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Sample records for hypertonic saline infusion

  1. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  2. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Bendtzen, Klaus; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    with the other groups (Peffect on the postoperative concentration of selected plasma cytokines and the hormonal stress......BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...

  3. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl) causes minor immunological changes in normovolaemic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Aage Kølsen; Nielsen, J O D; Bendtzen, K

    2004-01-01

    Haemorrhagic shock is treated effectively by infusion of hypertonic saline/colloid solutions. Furthermore, previous studies found hypertonicity to affect immune responses in animals and in human blood cell cultures. It is unknown, however, whether hypertonic saline infusion affects immune responses...

  4. Hypertonic saline solution and high-dose furosemide infusion in cardiorenal syndrome: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ventrella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heart failure is frequently complicated by renal failure, and this association is a negative prognostic factor. These patients sometimes present oligo-/anuria and resistance to high-dose furosemide, a condition referred to as the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS. Acute or chronic reductions in left ventricular function result in decreased blood flow, with reduction of renal perfusion and activation of several neurohormonal systems, which cause resistance to diuretic therapy. This condition often requires ultrafiltration, which is an effective, but invasive and expensive procedure. Infusions of hypertonic saline solution (HSS and high-dose furosemide can be an effective alternative. Materials and methods From November 2009 through May 2010, our team treated 20 patients with CRS and resistance to iv boluses of high-dose furosemide. These patients were treated with small-volume (150-250 mL infusions of HSS (NaCl 1.57 – 4.5%, depending on serum Na values and high-dose furosemide twice a day. The aim of this treatment is to modify renal hemodynamics and the water-saline balance in the kidney by counteracting the extracellular fluid accumulation and eliminating symptoms of congestion. Results In 18 patients (90%, urine output was restored and renal function improved during the first hours of treatment. Clinical improvement was evident from the first day of therapy, and there were no adverse events. Two patients (10% did not respond to the treatment: one (who had been in critical condition since admission died; the other required regular sessions of ultrafiltration. Conclusions HSS combined with high-dose furosemide is a safe, effective, low-cost approach to the treatment of CRS that is resistant to diuretic therapy.

  5. Changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics, by an infusion of the serotonin receptor type 3 antagonist granisetron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ioannidou, Kiriaki; Milosevic, Milena; Segerdahl, Märta; Ernberg, Malin

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether granisetron reduces masseter muscle pain and allodynia induced by hypertonic saline. Fifteen healthy women and 15 age-matched healthy men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. They first received bilateral injections of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscles (internal control). The evoked pain intensity and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) were recorded during 30 minutes. Granisetron was then injected on one side and placebo (normal saline) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter, the hypertonic saline injections were repeated. Pain and PPT were again recorded. The first injection of hypertonic saline induced pain of similar intensity, duration, and pain area on both sides, but with larger pain area in the women (P = .017). The PPT did not change significantly. The second injection of hypertonic saline induced considerably less pain (62.5%), of shorter duration (44.1%), and of smaller area (77.4%) on the side pretreated with granisetron (P = .005). The PPT was increased on the granisetron side in the men (P = .002). The results of this study show that local injection of a single dose of granisetron attenuates masseter muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline. This article presents the changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics by infusion of granisetron. It appears that the pain-inducing effect in this experimental pain model is partly due to activation of 5-HT3-receptors. Hence, the results indicate that granisetron might offer a new treatment approach for localized myofascial pain.

  6. Production of consistent pain by intermittent infusion of sterile 5% hypertonic saline, followed by decrease of pain with cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Blaine C; Knight, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Ty; Parcell, Allen C; Feland, J Brent

    2012-08-01

    It is suggested that postinjury pain is difficult to examine; thus, investigators have developed experimental pain models. To minimize pain, cryotherapy (cryo) is applied, but reports on its effectiveness are limited. To investigate a pain model for the anterior knee and examine cryo in reducing the pain. Controlled laboratory study. Therapeutic modality laboratory. 30 physically active healthy male subjects who were free from any lower extremity orthopedic, neurological, cardiovascular, or endocrine pathologies. Perceived pain was measured every minute. Surface temperature was also assessed in the center of the patella and the popliteal fossa. There was a significant interaction between group and time (F68,864 = 3.0, P = .0001). At the first minute, there was no difference in pain between the 3 groups (saline/cryo = 4.80 ± 4.87 mm, saline/sham = 2.80 ± 3.55 mm, no saline/cryo = 4.00 ± 3.33 mm). During the first 5 min, pain increased from 4.80 ± 4.87 to 45.90 ± 21.17 mm in the saline/cryo group and from 2.80 ± 3.55 to 31.10 ± 20.25 mm in the saline/sham group. Pain did not change within the no-saline/cryo group, 4.00 ± 3.33 to 1.70 ± 1.70 mm. Pain for the saline/sham group remained constant for 17 min. Cryo decreased pain for 16 min in the saline/cryo group. There was no difference in preapplication surface temperature between or within each group. No change in temperature occurred within the saline/sham. Cooling and rewarming were similar in both cryo groups. Ambient temperature fluctuated less than 1°C during data collection. Intermittent infusion of sterile 5% hypertonic saline may be a useful experimental pain model in establishing a constant level of pain in a controlled laboratory setting. Cryotherapy decreased the induced anterior knee pain for 16 min.

  7. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5%) does not change neutrophil oxidative burst or expression of endothelial adhesion molecules after abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Rasmussen, Torsten Bøgh; Krog, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of leukocyte and differential count, neutrophil membrane expression of endothelial adhesion molecules by flow cytometry, and O2- -generation by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable reduction of cytochrome C. RESULTS: Surgery induced well-known changes in the number and distribution of white blood cells, reduced...... the expression of adhesion molecules, and halved the superoxide production unrelated to the tonicity or volume of the infused fluids. CONCLUSION: Infusion of a clinically relevant dose of hypertonic saline has no detectable effect on the membrane expression of endothelial adhesion molecules or O2- -generation...

  8. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  9. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telfer, N.; Ballard, C.S.; McKee, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22 Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  10. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  11. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

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    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  13. Hypertonic saline for cystic fibrosis: worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralski, Jennifer L; Donaldson, Scott H

    2014-06-01

    Airway dehydration in cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to chronic inflammation, ongoing infection and progressive lung disease. Restoration of airway hydration by inhalation of an osmotic agent (hypertonic saline) has been shown to be safe, effective and well-tolerated in adults with CF. Although the safety of hypertonic saline in infants and young children with CF has also been established, recent studies have reported inconclusive evidence about its efficacy. In this editorial, we discuss the evidence behind hypertonic saline use for adults, children and infants with CF.

  14. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

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    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  15. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  16. Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution for Patients in Traumatic Haemorrhagic Shock. ... The data were entered into a computer data base and analysed. Results: Forty five patients were enrolled and resuscitated with 250 mls 7.5% HSS. Among the studied patients, 88.9% recovered from shock ...

  17. [Effect of compound hypertonic saline solution on septic rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Xu, Liang; Xu, Gang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi; Cai, Liping

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of compound hypertonic saline solution ( HSD ) on sepsis. 133 male Wistar rats were divided into four groups, sham operation group ( n = 15 ), cecal ligation and puncture ( CLP ) group ( n = 45 ), CLP plus normal saline ( NS ) group ( n = 45 ), and CLP plus HSD group ( n = 28 ). A rat model of sepsis was reproduced by CLP, and the rats in sham operation group received celiotomy without ligation and puncture. All rats in four groups received subcutaneous injection of 30 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride after laparotomy. The rats in CLP plus NS group and CLP plus HSD group received infusion of 5 mL/kg 0.9% sodium chloride or 7.5% sodium chloride/6% dextran post CLP via jugular vein for 3 hours, with the infusion rate of 0.4 mL×kg(-1)×min(-1). The survival rate of each group was observed 9 hours and 18 hours after laparotomy. Mean arterial pressure ( MAP ) at 0, 9, 18 hours were monitored. Blood specimens were collected from all rats 0, 9 and 18 hours after laparotomy, respectively, for measurement of the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α), interleukin-1β ( IL-1β ), and procalcitonin ( PCT ). The rats were all sacrificed, and their lung tissues were harvested for the neutrophil count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ( BALF ), myeloperoxidase ( MPO ) activity in lung tissue, wet/dry weight ratio ( W/D ) of lung, and pathological changes in lung tissue. There was no death in the sham operation group. The survival rates at 9 hours and 18 hours were 62.2% and 31.1% in the CLP group, 57.8% and 35.6% in the CLP plus NS group, 85.7% and 64.3% in the CLP plus HSD group, and they were all significantly higher compared with those of the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group ( Pmicroscope, no pathobiological changes were found in sham operation group. The lung tissues in the CLP group and the CLP plus NS group showed congestion, edema, infiltrating inflammatory changes, while the inflammatory changes in the lung tissue in the CLP plus HSD group

  18. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

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    J Carlos Flores-González

    Full Text Available There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay.A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011. Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively.In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before.EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  19. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

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    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  20. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2011-06-01

    Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking.

  1. Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation Modulates Neutrophil Adhesion Molecule Expression of Post-Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rizoli, Sandro B; Rhind, Shawn G; Shek, Pang N; Inaba, Kenji; Filips, Dennis; Tien, Homer; Brenneman, Fred; Rotstein, Ori D

    2004-01-01

    .... Experimental data suggests that hypertonic saline/dextran (HSD, 7.5% NaCl in 6% dextran-70) exerts antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, reduces multiorgan dysfunction and improves outcome...

  2. Hypertonic Saline Suppresses NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation and Promotes Apoptosis

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    Ajantha Nadesalingam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tonicity of saline (NaCl is important in regulating cellular functions and homeostasis. Hypertonic saline is administered to treat many inflammatory diseases, including cystic fibrosis. Excess neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation, or NETosis, is associated with many pathological conditions including chronic inflammation. Despite the known therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline, its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the effects of hypertonic saline in modulating NETosis. For this purpose, we purified human neutrophils and induced NETosis using agonists such as diacylglycerol mimetic phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component lipopolysaccharide (LPS, calcium ionophores (A23187 and ionomycin from Streptomyces conglobatus, and bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We then analyzed neutrophils and NETs using Sytox green assay, immunostaining of NET components and apoptosis markers, confocal microscopy, and pH sensing reagents. This study found that hypertonic NaCl suppresses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH2 or NOX2-dependent NETosis induced by agonists PMA, Escherichia coli LPS (0111:B4 and O128:B12, and P. aeruginosa. Hypertonic saline also suppresses LPS- and PMA- induced reactive oxygen species production. It was determined that supplementing H2O2 reverses the suppressive effect of hypertonic saline on NOX2-dependent NETosis. Many of the aforementioned suppressive effects were observed in the presence of equimolar concentrations of choline chloride and osmolytes (d-mannitol and d-sorbitol. This suggests that the mechanism by which hypertonic saline suppresses NOX2-dependent NETosis is via neutrophil dehydration. Hypertonic NaCl does not significantly alter the intracellular pH of neutrophils. We found that hypertonic NaCl induces apoptosis while suppressing NOX2-dependent NETosis. In contrast, hypertonic

  3. CNS sites activated by renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) in response to hypertonic saline in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwill, Vanessa S; Terrill, Christopher; Hopewood, Ian; Loewy, Arthur D; Knuepfer, Mark M

    2017-05-01

    In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate. Subsequently, brain tissue was analyzed for immunohistochemical detection of the protein Fos, a marker for neuronal activation. Fos-immunoreactive neurons were identified in numerous sites in the forebrain and brainstem. These areas included the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON). The most effective stimulus was 500mOsm NaCl. Activation of these sites was attenuated or prevented by administration of benzamil (1μM) or amiloride (10μM) into the renal pelvis concomitantly with hypertonic saline. In anesthetized rats, infusion of hypertonic saline but not isotonic saline into the renal pelvis elevated ARN activity and this increase was attenuated by simultaneous infusion of benzamil or amiloride. We propose that renal pelvic epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) play a role in activation of ARN and, via central visceral afferent circuits, this system modulates fluid volume and peripheral blood pressure. These pathways may contribute to the development of hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

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    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  5. Hypertonic saline solution reduces the oxidative stress responses in traumatic brain injury patients

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    Mojtaba Mojtahedzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress processes play an important role in the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI. Hypertonic saline (HTS has advantages as being preferred osmotic agent, but few studies investigated oxidant and antioxidant effects of HTS in TBI. This study was designed to compare two different regimens of HTS 5% with mannitol on TBI-induced oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three adult patients with TBI were recruited and have randomly received one of the three protocols: 125 cc of HTS 5% every 6 h as bolus, 500 cc of HTS 5%as infusion for 24 h or 1 g/kg mannitol of 20% as a bolus, repeated with a dose of 0.25-0.5 g/kg every 6 h based on patient′s response for 3 days. Serum total antioxidant power (TAP, reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO were measured at baseline and daily for 3 days. Results: Initial serum ROS and NO levels in patients were higher than control(6.86± [3.2] vs. 1.57± [0.5] picoM, P = 0.001, 14.6± [1.6] vs. 7.8± [3.9] mM, P = 0.001, respectively. Levels of ROS have decreased for all patients, but reduction was significantly after HTS infusion and mannitol (3. 08 [±3.1] to 1.07 [±1.6], P = 0.001, 5.6 [±3.4] to 2.5 [±1.8], P = 0.003 respectively. During study, NO levels significantly decreased in HTS infusion but significantly increased in mannitol. TAP Levels had decreased in all patients during study especially in mannitol (P = 0.004. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline 5% has significant effects on the oxidant responses compared to mannitol following TBI that makes HTS as a perfect therapeutic intervention for reducing unfavorable outcomes in TBI patients.

  6. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    chloride (n = 12) induced significantly more pain than isotonic saline (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001). Compared to control injections, hypertonic saline and potassium chloride induced a significant reduction in pressure-pain threshold (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.05). Forty-eight percent...

  7. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  8. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs

  9. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  10. Prehospital guidelines for use of hypertonic saline are not followed systematically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbaek, Julie; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) was introduced in our physician-based mobile emergency care unit (MECU) in September 2006 for patients with severe traumatic brain injury and hypotension. HS has, however, rarely been used and we sought to identify barriers to its implementation....

  11. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    RATIONALE: Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiinflammatory effect of hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment within the CF lung by focusing on IL-8. METHODS: Degradation of IL-8 in CF lung secretions after treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and HTS was analyzed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. The ex vivo chemotactic activity of purified neutrophils in response to CF airway secretions was evaluated post nebulization of HTS (7% saline). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In vivo CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-8 levels were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BALF displaced IL-8 from glycosaminoglycan matrices, rendering the chemokine susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. High sodium concentrations also liberate IL-8 in CF BALF in vitro, and in vivo in CF sputum from patients receiving aerosolized HTS, resulting in degradation of IL-8 and decreased neutrophil chemotactic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycans possess the ability to influence the chemokine profile of the CF lung by binding and stabilizing IL-8, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment disrupts the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis, thereby facilitating resolution of inflammation.

  12. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  13. Body water handling in response to hypertonic-saline induced diuresis in fasting northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2003-01-01

    During natural fasting conditions in postweaned northern elephant seal (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) pups, urinary water loss is minimized and percent total body water (TBW) is maintained constant. However, following infusion of hypertonic saline, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine output increased in fasting pups. Therefore, we quantified the magnitude of the hypernatremia-induced diuresis relative to the animal's total body water (TBW) pool and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed. Following a 24 h control period, naturally fasting NES pups (n=7) were infused (4 ml min(-1)) with hypertonic saline (16.7%) at a dose of 3 mmol NaCl kg(-1) body mass. Total body water was estimated prior to infusion by tritium dilution, GFR was estimated by standard creatinine clearance, and urine output (V) was measured for 24 h during the control and post infusion periods. Percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was calculated as (1-(V/GFR))x100. Twenty-four hours following the infusion, GFR (control: 69+/-12 ml min(-1) and post-infusion: 118+/-19 ml min(-1); mean+/-S.E.) increased 77+/-28% above control and the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed was decreased 0.4+/-0.1%. The increase in urine output (control: 218+/-47 ml d(-1) and post-infusion: 883+/-92 ml d(-1)) accounted for 1.7+/-0.2% of the pups' TBW. The hypernatremia-induced diuresis was accompanied by the loss of body water indicating the lack of water retention. Although the 77% increase in GFR was only associated with a 0.4% decrease in the percentage of filtered water reabsorbed, this decrease was significant enough to result in a 4-fold increase in urine output. Despite the observed diuresis, fasting NES pups appear to possess an efficient water recycling mechanism requiring only a small percentage of body water to excrete an excess salt load. This water recycling mechanism may allow pups to avoid negative perturbations in body water as they initiate feeding in a marine environment following the

  14. Hyaluronic acid improves "pleasantness" and tolerability of nebulized hypertonic saline in a cohort of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonpensiero, Paolo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Sepe, Angela; Di Pasqua, Antonio; Ferri, Pasqualina; Siano, Maria; Terlizzi, Vito; Raia, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Inhaled hypertonic saline improves lung function and decreases pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. However, side effects such as cough, narrowing of airways and saltiness cause intolerance of the therapy in 8% of patients. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of an inhaled solution of hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline with hypertonic solution alone on safety and tolerability. A total of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years and over received a single treatment regimen of 7% hypertonic saline solution or hypertonic solution with 0.1% hyaluronate for 2 days nonconsecutively after a washout period in an open crossover study. Cough, throat irritation, and salty taste were evaluated by a modified ordinal score for assessing tolerability; "pleasantness" was evaluated by a five-level, Likert-type scale. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was registered before and after the end of the saline inhalations. All 20 patients (nine males, 11 females, mean age 13 years, range 8.9-17.7) completed the study. The inhaled solution of 0.1% hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline significantly improved tolerability and pleasantness compared to hypertonic saline alone. No major adverse effects were observed. No difference was documented in pulmonary function tests between the two treatments. Hyaluronic acid combined with hypertonic saline solution may contribute to improved adherence to hypertonic saline therapy. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. Considering the extraordinary versatility of hyaluronic acid in biological reactions, perspective studies could define its applicability to halting progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

  15. A comparison of sputum induction methods: ultrasonic vs compressed-air nebulizer and hypertonic vs isotonic saline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, L C; Eg, K P; Puspanathan, P; Tang, S P; Yip, K S; Vijayasingham, P; Thayaparan, T; Kumar, S

    2004-03-01

    Airway inflammation can be demonstrated by the modem method of sputum induction using ultrasonic nebulizer and hypertonic saline. We studied whether compressed-air nebulizer and isotonic saline which are commonly available and cost less, are as effective in inducing sputum in normal adult subjects as the above mentioned tools. Sixteen subjects underwent weekly sputum induction in the following manner: ultrasonic nebulizer (Medix Sonix 2000, Clement Clarke, UK) using hypertonic saline, ultrasonic nebulizer using isotonic saline, compressed-air nebulizer (BestNeb, Taiwan) using hypertonic saline, and compressed-air nebulizer using isotonic saline. Overall, the use of an ultrasonic nebulizer and hypertonic saline yielded significantly higher total sputum cell counts and a higher percentage of cell viability than compressed-air nebulizers and isotonic saline. With the latter, there was a trend towards squamous cell contaminations. The proportion of various sputum cell types was not significantly different between the groups, and the reproducibility in sputum macrophages and neutrophils was high (Intraclass correlation coefficient, r [95%CI]: 0.65 [0.30-0.91] and 0.58 [0.22-0.89], p compressed-air nebulizers and isotonic saline. We conclude that in normal subjects, although both nebulizers and saline types can induce sputum with reproducible cellular profile, ultrasonic nebulizers and hypertonic saline are more effective but less well tolerated.

  16. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Jun; Ueyama, Masashi; Yamashita, Katsuyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Noborio, Mitsuhiro; Ode, Yasumasa; Aoki, Yoshiki; Sugimoto, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is a lethal complication after resuscitation from burn shock. Hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) infusion reduces early fluid requirements in burn shock, but the effects of HLS on intraabdominal pressure have not been clarified. Patients admitted to our burn unit between 2002 and 2004 with burns > or =40% of the total body surface area without severe inhalation injury were entered into a fluid resuscitation protocol using HLS (n = 14) or lactated Ringer's solution (n = 22). Urine output was monitored hourly with a goal of 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg per hour. Hemodynamic parameters, blood gas analysis, intrabladder pressure as an indicator of intraabdominal pressure (IAP), and the peak inspiratory pressure were recorded. Pulmonary compliance and the abdominal perfusion pressure were also calculated. In the HLS group, the amount of intravenous fluid volume needed to maintain adequate urine output was less at 3.1 +/- 0.9 versus 5.2 +/- 1.2 mL/24 h per kg per percentage of total body surface area, and the peak IAP and peak inspiratory pressure at 24 hours after injury were significantly lower than those in the lactated Ringer's group. Two of 14 patients (14%) in the HLS group and 11 of 22 patients (50%) developed IAH within 20.8 +/- 7.2 hours after injury. In patients with severe burn injury, a large intravenous fluid volume decreases abdominal perfusion during the resuscitative period because of increased IAP. Our data suggest that HLS resuscitation could reduce the risk of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome with lower fluid load in burn shock patients.

  17. Evaluating the effect of administrating hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions on clinical improvement, serum electrolyte concentrations and renal function of calves affected by diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hasanpour

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted on 40 calves under the age of one mouth with 30 calves affected by diarrhea allocated to 3 treatment groups of 10 calves each and the control group consisting of 10 calves. The control group received neither treatment nor any injections. In the first treatment group, only antibiotics were administered without any fluid therapy. In the second treatment group, apart from antibiotic therapy of diarrhea, hypertonic saline solution (7.5% was administered at a dose of 5 ml/kg as slow intravenous infusion alongside oral ORS solution whereas in the third treatment group isotonic saline solution (0.9% was given intravenously according to the formula (Body weight × %Dehydration alongside oral ORS solution. In all groups, clinical examination and blood sampling was undertaken at times 0, 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours following treatment. At time 0, the diarrhea had resulted in clinical and laboratory signs such as a fever, the dehydration, tachycardia, oligopnea, increased packed sell volume, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, increased serum creatinine and BUN values. Following treatment, fever subsided and the dehydration was corrected and this correction occurred faster in calves which had received hypertonic saline solution. Correction of sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus and calsium imbalance occurred faster in patients which were treated by hypertonic solution. Fluid therapy with saline solutions prevented the increase in serum creatinine and BUN values. In conclusion, the administration of hypertonic saline solutions leads to much faster and more reliable clinical improvement and electrolyte imbalance correction in calves affected by diarrhea.

  18. Routine saline infusion sonohysterography prior to assisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53.85%), 8 (30.77%) and 4 (15.38%) respectively. The average duration of the procedure was 6 minutes with a range of 4-9 minutes. Saline infusion sonohysterography is a reliable, cost effective and safe diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the ...

