, there is now enough information available to begin the development of both temporal and spatial models as valley management tools. Currently the Department of Water Resources is developing a model known as Integrated Water Quality and Quantity Model (IQQM). IQQM which includes a salinity module is essentially a surface water simulation model. It wll enable testing of alternate management and operation policies such as the salinity property rights trading scheme recently introduced by the EPA to manage salt release from coal mines and power stations. An overview is presented of the progress made to date on the salinity module for IQQM, and an outline is given of the geological and hydrogeochemical concepts that have been assembled to support the salinity module of IQQM. 17 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Use of microwave remote sensing in salinity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.P.; Kumar, V.; Srivastav, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Soil-moisture interaction and the consequent liberation of ions causes the salinity of waters. The salinity of river, lake, ocean and ground water changes due to seepage and surface runoff. We have studied the feasibility of using microwave remote sensing for the estimation of salinity by carrying out numerical calculations to study the microwave remote sensing responses of various models representative of river, lake and ocean water. The results show the dependence of microwave remote sensing responses on the salinity and surface temperature of water. The results presented in this paper will be useful in the selection of microwave sensor parameters and in the accurate estimation of salinity from microwave remote sensing data

  3. Nonlinear dynamics and synchronization of saline oscillator’s model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fokou Kenfack, W.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Kofane, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of saline oscillator is derived and tested through numerical simulations. • Interaction between globally coupled saline oscillators is modeled. • Dependence of coupling coefficients on physical parameters is brought out. • Synchronization behaviors are studied using the model equations. - Abstract: The Okamura model equation of saline oscillator is refined into a non-autonomous ordinary differential equation whose coefficients are related to physical parameters of the system. The dependence of the oscillatory period and amplitude on remarkable physical parameters are computed and compared to experimental results in order to test the model. We also model globally coupled saline oscillators and bring out the dependence of coupling coefficients on physical parameters of the system. We then study the synchronization behaviors of coupled saline oscillators by the mean of numerical simulations carried out on the model equations. These simulations agree with previously reported experimental results.

  4. The salinity effect in a mixed layer ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    A model of the thermally mixed layer in the upper ocean as developed by Kraus and Turner and extended by Denman is further extended to investigate the effects of salinity. In the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean rapid increases in salinity occur at the bottom of a uniformly mixed surface layer. The most significant effects produced by the inclusion of salinity are the reduction of the deepening rate and the corresponding change in the heating characteristics of the mixed layer. If the net surface heating is positive, but small, salinity effects must be included to determine whether the mixed layer temperature will increase or decrease. Precipitation over tropical oceans leads to the development of a shallow stable layer accompanied by a decrease in the temperature and salinity at the sea surface.

  5. Salinity tolerances and use of saline environments by freshwater turtles: implications of sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Ennen, Joshua R; Bower, Deborah S; Nowakowski, A Justin; Sweat, Sarah C; Todd, Brian D

    2018-03-25

    The projected rise in global mean sea levels places many freshwater turtle species at risk of saltwater intrusion into freshwater habitats. Freshwater turtles are disproportionately more threatened than other taxa; thus, understanding the role of salinity in determining their contemporary distribution and evolution should be a research priority. Freshwater turtles are a slowly evolving lineage; however, they can adapt physiologically or behaviourally to various levels of salinity and, therefore, temporarily occur in marine or brackish environments. Here, we provide the first comprehensive global review on freshwater turtle use and tolerance of brackish water ecosystems. We link together current knowledge of geographic occurrence, salinity tolerance, phylogenetic relationships, and physiological and behavioural mechanisms to generate a baseline understanding of the response of freshwater turtles to changing saline environments. We also review the potential origins of salinity tolerance in freshwater turtles. Finally, we integrate 2100 sea level rise (SLR) projections, species distribution maps, literature gathered on brackish water use, and a phylogeny to predict the exposure of freshwater turtles to projected SLR globally. From our synthesis of published literature and available data, we build a framework for spatial and phylogenetic conservation prioritization of coastal freshwater turtles. Based on our literature review, 70 species (∼30% of coastal freshwater turtle species) from 10 of the 11 freshwater turtle families have been reported in brackish water ecosystems. Most anecdotal records, observations, and descriptions do not imply long-term salinity tolerance among freshwater turtles. Rather, experiments show that some species exhibit potential for adaptation and plasticity in physiological, behavioural, and life-history traits that enable them to endure varying periods (e.g. days or months) and levels of saltwater exposure. Species that specialize on

  6. Impacts of irrigation regimes with saline water on carrot productivity and soil salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different irrigation regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of carrot as a fall-winter crop under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Carrot was grown on a sandy soil and surface-irrigated with a water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. For the three years, a complete randomized block design with four replicates was used to evaluate five irrigation regimes. Four irrigation methods were based on the use of soil water balance (SWB to estimate irrigation amounts and timing while the fifth consisted of using traditional farmers practices. SWB methods consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI-100, 80% (DI-80 and 60% (DI-60. FI-100 was considered as full irrigation while DI-80 and DI-60 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Regulated deficit irrigation regime where 40% reduction is applied only during ripening stage (FI-DI60 was also used. Farmer method (Farmer consisted in giving fixed amounts of water (25 mm every 7 days from planting till harvest. Results on carrot production and soil salinization are globally consistent between the three-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity in the root zone is observed at harvest under DI-60 (3.1, 3.4, 3.9 dS/m, respectively, for the three years and farmer irrigation (3.3, 3.6, 3.9 dS/m treatments compared to FI-100 treatment (2.3, 2.6 and 3.1 dS/m. Relatively low ECe values were also observed under FI-DI60 and DI-80 treatments with respectively (2.7, 3, 3.5 dS/m and (2.5, 2.9, 3.3 dS/m. ECe values under the different irrigation treatments were generally lower than or equal to the EC of irrigation water used. Rainfall received during fall and/or winter periods (57, 26 and 29 mm, respectively, during the three years contributed probably to leaching soluble

  7. Safety and efficacy of US-approved viscosupplements for knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, saline-controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Str

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibeke Strand,1 Louis F McIntyre,2 William R Beach,3 Larry E Miller,4,5 Jon E Block5 1Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2New York University Medical Center, White Plains, NY, USA; 3Tuckahoe Orthopaedics, Richmond, VA, USA; 4Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc., Asheville, NC, USA; 5The Jon Block Group, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: Intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid is a common, yet controversial, therapeutic option for patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of this research was to determine the safety and efficacy of US-approved viscosupplements for symptomatic knee OA. Methods: We searched MedLine and EMBase for randomized, sham-controlled trials evaluating safety and/or clinical efficacy of US-approved viscosupplements in patients with symptomatic knee OA. Knee pain severity and knee joint function were assessed at 4 to 13 weeks and 14 to 26 weeks. Safety outcomes included serious adverse events, treatment-related serious adverse events, patient withdrawal, and adverse event-related patient withdrawal occurring at any time during follow-up. Results: A total of 29 studies representing 4,866 unique patients (active: 2,673, control: 2,193 were included. All sham-controlled trials used saline injections as a control. Viscosupplementation resulted in very large treatment effects between 4 and 26 weeks for knee pain and function compared to preinjection values, with standardized mean difference values ranging from 1.07 to 1.37 (all P<0.001. Compared to controls, standardized mean difference with viscosupplementation ranged from 0.38 to 0.43 for knee pain and 0.32 to 0.34 for knee function (all P<0.001. There were no statistically significant differences between viscosupplementation and controls for any safety outcome, with absolute risk differences of 0.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.2 to 1.5% for serious adverse events, 0% (95% CI: –0.4 to 0.4% for treatment-related serious adverse

  8. Europa's Compositional Evolution and Ocean Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, S.; Glein, C.; Bouquet, A.; Cammarano, F.; McKinnon, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    Europa's ocean depth and composition have likely evolved through time, in step with the temperature of its mantle, and in concert with the loss of water and hydrogen to space and accretion of water and other chemical species from comets, dust, and Io's volcanism. A key aspect to understanding the consequences of these processes is combining internal structure models with detailed calculations of ocean composition, which to date has not been done. This owes in part to the unavailability of suitable thermodynamic databases for aqueous chemistry above 0.5 GPa. Recent advances in high pressure aqueous chemistry and water-rock interactions allow us to compute the equilibrium ionic conditions and pH everywhere in Europa's interior. In this work, we develop radial structure and composition models for Europa that include self-consistent thermodynamics of all materials, developed using the PlanetProfile software. We will describe the potential hydration states and porosity of the rocky interior, and the partitioning of primordial sulfur between this layer, an underlying metallic core, and the ocean above. We will use these results to compute the ocean's salinity by extraction from the upper part of the rocky layer. In this context, we will also consider the fluxes of reductants from Europa's interior due to high-temperature hydrothermalism, serpentinization, and endogenic radiolysis.

  9. In situ bioremediation under high saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosshard, B.; Raumin, J.; Saurohan, B.

    1995-01-01

    An in situ bioremediation treatability study is in progress at the Salton Sea Test Base (SSTB) under the NAVY CLEAN 2 contract. The site is located in the vicinity of the Salon Sea with expected groundwater saline levels of up to 50,000 ppm. The site is contaminated with diesel, gasoline and fuel oils. The treatability study is assessing the use of indigenous heterotrophic bacteria to remediate petroleum hydrocarbons. Low levels of significant macro nutrients indicate that nutrient addition of metabolic nitrogen and Orthophosphate are necessary to promote the process, requiring unique nutrient addition schemes. Groundwater major ion chemistry indicates that precipitation of calcium phosphorus compounds may be stimulated by air-sparging operations and nutrient addition, which has mandated the remedial system to include pneumatic fracturing as an option. This presentation is tailored at an introductory level to in situ bioremediation technologies, with some emphasize on innovations in sparge air delivery, dissolved oxygen uptake rates, nutrient delivery, and pneumatic fracturing that should keep the expert's interest

  10. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Roseli Zainal Abidin; Abd Jalil Hassan; Suriyani Awang; Liew Yuk San; Norbaya Hashim

    2006-01-01

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  11. Salinity, can be indicator for radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, V.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity being within nature is an incontestable reality. Less than a century, man have diversified and intensified its presence, especially after nuclear weapons and peaceful use of fission power. Secondary, the risks of ionizing radiation effects on live matter have increased. The need of environmental radioactivity assessment and knowledge development in the field is and remains actually in follow time. The nuclear techniques are generally expensive and the radioanalytical methods are no so fast. Sometimes it is necessary to make the rapid and cheapest estimation, without to replace them. This is possible by finding of some accessible correlated parameters and easy to be analyzed. These parameters could indicate the availability of radionuclides in different ecosystems or the availability of ecosystems for different radionuclides. K-40 is a remarkable presence in marine natural radioactivity and plays an important role for euphotic and deep levels. As nutrient it can influence coastal ecosystems and its radiation power can be significant for microbiological processes. This present work analyzed the correlation between salinity and water K-40 radioactivity (beta, gamma) and proposes an empirical connection formula on the base of the good correlation that has been identified

  12. Laboratory experiment to study the effect of salinity variations on benthic foraminiferal species - Pararotalia nipponica (Asano)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.; Kurtarkar, S.R.

    Culture experiment has been carried out to observe the response of Pararotalia nipponica (Asano) to different salinities and its salinity tolerance limits. The specimens of P. nipponica kept in 33‰ saline water achieved optimum growth, while rest...

  13. Effluent salinity of pipe drains and tube-wells : a case study from the Indus plain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelleners, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: anisotropy, aquifer, desalinization, effluent salinity, groundwater, irrigation, salt-water upconing, soil salinity, stream-function, subsurface drainage

    Irrigated agriculture in arid and semi-arid zones often suffers from waterlogging and salinity problems.

  14. Salinity anomaly as a trigger for ENSO events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jieshun; Huang, Bohua; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Balmaseda, Magdalena A; Marx, Lawrence; Kinter, James L

    2014-10-29

    According to the classical theories of ENSO, subsurface anomalies in ocean thermal structure are precursors for ENSO events and their initial specification is essential for skillful ENSO forecast. Although ocean salinity in the tropical Pacific (particularly in the western Pacific warm pool) can vary in response to El Niño events, its effect on ENSO evolution and forecasts of ENSO has been less explored. Here we present evidence that, in addition to the passive response, salinity variability may also play an active role in ENSO evolution, and thus important in forecasting El Niño events. By comparing two forecast experiments in which the interannually variability of salinity in the ocean initial states is either included or excluded, the salinity variability is shown to be essential to correctly forecast the 2007/08 La Niña starting from April 2007. With realistic salinity initial states, the tendency to decay of the subsurface cold condition during the spring and early summer 2007 was interrupted by positive salinity anomalies in the upper central Pacific, which working together with the Bjerknes positive feedback, contributed to the development of the La Niña event. Our study suggests that ENSO forecasts will benefit from more accurate salinity observations with large-scale spatial coverage.

  15. The density-salinity relation of standard seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hannes; Seitz, Steffen; Hassel, Egon; Wolf, Henning

    2018-01-01

    The determination of salinity by means of electrical conductivity relies on stable salt proportions in the North Atlantic Ocean, because standard seawater, which is required for salinometer calibration, is produced from water of the North Atlantic. To verify the long-term stability of the standard seawater composition, it was proposed to perform measurements of the standard seawater density. Since the density is sensitive to all salt components, a density measurement can detect any change in the composition. A conversion of the density values to salinity can be performed by means of a density-salinity relation. To use such a relation with a target uncertainty in salinity comparable to that in salinity obtained from conductivity measurements, a density measurement with an uncertainty of 2 g m-3 is mandatory. We present a new density-salinity relation based on such accurate density measurements. The substitution measurement method used is described and density corrections for uniform isotopic and chemical compositions are reported. The comparison of densities calculated using the new relation with those calculated using the present reference equations of state TEOS-10 suggests that the density accuracy of TEOS-10 (as well as that of EOS-80) has been overestimated, as the accuracy of some of its underlying density measurements had been overestimated. The new density-salinity relation may be used to verify the stable composition of standard seawater by means of routine density measurements.

  16. Scottish saline lagoons: Impacts and challenges of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    The majority of Scotland's saline lagoons are located on the low-lying coastlines of the Western Isles and the northern archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland, where recorded annual relative sea level rise rates are among the highest in Scotland. The sediment-impounded lagoons of Orkney and Shetland will either lose their impoundment and become incorporated in marine coastal waters, or become increasingly saline, as relative sea levels rise. The rock-basin lagoons of the Western Isles will retain their restricted exchange with the sea but will also become more saline with rising sea level. Specialist lagoonal organisms tend to have wide salinity tolerances but may succumb to competition from marine counterparts. In all areas, there are sufficient fresh-water inland water bodies with potential to be captured as lagoons to compensate for loss of extent and number, but the specialist lagoon biota tend to have limited dispersal powers. It is thus possible that they will be unable to transfer to their analogue sites before existing lagoons become fully marine, giving conservation managers the problem of deciding on management options: leave natural processes to operate without interference, manage the saline inflow to maintain the current salinity regime, or translocate lagoon organisms perceived as threatened by rising salinities. Timing of conversion and capture is unpredictable due to local topography and complications caused by variable stratification.

  17. Effect of Salinity on Germination and Its Relationship with Vegetative growth in Bromus danthoniae Genotypes from Saline and Non-Saline Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bromus danthoniae Trin. is an annual grass species that is well adapted to harsh climates and could be considered as an important genetic resources for tolerance to environmental stresses such as salinity. In this study, 24 genotypes collected from Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah (non-saline areas and West Azerbaijan (saline area: shores of Uremia Salt Lake provinces of Iran were investigated at the germination stage under salt treatments with concentrations of 0, 60, 120, 180, 240 and 300 mM sodium chloride. Germination percentage, germination rate index, seed vigor, root length, shoot length and seedling fresh and dry weights were measured. In addition, the relationship between the percentage of germination in 300 mM sodium chloride and the survival rate (% after four weeks in 350 mM sodium chloride at the vegetative stage was evaluated. The results of analysis of variance showed that salinity treatments caused significant reductions in all the studied traits. Genotypic variation and the interaction of genotype × salt treatments were also significant. Genotypes USLN3 and KER4 were found to be the most tolerant and sensitive genotypes to salinity stress, with 13% and 98% reduction in germination percentage at 300 mM NaCl, respectively. Cluster analysis divided the genotypes into three groups, with one group containing only tolerant genotypes from Uremia Salt Lake, another one comprising only sensitive genotypes from non-saline regions, and the third one containing genotypes from both regions. The correlation between the germination percentage and the survival rate at the vegetative stage was not significant, indicating that different mechanisms are, perhaps, responsible for salinity tolerance at the germination and vegetative stages in B. danthoniae.

  18. SALINITY TOLERANCE OF SEVERAL RICE GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heni Safitri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the most serious problems in rice cultivation. Salinity drastically reduced plant growth and yield, especially at seedling stage. Several rice genotypes have been produced, but their tolerance to salinity has not yet been evaluated. The study aimed to evaluate salinity tolerance of rice genotypes at seedling stage. The glasshouse experiment was conducted at Cimanggu Experimental Station, Bogor, from April to May 2013. Thirteen rice genotypes and two check varieties, namely Pokkali (salt tolerant and IR29 (salt sensitive were tested at seedling stage. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications and two factors, namely the levels of NaCl (0 and 120 mM and 13 genotypes of rice. Rice seedlings were grown in the nutrient culture (hydroponic supplemented with NaCl at different levels. The growth and salinity injury levels of the genotypes were recorded periodically. The results showed that salinity level of 120 mM NaCl reduced seedling growth of all rice genotypes, but the tolerant ones were survived after 14 days or until the sensitive check variety died. Based on the visual injury symptoms on the leaves, five genotypes, i.e. Dendang, Inpara 5, Inpari 29, IR77674-3B-8-2-2-14-4-AJY2, and IR81493-BBB-6-B- 2-1-2 were tolerant to 120 mM salinity level, while Inpara 4 was comparable to salt sensitive IR29. Hence, Inpara 4 could be used as a salinity sensitive genotype for future research of testing tolerant variety. Further evaluation is needed to confirm their salinity tolerance under field conditions. 

  19. Influence of net freshwater supply on salinity in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttle, William K.; Fourqurean, James W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Zieman, Joseph C.; Robblee, Michael B.

    2000-01-01

    An annual water budget for Florida Bay, the large, seasonally hypersaline estuary in the Everglades National Park, was constructed using physically based models and long‐term (31 years) data on salinity, hydrology, and climate. Effects of seasonal and interannual variations of the net freshwater supply (runoff plus rainfall minus evaporation) on salinity variation within the bay were also examined. Particular attention was paid to the effects of runoff, which are the focus of ambitious plans to restore and conserve the Florida Bay ecosystem. From 1965 to 1995 the annual runoff from the Everglades into the bay was less than one tenth of the annual direct rainfall onto the bay, while estimated annual evaporation slightly exceeded annual rainfall. The average net freshwater supply to the bay over a year was thus approximately zero, and interannual variations in salinity appeared to be affected primarily by interannual fluctuations in rainfall. At the annual scale, runoff apparently had little effect on the bay as a whole during this period. On a seasonal basis, variations in rainfall, evaporation, and runoff were not in phase, and the net freshwater supply to the bay varied between positive and negative values, contributing to a strong seasonal pattern in salinity, especially in regions of the bay relatively isolated from exchanges with the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. Changes in runoff could have a greater effect on salinity in the bay if the seasonal patterns of rainfall and evaporation and the timing of the runoff are considered. One model was also used to simulate spatial and temporal patterns of salinity responses expected to result from changes in net freshwater supply. Simulations in which runoff was increased by a factor of 2 (but with no change in spatial pattern) indicated that increased runoff will lower salinity values in eastern Florida Bay, increase the variability of salinity in the South Region, but have little effect on salinity in the Central

  20. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Gegner, Hagen M.

    2017-12-15

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  1. High salinity conveys thermotolerance in the coral model Aiptasia

    KAUST Repository

    Gegner, Hagen M.; Ziegler, Maren; Radecker, Nils; Buitrago Lopez, Carol; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    The endosymbiosis between dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium and stony corals provides the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Coral bleaching, the expulsion of endosymbionts from the coral host tissue as a consequence of heat or light stress, poses a threat to reef ecosystem functioning on a global scale. Hence, a better understanding of the factors contributing to heat stress susceptibility and tolerance is needed. In this regard, some of the most thermotolerant corals also live in particularly saline habitats, but possible effects of high salinity on thermotolerance in corals are anecdotal. Here we test the hypothesis that high salinity may lead to increased thermotolerance. We conducted a heat stress experiment at low, intermediate, and high salinities using a set of host-endosymbiont combinations of the coral model Aiptasia. As expected, all host-endosymbiont combinations showed reduced photosynthetic efficiency and endosymbiont loss during heat stress, but the severity of bleaching was significantly reduced with increasing salinities for one of the host-endosymbiont combinations. Our results show that higher salinities can convey increased thermotolerance in Aiptasia, although this effect seems to be dependent on the particular host strain and/or associated symbiont type. This finding may help explain the extraordinarily high thermotolerance of corals in high salinity environments such as the Red Sea and the Persian/Arabian Gulf and provides novel insight regarding factors that contribute to thermotolerance. Since our results are based on a salinity effect in symbiotic sea anemones, it remains to be determined whether this salinity effect can also be observed in stony corals.

  2. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, Bo G.

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m 3 /s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say ±1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m 3 /s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the shoreline

  3. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Bo G. [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m{sup 3}/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say {+-}1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m{sup 3}/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the

  4. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reba, M N M; Rosli, A Z; Rahim, N A

    2014-01-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously

  5. Study of groundwater salinization in Chaj Doab using environmental isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.D.; Sajjid, M.I.; Akram, W.; Ahmad, M.; Rafiq, M.

    1991-09-01

    Environmental isotopes and chemical composition of water have been used to study the origin of groundwater salinity in Chaj Doab. Three important possible processes of salinization i.e. enrichment of salt content of water by evaopration, mixing with connate marine water and dissolution of salts from soil sediments have been investigated. No evidence for mixing with connate maine water could be found. The process of evaporation too does not seem to apply any significant role in salinization of groundwater. The dissolution of salts from soil sediments appears as dominant mechanism for increasing the salt content of water in this area. (author)

  6. The effect of salinity and moisture stress on pea plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, A.Abd-El Ghany

    1985-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in the green house in Inchas, Atomic Energy Establishment, to study the effect os salinity and moisture stress on pea plants. Salinity experiments were conducted in 1981/1982, 1982/1983 and 1983/1984 seasons to study the effect of NaCl and/or CaC l 2 as single or mixed salts and radiation combined with salinity. Water stress studies were conducted in 1983/1984 growing season to investigate the effect of soil moisture stress on growth, yield and water use efficiency

  7. Utilization of saline water and land: Reclaiming lost resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Mujtaba

    2001-01-01

    There is an abundance of saline water on the globe. Large tracts of land are arid and/or salt-affected, and a large number of plant species are known to be salt-tolerant. It would seem obvious that salt tolerant plants (halophytes) have a role in utilizing the two wasted resources, saline water and wastelands. We will briefly describe how these resources can be fruitfully utilized and how the IAEA has helped several countries to demonstrate the possibility of cultivating salt tolerant plant species on arid saline wastelands for economic and environmental benefit. After some brief introductory remarks we will discuss the results of the project

  8. Effects of temperature and salinity on light scattering by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Lianbo

    2010-04-01

    A theoretical model on light scattering by water was developed from the thermodynamic principles and was used to evaluate the effects of temperature and salinity. The results agreed with the measurements by Morel within 1%. The scattering increases with salinity in a non-linear manner and the empirical linear model underestimate the scattering by seawater for S < 40 psu. Seawater also exhibits an 'anomalous' scattering behavior with a minimum occurring at 24.64 °C for pure water and this minimum increases with the salinity, reaching 27.49 °C at 40 psu.