  19. Reposição de volume na sepse com solução salina hipertônica Sepsis volume reposition with hypertonic saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Friedman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão discute os efeitos hemodinâmicos e imunomoduladores da solução hipertônica em choque experimental e em pacientes com sepse. Comentamos sobre os mecanismos de ação da solução hipertônica, recorrendo a dados sobre choque hemorrágico e séptico. Atuações específicas da solução salina hipertônica aplicáveis a sepse grave e choque séptico são enfatizadas. Os dados disponíveis corroboram os benefícios em potencial da infusão de solução salina hipertônica em vários aspetos da fisiopatologia da sepse, inclusive hipoperfusão dos tecidos, consumo reduzido de oxigênio, disfunção endotelial, depressão miocárdica e presença de um amplo elenco de citocinas próinflamatórias e várias espécies de oxidantes. Uma terapia que, ao mesmo tempo, bloqueie os componentes prejudiciais da sepse terá um impacto no seu tratamento. Estudos prospectivos adequadamente desenhados poderão no futuro comprovar o papel benéfico da solução salina hipertônica.The present review discusses the hemodynamic and immune-modulatory effects of hypertonic saline in experimental shock and in patients with sepsis. We comment on the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline, calling upon data in hemorrhagic and septic shock. Specific actions of hypertonic saline applicable to severe sepsis and septic shock are highlighted. Data available support potential benefits of hypertonic saline infusion in various aspects of the pathophysiology of sepsis, including tissue hypoperfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac depression, and the presence of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines and various oxidant species. A therapy that simultaneously blocks the damaging components of sepsis will have an impact on the management of sepsis. Proper designed prospective studies may prove a beneficial role for hypertonic saline solution in the future.

  20. Modulation of jaw muscle spindle afferent activity following intramuscular injections with hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    2001-05-01

    Transient noxious chemical stimulation of small diameter muscle afferents modulates jaw movement-related responses of caudal brainstem neurons. While it is likely that the effect is mediated from the spindle afferents in the mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) via the caudally projecting Probst's tract, the mechanisms of pain induced modulations of jaw muscle spindle afferents is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that jaw muscle nociceptors gain access to muscle spindle afferents in the same muscle via central mechanisms and alter their sensitivity. Thirty-five neurons recorded from the Vmes were characterized as muscle spindle afferents based on their responses to passive jaw movements, muscle palpation, and electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve. Each cell was tested by injecting a small volume (250 microl) of either 5% hypertonic and/or isotonic saline into the receptor-bearing muscle. Twenty-nine units were tested with 5% hypertonic saline, of which 79% (23/29) showed significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during one or more phases of ramp-and-hold movements. Among the muscle spindle primary-like units (n = 12), MFRs of 4 units were facilitated, five reduced, two showed mixed responses and one unchanged. In secondary-like units (n = 17), MFRs of 9 were facilitated, three reduced and five unchanged. Thirteen units were tested with isotonic saline, of which 77% showed no significant changes of MFRs. Further analysis revealed that the hypertonic saline not only affected the overall output of muscle spindle afferents, but also increased the variability of firing and altered the relationship between afferent signal and muscle length. These results demonstrated that activation of muscle nociceptors significantly affects proprioceptive properties of jaw muscle spindles via central neural mechanisms. The changes can have deleterious effects on oral motor function as well as kinesthetic sensibility.

  1. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  2. Nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo or hypertonic saline in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2015-01-01

    a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing nebulised dornase alfa with placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality...... of the primary estimate was assessed by TSA. RESULTS: Two trials (n = 63) were included; both were judged to have high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality (random effects model RR (95 % CI) 0.73 (0.09-5.77); P = 0.24; I (2) = 30 %). TSA could not be conducted because less...

  3. Clinical application of multislice CT enterography with hypertonic mannitol saline as oral contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Guixin; Wang Haitao; Chen Wenjing; Liu Wenya

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and value of multislice CT enterography (MSCTE) with large dose economy and convenience orally administered hypertonic mannitol salt water (2.5% mannitol and 1.5% NaCl salt water) as negative contrast in demonstrating normal and abnormal small bowel. Methods: 81 patients suffered from digestive disease and suspected of various kinds of small intestinal diseases were examined (male/female=47/34, 26-81 years old, average 57.8 years). About 1500 ml∼3000 ml hypertonic mannitol saline was oral administered within 90 minutes and 20 mg of raceanisodamine hydrochloride injection was injected intramuscularly. CT scanning was performed 20 minutes later. Imaging data were post processed with coronal, sagittal and oblique reconstruction, multiplanar reformation (MPR), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and volumer rendering technique (VRT). The filling degree of stomach, intestine and colon was classified as satisfactory, better and unsatisfactory. The length and superposition of small intestine was classified as dense-type, uniformity-type and straggling-type. The maximum outer diameters of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were measured respectively in different segments. The degree of bowel wall enhancement in arterial phase and venous phase was classified as obvious enhancement (>90 HU), medium enhancement (60-90 HU) and mild enhancement (<60 HU). CT features of various kinds of small bowel diseases were analyzed. Results: The hypertonic mannitol saline was acceptable by patients, except 5 patients with diarrhea. The filling degree of stomach, intestine and and colon was classified as satisfactory in 46 cases, better in 23 cases and unsatisfactory in 12 cases. The maximum outer diameters of small bowel in different segments were 24 mm ± 4.5 mm at duodenum, 24 mm ±3.9 mm at jejunum and 23 mm ±3.3 mm at ileum respectively. The length and superposition of small intestine were classified as dense-type in 7 cases, uniformity-type in 58

  4. Hypertonic saline enhances host response to bacterial challenge by augmenting receptor-independent neutrophil intracellular superoxide formation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether hypertonic saline (HTS) infusion modulates the host response to bacterial challenge. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in 30 Balb-C mice by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli (5 x 107 organisms per animal). In 10 mice, resuscitation was performed at 0 and 24 hours with a 4 mL\\/kg bolus of HTS (7.5% NaCl), 10 animals received 4 mL\\/kg of normal saline (0.9% NaCl), and the remaining animals received 30 mL\\/kg of normal saline. Samples of blood, spleen, and lung were cultured at 8 and 36 hours. Polymorphonucleocytes were incubated in isotonic or hypertonic medium before culture with E. coli. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow cytometry, whereas intracellular bacterial killing was measured after inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin B. Intracellular formation of free radicals was assessed by the molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and ERK-1 phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation were determined. Data are represented as means (SEM), and an analysis of variance test was performed to gauge statistical significance. RESULTS: Significantly reduced bacterial culture was observed in the animals resuscitated with HTS when compared with their NS counterparts, in blood (51.8 +\\/- 4.3 vs. 82.0 +\\/- 3.3 and 78.4 +\\/- 4.8, P = 0.005), lung (40.0 +\\/- 4.1 vs. 93.2 +\\/- 2.1 and 80.9 +\\/- 4.7, P = 0.002), and spleen (56.4 +\\/- 3.8 vs. 85.4 +\\/- 4.2 and 90.1 +\\/- 5.9, P = 0.05). Intracellular killing of bacteria increased markedly (P = 0.026) and superoxide generation was enhanced upon exposure to HTS (775.78 +\\/- 23.6 vs. 696.57 +\\/- 42.2, P = 0.017) despite inhibition of MAP kinase and NFkappaB activation. CONCLUSIONS: HTS significantly enhances intracellular killing of bacteria while attenuating receptor-mediated activation of proinflammatory cascades.

  5. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H

    1999-01-01

    extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour...

  6. A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic saline can ameliorate cerebral edema more effectively than mannitol. Results Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were subjected to permanent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 10% HS, 20% mannitol or D-[1-3H(N]-mannitol. Brain water content (BWC as analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats decreased more significantly after 10% HS treatment compared with 20% mannitol. Concentration of serum Na+ and plasma crystal osmotic pressure of the 10% HS group at 2, 6, 12 and 18 h following permanent MCAO increased significantly when compared with 20% mannitol treated group. Moreover, there was negative correlation between the BWC of the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere and concentration of serum Na+, plasma crystal osmotic pressure and difference value of concentration of serum Na+ and concentration of brain Na+ in ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere in the 10% HS group at the various time points after MCAO. A remarkable finding was the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue. Conclusions We conclude that 10% HS is more effective in alleviating cerebral edema than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. This is because 10% HS contributes to establish a higher osmotic gradient across BBB and, furthermore, the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue counteracts its therapeutic efficacy on cerebral edema.

  7. Oral Hypertonic Saline Is Effective in Reversing Acute Mild-to-Moderate Symptomatic Exercise -Associated Hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Eileen; Altherwi, Tawfeeq; Correa, José A; Hew-Butler, Tamara

    2018-01-23

    To determine whether oral administration of 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) is as efficacious as intravenous (IV) 3% saline in reversing symptoms of mild-to-moderate symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in athletes during and after a long-distance triathlon. Noninferiority, open-label, parallel-group, randomized control trial to IV or oral HTS. We used permuted block randomization with sealed envelopes, containing the word either "oral" or "IV." Annual long-distance triathlon (3.8-km swim, 180-km bike, and 42-km run) at Mont-Tremblant, Quebec, Canada. Twenty race finishers with mild to moderately symptomatic EAH. Age, sex, race finish time, and 9 clinical symptoms. Time from treatment to discharge. We successfully randomized 20 participants to receive either an oral (n = 11) or IV (n = 9) bolus of HTS. We performed venipuncture to measure serum sodium (Na) at presentation to the medical clinic and at time of symptom resolution after the intervention. The average time from treatment to discharge was 75.8 minutes (SD 29.7) for the IV treatment group and 50.3 minutes (SD 26.8) for the oral treatment group (t test, P = 0.02). Serum Na before and after treatment was not significantly different in both groups. There was no difference on presentation between groups in age, sex, or race finish time, both groups presented with an average of 6 symptoms. Oral HTS is effective in reversing symptoms of mild-to-moderate hyponatremia in EAH.

  8. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced pulmonary injury by aerosolized hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, C J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) provide potential strategies to attenuate inappropriate inflammatory reactions. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of intratracheal aerosolized HTS modulates the development of lung injury in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20% L-arginine (500 mg\\/100 g body weight). At 24 and 48 h, intratracheal aerosolized HTS (7.5% NaCl, 0.5 mL) was administered to 8 rats, while a further 8 received 0.5 mL of aerosolized normal saline (NS). At 72 hours, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and endothelial permeability (bronchoalveolar lavage and wet:dry weight ratios) were assessed. In addition, histological assessment of representative lung tissue was performed by a blinded assessor. In a separate experiment, polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) were isolated from human donors, and exposed to increments of HTS. Neutrophil transmigration across an endothelial cell layer, VEGF release, and apoptosis at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h were assessed. RESULTS: Histopathological lung injury scores were significantly reduced in the HTS group (4.78 +\\/- 1.43 vs. 8.64 +\\/- 0.86); p < 0.001). Pulmonary neutrophil sequestration (1.40 +\\/- 0.2) and increased endothelial permeability (6.77 +\\/- 1.14) were evident in the animals resuscitated with normal saline when compared with HTS (0.70 +\\/- 0.1 and 3.57 +\\/- 1.32), respectively; p < 0.04). HTS significantly reduced PMN transmigration (by 97.1, p = 0.002, and induced PMN apoptosis (p < 0.03). HTS did not impact significantly upon neutrophil VEGF release (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal aerosolized HTS attenuates the neutrophil-mediated pulmonary insult subsequent to pancreatitis. This may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.

  9. Hypertonic Saline in Conjunction with High-Dose Furosemide Improves Dose-Response Curves in Worsening Refractory Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Salvatore; Di Gaudio, Francesca; La Rocca, Vincenzo; Balistreri, Fabio; Greco, Massimiliano; Torres, Daniele; Lupo, Umberto; Rizzo, Giuseppina; di Pasquale, Pietro; Indelicato, Sergio; Cuttitta, Francesco; Butler, Javed; Parrinello, Gaspare

    2015-10-01

    Diuretic responsiveness in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is better assessed by urine production per unit diuretic dose than by the absolute urine output or diuretic dose. Diuretic resistance arises over time when the plateau rate of sodium and water excretion is reached prior to optimal fluid elimination and may be overcome when hypertonic saline solution (HSS) is added to high doses of furosemide. Forty-two consecutively hospitalized patients with refractory CHF were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to furosemide doses (125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg) so that all patients received intravenous furosemide diluted in 150 ml of normal saline (0.9%) in the first step (0-24 h) and the same furosemide dose diluted in 150 ml of HSS (1.4%) in the next step (24-48 h) as to obtain 3 groups as follows: Fourteen patients receiving 125 mg (group 1), fourteen patients receiving 250 mg (group 2), and fourteen patients receiving 500 mg (group 3) of furosemide. Urine samples of all patients were collected at 30, 60, and 90 min, and 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after infusion. Diuresis, sodium excretion, osmolality, and furosemide concentration were evaluated for each urine sample. After randomization, 40 patients completed the study. Two patients, one in group 2 and one in group 3 dropped out. Patients in group 1 (125 mg furosemide) had a mean age of 77 ± 17 years, 43% were male, 6 (43%) had heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and 64% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV; the mean age of patients in group 2 (250 mg furosemide) was 80 ± 8.1 years, 15% were male, 5 (38%) had HFpEF, and 84% were in NYHA class IV; and the mean age of patients in group 3 (500 mg furosemide) was 73 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 6 (46%) had HFpEF, and 69% were in NYHA class IV. HSS added to furosemide increased total urine output, sodium excretion, urinary osmolality, and furosemide urine delivery in all patients and at all time points. The percentage increase was 18,14, and

  10. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-05-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment to prevent the symptoms of the disease is inhalation of hypertonic saline solution, NaCl at concentrations higher than in the human body (~150 mM). This procedure clears the mucus in the lungs, bringing relief to the patient. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying this process are not entirely clear. We undertook a new experimental approach to understand the effects of sprayed saline solutions on model lung surfactants towards understanding the mechanisms of the treatment. The surface of lungs contains mainly 1,2-Dipalmitol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DPPC). As previously assumed by others, we considered that monolayer of DPPC at the air-water interface serves as model system for the lungs surface; we employed a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) trough and PM-IRRAS to measure surface-specific infrared spectra of the surfactant monolayers and effects on the interfacial tensions. We investigated spraying hyper-saline solutions onto surfactant monolayers at the airwater interface in two parts: (i) validation of our methodology and techniques with stearic acid and (ii) experiments with DPPC monolayers at the air-water interface. Remarkably, when micro-droplets of NaCl were sprayed to the monolayer of stearic acid, we observed enhanced organization of the surfactant, interpreted from the intensities of the CH2 peaks in the surface-specific IR spectra. However, our results with DPPC monolayers didn’t show an effect with the salt added as aerosol, possibly indicating that the experimental methodology proposed is not adequate for the phenomena studied. In parallel, we mimicked respiratory mucous by preparing salt solutions containing 1% (wt%) agar and measured effects on their viscosities. Interestingly, we found that NaCl was much

  11. Advances toward the elucidation of hypertonic saline effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Michon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nebulized hypertonic saline (HTS has beneficial effects including reducing pulmonary exacerbations in Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients. Several mechanisms may explain these effects but antimicrobial activity of NaCl remains largely unexplored. We aimed to measure the antimicrobial effect of NaCl on Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the respiratory tract in CF patients. METHODS: NaCl minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for strains characterized for mucoidy, antimicrobial resistance, and ability to form biofilm using 0,9% to 15% NaCl solutions. NaCl effects on biofilm formation, preformed biofilm, and mobility were evaluated. Kinetics of antimicrobial effects was studied. RESULTS: The growth of all isolates (n = 85 from 34 patients was inhibited by 6% NaCl solution. A 10% concentration had a bactericidal activity on 90% of the isolates. Mucoid and multidrug resistant (MDR isolates displayed lower MICs compared to non-mucoid and to non-MDR isolates, respectively. Time-kill kinetics showed that NaCl exhibited a rapid, dose and growth phase dependent bactericidal effect. Three percent or more of NaCl inhibited biofilm formation for 69% of strongly adherent isolates. A dose-dependent decrease of preformed biofilm viability and an inhibitory activity on bacterial motility were observed. CONCLUSIONS: NaCl inhibited the growth of all isolates and killed 38% of tested isolates within concentration range currently used in therapeutics. Our results suggest that anti-pseudomonal activity is another mechanism of action of HTS to add to those already established. Clinical trials are needed to compare diverse HTS conditions of use (rhythm, dose and mode of delivery to obtain efficient and optimized anti-P. aeruginosa effects. More generally, NaCl effect on other opportunistic pathogens as well as on global microbiotae recovered during polymicrobial diseases warrants further investigations.

  12. Hypertonic saline (HTS versus standard (isotonic fluid therapy for traumatic brain injuries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrit Lourens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the foremost causes of mortality secondary to trauma. Poorer outcomes are associated with secondary insults, after the initial brain injury occurred. The management goal of TBI is to prevent or minimise the effects of secondary brain injuries. The primary objective of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to assess the effects of Hypertonic Saline (HTS compared to Standard Fluid Therapy (SFT in the treatment and resuscitation of TBI patients. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (from 1966, EBSCOhost, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Proquest Medical Library and EMBASE (from 1980 in May 2010 and updated searches in February 2011. Data were assessed and extracted by two independent authors. Risk ratios (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI were used as the effect measure. The review included three RCTs (1184 participants of which two were of high to moderate quality (1005 participants. HTS was not found to be associated with a reduction in mortality (3 RCTs, 1184 participants, RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.76 to 1.09 and morbidity in TBI patients. No significant improvement in haemodynamical stability was found whereas insufficient data were available to indicate a reduction in the intracranial pressure (ICP. In the HTS group, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP (MD 3.83 mmHg, 95%CI 1.08 to 6.57 and serum sodium level (MD 8 mEq/L, 95%CI 7.47 to 8.53 were higher. Existing studies show no indication that HTS, in comparison to SFT, reduces mortality or morbidity after the occurrence of TBI. Against this backdrop, some uncertainties still exist in terms of the use of different concentrations and volumes of HTS, the timing of administration as well as the benefit in specific injury profiles. As a result, formulating conclusive recommendations is complex.

  13. [Effect of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution infusion on tissue perfusion during surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soskić, Ljiljana; Davidović, Lazar; Milicić, Biljana; Kocica, Mladen; Kovacević, Natasa; Simić, Tijana

    2007-10-01

    Decreasing of arterial flow below the critical level leads to capillary endothelium edema and to further worsening of tissue perfusion. Hypertonic solution infusion provides mild and short plasma osmolality increasing, while colloidal solutions intensify that effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution (HH) on the organs perfusion during reconstructive surgical procedure on the abdominal aorta (AA). The study included 40 patients submitted to AA reconstruction due to aneurysm or Leriche's syndrome. A clamp was put transversally to the aorta, under the outlets of the renal arterias. According to the solution received when a clamp was on the aorta, the patients were divided into two groups containing 20 patients each: the tested group (A) which received 4 ml/kg of the solution (7.2% NaCl/10% dextran), and the control group (B) which received 0.9% NaCl. The study excluded the patients with the preoperative creatinine level more than 139 micromol/l, and ejection heart fraction less than 40%. The mixed venous blood oxygen saturation increased from 73.3+/-7.33 to 74.95+/-6.19% in the group A, while it decreased from 65.35+/-10.39 to 62.65+/-10.42% in the group B (p = 0.001). The quantity of the provided oxygen in the group A increased significantly from 684.44+/-244.34 to 1362.45+/-2351.01 ml/min, while it decreased from 668.2+/-382.12 to 651.7+/-313.98 ml/min in the group B (p = 0.016). Alveolo-arterial difference in oxygen decreased from 23.12+/-14.74 to 21.1+/-10 mmHg in the group A, while it increased from 23.79+/-15.22 to 26.33+/-13.78 mmHg in the group B (p = 0.05). Satisfactory perfusion of organs during the AA surgery is obtained by using both HH and an isotonic solution. Due to maintaining the optimal values of the minute heart volume, saturation of vein blood blended with oxygen, and al-veolo-arterial difference in oxygen, it is recommended to use HH solution for reanimation of patients in declamping shock.

  14. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormonesTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J.A.; Bendtzen, K.; Tonnesen, E.

    2008-01-01

    factor-alpha. Serum cortisol and vasopressin were measured at these time points and 48 h after operation. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (n=26) were quantified at baseline, after infusion, 25 min after incision, 1, and 4 h after surgery. Finally, C-reactive protein was measured at baseline, 24, and 48 h...... in a double-blind study to infusion of NaCl 7.5% (HS), NaCl 0.9% (NS4), both 4 ml kg(-1), or NaCl 0.9% 32 ml kg(-1) (NS32) over 20 min. Blood was collected at baseline, 1, 4, and 24 h after surgery (n=34) for the determination of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-1ra, and tumour necrosis...

  15. Intravenous hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) and oral electrolytes to treat of calves with noninfectious diarrhea and metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M L R; Fialho, S S; Cyrillo, F C; Bertagnon, H G; Ortolani, E L; Benesi, F J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of treating osmotic diarrhea and dehydration in calves with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) IV, isotonic electrolyte solution (IES) PO, and a combination of these 2 solutions (HSS + IES). Eighteen male calves 8-30 days of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of 3 methods of fluid therapy after induction of osmotic diarrhea and dehydration. The diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administration of saccharose, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide for 48 hours. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Group 1: 7.2% hypertonic saline solution-HSS (5 mL/kg IV); Group 2: oral isotonic electrolyte solution IES (60 mL/kg PO); or Group 3: HSS+IES. Clinical signs and laboratory finding observed 48 hours post-induction (Time 0) included diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis. Calves treated with HSS + IES experienced decreases in hematocrit, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma volume as well as increases in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, and central venous pressure between 1 and 3 hours post-treatment. These findings also were observed in animals treated with IES, however, at a slower rate than in the HSS + IES-treated animals. Animals treated with HSS continued to display signs of dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis 24 hours post-treatment. Treatment with a combination of HSS and IES produced rapid and sustainable correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis in calves with noninfections diarrhea and dehydration. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Immune-Inflammatory and Metabolic Effects of High Dose Furosemide plus Hypertonic Saline Solution (HSS Treatment in Cirrhotic Subjects with Refractory Ascites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Tuttolomondo

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin.We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites.59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125-250mg⁄bid plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38, or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21. Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment.Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge.Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients.