  9. Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

  10. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  11. Salinity controls on plant transpiration and soil water balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, S.; Molini, A.; Suweis, S. S.; Viola, F.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Soil salinization and aridification represent a major threat for the food security and sustainable development of drylands. The two problems are deeply connected, and their interplay is expected to be further enhanced by climate change and projected population growth. Salt-affected land is currently estimated to cover around 1.1 Gha, and is particularly widespread in semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Over 900 Mha of these saline/sodic soils are potentially available for crop or biomass production. Salt-tolerant plants have been recently proposed as valid solution to exploit or even remediate salinized soils. However the effects of salinity on evapotranspiration, soil water balance and the long-term salt mass balance in the soil, are still largely unexplored. In this contribution we analyze the feedback of evapotranspiration on soil salinization, with particular emphasis on the role of vegetation and plant salt-tolerance. The goal is to introduce a simple modeling framework able to shed some light on how (a) soil salinity controls plant transpiration, and (b) salinization itself is favored/impeded by different vegetation feedback. We introduce at this goal a spatially lumped stochastic model of soil moisture and salt mass dynamics averaged over the active soil depth, and accounting for the effect of salinity on evapotranspiration. Here, the limiting effect of salinity on ET is modeled through a simple plant response function depending on both salt concentration in the soil and plant salt-tolerance. The coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance is hence used to obtain the conditional steady-state probability density function (pdf) of soil moisture for given salt tolerance and salinization level, Our results show that salinity imposes a limit in the soil water balance and this limit depends on plant salt-tolerance mainly through the control of the leaching occurrence (tolerant plants exploit water more efficiently than the sensitive ones). We also analyzed the

  12. Salinity stress and some physiological relationships in Kochia (Kochia scoparia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nabati

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting plant growth and production. It is estimated that approximately half of the irrigated lands of Iran are affected by salinity and much of the agricultural lands of Iran especially in the central regions are susceptible to salinity. According to the development of saline soils and water resources, utilization of halophytes as alternatives for cultivation in saline conditions could be a suitable strategy to crop production. In addition to understanding the physiological salinity tolerance pathways, studying such crops could help to plant breeding and transferring these useful traits to crop species and also domestication of these plants. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in 2009-2010 in Salinity Research Station of faculty of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as split-plot based on Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications. Salinity as the main plot had two levels of 5.2 and 16.5 dSm-1 and five kochia ecotypes including Birjand, Urmia, Borujerd, Esfahan and Sabzevar were allocated as sub-plot. Seedlings were irrigated with saline water having electrical conductivity (EC of 5.2 dSm-1 until the full establishment and thereafter salinity stress was imposed with saline water having EC=16.5 dSm-1. Physiological and biochemical traits were measured in the youngest fully expanded leaf at the beginning of the anthesis and shoot biomass at the end of the growth season. Data analysis was performed using Minitab 16 and means were compared by LSD test at a significance level of 0.05. Results and Discussion Results indicated that biomass was increased in Birjand, Isfahan and Urmia ecotypes as salinity level increased while it was decreased in Sabzevar and Boroujerd ecotypes. A reduction of 34, 31, 11 and 29 percentage and an increase of 4 percentage in seed yield was seen in Sabzevar, Birjand, Boroujerd, Urmia and Isfahan, respectively. Harvest

  13. Origins of saline fluids at convergent margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jonathan B.; Kastner, Miriam; Egeberg, Per Kr.

    The compositions of pore and venting fluids at convergent margins differ from seawater values, reflecting mixing and diagenesis. Most significantly, the concentration of Cl-, assumed to be a conservative ion, differs from its seawater value. Chloride concentrations could be elevated by four processes, although two, the formation of gas hydrate and ion filtration by clay membranes, are insignificant in forming saline fluids at convergent margins. During the formation of gas hydrate, the resulting Cl--rich fluids, estimated to contain an average excess of ˜140 mM Cl- over seawater value, probably would be flushed from the sediment when the pore fluids vent to seawater. Ion filtration by clay membranes requires compaction pressures typical of >2 km burial depths. Even at these depths, the efficiency of ion filtration will be negligible because (1) fluids will flow through fractures, thereby bypassing clay membranes, (2) concentrations of clay minerals are diluted by other phases, and (3) during burial, smectite converts to illite, which has little capacity for ion filtration. A third process, mixing with subaerially evaporated seawater, elevates Cl- concentrations to 1043 mM in forearc basins along the Peru margin. Evaporation of seawater, however, will be important only in limited geographic regions that are characterized by enclosed basins, arid climates, and permeable sediments. At the New Hebrides and Izu-Bonin margins, Cl- concentrations are elevated to a maximum of 1241 mM. The process responsible for this increase is the alteration of volcanic ash to hydrous clay and zeolite minerals. Mass balance calculations, based on the decrease in δ18O values to -9.5‰ (SMOW), suggest that the Cl- concentrations could increase solely from the formation of smectite in a closed system. The diagenesis of volcanic ash also alters the concentrations of most dissolved species in addition to Cl-. Depending on the volume of this altered fluid, it could influence seawater

  14. Ex Vivo Experiment of Saline-Enhanced Hepatic Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation with a Perfused Needle Electrode: Comparison with Conventional Monopolar and Simultaneous Monopolar Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo; Sohn, Kyu Li; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2005-01-01

    , hypertonic saline-enhanced bipolar RFA seems to be a promising approach for treating larger liver tumors

  15. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    Mussels within the Baltic Mytilus edulis × M. trossulus hybrid zone have adapted to the low salinities in the Baltic Sea which, however, results in slow-growing dwarfed mussels. To get a better understanding of the nature of dwarfism, we studied the ability of M. trossulus to feed and grow at low...... to become negative below 4.5 psu. We suggest that reduced ability to produce shell material at extremely low salinity may explain dwarfism of mussels in the Baltic Sea. Reduced bio-calcification at low salinity, however, may impede shell growth, but not somatic growth, and this may at first result...

  16. Finescale Structure of the Temperature-Salinity Relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polzin, Kurt L; Ferrari, Raffaele

    2005-01-01

    The long term goal of this project is to understand the processes that establish the temperature-salinity relationship in the ocean, with emphasis on the interplay between advection at the large scale...

  17. Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... improve plant growth and enhance stress tolerance (Piccolo et al., 1992). ..... shoot of pepper seedling, but the reverse was the case with Na, Fe and Zn of .... salinity, and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for.

  18. NOAA NDBC SOS, 2007-present, sea_water_practical_salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_water_practical_salinity data. Because of the nature of SOS...

  19. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... (fructose and glucose) accumulated to higher levels and the content of ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were ... analysis. Sink strength was expressed as the dry matter accumu-.

  20. Assessment of groundwater salinity in Nellore district using multi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    water samples at six locations close to the electrical resistivity survey sites also suggest high ... Electrical resistivity imaging; Nellore district; groundwater salinity; geochemistry. ..... Sasaki Y 1992 Resolution of resistivity tomography inferred.

  1. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water. ... the remediation of an oily sludge, which was part of the waste stream from the improvement ... m3 of fresh water respectively while 'treatment' reactors C and D received ...

  2. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  3. Effects of salinity on sucrose metabolism during tomato fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-08

    Feb 8, 2010 ... But the effects of salinity treatment on sucrose phosphate synthase activities were weak under the ... The growth of different sink organs depends firstly on the use of ..... isoforms, location and regulatory mechanisms by endo-.

  4. A potato NOA gene increased salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... in Arabidopsis thaliana salt stress responses and increased its salinity tolerance. Key words: StNOA1 ... (NR)-dependent pathways (Cueto et al., 1996; Delledonne ..... plastome-encoded proteins uncovers a mechanism for the.

  5. Effect of salinity and inoculation with Azosprillium on carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... Inoculation reduced harmful effects of salinity especially on mean kernel weight and grain ... considered to play a key role in stress induced metabolic processes and membrane ..... osmoregulation. Conclusion. Increase in ...

  6. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. ... Key words: Cold stratification, salt stress, seedling emergence, ... methods used to cope with salinity, seed pre-sowing.

  7. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Russo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  8. Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of pepper seedling. ... It consequently affects plant growth and yield and ameliorates the deleterious effects of salt stress. The objective of the study ... from 32 Countries: Algeria (5) ...

  9. Partnership for adapting Vulnerable Populations to Soil Salinization ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Soil salinization affects nearly all regions of Sénégal. ... and sociological innovations to diversify income-generating productive activities (rice culture, bee keeping ... Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying sexual and ...

  10. Influence of salinity on soil chemical properties and surrounding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akomolafe Gbenga

    2013-11-14

    Nov 14, 2013 ... Brock, 2001; USDA, Natural Resources Conservation. Service, 2002). ... management practices through their effect on salinity and ..... resources: Human causes, extent, management and case studies. ... 7th edition. p.

  11. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D.; Logan, Bruce E.; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery

  12. Influence of salinity and temperature on the germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... This study was conducted to determine the effects of temperature ... rate decreased with increased salinity at all temperatures, but the highest rates were at 15°C. The .... surface evaporation causes accumulation of salts at the.

  13. Accumulation of Proline under Salinity and Heavy metal stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Seed germination and growth parameters of seedlings of cauliflower were observed after 5, 10 and 15 ... Keywords: Abiotic stress, salinity, proline and heavy metals. The responses of ..... induced accumulation of free proline in a metal-tolerant.

  14. Identification of RAPD markers linked to salinity tolerance in wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    armghan_shehzad

    The individual plants from F2 population segregation for salinity tolerance and the parents ..... plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporters that are energized by proton gradients ... tonoplast by vascular Na+/ H+ antiporters into the cell vacuoles ...

  15. Seasonal pattern of anthropogenic salinization in temperate forested headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpano, Anthony J; Zipper, Carl E; Soucek, David J; Schoenholtz, Stephen H

    2018-04-15

    Salinization of freshwaters by human activities is of growing concern globally. Consequences of salt pollution include adverse effects to aquatic biodiversity, ecosystem function, human health, and ecosystem services. In headwater streams of the temperate forests of eastern USA, elevated specific conductance (SC), a surrogate measurement for the major dissolved ions composing salinity, has been linked to decreased diversity of aquatic insects. However, such linkages have typically been based on limited numbers of SC measurements that do not quantify intra-annual variation. Effective management of salinization requires tools to accurately monitor and predict salinity while accounting for temporal variability. Toward that end, high-frequency SC data were collected within the central Appalachian coalfield over 4 years at 25 forested headwater streams spanning a gradient of salinity. A sinusoidal periodic function was used to model the annual cycle of SC, averaged across years and streams. The resultant model revealed that, on average, salinity deviated approximately ±20% from annual mean levels across all years and streams, with minimum SC occurring in late winter and peak SC occurring in late summer. The pattern was evident in headwater streams influenced by surface coal mining, unmined headwater reference streams with low salinity, and larger-order salinized rivers draining the study area. The pattern was strongly responsive to varying seasonal dilution as driven by catchment evapotranspiration, an effect that was amplified slightly in unmined catchments with greater relative forest cover. Evaluation of alternative sampling intervals indicated that discrete sampling can approximate the model performance afforded by high-frequency data but model error increases rapidly as discrete sampling intervals exceed 30 days. This study demonstrates that intra-annual variation of salinity in temperate forested headwater streams of Appalachia USA follows a natural seasonal

  16. Salinity information in coral δ18O records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, J. L.; Thompson, D. M.; Dassié, E. P.; Stevenson, S.; Konecky, B. L.; DeLong, K. L.; Sayani, H. R.; Emile-Geay, J.; Partin, J. W.; Abram, N. J.; Martrat, B.

    2017-12-01

    Coral oxygen isotopic ratios (δ18O) are typically utilized to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST), or SST-based El Niño-Southern Oscillation metrics (e.g., NIÑO3.4), despite the influence of both SST and the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (δ18Osw) on coral δ18O. The ideal way to isolate past δ18Osw variations is to develop independent and univariate SST and δ18Osw responders, for instance, via paired coral δ18O and Sr/Ca analyses. Nonetheless, many coral δ18O records without paired Sr/Ca records already exist in the paleoclimatic literature, and these may be able to provide some insight into past δ18Osw and salinity changes due to the nature of the significant positive relationship between instrumental salinity and δ18Osw. Here we use coral δ18O records from the new PAGES Iso2k database to assess the regions in which coral δ18O has the greatest potential to provide salinity information based on the strength of the relationship between instrumental salinity and coral δ18O values. We find from annual pseudocoral similations that corals in the western tropical Pacific share a substantial fraction of their variance with δ18Osw rather than SST. In contrast, in the Indian Ocean and eastern tropical Pacific it is SST that predominantly explains coral δ18O variance. In agreement with this variance decomposition, we find that coral δ18O time series from the western tropical Pacific are significantly correlated with mid to late 20th century salinity. However, variations in the strength of the δ18Osw-salinity relationship across the western tropical Pacific will likely have a significant influence on coral δ18O-based salinity reconstructions. Additionally, in some cases a strong, negative correlation between SST and δ18Osw might not allow their influences to be adequately separated in coral δ18O records without the use of coupled Sr/Ca estimates of the temperature contribution. Overall, we find a range of modern salinity and SST

  17. SMAP Salinity Artifacts Associated With Presence of Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M. M.; Santos-Garcia, A.; Jones, L.

    2016-02-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite carries an L-band radiometer, which measures sea surface salinity (SSS) over a swath of 1000 km @ 40 km resolution. SMAP can extend the Aquarius (AQ) salinity data record with improved temporal/spatial sampling. Previous studies [see references] have demonstrated significant differences between satellite and in-situ salinity measurements during rain. In the presence of precipitation, salinity stratification exists near the sea surface, which nullifies the presumption of a well-mixed salinity. In general, these salinity gradients last only a few hours and the upper layer becomes slightly fresher in salinity. This paper describes the Rain Impact Model (RIM) that simulates the effects of rain accumulation on the SSS [Santos-Garcia et al., 2014] applied to SMAP. This model incorporates rainfall information for the previous 24 hours to the measurement sample (in this case SMAP) and uses as initialization the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) data. Given the better resolution of SMAP, the goal of this paper is to continue the analysis previously done with AQ to better understand the effects of the instantaneous and accumulated rain on the salinity measurements. Boutin, J., N. Martin, G. Reverdin, X. Yin, and F. Gaillard (2013), Sea surface freshening inferred from SMOS and ARGO salinity: Impact of rain, Ocean Sci., 9(1), 183-192, doi:10.5194/os-9-183-2013. Santos-Garcia, A., M. Jacob, L. Jones, W. Asher, Y. Hejazin, H. Ebrahimi, and M. Rabolli (2014), Investigation of rain effects on Aquarius Sea Surface Salinity measurements, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, 7605-7624, doi:10.1002/2014JC010137. Tang, W., S.H Yueh, A. Hayashi, A.G. Fore, W.L. Jones, A. Santos-Garcia, and M.M. Jacob, (2015), Rain-Induced Near Surface Salinity Stratification and Rain Roughness Correction for Aquarius SSS Retrieval, in Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, IEEE Journal of, 8(99), 1-11, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2015.2463768.

  18. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, Seiji; Patiño, Reynaldo; Taylor, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamflow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was>2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  19. Variable Saline Concentrations for Initial Resuscitation Following Polytrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2017-0008 Variable Saline Concentrations for Initial Resuscitation Following Polytrauma Dr. Michael Goodman...Following Polytrauma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-10-2-6140 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-14-2-6B29 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Michael...established. We investigated the utility of standard variable saline concentrations (0.9%, 3%, 23.4%) in a murine polytrauma model of traumatic brain injury

  20. Linking water and carbon cycles through salinity observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2017-12-01

    The association of ocean surface salinity in global hydrological cycle and climate change has been traditionally studied through the examination of its tendency and advection as manifestation of ocean's heat and water fluxes with the atmosphere. The variability of surface heat and water fluxes are linked to top of atmosphere radiation, whose imbalance is the main cause of global warming. Besides the link of salinity to greenhouse warming through water balance, this study will focus on the effect of changing salinity on carbon dioxide flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. We have built statistical models to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and ocean acidification (in terms of total alkalinity and pH) using spacebased data. PCO2 is a critical parameter governing ocean as source and sink of the accumulated greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The exchange also causes ocean acidification, which is detrimental to marine lives and ecology. Before we had sufficient spacebased salinity measurements coincident with in situ pCO2 measurement, we trained our statistical models to use satellite sea surface temperature and chlorophyll, with one model using salinity climatology and the other without. We found significant differences between the two models in regions of strong water input through river discharge and surface water flux. The pCO2 output follows the seasonal salinity advection of the Amazon outflow. The seasonal salinity advection between Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea are followed by change of pCO2 and total alkalinity. At shorter time scales, the signatures of rain associated with intraseasonal organized convection of summer monsoon can be detected. We have observed distribution agreement of among pCO2, surface salinity, and surface water flux for variation from a few days to a few years under the Pacific ITCZ; the agreement varies slightly with season and longitudes and the reason is under study.

  1. Development of a coastal drought index using salinity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul; Darby, Lisa S.

    2017-01-01

    A critical aspect of the uniqueness of coastal drought is the effects on the salinity dynamics of creeks, rivers, and estuaries. The location of the freshwater–saltwater interface along the coast is an important factor in the ecological and socioeconomic dynamics of coastal communities. Salinity is a critical response variable that integrates hydrologic and coastal dynamics including sea level, tides, winds, precipitation, streamflow, and tropical storms. The position of the interface determines the composition of freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities as well as the freshwater availability for water intakes. Many definitions of drought have been proposed, with most describing a decline in precipitation having negative impacts on the water supply. Indices have been developed incorporating data such as rainfall, streamflow, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. These water-availability drought indices were developed for upland areas and may not be ideal for characterizing coastal drought. The availability of real-time and historical salinity datasets provides an opportunity for the development of a salinity-based coastal drought index. An approach similar to the standardized precipitation index (SPI) was modified and applied to salinity data obtained from sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Using the SPI approach, the index becomes a coastal salinity index (CSI) that characterizes coastal salinity conditions with respect to drought periods of higher-saline conditions and wet periods of higher-freshwater conditions. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that it provides additional coastal response information as compared to the SPI and the Palmer hydrologic drought index, and the CSI can be used for different estuary types and for comparison of conditions along coastlines.

  2. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  3. Remote Sensing of Salinity and Overview of Results from Aquarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Dinnat, E. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S. H.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined active/passive microwave (L-band) instrument designed to map the salinity of global oceans from space. The specific goal of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the sea surface salinity (SSS) field of the open ocean (i.e. away from land). The instrumentation has been designed to provide monthly maps with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu

  4. Halophyte filters as saline treatment wetlands; Applicators and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, J.J.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Slim, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of wastewater rich in nutrients and organic pollutants is essential for the protection of receiving waters and to enable water reuse. This report investigates the possibilities and constraints of constructed wetlands for treatment of slightly saline wastewater from aquaculture systems. As the body of literature for saline treatment wetlands is relatively small, the reports starts with a summary of processes in freshwater systems. It is then explained that these processes are also...

  5. Influence of temperature and salinity on hydrodynamic forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Escobar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce an innovative approach to offshore engineering so as to take variations in sea temperature and salinity into account in the calculation of hydrodynamic forces. With this in mind, a thorough critical analysis of the influence of sea temperature and salinity on hydrodynamic forces on piles like those used nowadays in offshore wind farms will be carried out. This influence on hydrodynamic forces occurs through a change in water density and viscosity due to temperature and salinity variation. Therefore, the aim here is to observe whether models currently used to estimate wave forces on piles are valid for different ranges of sea temperature and salinity apart from observing the limit when diffraction or nonlinear effects arise combining both effects with the magnitude of the pile diameter. Hence, specific software has been developed to simulate equations in fluid mechanics taking into account nonlinear and diffraction effects. This software enables wave produced forces on a cylinder supported on the sea bed to be calculated. The study includes observations on the calculation model's sensitivity as to a variation in the cylinder's diameter, on the one hand and, on the other, as to temperature and salinity variation. This software will enable an iterative calculation to be made for finding out the shape the pressure wave caused when a wave passes over will have for different pile diameters and water with different temperature and salinity.

  6. Salinity and temperature variations around Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Jeremy Andy Anak Dominic; Nazrul Hizam Yusof; Mohd Rafaei Murtadza

    2004-01-01

    Vertical profiles of salinity and temperature were measured at several offshore stations along east and west coast of Peninsula Malaysia coastal waters. The measurements which covered South China Sea and Straits of Malacca were made during sampling cruises for Marine Database Project for Peninsula Malaysia, and during an IAEA regional training course for Marine Pollution Project. The results show that the water temperature is highest at the surface and minimum at bottom, while the salinity is lowest at the surface and highest at the bottom. In Malacca Straits, the highest surface water temperature was 30.6 degree C and the lowest bottom water temperature was 20.4 degree C, recorded at a station located in Andaman Sea. The same station also recorded the highest surface and bottom salinity i.e. 31.3 ppt and 34.4 ppt, respectively. For South China Sea, the maximum surface water temperature was 30.4 degree C and the minimum bottom temperature was 25.9 degree C, while the highest surface salinity was 33.2 ppt and the highest bottom salinity was 34.1 ppt. The water in South China Sea also showed some degrees of stratifications with thermocline zones located between 10-40 m water depths. In Malacca Straits, stronger thermocline develops at higher latitude, while at lower latitude the water is more readily mixed. Beside the spatial variations, the seawater temperature and salinity around Peninsula Malaysia also subjected to temporal variation as seawater. (Author)

  7. Isotonic saline nasal irrigation in clinical practice: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Costa Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Nasal instillation of saline solution has been used as part of the treatment of patients with upper respiratory tract diseases. Despite its use for a number of years, factors such as the amount of saline solution to be used, degree of salinity, method and frequency of application have yet to be fully explained. Objective: Review the reported outcomes of saline nasal irrigation in adults with allergic rhinitis, acute or chronic sinusitis and after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS, and provide evidence to assist physiotherapists in decision making in clinical practice. Methods: A search was conducted of the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases between 2007 and 2014. A combination of the following descriptors was used as a search strategy: nasal irrigation, nasal lavage, rhinitis, sinusitis, saline, saline solution. Results: Eight clinical trials were included, analyzed according to participant diagnosis. Conclusion: The evidence found was heterogeneous, but contributed to elucidating uncertainties regarding the use of nasal lavage in the clinical practice of physical therapy, such as the protocols used.

  8. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  9. Abacus to determine soils salinity in presence of saline groundwater in arid zones case of the region of Ouargla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergougui, Myriam Marie El; Benyamina, Hind; Boutoutaou, Djamel

    2018-05-01

    In order to remedy the limit of salt intake to the soil surface, it is necessary to study the causes of the soil salinity and find the origin of these salts. The arid areas in the region of Ouargla lie on excessively mineralized groundwater whose level is near the soil surface (0 - 1.5 m). The topography and absence of a reliable drainage system led to the rise of the groundwater beside the arid climatic conditions contributed to the salinization and hydromorphy of the soils. The progress and stabilization of cultures yields in these areas can only occur if the groundwater is maintained (drained) to a depth of 1.6 m. The results of works done to the determination of soil salinity depend mainly on the groundwater's salinity, its depth and the climate.

  10. Salinity tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the use of salinity for contamination control by the freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas von Alvensleben

    Full Text Available Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and -water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles--an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass.

  11. Effect of water regime and salinity on artichoke yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Boari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the effects of different salinity and water inputs on the yield of artichoke Violetto di Provenza. Two years of experimental works had been carried out in a site in Southern Italy characterized by semi-arid climate and deep loam soil. Three salinity levels of irrigation water (S0, S1 and S2 with electrical conductivity (ECw of 0.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1, respectively, were combined with three water regimes (W1, W2 and W3 corresponding in that order to 20 40 and 60% of available water depletion. The overall results of the salinity tolerance are in agreement with those from the literature. However, an higher tolerance to salinity was demonstrated when crop was watered more frequently (at 20% of available water depletion and a lower one when crop watering was performed less frequently (at 60% of available water depletion. The increase of salinity level reduced marketable yield (from 12.9 to 8.8 Mg ha-1, total heads (from 125,100 to 94,700 n ha-1 and heads mean weight (from 99.9 to 94.6 g, while increased heads dry matter (from 161.8 to 193.6 g kg-1 f.w. and reduced edible parte percentage of heads (from 35.2 to 33.2 %. Watering regimes, as average of the salinity levels, affected total heads marketable yield (115,350 n ha-1 and 11.4 Mg ha-1 for W1 and W2, 105,900 n ha-1 and 10 Mg ha-1 for W3. In addition, different watering regimes affected the secondary heads yield for which it was reduced by 3% of mean weight. The effect of different watering regimes changed with various salinity levels. In condition of moderate salinity (S1, maximum water depletion fraction to preserve heads number and weight yield was 40 and 20% of total soil available water, respectively. However, with high salinity (S2, maximum water depletion fraction to keep unchanged heads number and weight yield was 20% for both. The level of soil salinity at beginning of the crop cycle favoured the incidence of head atrophy in the main heads produced in the second year.

  12. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kearney

    Full Text Available Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival and N sudelli (0% survival, while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival. L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival.

  13. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, Bruce A.

    1988-01-01

    The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O2 evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and

  14. Salinity Effects on Photosynthesis, Carbon Allocation, and Nitrogen Assimilation in the Red Alga, Gelidium coulteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macler, B A

    1988-11-01

    The long-term effects of altered salinities on the physiology of the intertidal red alga Gelidium coulteri Harv. were assessed. Plants were transfered from 30 grams per liter salinity to media with salinities from 0 to 50 grams per liter. Growth rate, agar, photosynthesis, respiration, and various metabolites were quantified after 5 days and 5 weeks adaptation. After 5 days, growth rates were lower for plants at all altered salinities. Growth rates recovered from these values with 5 weeks adaptation, except for salinities of 10 grams per liter and below, where tissues bleached and died. Photosynthetic O(2) evolution was lower than control values at both higher and lower salinities after 5 days and did not change over time. Carbon fixation at the altered salinities was unchanged after 5 days, but decreased below 25 grams per liter and above 40 grams per liter after 5 weeks. Respiration increased at lower salinities. Phycobili-protein and chlorophyll were lower for all altered salinities after 5 days. These decreases continued at lower salinities, then were stable after 5 weeks. Chlorophyll recovered over time at higher salinities. Decreases in protein at lower salinities were quantitatively attributable to phycobili-protein loss. Total N levels and C:N ratios were nearly constant across all salinities tested. Carbon flow into glutamate and aspartate decreased with both decreasing and increasing salinities. Glycine, serine, and glycolate levels increased with both increasing and decreasing salinity, indicating a stimulation of photorespiration. The cell wall component agar increased with decreasing salinity, although biosynthesis was inhibited at both higher and lower salinities. The storage compound floridoside increased with increasing salinity. The evidence suggests stress responses to altered salinities that directly affected photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrogen assimilation and indirectly affected photosynthate flow. At low salinities, respiration and

  15. Population specific salinity tolerance in eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Boström, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    and that the lowsaline population is better adapted to hyposaline conditions. Despite the long-term adaptation of the low saline population to stable, low salinity, these plants were still able to function normally in high salinities, indicating remarkable plasticity. The results further suggest that altered salinity...

  16. PENGARUH PERBAIKAN TANAH SALIN TERHADAP KARAKTER FISIOLOGIS Calopogonium mucunoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kusmiyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peralihan fungsi lahan pertanian menjadi wilayah pemukimam dan industri menyebabkan semakinberkurangnya lahan pertanian.Hal tersebut menyebabkan pengembangan pertanian perlu diarahkan padalahan-lahan marginal seperti tanah salin.Tanah salin adalah tanah yang mengandung garam terlarut netraldalam jumlah tertentu yang berpengaruh buruk terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman.Penelitian yangdilaksanakan bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh perbaikan tanah salin secara kimia dan biologi terhadap karakterfisiologis Calopogonium mucunoides. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3ulangan. Perbaikan tanah salin dilakukan melalui penambahan gipsum (P1, pupuk kandang (P2, abu sekampadi (P3, tanaman halofita (P4, gipsum dan pupuk kandang (P5, gipsum dan abu sekam padi (P6, gipsumdantanamanhalofita (P7, pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi (P8, pupuk kandang dan tanaman halofita(P9, abusekam padi dan tanaman halofita (P10 dan tanpa penambahan sebagai kontrol (P0. Parameter yangdiamati adalah kandungan klorofil a, kandungan klorofil b, kandungan total klorofil, aktivitas nitrat reduktase,luas daun dan laju fotosintesis.Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan sidik ragam dan uji lanjut dengan ujiwilayah ganda Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan klorofil a, klorofil b, total klorofil, aktivitasnitrat reduktase dan laju fotosintesis calopo berbeda nyata (P<0,05 lebih tinggi pada perlakuan perbaikantanah salin dibandingkan kontrol. Kandungan klorofil a, klorofil b dan total klorofil calopo pada perlakuankombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi serta kombinasi gipsum dan pupuk kandang berbeda nyata(P<0,05 lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya. Aktivitas nitrat reduktase dan laju fotosintesis calopopada perlakuan kombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi serta perlakuan pupuk kandang berbeda nyata(P<0,05 lebih tinggi daripada perlakuan lainnya. Simpulan adalah perbaikan tanah salin dengan penambahankombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu

  17. Wind forcing of salinity anomalies in the Denmark Strait overflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow plume changed dramatically; the entire width of the array (70 km freshened between January 2004 and July 2004, with a significant negative salinity anomaly of about 0.06 in May. The event in May represents a fresh anomaly of over 3 standard deviations from the mean since recording began in 1998. The OCCAM 1/12° Ocean General Circulation Model not only reproduces the 2004 freshening event (r=0.96, p<0.01, but also correlates well with salinity observations over a previous 6 year period (r=0.54, p<0.01, despite the inevitable limitations of a z-coordinate model in representing the mixing processes at and downstream of the Denmark Strait sill. Consequently the physical processes causing the 2004 anomaly and prior variability in salinity are investigated using the model output. Our results reject the hypotheses that the anomaly is caused by processes occurring between the overflow sill and the moorings, or by an increase in upstream net freshwater input. Instead, we show that the 2004 salinity anomaly is caused by an increase in volume flux of low salinity water, with a potential density greater than 27.60 kg m−3, flowing towards the Denmark Strait sill in the East Greenland Current. This is caused by an increase in southward wind stress upstream of the sill at around 75° N 20° W four and a half months earlier, and an associated strengthening of the East Greenland Current.

  18. Predictive spatial modelling for mapping soil salinity at continental scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Elisabeth; Wilford, John; de Caritat, Patrice

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinity is a serious limitation to agriculture and one of the main causes of land degradation. Soil is considered saline if its electrical conductivity (EC) is > 4 dS/m. Maps of saline soil distribution are essential for appropriate land development. Previous attempts to map soil salinity over extensive areas have relied on satellite imagery, aerial electromagnetic (EM) and/or proximally sensed EM data; other environmental (climate, topographic, geologic or soil) datasets are generally not used. Having successfully modelled and mapped calcium carbonate distribution over the 0-80 cm depth in Australian soils using machine learning with point samples from the National Geochemical Survey of Australia (NGSA), we took a similar approach to map soil salinity at 90-m resolution over the continent. The input data were the EC1:5 measurements on the randomly sampled trees were built using the training data. The results were good with an average internal correlation (r) of 0.88 between predicted and measured logEC1:5 (training data), an average external correlation of 0.48 (test subset), and a Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (which evaluates the 1:1 fit) of 0.61. Therefore, the rules derived were mapped and the mean prediction for each 90-m pixel was used for the final logEC1:5 map. This is the most detailed picture of soil salinity over Australia since the 2001 National Land and Water Resources Audit and is generally consistent with it. Our map will be useful as a baseline salinity map circa 2008, when the NGSA samples were collected, for future State of the Environment reports.

  19. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. B. de Louw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and size. Our findings are based on different types of field measurements and detailed numerical groundwater models applied in the south-western delta of the Netherlands. By combining the applied techniques we could extrapolate measurements at point scale (groundwater sampling, temperature and electrical soil conductivity (TEC-probe measurements, electrical cone penetration tests (ECPT to field scale (continuous vertical electrical soundings (CVES, electromagnetic survey with EM31, and even to regional scale using helicopter-borne electromagnetic measurements (HEM. The measurements show a gradual mixing zone between infiltrating fresh rainwater and upward flowing saline groundwater. The mixing zone is best characterized by the depth of the centre of the mixing zone Dmix, where the salinity is half that of seepage water, and the bottom of the mixing zone Bmix, with a salinity equal to that of the seepage water (Cl-conc. 10 to 16 g l−1. Dmix is found at very shallow depth in the confining top layer, on average at 1.7 m below ground level (b.g.l., while Bmix lies about 2.5 m b.g.l. The model results show that the constantly alternating upward and downward flow at low velocities in the confining layer is the main mechanism of mixing between rainwater and saline seepage and determines the position and extent of the mixing zone (Dmix and Bmix. Recharge, seepage flux, and drainage depth are the controlling factors.

  20. Synoptic monthly gridded Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) water temperature and salinity from January 1990 to December 2009 (NCEI Accession 0138647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The synoptic gridded Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (SG-GTSPP) provides world ocean 3D gridded temperature and salinity data in monthly increment...

  1. Remote sensing of drought and salinity stressed turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Yoshiaki

    The ability to detect early signs of stress in turfgrass stands using a rapid, inexpensive, and nondestructive method would be a valuable management tool. Studies were conducted to determine if digital image analysis and spectroradiometric readings obtained from drought- and salinity-stressed turfgrasses accurately reflected the varying degrees of stress and correlated strongly with visual ratings, relative water content (RWC) and leaf osmolality, standard methods for measuring stress in plants. Greenhouse drought and salinity experiments were conducted on hybrid bluegrass [Poa arachnifera (Torn.) x pratensis (L.)] cv. Reveille and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.)] cv. Princess 77. Increasing drought and salinity stress led to decreased RWC, increased leaf osmolality, and decreased visual ratings for both species. Percent green cover and hue values obtained from digital image analysis, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from spectroradiometric readings, were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings, RWC, and leaf osmolality. Similarly, in a field validation study conducted on hybrid bluegrass, spectral reflectance ratios were moderately to highly correlated with visual ratings. In addition, percent green cover obtained from digital image analysis was strongly correlated with most of the spectral ratios, particularly the ratio of fluorescence peaks (r = -0.88 to -0.99), modified triangular vegetation index (MTVI) (r = 0.82 to 0.98), and NDVI (r = 0.84 to 0.99), suggesting that spectral reflectance and digital image analysis are equally effective at detecting changes in color brought on by stress. The two methods differed in their ability to distinguish between drought salinity stress. Hue values obtained from digital image analysis responded differently to increasing drought stress than to increasing salinity stress. Whereas the onset of drought stress was reflected by increased hue values followed by a decrease in values as

  2. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  3. Saline water intrusion toward groundwater: Issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It ́s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  4. Thermodynamics of saline and fresh water mixing in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilin; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2018-03-01

    The mixing of saline and fresh water is a process of energy dissipation. The freshwater flow that enters an estuary from the river contains potential energy with respect to the saline ocean water. This potential energy is able to perform work. Looking from the ocean to the river, there is a gradual transition from saline to fresh water and an associated rise in the water level in accordance with the increase in potential energy. Alluvial estuaries are systems that are free to adjust dissipation processes to the energy sources that drive them, primarily the kinetic energy of the tide and the potential energy of the river flow and to a minor extent the energy in wind and waves. Mixing is the process that dissipates the potential energy of the fresh water. The maximum power (MP) concept assumes that this dissipation takes place at maximum power, whereby the different mixing mechanisms of the estuary jointly perform the work. In this paper, the power is maximized with respect to the dispersion coefficient that reflects the combined mixing processes. The resulting equation is an additional differential equation that can be solved in combination with the advection-dispersion equation, requiring only two boundary conditions for the salinity and the dispersion. The new equation has been confronted with 52 salinity distributions observed in 23 estuaries in different parts of the world and performs very well.

  5. Potential Use of Halophytes to Remediate Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity.

  6. Growth and Physiological Responses of Phaseolus Species to Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Bayuelo-Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the changes on growth, photosynthesis, water relations, soluble carbohydrate, and ion accumulation, for two salt-tolerant and two salt-sensitive Phaseolus species grown under increasing salinity (0, 60 and 90 mM NaCl. After 20 days exposure to salt, biomass was reduced in all species to a similar extent (about 56%, with the effect of salinity on relative growth rate (RGR confined largely to the first week. RGR of salt-tolerant species was reduced by salinity due to leaf area ratio (LAR reduction rather than a decline in photosynthetic capacity, whereas unit leaf rate and LAR were the key factors in determining RGR on salt-sensitive species. Photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance decreased gradually with salinity, showing significant reductions only in salt-sensitive species at the highest salt level. There was little difference between species in the effect of salinity on water relations, as indicated by their positive turgor. Osmotic adjustment occurred in all species and depended on higher K+, Na+, and Cl− accumulation. Despite some changes in soluble carbohydrate accumulation induced by salt stress, no consistent contributions in osmotic adjustment could be found in this study. Therefore, we suggest that tolerance to salt stress is largely unrelated to carbohydrate accumulation in Phaseolus species.

  7. Physiological performance of the soybean crosses in salinity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, F.; Armaniar

    2018-02-01

    Plants grown in saline soils will experience salinity stress. Salinity stresses, one of which causes oxidative stress, that cause an imbalance in the production ROS compounds (Reactive Oxygen Species), antioxidants and chlorophyll. Where the reaction of this compound can affect plant growth and plant production. This study aims to inform performance and action gene to soybean physiological character that potential to tolerant from salinity soil that characterized by the presence of SOD and POD antioxidant compounds and chlorophyll. This research used a destructive analysis from crossbred (AxN) and (GxN). A = Anjasmoro varieties and G = Grobogan varieties as female elders and N = Grobogan varieties as male elders (N1, N2, N3, N4, N5) that have been through the stage of saline soil selection. Research result can be concluded that GxN cross is more potential for Inheritance of the offspring. This can be seen from the observed skewness of character SOD, POD compounds, Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.

  8. The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F

    2014-11-15

    Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimizing silicon application to improve salinity tolerance in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity often suppresses the wheat performance. As wheat is designated as silicon (Si accumulator, hence Si application may alleviate the salinity induced damages. With the objective to combat the salinity stress in wheat by Si application (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg L-1 using calcium silicate, an experiment was conducted on two contrasting wheat genotypes (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5 in salinized (10 dS m-1 and non-salinized (2 dS m-1 solutions. Plants were harvested 32 days after transplanting and evaluation was done on the basis of different morphological and analytical characters. Silicon supplementation into the solution culture improved wheat growth and K+/Na+ with reduced Na+ and enhanced K+ uptake. Concomitant improvement in shoot growth was observed; nonetheless the root growth remained unaffected by Si application. Better results were obtained with 150 and 200 mg L-1 of Si which were found almost equally effective. It was concluded that SARC-5 is better than Auqab-2000 against salt stress and Si inclusion into the solution medium is beneficial for wheat and can improve the crop growth both under optimal and salt stressful conditions.

  10. Parameter Identification for Salinity in a Quasilinear Thermodynamic System of Sea Ice

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lv; Xiaojiao Li; Enmin Feng

    2014-01-01

    This study is intended to provide a parameter identification method to determine salinity of sea ice by temperature and salinity observations. A quasilinear thermodynamic system of sea ice with unknown salinity is described and its property is proved. Then, a parameter identification model is established and the existence of its optimal solution is discussed. The salinity profile is calculated by the temperature and salinity data, which were measured at Nella Fjord around Zhongshan Station, A...

  11. Environmental Evaluation of Soil Salinity with Various Watering Technologies Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitkaziev, Adeubay; Shilibek, Kenzhegali; Fakhrudenova, Idiya; Salybayev, Satybaldy; Zhaparova, Sayagul; Duisenbayeva, Saule; Bayazitova, Zulfia; Aliya, Maimakova; Seitkazieva, Karlygash; Aubakirov, Hamit

    2018-01-01

      The purpose of this study is to develop mathematical tools for evaluating the level of environmental safety of various watering technologies. A set of indicators, was developed with regard to the natural factors, the nature of the man-induced load, degradation type, and characteristics of the disruption of humification conditions. Thermal and physical characteristics of the soil, the state of its surface, and meteorological factors, including air temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, wind speed, solar radiation, etc. were studied with a view to determining the heat and air exchange in the soil. An environmental evaluation of the methods for saline land development was conducted with regard to the heat and moisture supply. This tool can be used to determine the level of environmental safety of soil salinization during the environmental evaluation of the investigation of soil salinity with various watering technologies.

  12. The Temperature and Salinity Variabilities at Cisadane Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadikusumah

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at Cisadane Estuary at 18 oceanographic station in Transition Monsoon Season I, East Monsoon Season, and Transition Monsoon Season II from 2003 to 2005. The area of the study was located at the longitude of 106.58° - 106.70° E and the latitude of 5.96° - 6.02°S. The measurements of temperature, salinity, tubidity and light transmision used CTD (Conductivity, Temperature and Depth Model SBE-19. The result shows that the temperature and salinity vertical profil variabilities at Cisadane Estuary underwent a change in the influence of Transition Monsoon Season I, East Monsoon Season, and Transition Monsoon Season II, for example it was obtained the leg time of the maximum salinity of Transition Monsoon Season II as the same as that of East Monsoon Season. Based on the horizontal and vertical distribution pattern analysis of the interaction between low salinity fresh water of Cisadane River and high salinity sea water of Java Sea, it was also influenced by the season variability and tide. The surface layer was much more influenced by the low salinity and the heat of sunray (seasonal variability with the weaker intensity to the lower layer. The change of the heat energy by the increase of seasonal temperature occurred in September 2003 to May 2004 ((ΔE = 600.6 ⋅ 105 Joule, July to November 2005 (ΔE = 84.9 Joule. The decrease of the heat energy occurred in June to September 2003 ((-267.6 ⋅ 105, May ke October 2004 (ΔE = 189.3 ⋅ 105 Joule and October 2004 to July 2005 (ΔE = -215.4 ⋅ 105 Joule.

  13. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  14. Influence of salinity and water regime on tomato for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Cantore

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity and watering regime on tomato crop are reported. The trials have been carried out over two years in Southern Italy on a deep loam soil. Three saline levels of irrigation water (with electrical conductivity of 0.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1, three watering regimes (at 20, 40 and 60% of available water depletion, and two cultivars (HLY19 and Perfectpeel were compared. The overall results related to the salinity tolerance are in agreement with those from the literature indicating that water salinity reduced marketable yield by 55% in respect to the control treatments. The irrigation regimes that provided higher total and marketable yield were at 40 and 60% of available water depletion (on average, 90.5 and 58.1 Mg ha-1 against 85.3 and 55.5 Mg ha-1 of the 20% available water depletion. Saline and irrigation treatments did not affect sunburned fruits, while affected incidence of fruits with blossom-end rot. The former disease appeared more dramatically in saline treatments (+28% in respect to the control, and occurred mainly in HLY19. The disease incidence was by 52% lower in W2 respect to the W1 and W3. Fruit firmness was higher in S0, whereas it was not affected by irrigation regimes. Total soluble solids and dry matter content of tomato fruits were increased by salinity, whereas it was not affected by irrigation regimes and cultivars. The pH and the titratable acidity remained unchanged between the years, the cultivar and the saline and irrigation treatments. Similarly to the last parameters, the fruit ascorbic acid content remained unchanged in relation to the treatments, but it was higher in HLY19. The recommended thresholds of easily available water to preserve total and marketable yield were at 40 and 60%, respectively. Watering more frequently, instead, on the soil type of the trial, probably caused water-logging and root hypoxia affecting negatively yield.

  15. Eddy-induced salinity pattern in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H.; Ebuchi, N.; Ueno, H.; Ishiyama, H.; Matsumura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    This research examines spatio-temporal behavior of sea surface salinity (SSS) after intense rainfall events using observed data from Aquarius. Aquarius SSS in the North Pacific reveals one notable event in which SSS is locally freshened by intense rainfall. Although SSS pattern shortly after the rainfall reflects atmospheric pattern, its final form reflects ocean dynamic structure; an anticyclonic eddy. Since this anticyclonic eddy was located at SSS front created by precipitation, this eddy stirs the water in a clockwise direction. This eddy stirring was visible for several months. It is expected horizontal transport by mesoscale eddies would play significant role in determining upper ocean salinity structure.

  16. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  17. Influence of gypsum amendment on methane emission from paddy rice soil affected by saline irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei Ei eTheint

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of gypsum application on methane (CH4 emission from paddy rice soil affected by saline irrigation water, two pot experiments with the rice cultivation were conducted. In pot experiment (I, salinity levels 30 mMNaCl (S30 and 90 mMNaCl (S90, that showed maximum and minimum CH4 production in an incubation experiment, respectively, were selected and studied without and with application of 1 Mg gypsum ha-1(G1. In pot experiment (II, CH4 emission was investigated under different rates of gypsum application: 1 (G1, 2.5 (G2.5 and 5 (G5 Mg gypsum ha-1 under a non-saline and saline condition of 25 mMNaCl (S25. In experiment (I, the smallest CH4 emission was observed in S90. Methane emission in S30 was not significantly different with the non-saline control. The addition of gypsum showed significant lower CH4 emission in saline and non-saline treatments compared with non-saline control. In experiment (II, the CH4 emissions in the saline treatments were not significantly different to the non-saline treatments except S25-G5. However, our work has shown that gypsum can lower CH4 emissions under saline and non-saline conditions. Thus, gypsum can be used as a CH4 mitigation option in non-saline as well as in saline conditions.

  18. [Using a modified remote sensing imagery for interpreting changes in cultivated saline-alkali land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Liu, Hui-tao; Liu, Hong-juan; Liu, Jin-tong

    2015-04-01

    This paper developed a new interpretation symbol system for grading and classifying saline-alkali land, using Huanghua, a cosatal city in Hebei Province as a case. The system was developed by inverting remote sensing images from 1992 to 2011 based on site investigation, plant cover characteristics and features of remote sensing images. Combining this interpretation symbol system with supervising classification method, the information on arable land was obtained for the coastal saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City, and the saline-alkali land area, changes in intensity of salinity-alkalinity and spatial distribution from 1992 to 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that salinization of arable land in Huanghua City alleviated from 1992 to 2011. The severely and moderately saline-alkali land area decreased in 2011 compared with 1992, while the non/slightly saline land area increased. The moderately saline-alkali land in southeast transformed to non/slightly saline-alkaline, while the severely saline-alkali land in west of the city far from the coastal zone became moderately saline-alkaline. The center of gravity (CG) of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in arable land within the saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City were climate, hydrology and human activities.

  19. Saline lakes of the glaciated Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushet, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Unless you have flown over the region or seen aerial photographs, it is hard to grasp the scale of the millions of lakes and wetlands that dot the prairie landscape of the glaciated Northern Great Plains (Figure 1). This region of abundant aquatic habitats within a grassland matrix provides for the needs of a wide diversity of wildlife species and has appropriately been deemed the "duck factory of North America." While the sheer number of lakes and wetlands within this area of the Northern Great Plains can be truly awe-inspiring, their diversity in terms of the chemical composition of their water adds an equally important component supporting biotic diversity and productivity. Water within these lakes and wetlands can range from extremely fresh with salinities approaching that of rainwater to hypersaline with salinity ten times greater than that of seawater. Additionally, while variation in salinity among these water bodies can be great, the ionic composition of lakes and wetlands with similar salinities can vary markedly, influencing the overall spatial and temporal diversity of the region's biota.

  20. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Part 1 of the series, it was shown that there is sufficient justification for the creation of a separate salinity impact category. In this paper, the fundamental basis of environmental life cycle assessments (LCA) is examined. The generalised model, and model simplifications on which the life cycle assessment methodology is ...

  1. Laser measure of sea salinity, temperature and turbidity in depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, J. G.; Wouters, A. W.; Byrne, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described in which a pulsed laser is used to probe the sea. Backscattered light is analyzed in time, intensity and wavelength. Tyndall, Raman and Brillouin scattering are used to obtain the backscatter turbidity, sound velocity, salinity, and the temperature as a function of depth.

  2. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  3. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hong Seop; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Eui Jong

    1997-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver tissue Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group I), hot saline injection induced by radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group II), and radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group III) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver. Radiofrequency power was 100 and 200 watts, and current was applied for 10, 20, and 30 seconds. Tissue was histopathologically examined for thermal injury. The largest diameter of thermal injury was about 41.0 mm in group I, 12.3 mm in group II and 9.3 mm in group III. The mean diameter of the injury increased with higher wattage in group I and II and with longer procedure time in group I (p<0.05). At corresponding wattage and times, group I showed a larger diameter of thermal injury and more increase in than group II or III (p<0.05). The degree of carbonization was more severe in group III than in groups I and II. Grossly, thermal injury showed a well-defined, relatively spherical configuration without extension along parenchymal interstitium. In an animal model, saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation may effectively induce thermal injury, and may thus be another effective tool for use in the treatment of hepatic tumors. Further clinical experience is needed

  4. Lake Afdera: a threatened saline lake in Ethiopia | Getahun | SINET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lake Afdera is a saline lake located in the Afar region, Northern Ethiopia. Because of its inaccessibility it is one of the least studied lakes of the country. It supports life including three species of fish of which two are endemic. Recently, reports are coming out that this lake is used for salt extraction. This paper gives some ...

  5. Effects of salinity on growth and organic solutes accumulation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-27

    Mar 27, 2013 ... accumulation on the leaves and stem, and free amino acids in the roots, leaves and stems. Plants showed a ... with soil salinity, which has increased due to excessive fertilization ... The salts effects in plants has been studied, and its must be of ... To adapt and survive in these adverse conditions, the plants ...

  6. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  7. Desiccation-crack-induced salinization in deep clay sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baram

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on water infiltration and solute transport in a clayey vadose zone underlying a dairy farm waste source was conducted to assess the impact of desiccation cracks on subsurface evaporation and salinization. The study is based on five years of continuous measurements of the temporal variation in the vadose zone water content and on the chemical and isotopic composition of the sediment and pore water in it. The isotopic composition of water stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H in water and sediment samples, from the area where desiccation crack networks prevail, indicated subsurface evaporation down to ~ 3.5 m below land surface, and vertical and lateral preferential transport of water, following erratic preferential infiltration events. Chloride (Cl− concentrations in the vadose zone pore water substantially increased with depth, evidence of deep subsurface evaporation and down flushing of concentrated solutions from the evaporation zones during preferential infiltration events. These observations led to development of a desiccation-crack-induced salinization (DCIS conceptual model. DCIS suggests that thermally driven convective air flow in the desiccation cracks induces evaporation and salinization in relatively deep sections of the subsurface. This conceptual model supports previous conceptual models on vadose zone and groundwater salinization in fractured rock in arid environments and extends its validity to clayey soils in semi-arid environments.

  8. Effects of temperature and salinity on resting metabolism in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the resting metabolic rate (RMR; mg O2 g/h) of the resident rock pool fish Caffrogobius caffer and the transient sparid Diplodus sargus capensis at a range of salinities (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 PSU) and temperatures (14, 20 and 28°C) using closed-vessel respirometry. Both species were temperature ...

  9. Enhanced fodder yield of maize genotypes under saline irrigation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor quality irrigation water adversely affects the growth and yield of crops. This study was designed to evaluate the growth, fodder yield and ionic concentration of three promising maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under the influence of varying quality irrigation water, with different salinity levels. The genotypes, such as ...

  10. subsurface sequence delineation and saline water mapping of lagos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A subsurface sequence delineation and saline water mapping of Lagos State was carried out. Ten (10) deep boreholes with average depth of 300 m were drilled within the sedimentary basin. The boreholes were lithologically and geophysically logged. The driller's lithological logs aided by gamma and resistivity logs, ...