  17. Expansions of the neurovascular scleral canal and contained optic nerve occur early in the hypertonic saline rat experimental glaucoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Yang, Hongli; Gardiner, Stuart K; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Burgoyne, Claude F

    2016-04-01

    To characterize early optic nerve head (ONH) structural change in rat experimental glaucoma (EG). Unilateral intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation was induced in Brown Norway rats by hypertonic saline injection into the episcleral veins and animals were sacrificed 4 weeks later by perfusion fixation. Optic nerve cross-sections were graded from 1 (normal) to 5 (extensive injury) by 5 masked observers. ONHs with peripapillary retina and sclera were embedded, serial sectioned, 3-D reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall and animal-specific EG versus Control eye ONH parameter differences were assessed globally and regionally by linear mixed effect models with significance criteria adjusted for multiple comparisons. Expansions of the optic nerve and surrounding anterior scleral canal opening achieved statistical significance overall (p < 0.0022), and in 7 of 8 EG eyes (p < 0.005). In at least 5 EG eyes, significant expansions (p < 0.005) in Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) (range 3-10%), the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (8-21% and 5-21%, respectively), and the optic nerve at the anterior and posterior scleral canal openings (11-30% and 8-41%, respectively) were detected. Optic nerve expansion was greatest within the superior and inferior quadrants. Optic nerve expansion at the posterior scleral canal opening was significantly correlated to optic nerve damage (R = 0.768, p = 0.042). In the rat ONH, the optic nerve and surrounding BMO and neurovascular scleral canal expand early in their response to chronic experimental IOP elevation. These findings provide phenotypic landmarks and imaging targets for detecting the development of experimental glaucomatous optic neuropathy in the rat eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. LL-37 complexation with glycosaminoglycans in cystic fibrosis lungs inhibits antimicrobial activity, which can be restored by hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2009-07-01

    There is an abundance of antimicrobial peptides in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Despite this, individuals with CF are susceptible to microbial colonization and infection. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial response within the CF lung, focusing on the human cathelicidin LL-37. We demonstrate the presence of the LL-37 precursor, human cathelicidin precursor protein designated 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein, in the CF lung along with evidence that it is processed to active LL-37 by proteinase-3. We demonstrate that despite supranormal levels of LL-37, the lung fluid from CF patients exhibits no demonstrable antimicrobial activity. Furthermore Pseudomonas killing by physiological concentrations of exogenous LL-37 is inhibited by CF bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid due to proteolytic degradation of LL-37 by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin D. The endogenous LL-37 in CF BAL fluid is protected from this proteolysis by interactions with glycosaminoglycans, but while this protects LL-37 from proteolysis it results in inactivation of LL-37 antimicrobial activity. By digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BAL fluid, endogenous LL-37 is liberated and the antimicrobial properties of CF BAL fluid restored. High sodium concentrations also liberate LL-37 in CF BAL fluid in vitro. This is also seen in vivo in CF sputum where LL-37 is complexed to glycosaminoglycans but is liberated following nebulized hypertonic saline resulting in increased antimicrobial effect. These data suggest glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 complexes to be potential therapeutic targets. Factors that disrupt glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 aggregates promote the antimicrobial effects of LL-37 with the caveat that concomitant administration of antiproteases may be needed to protect the now liberated LL-37 from proteolytic cleavage.

  19. Minocycline Prevents Muscular Pain Hypersensitivity and Cutaneous Allodynia Produced by Repeated Intramuscular Injections of Hypertonic Saline in Healthy Human Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samour, Mohamad Samir; Nagi, Saad Saulat; Shortland, Peter John; Mahns, David Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Minocycline, a glial suppressor, prevents behavioral hypersensitivities in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. However, clinical trials of minocycline in human studies have produced mixed results. This study addressed 2 questions: can repeated injections of hypertonic saline (HS) in humans induce persistent hypersensitivity? Can pretreatment with minocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic with microglial inhibitory effects, prevent the onset of hypersensitivity? Twenty-seven healthy participants took part in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, consisting of 6 test sessions across 2 weeks. At the beginning of every session, pressure-pain thresholds of the anterior muscle compartment of both legs were measured to determine the region distribution and intensity of muscle soreness. To measure changes in thermal sensitivity in the skin overlying the anterior muscle compartment of both legs, quantitative sensory testing was used to measure the cutaneous thermal thresholds (cold sensation, cold pain, warm sensation, and heat pain) and a mild cooling stimulus was applied to assess the presence of cold allodynia. To induce ongoing hypersensitivity, repeated injections of HS were administered into the right tibialis anterior muscle at 48-hour intervals. In the final 2 sessions (days 9 and 14), only sensory assessments were done to plot the recovery after cessation of HS administrations and drug washout. By day 9, nontreated participants experienced a significant bilateral increase in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants experienced a bilateral 70% alleviation in muscle soreness (P minocycline-treated participants showed cold allodynia. This study showed that repeated injections of HS can induce a hypersensitivity that outlasts the acute response, and the development of this hypersensitivity can be reliably attenuated with minocycline pretreatment. Four repeated injections of HS at 48-hour intervals induce a state of persistent hypersensitivity in

  20. Fourteen-Day Subacute Intravenous Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/ Dextran 70 (Trade name) and its Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran 70C and its Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits," Toxicology Series 248, was audited on 20 October 1989. CAROLYNM...at tA "e a .6 L C C o L a L Lm .. .. a. a4 1 . . ao 3.&ow2 aCCa .0 00 c -C a- 4;. *; a 0O .. t x.T 2Cu u . u uu0 0 Uc L 01 2.:4A.1 4xa&C -I - -N .CA -e

  1. Combined radiofrequency ablation and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution instillation: an in vivo study of rabbit liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Han, Joon-Koo; Kim, Se-Hyung; Choi, Byung-Ihn [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Kon; Kim, Sang-Won [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    We wanted to determine whether combined radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution (AHS) instillation can increase the extent of thermally mediated coagulation in in vivo rabbit liver tissue. We also wished to determine the optimal concentration of the solution in order to maximize its effect on extent of the RFA-induced coagulation. Forty thermal ablation zones were produced in 40 rabbits by using a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode with a 1-cm active tip under ultrasound guidance. The rabbits were assigned to one of four groups: group A: RFA alone (n=10); group B: RFA with 50% AHS instillation (n=10); group C: RFA with 25% AHS instillation (n=10); group D: RFA with 15% AHS instillation (n=10). A range of acetic acid concentrations diluted in 36% NaCl to a total volume of 2 mL were instilled into the liver before RFA. The RF energy (30W) was applied for three minutes. After RFA, in each group, the maximum diameters to the thermal ablation zones in the gross specimens were compared. Technical success and the complication that arose were evaluated by CT and on the basis of autopsy findings. All procedures are technically successful. There were six procedure-related complications (6/40; 15%); two localized perihepatic hematomas and four chemical peritonitis. The incidence of chemical peritonitis was highest for group B with the 50% AHS solution instillation (30%). With instillation of 15% AHS solution, a marked decrease of tissue impedance (24.5 {+-} 15.6 {omega}) and an increase of current (250 mA) occurred as compared to RFA alone. With instillation of the solutions before RFA (group B, C and D). this produced a greater mean diameter of coagulation necrosis than the diameters for rabbits not instilled with the solution (group A) ({rho}<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between group B, C, and D. Combined AHS instillation and RFA can increase the dimension of coagulation necrosis in the liver with a single

  2. Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gananadha, Sivakumar; Morris, David Lawson

    2004-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 ± 16.2 and 183.3 ± 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 ± 22O and 103.6 ± 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 ± 23 cm 3 vs 10.47 ± 2.9 cm 3 , p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 ± 25.8 cm 3 vs 24.9 ± 19.3 cm 3 , p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size.

  3. Saline Infusion Markedly Reduces Impedance and Improves Efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gananadha, Sivakumar; Morris, David Lawson

    2004-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a relatively new technique that has been investigated for the treatment of lung tumors. We evaluated for the first time the in vivo use of saline infusion during radiofrequency ablation of sheep lung. We performed RFA on 5 sheep using open and closed chest RFA and the RITA starburst XL and Xli probes using saline infusion with the Xli probe. The impedance and volume of ablation were compared. A total of 16 ablations were produced, 5 percutaneously and 11 open. The impedance during percutaneous and open RFA without saline infusion was 110 ± 16.2 and 183.3 ± 105.8 O, respectively. With the saline infusion the impedance was 71.3 ± 22O and 103.6 ± 37.5O. The effect of this was a significantly larger volume of ablation using the saline infusion during percutaneous RFA (90.6 ± 23 cm 3 vs 10.47 ± 2.9 cm 3 , p = 0.01) and open RFA (107.8 ± 25.8 cm 3 vs 24.9 ± 19.3 cm 3 , p = 0.0002). Saline infusion during RFA is associated with lower impedance, higher power delivery and larger lesion size

  4. The efficacy of intraperitoneal saline infusion for percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo Young; Tak, Won Young; Jeon, Seong Woo; Cho, Chang Min; Kweon, Young Oh; Kim, Sung Kook; Choi, Yong Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluated the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with intraperitoneal saline infusion. Background: Ultrasound-guided RFA is not always feasible due to the tumor location, possible adjacent tissue damage or poor sonographic identification. Patients and methods: Ultrasound-guided RFA with intraperitoneal saline infusion was performed in 116 patients between June 2001 and March 2008. Results: The overall technical feasibility of the intraperitoneal saline infusions was 90.5% (105 patients). The purposes of the intraperitoneal saline infusion were achieved in 100 patients (86.2%) by visualizing the tumor located in hepatic dome (47 patients), prevent adjacent organ damage (42 patients) and withdrawing overlying omentum (10 patients). Complete ablation of tumor was accomplished in 102 patients (87.9%). Complications associated with the treatment occurred in seven patients (6.0%). There was no case of adverse event directly related to intraperitoneal saline infusion. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal saline infusion is an effective and safe procedure that can be used to overcome the current limitations of ultrasound-guided RFA.

  5. The optimal analgesic method in saline infusion sonogram: A comparison of two effective techniques with placebo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadullah Özkan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Operations performed with local anesthesia can sometimes be extremely painful and uncomfortable for patients. Our aim was to investigate the optimal analgesic method in saline infusion sonograms.\tMaterials and Methods: This study was performed in our Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology between March and August 2011. Ninety-six patients were included. Patients were randomly divided into groups that received saline (controls, group 1, paracervical block (group 2, or paracervical block + intrauterine lidocaine (group 3. In all groups, a visual analogue scale score was performed during the tenaculum placement, while saline was administered, and 30 minutes after the procedure.\tResults: When all the patients were evaluated, the difference in the visual analogue scale scores in premenopausal patients during tenaculum placement, during the saline infusion into the cavity, and 30 minutes following the saline infusion sonography were statistically different between the saline and paracervical block groups, and between the saline and paracervical block + intrauterine lidocaine group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between paracervical block and paracervical block + intrauterine lidocaine groups.\tConclusion: As a result of our study, paracervical block is a safe method to use in premenopausal patients to prevent pain during saline infusion sonography. The addition of intrauterine lidocaine to the paracervical block does not increase the analgesic effect; moreover, it increases the cost and time that the patient stays in the dorsolithotomy position by 3 minutes.

  6. Sympathetic responses during saline infusion into the veins of an occluded limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick; Moradkhan, Raman; Pagana, Charles; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2009-07-15

    Animal studies have shown that the increased intravenous pressure stimulates the group III and IV muscle afferent fibres, and in turn induce cardiovascular responses. However, this pathway of autonomic regulation has not been examined in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that infusion of saline into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed evokes sympathetic activation in healthy individuals. Blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) responses were assessed in 19 young healthy subjects during local infusion of 40 ml saline into a forearm vein in the circulatory arrested condition. From baseline (11.8 +/- 1.2 bursts min(-1)), MSNA increased significantly during the saline infusion (22.5 +/- 2.6 bursts min(-1), P Blood pressure also increased significantly during the saline infusion. Three control trials were performed during separate visits. The results from the control trial show that the observed MSNA and blood pressure responses were not due to muscle ischaemia. The present data show that saline infusion into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed induces sympathetic activation and an increase in blood pressure. We speculate that the infusion under such conditions stimulates the afferent endings near the vessels, and evokes the sympathetic activation.

  7. Blood-brain barrier opening by isotonic saline infusion in normotensive and hypertensive animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier to intravascular Evans blue-albumin was opened in monkeys and rabbits by infusing isotonic saline for 15 s into the common carotid artery, when the external carotid was clamped temporarily and the lingual was catheterized for measuring pressure. Barrier opening correlated better with infusion pressure than with infusion rate, and occurred at carotid artery pressures above 170 mmHg. Systematic hypertension induced by Aramine increased barrier vulnerability by causing a higher net carotid artery pressure to be attained at a given infusion rate. (Auth.)

  8. Blood-brain barrier opening by isotonic saline infusion in normotensive and hypertensive animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, S I [Baltimore City Hospitals, MD (USA)

    1978-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier to intravascular Evans blue-albumin was opened in monkeys and rabbits by infusing isotonic saline for 15 s into the common carotid artery, when the external carotid was clamped temporarily and the lingual was catheterized for measuring pressure. Barrier opening correlated better with infusion pressure than with infusion rate, and occurred at carotid artery pressures above 170 mmHg. Systematic hypertension induced by Aramine increased barrier vulnerability by causing a higher net carotid artery pressure to be attained at a given infusion rate.

  9. Less impairment of hemostasis and reduced blood loss in pigs after resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock using the small-volume concept with hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch as compared to administration of 4% gelatin or 6% hydroxyethyl starch solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Thorsten; Fries, Dietmar; Holz, Carmen; Innerhofer, Petra; Streif, Werner; Klingler, Anton; Hanke, Alexander; Velik-Salchner, Corinna

    2008-04-01

    Small-volume resuscitation using hypertonic saline/hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.62 (HS-HES) has been shown to be an effective alternative to the administration of crystalloids or colloids in trauma patients. All i.v. fluids cause dose-related dilutional coagulopathy and show intrinsic effects on the hemostatic system, but only few data refer to functional consequences after small-volume resuscitation. Using thrombelastometry (ROTEM), we studied 30 pigs (weighing 35-45 kg) after withdrawal of 60% of blood volume [1484 mL (1369-1624 mL)] and receiving 4 mL/kg HS-HES for compensation of blood loss or 4% gelatin or 6% HES 130/0.4 in a 1:1 ratio to lost blood volume. To compare the ROTEM variables (coagulation time, clot formation time, alpha angle, clot firmness, and fibrinogen polymerization) with bleeding tendency, a hepatic incision was made and blood loss was measured. Median (25th, 75th percentile) fibrinogen polymerization was significantly higher after HS-HES infusion [11 mm (10, 11), P = 0.0034] when compared with administration of 4% gelatin [4.5 mm (3.0, 5.8)] or HES 130/0.4 [3.5 mm (2.3, 4.0)]. Median blood loss after liver incision was 725 mL (900, 375) after HS-HES, 1625 mL (1275, 1950) after 4% gelatin, and 1600 mL (1500, 1800) after 6% HES 130/0.4 (P = 0.004). Hemodynamic stabilization was traceable in all groups but showed differences regarding filling pressures. Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with HS-HES 200/0.62 results in less impairment of clot formation when compared with compensation of blood loss by administering 6% HES 130/0.4 or 4% gelatin.

  10. Small volume resuscitation with hypertonic sodium chloride solution in cattle undergoing surgical correction of abomasal volvulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickinger, M.; Doll, K.; Roloff, N. C.

    2014-01-01

    .5±2.1 vs. 10.3±3.3cm H2O, respectively). Within the first 60min, the base excess decreased from 5.5±6.9 to 4.7±6.2mmol/L in the hypertonic group whereas it increased from 5.6±5.7 to 6.8±5.4mmol/L in the isotonic group. These results suggest that for cows with abomasal volvulus, IV therapy with hypertonic...... had a significantly greater reduction in volume deficit within the first 10min of therapy than cows treated with isotonic saline (from 5.9±4.8 to 2.1±4.4L/100kg vs. 7.0±4.5 to 4.9±3.8L/100kg, respectively). The central venous pressure (CVP) of the cows given the hypertonic saline rose within the first...... 10 min of therapy from 7.3±3.5 to 10.8±3.4cm H2O, while the CVP of the cattle treated with isotonic saline did not increase significantly during this time.Sixty minutes after the start of the infusion, the CVP of the isotonic group was still significantly lower than that of the hypertonic group (9...

  11. Comparison of wet radiofrequency ablation with dry radiofrequency ablation and radiofrequency ablation using hypertonic saline preinjection: ex vivo bovine liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Hee Sun; Hur, Hurn; Choi, Byung Ihn; Shin, Kyung Sook

    2004-01-01

    We wished to compare the in-vitro efficiency of wet radiofrequency (RF) ablation with the efficiency of dry RF ablation and RF ablation with preinjection of NaCl solutions using excised bovine liver. Radiofrequency was applied to excised bovine livers in a monopolar mode for 10 minutes using a 200 W generator and a perfused-cooled electrode with or without injection or slow infusion of NaCl solutions. After placing the perfused-cooled electrode in the explanted liver, 50 ablation zones were created with five different regimens: group A; standard dry RF ablation, group B; RF ablation with 11 mL of 5% NaCl solution preinjection, group C; RF ablation with infusion of 11 mL of 5% NaCl solution at a rate of 1 mL/min, group D; RFA with 6 mL of 36% NaCl solution preinjection, group E; RF ablation with infusion of 6 mL of 36% NaCl solution at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. In groups C and E, infusion of the NaCl solutions was started 1 min before RF ablation and then maintained during RF ablation (wet RF ablation). During RF ablation, we measured the tissue temperature at 15 mm from the electrode. The dimensions of the ablation zones and changes in impedance, current and liver temperature during RF ablation were then compared between the groups. With injection or infusion of NaCl solutions, the mean initial tissue impedance prior to RF ablation was significantly less in groups B, C, D, and E (43-75 Ω) than for group A (80 Ω) (ρ 3 in group A; 12.4 ± 3.8 cm 3 in group B; 80.9 ± 9.9 cm 3 in group C; 45.3 ± 11.3 cm 3 in group D and 81.6 ± 8.6 cm 3 in group E. The tissue temperature measured at 15 mm from the electrode was higher in groups C, D and E than other groups (ρ < 0.05): 53 ± 12 .deg. C in group A, 42 ± 2 .deg. C in group B, 93 ± 8 .deg. C in group C; 79 ± 12 .deg. C in group D and 83 ± 8 .deg.C in group E. Wet RF ablation with 5% or 36% NaCl solutions shows better efficiency in creating a large ablation zone than does dry RF ablation or RF ablation with

  12. Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of saline infusion to maintain volemia on temporary abdominal aortic occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ferreira Amorim

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze hemodynamic and metabolic effects of saline solution infusion in the maintenance of blood volume in ischemia-reperfusion syndrome during temporary abdominal aortic occlusion in dogs. METHODS: We studied 20 dogs divided into 2 groups: the ischemia-reperfusion group (IRG, n=10 and the ischemia-reperfusion group with saline solution infusion aiming at maintaining mean pulmonary arterial wedge pressure between 10 and 20 mmHg (IRG-SS, n=10. All animals were anesthetized with sodium thiopental and maintained on spontaneous ventilation. Occlusion of the supraceliac aorta was obtained with inflation of a Fogarty catheter inserted through the femoral artery. After 60 minutes of ischemia, the balloon was deflated, and the animals were observed for another 60 minutes of reperfusion. RESULTS: IRG-SS dogs did not have hemodynamic instability after aortic unclamping, and the mean systemic blood pressure and heart rate were maintained. However, acidosis worsened, which was documented by a greater reduction of arterial pH that occurred especially due to the absence of a respiratory response to metabolic acidosis that was greater with the adoption of this procedure. CONCLUSION: Saline solution infusion to maintain blood volume avoided hemodynamic instability after aortic unclamping. This procedure, however, caused worsening in metabolic acidosis in this experimental model.

  13. Prehospital resuscitation with hypertonic saline-dextran modulates inflammatory, coagulation and endothelial activation marker profiles in severe traumatic brain injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Laurie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI initiates interrelated inflammatory and coagulation cascades characterized by wide-spread cellular activation, induction of leukocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecules and release of soluble pro/antiinflammatory cytokines and thrombotic mediators. Resuscitative care is focused on optimizing cerebral perfusion and reducing secondary injury processes. Hypertonic saline is an effective osmotherapeutic agent for the treatment of intracranial hypertension and has immunomodulatory properties that may confer neuroprotection. This study examined the impact of hypertonic fluids on inflammatory/coagulation cascades in isolated head injury. Methods Using a prospective, randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of prehospital resuscitation of severe TBI (GCS vs 0.9% normal saline (NS, on selected cellular and soluble inflammatory/coagulation markers. Serial blood samples were drawn from 65 patients (30 HSD, 35 NS at the time of hospital admission and at 12, 24, and 48-h post-resuscitation. Flow cytometry was used to analyze leukocyte cell-surface adhesion (CD62L, CD11b and degranulation (CD63, CD66b molecules. Circulating concentrations of soluble (sL- and sE-selectins (sL-, sE-selectins, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, pro/antiinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-10], tissue factor (sTF, thrombomodulin (sTM and D-dimers (D-D were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Twenty-five healthy subjects were studied as a control group. Results TBI provoked marked alterations in a majority of the inflammatory/coagulation markers assessed in all patients. Relative to control, NS patients showed up to a 2-fold higher surface expression of CD62L, CD11b and CD66b on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs and monocytes that persisted for 48-h. HSD blunted the expression of these cell-surface activation/adhesion molecules at all time-points to

  14. A comparative experimental study of the in-vitro efficiency of hypertonic saline-enhanced hepatic bipolar and monopolar radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Se Hyung; Sohn, Kyu Li; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Ah, Su Kyung; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2003-01-01

    To compare the in-vitro efficiency of a hypertonic saline (HS)- enhanced bipolar radiofrequency (RF) system with monopolar RF applications by assessing the temperature profile and dimensions of RF-created coagulation necrosis in bovine liver. A total of 27 ablations were performed in explanted bovine livers. After placement of two 16-gauge open-perfused electrodes at an interelectrode distance of 3 cm, 5% HS was instilled into tissue at a rate of 1 mL/min through the electrode. Seventeen thermal ablation zones were created in the monopolar mode (groups A, B), and ten more were created using the two open-perfused electrodes in the bipolar mode (group C). RF was applied to each electrode for 5 mins (for a total of 10 mins, group A) or 10 mins (for a total of 20 mins, group B) at 50W in the sequential monopolar mode, or to both electrodes for 10 min in the bipolar mode (group C). During RF instillation, we measured tissue temperature at the midpoint between the two electrodes. The dimensions of the thermal ablation zones and changes in impedance and wattage during RFA were compared between the groups. With open-perfusion electrodes, the mean accumulated energy output value was lower in the bipolar mode (group C: 26675±3047 Watt's) than in the monopolar mode (group A: 28778±1300 Watt's) but the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the bipolar mode, there were impedance rises of more than 700 Ω during RF energy application, but in the monopolar modes, impedance did not changed markedly. In the bipolar mode, however, the temperature at the mid-point between the two probes was higher (85 .deg. C) than in the monopolar modes (65 .deg. C, 80 .deg. C for group A, B, respectively) (p<0.05). In addition, in HS-enhanced bipolar RFA (group C), the shortest diameter at the midpoint between the two electrodes was greater than in either of the monopolar modes: 5.4±5.6 mm (group A); 28.8±8.2 mm (group B); 31.2±7.6 mm (group C) (p<0.05) Using an open

  15. Saline-induced natriuresis and renal blood flow in conscious dogs: effects of sodium infusion rate and concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandgaard, N C F; Andersen, J L; Holstein-Rathlou, N-H

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This study focused on static and dynamic changes in total renal blood flow (RBF) during volume expansion and tested whether a change in RBF characteristics is a necessary effector mechanism in saline-induced natriuresis. METHODS: The aortic flow subtraction technique was used to measure RBF...... continuously. Identical amounts of NaCl (2.4 mmol kg(-1)) were given as slow isotonic (Iso, 120 min), slow hypertonic (Hyper, 120 min), and rapid isotonic loads (IsoRapid, 30 min). RESULTS: During Iso and IsoRapid, arterial blood pressure increased slightly (6-7 mmHg), and during Hyper it remained unchanged...... saline loading simulating daily sodium intake, the rate of sodium excretion may increase 10-20-fold without any change in mean arterial blood pressure or in RBF. Regulatory responses to changes in total body NaCl levels appears, therefore, to be mediated primarily by neurohumoral mechanisms and may occur...