  11. Effect of temperature and salinity on germination of Achillea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Achillea fragrantissima and Moringa peregrina are dominant plants in the mountainous desert of Saudi Arabia. The two species suffer from intensive anthropogenic pressures as they have important medicinal uses. This paper aimed to evaluate the effect of temperature and salinity on germination of A. fragrantissima and M.

  12. Effects of Salinity on Growth and Metabolism in Blue Tilapia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adunet

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Water quality parameters [pH, temperature, electrical conductivity. (EC), total hardness, alkalinity, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, ammonia and nitrite] were measured and are given in Table 1. The osmolarity of each salinity treatment was measured by osmometer. (Model 3250 Advenced Instruments, ...

  13. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... nature from existing categories to warrant a separate salinity impact category. A conceptual method is ... compounds to the environment from all stages of a product's life- cycle are ... Marine. - Terrestrial. • Photo-oxidant formation. • Acidification .... algae. Reduced light input. Oxygen depletion near bottom.

  14. Elementary introduction into thermal desalination of saline waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The principle of thermal conversion of saline waters into potable water are described from an elementary point of view in an easy understandable manner, covering distillation, submerged coil evaporation, flash evaporation, multiple effect distillation, vapour compression, and solar distillation in simple solar stills. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Salinity on the Growth Parameters of Halotolerant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    inoculation there was no significant difference in the pigment content per cell in all strains (p ≤ 0.05). This study ... carotene production costs, it is essential to identify ..... cyanobacteria. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 69, 177-180. Rai, A. K. and Abraham, G. (1993) 'Salinity tolerance and growth analysis of the cyanobacterium.

  16. Intracuff buffered lidocaine versus saline or air – A comparative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... smoking or recently treated upper respiratory tract infections were randomly assigned into three groups (n = 25), based on the type of endotracheal tube cuff inflation, as follows: Group A (air), Group B (6 ml normal saline) and Group C (6 ml 2% lidocaine + 0.5 ml 7.5% sodium bicarbonate). A second, blinded anaesthetist, ...

  17. Effect of salinity and inoculation with Azosprillium on carbohydrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The measured parameters were chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthesis (Ps) rates, carbohydrates, nitrate, ammonium and protein content, nitrogenase activity, yield and yield components. The results showed that salinity decreased plant height and grain yield (GY) in all levels. GY reduction in the inoculated treatment was ...

  18. Effects of waterlogging, salinity and light on the productivity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to establish the effects of waterlogging, salinity and light on the early development of mangroves. Seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lamk. and Heritiera littoralis Dryand were exposed to 12 weeks of waterlogging, during which time growth and photosynthesis were measured every two weeks.

  19. The phytosociological analysis of saline area of Tehsil Ferozewala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By reintegrating these trees and shrubs back into agriculture landscape to reverse salinity such as Atriplex amnicla, Tamarix aphylla, Phoenix dactilifera, Prosopis spp. Susbenia bispinasa, Sesbenia sesbena, Casorina, Grewia asiatie, Psidium guava etc. The incorporation of these plants (grasses, shrubs and trees) into ...

  20. Evaluation of Different Rice Genotypes Tolerance to Saline Irrigation Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jafari Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the responses of seven rice genotypes (Khazar, SA13, Deylam, Sange Joe, Sepidrud, 831 and T5 to different levels of irrigation water salinity, and determining grain yield based on tolerance indices, a CRD based factorial pot experiment with five levels of irrigation water salinity (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 dSm-1 and three replications was carried out at Rice Research Institute of Iran in 2011. Indices such as SSI, TOL, MP, GMP, HM, STI, YI and YSI were calculated and their correlations with grain yield were estimated for both stress and non-stress conditions. Results indicated significant differences among genotypes and the indices within both conditions. Results also showed that STI and MP indices could be considered as the best indices to screen salt tolerant genotypes. Among the genotypes used in the experiment, T5 produced the highest yield in both non-stress (19.71 g/plant and stress (10.69 g/plant conditions, while the lowest yield in normal (11.84 g/plant and stressful (4.29 g/plant conditions was recorded for Deylam and Khazar, respectively. The highest and the lowest percentage of yield reduction were found in Khazar (69.49% and Sange Joe (31.48% in stressful conditions, respectively. Overall, genotypes T5, 831, Sepidrud and Sange Joe can probably be considered as superior high yielding genotypes in both saline and non-saline conditions for further research.

  1. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hong Seop; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Woo Suk; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Eui Jong [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    To determine the effectiveness of saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation in bovine liver tissue Saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group I), hot saline injection induced by radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group II), and radiofrequency electrocoagulation (group III) were performed in ex vivo bovine liver. Radiofrequency power was 100 and 200 watts, and current was applied for 10, 20, and 30 seconds. Tissue was histopathologically examined for thermal injury. The largest diameter of thermal injury was about 41.0 mm in group I, 12.3 mm in group II and 9.3 mm in group III. The mean diameter of the injury increased with higher wattage in group I and II and with longer procedure time in group I (p<0.05). At corresponding wattage and times, group I showed a larger diameter of thermal injury and more increase in than group II or III (p<0.05). The degree of carbonization was more severe in group III than in groups I and II. Grossly, thermal injury showed a well-defined, relatively spherical configuration without extension along parenchymal interstitium. In an animal model, saline-enhanced radiofrequency electrocoagulation may effectively induce thermal injury, and may thus be another effective tool for use in the treatment of hepatic tumors. Further clinical experience is needed.

  2. An experimental study on food and salinity preferences of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feeding on four algal species (Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis galbana and Scenedesmus obliques) at salinities of 5, 15 and 25 on the population growth parameters of two Iranian strains of the widespread rotifer species Brachionus plicatilis were examined. Maximum specific growth rate of ...

  3. Effects of salinity and drought on the phytochemical production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate Jatropha curcas plants grown from stem cuttings which was exposed to simulated drought and salinity separately to assess the effects of such abiotic factors on the phytochemical production levelin this plant. Investigation, based on the qualitative analysis, showed the presence of ...

  4. Identification of RAPD markers linked to salinity tolerance in wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic diversity can be measured by a number of ways, including pedigree, phenotype and allelic diversity at loci controlling phenotypes of interest. A DNA marker for root length in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was identified. The individual plants from F2 population segregation for salinity tolerance and the parents (S-24 ...

  5. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smekens, Marret; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions.

  6. Salinity effect on seedling growth, water, sodium and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mature leaves exhibited good adaptative behavior toward salinity stress by increasing succulence due to absorption of large quantities of water and K+ in leaves. Potassium uptake in leaves was not found to be affected by NaCl concentration. As a consequence, monovalent cations adsorption resulted in an increase in the ...

  7. Features of acid-saline systems of Southern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, Bruce L.; Giblin, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of layered, SO 4 -rich sediments on the Meridiani Planum on Mars has focused attention on understanding the formation of acid-saline lakes. Many salt lakes have formed in southern Australia where regional groundwaters are characterized by acidity and high salinity and show features that might be expected in the Meridiani sediments. Many (but not all) of the acid-saline Australian groundwaters are found where underlying Tertiary sediments are sulfide-rich. When waters from the formations come to the surface or interact with oxidised meteoric water, acid groundwaters result. In this paper examples of such waters around Lake Tyrrell, Victoria, and Lake Dey-Dey, South Australia, are reviewed. The acid-saline groundwaters typically have dissolved solids of 30-60 g/L and pH commonly 4 and MgSO 4 ) or differential separation of elements with differing solubility (K, Na, Ti, Cr). Thus, it is considered unlikely that groundwaters or evaporative salt-lake systems, as found on earth, were involved. Instead, these features point to a water-poor system with local alteration and very little mobilization of elements

  8. Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception with normal saline using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrostatic reduction of intussusception with normal saline using the gravity aided method in a Nigerian teaching hospital. M.A. Abdulsalam, B.O. Balogun, R.I. Osuoji, O.O. Olofinlade, O.M. Faboya, M.A. Bankole ...

  9. Effect of low salinity on the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YBM. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the lethal salinity (LC50 for the yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia: Mesodesmatidae and identify histopathological alterations that could be used to diagnose structural changes in clam tissue. Clams in two size classes (adults and juveniles were placed in 10 L chambers and exposed to salinities of 35, 30, 25, 20, 15, 10, and 5 g/L. There were triplicate chambers with seven clams each for each salinity. The LC50 values for a 48 h exposure were 6.5 g/L and 5.7 g/L for adults and juveniles, respectively. For a 96 h exposure, the LC50 values were 10.5 g/L for adults and 8.8 g/L for juveniles. The histological examination of yellow clams exposed to 10 g/L for 96 h showed intercellular oedema and necrotic foci in the epithelium of the digestive gland and occlusion of the lumen of the digestive gland. In conclusion, M. mactroides can be characterised as a moderately euryhaline species, tolerating salinities from 35 to 15 g/L.

  10. Climate stability in central Anatolia during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Maud J.M.; Peynircioğlu, A. Ahmet; Cosca, Michael A.; Brocard, Gilles Y.; Whitney, Donna L.; Langereis, Cor G.; Mulch, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Deposition of large amounts of evaporites and erosion of deep canyons within the Mediterranean Basin as a result of reduced basin connectivity with the Atlantic Ocean and the epicontinental Paratethys Sea characterized the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.97–5.33 Ma). The influence of the MSC on

  11. Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of salinity stress on plant fresh weight and nutrient composition of some Canola ( Brassica napus L.) cultivars. ... K+, Ca2+ and K+/Na+ contents in plants decreased by salt stress, but Na+ and Cl- content in the roots, ... from 32 Countries:.

  12. Triple test cross analysis for salinity tolerance in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.; Khan, A.S.; Chowdhry, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Triple test cross analysis applied to study additive, dominance and epistatic components of genetic variation for five seedling traits namely shoot length, fresh shoot weight, root length, fresh root weight and root shoot ratio at two salinity levels 0 (control) and 10 dSm/sup -1/ in wheat. The results revealed that the epistatic component is an important element for salinity tolerance at seedling stage in wheat. Both additive and dominance gene effects were involved in the inheritance of shoot length, fresh shoot weight, root length fresh root weight and root shoot ratio Complete dominance was indicated for shoot length, fresh root weight and root/shoot ratio and partial dominance was observed for other traits at control and over dominance was observed for shoot length, fresh shoot weight and root/shoot ratio, complete dominance for fresh root weight and partial dominance for root length at 10 dSm/sup -1/ salinity level. Significant epitasis was observed for all the traits except shoot length at both the salinity treatments. (author)

  13. Home Brew Salinity Measuring Devices: Their Construction and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper discusses several inexpensive methods of evaluating the salinity of seawater. One method is presented in some detail. This method has several attractive features. First, it can be used to provide instruction, not only in marine chemistry, but also in studying the mathematics of the point slope formula, and as an aid in teaching students…

  14. Temperature and salinity tolerance of adult hermit crabs, Diogenes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-11-04

    Nov 4, 1987 ... estuary may not limit the distribution of hermit crabs. Because of their broad tolerance they should be able to survive near the head of the estuary. However, this continuous exposure to low salinity may be intolerable during moult and limit normal growth and metamorphosis, so although there may not be a.

  15. Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stratification, but not stratification in salinity, enhances seedling growth of wheat under salt treatment. L Wang, HL Wang, CH Yin, CY Tian. Abstract. Cold stratification was reported to release seed dormancy and enhance plant tolerance to salt stress. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cold ...

  16. Recent trends in salinity control for soilless growing systems management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsoulas, N.; Voogt, W.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of closed hydroponic systems, the impact of salinity build-up on crop yield and product quality are reviewed. Soilless cultivation, especially in closed-loop systems offers a great option for water saving in greenhouses. Capture and recycling of the drainage will considerably

  17. Effects of high salinity wastewater on methanogenic sludge bed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.; Gonzalez-Contreras, P.A.; Jeison, D.A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    The attainable loading potentials of anaerobic sludge bed systems are strongly dependent on the growth of granular biomass with a particular wastewater. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of high salinity wastewater on the biological and physical properties of methanogenic sludge.

  18. Incomplete turgor adjustment in Cladophora rupestrisunder fluctuating salinity regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencke, Christian; Gorham, John; Tomos, Deri; Davenport, John

    1992-04-01

    Turgor pressure fluctuates strongly in Cladophora rupestrissubjected to low salinities and shows only a small tendency to readjust to the normal value in full seawater (incomplete turgor adjustment). This was revealed by direct turgor pressure measurements and by chemical analyses of osmotic solutes after exposure of upper and lower shore Cladophorato the different salinity regimes occurring in the intertidal zone or representing steady state osmotic acclimation. The main internal osmotic solutes were K +, Cl -, amino acids, NO 3-and glycine betaine. Na +, SO 42-and PO 43-were of less importance. The sum of the charges on the cations was similar to that for the anions. K +, Cl -and, to a lesser extent, amino acids were responsible for limited turgor pressure adjustment which did occur. The concentrations of the major osmotic solutes were influenced not only by salinity but also by light: those of amino acids and NO 3-were increased while those of K +and Cl -were decreased under illumination. Cladophorapopulations from the upper and lower shore differed in their ability to restore internal K +and Cl -levels on transfer to full seawater after long term exposure to low salinity. This may indicate ecotypic variation.

  19. Combined Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Larval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that P. catenata larvae develop optimally in near to seawater salinity at a temperature of around 25 ºC. These results support the assumption that newly-hatched larvae of this species are exported from the estuarine environment to the sea for development. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science ...

  20. Silicon mediated biochemical changes in wheat under salinized and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silicon (Si) can alleviate salinity damage, a major threat to agriculture that causes instability in wheat production. We report on the effects of silicon (150 mg L-1) on the morphological, physiological and biochemical traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (salt sensitive; Auqab-2000 and salt tolerant; SARC-5) differing ...

  1. Comparing test systems to measure the salinity tolerance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There have recently been several studies into acute salinity tolerance of freshwater invertebrates using different methods, making comparisons between studies difficult. The alternatives focus on experimental flow regimes and ionic proportions. In this study non-rheophilic riverine taxa collected in South Africa and ...

  2. Modelling soil salinity in Oued El Abid watershed, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouatassime Sabri, El; Boukdir, Ahmed; Karaoui, Ismail; Arioua, Abdelkrim; Messlouhi, Rachid; El Amrani Idrissi, Abdelkhalek

    2018-05-01

    Soil salinisation is a phenomenon considered to be a real threat to natural resources in semi-arid climates. The phenomenon is controlled by soil (texture, depth, slope etc.), anthropogenic factors (drainage system, irrigation, crops types, etc.), and climate factors. This study was conducted in the watershed of Oued El Abid in the region of Beni Mellal-Khenifra, aimed at localising saline soil using remote sensing and a regression model. The spectral indices were extracted from Landsat imagery (30 m resolution). A linear correlation of electrical conductivity, which was calculated based on soil samples (ECs), and the values extracted based on spectral bands showed a high accuracy with an R2 (Root square) of 0.80. This study proposes a new spectral salinity index using Landsat bands B1 and B4. This hydro-chemical and statistical study, based on a yearlong survey, showed a moderate amount of salinity, which threatens dam water quality. The results present an improved ability to use remote sensing and regression model integration to detect soil salinity with high accuracy and low cost, and permit intervention at an early stage of salinisation.

  3. Impact of high saline wastewaters on anaerobic granular sludge functionalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Rio, del A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Three UASB reactors were operated at different salinity levels in order to assess the effects on the granular sludge properties. High levels of activity inhibition were observed at sodium concentrations over 7 g Na+/L, which resulted in low applicable organic loading rates and VFA accumulation in

  4. Rehabilitation of saline ecosystems through cultivation of salt tolerant plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul, R.; Mahmood, K.

    2012-01-01

    In Pakistan, salt-affected regions have been drastically disturbed by unchecked activities of local populations. Removal of deep-rooted perennials and overgrazing destroy the native vegetation leading to rapid desertification. Shallow-rooted agricultural crops are grown on marginal soils on limited area that is not enough with respect to the spread of salinity problem. Sustainable restoration of these ecosystems requires a large scale integration of perennial plants (trees, shrubs and herbs) back in to farming systems. However, selenization processes continue because the available options for cultivation of perennial plants prove less profitable than agricultural crops. This study relates to resort the salt-affected lands for plant production and develop a technology for sustainable saline ecosystem. Plants, having salt tolerance potential, have been identified and introduced on salt-affected wastelands to develop a sustainable ecosystem with increased productivity. The biomass so produced can be used directly as forage, fuel, and even as food or feed. In addition, fish aquaculture, and some value-added products make this ecosystem more sustainable. This technology is practically demonstrated at Biosaline Research Station of Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Pakka Anna, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The marginally saline soils and wastelands ameliorated as a result of growing salt tolerant perennials can also be used for growing salt tolerant cultivars of conventional crops like wheat, barley and mustard. So, through proper management the saline ecosystem can become economical and profitable. (author)

  5. Competition, salinity, and clonal growth in native and introduced irises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mopper, Susan; Wiens, Karen C; Goranova, Greta A

    2016-09-01

    Iris pseudacorus spread rapidly into North America after introduction from Europe in the 1800s and now co-occurs with native I. hexagona in freshwater Louisiana wetlands. Native irises support and interact with multiple trophic levels, whereas I. pseudacorus is classified an invasive pest because it grows aggressively, reduces biodiversity, and displaces native vegetation. Salinity levels are increasing in coastal wetlands worldwide. We examined how salt-stress affects competitive interactions between these conspecifics. We established a three-way full-factorial common-garden experiment that included species (I. pseudacorus, I. hexagona), competition (no competition, intraspecific competition, and interspecific competition), and salinity (0, 4, 8 parts per thousand NaCl), with six replicates per treatment. After 18 mo, Iris pseudacorus produced much more biomass than the native species did (F1, 92 = 71.5, P Interspecific competition did not affect the introduced iris, but biomass of the native was strongly reduced (competition × species interaction: F2, 95 = 76.7, P = 0.002). Salinity significantly reduced biomass of both species (F2, 92 = 21.8, P competitive advantage over the native, regardless of environmental salinity levels. Based on patterns in clonal reproduction, the introduced iris could potentially threaten native iris populations. We are currently investigating seed production and mortality during competition and stress because both clonal and sexual reproduction must be considered when predicting long-term population dynamics. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  6. Mapping salinity stress in sugarcane fields with hyperspectral satellite imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamzeh, S.; Naseria, A.A.; Alavi Panah, S.K.; Mojaradic, B.; Bartholomeus, H.; Herold, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. An area with more than 70,000 ha sugarcane farming and its by-products are the major agricultural activities in the Khuzestan province, in the southwest

  7. Genetic adaptability of durum wheat to salinity level at germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... Keys words: Durum wheat, genetic-adaptability, salinity level. ... tolerance of crop proves the first way to overcome the limitation of crops ... Analysis of variance using GLM procedures (SAS, 1990) were used ... Additive, dominance and environmental variance components were ..... Breeding for stability of.

  8. Soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.M.

    1970-01-01

    In the summers of 1964 to 1968 a study was made of soil salinity and alkalinity in the Great Konya Basin, under the auspices of the Konya Project, a research and training programme of the Department of Tropical Soil Science of the Agricultural University, Wageningen.

    The Great

  9. Genotypic variation in the response of tomato to salinity | Turhan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the predictive screening parameters that can be applied at early development stages of tomato plants, 18 tomato cultivars were grown in nutrient solution with 12 dS m-1 NaCl. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with tree replications. The relationships among the salinity ...

  10. Role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in Sunflower (helianthus annusl.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, A.; Iftikhar, I.I.; Nawaz, H.; Nawaz, M.

    2014-01-01

    The potted experiment was conducted to determine the exogenous role of proline to induce salinity tolerance in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Salinity levels (0, 60 and 120 mmol) were created according to the saturation percentage of soil. Different levels (0, 30, 60 mmol) of proline were applied as a foliar spray on sunflower under saline and non saline conditions. Application of proline as a foliar spray ameliorated the toxic effects of salinity on growth, physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower. Among different levels of proline, 60 mmol was found to be the most effective in ameliorating the toxic effects of salinity on sunflower. (author)

  11. Salinity-dependent limitation of photosynthesis and oxygen exchange in microbial mats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Kühl, Michael; Nübel, U.

    1999-01-01

    was specific for each community and in accordance with optimal performance at the respective salinity of origin. This pattern was lost after long-term exposure to varying salinities when responses to salinity were found to approach a general pattern of decreasing photosynthesis and oxygen exchange capacity...... with increasing salinity. Exhaustive measurements of oxygen export in the light, oxygen consumption in the dark and gross photosynthesis indicated that a salinity-dependent limitation of all three parameters occurred. Maximal values for all three parameters decreased exponentially with increasing salinity...

  12. Practical salinity management for leachate irrigation to poplar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smesrud, Jason K; Duvendack, George D; Obereiner, James M; Jordahl, James L; Madison, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    Landfill leachate can be beneficially reused for irrigation of fiber crops with appropriate attention to nutrient and salinity management. The Riverbend Landfill in Western Oregon has been effectively practicing irrigation of landfill leachate to poplar trees since 1993. Over that time, the site has been adaptively managed to control salinity impacts to the tree crop while beneficially utilizing the applied water and nutrients during each growing season. Representative leachate irrigation water has ranged in concentration of total dissolved solids from 777 to 6,940 mg/L, chloride from 180 to 1,760 mg/L and boron from 3.2 to 7.3 mg/L. Annual leachate irrigation applications have also ranged between 102 and 812 mm/yr. Important conclusions from this site have included: 1) Appropriate tree clone selection and tree stand spacing, thinning, and harvest rotations are critical to maintaining a productive tree stand that is resilient and resistant to salt stress. The most effective combinations have included clones DN-34, OP-367, 184-411, 49-177, and 15-29 planted at spacing of 3.7-m x 1.8-m to 3.7-m x 3.7-m; 2) Leaf tissue boron levels are closely correlated to soil boron levels and can be managed with leaching. When leaf tissue boron levels exceed 200 to 250 mg/kg, signs of salt stress may emerge and should be monitored closely; 3) Salinity from leachate irrigation can be managed to sustain a healthy tree crop by controlling mass loading rates and providing appropriate irrigation blending if necessary. Providing freshwater irrigation following each leachate irrigation and targeting freshwater irrigation as 30 percent of total irrigation water applied has successfully controlled salt impacts to vegetation; and 4) Drip irrigation generally requires more careful attention to long-term soil salinity management than spray irrigation. Moving drip irrigation tubes periodically to prevent the formation of highly saline zones within the soil profile is important. In this paper, a

  13. Identification of Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Salicornia bigelovii

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben

    2017-11-01

    With a global growing demand in food production, agricultural output must increase accordingly. An increased use of saline soils and brackish water would contribute to the required increase in world food production. Abiotic stresses, such as salinity and drought, are also major limiters of crop growth globally - most crops are relatively salt sensitive and are significantly affected when exposed to salt in the range of 50 to 200 mM NaCl. Genomic resources from plants that naturally thrive in highly saline environments have the potential to be valuable in the generation of salt tolerant crops; however, these resources have been largely unexplored. Salicornia bigelovii is a plant native to Mexico and the United States that grows in salt marshes and coastal regions. It can thrive in environments with salt concentrations higher than seawater. In contrast to most crops, S. bigelovii is able to accumulate very high concentrations (in the order of 1.5 M) of Na+ and Cl- in its photosynthetically active succulent shoots. Part of this tolerance is likely to include the storage of Na+ in the vacuoles of the shoots, making S. bigelovii a good model for understanding mechanisms of Na+ compartmentalization in the vacuoles and a good resource for gene discovery. In this research project, phenotypic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches have been used for the identification of candidate genes involved in salinity tolerance in S. bigelovii. The genomes and transcriptomes of three Salicornia species have been sequenced. This information has been used to support the characterization of the salt-induced transcriptome of S. bigelovii shoots and the salt-induced proteome of various organellar membrane enriched fractions from S. bigelovii shoots, which led to the creation of organellar membrane proteomes. Yeast spot assays at different salt concentrations revealed several proteins increasing or decreasing yeast salt tolerance. This work aims to create the basis for

  14. Physiological responses to salinity in solanum lycopersicum l. varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amador, B.M.; Montiel, L.G.H.; Perez, J.J.R.; Puente, E.O.R.

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide over 30% of irrigated and 7% of rainfed agriculture has been limited by salinity stress. Tolerance of crops to salinity varies and negatively affects agricultural productivity. Despite the plethora of information on NaCl tolerance mechanisms, it is still not completely elucidated. The purpose of this research was to determine NaCl tolerance of eight tomato varieties (Tropic, Feroz, Ace, Super Rio Grande, Yaqui, Missouri, Vita and Floradade) by evaluating their physiological traits. These varieties were exposed to salinity stress by the addition of NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM). The physiological variables measured were stomatal conductance, water potential, chlorophyll a, b, total, indirect chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, transpiration and relative water content. The results showed differences in tolerance between varieties in terms of NaCl concentrations and there was interaction between varieties * NaCl in the majority of physiological variables. Symptoms of NaCl stress in the tomato plants were leaf wilting, desiccation, necrosis, and death. All measured variables decreased as salinity increased, except for relative water content and leaf temperature, values of both these variables increased with higher concentrations of NaCl. Physiological traits may be used as an effective means for screening for salinity tolerance in tomato varieties. Amongst the tomato varieties evaluated were Missouri the most tolerant, and Rio Grande the least tolerant. The results indicate that the varieties best tolerant to NaCl conditions from most to least tolerant in successive orderare: Missouri, followed by Ace, Yaqui, Tropic, Floradade, Feroz, Vita and Rio Grande. (author)

  15. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, Amarisa; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  17. Spectral Characteristics of Salinized Soils during Microbial Remediation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuang; Shen, Guang-rong; Zhi, Yue-e; Wang, Zi-jun; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xian-hua

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the spectral reflectance of saline soils, the associated soil salt content (SSC) and the concentrations of salt ions were measured and analysed by tracing the container microbial remediation experiments for saline soil (main salt is sodium chloride) of Dongying City, Shandong Province. The sensitive spectral reflectance bands of saline soils to SSC, Cl- and Na+ in the process of microbial remediation were analysed. The average-dimension reduction of these bands was conducted by using a combination of correlation coefficient and decision coefficient, and by gradually narrowing the sampling interval method. Results showed that the tendency and magnitude of the average spectral reflectance in all bands of saline soils during the total remediation processes were nearly consistent with SSC and with Cl- coocentration, respectively. The degree of salinity of the soil, including SSC and salt ion concentrations, had a significant positive correlation with the spectral reflectance of all bands, particularly in the near-infrared band. The optimal spectral bands of SSC were 1370 to 1445 nm and 1447 to 1608 nm, whereas the optimal spectral bands of Cl- and Na+ were 1336 to 1461 nm and 1471 to 1561 nm, respectively. The relationship model among SSC, soil salt ion concentrations (Cl- and Na+) and soil spectral reflectance of the corresponding optimal spectral band was established. The largest R2 of relationship model between SSC and the average reflectance of associated optimal band reached to 0.95, and RMSEC and RMSEP were 1.076 and 0.591, respectively. Significant statistical analysis of salt factors and soil reflectance for different microbial remediation processes indicated that the spectral response characteristics and sensitivity of SSC to soil reflectance, which implied the feasibility of high spectrum test on soil microbial remediation monitoring, also provided the basis for quick nondestructive monitoring soil bioremediation process by soil spectral

  18. Coastal hazards and groundwater salinization on low coral islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, James P.; Chui, T. F. May

    2016-04-01

    Remote oceanic communities living on low-lying coral islands (atolls) without surface water rely for their survival on the continuing viability of fragile groundwater resources. These exist in the form of fresh groundwater lenses (FGLs) that develop naturally within the porous coral sand and gravel substrate. Coastal hazards such as inundation by high-energy waves driven by storms and continuing sea-level rise (SLR) are among many possible threats to viable FGL size and quality on atolls. Yet, not much is known about the combined effects of wave washover during powerful storms and SLR on different sizes of coral island, nor conversely how island size influences lens resilience against damage. This study investigates FGL damage by salinization (and resilience) caused by such coastal hazards using a modelling approach. Numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FGL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths). Steady-state solutions reveal how FGL dimensions are related in a non-linear manner to coral island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. A 40 cm SLR scenario is then imposed. This is followed by transient simulations to examine storm-induced wave washover and subsequent FGL responses to saline damage over a 1 year period. Smaller FGLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FGLs tend to show more resilience. Further results produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in the post-SLR condition, FGL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table into which saline water can infiltrate during a storm event. Nonetheless, combined washover and SLR impacts imply overall that advancing groundwater salinization may lead to some coral islands becoming uninhabitable long before they are completely submerged by sea-level rise, thereby calling

  19. Salinity Adaptation and the Contribution of Parental Environmental Effects in Medicago truncatula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken S Moriuchi

    Full Text Available High soil salinity negatively influences plant growth and yield. Some taxa have evolved mechanisms for avoiding or tolerating elevated soil salinity, which can be modulated by the environment experienced by parents or offspring. We tested the contribution of the parental and offspring environments on salinity adaptation and their potential underlying mechanisms. In a two-generation greenhouse experiment, we factorially manipulated salinity concentrations for genotypes of Medicago truncatula that were originally collected from natural populations that differed in soil salinity. To compare population level adaptation to soil salinity and to test the potential mechanisms involved we measured two aspects of plant performance, reproduction and vegetative biomass, and phenological and physiological traits associated with salinity avoidance and tolerance. Saline-origin populations had greater biomass and reproduction under saline conditions than non-saline populations, consistent with local adaptation to saline soils. Additionally, parental environmental exposure to salt increased this difference in performance. In terms of environmental effects on mechanisms of salinity adaptation, parental exposure to salt spurred phenological differences that facilitated salt avoidance, while offspring exposure to salt resulted in traits associated with greater salt tolerance. Non-saline origin populations expressed traits associated with greater growth in the absence of salt while, for saline adapted populations, the ability to maintain greater performance in saline environments was also associated with lower growth potential in the absence of salt. Plastic responses induced by parental and offspring environments in phenology, leaf traits, and gas exchange contribute to salinity adaptation in M. truncatula. The ability of plants to tolerate environmental stress, such as high soil salinity, is likely modulated by a combination of parental effects and within

  20. Golden alga presence and abundance are inversely related to salinity in a high-salinity river ecosystem, Pecos River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël, Natascha M.D.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Denny, Shawn; Ingle, John; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    Prymnesium parvum (golden alga, GA) is a toxigenic harmful alga native to marine ecosystems that has also affected brackish inland waters. The first toxic bloom of GA in the western hemisphere occurred in the Pecos River, one of the saltiest rivers in North America. Environmental factors (water quality) associated with GA occurrence in this basin, however, have not been examined. Water quality and GA presence and abundance were determined at eight sites in the Pecos River basin with or without prior history of toxic blooms. Sampling was conducted monthly from January 2012 to July 2013. Specific conductance (salinity) varied spatiotemporally between 4408 and 73,786 mS/cm. Results of graphical, principal component (PCA), and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) regression analyses indicated that the incidence and abundance of GA are reduced as salinity increases spatiotemporally. LOWESS regression and correlation analyses of archived data for specific conductance and GA abundance at one of the study sites retrospectively confirmed the negative association between these variables. Results of PCA also suggested that at <15,000 mS/cm, GA was present at a relatively wide range of nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations whereas at higher salinity, GA was observed only at mid-to-high nutrient levels. Generally consistent with earlier studies, results of ZIP regression indicated that GA presence is positively associated with organic phosphorus and in samples where GA is present, GA abundance is positively associated with organic nitrogen and negatively associated with inorganic nitrogen. This is the first report of an inverse relation between salinity and GA presence and abundance in riverine waters and of interaction effects of salinity and nutrients in the field. These observations contribute to a more complete understanding of environmental conditions that influence GA distribution in inland waters.

  1. Tidal influence on the seasonal variation in current and salinity around Willingdon Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varma, P.U.; Pylee, A.; RamaRaju, V.S.

    The general distribution of current and salinity of Mattancherry and Ernakulam channels and the Cochin Harbour mouth, Kerala, India is presented and discussed in relation to the tide. During monsoon season stratification is observed. The salinity...

  2. Tidal circulation and salinity distribution in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: Case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manoj, N.T.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    was to study the intraseasonal variations of salinity during the breaks in the southwest monsoon. A hybrid network numerical model was used for the present study to simulate the tidal circulation and the salinity distribution in these estuaries. The model...

  3. Genetically modified plants for salinity stress tolerance (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopory, S.K.; Singia-Pareek, S.I.; Kumar, S.; Rajgopal, D.; Aggarwal, P.; Kumar, D.; Reddy, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several recent reports have indicated that the area under salinity is on the increase and currently very few genotypes of important crop plants are available for cultivation under these conditions. In this regard, identification of novel stress responsive genes and transgenic approach offers an important strategy to develop salt tolerant plants. Using an efficient PCR-based cDNA subtraction method a large number of genes upregulated under salinity and dehydration stress have been identified also in rice and Pennisetum. Functional analysis of some of these genes is being done using transgenic approach. Earlier, we reported on the role of one of the stress regulated genes, glyoxalse I in conferring salinity tolerance. We now show that by manipulating the expression of both the genes of the glyoxalse pathway, glyoxalse I and II together, the ability of the double transgenic plants to tolerate salinity stress is greatly enhanced as compared to the single transgenic plants harbouring either the glyoxalse I or glyoxalse II. The cDNA for glyoxalse II was cloned from rice and mobilized into pCAMBIA vector having hptII gene as the selection marker. The seedlings of the T1 generation transgenic plants survived better under high salinity compared to the wild type plants; the double transgenics had higher limits of tolerance as compared to the lines transformed with single gene. A similar trend was seen even when plants were grown in pots under glass house conditions and raised to maturity under the continued presence of NaCl. In this, the transgenic plants were able to grow, flower and set seeds. The overexpression of glyoxalse pathway was also found to confer stress tolerance in rice. We have also isolated a gene encoding vacuolar sodium/proton antiporter from Pennisetum and over expressed in Brassica juncea and rice. The transgenic plants were able to tolerate salinity stress. Our work along with many others' indicates the potential of transgenic technology in developing

  4. Water logging and salinity control for environmentally sustainable crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, M.R.; Bhutta, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Irrigation supplies at proper time and adequate quantities are imperative for potential agricultural production under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions. To achieve this goal one of the largest integrated irrigation network was established. Without adequate drainage it resulted in the problems of water logging and salinity. To control these problems a big programme of Salinity Control and Reclamation projects (SCARPs) was initiated during 1960 and 82 such SCARPs have been completed and 9 were in progress up to June, 2002 covering an area of 18.6 ma (7.5 mh) at a cost of Rs.93 billions. Under these projects 12746 tube wells in fresh, 3572 in saline groundwater and 13726 km surface and 12612 km tile pipes covering 6391.7 ha, 160 km interceptor drains have been constructed an area of 0.998 ma (GCA). In addition to this some other measures like on farm water management, canal command project, canal lining, construction of evaporation ponds, establishment of research Inst./Organizations were also taken. Many drainage plans like Master Plan (1963), Northern Regional Plan (1967), Water Sector Investment Plan Study (1990), Right Bank Master Plan (1992), Drainage Sector Environmental Assessment (1993) and National Drainage Programme (1995) were prepared and implemented. The cost of the, phase-I of the National Drainage Programme was 785 million US$. The main activities undertaken were remodeling/extension of existing surface and new drains; rehabilitation/replacement of saline ground water (SGW) tube wells; construction of interceptor drains, reclamation of waterlogged areas through biological drainage and transfer of fresh ground water tube wells to the farmers. The data indicate that all the measures taken have played a significant role in reducing the water logging, salinity/sodicity and have increased the crop production and consequently improved the socio-economic conditions of the peoples especially the farming community. The environment in these areas was also

  5. Nutritional value and chemical composition of Cichorium spinosum L. under saline conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Petropoulos, Spyridon Α.; Vasilios, Antoniadis; Efi, Levizou; Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity is an ever‐growing problem that hinders vegetable cultivation in many areas within the Mediterranean basin. Cichorium spinosum is native to the Mediterranean basin and is usually found in coastal areas and plateaus. In the present study, C. spinosum plants were grown under saline conditions (1.8, 4 and 8 dS/m), in order to evaluate the effect of salinity on their nutritional value and chemical composition. From the results it was observed that high salinity levels...

  6. A literature review of the variation of dispersant effectiveness and salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.

    2005-01-01

    Surfactants have varying solubilities in water and varying actions toward oil and water. This paper presents a summary of the effects of water salinity on chemical dispersion. Literature reveals that effectiveness testing with salinity variations shows a consistent decrease in effectiveness at lower salinities and a decrease after a maximum salinity is reached between 20 to 40 units of salinity. In waters with 0 salinity, conventional and currently available dispersants have a very low effectiveness or are sometimes even completely ineffective, a fact which is consistent in surfactant literature. Dispersant effectiveness peaks in waters with a salinity ranging from 20 to 40. Corexit 9500 appears to be less sensitive to salinity, but still peaks at about 35. There is a relatively smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and after it exceeds this value. The curves for this salinity effect appear to be Gaussian. While there is some evidence for a temperature-salinity interaction as noted in the data, there is not enough data to make solid conclusions. Recent data is almost exclusively measured using Corexit 9527 and Corexit 9500. Since these have the same surfactant packages, there is a concern that the results may be more relevant to these formulations than to all possible formulations. Observations on 2 field trials in freshwater appear to indicate that the laboratory tests were correct in concluding very low dispersant effectiveness in freshwater. There were few studies on the biological effects of varying salinity and given oil exposure. It was concluded that the findings in the dispersant literature reviewed here are in agreement with those in the theoretical and basic surfactant literature. The effect of ionic strength and salinity on both hydrophilic-lipophilic balance and stability is the reason for the decreased effectiveness noted at low salinities and the same decrease at high salinities

  7. Simulation of Salinity Distribution in Soil Under Drip Irrigation Tape with Saline Water Using SWAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tabei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The to be limited available water amount from one side and to be increased needs of world population from the other side have caused increase of cultivation for products. For this reason, employing new irrigation ways and using new water resources like using the uncommon water (salty water, water drainage are two main strategies for regulating water shortage conditions. On the other side, accumulation of salts on the soil surface in dry regions having low rainfall and much evaporation, i.e. an avoidable case. As doing experiment for determining moisture distribution form demands needs a lot of time and conducting desert experiments are costly, stimulator models are suitable alternatives in answering the problem concerning moving and saltiness distribution. Materials and Methods: In this research, simulation of soil saltiness under drip irrigation was done by the SWAP model and potency of the above model was done in comparison with evaluated relevant results. SWAP model was performed based on measured data in a corn field equipped with drip irrigation system in the farming year 1391-92 in the number one research field in the engineering faculty of water science, ShahidChamran university of Ahvaz and hydraulic parameters of soil obtained from RETC . Statistical model in the form of a random full base plan with four attendants for irrigating water saltiness including salinity S1 (Karoon River water with salinity 3 ds/m as a control treatment, S2 (S1 +0/5, S3 (S1 +1 and S4 (S1 +1/5 dS/m, in 3 repetition and in 3 intervals of 10 cm emitter, 20 cm emitters on the stack, at a depth of 0-90 cm (instead of each 30 cm from soil surface and intervals of 30, 60 and 90 days after modeling cultiviation was done. The cultivation way was done handheld in plots including four rows of 3 m in distance of 75 cm rows and with denseness of 80 bushes in a hectar. Drip irrigation system was of type strip with space of 20 cm pores. Results and Discussion

  8. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  9. The effect of salinity on the growth, morphology and physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The salinity of water and soil decreases the growth and yield of agricultural products. Salinity affects many physiological and morphological processes of plant by influencing soil solution osmotic potential and ion absorption and accumulation of minerals. To evaluate the effect of salinity on some physiological and ...

  10. Responses of three tomato cultivars to sea water salinity 1. Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sea water salinity (1500, 2500 and 3500 ppm) on the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars (Trust, Grace and Plitz) was studied. The sea water salinity delayed seed germination and reduced germination percentage especially with increasing salinity level. Chlorophyll b content was higher than ...

  11. Seasonal variation in apparent conductivity and soil salinity at two Narragansett Bay salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurement of the apparent conductivity of salt marsh sediments using electromagnetic induction (EMI) is a rapid alternative to traditional methods of salinity determination that can be used to map soil salinity across a marsh surface. Soil salinity measures can provide informat...

  12. 76 FR 27669 - Automotive Components Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under Ford Company, Visteon, MSX International, W.J. O'Neil Company, and Unibar, Saline... workers of Automotive Components Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division...

  13. Varietal differences of quinoa's tolerance to saline conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Shabala, Sergey; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2012-01-01

    varieties, the Danish variety Titicaca and the Bolivian variety Utusaya gas exchange, chlorophyll content index (CCI), fluorescence and ion relations were studied. Results Responses to salinity differed greatly among the varieties; least affected were two varieties from the Bolivian altiplano and a variety...... from Peru. Titicaca and Utusaya both had substantially increased K+ concentrations in the leaf sap. But, Utusaya was much more efficient in restricting xylem Na+ loading. Xylem Na+ and K+ loading were found to be uncoupled. Utusaya maintained a relatively high stomatal conductance resulting in an only...... 25% NaCl-induced reduction in net CO2 assimilation compared to a 67% reduction in salt treated Titicaca plants. Maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII was not affected by salinity. Conclusion In addition to maintaining high gas exchange, tolerant varieties better control xylem Na+ loading. To what...

  14. Extracting renewable energy from a salinity difference using a capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2009-07-31

    Completely renewable energy can be produced by using water solutions of different salinity, like river water and sea water. Many different methods are already known, but development is still at prototype stage. Here I report a novel method, based on electric double-layer capacitor technology. Two porous electrodes, immersed in the salt solution, constitute a capacitor. It is first charged, then the salt solution is brought into contact with fresh water. The electrostatic energy increases as the salt concentration of the solution is reduced due to diffusion. This device can be used to turn sources of salinity difference into completely renewable sources of energy. An experimental demonstration is given, and performances and possible improvements are discussed.

  15. Chemical interaction of fresh and saline waters with compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Lehikoinen, J.; Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of compacted sodium bentonite with fresh and saline ground-water simulant was studied. The parameters varied in the experiments were the compositions of the solutions and oxygen and carbon dioxide content in the surroundings. The main interests of the study were the chemical changes in the experimental solution, bentonite porewater and bentonite together with the microstructural properties of bentonite. The major processes with fresh water were the diffusion of sodium, potassium, sulphate, bicarbonate and chloride from bentonite to the solution, and the diffusion of calcium and magnesium from the solution into bentonite. The major processes in the experiments with saline water were the diffusion of the sodium, magnesium, sulphate and bicarbonate from bentonite into the solution, and the diffusion of calcium from the solution into bentonite

  16. Atmospheric forcing of salinity in the overflow of Denmark Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holfort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of the characteristics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW is reconstructed using hydrographic data and compared with possible atmospheric forcing mechanisms. It is concluded that the main factor influencing the DSOW characteristics at a time scale of one to several years is the difference in mean sea level pressure across Denmark Strait or, in other words, the wind along Denmark Strait. At these time scales upstream changes in the characteristics of the different water masses involved in the formation of DSOW are only of minor importance. The main process responsible for the observed salinity changes in the DSOW is mixing in Denmark Strait. Triggered by the wind, different water masses contribute with changing amounts to the formation of DSOW, leading to the observed changes in the salinity of DSOW.

  17. Groundwater salinity study in the Mekong Delta using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Van Khoi, Nguyen Kien Chinh; Do Tien Hung

    2002-01-01

    Environmental isotopes D, 18 O and chemical composition were used for study of recharge and salinization of groundwater in the are located between Bassac and Mekong Rivers. The results showed that: (a) Pleistocene aquifers are recharged through flood plains and outcrops located at the same altitude. The sanility of groundwater in these aquifers is mostly due to dissolution of the aquifer material, (b) Pliocene and Miocene aquifers receive recharge through outcrops located at the higher altitude on the northeast extension of the Delta and Cambodia. The salinity of groundwater in the coastal region of the aquifer is attributable to sea water intrusion. There appears to be significant retention of sea water in the coastal sediment during intrusion. (Author)

  18. Advances in measuring ocean salinity with an optical sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menn, M Le; De Bougrenet de la Tocnaye, J L; Grosso, P; Delauney, L; Podeur, C; Brault, P; Guillerme, O

    2011-01-01

    Absolute salinity measurement of seawater has become a key issue in thermodynamic models of the oceans. One of the most direct ways is to measure the seawater refractive index which is related to density and can therefore be related to the absolute salinity. Recent advances in high resolution position sensitive devices enable us to take advantage of small beam deviation measurements using refractometers. This paper assesses the advantages of such technology with respect to the current state-of-the-art technology. In particular, we present the resolution dependence on refractive index variations and derive the limits of such a solution for designing seawater sensors well suited for coastal and deep-sea applications. Particular attention has been paid to investigate the impact of environmental parameters, such as temperature and pressure, on an optical sensor, and ways to mitigate or compensate them have been suggested here. The sensor has been successfully tested in a pressure tank and in open oceans 2000 m deep

  19. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  20. Salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water in southwest Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John C; George, Gregory; Fry, David; Benneyworth, Laura; Wilson, Carol; Auerbach, Leslie; Roy, Kushal; Karim, Md Rezaul; Akter, Farjana; Goodbred, Steven

    2017-09-11

    To identify the causes of salinization and arsenic contamination of surface water on an embanked island (i.e., polder) in the tidal delta plain of SW Bangladesh we collected and analyzed water samples in the dry (May) and wet (October) seasons in 2012-2013. Samples were collected from rice paddies (wet season), saltwater ponds used for brine shrimp aquaculture (dry season), freshwater ponds and tidal channels (both wet and dry season), and rainwater collectors. Continuous measurements of salinity from March 2012 to February 2013 show that tidal channel water increases from ~0.15 ppt in the wet season up to ~20 ppt in the dry season. On the polder, surface water exceeds the World Health Organization drinking water guideline of 10 μg As/L in 78% of shrimp ponds and 27% of rice paddies, raising concerns that produced shrimp and rice could have unsafe levels of As. Drinking water sources also often have unsafe As levels, with 83% of tubewell and 43% of freshwater pond samples having >10 μg As/L. Water compositions and field observations are consistent with shrimp pond water being sourced from tidal channels during the dry season, rather than the locally saline groundwater from tubewells. Irrigation water for rice paddies is also obtained from the tidal channels, but during the wet season when surface waters are fresh. Salts become concentrated in irrigation water through evaporation, with average salinity increasing from 0.43 ppt in the tidal channel source to 0.91 ppt in the rice paddies. Our observations suggest that the practice of seasonally alternating rice and shrimp farming in a field has a negligible effect on rice paddy water salinity. Also, shrimp ponds do not significantly affect the salinity of adjacent surface water bodies or subjacent groundwater because impermeable shallow surface deposits of silt and clay mostly isolate surface water bodies from each other and from the shallow groundwater aquifer. Bivariate plots of conservative element

  1. ZVI (Fe0) desalination: catalytic partial desalination of saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, David D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Globally, salinization affects between 100 and 1000 billion m3 a-1 of irrigation water. The discovery that zero valent iron (ZVI, Fe0) could be used to desalinate water (using intra-particle catalysis in a diffusion environment) raises the possibility that large-scale in situ desalination of aquifers could be undertaken to support agriculture. ZVI desalination removes NaCl by an adsorption-desorption process in a multi-stage cross-coupled catalytic process. This study considers the potential application of two ZVI desalination catalyst types for in situ aquifer desalination. The feasibility of using ZVI catalysts when placed in situ within an aquifer to produce 100 m3 d-1 of partially desalinated water from a saline aquifer is considered.

  2. Salinity modeling by remote sensing in central and southern Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Mhaimeed, A. S.; Platonov, A.; Al-Shafie, W. M.; Abbas, A. M.; Al-Musawi, H. H.; Khalaf, A.; Salim, K. A.; Chrsiten, E.; De Pauw, E.; Ziadat, F.

    2012-12-01

    Salinization, leading to a significant loss of cultivated land and crop production, is one of the most active land degradation phenomena in the Mesopotamian region in Iraq. The objectives of this study (under the auspices of ACIAR and Italian Government) are to investigate the possibility to use remote sensing technology to establish salinity-sensitive models which can be further applied to local and regional salinity mapping and assessment. Case studies were conducted in three pilot sites namely Musaib, Dujaila and West Garraf in the central and southern Iraq. Fourteen spring (February - April), seven June and four summer Landsat ETM+ images in the period 2009-2012, RapidEye data (April 2012), and 95 field EM38 measurements undertaken in this spring and summer, 16 relevant soil laboratory analysis result (Dujaila) were employed in this study. The procedure we followed includes: (1) Atmospheric correction using FLAASH model; (2) Multispectral transformation of a set of vegetation and non-vegetation indices such as GDVI (Generalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index), SARVI (Soil Adjusted and Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index), NDII (Normalized Difference Infrared Index), Principal Components and surface temperature (T); (3) Derivation of the spring maximum (Musaib) and annual maximum (Dujaila and West Garraf) value in each pixel of each index of the observed period to avoid problems related to crop rotation (e.g. fallow) and the SLC-Off gaps in ETM+ images; (4) Extraction of the values of each vegetation and non-vegetation index corresponding to the field sampling locations (about 3 to 5 controversial samples very close to the roads or located in fallow were excluded); and (5) Coupling remote sensing indices with the available EM38 and soil electrical conductivity (EC) data using multiple linear least-square regression model at the confidence

  3. Projections of on-farm salinity in coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D; Williams, S; Jahiruddin, M; Parks, K; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    This paper quantifies the expected impacts of climate change, climate variability and salinity accumulation on food production in coastal Bangladesh during the dry season. This forms part of a concerted series of actions on agriculture and salinity in Bangladesh under the UK funded Ecosystems for Poverty Alleviation programme and the British Council INSPIRE scheme. The work was undertaken by developing simulation models for soil water balances, dry season irrigation requirements and the effectiveness of the monsoon season rainfall at leaching accumulated salts. Simulations were run from 1981 to 2098 using historical climate data and a daily climate data set based on the Met Office Hadley Centre HadRM3P regional climate model. Results show that inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability are key factors that affect the viability of dry season vegetable crop growing. By the end of the 21(st) century the dry season is expected to be 2-3 weeks longer than now (2014). Monsoon rainfall amounts will remain the same or possibly slightly increase but it will occur over a slightly shorter wet season. Expectations of sea level rise and additional saline intrusion into groundwater aquifers mean that dry season irrigation water is likely to become more saline by the end of the 21(st) century. A study carried out at Barisal indicates that irrigating with water at up to 4 ppt can be sustainable. Once the dry season irrigation water quality goes above 5 ppt, the monsoon rainfall is no longer able to leach the dry season salt deposits so salt accumulation becomes significant and farm productivity will reduce by as a much as 50%, threatening the livelihoods of farmers in this region.