  16. Avaliação da hiperresponsividade brônquica à solução salina hipertônica em crianças e adolescentes Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to hypertonic saline challenge in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Kussek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a hiperresponsividade brônquica à solução salina hipertônica a 4,5% como método alternativo a outros agentes broncoconstritores e sua relação com a sensibilização alérgica do paciente. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, experimental, com 85 indivíduos assim distribuídos: 45 no grupo de asmáticos e 17 no grupo controle não asmáticos e não alérgicos, que completaram o teste. Para nebulizar a solução salina hipertônica foi utilizado um nebulizador ultra-sônico de grande volume, sucessivamente durante 0,5, 1, 2, 4 e 8 minutos até haver queda > 15% em relação ao volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo basal. A dosagem de imunoglobulina E específica ao Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus por ImmunoCap foi considerada positiva quando > 0,35 kU/L. RESULTADOS: No grupo de asmáticos, 36 apresentaram queda média do volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo de 27,4% após nebulização de solução salina hipertônica. Nenhum do grupo controle (imunoglobulina E OBJECTIVE: To assess airway hyperresponsiveness to 4.5% hypertonic saline solution in comparison to that obtained through challenge with other bronchoconstriction agents and in relation to patient allergic sensitization. METHODS: A cross-sectional, experimental study was conducted, initially involving 85 subjects. After exclusions, the final sample consisted of 62 patients, divided into two groups: a study group of those with asthma (n = 45 and a control group of those with no asthma or allergies (n = 17. Hypertonic saline was nebulized using an ultrasonic nebulizer and administered successively for 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 minutes until a drop in forced expiratory volume in one second of = 15% was achieved in relation to the baseline value. The level of specific immunoglobulin E to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus level was determined by ImmunoCAP assay and was considered positive when > 0.35 kU/L. RESULTS: In the 36 asthma group subjects presenting a

  17. Diuretic Agent and Normal Saline Infusion Technique for Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Nephrostomies in Nondilated Pelvicaliceal Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagci, Cemil; Ustuner, Evren; Atman, Ebru Dusunceli; Baltaci, Sumer; Uzun, Caglar; Akyar, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) in a nondilated pelvicaliceal system is technically challenging. We describe an effective method to achieve transient dilatation of the pelvicaliceal system via induction of diuresis using infusion of a diuretic agent in normal saline, therefore allowing easier access to the pelvicaliceal system. Under real-time ultrasound guidance, the technique had been tested in 22 nephrostomies with nondilated system (a total of 20 patients with 2 patients having bilateral nephrostomies) during a 5-year period. Patients were given 40 mg of furosemide in 250 ml of normal saline solution intravenously by rapid infusion. As soon as maximum calyceal dilatation of more than 5 mm was observed, which is usually 15 min later after the end of rapid infusion, patients were positioned obliquely, and PCN procedure under ultrasound guidance was performed. The procedure was successful in 19 of the nephrostomies in 17 patients with a success rate of 86.36 % per procedure and 85 % per patient in nondilated pelvicaliceal systems. No major nephrostomy-, drug-, or technique-related complications were encountered. The technique failed to work in three patients due to the presence of double J catheters and preexisting calyceal perforation which avoided transient dilation of the pelvicaliceal system with diuresis. Diuretic infusion in saline is a feasible and effective method for PCN in nondilated pelvicaliceal systems.

  18. Diuretic Agent and Normal Saline Infusion Technique for Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Nephrostomies in Nondilated Pelvicaliceal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagci, Cemil, E-mail: cemil.yagci@medicine.ankara.edu.tr; Ustuner, Evren, E-mail: evrenustuner@hotmail.com; Atman, Ebru Dusunceli, E-mail: ebrumd2001@yahoo.com [Ankara University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey); Baltaci, Sumer, E-mail: sbaltaci@hotmail.com [Ankara University, Department of Urology, School of Medicine (Turkey); Uzun, Caglar, E-mail: cuzun77@yahoo.com; Akyar, Serdar, E-mail: yusuf.s.akyar@medicine.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine (Turkey)

    2013-04-15

    Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) in a nondilated pelvicaliceal system is technically challenging. We describe an effective method to achieve transient dilatation of the pelvicaliceal system via induction of diuresis using infusion of a diuretic agent in normal saline, therefore allowing easier access to the pelvicaliceal system. Under real-time ultrasound guidance, the technique had been tested in 22 nephrostomies with nondilated system (a total of 20 patients with 2 patients having bilateral nephrostomies) during a 5-year period. Patients were given 40 mg of furosemide in 250 ml of normal saline solution intravenously by rapid infusion. As soon as maximum calyceal dilatation of more than 5 mm was observed, which is usually 15 min later after the end of rapid infusion, patients were positioned obliquely, and PCN procedure under ultrasound guidance was performed. The procedure was successful in 19 of the nephrostomies in 17 patients with a success rate of 86.36 % per procedure and 85 % per patient in nondilated pelvicaliceal systems. No major nephrostomy-, drug-, or technique-related complications were encountered. The technique failed to work in three patients due to the presence of double J catheters and preexisting calyceal perforation which avoided transient dilation of the pelvicaliceal system with diuresis. Diuretic infusion in saline is a feasible and effective method for PCN in nondilated pelvicaliceal systems.

  19. Rapid intravenous infusion of 20 mL/kg saline alters the distribution of perfusion in healthy supine humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A C; Sá, R C; Barash, I A; Holverda, S; Buxton, R B; Hopkins, S R; Prisk, G K

    2012-03-15

    Rapid intravenous saline infusion, a model meant to replicate the initial changes leading to pulmonary interstitial edema, increases pulmonary arterial pressure in humans. We hypothesized that this would alter lung perfusion distribution. Six healthy subjects (29 ± 6 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify perfusion using arterial spin labeling. Regional proton density was measured using a fast-gradient echo sequence, allowing blood delivered to the slice to be normalized for density and quantified in mL/min/g. Contributions from flow in large conduit vessels were minimized using a flow cutoff value (blood delivered > 35% maximum in mL/min/cm(3)) in order to obtain an estimate of blood delivered to the capillary bed (perfusion). Images were acquired supine at baseline, after infusion of 20 mL/kg saline, and after a short upright recovery period for a single sagittal slice in the right lung during breath-holds at functional residual capacity. Thoracic fluid content measured by impedance cardiography was elevated post-infusion by up to 13% (pchanges in conduit vessels, there were no significant changes in perfusion in dependent lung following infusion (7.8 ± 1.9 mL/min/g baseline, 7.9 ± 2.0 post, 8.5 ± 2.1 recovery, p=0.36). There were no significant changes in lung density. These data suggest that saline infusion increased perfusion to nondependent lung, consistent with an increase in intravascular pressures. Dependent lung may have been "protected" from increases in perfusion following infusion due to gravitational compression of the pulmonary vasculature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of the RINSE Trial: The Rapid Infusion of cold Normal Saline by paramedics during CPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Ian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR now recommends therapeutic hypothermia (TH (33°C for 12-24 hours as soon as possible for patients who remain comatose after resuscitation from shockable rhythm in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and that it be considered for non shockable rhythms. The optimal timing of TH is still uncertain. Laboratory data have suggested that there is significantly decreased neurological injury if cooling is initiated during CPR. In addition, peri-arrest cooling may increase the rate of successful defibrillation. This study aims to determine whether paramedic cooling during CPR improves outcome compared standard treatment in patients who are being resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods/Design This paper describes the methodology for a definitive multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial of paramedic cooling during CPR compared with standard treatment. Paramedic cooling during CPR will be achieved using a rapid infusion of large volume (20-40 mL/kg to a maximum of 2 litres ice-cold (4°C normal saline. The primary outcome measure is survival at hospital discharge. Secondary outcome measures are rates of return of spontaneous circulation, rate of survival to hospital admission, temperature on arrival at hospital, and 12 month quality of life of survivors. Discussion This trial will test the effect of the administration of ice cold saline during CPR on survival outcomes. If this simple treatment is found to improve outcomes, it will have generalisability to prehospital services globally. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01172678

  1. The feasibility of inducing mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac resuscitation using iced saline infusion via an intraosseous needle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Timothy J; Walterscheid, Joshua K; Kellogg, Adam R; Lodding, Cynthia C

    2010-01-01

    This study was done, using a swine model of prolonged ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, to determine the feasibility of inducing therapeutic hypothermia after successful resuscitation by giving an intraosseous infusion of iced saline. This study was IACUC approved. Liter bags of normal saline, after being refrigerated for at least 24h, were placed in an ice filled cooler. Female Yorkshire swine weighing between 27 and 35 kg were sedated and instrumented under general anesthesia. A temperature probe was inserted 10 cm into the esophagus. Ventricular fibrillation was electrically induced and allowed to continue untreated for 10 min. Animals were randomized to one of two resuscitation schemes for the primary study (N=53). One group had central intravenous access for drug delivery and the other had an intraosseous needle inserted into the proximal tibia for drug administration. Animals in which spontaneous circulation was restored were immediately cooled, for this secondary study, by means of a rapid, pump-assisted infusion of 1L of iced saline either through the intraosseous needle (n=8), the central access (n=6), or a peripheral intravenous catheter (n=7) in a systematic, non-randomized fashion. Room, animal, and saline temperatures were recorded at initiation and upon completion of infusion. The data were analyzed descriptively using Stata SE v8.1 for Macintosh. The baseline characteristics of all three groups were mathematically the same. The average ambient room temperature during the experimental sessions was 25.5 degrees C (SD=1.3 degrees C). There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups with regard to saline temperature, rate of infusion, or decrease in core body temperature. The decrease in core temperature for the intraosseous group was 2.8 degrees C (95% CI=1.8, 3.8) over the infusion period. Mild therapeutic hypothermia can be effectively induced in swine after successful resuscitation of prolonged

  2. Operating room use of hypertonic solutions: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Azoubel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions have been widely used during prehospital care of trauma patients and have shown positive hemodynamic effects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in intra-operative use of hypertonic solutions. We reviewed 30 clinical studies on the use of hypertonic saline solutions during surgeries, with the majority being cardiac surgeries. Reduced positive fluid balance, increased cardiac index, and decreased systemic vascular resistance were the main beneficial effects of using hypertonic solutions in this population. Well-designed clinical trials are highly needed, particularly in aortic aneurysm repair surgeries, where hypertonic solutions have shown many beneficial effects. Examining the immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic solutions should also be a priority in future studies.

  3. ANTHROPOMORPHIC PHANTOMS FOR ASSESSMENT OF STRAIN IMAGING METHODS INVOLVING SALINE-INFUSED SONOHYSTEROGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Maritza A.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Shi, Hairong; Hall, Timothy J.; Varghese, Tomy

    2008-01-01

    Two anthropomorphic uterine phantoms were developed which allow assessment and comparison of strain imaging systems adapted for use with saline-infused sonohysterography (SIS). Tissue-mimicking (TM) materials consist of dispersions of safflower oil in gelatin. TM fibroids are stiffer than the TM myometrium/cervix and TM polyps are softer. The first uterine phantom has 3-mm diameter TM fibroids randomly distributed in TM myometrium. The second uterine phantom has a 5-mm and an 8-mm spherical TM fibroid in addition to a 5-mm spherical and a 12.5-mm long (medicine-capsule-shaped) TM endometrial polyp protruding into the endometrial cavity; also, a 10-mm spherical TM fibroid projects from the serosal surface. Strain images using the first phantom show the stiffer 3-mm TM fibroids in the myometrium. Results from the second uterine phantom show that, as expected, parts of inclusions projecting into the uterine cavity will appear very stiff, whether they are stiff or soft. Results from both phantoms show that even though there is a five-fold difference in the Young’s moduli values, there is not a significant difference in the strain in the transition from the TM myometrium to the TM fat. These phantoms allow for realistic comparison and evolution of SIS strain imaging techniques and can aid clinical personnel to develop skills for SIS strain imaging. PMID:18514999

  4. Comparison between findings of saline infusion sonohysterography and office hysteroscopy in patients with recurrent implantation failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Reda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to determine the accuracy of saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS in the diagnosis of intrauterine pathologies in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF. Settings and Design: This is a prospective cross-over study which was carried out during the period between December 2013 and July 2014. Materials and Methods: The study involved sixty subfertile women with a history of RIF. All cases underwent a transvaginal ultrasonography, SIS and then an office hysteroscopy (1 day after SIS during early follicular phase. SIS was carried out by same sonographer, and then hysteroscopy was carried out by same gynecologist who was kept blind to findings at SIS. Statistical Analysis: Was done using IBM© SPSS© Statistics version 22. The sensitivity of SIS was calculated as it equals: True positive by SIS/all positive (true cases by hysteroscopy and specificity was calculated as it equals: True negative by SIS/all negatives (normal by hysteroscopy. Results: Overall uterine abnormalities were significantly less likely to be identified with SIS compared to hysteroscopy (P = 0.002, but analysis of each finding separately demonstrated a comparable difference between SIS and hysteroscopy (P > 0.05. We found that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of SIS to detect intrauterine pathology is 41.2%, 100%, 100%, and 81.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a good role of SIS in the workup for RIF saving more invasive procedure for selected cases.

  5. Does the addition of saline infusion sonohysterography to transvaginal ultrasonography prevent unnecessary hysteroscopy in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, John; Sharp, Benjamin; Elliot, Nikki; McEwing, Rachael; McGeoch, Graham; Shand, Brett; Holland, Kieran

    2016-08-01

    This observational case series in 65 premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding evaluated whether transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS) prevented unnecessary hysteroscopy. Although SIS indicated that hysteroscopy was unnecessary in eight women, this benefit was offset by the invasive nature of the scan, the number of endometrial abnormalities falsely detected by SIS and the cost of the additional investigation. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. Comparison of saline infusion sonohysterography and hysteroscopy in diagnosis of premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soguktas, Suna; Cogendez, Ebru; Kayatas, Semra Eser; Asoglu, Mehmet Resit; Selcuk, Selcuk; Ertekin, Aktug

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic effectiveness of transvaginal sonography (TVS), saline infusion sonohysterography (SIS), and diagnostic hysteroscopy (HS), with the pathologic specimen as a gold standard diagnostic method, in detecting endometrial pathology in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. This prospective cohort study was conducted at Zeynep Kamil Education and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, and included 89 premenopausal women. All participants were examined first by TVS, further investigated with SIS and HS, and finally dilatation and curettage was performed when needed. The results obtained from these three methods were compared with the pathologic diagnoses. The positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR-) of TVS, SIS and HS were calculated by comparison with the final pathological diagnosis. In addition, area under the curve (AUC) values were also calculated. Polypoid lesion was the most common abnormal pathology. LR+ and LR- of TVS, SIS, and HS were 3.13 and 0.15, 9.83 and 0.07, 13.7 and 0.02 respectively in detection of any abnormal pathology, and the AUCs of TVS, SIS, and HS were 0.804, 0.920, and 0.954 respectively. When the three procedures were compared with each other separately, HS had the best diagnostic accuracy, and the diagnostic accuracy of HS and SIS was superior to TVS (p(1)=0.000, p(2)=0.000). For the detection of polypoid lesions, HS was the most accurate diagnostic procedure (AUC=0.947), followed by SIS (AUC=0.894) and TVS (AUC=0.778). HS provides the most accurate diagnosis and allows treatment in the same session in premenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Feasibility of saline infusion on the liver surface during radiofrequency ablation of subcapsuIar hepatic tumor: an experimentaI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Rang; Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Seo, Heung Suk; Cho, On Koo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung Kyu; Paik, Seung Sam

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of infusion of normal saline onto the surface of the liver capsule for minimizing thermal injury of the adjacent organs during radiofrequency ablation of subcapsular hepatic tumor in an ex-vivo porcine model. We used porcine small bowel with it's serosal surface spread onto the porcine liver as an experiment model. The puncturing electrode was inserted into a 6 Fr introducer sheath, and the introducer sheath was connected to the infusion pump for creating a saline flow over the liver surface. A total of 15 ablations were divided into the control group (n=5), intermittent saline infusion group (n=5) and continuous saline infusion (n=5) group. The ablations were done during 3 minutes, and the infusion was set at 2 ml/min and stopped every 30 seconds in the intermittent saline infusion group. After the ablation, we measured the size of the ablated lesion on the surface of bowel and liver, and we also measured the depth of hepatic lesion. Ablated areas of bowel and liver surface in the control group, intermittent saline infusion group and continuous infusion group were 210.7±89.1 mm 2 , 74.6±27.2 mm 2 and 35.8±43.4 mm 2 , respectively, and 312.6±73.6 mm 2 , 228.4±110.5 mm 2 , and 80.9±55.1 mm 2 , respectively. In contrast to the broad base of the ablated area on the surface of the liver in the control group, the shapes of the lesions became narrower approaching to the liver surface in all cases of the continuous saline infusion group, and the shapes of the lesions were broad based in 3 cases and narrow based in 2 cases of the intermittent saline infusion group. Continuous infusion of normaI saline onto the surface of the liver during radiofrequency ablation of subcapsular hepatic tumor is a feasible method for minimizing thermal injury of the adjacent organs. Further exploration of the optimal parameters or techniques to maximize the hepatic ablation and simultaneously to minimize the thermal injury of

  8. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Infusion with Heated Saline in Hepatic VX2 Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Li Jing; Wu Zhiqun; Zhou Changxi; Liu Xi; Wan Yi; Duan Yunyou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluates the influence of transcatheter arterial infusion with heated saline on hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to tumor and normal hepatic tissues in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods. All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into the following two groups: (a) the treated group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL transarterial injection of 60 °C saline via the hepatic artery; (b) the control group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL injection of 37 °C saline via the hepatic artery. Using ultrasonography, the blood flows in both the portal vein and hepatic artery were measured, and the changes in the hemodynamic indices were recorded before and immediately after the injection. The changes in the tumor and normal liver tissues of the two groups were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining after the injection. Results. After the transcatheter arterial heated infusion, there was a decrease in the hepatic arterial blood flow to the tumor tissue, a significant decrease in the hepatic artery mean velocity (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the resistance index (P < 0.05). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, there were no obvious signs of tissue destruction in the normal liver tissue or the tumor tissue after heated perfusion, and coagulated blood plasma was observed in the cavities of intratumoral blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusions. The changes in tumor blood flow in the rabbit VX2 tumor model were presumably caused by microthrombi in the tumor vessels, and the portal vein likely mediated the heat loss in normal liver tissue during the transarterial heated infusion.

  9. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Infusion with Heated Saline in Hepatic VX2 Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei, E-mail: cawe-001@163.com [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Li Jing, E-mail: lijing02@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery (China); Wu Zhiqun, E-mail: zhiqunwu@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Zhou Changxi, E-mail: changxizhou@163.com [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Respiratory Disease (China); Liu Xi, E-mail: xiliu@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics (China); Wan Yi, E-mail: yiwan@163.com [The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Health Statistics, Institute for Health Informatics (China); Duan Yunyou, E-mail: yunyouduan@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics (China)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study evaluates the influence of transcatheter arterial infusion with heated saline on hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to tumor and normal hepatic tissues in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods. All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into the following two groups: (a) the treated group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL transarterial injection of 60 Degree-Sign C saline via the hepatic artery; (b) the control group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL injection of 37 Degree-Sign C saline via the hepatic artery. Using ultrasonography, the blood flows in both the portal vein and hepatic artery were measured, and the changes in the hemodynamic indices were recorded before and immediately after the injection. The changes in the tumor and normal liver tissues of the two groups were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining after the injection. Results. After the transcatheter arterial heated infusion, there was a decrease in the hepatic arterial blood flow to the tumor tissue, a significant decrease in the hepatic artery mean velocity (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the resistance index (P < 0.05). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, there were no obvious signs of tissue destruction in the normal liver tissue or the tumor tissue after heated perfusion, and coagulated blood plasma was observed in the cavities of intratumoral blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusions. The changes in tumor blood flow in the rabbit VX2 tumor model were presumably caused by microthrombi in the tumor vessels, and the portal vein likely mediated the heat loss in normal liver tissue during the transarterial heated infusion.

  10. The effect of lactose-in-saline infusion on packed cell volume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... concluded that lactose ameliorated anaemia, by inhibiting the sequestration of desialylated ..... lactose infusion further supports the conclusion that lactose played ... statistics. 3rd. Ed. Chapman and Hall, London, pp. 191-194.

  11. Optimization of induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia with cold saline infusion: A laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Fluher

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cold fluid infusions can be used to induce mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Fluid temperature higher than 4°C can increase the volume of fluid needed, prolong the induction phase of hypothermia and thus contribute to complications. We performed a laboratory experiment with two objectives. The first objective was to analyze the effect of wrapping fluid bags in ice packs on the increase of fluid temperature with time in bags exposed to ambient conditions. The second objective was to quantify the effect of insulating venous tubing and adjusting flow rate on fluid temperature increase from bag to the level of an intravenous cannula during a simulated infusion. The temperature of fluid in bags wrapped in ice packs was significantly lower compared to controls at all time points during the 120 minutes observation. The temperature increase from the bag to the level of intravenous cannula was significantly lower for insulated tubing at all infusion rates (median temperature differences between bag and intravenous cannula were: 8.9, 4.8, 4.0, and 3.1°C, for non-insulated and 5.9, 3.05, 1.1, and 0.3°C, for insulated tubing, at infusion rates 10, 30, 60, and 100 mL/minute, respectively. The results from this study could potentially be used to decrease the volume of fluid infused when inducing mild hypothermia with an infusion of cold fluids.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of foley catheter, extra-amniotic saline infusion and prostaglandin e2 suppository for labor induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Mansour Ghanaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to further compare the efficacy of PGE2 suppository, the intracervical foley catheter and extra-amniotic saline infusion in nulliparous women referred for labor induction.Totally 368 nulliparous women with a Bishop score ≤ 4 with singleton gestation, vertex presentation and intact membrane referred for labor induction were randomly assigned to 3 groups; Foley catheter alone, Extra-amniotic saline infusion (EASI and PGE2 suppository. All women received concurrent dilute oxytocine infusion. The change in the Bishop Score, labor progress, various labor endpoints and outcomes of labor were assessed.From 363 women studied after exclusion of 5, 119 were assigned to EASI, 121 to Foley and 118 to PGE2. Patients' demographics did not differ significantly between three groups nor did indication for induction (P = 0.0001. The EASI group had a significant improvement in Bishop Score 6 hours after induction. The mean time to active phase was 357±135min for EASI,457±178 for Foley and 609±238 min for PGE2 group respectively (P < 0.05.rate of spontaneous rupture of membranes was higher in the EASI group (P = 0.0001 and the mean time from the start of induction up to spontaneous rupture of membranes in the EASI group was shorter than other group(P < 0.05. The mean time to vaginal delivery was 14.8±6.1 in EASI group,11.4±4.8 in Foley and 18.9±6.4 in PGE2 group(P < 0.05.there were no differences in Apgar scores, mean neonatal birth weight and neonatal morbidity.Our study showed that pre-induction cervical ripening by EASI with concurrent oxytocin is better than Foley and PGE2 in Bishop score and various labor end point and outcomes.

  13. Out-of-Hospital Hypertonic Resuscitation Following Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulger, Eileen M.; May, Susanne; Brasel, Karen J.; Schreiber, Martin; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Newgard, Craig; Slutsky, Arthur; Coimbra, Raul; Emerson, Scott; Minei, Joseph P.; Bardarson, Berit; Kudenchuk, Peter; Baker, Andrew; Christenson, Jim; Idris, Ahamed; Davis, Daniel; Fabian, Timothy C.; Aufderheide, Tom P.; Callaway, Clifton; Williams, Carolyn; Banek, Jane; Vaillancourt, Christian; van Heest, Rardi; Sopko, George; Hata, J. Steven; Hoyt, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Context Hypertonic fluids restore cerebral perfusion with reduced cerebral edema and modulate inflammatory response to reduce subsequent neuronal injury and thus have potential benefit in resuscitation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Objective To determine whether out-of-hospital administration of hypertonic fluids improves neurologic outcome following severe TBI. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial involving 114 North American emergency medical services agencies within the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium, conducted between May 2006 and May 2009 among patients 15 years or older with blunt trauma and a prehospital Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or less who did not meet criteria for hypovolemic shock. Planned enrollment was 2122 patients. Intervention A single 250-mL bolus of 7.5% saline/6% dextran 70 (hypertonic saline/dextran), 7.5% saline (hypertonic saline), or 0.9% saline (normal saline) initiated in the out-of-hospital setting. Main Outcome Measure Six-month neurologic outcome based on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE) (dichotomized as >4 or ≤4). Results The study was terminated by the data and safety monitoring board after randomization of 1331 patients, having met prespecified futility criteria. Among the 1282 patients enrolled, 6-month outcomes data were available for 1087 (85%). Baseline characteristics of the groups were equivalent. There was no difference in 6-month neurologic outcome among groups with regard to proportions of patients with severe TBI (GOSE ≤4) (hypertonic saline/dextran vs normal saline: 53.7% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.2% [95% CI, −4.5% to 9.0%]; hypertonic saline vs normal saline: 54.3% vs 51.5%; difference, 2.9% [95% CI, −4.0% to 9.7%]; P=.67). There were no statistically significant differences in distribution of GOSE category or Disability Rating Score by treatment group. Survival at 28 days was 74.3% with hypertonic saline

  14. Ex Vivo Liver Experiment of Hydrochloric Acid-Infused and Saline-Infused Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation: Better Outcomes in Temperature, Energy, and Coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiong-ying; Gu, Yang-kui; Huang, Jin-hua, E-mail: huangjh@sysucc.org.cn; Gao, Fei; Zou, Ru-hai; Zhang, Tian-qi [Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China)

    2016-04-15

    ObjectiveTo compare temperature, energy, and coagulation between hydrochloric acid-infused radiofrequency ablation (HAIRFA) and normal saline-infused radiofrequency ablation (NSIRFA) in ex vivo porcine liver model.Materials and Methods30 fresh porcine livers were excised in 60 lesions, 30 with HAIRFA and the other 30 with NSIRFA. Both modalities used monopolar perfusion electrode connected to a RF generator set at 103 °C and 30 W. In each group, ablation time was set at 10, 20, or 30 min (10 lesions from each group at each time). We compared tissue temperatures (at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 cm away from the electrode tip), average power, deposited energy, deposited energy per coagulation volume (DEV), coagulation diameters, coagulative volume, and spherical ratio between the two groups.ResultsTemperature–time curves showed that HAIRFA provided progressively greater heating than that of NSIRFA. At 30 min, mean average power, deposited energy, coagulation volumes (113.67 vs. 12.28 cm{sup 3}) and diameters, and increasing in tissue temperature were much greater with HAIRFA (P < 0.001 for all), except DEV was lower (456 vs. 1396 J/cm{sup 3}, P < 0.001). The spherical ratio was closer to 1 with HAIRFA (1.23 vs. 1.46). Coagulation diameters, volume, and average power of HAIRFA increased significantly with longer ablation times. While with NSIRFA, these characteristics were stable till later 20 min, except the power decreased with longer ablation times.ConclusionsHAIRFA creates much larger and more spherical lesions by increasing overall energy deposition, modulating thermal conductivity, and transferring heat during ablation.

  15. Comparison of Sensitivity & Specificity of Transvaginal Sonography, Saline Infusion Sonohysterography and Hysteroscopy in Evaluation of Women with Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Shojaie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bleeding disorders are a common problem in daily practice, especially in premenopausal women. In our investigation, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of three different diagnostic methods Trans-vaginal sonography(TVS, saline infusion sonohystrography(SIS and Hysteroscopy. Methods: It was a cross- sectional study with a study population of ninety-nine women suffering fromAUB attending the outpatient clinic of Imam and Razi hospital in Ahvaz- Iran. They were evaluated by three different diagnostic methods and the results were compared. This study started from March 2008 to December 2008. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values were measured in TVS, SIS, and finally these two methods were compared with hysteroscopy (as a gold standard. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of TVS was 74.2% and 49.7%, respectively, while that of SIS was 91.6% and 86%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of TVS was 71.9% and 54.3%, respectively, while that of SIS was 85.9% and 85.75%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive and negative predictive values of SIS was more than TVS, and it was similar to hysteroscopy. Conclusion: The findings obtained in the present study indicate that in AUB, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of SIS is more than TVS and therefore can be considered as a first step for diagnosis of AUB.

  16. Association between continuous peripheral i.v. infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection and phlebitis in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lina; Nguyen, Cherwyn M; Patel, Samit; Mlynash, Michael; Caulfield, Anna Finley

    2018-03-01

    One institution's experience with use of peripheral i.v. (PIV) catheters for prolonged infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection at rates up to 100 mL/hr is described. A prospective, observational, 13-month quality assurance project was conducted at an academic medical center to evaluate frequencies of patient and catheter phlebitis among adult inpatients who received both an infusion of 3% sodium chloride injection for a period of ≥4 hours through a dedicated PIV catheter and infusions of routine-care solutions (RCSs) through separate PIV catheters during the same hospital stay. Sixty patients received PIV infusions through a total of 291 catheters during the study period. The majority of patients (78%) received infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection for intracranial hypertension, with 30% receiving such infusions in the intensive care unit. Phlebitis occurred in 28 patients (47%) during infusions of 3% sodium chloride and 26 patients (43%) during RCS infusions ( p = 0.19). Catheter phlebitis occurred in 73 catheters (25%), with no significant difference in the frequencies of catheter phlebitis with infusion of 3% sodium chloride versus RCSs (30% [32 of 106 catheters]) versus 22% [41 of 185 catheters]), p = 0.16). Patient and catheter phlebitis rates were not significantly different with infusions of 3% sodium chloride injection versus RCSs, suggesting that an osmolarity cutoff value of 900 mOsm/L for peripheral infusions of hypertonic saline solutions may not be warranted. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Quintard, Hervé ; Patet, Camille; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Suys, Tamarah; Bouzat, Pierre; Pellerin, Luc; Meuli, Reto; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Oddo, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy

  19. Use of Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution at Surgery under Extracorporeal Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data available in the references on different aspects of using hypertonic sodium chloride solution during surgery under extracorporeal circulation in cardiosurgical care. The hypertonic solution is shown to lower positive fluid balance in the perioperative period, to increase cardiac output with simultaneously decreased vascular resistance, to improve lung oxygenating function, and to normalize tissue blood circulation and neurological status in patients exposed to artificial perfusion. There is evidence for its effect on the immune system and capillary endothelium. It is suggested that it is necessary to study the effect of the hypertonic solution on the incidence of complications and death rates during surgery under extracorporeal circulation and it is proposed to use the solution under long-term extracorporeal circulation. Key words: hypertonic saline, sodium chloride, extracorporeal circulation.

  20. Induction of labour by balloon catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion (BCEAS): a randomised comparison with PGE2 vaginal pessaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyndrup, J; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtof; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A new method for induction of labour--balloon catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion (BCEAS)--is evaluated in randomised comparison with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in vaginal pessaries. STUDY GROUP: One-hundred and nine pregnant women with unfavourable cervices. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURES......: The efficiency of inducing vaginal delivery and the level of 'disadvantages following induction of labour' (DisFIL scorings). RESULTS: Overall, BCEAS was less efficient inducing vaginal delivery than vaginal PGE2 (P women (P ...) primiparous women group, and particularly in the subgroup of these having very low pelvic scores (Lange score,

  1. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of 2-L infusions of 0.9% saline and plasma-lyte® 148 on renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Cox, Eleanor F; Francis, Susan T; Lobo, Dileep N

    2012-07-01

    We compared the effects of intravenous infusions of 0.9% saline ([Cl] 154 mmol/L) and Plasma-Lyte 148 ([Cl] 98 mmol/L, Baxter Healthcare) on renal blood flow velocity and perfusion in humans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Animal experiments suggest that hyperchloremia resulting from 0.9% saline infusion may affect renal hemodynamics adversely, a phenomenon not studied in humans. Twelve healthy adult male subjects received 2-L intravenous infusions over 1 hour of 0.9% saline or Plasma-Lyte 148 in a randomized, double-blind manner. Crossover studies were performed 7 to 10 days apart. MRI scanning proceeded for 90 minutes after commencement of infusion to measure renal artery blood flow velocity and renal cortical perfusion. Blood was sampled and weight recorded hourly for 4 hours. Sustained hyperchloremia was seen with saline but not with Plasma-Lyte 148 (P Blood volume changes were identical (P = 0.867), but there was greater expansion of the extravascular fluid volume after saline (P = 0.029). There was a significant reduction in mean renal artery flow velocity (P = 0.045) and renal cortical tissue perfusion (P = 0.008) from baseline after saline, but not after Plasma-Lyte 148. There was no difference in concentrations of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin after the 2 infusions (P = 0.917). This is the first human study to demonstrate that intravenous infusion of 0.9% saline results in reductions in renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion. This has implications for intravenous fluid therapy in perioperative and critically ill patients. NCT01087853.

  2. Induction of labour by balloon catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion (BCEAS): a randomised comparison with PGE2 vaginal pessaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyndrup, J; Nickelsen, Carsten Nahne Amtoft; Weber, Tom

    1994-01-01

    section followed BCEAS than PGE2 (29% and 10%, respectively; P infectious complications were not recorded following BCEAS. No difference was apparent in the status of the neonates (judging from Apgar scores and umbilical artery pH and SBE). The women, delivering vaginally, commented......OBJECTIVE: A new method for induction of labour--balloon catheter with extra-amniotic saline infusion (BCEAS)--is evaluated in randomised comparison with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in vaginal pessaries. STUDY GROUP: One-hundred and nine pregnant women with unfavourable cervices. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURES......: The efficiency of inducing vaginal delivery and the level of 'disadvantages following induction of labour' (DisFIL scorings). RESULTS: Overall, BCEAS was less efficient inducing vaginal delivery than vaginal PGE2 (P

  3. Intravenous infusion of H2-saline suppresses oxidative stress and elevates antioxidant potential in Thoroughbred horses after racing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masahiko; Kusano, Kanichi; Ishibashi, Toru; Kiuchi, Masataka; Koyama, Katsuhiro

    2015-10-23

    Upon intensive, exhaustive exercise, exercise-induced reactive oxygen species may exceed the antioxidant defence threshold, consequently resulting in muscular damage or late-onset chronic inflammation. Recently, the therapeutic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) for human rheumatoid arthritis have been demonstrated. However, it is also important to clarify the effects of administrating H2 in large animals other than humans, as H2 is thought to reach the target organ by passive diffusion upon delivery from the blood flow, indicating that the distance from the administration point to the target is critical. However, data on the effects of H2 on oxidative stress in real-life exhaustive exercise in large animals are currently lacking. We here investigated 13 Thoroughbred horses administered intravenous 2-L saline with or without 0.6-ppm H2 (placebo, N = 6; H2, N = 7) before participating in a high-intensity simulation race. Intravenous H2-saline significantly suppressed oxidative stress immediately, 3 h, and 24 h after the race, although the antioxidant capability was not affected throughout the study. The serum creatine kinase, lactate, and uric acid levels were increased in both groups. Taken together, these results indicate that intravenous H2-saline can significantly and specifically suppress oxidative stress induced after exhaustive racing in Thoroughbred horses.

  4. "FOLEY CATHETER CERVICAL RIPENING WITH EXTRAAMNIOTIC INFUSION OF SALINE OR CORTICOSTEROIDS: A DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Sh. Zafarghandi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Induction of labor is one of the most common procedures during pregnancy. Various methods for cervical ripening and labor induction have been described in the obstetrics literature; but the role of corticosteroids in the process of labor is not entirely understood. This study challenged the possible role of corticosteroids in induction of labor by extra-amniotic injection through an inflated intracervical Foley balloon catheter. This randomized trial was conducted on 44 women with a single pregnancy, intact membranes, and an unfavorable cervix. They were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg of dexamethasone in saline solution (study group, n=22 or saline solution only (control group, n=22 administered extra-amniotically through an intracervical inflated Foley balloon catheter. Eighteen (81.8% patients in the study group and 20 (90.9% in the control group entered the active phase of labor and were delivered vaginally. The mean time intervals between induction of labor to the active phase and between induction of labor to delivery were significantly shorter in the study group compared with those of the control group (3.3±2.1 hours vs. 9±4.7 hours, P<0.01, 5.7±3.4 hours vs. 6.9±4.7 hours, P<0.01, respectively. There was no maternal or fetal complication in study or control group. The intracervical Foley balloon catheter with extra-amniotic corticosteroids was more efficient in reducing the induction-to-delivery interval for termination of midtrimester pregnancies than the same Foley catheter with saline solution only. Cervical ripening with extra-amniotic corticosteroids possesses the advantages of simplicity, low cost, and lack of systemic or serious side effects.

  5. Millimeter wave therapy in hypertonic disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Millimeter wave therapy in hypertonic disease treatment promotes disappearance of negative clinical symptoms, normalization of arterial pressure indicators, improvement of system and cerebral hemodynamic. In spite of active using of wideband equipment in treatment for cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertonic disease, the procedures generalizing experience in their use are not enough. Thus further investigation, searching of new treatment methods using up-to-date physiotherapy technology seem to be actual.

  6. Hot Hypertonic Saline and Compression Device: A Novel Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    plastic spatula was then padded/bolstered with gauze and then secured on the border ... heat energy that causes disruption of the intima and eventually collapse and ... to occlude and seal off the vessels, and with this, it became possible to ...

  7. Effects of hypertonic dextrose injections in the rabbit carpal tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yuichi; Zhao, Chunfeng; Schmelzer, James D; Low, Phillip A; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of different doses of hypertonic dextrose injection on the carpal tunnel subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) and median nerve in a rabbit model. Thirty-eight New Zealand white rabbits weighing 4.0-4.5 kg were used. One forepaw carpal tunnel was randomly injected with one of five different treatments: saline-single injection; saline-two injections 1 week apart; 10% dextrose-single injection; 20% dextrose-single injection; or 10% dextrose-two injections 1 week apart. Animals were sacrificed at 12 weeks after the initial injection and were evaluated by electrophysiology (EP), SSCT mechanical testing and histology. There were significant increases in the energy absorption of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline injection groups. SSCT stiffness was also significantly increased in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the other groups. There was a significant increase in the thickness of the SSCT in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group and a significant decrease in the nerve short-long diameter ratio in the 10% dextrose-double injection group compared to the saline-single injection group. There were no changes in EP among the groups. SSCT fibrosis is present for up to 12 weeks after dextrose injection; multiple injections have bigger effects, including what appears to be a secondary change in nerve flattening. This model may be useful to study the effects of external fibrosis on nerve morphology and physiology, such as occurs clinically in carpal tunnel syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  8. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  9. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tromethamine (THAM has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP. Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  10. Inalação de solução salina hipertônica como coadjuvante da fisioterapia respiratória para reversão de atelectasia no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca pediátrica Inhalation of hypertonic saline solution as coadjuvant in respiratory physiotherapy to reverse atelectasis in the postoperative of pediatric heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Luisa Saiki da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Criança de 11 meses, sexo feminino, submetida à operação de fechamento de comunicação interventricular, comunicação interatrial e ligadura de canal arterial. Evoluiu no pós-operatório com atelectasia persistente em base pulmonar à direita, não respondendo às manobras fisioterapêuticas convencionais, efetuadas seis vezes ao dia. Após associação, como coadjuvante, da inalação de solução salina hipertônica com NaCl a 6%, imediatamente antes e após o atendimento fisioterápico, observou-se crises de tosse produtiva, com maior indução do escarro e resolução completa da atelectasia, com três dias de tratamento.The case of an eleven-month-old female child is presented diagnosed as having congenital heart disease with pulmonary hyperflow, who was submitted to a surgery to close an interventricular communication, interatrial communication and arterial canal ligature. The infant evolved with persistent atelectasis at the right lung base in the postoperative period which did not respond to conventional physiotherapeutic measures. Inhalation of hypertonic saline solution with 6% NaCl was associated as a coadjuvant therapy, giving a total cure of the atelectasis after three days of treatment.

  11. Infusion Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  12. Infusion cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaes, B.; Rootwelt, K.; Sjaastad, O.

    1976-01-01

    A source of error in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infusion tests is leakage at the dural puncture site. The addition of a bolus of radionuclide to the infusion fluid was helpful in detecting the existence of leakage as shown by increased infusion pressure in six of eight patients studied with and without scintigraphic evidence of leakage. Comparison of CSF dynamics in 26 patients studied by infusion cisternography and conventional cisternography showed similar patterns, suggesting no alteration of CSF dynamics by the artificial CSF infusion. Combining the two tests, therefore, resulted in simple identification of the leakage and saved the patient time and discomfort

  13. Phosphoinositolphosphate (PIP) cascade induction by hypertonic stress of plant tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Jacoby, B.

    1989-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) was determined by competition with [ 3 H]-IP 3 for binding to an IP 3 specific protein. A hypertonic mannitol, sorbitol or lactose shock induced an increase in the rate of K + uptake and raised the IP 3 content of Beta vulgaris slices, excised Vigna mungo and Sorghum bicolor roots, as well as attached V. mungo roots. Increased K + uptake could also be induced by compounds that artificially induce the PIP cascade, or mimic it's products. A hypertonic shock, administered to intact B. vulgaris slices, further enhanced the phosphorylation of a 20 kD protein in the plasmalemma. Maximal IP 3 content was found 10 min after hypertonic induction and maximal K + uptake was obtained 10 min later. The effect of a continuous hypertonic treatment on IP 3 content, but not on K + uptake, was transient. Li + decreased the rate of IP 3 metabolism

  14. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. intravenous infusion of chlorimipramine (anafranil)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the already extensive outpatient facilities at Johannesburg. Hospital as well as the Tara Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital for long-term therapy. Technique of Chlorimipramine Infusion. Initially 1 ampoule of chlorimipramine 25 mg in 250 mg of 5°~ dextrose saline was administered intravenously at the rate of 60 drops per minute.

  16. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of 1-L infusions of 6% hydroxyethyl starch suspended in 0.9% saline (voluven) and a balanced solution (Plasma Volume Redibag) on blood volume, renal blood flow velocity, and renal cortical tissue perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Cox, Eleanor F; Francis, Susan T; Lobo, Dileep N

    2014-05-01

    We compared the effects of intravenous administration of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (maize-derived) in 0.9% saline (Voluven; Fresenius Kabi, Runcorn, United Kingdom) and a "balanced" preparation of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (potato-derived) [Plasma Volume Redibag (PVR); Baxter Healthcare, Thetford, United Kingdom] on renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion in humans using magnetic resonance imaging. Hyperchloremia resulting from 0.9% saline infusion may adversely affect renal hemodynamics when compared with balanced crystalloids. This phenomenon has not been studied with colloids. Twelve healthy adult male subjects received 1-L intravenous infusions of Voluven or PVR over 30 minutes in a randomized, double-blind manner, with crossover studies 7 to 10 days later. Magnetic resonance imaging proceeded for 60 minutes after commencement of infusion to measure renal artery blood flow velocity and renal cortical perfusion. Blood was sampled, and weight was recorded at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Mean peak serum chloride concentrations were 108 and 106 mmol/L, respectively, after Voluven and PVR infusion (P = 0.032). Changes in blood volume (P = 0.867), strong ion difference (P = 0.219), and mean renal artery flow velocity (P = 0.319) were similar. However, there was a significant increase in mean renal cortical tissue perfusion after PVR when compared with Voluven (P = 0.033). There was no difference in urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated liopcalin to creatinine ratios after the infusion (P = 0.164). There was no difference in the blood volume-expanding properties of the 2 preparations of 6% hydroxyethyl starch. The balanced starch produced an increase in renal cortical tissue perfusion, a phenomenon not seen with starch in 0.9% saline.

  17. New Form of Hypertonic Solution for Nebulization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytic, expectorative and antitussive drugs are traditionally used in acute or chronic respiratory episodes affected by acute respiratory infections. Today, preference is given to drugs in a form of solutions for nebulization therapy. The article presents data on the new dosage form of 7% inhalation hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid used in mucostasis therapy for chronic respiratory diseases. The information on the properties and the favorable effect of hyaluronic acid is provided. We discuss the evidence base of inhalation of the hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid in cystic fibrosis.

  18. routine saline infusion sonohysterography prior to assisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University College Hospital, Ibadan. 2. Department of Obstetrics ... tenaculum, and a Wallace classic embryo replacement catheter (Smith .... thorough diagnostic procedures, including modern imaging ...

  19. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  20. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo; Navickis, Roberta J; Wilkes, Mahlon M

    2012-04-01

    Albumin infusion reduces the incidence of postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction among patients with cirrhosis and tense ascites, as compared with no treatment. Treatment alternatives to albumin, such as artificial colloids and vasoconstrictors, have been widely investigated. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether morbidity and mortality differ between patients receiving albumin versus alternative treatments. The meta-analysis included randomized trials evaluating albumin infusion in patients with tense ascites. Primary endpoints were postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction, hyponatremia, and mortality. Eligible trials were sought by multiple methods, including computer searches of bibliographic and abstract databases and the Cochrane Library. Results were quantitatively combined under a fixed-effects model. Seventeen trials with 1,225 total patients were included. There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Compared with alternative treatments, albumin reduced the incidence of postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.55). Significant reductions in that complication by albumin were also shown in subgroup analyses versus each of the other volume expanders tested (e.g., dextran, gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch, and hypertonic saline). The occurrence of hyponatremia was also decreased by albumin, compared with alternative treatments (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87). In addition, mortality was lower in patients receiving albumin than alternative treatments (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-0.98). This meta-analysis provides evidence that albumin reduces morbidity and mortality among patients with tense ascites undergoing large-volume paracentesis, as compared with alternative treatments investigated thus far. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  1. Intravenous lidocaine infusion--a new treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Petersen, P; Dejgård, A

    1987-01-01

    after lidocaine infusion compared to after saline infusion (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.02, respectively). The duration of the individual effect ranged from 3 to 21 days. Lidocaine infusion had no effect on the objective measurements of neuropathy. Intravenous lidocaine infusion seems to be a new...