  4. Nitrification at different salinities: Biofilm community composition and physiological plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Silva, Blanca M; Jonassen, Kjell Rune; Bakke, Ingrid; Østgaard, Kjetill; Vadstein, Olav

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes an experimental study of microbial communities of three moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) inoculated with nitrifying cultures originated from environments with different salinity; freshwater, brackish (20‰) and seawater. All reactors were run until they operated at a conversion efficiency of >96%. The microbial communities were profiled using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Statistical analysis was used to investigate the differences in microbial community structure and distribution of the nitrifying populations with different salinity environments. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) and the PERMANOVA test based on Bray-Curtis similarities revealed significantly different community structure in the three reactors. The brackish reactor showed lower diversity index than fresh and seawater reactors. Venn diagram showed that 60 and 78% of the total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) guild, respectively, were unique OTUs for a given reactor. Similarity Percentages (SIMPER) analysis showed that two-thirds of the total difference in community structure between the reactors was explained by 10 OTUs, indicating that only a small number of OTUs play a numerically dominant role in the nitrification process. Acute toxicity of salt stress on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities showed distinctly different patterns, reaching 97% inhibition of the freshwater reactor for ammonium oxidation rate. In the brackish culture, inhibition was only observed at maximal level of salinity, 32‰. In the fully adapted seawater culture, higher activities were observed at 32‰ than at any of the lower salinities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preoperative Saline Implant Deflation in Revisional Aesthetic Breast Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cindy; Grotting, James C

    2015-09-01

    Preoperative saline deflation is a clinically useful intervention in revisional breast surgery. It allows suspensory ligament recovery, reveals true glandular volume, and simplifies mastopexy markings. Presently unknown are the volumetric changes that occur after deflation. The authors report the three-dimensional (3D) changes that occur with preoperative deflation prior to revisional breast surgery. We reviewed available charts of revisional breast surgery patients who underwent preliminary saline implant deflation. Our protocol is deflation 4 weeks prior to revision. Three weeks following deflation, the patient is evaluated to finalize the operative plan, including the need for implants, mastopexy, and adjunctive procedures. A subset underwent 3D imaging to quantify the volumetric changes over the 3-week deflation period. Between 2002 and 2014, 55 patients underwent saline implant deflation prior to 57 revisional surgeries. Seventeen were revised without implants and 40 with implants. The 3D subset of 10 patients showed a mean 15.2% volume increase and 0.18 cm notch-to-nipple distance decrease over the 3 weeks following deflation and prior to definitive surgical correction. Breast volume increases and the notch-to-nipple distance decreases during the 3-week interval prior to reoperation. This "elastic breast recoil" occurs after the mass effect of the implant is removed, resulting in recovery of stretched suspensory ligaments and gland reexpansion. We believe 4 weeks is optimal for gland normalization. Ideal candidates include patients requiring secondary mastopexy without implants, implant downsizing in the same pocket, and secondary augmentation mastopexy. Preoperative saline deflation and 3D analyses are useful for preoperative planning in reoperative breast surgery. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Is salinity tolerance of rice lines concerned to endogenous ABA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we tested its putative relationship of Abscisic acid with the degree of tolerance to this abiotic stress. For this purpose, we have examined the responses of sensitive (IR29) and tolerant (IR651) varieties of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) to a range of salinity (0 (control) and 90 mM NaCl. Shoot and root dry weight ...

  7. Phytoremediation potential of some halophytic species for soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S; Nandwal, A S; Angrish, R; Arya, S S; Kumar, N; Sharma, S K

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of six halophytic species i.e. Suaeda nudiflora, Suaeda fruticosa, Portulaca oleracea, Atriplex lentiformis, Parkinsonia aculeata and Xanthium strumarium was assessed under screen house conditions. Plants were raised at 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, and 20.0 dSm(-1) of chloride-dominated salinity. The control plants were irrigated with canal water. Sampling was done at vegetative stage (60-75 DAS). About 95 percent seed germination occurred up to 12 dSm(-1) and thereafter declined slightly. Mean plant height and dry weight plant(-1) were significantly decreased from 48.71 to 32.44 cm and from 1.73 to 0.61g plant(-1) respectively upon salinization. Na(+)/K(+) ratio (0.87 to 2.72), Na(+)/ Ca(2+) + Mg(2+) (0.48 to 1.54) and Cl(-)/SO4(2-) (0.94 to 5.04) ratio showed increasing trend. Salinity susceptibility index was found minimum in Suaeda fruticosa (0.72) and maximum in Parkinsonia aculeata (1.17). Total ionic content also declined and magnitude of decline varied from 8.51 to 18.91% at 8 dSm(-1) and 1.85 to 7.12% at 20 dSm(-1) of salinity. On the basis of phytoremediation potential Suaeda fruticosa (1170.02 mg plant(-1)), Atriplex lentiformis (777.87 mg plant(-1)) were the best salt hyperaccumulator plants whereas Xanthium strumarium (349.61 mg plant(-1)) and Parkinsonia aculeata (310.59 mg plant(-1)) were the least hyperaccumulator plants.

  8. Effect Of Salinization On Fusarium Wilt Disease In Tomato Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, B.M.; Fath El-Bab, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Salinization of soils or waters is one of the serious environmental problems in agriculture. It is necessary to determine the environmental factors under which the plants give higher yields and better quality to solve this problem. The problem of salinity is characterized by disruption in the physiological processes in plant which lead to shorting in growth and decrease in yield. The study was carried out to control fusarium disease in tomato plant irrigated with salt water (500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm). These treatments lead to excess in malic and citric acids i.e. from 21 mmol/g fresh weight in control to 38.8 mmol/g fresh weight at 100000 ppm for citric acid while for malic acid, the value was increased from 1.4 mmol/g fresh weight for control to 2.1 mmol/g fresh weight. The excess of malic and citric acids lead to increase in acidity and vitamin C in tomato fruits. On the other side, the plant may adapt to this stress by increasing its proline content from 0.59 µmol/g fresh weight to 6.56 µmol/g fresh weight at 100000 and abscisic acid from 0.49 µmol/g fresh weight to 20.7 µmol/g fresh weight. The results showed that the fusarium fungal growth was observed till 100000 ppm but did not form sclerotia spores at 45000 ppm. On the other hand, the electrical conductivity was found to be 0.46, 2.3, 23.1, 69.2 and 153.8 dS/m for salinity levels of 500, 1500, 15000, 45000 and 100000 ppm, respectively. This study aimed to control the fusarium wilt disease by irrigating the plant with water has high salinity

  9. The Baltic Sea natural long-term variability of salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimanke, Semjon; Markus Meier, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish sea areas of the world. The sensitive state of the Baltic Sea is sustained by a fresh-water surplus by river discharge and precipitation on one hand as well as inflows of highly saline and oxygen-rich water masses from the North Sea on the other. Major inflows which are crucial for the renewal of the deep water occur very intermittent with a mean frequency of approximately one per year. Stagnation periods (periods without major inflows) lead for instance to a reduction of oxygen concentration in the deep Baltic Sea spreading hypoxic conditions. Depending on the amount of salt water inflow and fresh-water supply the deep water salinity of the Baltic Sea varies between 11 to 14 PSU on the decadal scale. The goal of this study is to understand the contribution of different driving factors for the decadal to multi-decadal variability of salinity in the Baltic Sea. Continuous measurement series of salinity exist from the 1950 but are not sufficiently long for the investigation of long-term fluctuations. Therefore, a climate simulation of more than 800 years has been carried out with the Rossby Center Ocean model (RCO). RCO is a biogeochemical regional climate model which covers the entire Baltic Sea. It is driven with atmospheric data dynamical downscaled from a GCM mimicking natural climate variability. The analysis focus on the role of variations in river discharge and precipitation, changes in wind speed and direction, fluctuations in temperature and shifts in large scale pressure patterns (e.g. NAO). Hereby, the length of the simulation will allow to identify mechanisms working on decadal to multi-decadal time scales. Moreover, it will be discussed how likely long stagnation periods are under natural climate variability and if the observed exceptional long stagnation period between 1983-1993 might be related to beginning climate change.

  10. Salinity tolerance of larvae of African catfish Clarias gariepinus ( ) X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen and twenty one day larvae were exposed to abrupt stepwise change in salinity (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 ppt) for 96 hours to determine mortality, median lethal mortality, MLS and median lethal time, MLT. The fourteen day-old fry that were exposed to 0 – 6 ppt recorded 90%, 87.5% 77.5% and 10% survival at the end of ...

  11. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la

  12. QTLs for seedling traits under salinity stress in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhe Ren

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil salinity limits agricultural production and is a major obstacle for increasing crop yield. Common wheat is one of the most important crops with allohexaploid characteristic and a highly complex genome. QTL mapping is a useful way to identify genes for quantitative traits such as salinity tolerance in hexaploid wheat. In the present study, a hydroponic trial was carried out to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs associated with salinity tolerance of wheat under 150mM NaCl concentration using a recombinant inbred line population (Xiaoyan 54×Jing 411. Values of wheat seedling traits including maximum root length (MRL, root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, total dry weight (TDW and the ratio of TDW of wheat plants between salt stress and control (TDWR were evaluated or calculated. A total of 19QTLs for five traits were detected through composite interval mapping method by using QTL Cartographer version 2.5 under normal and salt stress conditions. These QTLs distributed on 12 chromosomes explained the percentage of phenotypic variation by individual QTL varying from 7.9% to 19.0%. Among them, 11 and six QTLs were detected under normal and salt stress conditions, respectively and two QTLs were detected for TDWR. Some salt tolerance related loci may be pleiotropic. Chromosome 1A, 3A and 7A may harbor crucial candidate genes associated with wheat salt tolerance. Our results would be helpful for the marker assisted selection to breed wheat varieties with improved salt tolerance.

  13. Importance of ocean salinity for climate and habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullum, Jodie; Stevens, David P; Joshi, Manoj M

    2016-04-19

    Modeling studies of terrestrial extrasolar planetary climates are now including the effects of ocean circulation due to a recognition of the importance of oceans for climate; indeed, the peak equator-pole ocean heat transport on Earth peaks at almost half that of the atmosphere. However, such studies have made the assumption that fundamental oceanic properties, such as salinity, temperature, and depth, are similar to Earth. This assumption results in Earth-like circulations: a meridional overturning with warm water moving poleward at the surface, being cooled, sinking at high latitudes, and traveling equatorward at depth. Here it is shown that an exoplanetary ocean with a different salinity can circulate in the opposite direction: an equatorward flow of polar water at the surface, sinking in the tropics, and filling the deep ocean with warm water. This alternative flow regime results in a dramatic warming in the polar regions, demonstrated here using both a conceptual model and an ocean general circulation model. These results highlight the importance of ocean salinity for exoplanetary climate and consequent habitability and the need for its consideration in future studies.

  14. A broadband helical saline water liquid antenna for wearable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaosheng; Huang, Yi; Gao, Gui; Yang, Cheng; Lu, Zhonghao; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A broadband helical liquid antenna made of saline water is proposed. A transparent hollow support is employed to fabricate the antenna. The rotation structure is fabricated with a thin flexible tube. The saline water with a concentration of 3.5% can be injected into or be extracted out from the tube to change the quantity of the solution. Thus, the tunability of the radiation pattern could be realised by applying the fluidity of the liquid. The radiation feature of the liquid antenna is compared with that of a metal one, and fairly good agreement has been achieved. Furthermore, three statements of the radiation performance corresponding to the ratio of the diameter to the wavelength of the helical saline water antenna have been proposed. It has been found that the resonance frequency increases when the length of the feeding probe or the radius of the vertical part of the liquid decreases. The fractional bandwidth can reach over 20% with a total height of 185 mm at 1.80 GHz. The measured results indicate reasonable approximation to the simulated. The characteristics of the liquid antenna make it a good candidate for various wireless applications, especially the wearable systems.

  15. Alteration of the cementitious material under the saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owada, H.; Asano, H.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Shimoda, S.

    2006-01-01

    Leaching experiment of ordinary and fly ash mixed cement were carried out by using the artificial sea water and deionized water as leachates. The pH values of saline leachates were decreased at the lower solid/liquid ratio in comparison with the case of deionized leachates. Mg(OH) 2 and ettringite were observed only in the case of saline water. The results of the geochemical calculation with inputs of Mg(OH) 2 , ettringite and hydrotalcite well represented in the change of pH value and the mineral-composition with those of the experiment. However, in the latter stage of the fly ash mixed cement case, calculated concentrations of Si and Al of the leachate weren't consistent with the observed values. These results showed that substitution of Mg for Ca and influences of sulfate ion should be considered in the modeling of the cement alteration in the saline water case, and Al-substituted C-S-H might be considered in the alteration of fly ash mixed cement. (author)

  16. Groundwater salinity in coastal aquifer of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Ahmad, E.; Tasneem, M.A.; Sajjad, M.I.; Khan, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Potable groundwater salinity has become a problem of great concern in the Karachi Metropolis, which is not only the most populous and biggest industrial base but also the largest coastal dwelling of Pakistan. Stable isotope techniques [O/sup 18/ content of Oxygen in the water molecular and C/sup 13/ content of the Total Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (TDIC)] have been used, in conjunction with physiochemical tools (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, redox electrical conductivity, salinity), to examine the quality of potable water and the source of salinity. Surface water samples (12 No.) were collected from polluted streams, namely: Layeri River, Malir River; Hub River/Hub Lake and the Indus River. Shallow groundwater samples (7 No. ) were collected from operating dug wells. Relatively deep groundwater samples (12 No.) were collected from operating dug wells, relatively deep groundwater samples (12 No.) were collected from pumping wells/tube-wells. Physicochemical analysis of water samples was completed in the field. In the laboratory, water samples were analyzed for O/sup 18/ content of oxygen in the water molecule and C/sup 13/ content of the TDIC, using specific gas extraction systems and a modified GD-150 gas source mass spectrometer. It is concluded from this preliminary investigation that the potable aquifer system in coastal Karachi hosts a mixture of precipitation (rainwater only) from hinterlands, trapped seawater in relatively deep aquifer system, as well as intruded seawater under natural infiltration conditions and/or induced recharge conditions (in shallow aquifers). (author)

  17. Monitoring Coastal Marshes for Persistent Flooding and Salinity Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcic, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Our objective is to provide NASA remote sensing products that provide inundation and salinity information on an ecosystem level to support habitat switching models. Project born out of need by the Coastal Restoration Monitoring System (CRMS), joint effort by Louisiana Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey, for information on persistence of flooding by storm surge and other flood waters. The results of the this work support the habitat-switching modules in the Coastal Louisiana Ecosystem Assessment and Restoration (CLEAR) model, which provides scientific evaluation for restoration management. CLEAR is a collaborative effort between the Louisiana Board of Regents, the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources (LDNR), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Anticipated results will use: a) Resolution enhanced time series data combining spatial resolution of Landsat with temporal resolution of MODIS for inundation estimates. b) Potential salinity products from radar and multispectral modeling. c) Combined inundation and salinity inputs to habitat switching module to produce habitat switching maps (shown at left)

  18. Gypsum Formation during the Messinian Salinity Crisis: an Alternative Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, A.; Krijgsman, W.; Sangiorgi, F.; Vasiliev, I.; Baak, C. V.; Wolthers, M.; Stoica, M.; Reichart, G. J.; Davies, G.

    2016-12-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC; 5.97 - 5.33 Myr ago), thick packages of evaporites (gypsum and halite) were deposited in the Mediterranean Basin. Traditionally, the occurrence of these evaporites is explained by the so-called "desiccation-model", in which evaporites are considered to result from a (partly) desiccated basin. In the last decade, it was thought that changes in the Mediterranean-Atlantic connectivity could explain the formation of gypsum. Stable isotope studies, however, show that the gypsum formed under influence of large freshwater input. Here we present new strontium isotope data from two well-dated Messinian sections in the Black and Caspian Seas. Our Sr isotope records suggest a persistent Mediterranean-Black Sea connection throughout the salinity crisis, which implies a large additional freshwater source to the Mediterranean. We claim that low saline waters from the Black Sea region are a prerequisite for gypsum formation in the Mediterranean and speculate about the mechanisms explaining this apparent paradox.

  19. Cyclic use of saline and non-saline water to increase water use efficiency and soil sustainability on drip irrigated maize in a semi-arid region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanli, M.; Ebrahimian, H.

    2016-01-01

    Use of saline water for irrigation is a strategy to mitigate water shortage. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the cyclic and constant use of saline and non-saline water on drip irrigated maize yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). Nine field treatments were laid out based on alternative irrigation management of non-saline and saline water combinations. The treatments were: two salinity levels of 3.5 and 5.7 dS/m and freshwater (0.4 dS/m) application in every one, three and five saline water application (1:1, 3:1 and 5:1, respectively). Results showed that the 1:1 combination management was the best in terms of crop yield and IWUE. In this treatment, salt concentration at the end of growing season was not significantly changed compared to its initial condition. If off-season precipitation or leaching was available, the 3:1 and 5:1 treatments were appropriated. Highest and lowest values of IWUE were 15.3 and 8.7 kg/m3 for the 1:1 management using water salinity of 3.5 dS/m and the treatment of constant irrigation with water salinity of 5.7 dS/m, respectively. Under low off-season precipitations, artificial leaching is essential for land sustainability in most treatments.

  20. Cyclic use of saline and non-saline water to increase water use efficiency and soil sustainability on drip irrigated maize in a semi-arid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassanli, M.; Ebrahimian, H.

    2016-07-01

    Use of saline water for irrigation is a strategy to mitigate water shortage. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the cyclic and constant use of saline and non-saline water on drip irrigated maize yield and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE). Nine field treatments were laid out based on alternative irrigation management of non-saline and saline water combinations. The treatments were: two salinity levels of 3.5 and 5.7 dS/m and freshwater (0.4 dS/m) application in every one, three and five saline water application (1:1, 3:1 and 5:1, respectively). Results showed that the 1:1 combination management was the best in terms of crop yield and IWUE. In this treatment, salt concentration at the end of growing season was not significantly changed compared to its initial condition. If off-season precipitation or leaching was available, the 3:1 and 5:1 treatments were appropriated. Highest and lowest values of IWUE were 15.3 and 8.7 kg/m3 for the 1:1 management using water salinity of 3.5 dS/m and the treatment of constant irrigation with water salinity of 5.7 dS/m, respectively. Under low off-season precipitations, artificial leaching is essential for land sustainability in most treatments.

  1. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormonesTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J.A.; Bendtzen, K.; Tonnesen, E.

    2008-01-01

    factor-alpha. Serum cortisol and vasopressin were measured at these time points and 48 h after operation. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (n=26) were quantified at baseline, after infusion, 25 min after incision, 1, and 4 h after surgery. Finally, C-reactive protein was measured at baseline, 24, and 48 h...... in a double-blind study to infusion of NaCl 7.5% (HS), NaCl 0.9% (NS4), both 4 ml kg(-1), or NaCl 0.9% 32 ml kg(-1) (NS32) over 20 min. Blood was collected at baseline, 1, 4, and 24 h after surgery (n=34) for the determination of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-1ra, and tumour necrosis...

  2. Physiological impact of salinity increase at organisms and red blood cell levels in the European flounder (Platichthys flesus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, F.B.; Lecklin, T.; Busk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Erythrocyte, Hyperosmotic shrinkage, Oxygen affinity, Oxygenation-dependent RVI, Salinity challenge, Volume regulation......Erythrocyte, Hyperosmotic shrinkage, Oxygen affinity, Oxygenation-dependent RVI, Salinity challenge, Volume regulation...

  3. Case study on combined CO₂ sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

    2012-10-30

    CO₂ is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO₂. The release of CO₂ into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO₂ sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km₂ on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO₂ sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO₂ injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO₂ in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO₂ leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of acute salinity challenges on osmoregulation in Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidally changing salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Benjamin P; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the differences in osmoregulatory capacity among Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, reared in freshwater (FW), in seawater (SW) or under tidally driven changes in salinity. This was addressed through the use of an abrupt exposure to a change in salinity. We measured changes in: (1) plasma osmolality and prolactin (PRL) levels; (2) pituitary expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptors, PRLR1 and PRLR2; (3) branchial expression of PRLR1, PRLR2, Na(+)/Cl(-) co-transporter (NCC), Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC), α1a and α1b isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3). Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidal environment successfully adapted to SW while fish reared in FW did not survive a transfer to SW beyond the 6 h sampling. With the exception of CFTR, the change in the expression of ion pumps, transporters and channels was more gradual in fish transferred from tidally changing salinities to SW than in fish transferred from FW to SW. Upon transfer to SW, the increase in CFTR expression was more robust in tidal fish than in FW fish. Tidal and SW fish successfully adapted when transferred to FW. These results suggest that Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidally changing salinity, a condition that more closely represents their natural history, gain an adaptive advantage compared with fish reared in FW when facing a hyperosmotic challenge. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Effects of salinity and salinity-induced augmented bioactive compounds in purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) for possible economical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirul Alam, Md; Juraimi, A S; Rafii, M Y; Hamid, A A; Aslani, F; Alam, M Z

    2015-02-15

    Dry matter (DM), total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoid contents, and antioxidant activity of 12 purslane accessions were investigated against five levels of salinity (0, 8, 16, 24 and 32dSm(-1)). In untreated plants, the DM contents ranged between 8.0-23.4g/pot; total phenolics contents (TPC) between 0.96-9.12mgGAEg(-1)DW; total flavonoid contents (TFC) between 0.15-1.44mgREg(-1)DW; and total carotenoid contents (TCC) between 0.52BCEg(-1)DW. While FRAP activity ranged from 8.64-104.21mgTEg(-1)DW (about 12-fold) and DPPH activity between 2.50-3.30mgmL(-1) IC50 value. Different levels of salinity treatment resulted in 8-35% increases in TPC; about 35% increase in TFC; and 18-35% increases in FRAP activity. Purslane accessions Ac4, Ac5, Ac6 and Ac8 possessed potentials for salinity-induced augmented production of bioactive compounds which in turn can be harnessed for possible human health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  7. Study on substrate metabolism process of saline waste sludge and its biological hydrogen production potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengshuai; Guo, Liang; Li, Qianqian; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing of high saline waste sludge production, the treatment and utilization of saline waste sludge attracted more and more attention. In this study, the biological hydrogen production from saline waste sludge after heating pretreatment was studied. The substrate metabolism process at different salinity condition was analyzed by the changes of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), carbohydrate and protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and dissolved organic matters (DOM). The excitation-emission matrix (EEM) with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was also used to investigate the effect of salinity on EPS and DOM composition during hydrogen fermentation. The highest hydrogen yield of 23.6 mL H 2 /g VSS and hydrogen content of 77.6% were obtained at 0.0% salinity condition. The salinity could influence the hydrogen production and substrate metabolism of waste sludge.

  8. Sub-tropical coastal lagoon salinization associated to shrimp ponds effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Mohedano, José-Gilberto; Lima-Rego, Joao; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Canales-Delgadillo, Julio; Sánchez-Flores, Eric-Ivan; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2018-04-01

    Anthropogenic salinization impacts the health of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. In tropical and subtropical areas, shrimp farm aquaculture uses water from adjacent ecosystems to fill the culture ponds, where enhanced evaporation cause salinization of discharged water. In this study, we studied water salinity before and after shrimp farm harvest and implemented a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to assess the impact on a subtropical coastal lagoon that receives water releases from shrimp ponds. The shrimp pond discharge significantly increased the salinity of receiving waters, at least 3 psu over the local variation. In the worst-case salinization scenario, when harvest occurs after a long dry season, salinity could increase by up to 6 psu. The induced salinization due to shrimp pond effluents remained up to 2 tidal cycles after harvest, and could affect biota. The methodology and results of this study can be used to assess the impacts of shrimp aquaculture worldwide.

  9. Synergistic effects of altered salinity and temperature on estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings and clonal shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    investigated experimentally how different combinations of salinity and temperature affect the physiological performance of adult eelgrass (Zostera marina) shoots and seedlings. Plants were exposed to different combinations of salinity (salinity 5, 12.5 and 20) and temperature (15, 20 and 25 °C) in a 5-week...... and temperature. Seedlings had higher absolute mortality, while adult shoots were relatively more sensitive to unfavorable levels of salinity. Leaf tissue sucrose concentrations in both life stages decreased at low salinity, whereas salinity and temperature resulted in contrasting starch concentrations between...... seedlings and adult shoots. Our results show that altered salinity and temperature may have negative synergistic effects on eelgrass performance. Future climate changes may thus have serious impacts on eelgrass survival and performance....