  2. Transperitoneal transport of sodium during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Brahm, J

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of transperitoneal sodium transport during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis were evaluated by kinetic modelling. A total of six nested mathematical models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective and lymphatic convective solute transport....... Experimental results were obtained from 26 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The model validation procedure demonstrated that only diffusive and non-lymphatic convective transport mechanisms were identifiable in the transperitoneal transport of sodium. Non-lymphatic convective sodium...

  3. Effect of steel and teflon infusion catheters on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and infusion counter pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Kaastrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous tissue is an important target for drug deposition or infusion. A local trauma may induce alterations in local microcirculation and diffusion barriers with consequences for drug bioavailability. We examined the influence of infusion catheters' wear time on local...... microcirculation and infusion counter pressure. METHODS: One steel catheter and one Teflon (Dupont, Wilmington, DE) catheter were inserted in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in 10 healthy, lean men. The catheters were infused with isotonic saline at a rate of 10 microL/h for 48 h. Another steel...... catheter and a Teflon catheter were inserted contralateral to the previous catheters after 48 h. The infusion counter pressure was measured during a basal infusion rate followed by a bolus infusion. The measurements during a basal rate infusion were repeated after the bolus infusion. Adipose tissue blood...

  4. Erythroid differentiation and commitment in rat erythroleukemia cells with hypertonic culture conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Y; Kluge, N; Ostertag, W; Furusawa, M

    1981-01-01

    Cell cultures of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat erythroleukemia can be stimulated to synthesize hemoglobin when cultured in hypertonic media. During hypertonic treatment the intracellular osmotic conditions immediately readjust to those of the extracellular medium. None of the Friend virus-induced mouse erythroleukemia cell lines was inducible for differentiation with the same hypertonic culture conditions used for rat cells. Earliest commitment to erythroid terminal differentiati...

  5. Effect of equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic sodium lactate versus mannitol in craniectomy patients with moderate traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad R. Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain relaxation and prevention from cerebral edema are essential in craniectomy. Osmotherapy with 20% mannitol are generally used to withdraw fluid from the brain parenchyma, however may cause hemodynamic fluctuation, due to increase diuresis. On the other hand 0.5 M hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL appeared as an alternative of osmotherapy. This study  aimed to observe the effect of hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL on brain relaxation, blood glucose level and hemodynamic variables in craniectomy due to moderate brain injury.Methods: A randomized controlled study of 42 cases with moderate brain injury, aged 18 - 65 years, ASA 1 - 3, between September-November 2012, was carried out. The patients were divided into group M (n = 21 that received 2.5 mL/kg 20% mannitol and group HSL that received 2.5 mL/kg 0.5M HSL. Mean arterial pressures (MAP, central venous pressures (CVP and urine output were measured after induction, and at 15, 30, 45, 60 min after infusion. Brain relaxation was assessed at a four-point scale after opening the duramater. Blood glucose levels were measured before induction and at 60 min after the infusion. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. Unpaired t-test was used to compare hemodynamic and blood glucose level, and chi-square was used to compare brain relaxation.Results: MAP at 60 minute was significantly higher in HSL group than M group (81.66 ± 7.85 vs 74.33 ± 6.18 mmHg; p = 0.002. There was no difference in brain relaxation (p = 0.988. A significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in group HSL (17.95 ± 11.46 mg/dL; p = 0.001.Conclusion: Half-molar HSL was as effective as 20% mannitol in producing brain relaxation, with better hemodynamic stability and gave significant increase in blood glucose level.Keywords: brain relaxation, hemodynamic, hypertonic sodium lactate, mannitol, traumatic brain injury

  6. What are the effects of hypertonic saline plus furosemide in acute heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Zepeda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de nuevas terapias para resolver la resistencia a los diuréticos en insuficiencia cardiaca aguda se ha planteado la adición de suero hipertónico. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen nueve estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Se concluye que el suero hipertónico asociado a furosemida probablemente disminuye la mortalidad, estadía y reingreso hospitalario en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada.

  7. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-01-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment

  8. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Anas M; Turner, Michael R; Mager, Donald E; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2015-03-01

    The subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after s.c. administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyperosmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as the animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) on the plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after s.c. administration. An increase was observed in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, compared with isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to the improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph nodes in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatics, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05% in isotonic buffer to 13% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. The data suggest that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option for improving s.c. bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Hyponatraemia as the cause of severe cerebral symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Overgaard-Steensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    to increase the plasma [Na+]/reveal the symptoms and 2) coma treated successfully with infusions of hypertonic saline boluses. Effective treatment is simple and involves management of airway, breathing and circulation together with bolus infusions of hypertonic saline to ensure controllable plasma [Na...

  10. The role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy: time for changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zunjia; Wu, Chao; Cui, Feifei; Zhang, Haiying; Mei, Binbin; Shen, Meifen

    2016-12-09

    Saline fluid nebulization is highly recommend to combat the complications following tracheostomy, yet the understandings on the role of osmolality in saline solution for nebulization remain unclear. To investigate the biological changes in the early stage after tracheostomy, to verify the efficacy of saline fluid nebulization and explore the potential role of osmolality of saline nebulization after tracheostomy. Sprague-Dawley rats undergone tracheostomy were taken for study model, the sputum viscosity was detected by rotational viscometer, the expressions of TNF-α, AQP4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed by western blot analysis, and the histological changes in endothelium were evaluated by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Study results revealed that tracheostomy gave rise to the increase of sputum viscosity, TNF-α and AQP4 expression, mucosa and cilia damage, yet the saline fluid nebulization could significantly decrease the changes of those indicators, besides, the hypertonic, isotonic and hypertonic saline nebulization produced different efficacy. Osmolality plays an important role in the saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy, and 3% saline fluid nebulization seems to be more beneficial, further studies on the role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization are warranted.

  11. Upper Limb Hypertonicity in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review Study on Medical and Rehabilitative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rassafiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypertonicity is the most common type of cerebral palsy consists of 85% of the affected children. It has a very complex nature making intervention and management very difficult. This article tries to make reader familiar with various types of intervention and introduce a new intervention process to help clinicians decide better. Literature was reviewed with two criteria including: identifying various interventions and their effects on upper limb hypertonicity and level ofinvasiveness of each intervention. This paper suggested a new way of looking at hypertonicitybased on its two components (i.e., neural and biomechanical and effectiveness of each intervention on these components. In the treatment and management of hypertonicity, clinicians are required tolook at all aspects of hypertonicity and then based on the provided decision tree, decide which kind of treatment to be used for the child.

  12. Effect of Intravenous Infusion Solutions on Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Jason; Rafii, Mahroukh; Azcue, Maria; Pencharz, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is often used to measure body fluid spaces and thereby body composition. However, in acute animal studies, we found that impedance was driven by the saline content of intravenous (IV) fluids and not by the volume. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 3 different fluids acutely administered on the change in impedance, specifically resistance (R). Nine healthy adults participated in 3 treatment (0.9% saline, 5% dextrose, and a mixture of 0.3% saline + 3.3% dextrose) experiments on nonconsecutive days. They all received 1 L of one of the treatments intravenously over a 1-hour period. Repeated BIA measurements were performed prior to IV infusion and then every 5 minutes for the 1-hour infusion period, plus 3 more measurements up to 15 minutes after the completion of the infusion. The change in R in the 0.9% saline infusion experiment was significantly lower than that of the glucose and mixture treatment ( P < .001). Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and BIA measure salt rather than the volume changes over the infusion period. Hence, in patients receiving IV fluids, BIA of any kind (single frequency or multifrequency) cannot be used to measure body fluid spaces or body composition.

  13. Involvement of TRPV1 and AQP2 in hypertonic stress by xylitol in odontoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, M; Fujisawa, M; Miyashita, K; Kawakami, Y; Morimoto-Yamashita, Y; Torii, M

    2015-02-01

    To examine the responses of mouse odontoblast-lineage cell line (OLC) cultures to xylitol-induced hypertonic stress. OLCs were treated with xylitol, sucrose, sorbitol, mannitol, arabinose and lyxose. Cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium assay. The expression of transient receptor potential vanilloids (TRPV) 1, 3 and 4 was detected using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The expression of aquaporin (AQP) 2 was detected using immunofluorescence and Western blotting analysis. The expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) under xylitol-induced hypertonic stress was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for AQP-2 was used to inhibition assay. Xylitol-induced hypertonic stress did not decrease OLC viability, unlike the other sugars tested. OLCs expressed TRPV1, 3 and 4 as well as AQP2. Xylitol inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 expression after 3 h of hypertonic stress. TRPV1 mRNA expression was upregulated by xylitol. Costimulation with HgCl2 (AQP inhibitor) and Ruthenium red (TRPV1 inhibitor) decreased cell viability with xylitol stimulation. OLCs treated with siRNA against TRPV1 exhibited decreased cell viability with xylitol stimulation. OLCs have high-cell viability under xylitol-induced hypertonic stress, which may be associated with TRPV1 and AQP2 expressions.

  14. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1996-05-01

    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  15. Modification of permeability of frog perineurium to [14C]-sucrose by stretch and hypertonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerasuriya, A.; Rapoport, S.I.; Taylor, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    An in vitro method has been developed to determine quantitatively the permeability of the perineurium to radiotracers at room temperature. The permeability to [ 14 C]sucrose of the isolated perineurium of the sciatic nerve of the frog, Rana pipiens, was measured at rest length, when the perineurium was stretched and after the perineurium had been subjected to hypertonic treatment. Mean permeability at rest length was calculated to be 5.6 +- 0.27 (S.E.M., n=45)x10 -7 cm/sec, and both stretch and hypertonic treatment increased the permeability. A 10% stretch increased permeability reversibly, whereas a 20% stretch or immersion of the perineurium in a hypertonic bath increased permeability irreversibly. Altered permeability under these conditions might be related to changes in the ultrastructure of tight junctions in the perineurium. (Auth.)

  16. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  17. Regional deposition of saline aerosols of different tonicities in normal and asthmatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, P.R.; Gonda, I.; Anderson, S.D.; Bailey, D.; Bautovich, G.

    1994-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosols are frequently used in the diagnosis and therapy of lung disease. The purpose of this work was to study the difference in the pattern of deposition of aerosols containing aqueous solutions of different tonicities. 99m Technetium-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA)-labelled saline aerosols, with mass median aerodynamic diameter 3.7-3.8 μm and geometric standard deviation 1.4, were inhaled under reproducible breathing conditions on two occasions. Hypotonic and hypertonic solutions were used in 11 normals subjects, isotonic and hypertonic solutions in 9 asthmatics. The regional deposition was quantified by a penetration index measured with the help of a tomographic technique. There was a small but significant increase (6.7%) in the penetration index of the hypotonic as compared to the hypertonic aerosols in the normal subjects. The region that was markedly affected was the trachea. The differences in the penetration of the isotonic and hypertonic aerosols in the asthmatics appeared to be strongly dependent on the state of the airways at the time of the study. These findings can be interpreted in terms of effects of growth or shrinkage of nonisotonic aerosols, as well as of airway narrowing, on regional deposition of aerosols. Tonicity of aerosols appears to affect their deposition both through physical and physiological mechanisms. This should be taken into account when interpreting the effects of inhaled aqueous solutions of various tonicities in patients in vivo. (au) (44 refs.)

  18. Continuous-infusion adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.S.; Chawla, S.P.; Ewer, M.S.; Hortobagyi, G.N.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter discusses the diminished cardiotoxicity as well as diminished nausea and vomiting with continuous infusions of adriamycin to patients undergoing radiation therapy, particularly with infusions of 48 hours or longer, and best with 96-hour infusions, the longest duration that has been studied systematically. In breast cancer, data show that more adriamycin is better, but only for a selected subgroup of patients: those with complete remission. The diminished cardiotoxicity makes the use of adriamycin more attractive in the adjuvant situation, where increased safety will decrease the chances of long-term complications and make retreatment easy for cured patients who develop second malignancies

  19. Continuous infusion thermodilution for assessment of coronary flow: Theoretical background and in vitro validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't M.; Geven, M.C.F.; Rutten, M.C.M.; Horst, van der A.; Aarnoudse, W.H.; Pijls, N.H.J.; Vosse, van de F.N.

    2009-01-01

    Direct volumetric assessment of coronary flow during cardiac catheterization has not been available so far. In the current study continuous infusion thermodilution, a method based on continuous infusion of saline into a selective coronary artery is evaluated. Theoretically, volumetric flow can be

  20. The hypertonic environment differentially regulates wild-type CFTR and TNR-CFTR chloride channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Cheng, Jie; Krasnov, Kristina; Cebotaru, Liudmila; Cutting, Garry R; Souza-Menezes, Jackson; Morales, Marcelo M; Guggino, William B

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that the hypertonic environment of the renal medulla regulates the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) and its natural splice variant, TNR-CFTR. To accomplish this, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) stable cell lines expressing TNR-CFTR or CFTR were used. The cells were treated with hypertonic medium made with either NaCl or urea or sucrose (480 mOsm/kg or 560 mOsm/kg) to mimic the tonicity of the renal medulla environment. Western blot data showed that CFTR and TNR-CFTR total cell protein is increased by hypertonic medium, but using the surface biotinylation technique, only CFTR was found to be increased in cell plasma membrane. Confocal microscopy showed TNR-CFTR localization primarily at the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. In conclusion, CFTR and TNR-CFTR have different patterns of distribution in MDCK cells and they are modulated by a hypertonic environment, suggesting their physiological importance in renal medulla. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Inducible nucleosome depletion at OREBP-binding-sites by hypertonic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith H Y Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osmotic Response Element-Binding Protein (OREBP, also known as TonEBP or NFAT5, is a unique transcription factor. It is hitherto the only known mammalian transcription factor that regulates hypertonic stress-induced gene transcription. In addition, unlike other monomeric members of the NFAT family, OREBP exists as a homodimer and it is the only transcription factor known to bind naked DNA targets by complete encirclement in vitro. Nevertheless, how OREBP interacts with target DNA, also known as ORE/TonE, and how it elicits gene transcription in vivo, remains unknown. METHODOLOGY: Using hypertonic induction of the aldose reductase (AR gene activation as a model, we showed that OREs contained dynamic nucleosomes. Hypertonic stress induced a rapid and reversible loss of nucleosome(s around the OREs. The loss of nucleosome(s was found to be initiated by an OREBP-independent mechanism, but was significantly potentiated in the presence of OREBP. Furthermore, hypertonic induction of AR gene was associated with an OREBP-dependent hyperacetylation of histones that spanned the 5' upstream sequences and at least some exons of the gene. Nevertheless, nucleosome loss was not regulated by the acetylation status of histone. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings offer novel insights into the mechanism of OREBP-dependent transcriptional regulation and provide a basis for understanding how histone eviction and transcription factor recruitment are coupled.

  2. Understanding Infusion Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeff E

    2018-04-01

    Infusion systems are complicated electromechanical systems that are used to deliver anesthetic drugs with moderate precision. Four types of systems are described-gravity feed, in-line piston, peristaltic, and syringe. These systems are subject to a number of failure modes-occlusion, disconnection, siphoning, infiltration, and air bubbles. The relative advantages of the various systems and some of the monitoring capabilities are discussed. A brief example of the use of an infusion system during anesthetic induction is presented. With understanding of the functioning of these systems, users may develop greater comfort.

  3. LPS infusion suppresses serum FGF21 levels in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Esben Stistrup; Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina

    2017-01-01

    circulating levels of FGF21 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. DESIGN: Two randomized, single blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials were used. SETTING: The studies were performed at a university hospital clinical research center. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Study 1 (LPS bolus): Eight young......, healthy, lean males were investigated two times: 1) after isotonic saline injection, and 2) after LPS injection (bolus of 1 ng/kg). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Study 2 (continuous LPS infusion): Eight, healthy males were investigated two times: 1) during continuously isotonic saline infusion, and 2......) during continuously LPS infusion (0.06 ng/kg/h). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Circulating FGF21 levels were quantified every second hour by an immunoassay. RESULTS: A LPS bolus resulted in a late suppression (t = 240 minutes) of serum FGF21 (P=0.035). Continuous LPS infusion revealed no significant...

  4. Early Response of Protein Quality Control in Gills Is Associated with Survival of Hypertonic Shock in Mozambique tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2013-01-01

    The protein quality control (PQC) mechanism is essential for cell function and viability. PQC with proper biological function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases. The hypertonicity-induced protein damage and responses of PQC mechanism in aquatic organisms, however, are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the short-term effects of different hypertonic shocks on the levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs, e.g., HSP70 and HSP90), ubiquitin-conjugated proteins and protein aggregation in gills of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Following transfer from fresh water (FW) to 20‰ hypertonicity, all examined individuals survived to the end of experiment. Moreover, the levels of branchial HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins significantly increased at 3 and 24 h post-transfer, respectively. Up-regulation of HSPs and ubiquitin-conjugated proteins was sufficient to prevent the accumulation of aggregated proteins. However, the survival rate of tilapia dramatically declined at 5 h and all fish died within 7 h after direct transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. We presumed that this result was due to the failed activation of gill PQC system, which resulted in elevating the levels of aggregated proteins at 3 and 4 h. Furthermore, in aggregated protein fractions, the amounts of gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) remained relatively low when fish were transferred to 20‰ hypertonicity, whereas abundant NKA was found at 4 h post-transfer to 30‰ hypertonicity. This study demonstrated that the response of PQC in gills is earlier than observable changes in localization of ion-secreting transport proteins upon hypertonic challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the regulation of PQC mechanism in fish and characterize its important role in euryhaline teleost survival in response to hypertonic stress. PMID:23690986

  5. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentration of fruit have direct effects on the dehydration rate and also inverse influence on the dehydration duration. The geometrical parameters of fruit and water concentration in hypertonic solution showed direct effect on the dehydration duration as well as inverse effect on the dehydration rate. The presented model seems to be useful tool to predict the dehydration kinetics of cone-shaped fruit during osmotic dehydration process and to optimize the process prior to perform the experiments.

  6. Small volume hypertonic resuscitation of circulatory shock Soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rocha-e-Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Small volume hypertonic resuscitation is a relatively new conceptual approach to shock therapy. It was originally based on the idea that a relatively large blood volume expansion could be obtained by administering a relatively small volume of fluid, taking advantage of osmosis. It was soon realized that the physiological vasodilator property of hypertonicity was a useful byproduct of small volume resuscitation in that it induced reperfusion of previously ischemic territories, even though such an effect encroached upon the malefic effects of the ischemia-reperfusion process. Subsequent research disclosed a number of previously unsuspected properties of hypertonic resuscitation, amongst them the correction of endothelial and red cell edema with significant consequences in terms of capillary blood flow. A whole set of actions of hypertonicity upon the immune system are being gradually uncovered, but the full implication of these observations with regard to the clinical scenario are still under study. Small volume resuscitation for shock is in current clinical use in some parts of the world, in spite of objections raised concerning its safety under conditions of uncontrolled bleeding. These objections stem mainly from experimental studies, but there are few signs that they may be of real clinical significance. This review attempts to cover the earlier and the more recent developments in this field.O uso de soluções hipertônicas para reanimação de pacientes em choque é um conceito relativamente novo. Baseou-se originalmente na idéia de que uma expansão volêmica significativa podia ser obtida às custas de um volume relativamente diminuto de infusão, aproveitando a propriedade física de osmose. Logo ficou claro que a capacidade fisiológica de produzir vasodilatação, compartilhada por todas as soluções hipertônicas, seria valiosa para reperfundir territórios tornados isquêmicos pelo choque, embora os malefícios da seq

  7. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-01-01

    Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentratio...

  8. [The effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhifeng; Xu, Yu; Ou, Jin; Xiang, Rong; Tao, Zezhang

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model, and explore the possible mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis. We used Der pl to make allergic rhinitis model of BALB/c mice, and divided them into three groups randomly. Nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater (HS) or isotonic seawater (IS) in the treatment group 1-14 days after modeling, and black control (BC) group was given no treatment after modeling. Normal control (NC) group was given no treatment, the number of rubs and sneezings in each group were counted in 30 min after the last nasal irrigation. Mice were then killed 24 h after the last therapy. The noses of mice from each group were removed and fixed, then the slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the others were observed by transmission electron microscope. Mice with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater were significantly improved in rubs and sneezings compared to the black control group (P 0. 05); Ciliated columnar epithelium cells in mucosal tissues of HS group and IS group were arranged trimly, better than that in the black control group. Morphology and microstructure in nasal mucosal of HS group was closer to the normal group than in IS group. The injury of nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium was significantly improved by nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater, and the former is better than the latter, the mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis may rely on repairing the injured nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium, thereby the symptoms of nasal was reduced.

  9. Radiographic and Histologic Study After Infusion of Contrast Media into Rabbit Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo; Park, Tae Won

    1990-01-01

    50 submandibular glands of rabbits were examined historadiologically after infusion with normal and over volumes of physiologic saline and 5 radiographic contrast media. The results were as follows: 1. All water soluble contrast media showed similar radiographic contrasts and absorbed about 5 minutes after infusion except Telebrix 30 which took 30 minutes in both normal and overfilled glands. 2. Lipid soluble medium, Lipiodol UF had excellent radiographic contrast and could be seen on the radiograms even after 24 hours after infusion. 3. Salivary glands infused with physiologic saline didn't show any histologic changes except slight duct dilation right after infusion. 4. Telebrix 30 caused mild to moderate duct dilation and inflammation at immediate and 24 hours after infusion which was more severe in overfilled glands. At 7 days after infusion, there were mild to moderate fibrosis of the gland and areas of necrosis was seen in overfilled glands. 5. Hypaque 60% showed similar histologic reactions to Telebrix 30 except more severe tissue destruction at 7 days after infusion. 6. Urografin 60% showed mildest histologic changes among the media used in the study. 7. Biliscopin had mild duct dilation which returned to normal after 7 days but there were moderate inflammation and tissue necrosis at that time. 8. Lipiodol UF showed severe duct dilation with numerous vacuoles and there were tissue fibrosis at 7 days after infusion but no tissue necrosis was seen.

  10. [The role of arteriovenous interrelations in the formation of clinical-pathogenetic variants of hypertonic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, L A

    2012-01-01

    We studied 209 patients with chronic brain ischemia due to arterial hypertension (hypertonic encephalopathy). 93 patients (44.5%) had clinical-anamnestic features of constitutional phlebopathy and 116 (55.5%) had not. Based on the conception of 5 functional-morphological levels of the vascular brain system, a complex ultrasound study was conducted. The control group included 30 people without cerebrovascular pathology. In hypertonic encephalopathy, pathological processes developing in the 1st and 2nd structural-functional levels (extra- and intracerebral arteries) correspond to remodeling, that is characteristic of arterial hypertension, and do not depend on the presence of the constitutional venous insufficiency. Changes in parameters of the blood flow in the 3rd, 4th and 5th structural-functional levels of the brain's blood supply (microcirculatory bed, head venous system, jugular and spine veins) form a dopplerographic pattern of the cerebral venous dyscirculation which is mostly pronounced in constitutional phlebopathy in patients with hypertonic encephalopathy. This pattern includes the reduction of linear blood flow velocity in nitroglycerine test, lower values of the resistance index and the increase in the linear blood flow velocity in the sinus transversus and Rosenthal vein, lack of ostial valves of the inner jugular veinas well as the decrease of linear and increase in the volume blood flow velocity along it. The methodology of the system approach based on using clinical and instrumental method in the study of cerebral hemodynamics is important for treatment optimization in patients with chronic brain ischemia.

  11. EXPERIENCE OF SEA WATER HYPERTONIC SOLUTION APPLICATION FOR TOPICAL TREATMENT OF CHRONIC TONSILLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Karpova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effectiveness of sea water hypertonic solution (Aqua Maris troath and oral cavity spray, Jadran, Croatia medication to treat chronic tonsillitis of the compensated form on 84 children aged between 5 and 15. All children had their tonsil lacunae rinsed in a day № 6–8. 64 children had them rinsed with the sea water hypertonic solution (main group, while 20 children had them rinsed with the nitrofural solution (comparison group. Treatment effectiveness was determined according to dynamics of main symptoms (odynophagia, dysphagia, hyperemia and mucosa infiltration of pillars of the fauces, as well as the degree of tonsil bacterial number before and after treatment (by the 14th day. The dynamic analysis of subjective data during treatment revealed more significant and positive changes among the children of the main group if compared with patients from the comparison group. After treatment the researchers noticed reduction of tonsil bacterial number among 90,62% of children from the main group, whereas this rate made up 60% in the comparison group. Acquired data allowed recommending this medication for the multimodality therapy of infant adenoid disease.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, treatment, children, sea water hypertonic solution.

  12. Infusion pressure and pain during microneedle injection into skin of human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti; Park, Sohyun; Bondy, Brian; Felner, Eric I.; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Infusion into skin using hollow microneedles offers an attractive alternative to hypodermic needle injections. However, the fluid mechanics and pain associated with injection into skin using a microneedle have not been studied in detail before. Here, we report on the effect of microneedle insertion depth into skin, partial needle retraction, fluid infusion flow rate and the co-administration of hyaluronidase on infusion pressure during microneedle-based saline infusion, as well as on associated pain in human subjects. Infusion of up to a few hundred microliters of fluid required pressures of a few hundred mmHg, caused little to no pain, and showed weak dependence on infusion parameters. Infusion of larger volumes up to 1 mL required pressures up to a few thousand mmHg, but still usually caused little pain. In general, injection of larger volumes of fluid required larger pressures and application of larger pressures cause more pain, although other experimental parameters also played a significant role. Among the intradermal microneedle groups, microneedle length had little effect; microneedle retraction lowered infusion pressure but increased pain; lower flow rate reduced infusion pressure and kept pain low; and use of hyaluronidase also lowered infusion pressure and kept pain low. We conclude that microneedles offer a simple method to infuse fluid into the skin that can be carried out with little to no pain. PMID:21684001

  13. The effect of ethanol infusion on the size of the ablated lesion in radiofrequency thermal ablation: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Yong Soo; Joo, Kyoung Bin

    2001-01-01

    To assess the effect of ethanol infusion on the size of ablated lesion during radiofrequency (RF) thermal ablation. We performed an ex vivo experimental study using a total of 15 pig livers. Three groups were designed: 1)normal control (n=10), 2) saline infusion (n=10) 3) ethanol infusion (n=10). Two radiofrequency ablations were done using a 50 watt RF generator and a 15 guage expandable elections with four prongs in each liver. During ablation for 8 minutes, continuous infusion of fluid at a rate of 0.5 ml/min through the side arm of electrode was performed. We checked the frequency of the 'impeded-out' phenomenon due to abrupt increase of impedance during ablation. Size of ablated lesion was measured according to length, width, height, and subsequently volume after the ablations. The sizes of the ablated lesions were compared between the three groups. 'Impeded-out' phenomenon during ablation was noted 4 times in control group, although that never happened in saline or ethanol infusion groups. There were significant differences in the volumes of ablated lesions between control group (10.62 ± 1.45 cm 3 ) and saline infusion group (15.33 ± 2.47 cm 3 ), and saline infusion group and ethanol infusion group (18.78 ± 3.58 cm 3 ) (p<0.05). Fluid infusion during radiofrequency thermal ablation decrease a chance of charming and increase the volume of the ablated lesion. Ethanol infusion during ablation may induce larger volume of ablated lesion than saline infusion.

  14. Hippocampal infusions of glucose reverse memory deficits produced by co-infusions of a GABA receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2008-02-01

    Although septal infusions of glucose typically have positive effects on memory, we have shown repeatedly that this treatment exacerbates memory deficits produced by co-infusions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists. The present experiments tested whether this negative interaction between glucose and GABA in the medial septum would be observed in the hippocampus, a brain region where glucose typically has positive effects on memory. Specifically, we determined whether hippocampal infusions of glucose would reverse or exacerbate memory deficits produced by hippocampal co-infusions of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol. Fifteen minutes prior to either assessing spontaneous alternation (SA) or continuous multiple trial inhibitory avoidance (CMIA) training, male Sprague-Dawley-derived rats were given bilateral hippocampal infusions of vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 1 microl/2 min), glucose (33 or 50 nmol), muscimol (0.3 or 0.4 microg, SA or 3 microg, CMIA) or muscimol and glucose combined in one solution. The results indicated that hippocampal infusions of muscimol alone decreased SA scores and CMIA retention latencies. More importantly, hippocampal infusions of glucose, at doses that had no effect when infused alone, attenuated (33 nmol) or reversed (50 nmol) the muscimol-induced memory deficits. Thus, although co-infusions of glucose with muscimol into the medial septum impair memory, the present findings show that an opposite effect is observed in the hippocampus. Collectively, these findings suggest that the memory-impairing interaction between glucose and GABA in the medial septum is not a general property of the brain, but rather is brain region-dependent.

  15. Rotator cuff healing after continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion: an in vivo rabbit study

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRIEL, NICOLE A.; WANG, VINCENT M.; SLABAUGH, MARK A.; WANG, FANCHIA; CHUBINSKAYA, SUSAN; COLE, BRIAN J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous subacromial bupivacaine infusion on supraspinatus muscle and rotator cuff tendon healing via gross, biomechanical, and histologic analyses. Methods Thirty-three New Zealand White rabbits underwent unilateral supraspinatus transection and rotator cuff repair (RCR). Rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1)RCR only, (2)RCR with continuous saline infusion for 48 hours, or (3)RCR with continuous 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine (1:200,000) infusion for 48 hours. Rabbits were sacrificed at either 2 (for histologic assessment) or 8 weeks post-operatively (for biomechanical and histologic assessment). Results Tensile testing showed significantly higher load to failure in intact tendons compared to repaired tendons (pBupivacaine groups. Histologically, the enthesis of repaired tendons showed increased cellularity and disorganized collagen fibers compared to intact tendons, with no differences between treatment groups. Muscle histology demonstrated scattered degenerative muscle fibers at 2 weeks in both RCR Saline and RCR Bupivacaine, but no degeneration was noted at 8 weeks. Conclusions The healing supraspinatus tendons exposed to bupivacaine infusion showed similar histologic and biomechanical characteristics compared to untreated and saline infused RCR groups. Muscle histology showed fiber damage at 2 weeks for both the saline and bupivacaine treated groups, with no apparent disruption at 8 weeks, suggesting a recovery process. Therefore, subacromial bupivacaine infusion in this rabbit rotator cuff model does not appear to impair muscle or tendon following acute injury and repair. Level Of Evidence Basic science study PMID:22818894

  16. Local Irritation Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran 70 (Trade Name) and Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    34 Toxicology Series 244, was audited on 21 November 1988. CAROLYN M. LEWIS, MS Diplomate, American Board of Toxicology Chief, Quality Assurance vi TABLE OF...a aa O l-4 i)’ a a a Lia _ at . acca - ).a *a a a a ...j a0 ~ mal- a a 4 0. 4 a a a a I Da~ a a a o _a a a 0.a ~ a a a a ja a a a U a aa EA- a aa a- 0

  17. Local Intraarterial Thrombolysis: In Vitro Comparison Between Automatic and Manual Pulse-Spray Infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, Jens J.; Freymann, Christina; Hoppe, Martin; Thiel, Thomas; Wagner, H. Joachim; Barth, Klemens H.; Klose, Klaus J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Manual and automatic pulse-spray infusion techniques are compared in vitro to evaluate the efficacy of thrombolysis and the distribution of urokinase and saline solution within thrombus using a pulse-spray catheter. Methods: A pulse-spray catheter was introduced into a human thrombus within a stenotic flow model. Automatic and manual pulsed infusion of urokinase and automatic pulsed infusion of saline solution were compared. To quantify the efficacy of thrombolysis, pressure gradients were recorded proximal and distal to the thrombus and during the course of infusion. Distribution of infused urokinase was assessed radiographically. Results: The fastest and most homogeneous dissolution of the thrombus was achieved with automatic pulsed infusion of urokinase, shown by decreasing transthrombotic pressure gradients (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon, matched pairs). Manual pulsed infusion of urokinase or saline solution resulted in inhomogeneous thrombus dissolution and delayed thrombolysis. Conclusion: Application of automatic pulse-spray injectors seems beneficial for more effective and homogeneous intraarterial pulse-spray thrombolysis when compared with conventional manual pulsed technique

  18. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Quintard, Hervé

    2015-09-30

    Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy of HL (3h infusion, 30-40 μmol/kg/min) in improving brain energetics (using cerebral microdialysis [CMD] glucose as a main therapeutic end-point) was dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state (assessed by CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR]) and cerebral blood flow (CBF, measured with perfusion computed tomography [PCT]). Using a prospective cohort of 24 severe TBI patients, we found CMD glucose increase during HL was significant only in the subgroup of patients with elevated CMD LPR >25 (n = 13; +0.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.19] mmol/L, p < 0.001; vs. +0.04 [-0.05-0.13] in those with normal LPR, p = 0.33, mixed-effects model). In contrast, CMD glucose increase was independent from baseline CBF (coefficient +0.13 [0.04-0.21] mmol/L when global CBF was <32.5 mL/100 g/min vs. +0.09 [0.04-0.14] mmol/L at normal CBF, both p < 0.005) and systemic glucose. Our data suggest that improvement of brain energetics upon HL seems predominantly dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state and support the concept that CMD LPR - rather than CBF - could be used as a diagnostic indication for systemic lactate supplementation following TBI. Copyright © 2016 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  19. Reversal of behavioral depression by infusion of an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist into the locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, P G; Weiss, J M; Hoffman, L J; Ambrose, M J

    1986-04-01

    This experiment demonstrated that behavioral depression produced by exposure of rats to strong uncontrollable shocks could be reversed by infusion of the alpha-2 adrenergic agonist clonidine into the region of the locus coeruleus (LC). A 20-min infusion, through bilateral cannulae, into the locus coeruleus of clonidine, piperoxane (alpha-2 antagonist) or inactive vehicle (0.85% saline), was given beginning 70 min after the animals were removed from the stress situation. The dose and volume of drug given in the infusion (0.16 microgram/microliter, 0.1 microliter/min) had been previously shown to produce effects specific to the locus coeruleus (Weiss, Simson, Hoffman, Ambrose, Cooper and Webster, 1986; Neuropharmacology 25: 367-384). At the conclusion of the infusion, active behavior of animals was measured in a 15-min swim test. Results showed that stressed animals infused with vehicle exhibited significantly less active behavior in the swim test than did non-stressed animals infused with vehicle, thereby showing the usual behavioral depression seen after exposure to an uncontrollable stress. Stressed animals infused with clonidine showed no difference in active behavior in comparison to non-stressed animals infused with vehicle and showed significantly more activity than did the stressed animals infused with vehicle. Stressed animals infused with piperoxane showed no significant difference in activity in comparison to the stressed animals infused with vehicle and were significantly less active than either the non-stressed animals infused with vehicle or the stressed animals infused with clonidine. Thus, infusion into the locus coeruleus of the alpha-2 agonist clonidine, but not the alpha-2 antagonist piperoxane, eliminated behavioral depression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. [Methods of preventing phlebitis induced by infusion of fosaprepitant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Emiko; Kanematsu, Sayaka; Okazaki, Satoshi; Ogata, Makoto; Kanemitsu, Meiko; Yamashita, Hiromi; Syuntou, Kaori; Sekita, Masako; Nishioka, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki

    2015-03-01

    At our hospital, we use aprepitant for nausea and vomiting when administering highly emetic anticancer agents, according to "Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Antiemetic Agents" given by the Japan Society of Clinical Oncology. We initiated the intravenous administration of fosaprepitant for better compliance compared with aprepitant; however, we observed phlebitis after the infusion of fosaprepitant. Therefore, we investigated measures to reduce phlebitis associated with the infusion of fosaprepitant. For the first premedication, fosaprepitant (150 mg) was dissolved in 100 mL of saline and administered for 30 minutes; 1 of 2 patients showed grade 4 phlebitis. For the modified premedication, fosaprepitant, dexamethasone, and 5- HT(3) antagonist were dissolved in 100 mL of saline and administered for 30 minutes. The modified premedication was administered to a total of 27 patients; 5 patients developed mild phlebitis (grade 1), but infusion could be continued by treating their phlebitis with a hot pack. We used a combination of dexamethasone and 5-HT(3) antagonist with fosaprepitant as a modified premedication in order to avoid drug-induced vascular damage, which resulted in the pH decreasing to 6.20-7.55 (close to neutral) and a shorter infusion time.

  1. [Changes induced by hypertonic solutions in the transportation of calcium by the cardiac reticular sarcoplasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M; Holguín, J A

    1979-01-01

    In the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the myocardium, celular organell which function is to regulate the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium in contraction and relaxation, we have studied the effect of hypertonic solutions of sucrose between 1 and 6.96 times the normal tonicity in order to observe the behavior of the internal linked or free calcium of this structure, as well as to prove the hypothesis that hypertonic solutions encourage the calcium exit of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum with the resulting signs of contractures. The following results were obtained: 1. The ATP hydrolisis and calcium transport rate are 14% and 90% respectively of the maximum speeds of 10(-5) M in calcium, while for concentrations of 10(-7) M or ess of the said cation, the transport rates and the ATPase do not reach 5% of the maximum values. 2. Between 1 and 2.54 times of the normal tonicity the calcium uptake remains between 400 and 500 nmoles of calcium/mg protein/min, the transported amount of calcium varies between 14 and 16 nmoles/mg protein and the rate of the ATP hydrolysis increases a 37% to 0.4 M in sucrose. 3. Between 0.4 and 1.2 M in sucrose of 2.54 to 6.96 times the isotonicity, the calcium transport rate velocity as well as the ATP hydrolisis are strongly inhibited. The vesicles volume minimizes and the amount of linked calcium remains within the control values, proving that the capacity of linking this cathion is independent from sarcoplasmic reticulum volume. These results show that the sarcoplasmic reticulum is involved in the contractures induced by hypertonic solutions in intact cells, since the osmolarity increase produces changes of volume which results in a decrease of the calcium transportation velocity or in an increase of the exit of said cathion.

  2. Thallium-201 infusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Kralios, A.; Wooten, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    To test the accuracy of Thallium-201 coronary artery infusion imaging of the earth during rapid changes in blood flow through a major coronary artery, the author performed a study in dogs correlating electromagnetic flow probe recordings with 201 Tl scintillation camera acquisitions. Hyperemic vascular response was produced experimentally in a major coronary artery by occlusion and release interventions which altered flow from baseline to zero during occlusion (20 seconds), followed by rapid flow increases approaching three times baseline immediately upon release of the occlusion. Flow returned to the baseline level within 60 seconds following release. Flow was also altered in a controlled fashion by other interventions. Recordings of Thallium uptake in the myocardium were displayed as a time histogram (counts per second squared vs time) which correlated very closely with electromagnetic flow probe recordings of flow (R=o.82-0.97). These experiments demonstrate a high degree of accuracy in Thallium infusion imaging to detect rapid changes in flow through a major coronary artery

  3. Vascular effects of intravenous intralipid and dextrose infusions in obese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Gosmanov, Aidar R.; Smiley, Dawn D.; Peng, Limin; Siquiera, Joselita; Robalino, Gonzalo; Newton, Christopher; Umpierrez, Guillermo E.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline,...

  4. Duration and distribution of experimental muscular hyperalgesia in humans following combined infusions of serotonin and bradykinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babenko, Victor; Svensson, Peter; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    -infusions interval of 3 min. Infusions of isotonic saline (NaCl, 0.9%) were given as control. Pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and subjects drew the distribution of the pain areas on an anatomical map. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed with an electronic algometer....... In addition, PPTs were significantly decreased (Peffect of bradykinin in producing experimental muscle pain and muscle hyperalgesia to mechanical stimuli. The combination of serotonin and bradykinin can produce muscle...

  5. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.

    2012-01-01

    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  6. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  7. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  8. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vascular effects of intravenous intralipid and dextrose infusions in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Smiley, Dawn D; Peng, Limin; Siquiera, Joselita; Robalino, Gonzalo; Newton, Christopher; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2012-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline, Intralipid 40 mL/h, Dextrose 10% 40 mL/h, or combined Intralipid and dextrose. Plasma levels of FFA increased by 1.03±0.34 mmol/L (p=0.009) after Intralipid, but FFAs remained unchanged during saline, dextrose, and combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations significantly increased after dextrose and combined Intralipid and dextrose (all, pdextrose infusion had neutral effects on BP and FMD. The co-administration of lipid and dextrose decreased FMD by 2.4%±2.1% (p=0.002) from baseline, but did not significantly increase systolic or diastolic BP. Short-term Intralipid infusion significantly increased FFA and BP; in contrast, FFA and BP were unchanged during combined infusion of Intralipid and dextrose. Combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion resulted in endothelial dysfunction similar to Intralipid alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C

    1995-01-01

    before and immediately (5-30 s) after 80 min infusion of NTG (glyceryl trinitrate) or saline in 12 healthy subjects. On two different days separated by at least 1 week, NTG in four different doses, 0.015, 0.25, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms. kg-1. min-1, or placebo (isotonic saline) was infused successively...... for 20 min each dose. During the infusion blood pressure and heart rate were measured. NTG infusion significantly decreased systolic blood pressure from 112.4 to 103.4 mmHg and pulse pressure from 39.3 to 29.5 mmHg. Heart rate increased from 62.7 to 73.1 beats. min-1. No changes in endothelin-1 plasma...... levels were induced by NTG infusion (2.4 pg.ml-1 before NTG vs. 2.7 pg.ml-1 after NTG) and placebo infusion also did not affect plasma endothelin-1. It is concluded that venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after NTG infusion....

  11. Effect of glucose-insulin-potassium infusion on thallium myocardial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Factors influencing the rate of 201 Tl clearance from the myocardium have not been clearly defined. This study determined the effect of an intravenous infusion of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) on the net 201 Tl clearance rates from myocardium with and without initial 201 Tl loading. Anesthetized open-chest dogs underwent 5 min of left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and intravenous 201 Tl was injected and the occlusion released 5 min later. Thirty minutes after 201 Tl injection, 30 ml of either GIK (nine dogs) or saline (five dogs) was infused intravenously. The clearance rates of 201 Tl from the anterior wall (without initial 201 Tl loading) and from the posterior wall (with initial 201 Tl loading) were monitored with miniaturized cadmium telluride detectors placed on the myocardium. Calculation of net myocardial clearance rates was performed by linear regression analysis from serial 1 min counts. Compared with saline infusion, GIK increased the net clearance of 201 Tl from both myocardial regions with and without initial loading. The most marked change induced by GIK infusion was in the myocardial region without initial 201 Tl loading; a net increase in 201 Tl activity (72 +/- 42 cpm/30 min) was converted into a net loss (-594 +/- 228 cpm/30 min). There was no significant change in 201 Tl clearance after the saline infusion. Heart rate, aortic and left atrial pressure, sonomicrometer-measured transmural myocardial wall thickness, microsphere-determined myocardial blood flow, and blood glucose and potassium concentrations did not change significantly during GIK or saline infusions. Thus, GIK infusion appears to increase net 201 Tl clearance from myocardial zones with and without initial 201 Tl loading

  12. Dextrose saline compared with normal saline rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Norazilah, Mat Jin; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-02-01

    To compare 5% dextrose-0.9% saline against 0.9% saline solution in the intravenous rehydration of hyperemesis gravidarum. Women at their first hospitalization for hyperemesis gravidarum were enrolled on admission to the ward and randomly assigned to receive either 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline by intravenous infusion at a rate 125 mL/h over 24 hours in a double-blind trial. All participants also received thiamine and an antiemetic intravenously. Oral intake was allowed as tolerated. Primary outcomes were resolution of ketonuria and well-being (by 10-point visual numerical rating scale) at 24 hours. Nausea visual numerical rating scale scores were obtained every 8 hours for 24 hours. Persistent ketonuria rates after the 24-hour study period were 10 of 101 (9.9%) compared with 11 of 101 (10.9%) (P>.99; relative risk 0.9, 95% confidence interval 0.4-2.2) and median (interquartile range) well-being scores at 24 hours were 9 (8-10) compared with 9 (8-9.5) (P=.73) in the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline and 0.9% saline arms, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance of the nausea visual numerical rating scale score as assessed every 8 hours during the 24-hour study period showed a significant difference in favor of the 5% dextrose-0.9% saline arm (P=.046) with the superiority apparent at 8 and 16 hours, but the advantage had dissipated by 24 hours. Secondary outcomes of vomiting, resolution of hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia, length of hospitalization, duration of intravenous antiemetic, and rehydration were not different. Intravenous rehydration with 5% dextrose-0.9% saline or 0.9% saline solution in women hospitalized for hyperemesis gravidarum produced similar outcomes. ISRCTN Register, www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn, ISRCTN65014409. I.

  13. The osmolyte type affects cartilage associated pathologic marker expression during in vitro mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis under hypertonic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadyan, Sorour; Kabiri, Mahboubeh; Tasharofi, Noushin; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Kehtari, Mousa; Hajari Zadeh, Athena; Soleimani, Masoud; Farazmand, Ali; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2018-02-28

    Stem cells' fate during in vitro differentiation is influenced by biophysicochemical cues. Osmotic stress has proved to enhance chondrocyte marker expression, however its potent negative impacts had never been surveyed. We questioned whether specific osmotic conditions, regarding the osmolyte agent, could benefit chondrogenesis while dampening undesired concomitant hypertrophy and inflammatory responses. To examine the potential side effects of hypertonicity, we assessed cell proliferation as well as chondrogenic and hypertrophic marker expression of human Adipose Derived-MSC after a two week induction in chondrogenic media with either NaCl or Sorbitol, as the osmolyte agent to reach a +100 mOsm hypertonic condition. Calcium deposition and TNF-α secretion as markers associated with hypertrophy and inflammation were then assayed. While both hyperosmotic conditions upregulated chondrogenic markers, sorbitol had a nearly three times higher chondro-promotive effect and a lesser hypertrophic effect compared to NaCl. Also, a significantly lesser calcium deposition was observed in sorbitol hypertonic group. NaCl showed an anti-proinflammatory effect while sorbitol had no effect on inflammatory markers. The ossification potential and cartilage associated pathologic markers were affected differentially by the type of the osmolyte. Thus, a vigilant application of the osmotic agent is inevitable in order to avoid or reduce undesired hypertrophic and inflammatory phenotype acquisition by MSC during chondrogenic differentiation. Our findings are a step towards developing a more reliable chondrogenic regimen using external hypertonic cues for MSC chondrogenesis with potential applications in chondral lesions cell therapy.

  14. Assessment Impact of Foot Sensory Modulation on Inhibition of Hypertonicity of the Lower Limb in Children with Diplegia Spastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Fatoureh-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess impact of foot sensory modulation on inhibition of hypertonicity of the lower limb in children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: 24 selected children (aged 2.5 to 4.5 years were randomly assigned to a control and experimental groups. Muscle tone was assessed using modified Ashworth scale, passive Range of motion by goniameter (Pedretti, neurodevelopmental level by Bobath scale. All children were pre-post tested in an interval of ten weeks. Results: Significant reduction was observed in hypertonicity of hip extensor (p<0/1 and ankle planter flexor (P<0/05. Significant increase was observed in passive Range of motion of hip flexion (P<0/1, knee extension (P<0/05 and ankle dorsi flexion (P<0/05. There was found no significant difference of reduction in hypertonicity of knee flexor and improvement neurodevelopmental level. Meaningful relationship was observed between reduction hypertonicity of the hip extensor (P<0/05 and improvement of neurodevelopmental level (P<0/05. Conclusion: Impact of sensory modulation on children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy reduces spasticity of lower limb and also extends joints domain of motion.

  15. Venipuncture versus peripheral catheter: do infusions alter laboratory results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, Victoria Lerma; Gómez, Ignacio Arribas; Andreu, Francisco A Bernabeu

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the equivalence between analytic parameters from blood samples obtained from a saline solution lock device used for the infusion of drugs and those from venipuncture. In our emergency department, patients bearing a saline solution lock device have blood extracted by venipuncture to avoid possible contamination of the sample. Adults from the emergency department with a saline solution lock device who required laboratory tests were selected as candidates for this cross-sectional observational study. Infusions were halted and flushed with 0.9% saline solution; 2 minutes later, 2 mL of blood was drawn and discarded, and the corresponding laboratory tubes were filled. Immediately after, another sample was withdrawn from the opposite extremity by venipuncture. Both samples were analyzed for hematology, biochemistry, venous blood gases, and coagulation parameters. Concordance was evaluated by use of the intraclass correlation coefficient with its 95% confidence intervals; Bland-Altman plots were used to illustrate the percentage of samples with differences exceeding 2 SDs. The mean differences were also checked to detect those exceeding the laboratory's systematic error. An intraclass correlation coefficient of over 0.9 was achieved for all parameters except for pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and partial pressure of oxygen. Differences of over 2 SDs were found in fewer than 10% of all parameters. None of them exceeded 3 SDs, except for pH and venous blood gases. All parameters showed differences below the laboratory's accepted systematic error except for pH and venous blood gases. Blood samples extracted from a peripheral catheter with or without drug infusions are valid for the analysis of hematology, biochemistry, and coagulation parameters but not for venous blood gases. Nurses should know the benefits of using an existing peripheral catheter for drawing blood samples for laboratory analysis even when infusing commonly used drugs

  16. Novel monorail infusion catheter for volumetric coronary blood flow measurement in humans: in vitro validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Veer, M.; Adjedj, J.; Wijnbergen, I.; Tóth, G.G.; Rutten, M.C.M.; Barbato, E.; van Nunen, L.X.; Pijls, N.H.J.; de Bruyne, B.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study is to validate a novel monorail infusion catheter for thermodilution-based quantitative coronary flow measurements. METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on the principles of thermodilution, volumetric coronary flow can be determined from the flow rate of a continuous saline

  17. The transport systems of Ventricaria ventricosa: hypotonic and hypertonic turgor regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, M A; Beilby, M J

    2002-11-01

    The time course of hypertonic and hypotonic turgor regulation was studied in Ventricaria (Valonia) using pressure probe and I/V(current-voltage) analysis. Of 11 cells, 9 exhibited hypertonic turgor regulation, ranging from 100% regulation in 150 min to 14% regulation (14% recovery of the decrease in turgor) in 314 min. Some cells began regulating immediately, others took up to 90 min to begin. The resting PD (potential difference) became more positive in most cells. The I/V characteristics became more nonlinear with high resistance between -150 and -20 mV and negative conductance region near -70 mV. Prolonged (16 sec) voltage clamps to negative levels (-100 to -150 mV) showed progressively more rapid current turn-off, but subsequent I/V characteristics were not affected. Clamping to +150 mV, however, abolished the high conductance between -50 and +100 mV to yield a uniform high resistance I/V characteristic, similar to that in high [K+]o. Decreasing illumination from 2.02 micromol sec(-1) m(-2) to 0.5 micromol sec(-1)1 m(-2) had a similar effect. Two out of a total of three cells exhibited hypotonic turgor regulation. Both cells started regulating within minutes and achieved near 50% regulation within 50 min. The PD became more negative. The I/V curves exhibited high resistance between +50 and +150 mV. The characteristics were similar to those in cells exposed to low [K+]o. Prolonged voltage clamps to both negative and positive levels showed slow current increase. Decreased illumination increased the membrane resistance.

  18. Experimental intraperitoneal infusion of OK-432 in rats: Evaluation of peritoneal complications and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Wook [Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Jin, E-mail: hakjink@pusan.ac.k [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Woo [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University College of Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: OK-432 is known to be a potent sclerosant of cystic lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both its safety and pathologic effects after the infusion of OK-432 into the peritoneal cavity of rats. Materials and methods: Twenty male rats were used in this study. Twelve rats were infused intraperitoneally with 0.2 Klinishe Einheit of OK-432 melted in 2 mL of normal saline (group 1: the treated group); four rats each were infused intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of 99% ethanol (group 2) and normal saline (group 3), and served as the control groups. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed both before and after the infusions in all rats. Three rats in group 1 and one rat in each of groups 2 and 3 were sacrificed each week following the infusion. Gross and microscopic evaluations of the peritoneum and abdominal cavity were performed on each rat. Results: In group 1, the abdomen was clear on gross inspection and the peritoneum was unremarkable on microscopic examination. In group 2, mild-to-moderate peritoneal adhesions were revealed grossly, and inflammation and fibrosis of the peritoneum were demonstrated microscopically. In group 3, no specific abnormalities were noted on gross or microscopic examinations. Conclusion: Leakage or abnormal infusion of OK-432 solution into the peritoneal cavity during sclerotherapy of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal cystic lesions does not result in any significant complications.

  19. Experimental intraperitoneal infusion of OK-432 in rats: Evaluation of peritoneal complications and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Jun Woo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: OK-432 is known to be a potent sclerosant of cystic lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both its safety and pathologic effects after the infusion of OK-432 into the peritoneal cavity of rats. Materials and methods: Twenty male rats were used in this study. Twelve rats were infused intraperitoneally with 0.2 Klinishe Einheit of OK-432 melted in 2 mL of normal saline (group 1: the treated group); four rats each were infused intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of 99% ethanol (group 2) and normal saline (group 3), and served as the control groups. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed both before and after the infusions in all rats. Three rats in group 1 and one rat in each of groups 2 and 3 were sacrificed each week following the infusion. Gross and microscopic evaluations of the peritoneum and abdominal cavity were performed on each rat. Results: In group 1, the abdomen was clear on gross inspection and the peritoneum was unremarkable on microscopic examination. In group 2, mild-to-moderate peritoneal adhesions were revealed grossly, and inflammation and fibrosis of the peritoneum were demonstrated microscopically. In group 3, no specific abnormalities were noted on gross or microscopic examinations. Conclusion: Leakage or abnormal infusion of OK-432 solution into the peritoneal cavity during sclerotherapy of intra-abdominal or retroperitoneal cystic lesions does not result in any significant complications.

  20. Effect of tubing on loss of clonazepam administered by continuous subcutaneous infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jennifer J; Good, Phillip; Ravenscroft, Peter J

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have reported loss of clonazepam from solutions administered intravenously from plastic infusion bags and administration sets. In palliative care, clonazepam is sometimes administered through syringe drivers using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) infusion tubing. No data currently exist to show whether use of PVC tubing affects the amount of clonazepam actually received by the patient. This study compared the use of two different types of PVC tubing with a non-PVC tubing. Solutions containing clonazepam or clonazepam and morphine were prepared with either normal saline or water for injection as diluent. Concentrations of morphine and clonazepam were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Significant loss of clonazepam (up to 50%) was observed in all solutions infused through PVC tubing. Solutions infused through non-PVC tubing retained greater than 90% of the initial concentration of clonazepam. It is recommended that when administering clonazepam using a syringe driver, non-PVC tubing be used.

  1. Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in pregnant and cyclic rats after low-dose endotoxin infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, MM; Bakker, WW; Valkhof, N; Baller, JFW; Schuiling, GA

    Plasma endothelin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were determined in pregnant and cyclic rats after infusion of either endotoxin (1.0 mu g/kg of body weight) or saline solution. After endotoxin, but not after saline solution, administration there was a transient endothelin-1 response in pregnant

  2. Hypertonic-induced lamin A/C synthesis and distribution to nucleoplasmic speckles is mediated by TonEBP/NFAT5 transcriptional activator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favale, Nicolas O.; Sterin Speziale, Norma B.; Fernandez Tome, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Lamin A/C is the most studied nucleoskeletal constituent. Lamin A/C expression indicates cell differentiation and is also a structural component of nuclear speckles, which are involved in gene expression regulation. Hypertonicity has been reported to induce renal epithelial cell differentiation and expression of TonEBP (NFAT5), a transcriptional activator of hypertonicity-induced gene transcription. In this paper, we investigate the effect of hypertonicity on lamin A/C expression in MDCK cells and the involvement of TonEBP. Hypertonicity increased lamin A/C expression and its distribution to nucleoplasm with speckled pattern. Microscopy showed codistribution of TonEBP and lamin A/C in nucleoplasmic speckles, and immunoprecipitation demonstrated their interaction. TonEBP silencing caused lamin A/C redistribution from nucleoplasmic speckles to the nuclear rim, followed by lamin decrease, thus showing that hypertonicity induces lamin A/C speckles through a TonEBP-dependent mechanism. We suggest that lamin A/C speckles could serve TonEBP as scaffold thus favoring its role in hypertonicity

  3. Systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat infusion in experimental normotensive sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rahal

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to improve splanchnic perfusion in distinct shock states. We hypothesized that enalaprilat potentiates the benefits of early fluid resuscitation in severe experimental sepsis, particularly in the splanchnic region. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mongrel dogs received an intravenous infusion of live Escherichia coli over a period of 30 min. Thereafter, two interventions were performed: fluid infusion (normal saline, 32 mL/kg over 30 min and enalaprilat infusion (0.02 mg kg-1 min-1 for 60 min in randomized groups. The following groups were studied: controls (fluid infusion, N = 4, E1 (enalaprilat infusion followed by fluid infusion, N = 5 and E2 (fluid infusion followed by enalaprilat infusion, N = 5. All animals were observed for a 120 min after bacterial infusion. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output (CO, portal vein blood flow (PVBF, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, and lactate levels were measured. Rapid and progressive reductions in CO and PVBF were induced by the infusion of live bacteria, while minor changes were observed in mean arterial pressure. Systemic and regional territories showed a significant increase in oxygen extraction and lactate levels. Widening venous-arterial and portal-arterial pCO2 gradients were also detected. Fluid replacement promoted transient benefits in CO and PVBF. Enalaprilat after fluid resuscitation did not affect systemic or regional hemodynamic variables. We conclude that in this model of normotensive sepsis inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme did not interfere with the course of systemic or regional hemodynamic and oxygen-derived variables.

  4. Effect of short-term intralipid infusion on the immune response during low-dose endotoxemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, R.; Plomgaard, P.; Åkerström, Thorbjörn

    2008-01-01

    on the inflammatory response to a low dose of endotoxin. Fourteen healthy male volunteers underwent the following two trials in a randomized crossover design: 1) continuous infusion of 20% Intralipid [0.7 ml.kg(-1).h(-1) (1.54 g/kg)] for 11 h, and 2) infusion of isotonic saline for 11 h (control). In each trial......, heparin was given to activate lipoprotein lipase, and an intravenous bolus of endotoxin (0.1 ng/kg) was given after 6 h of Intralipid/saline infusion. Blood samples and muscle and fat biopsies were obtained before the Intralipid/saline infusion and before as well as after infusion of an endotoxin bolus....... Plasma levels of FFA, triglycerides, and glycerol were markedly increased during the Intralipid infusion. Endotoxin exposure induced an increase in plasma levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and neutrophils and further stimulated gene expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue...

  5. Generating chimeric mice from embryonic stem cells via vial coculturing or hypertonic microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The generation of a fertile embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived or F0 (100 % coat color chimerism) mice is the final criterion in proving that the ESC is truly pluripotent. Many methods have been developed to produce chimeric mice. To date, the most popular methods for generating chimeric embryos is well sandwich aggregation between zona pellucida (ZP) removed (denuded) 2.5-day post-coitum (dpc) embryos and ESC clumps, or direct microinjection of ESCs into the cavity (blastocoel) of 3.5-dpc blastocysts. However, due to systemic limitations and the disadvantages of conventional microinjection, aggregation, and coculturing, two novel methods (vial coculturing and hypertonic microinjection) were developed in recent years at my laboratory.Coculturing 2.5-dpc denuded embryos with ESCs in 1.7-mL vials for ~3 h generates chimeras that have significantly high levels of chimerism (including 100 % coat color chimerism) and germline transmission. This method has significantly fewer instrumental and technological limitations than existing methods, and is an efficient, simple, inexpensive, and reproducible method for "mass production" of chimeric embryos. For laboratories without a microinjection system, this is the method of choice for generating chimeric embryos. Microinjecting ESCs into a subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos can generate germline-transmitted chimeras including 100 % coat color chimerism. However, this method is adopted rarely due to the very small and tight space between ZP and blastomeres. Using a laser pulse or Piezo-driven instrument/device to help introduce ESCs into the subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos demonstrates the superior efficiency in generating ESC-derived (F0) chimeras. Unfortunately, due to the need for an expensive instrument/device and extra fine skill, not many studies have used either method. Recently, ESCs injected into the large subzonal space of 2.5-dpc embryos in an injection medium containing 0.2-0.3 M sucrose very efficiently generated

  6. Chondrogenic Effect of Intra-articular Hypertonic-Dextrose (Prolotherapy) in Severe Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topol, Gastón Andrés; Podesta, Leandro Ariel; Reeves, Kenneth Dean; Giraldo, Marcia Mallma; Johnson, Lanny L; Grasso, Raul; Jamín, Alexis; Clark, Tom; Rabago, David

    2016-11-01

    Dextrose injection is reported to improve knee osteoarthritis (KOA)-related clinical outcomes, but its effect on articular cartilage is unknown. A chondrogenic effect of dextrose injection has been proposed. To assess biological and clinical effects of intra-articular hypertonic dextrose injections (prolotherapy) in painful KOA. Case series with blinded arthroscopic evaluation before and after treatment. Physical medicine and day surgery practice. Symptomatic KOA for at least 6 months, arthroscopy-confirmed medial compartment exposed subchondral bone, and temporary pain relief with intra-articular lidocaine injection. Four to 6 monthly 10-mL intra-articular injections with 12.5% dextrose. Visual cartilage growth assessment of 9 standardized medial condyle zones in each of 6 participants by 3 arthroscopy readers masked to pre-/postinjection status (total 54 zones evaluated per reader); biopsy of a cartilage growth area posttreatment, evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Safranin-O stains, quantitative polarized light microscopy, and immunohistologic cartilage typing; self-reported knee specific quality of life using the Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC, 0-100 points). Six participants (1 female and 5 male) with median age of 71 years, WOMAC composite score of 57.5 points, and a 9-year pain duration received a median of 6 dextrose injections and follow-up arthroscopy at 7.75 months (range 4.5-9.5 months). In 19 of 54 zone comparisons, all 3 readers agreed that the posttreatment zone showed cartilage growth compared with the pretreatment zone. Biopsy specimens showed metabolically active cartilage with variable cellular organization, fiber parallelism, and cartilage typing patterns consistent with fibro- and hyaline-like cartilage. Compared with baseline status, the median WOMAC score improved 13 points (P = .013). Self-limited soreness after methylene blue instillation was noted. Positive clinical and chondrogenic effects were seen

  7. Expression and Trafficking of the γ Subunit of Na,K-ATPase in Hypertonically Challenged IMCD3 Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pihakaski-Maunsbach, Kaarina; Nonaka, Shoichi; Maunsbach, Arvid B.

    2008-01-01

    The γ subunit (FXYD2) of Na,K-ATPase is an important regulator of the sodium pump. In this investigation we have analysed the trafficking of γ to the plasma membrane in cultures of inner medullary collecting duct cells (IMCD3) following acute hypertonic challenge and brefeldin A (BFA) treatment. Following hypertonic challenging for 24 hr immunofluorescence labeling revealed initial co-localization of the γ subunit and 58K Golgi protein in the cytoplasm, but no co-localization of α1 and Golgi protein. Exposure of the challenged cells to BFA prevented the subsequent incorporation of γ into the basolateral plasma membrane. The γ subunit instead remained in cytoplasmic vesicles while cell proliferation and cell viability decreased simultaneously. Following removal of BFA from the hypertonic medium the IMCD3 cells recovered with distinct expression of γ in the basolateral membrane. The α1 subunit was only marginally influenced by BFA. The results demonstrate that the γ subunit trafficks to the plasma membrane via the Golgi apparatus, despite the absence of a signal sequence. The results also suggest that the γ and α subunits do not traffic together to the plasma membrane, and that the γ and α subunit have different turnover rates during these experimental conditions

  8. Novel monorail infusion catheter for volumetric coronary blood flow measurement in humans: in vitro validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Veer, Marcel; Adjedj, Julien; Wijnbergen, Inge; Tóth, Gabor G; Rutten, Marcel C M; Barbato, Emanuele; van Nunen, Lokien X; Pijls, Nico H J; De Bruyne, Bernard

    2016-08-20

    The aim of this study is to validate a novel monorail infusion catheter for thermodilution-based quantitative coronary flow measurements. Based on the principles of thermodilution, volumetric coronary flow can be determined from the flow rate of a continuous saline infusion, the temperature of saline when it enters the coronary artery, and the temperature of the blood mixed with the saline in the distal part of the coronary artery. In an in vitro set-up of the systemic and coronary circulation at body temperature, coronary flow values were varied from 50-300 ml/min in steps of 50 ml/min. At each coronary flow value, thermodilution-based measurements were performed at infusion rates of 15, 20, and 30 ml/min. Temperatures and pressures were simultaneously measured with a pressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire. Agreement of the calculated flow and the measured flow as well as repeatability were assessed. A total of five catheters were tested, with a total of 180 measurements. A strong correlation (ρ=0.976, p<0.0001) and a difference of -6.5±15.5 ml/min were found between measured and calculated flow. The difference between two repeated measures was 0.2%±8.0%. This novel infusion catheter used in combination with a pressure/temperature sensor-tipped guidewire allows accurate and repeatable absolute coronary flow measurements. This opens a window to a better understanding of the coronary microcirculation.

  9. Rapid Endovascular Catheter Core Cooling Combined With Cold Saline as an Adjunct to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Lang, Irene

    2014-01-01

    : In a multicenter study, 120 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (rapid infusion of 600 to 2,000 ml cold saline and endovascular cooling or standard of care. Hypothermia was initiated...

  10. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Correlation of plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration with hemodynamic recovery after intralipid infusion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Hoggett, Kerry

    2009-02-01

    Drug sequestration to an expanded plasma lipid phase has been proposed as a potential mechanism of action for lipid emulsions in lipophilic cardiotoxin overdose. The authors set out to document plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration after resuscitation with lipid emulsion in a rabbit model of clomipramine-induced hypotension. Twenty sedated mechanically ventilated New Zealand White rabbits were allocated to receive either 12 mL/kg 20% Intralipid or 12 mL/kg saline solution, following clomipramine infusion to 50% baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP). Hemodynamic parameters and serum clomipramine concentration were determined to 59 minutes. Peritoneal dialysis with 20% Intralipid or saline solution was evaluated for clomipramine concentration. Mean arterial pressure was greater in lipid-treated animals as assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (F[1,14] = 6.84; p = 0.020). Lipid infusion was associated with elevated plasma clomipramine concentration and reduced initial volume of distribution (Vd; 5.7 [+/-1.6] L/kg lipid vs. 15.9 [+/-7.2] L/kg saline; p = 0.0001). Peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration was greater in lipid-treated animals (366.2 [+/-186.2] microg/L lipid vs. 37.7 [+/-13.8] microg/L saline; p = 0.002). Amelioration of clomipramine-induced hypotension with lipid infusion is associated with reduced initial Vd and elevated plasma clomipramine concentration consistent with intravascular drug-lipid sequestration. Concomitant peritoneal dialysis with lipid emulsion enhances clomipramine extraction.

  12. Intracoronary infusion of catecholamines causes focal arrhythmias in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Harish; Jin, Qi; Dosdall, Derek J; Qin, Hao; Walcott, Gregory P; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Huang, Jian

    2008-09-01

    Acute ischemia causes myriad changes including increased catecholamines. We tested the hypothesis that elevated catecholamines alone are arrhythmogenic. A 504 electrode sock was placed over both ventricles in six open-chest pigs. During control infusion of saline through a catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), no sustained arrhythmias occurred, and the refractory period estimated by the activation recovery interval (ARI) was 175 +/- 14 ms in the LAD bed below the catheter. After infusion of isoproterenol at 0.1 microg/kg/min through the catheter, the ARI in this bed was significantly reduced to 109 +/- 10 ms. A sharp gradient of refractoriness of 43 +/- 10 ms was at the border of the perfused bed. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia occurred after drug infusion in the perfused bed or near its boundary in all animals with a cycle length of 329 +/- 26 ms and a focal origin. The maximum slope of the ARI restitution curve at the focal origins of the tachyarrhythmias was always <1 (0.62 +/- 0.15). Similar results with a focal arrhythmia origin occurred in two additional pigs in which intramural mapping was performed with 36 plunge needle electrodes in the left ventricular perfused bed. Regional elevation of a catecholamine, which is one of the alterations produced by acute ischemia, can by itself cause tachyarrhythmias. These arrhythmias are closely associated with a shortened refractory period and a large gradient of the spatial distribution of refractoriness but not with a steep restitution curve.

  13. MONITORING TETESAN INFUS BERBASIS MIKROKONTROLER ATMEGA16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyanto Iqbal Nugroho

    2015-09-01

    Penelitian ini menghasilkan suatu alat monitoring tetesan infus yang dapat memberikan informasi mengenai laju kecepatan tetesan dan kondisi cairan pada infus. Sistem yang secara realtime dimonitoring oleh perawat ini dapat mengurangi permasalahan yang timbul karena kelalaian petugas. Sehingga perawat tidak secara manual dalam mengatur kecepatan tetesan infus dan meningkatkan pelayanan kepada pasien.

  14. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and...

  15. Chronic postthoracotomy pain and perioperative ketamine infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Liao, Qin; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Jianbin; Ouyang, Wen

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether continuous intravenous ketamine during the first 72 hours after thoracotomy could reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic postthoracotomy pain (CPTP) and to define the incidence and risk factors of CPTP. Seventy-eight patients receiving