  10. Influence of salinity on the early development and biochemical dynamics of a marine fish, Inimicus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xu; Huang, Xuxiong; Wen, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Fertilised eggs of the devil stringer ( Inimicus japonicus) were incubated at different salinity levels (21, 25, 29, 33, and 37), and then the hatching performances, morphological parameters, and biochemical composition (protein, lipid and carbohydrate) of the larvae were assayed to determine the influence of salinity on the early development of I. japonicus. The tested salinity levels did not affect the times of hatching or mouth opening for yolk-sac larvae. However, the salinity significantly influenced the hatching and survival rates of open-mouthed larvae, as well as the morphology of yolk-sac larvae. The data indicated that 30.5 to 37.3 and 24.4 to 29.8 were suitable salinity ranges for the survival of embryos and larvae of I. japonicus, respectively. Larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest full lengths, and decreasing yolk volume was positively correlated with the environmental salinity. With increasing salinity, the individual dry weights of newly hatched larvae or open-mouthed larvae decreased significantly. Newly hatched larvae incubated at a salinity level of 29 had the greatest metabolic substrate contents and gross energy levels, while the openmouthed larvae's greatest values occurred at a salinity level of 25. Larvae incubated in the salinity range of 33 to 37 had the lowest nutritional reserves and energy values. Thus, the I. japonicus yolk-sac larvae acclimated more readily to the lower salinity level than the embryos, and higher salinity levels negatively influenced larval growth and development. In conclusion, the environmental salinity level should be maintained at 29-33 during embryogenesis and at 25-29 during early larval development for this species. Our results can be used to provide optimum aquaculture conditions for the early larval development of I. japonicus.

  11. Seed Priming to Overcome Salinity Stress in Persian Cultivars of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali SEPEHRI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of hydro-priming on seed germination with distilled water on germination of five Alfalfa cultivars under salinity stress, an experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Seven levels of hydro-priming and salinity of NaCl including prime and non-salinity, prime and 50 mM salinity, prime and 100 mM salinity, prime and 150 mM salinity, prime and 200 mM salinity, prime and 250 mM salinity and without prime and salinity and five alfalfa varieties, including ‘Hamedani’, ‘Isfahani’, ‘Bami’, ‘Yazdi’ and ‘Ghareh Yonjeh’ were used. The results showed that the main effect of prime, salinity and cultivars and their interaction in all studied traits were significantly affected at the 5% probability level. Priming treatments in non-salinity of all cultivars were the highest. In all cultivars, final germination percentage, length and weight of radicle, plumule and seedling, germination rate and time, relative radicle elongation, vigor index and stress index, were significantly improved in response to priming in salinity levels of 50-200 mM, compared to control. Radicle produced higher length and weight than the plumule in hydro- priming and salinity treatments. ‘Hamedani’ cultivar in most of studied characteristics had a better response than others. The lowest response to salinity stress and priming was observed in ‘Yazdi’ cultivar.

  12. Phytoextraction and phytoexcretion of Cd by the leaves of Tamarix smyrnensis growing on contaminated non-saline and saline soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousaki, Eleni; Kadukova, Jana; Papadantonakis, Nikolaos; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation and more specifically phytoextraction, is an alternative restoration strategy for the clean up of heavy metal contaminated soils. Phytoextraction can only be successful if suitable plant species colonize the contaminated area, extract the toxic substances and accumulate them in their above ground tissues. In this study, the salt cedar Tamarix smyrnensis that is a widespread salt-tolerant plant in the Mediterranean region has been investigated. A pot experiment is conducted with T. smyrnensis grown in polluted soil with 16 ppm of cadmium and at three different salt concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 3.0% NaCl) for a 10-week period. It took place in an open-air area with natural light, at ambient temperature and humidity in an effort to keep the plants under conditions as similar as possible to those in the field. However, care was taken not to let them be rained on. Temperature ranged from 19 to 50 deg. C with 33 and 21 deg. C being the average day and night temperature, respectively. Humidity ranged from 28% to 87% with a 13-14 h photoperiod. The specific aims of this work are to investigate the accumulation of cadmium via root uptake at different saline conditions and cadmium excretion through salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a probable detoxification mechanism of the plant. Furthermore, measurements of chlorophyll content, biomass, and shoot length are used to evaluate the potential of the plant for the removal of cadmium from contaminated saline and non-saline soils. The experimental data suggest that increased soil salinity results in an increase of the cadmium uptake by T. smyrnensis. Analysis of white salt crystals taken from glandular tissue confirmed the fact that this plant excretes cadmium through its salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a possible detoxification mechanism in order to resist metal toxicity. Excreted cadmium is again released into the environment and it is redeposited on the top soil. Furthermore, increased

  13. Hyponatraemia as the cause of severe cerebral symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Overgaard-Steensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    to increase the plasma [Na+]/reveal the symptoms and 2) coma treated successfully with infusions of hypertonic saline boluses. Effective treatment is simple and involves management of airway, breathing and circulation together with bolus infusions of hypertonic saline to ensure controllable plasma [Na...

  14. Seed priming improves salinity tolerance of wheat varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Y.; Shafi, M.; Arif, M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the response of wheat varieties to seed priming and salinity, an experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), KPK Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. The performance of 6 wheat varieties (Tatara-96, Ghaznavi-98, Fakhri Sarhad, Bakhtawar-92, Pirsabaq-2004 and Auqab-2000) at two seed conditions (primed with 30 mM NaCl and un primed) under four salinity levels (0, 40, 80 and 120 mM) was studied. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that salinity, seed priming and varieties had significantly (P= 0.05) affected shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/, shoot Na/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight), shoot K/sup +/ contents (mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/Na/sup +/ ratio. Maximum shoot fresh weight plant/sup -1/ (7.71 g), shoot dry weight plant/sup -1/ (1.68 g), shoot K/sup +/ contents (1.39 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) and shoot K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ratio (1.45) were recorded from Bakhtawar-92 as compared with other varieties. Highest shoot Na/sup +/ contents (1.43 mg g/sup -1/ dry weight) were recorded from Auqab-2000 when compared with other varieties. All parameters were enhanced with seed priming except shoot Na/sup +/ contents, which reduced significantly (p= 0.05) with seed priming. (author)

  15. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G.

    2008-01-01

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

  16. Comparative salinity responses among tomato genotypes and rootstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztekin, G.B.; Tuzel, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Salinity is a major constraint limiting agricultural crop productivity in the world. However, plant species and cultivars differ greatly in their response to salinity. This study was conducted in a greenhouse to determine the response of 4 commercial tomato rootstocks, 21 cultivars and 8 candidate varieties to salinity stress. Seeds were germinated in peat and when the plants were at the fifth-true leaf stage, salt treatment was initiated except control treatment. NaCl was added to nutrient solution daily with 25 mM concentration and had been reached to 200 mM final concentration. On harvest day, genotypes were classified based on the severity of leaf symptoms caused by NaCl treatment. After symptom scoring, the plants were harvested and leaf number, root length, stem length and diameter per plant were measured. The plants were separated into shoots and roots for dry matter production. Our results showed that, on average, NaCl stress decreased all parameters and the rootstocks gave the highest performance than genotypes. Among all rootstocks, three varieties (2211 and 2275) and ten genotypes (Astona, Astona RN, Caracas, Deniz, Durinta, Export, Gokce, Target, Yeni Talya and 144 HY) were selected as tolerant with slight chlorosis whereas the genotype Malike was selected as sensitive with severe chlorosis. Candidate varieties 2316 and 1482 were the most sensitive ones. Plant growth and dry matter production differed among the tested genotypes. However no correlation was found between plant growth and dry matter production. Rootstock Beaufort gave the highest shoot dry matter although Heman had highest root dry matter. Newton showed more shoot and root dry matter than other genotypes. It is concluded that screening of genotypes based on severity of symptoms at early stage of development and their dry matter production could be used as a tool to indicate genotypic variation to salt stress. (author)

  17. Genotypic variation for salinity tolerance in Cenchrus ciliaris L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iftikhar Hussain

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of irrigation water and increasing soil salinization has threatened the sustainability of forage production in arid and semi-arid region around the globe. Introduction of salt-tolerant perennial species is a promising alternative to overcome forage deficit to meet future livestock needs in salt-affected areas. This study presents the results of a salinity tolerance screening trial which was carried out in plastic pots buried in the open field for 160 buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. accessions for three consecutive years (2003-2005. The plastic pots were filled with sand, organic, and peat moss mix and were irrigated with four different quality water (EC 0, 10, 15, and 20 dS m-1. The results indicate that the average annual dry weights (DW were in the range from 122.5 – 148.9 g pot-1 in control; 96.4 – 133.8 g pot-1 at 10 dS m-1; 65.6 – 80.4 g pot-1 at 15 dS m-1, and 55.4- 65.6 g pot-1 at 20 dS m-1. The highest DW (148.9 g pot-1 was found with accession 49 and the lowest with accession 23. Principle component analysis shows that PC-1 contributed 81.8 % of the total variability, while PC-2 depicted 11.7% of the total variation among C. ciliaris accessions for DW. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that a number of accessions collected from diverse regions could be grouped into a single cluster. Accessions 3, 133, 159, 30, 23, 142, 141, 95, 49, 129, 124, and 127 were stable, salt tolerant, and produced good dry biomass yield. These accessions demonstrate sufficient salinity tolerance potential for promotion in marginal land and arid regions to enhance farm productivity and reduce rural poverty.

  18. Ocean acidification alters temperature and salinity preferences in larval fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistevos, Jennifer C A; Nagelkerken, Ivan; Rossi, Tullio; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-01

    Ocean acidification alters the way in which animals perceive and respond to their world by affecting a variety of senses such as audition, olfaction, vision and pH sensing. Marine species rely on other senses as well, but we know little of how these might be affected by ocean acidification. We tested whether ocean acidification can alter the preference for physicochemical cues used for dispersal between ocean and estuarine environments. We experimentally assessed the behavioural response of a larval fish (Lates calcarifer) to elevated temperature and reduced salinity, including estuarine water of multiple cues for detecting settlement habitat. Larval fish raised under elevated CO 2 concentrations were attracted by warmer water, but temperature had no effect on fish raised in contemporary CO 2 concentrations. In contrast, contemporary larvae were deterred by lower salinity water, where CO 2 -treated fish showed no such response. Natural estuarine water-of higher temperature, lower salinity, and containing estuarine olfactory cues-was only preferred by fish treated under forecasted high CO 2 conditions. We show for the first time that attraction by larval fish towards physicochemical cues can be altered by ocean acidification. Such alterations to perception and evaluation of environmental cues during the critical process of dispersal can potentially have implications for ensuing recruitment and population replenishment. Our study not only shows that freshwater species that spend part of their life cycle in the ocean might also be affected by ocean acidification, but that behavioural responses towards key physicochemical cues can also be negated through elevated CO 2 from human emissions.

  19. Overview of the Nordic Seas CARINA data and salinity measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Water column data of carbon and carbon relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical parameters from 188 previously non-publicly available cruises in the Arctic, Atlantic, and Southern Ocean have been retrieved and merged into a new database: CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. The data have been subject to rigorous quality control (QC in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most of the parameters included were examined in order to quantify systematic biases in the reported values, i.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three merged files with measured, calculated and interpolated values for each of the three CARINA regions; the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (AMS, the Atlantic (ATL and the Southern Ocean (SO. With the adjustments the CARINA database is consistent both internally as well as with GLODAP (Key et al., 2004 and is suitable for accurate assessments of, for example, oceanic carbon inventories and uptake rates and for model validation. The Arctic Mediterranean Seas include the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, and the quality control was carried out separately in these two areas. This contribution provides an overview of the CARINA data from the Nordic Seas and summarises the findings of the QC of the salinity data. One cruise had salinity data that were of questionable quality, and these have been removed from the data product. An evaluation of the consistency of the quality controlled salinity data suggests that they are consistent to at least ±0.005.

  20. Development of a Coastal Drought Index Using Salinity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, P. A.; Darby, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The freshwater-saltwater interface in surface-water bodies along the coast is an important factor in the ecological and socio-economic dynamics of coastal communities. It influences community composition in freshwater and saltwater ecosystems, determines fisheries spawning habitat, and controls freshwater availability for municipal and industrial water intakes. These dynamics may be affected by coastal drought through changes in Vibrio bacteria impacts on shellfish harvesting and occurrence of wound infection, fish kills, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and beach closures. There are many definitions of drought, with most describing a decline in precipitation having negative impacts on water supply and agriculture. Four general types of drought are recognized: hydrological, agricultural, meteorological, and socio-economic. Indices have been developed for these drought types incorporating data such as rainfall, streamflow, soil moisture, groundwater levels, and snow pack. These indices were developed for upland areas and may not be appropriate for characterizing drought in coastal areas. Because of the uniqueness of drought impacts on coastal ecosystems, a need exists to develop a coastal drought index. The availability of real-time and historical salinity datasets provides an opportunity to develop a salinity-based coastal drought index. The challenge of characterizing salinity dynamics in response to drought is excluding responses attributable to occasional saltwater intrusion events. Our approach to develop a coastal drought index modified the Standardized Precipitation Index and applied it to sites in South Carolina and Georgia, USA. Coastal drought indices characterizing 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and12-month drought conditions were developed. Evaluation of the coastal drought index indicates that it can be used for different estuary types, for comparison between estuaries, and as an index for wet conditions (high freshwater inflow) in addition to drought conditions.

  1. Biodiversity impacts from salinity increase in a coastal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Maria José; Verones, Francesca; Raptis, Catherine; Juraske, Ronnie; Pfister, Stephan; Stoessel, Franziska; Antón, Assumpció; Castells, Francesc; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-06-18

    A Life Cycle Impact Assessment method was developed to evaluate the environmental impact associated with salinity on biodiversity in a Spanish coastal wetland. The developed characterization factor consists of a fate and an effect factor and equals 3.16 × 10(-1) ± 1.84 × 10(-1) PAF · m(3) · yr · m(-3) (PAF: Potentially Affected Fraction of species) indicating a "potential loss of 0.32 m(3) ecosystem" for a water consumption rate of 1 m(3) · yr(-1). As a result of groundwater consumption with a rate of 1 m(3) · yr(-1), the PAF in the lost cubic meter of ecosystem equals 0.05, which has been proposed as the maximum tolerable effect to keep the ecosystem intact. The fate factor was calculated from seasonal water balances of the wetland Albufera de Adra. The effect factor was obtained from the fitted curve of the potentially affected fraction of native wetland species due to salinity and can be applied to other wetlands with similar species composition. In order to test the applicability of the characterization factor, an assessment of water consumption of greenhouse crops in the area was conducted as a case study. Results converted into ecosystem quality damage using the ReCiPe method were compared to other categories. While tomatoes are responsible for up to 30% of the impact of increased salinity due to water consumption on ecosystem quality in the studied area, melons have the largest impact per tonne produced.

  2. Stability of biodegradable waterborne polyurethane films in buffered saline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying Yi; Hung, Kun-Che; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2015-09-21

    The stability of polyurethane (PU) is of critical importance for applications such as in coating industry or as biomaterials. To eliminate the environmental concerns on the synthesis of PU which involves the use of organic solvents, the aqueous-based or waterborne PU (WBPU) has been developed. WBPU, however, may be unstable in an electrolyte-rich environment. In this study, the authors reported the stability of biodegradable WBPU in the buffered saline solutions evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Various biodegradable WBPU films were prepared by spin coating on coverslip glass, with a thickness of ∼300 nm. The surface AFM images of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) diol-based WBPU revealed nanoglobular structure. The same feature was observed when 20% molar of the PCL diol soft segment was replaced by polyethylene butylenes adipate diol. After hydration in buffered saline solutions for 24 h, the surface domains generally increased in sizes and became irregular in shape. On the other hand, when the soft segment was replaced by 20% poly(l-lactide) diol, a meshlike surface structure was demonstrated by AFM. When the latter WBPU was hydrated, the surface domains appeared to be disconnected. Results from the attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the surface chemistry of WBPU films was altered after hydration. These changes were probably associated with the neutralization of carboxylate by ions in the saline solutions, resulting in the rearrangements of soft and hard segments and causing instability of the WBPU.

  3. Organic matter and salinity modify cadmium soil (phyto)availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Lana; Romić, Marija; Romić, Davor; Filipović, Vilim; Ondrašek, Gabrijel

    2018-01-01

    Although Cd availability depends on its total concentration in soil, it is ultimately defined by the processes which control its mobility, transformations and soil solution speciation. Cd mobility between different soil fractions can be significantly affected by certain pedovariables such as soil organic matter (SOM; over formation of metal-organic complexes) and/or soil salinity (over formation of metal-inorganic complexes). Phytoavailable Cd fraction may be described as the proportion of the available Cd in soil which is actually accessible by roots and available for plant uptake. Therefore, in a greenhouse pot experiment Cd availability was observed in the rhizosphere of faba bean exposed to different levels of SOM, NaCl salinity (50 and 100mM) and Cd contamination (5 and 10mgkg -1 ). Cd availability in soil does not linearly follow its total concentration. Still, increasing soil Cd concentration may lead to increased Cd phytoavailability if the proportion of Cd 2+ pool in soil solution is enhanced. Reduced Cd (phyto)availability by raised SOM was found, along with increased proportion of Cd-DOC complexes in soil solution. Data suggest decreased Cd soil (phyto)availability with the application of salts. NaCl salinity affected Cd speciation in soil solution by promoting the formation of CdCl n 2-n complexes. Results possibly suggest that increased Cd mobility in soil does not result in its increased availability if soil adsorption capacity for Cd has not been exceeded. Accordingly, chloro-complex possibly operated just as a Cd carrier between different soil fractions and resulted only in transfer between solid phases and not in increased (phyto)availability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemolymph chemistry and histopathological changes in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in response to low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Graeme; Handlinger, Judith; Jones, Brian; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie

    2014-09-01

    This study described seasonal differences in the histopathological and hemolymph chemistry changes in different family lines of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in response to the stress of an abrupt change to low salinity, and mechanical grading. The most significant changes in pallial cavity salinity, hemolymph chemistry and histopathological findings occurred in summer at low salinity. In summer (water temperature 18°C) at low salinity, 9 (25.7% of full salinity), the mean pallial cavity salinity in oysters at day 3 was 19.8±1.6 (SE) and day 10 was 22.8±1.6 (SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. Associated with this fall in pallial cavity salinity, mean hemolymph sodium for oysters at salinity 9 on day 3 and 10 were 297.2mmol/L±20(SE) and 350.4mmol/L±21.3(SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. Similarly mean hemolymph potassium in oysters held at salinity 9 at day 3 and 10 were 5.6mmol/L±0.6(SE) and 7.9mmol/L±0.6 (SE) lower than oysters at salinity 35. These oysters at low salinity had expanded intercellular spaces and significant intracytoplasmic vacuolation distending the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in the alimentary tract and kidney and hemocyte infiltrate (diapedesis) within the alimentary tract wall. In contrast, in winter (water temperature 8°C) oyster mean pallial cavity salinity only fell at day 10 and this was by 6.0±0.6 (SE) compared to that of oysters at salinity 35. There were limited histopathological changes (expanded intercellular spaces and moderate intracytoplasmic vacuolation of renal epithelial cells) in these oysters at day 10 in low salinity. Mechanical grading and family line did not influence the oyster response to sudden low salinity. These findings provide additional information for interpretation of non-lethal, histopathological changes associated with temperature and salinity variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Groundwater Salinity Simulation of a Subsurface Reservoir in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, H. T.

    2015-12-01

    The subsurface reservoir is located in Chi-Ken Basin, Pescadores (a group islands located at western part of Taiwan). There is no river in these remote islands and thus the freshwater supply is relied on the subsurface reservoir. The basin area of the subsurface reservoir is 2.14 km2 , discharge of groundwater is 1.27×106m3 , annual planning water supplies is 7.9×105m3 , which include for domestic agricultural usage. The annual average temperature is 23.3oC, average moisture is 80~85%, annual average rainfall is 913 mm, but ET rate is 1975mm. As there is no single river in the basin; the major recharge of groundwater is by infiltration. Chi-Ken reservoir is the first subsurface reservoir in Taiwan. Originally, the water quality of the reservoir is good. The reservoir has had the salinity problem since 1991 and it became more and more serious from 1992 until 1994. Possible reason of the salinity problem was the shortage of rainfall or the leakage of the subsurface barrier which caused the seawater intrusion. The present study aimed to determine the leakage position of subsurface barrier that caused the salinity problem. In order to perform the simulation for different possible leakage position of the subsurface reservoir, a Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) is used to define soils layer data, hydro-geological parameters, initial conditions, boundary conditions and the generation of three dimension meshes. A three dimension FEMWATER(Yeh , 1996) numerical model was adopted to find the possible leakage position of the subsurface barrier and location of seawater intrusion by comparing the simulation of different possible leakage with the observations. 1.By assuming the leakage position in the bottom of barrier, the simulated numerical result matched the observation better than the other assumed leakage positions. It showed that the most possible leakage position was at the bottom of the barrier. 2.The research applied three dimension FEMWATER and GMS as an interface

  6. Preparing for SMOS: Sea Salinity Campaigns and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2006-01-01

    Mapping of sea surface salinity, based on L-band radiometric measurements, is presently investigated as a preparation for space missions. Special concern is on correction for effects caused by the sea surface roughness, and this paper will address two campaigns, LOSAC and CoSMOS, with the aim...... of investigating these effects. Conclusions from LOSAC are presented, and open issues to be investigated during the presently ongoing CoSMOS campaign are outlined. Finally, the installation and campaign plan for CoSMOS are presented....

  7. Monthly Sea Surface Salinity and Freshwater Flux Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Xie, P.; Wu, S.

    2017-12-01

    Taking advantages of the complementary nature of the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) measurements from the in-situ (CTDs, shipboard, Argo floats, etc.) and satellite retrievals from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), the Aquarius of a joint venture between US and Argentina, and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) of national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a technique is developed at NOAA/NCEP/CPC to construct an analysis of monthly SSS, called the NOAA Blended Analysis of Sea-Surface Salinity (BASS). The algorithm is a two-steps approach, i.e. to remove the bias in the satellite data through Probability Density Function (PDF) matching against co-located in situ measurements; and then to combine the bias-corrected satellite data with the in situ measurements through the Optimal Interpolation (OI) method. The BASS SSS product is on a 1° by 1° grid over the global ocean for a 7-year period from 2010. Combined with the NOAA/NCEP/CPC CMORPH satellite precipitation (P) estimates and the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) evaporation (E) fields, a suite of monthly package of the SSS and oceanic freshwater flux (E and P) was developed to monitor the global oceanic water cycle and SSS on a monthly basis. The SSS in BASS product is a suite of long-term SSS and fresh water flux data sets with temporal homogeneity and inter-component consistency better suited for the examination of the long-term changes and monitoring. It presents complete spatial coverage and improved resolution and accuracy, which facilitates the diagnostic analysis of the relationship and co-variability among SSS, freshwater flux, mixed layer processes, oceanic circulation, and assimilation of SSS into global models. At the AGU meeting, we will provide more details on the CPC salinity and fresh water flux data package and its applications in the monitoring and analysis of SSS variations in association with the ENSO and other major climate

  8. Measurement of ocean temperature and salinity via microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Kendall, B. M.; Fedors, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Sea-surface temperature with an accuracy of 1 C and salinity with an accuracy of 1% were measured with a 1.43 and 2.65 GHz radiometer system after correcting for the influence of cosmic radiation, intervening atmosphere, sea-surface roughness, and antenna beamwidth. The radiometers are a third-generation system using null-balancing and feedback noise injection. Flight measurements from aircraft over bay regions and coastal areas of the Atlantic resulted in contour maps with spatial resolution of 0.5 km.

  9. Measurement of flowing water salinity within or behind wellbore casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Water flowing within or behind a wellbore casing is irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons from a source in a downhole sonde. Gamma radiation from the isotope nitrogen-16 induced from the O 16 (n,p)N 16 reaction and the products of either the Na 23 (n,α)F 20 or the Cl 37 (n,α)P 34 reactions is measured in intensity and energy with detectors in the sonde. From the gamma radiation measurements, the relative presence of oxygen to at least one of sodium or chlorine in the water is measured, and from the measurement the salinity of the water is to be determined. (author)

  10. Denitrifying sulfide removal process on high-salinity wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunshuang; Zhao, Chaocheng; Wang, Aijie; Guo, Yadong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-08-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide, and acetate into nitrogen gas, elemental sulfur (S(0)), and carbon dioxide, respectively. Sulfide- and nitrate-laden wastewaters at 2-35 g/L NaCl were treated by DSR process. A C/N ratio of 3:1 was proposed to maintain high S(0) conversion rate. The granular sludge with a compact structure and smooth outer surface was formed. The microbial communities of DSR consortium via high-throughput sequencing method suggested that salinity shifts the predominating heterotrophic denitrifiers at 10 g/L NaCl.

  11. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  12. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Lavandula angustifolia to Salinity Under Mineral Foliar Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Michailidi, Evgenia; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2018-01-01

    Saline water has been proposed as a solution to partially cover plant water demands due to scarcity of irrigation water in hot arid areas. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) plants were grown hydroponically under salinity (0–25–50–100 mM NaCl). The overcome of salinity stress was examined by K, Zn, and Si foliar application for the plant physiological and biochemical characteristics. The present study indicated that high (100 mM NaCl) salinity decreased plant growth, content of phenolics and antioxidant status and essential oil (EO) yield, while low-moderate salinity levels maintained the volatile oil profile in lavender. The integrated foliar application of K and Zn lighten the presumable detrimental effects of salinity in terms of fresh biomass, antioxidant capacity, and EO yield. Moderate salinity stress along with balanced concentration of K though foliar application changed the primary metabolites pathways in favor of major volatile oil constituents biosynthesis and therefore lavender plant has the potential for cultivation under prevalent semi-saline conditions. Zn and Si application, had lesser effects on the content of EO constituents, even though altered salinity induced changings. Our results have demonstrated that lavender growth/development and EO production may be affected by saline levels, whereas mechanisms for alteration of induced stress are of great significance considering the importance of the oil composition, as well. PMID:29731759

  13. Evaluation of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Genotypes for Their Trait Associations under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bashiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sugar-beet genotypes for their trait associations, two separate RCBD experiments with three replications were conducted both under non-saline (normal and saline conditions at the Agricultural Research of Miandoab. Analysis of variance of the data collected showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all traits studied under non-saline condition. But, differences of genotypes under saline condition were significant only for root yield, root potassium content, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Salinity stress, in this study, reduced root potassium content, root yield, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Mean comparisons of genotypes indicated that root yield of all genotypes, under non-saline condition, were higher than those of under saline one. As whole, genotypes number 1 and 2 produced higher root yields, impure and pure sugar yields respectively, under both saline and non-saline conditions. Based on the results obtained it was revealed that regression coefficients for the traits under study were significant. Step-wise regression and path coefficient analyses also indicated that traits like root yield, pure sugar and root nitrogen contents highly affected white sugar yield under non-saline conditions.

  14. Response of stream invertebrates to short-term salinization: A mesocosm approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Grantham, Theodore E.; Perrée, Isabelle; Rieradevall, Maria; Céspedes-Sánchez, Raquel; Prat, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    Salinization is a major and growing threat to freshwater ecosystems, yet its effects on aquatic invertebrates have been poorly described at a community-level. Here we use a controlled experimental setting to evaluate short-term stream community responses to salinization, under conditions designed to replicate the duration (72 h) and intensity (up to 5 mS cm −1 ) of salinity pulses common to Mediterranean rivers subjected to mining pollution during runoff events. There was a significant overall effect, but differences between individual treatments and the control were only significant for the highest salinity treatment. The community response to salinization was characterized by a decline in total invertebrate density, taxon richness and diversity, an increase in invertebrate drift and loss of the most sensitive taxa. The findings indicate that short-term salinity increases have a significant impact on the stream invertebrate community, but concentrations of 5 mS cm −1 are needed to produce a significant ecological response. - Highlights: ► Short-term salinization has a significant impact on the aquatic invertebrates. ► A significant short-term ecological response is registered at 5 mS cm −1 . ► Salinization causes a decline in invertebrate density, richness and diversity. ► Biotic quality indices decline with increasing salinity and exposure time. - Short-term salinization in a stream mesocosm caused a significant response in the aquatic invertebrate community and led to declines in biological quality indices.

  15. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20...... of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity......The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...

  16. Saline as the Sole Contrast Agent for Successful MRI-guided Epidural Injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deli, Martin; Fritz, Jan; Mateiescu, Serban; Busch, Martin; Carrino, John A.; Becker, Jan; Garmer, Marietta; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the performance of sterile saline solution as the sole contrast agent for percutaneous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided epidural injections at 1.5 T. Methods. A retrospective analysis of two different techniques of MRI-guided epidural injections was performed with either gadolinium-enhanced saline solution or sterile saline solution for documentation of the epidural location of the needle tip. T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FLASH) images or T2-weighted single-shot turbo spin echo (HASTE) images visualized the test injectants. Methods were compared by technical success rate, image quality, table time, and rate of complications. Results. 105 MRI-guided epidural injections (12 of 105 with gadolinium-enhanced saline solution and 93 of 105 with sterile saline solution) were performed successfully and without complications. Visualization of sterile saline solution and gadolinium-enhanced saline solution was sufficient, good, or excellent in all 105 interventions. For either test injectant, quantitative image analysis demonstrated comparable high contrast-to-noise ratios of test injectants to adjacent body substances with reliable statistical significance levels (p < 0.001). The mean table time was 22 ± 9 min in the gadolinium-enhanced saline solution group and 22 ± 8 min in the saline solution group (p = 0.75). Conclusion. Sterile saline is suitable as the sole contrast agent for successful and safe percutaneous MRI-guided epidural drug delivery at 1.5 T.

  17. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Takahashi

    Full Text Available Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  18. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  19. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Soil Moisture and Salinity in the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salinization and secondary salinization often appear after irrigation with saline water. The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt has been irrigated with saline ground water for more than ten years; however, soil salinity in the shelterbelt has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture and salinity in the shelterbelt system. Using a non-uniform grid method, soil samples were collected every two days during one ten-day irrigation cycle in July 2014 and one day in spring, summer, and autumn. The results indicated that soil moisture declined linearly with time during the irrigation cycle. Soil moisture was greatest in the southern and eastern sections of the study area. In contrast to soil moisture, soil electrical conductivity increased from 2 to 6 days after irrigation, and then gradually decreased from 6 to 8 days after irrigation. Soil moisture was the greatest in spring and the least in summer. In contrast, soil salinity increased from spring to autumn. Long time drip-irrigation with saline groundwater increased soil salinity slightly. The soil salt content was closely associated with soil texture. The current soil salt content did not affect plant growth, however, the soil in the shelterbelt should be continuously monitored to prevent salinization in the future.

  20. Quantifying salinity and season effects on eastern oyster clearance and oxygen consumption rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, S.M.; Lavaud, Romain; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Comeau, L. A.; Filgueira, R.; LaPeyre, Jerome F.

    2018-01-01

    There are few data on Crassostrea virginica physiological rates across the range of salinities and temperatures to which they are regularly exposed, and this limits the applicability of growth and production models using these data. The objectives of this study were to quantify, in winter (17 °C) and summer (27 °C), the clearance and oxygen consumption rates of C. virginica from Louisiana across a range of salinities typical of the region (3, 6, 9, 15 and 25). Salinity and season (temperature and reproduction) affected C. virginica physiology differently; salinity impacted clearance rates with reduced feeding rates at low salinities, while season had a strong effect on respiration rates. Highest clearance rates were found at salinities of 9–25, with reductions ranging from 50 to 80 and 90 to 95% at salinities of 6 and 3, respectively. Oxygen consumption rates in summer were four times higher than in winter. Oxygen consumption rates were within a narrow range and similar among salinities in winter, but varied greatly among individuals and salinities in summer. This likely reflected varying stages of gonad development. Valve movements measured at the five salinities indicated oysters were open 50–60% of the time in the 6–25 salinity range and ~ 30% at a salinity of 3. Reduced opening periods, concomitant with narrower valve gap amplitudes, are in accord with the limited feeding at the lowest salinity (3). These data indicate the need for increased focus on experimental determination of optimal ranges and thresholds to better quantify oyster population responses to environmental changes.

  1. Characterization of soil salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qifei; Xi, Min; Wang, Qinggai; Kong, Fanlong; Li, Yue

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the characteristics of soil salinization and the effects of main land use/land cover and other factors in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay are investigated. Soil samples were collected in the parallel coastal zone, vertical coastal zone and longitudinal profile depth in the area to determine the soil salt content. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis are used to address the general characteristics of soil salinization in the study area. In the horizontal direction, there are moderate salinization, severe salinization and saline soil state. The farther from the sea (within 1.1 km), the lower the soil salinization degree. In the direction of longitudinal profile depth, there are severe salinization and saline soil state, and the soil salt content is accumulated in the surface and bottom. The Na+ and Cl- are the dominant cation and anion, respectively, the distributions of which are consistent with that of salt content. All the salinization indexes, except for soil pH, are of moderate/strong variability. The invasion of Spartina alterniflora results in the increase of soil salt content and salinization degree, the effects of which are mainly determined by the physiological characteristics and the growth years. The degree of soil salinization increased significantly in the aquaculture ponds, which is mainly caused by the use of chemicals. The correlation between soil salt content and Na+, Cl- is particularly significant. From the results of principal component analysis, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- could be used as main diagnostic factors for salinization in typical estuarine area of the Jiaozhou Bay. The effects of NaCl and sulfate on salt content further affect the degree of salinization in the estuarine area.

  2. Towards a theory of ecotone resilience: coastal vegetation on a salinity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; Gao, Daozhou; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2012-08-01

    Ecotones represent locations where vegetation change is likely to occur as a result of climate and other environmental changes. Using a model of an ecotone vulnerable to such future changes, we estimated the resilience of the ecotone to disturbances. The specific ecotone is that between two different vegetation types, salinity-tolerant and salinity-intolerant, along a gradient in groundwater salinity. In the case studied, each vegetation type, through soil feedback loops, promoted local soil salinity levels that favor itself in competition with the other type. Bifurcation analysis was used to study the system of equations for the two vegetation types and soil salinity. Alternative stable equilibria, one for salinity-tolerant and one for salinity intolerant vegetation, were shown to exist over a region of the groundwater salinity gradient, bounded by two bifurcation points. This region was shown to depend sensitively on parameters such as the rate of upward infiltration of salinity from groundwater into the soil due to evaporation. We showed also that increasing diffusion rates of vegetation can lead to shrinkage of the range between the two bifurcation points. Sharp ecotones are typical of salt-tolerant vegetation (mangroves) near the coastline and salt-intolerant vegetation inland, even though the underlying elevation and groundwater salinity change very gradually. A disturbance such as an input of salinity to the soil from a storm surge could upset this stable boundary, leading to a regime shift of salinity-tolerant vegetation inland. We showed, however, that, for our model as least, a simple pulse disturbance would not be sufficient; the salinity would have to be held at a high level, as a 'press', for some time. The approach used here should be generalizable to study the resilience of a variety of ecotones to disturbances. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Claremount Nursing Home, Claremount, Claremorris, Mayo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  4. Adare and District Nursing Home, Croagh, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  5. Morphophysiology of guava under saline water irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idelfonso L. Bezerra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth of grafted guava cv. ‘Paluma’ subjected to different concentrations of salts in irrigation water and nitrogen (N fertilization. The plants were transplanted to 150 L lysimeters and under field conditions at the Science and Agri-food Technology Center of the Federal University of Campina Grande, in the municipality of Pombal - PB. The experiment was conducted in randomized block design in a 5 x 4 factorial scheme, with three replicates, and the treatments corresponded to five levels of electrical conductivity of irrigation water - ECw (0.3; 1.1; 1.9; 2.7 and 3.5 dS m-1 and four N doses (70, 100, 130 and 160% of the N dose recommended for the crop. The doses equivalent to 100% corresponded to 541.1 mg of N dm-3 of soil. Irrigation water salinity above 0.3 dS m-1 negatively affects the number of leaves, leaf area, stem diameter, dry phytomass of leaves, branches and shoots . A significant interaction between irrigation water salinity and N fertilization was observed only for the number of leaves and leaf area at 120 days after transplanting. N dose above 70% of the recommendation (378.7 mg N dm-3 soil did not mitigate the deleterious effects caused by salt stress on plant growth.

  6. In vitro deflation of prefilled saline breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, W Grant; Hirsch, Elliot M; Stoker, David A; Cohen, Robert

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not prefilled breast implants retain their volume in packaging. This study examined 32 Poly Implant Prosthesis prefilled textured saline breast implants. All of these implants were within the manufacturer's expiration date at the time of weighing. No holes were visible on any of the implants. All were weighed on an electronic scale. The measured weight was compared with the expected weight (based on the implant size as specified by the manufacturer) and the percentage deflation was calculated. The manufacturer declined to provide specific information about the manufacture dates of the implants; thus, relative age (rather than absolute age) was examined with respect to percentage deflation. Of the 32 implants examined, all showed some degree of deflation (range, 8.84 to 57.14 percent; 95 percent confidence interval of the mean, 22.01 +/- 4.17 percent). There was a moderate correlation (r = 0.41) between relative age of the implant and percentage deflation. From these results, it is clear that this type of prefilled saline breast implant does not maintain its volume in vitro. If these implants are used, the underfilling could contribute to a higher deflation rate and cosmetic deformity. This risk should be taken into account by plastic surgeons who use this type of implant in breast augmentation procedures.

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS OF SALINITY TOLERANCE IN PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa YILDIZ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress limits plant productivity in arid and semi arid regions. Salt stress causes decrease in plant growth by adversely affecting physiological processes, especially photosynthesis. Salinity tolerance is defined as the ability of plant to maintain normal rowth and development under salt conditions. Salt stress results in accumulation of low molecular weight compounds, termed compatible solutes, which do not interfere with the normal biochemical reactions. These compatible solutes such as carbohydrates, polyols, amino acids and amides, quaternary ammonium compounds, polyamines andsoluble proteins may play a crucial role in osmotic adjustment, protection of macromolecules, maintenance of cellular pH and detoxification of free radicals. On the other hand, plants subjected to environmental stresses such as salinity produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and these ROS are efficiently eliminated by antioxidant enzyme systems. In plant breeding studies, the use of some physiological and biochemical markers for improving the salt tolerance in plants is crucial. In this review, the possibility of using some physiological and biochemical markers as selection criteria for salt tolerance is discussed.

  8. Coastal microbial mat diversity along a natural salinity gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Bolhuis

    Full Text Available The North Sea coast of the Dutch barrier island of Schiermonnikoog is covered by microbial mats that initiate a succession of plant communities that eventually results in the development of a densely vegetated salt marsh. The North Sea beach has a natural elevation running from the low water mark to the dunes resulting in gradients of environmental factors perpendicular to the beach. These gradients are due to the input of seawater at the low water mark and of freshwater from upwelling groundwater at the dunes and rainfall. The result is a natural and dynamic salinity gradient depending on the tide, rainfall and wind. We studied the microbial community composition in thirty three samples taken every ten meters along this natural salinity gradient by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of rRNA gene fragments. We looked at representatives from each Domain of life (Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya and with a particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria. Analysis of the DGGE fingerprints together with pigment composition revealed three distinct microbial mat communities, a marine community dominated by diatoms as primary producers, an intermediate brackish community dominated by Cyanobacteria as primary producers and a freshwater community with Cyanobacteria and freshwater green algae.

  9. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  10. Bacteriophage Infectivity Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Saline Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Scarascia, Giantommaso

    2018-05-02

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous member of marine biofilm, and reduces thiosulfate to produce toxic hydrogen sulfide gas. In this study, lytic bacteriophages were isolated and applied to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa in planktonic mode at different temperature, pH, and salinity. Bacteriophages showed optimal infectivity at a multiplicity of infection of 10 in saline conditions, and demonstrated lytic abilities over all tested temperature (25, 30, 37, and 45°C) and pH 6–9. Planktonic P. aeruginosa exhibited significantly longer lag phase and lower specific growth rates upon exposure to bacteriophages. Bacteriophages were subsequently applied to P. aeruginosa-enriched biofilm and were determined to lower the relative abundance of Pseudomonas-related taxa from 0.17 to 5.58% in controls to 0.01–0.61% in treated microbial communities. The relative abundance of Alphaproteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas, and Planococcaceae decreased, possibly due to the phage-induced disruption of the biofilm matrix. Lastly, when applied to mitigate biofouling of ultrafiltration membranes, bacteriophages were determined to reduce the transmembrane pressure increase by 18% when utilized alone, and by 49% when used in combination with citric acid. The combined treatment was more effective compared with the citric acid treatment alone, which reported ca. 30% transmembrane pressure reduction. Collectively, the findings demonstrated that bacteriophages can be used as a biocidal agent to mitigate undesirable P. aeruginosa-associated problems in seawater applications.

  11. Anomalous pH-Dependent Nanofluidic Salinity Gradient Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Li-Hsien; Chen, Fu; Chiou, Yu-Ting; Su, Yen-Shao

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies on nanofluidic salinity gradient power (NSGP), where energy associated with the salinity gradient can be harvested with ion-selective nanopores, all suggest that nanofluidic devices having higher surface charge density should have higher performance, including osmotic power and conversion efficiency. In this manuscript, this viewpoint is challenged and anomalous counterintuitive pH-dependent NSGP behaviors are reported. For example, with equal pH deviation from its isoelectric point (IEP), the nanopore at pH IEP is shown to have smaller surface charge density but remarkably higher NSGP performance than that at pH > IEP. Moreover, for sufficiently low pH, the NSGP performance decreases with lowering pH (increasing nanopore charge density). As a result, a maximum osmotic power density as high as 5.85 kW m -2 can be generated along with a conversion efficiency of 26.3% achieved for a single alumina nanopore at pH 3.5 under a 1000-fold concentration ratio. Using the rigorous model with considering the surface equilibrium reactions on the pore wall, it is proved that these counterintuitive surface-charge-dependent NSGP behaviors result from the pH-dependent ion concentration polarization effect, which yields the degradation in effective concentration ratio across the nanopore. These findings provide significant insight for the design of next-generation, high-performance NSGP devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Growth and ionic content of quinoa under saline irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Pulvento, C.; Lavini, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants. An irriga......Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants...... incorporated salt ions in the tissues (stems, roots, leaves) preserving seed quality. Treatment with a reduction in the irrigation water to 25 % of full irrigated treatment (Q25) caused an increase in WP and a reduced dry matter accumulation in the leaves. Quinoa plants (Q25) were initially negatively affected...... by severe drought with RGR and NAR reduction, and then, they adapted to it. Quinoa could be considered a drought tolerant crop that adapt photosynthetic rate to compensate for a reduced growth....

  13. Plasma membrane and salinity tolerance of barley plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Rahmani, F. H.; Al-Mashhadani, M. S.; Al-Delemee, N. H.

    1997-01-01

    Barley cultivar, California Mario ut, was grown in a nutrient solution containing increasing Nacl concentrations up to 250 mm. The effect of Nacl on growth, mineral compost ion ant integrity of the plasma membrane was studied. Growth of the shoot'and root was stimulated or little affected by 10 and 20 ml Nacl. Further increase in Nacl concentrations depressed the growth. The depression was conspicuous between 100 and 250 mm Nacl. Increasing Nacl concentration decreased potassium content in the shoots and roots and led to steep increase in sodium accumulation. The integrity of the plasma membrane was measured in term of potassium leakage from the root tips. Rapid leakage of potassium was obtained at Nacl concentrations ranging from 100 to 250 mm. At the same concentrations of Nacl, adenosine triphosphatase activity in the root tips was increased. Results indicate that the plasma membrane of root cells was damaged by the increased levels of salinity. It was concluded that the plasma membrane of root cells is the primary site of salinity toxicity. (authors). 40 refs., 5 tabs. 3 figs

  14. An Electrochemistry Study of Cryoelectrolysis in Frozen Physiological Saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Thomas J; Munnangi, Pujita; Rubinsky, Boris

    2017-07-01

    Cryoelectrolysis is a new minimally invasive tissue ablation surgical technique that combines the processes of electrolysis and solid/liquid phase transformation (freezing). This study investigated this new technique by measuring the pH front propagation and the changes in resistance in a tissue simulant made of physiological saline gel with a pH dye as a function of the sample temperature in the high subzero range above the eutectic. Results demonstrated that effective electrolysis can occur in a high subzero freezing milieu and that the propagation of the pH front is only weakly dependent on temperature. These observations are consistent with a mechanism involving ionic movement through the concentrated saline solution channels between ice crystals at subfreezing temperatures above the eutectic. Moreover, results suggest that Joule heating in these microchannels may cause local microscopic melting, the observed weak dependence of pH front propagation on temperature, and the large changes in resistance with time. A final insight provided by the results is that the pH front propagation from the anode is more rapid than from the cathode, a feature indicative of the electro-osmotic flow from the cathode to the anode. The findings in this paper may be critical for designing future cryoelectrolytic ablation surgery protocols.

  15. Using Modified Remote Sensing Imagery to Interpret Changes in Cultivated Land under Saline-Alkali Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rapidly changing saline-alkali land under cultivation in the coastal areas of China is important not only for mitigating the negative impacts of such land on the environment, but also for ensuring long-term sustainability of agriculture. In this light, setting up rapid monitoring systems to assist decision-making in developing sustainable management plans is therefore an absolute necessity. In this study, we developed a new interpretation system where symbols are used to grade and classify saline-alkali lands in space and time, based on the characteristics of plant cover and features of remote sensing images. The system was used in combination with the maximum likelihood supervised classification to analyze the changes in cultivated lands under saline-alkali conditions in Huanghua City. The analysis revealed changes in the area and spatial distribution of cultivated under saline-alkali conditions in the region. The total area of saline-alkali land was 139,588.8 ha in 1992 and 134,477.5 ha in 2011. Compared with 1992, severely and moderately saline-alkali land areas decreased in 2011. However, non/slightly saline land areas increased over that in 1992. The results showed that the salinization rate of arable lands in Huanghua City decreased from 1992 to 2011. The moderately saline-alkali land southeast of the city transformed into non/slightly saline-alkaline. Then, severely saline-alkali land far from the coastal zone west of the city became moderately saline-alkaline. Spatial changes in cultivated saline-alkali lands in Huanghua City were such that the centers of gravity (CG of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in cultivated lands in the saline-alkali ecosystem included climate, hydrology and human activity. Thus, studies are required to further explore these factors in

  16. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritioff, A. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: fritioff@botan.su.se; Kautsky, L. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Greger, M. [Department of Botany, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at 5, 11, and 20 deg. C in combination with salinities of 0, 0.5, and 5%o. The metal concentrations in the plant tissue increased with increasing temperature in both species; the exception was the concentration of Pb in Elodea, which increased with decreasing salinity. Metal concentrations at high temperature or low salinity were up to twice those found at low temperature or high salinity. Plant biomass affected the metal uptake, with low biomass plants having higher metal concentrations than did high biomass plants. - Metal concentrations increase with increasing temperature and decreasing salinity in two aquatic plants.

  17. Salinity and pH effects on floating and emergent macrophytes in a constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, H R; Mufarrege, M M; Di Luca, G A; Maine, M A

    2017-04-01

    Salvinia herzogii, Pistia stratiotes and Eichhornia crassipes (floating species) were the dominant macrophytes in a constructed wetland (CW) over the first years of operation. Later, the emergent Typha domingensis displaced the floating species, becoming dominant. The industrial effluent treated at this CW showed high pH and salinity. The aim of this work was to study the tolerance of floating species and T. domingensis exposed to different pH and salinity treatments. Treatments at pH 8, 9, 10 and 11 and salinities of 2,000; 3,000; 4,000; 6,000; and 8,000 mg L -1 were performed. Floating macrophytes were unable to tolerate the studied pH and salinity ranges, while T. domingensis tolerated higher pH and salinity values. Many industrial effluents commonly show high pH and salinity. T. domingensis demonstrated to be a suitable macrophyte to treat this type of effluents.

  18. Stennis Space Center Salinity Drifter Project. A Collaborative Project with Hancock High School, Kiln, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcic, Maria; Turowski, Mark; Hall, Callie

    2010-01-01

    Presentation topics include: importance of salinity of coastal waters, habitat switching algorithm, habitat switching module, salinity estimates from Landsat for Sabine Calcasieu Basin, percent of time inundated in 2006, salinity data, prototyping the system, system as packaged for field tests, salinity probe and casing, opening for water flow, cellular antenna used to transmit data, preparing to launch, system is launched in the Pearl River at Stennis Space Center, data are transmitted to Twitter by cell phone modem every 15 minutes, Google spreadsheet I used to import the data from the Twitter feed and to compute salinity (from conductivity) and display charts of salinity and temperature, results are uploaded to NASA's Applied Science and Technology Project Office Webpage.

  19. The Effects of Varying Salinity on Ammonium Exchange in Estuarine Sediments of the Parker River, Massachusetts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weston, Nathaniel B.; Giblin, Anne E; Banta, Gary Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We examined the effects of seasonal salinity changes on sediment ammonium (NH4+) adsorption and exchange across the sediment–water interface in the Parker River Estuary, by means of seasonal field sampling, laboratory adsorption experiments, and modeling. The fraction of dissolvedNH4+relative...... to adsorbedNH4+in oligohaline sediments rose significantly with increased pore water salinity over the season. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that small (∼3) increases in salinity from freshwater conditions had the greatest effect onNH4+adsorption by reducing the exchangeable pool from 69% to 14......% of the totalNH4+in the upper estuary sediments that experience large (0–20) seasonal salinity shifts.NH4+dynamics did not appear to be significantly affected bysalinity in sediments of the lower estuary where salinities under 10 were not measured. We further assessed the importance of salinity...

  20. Improving Tolerance of Faba Bean during Early Growth Stages to Salinity through Micronutrients Foliar Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL FOULY

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity, either of soil or of irrigation water, causes disturbances in plant growth and nutrient balance. Previous work indicates that applying nutrients by foliar application increases tolerance to salinity. A pot experiment with three replicates was carried out in the green house of NRC, Cairo, Egypt, to study the effect of micronutrients foliar application on salt tolerance of faba bean. Two concentrations of a micronutrient compound (0.1% and 0.15% were sprayed in two different treatments prior to or after the salinity treatments. Levels of NaCl (0.00-1000-2000-5000 ppm were supplied to irrigation water. Results indicated that 2000 and 5000 ppm NaCl inhibited growth and nutrient uptake. Spraying micronutrients could restore the negative effect of salinity on dry weight and nutrients uptake, when sprayed either before or after the salinity treatments. It is suggested that micronutrient foliar sprays could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity.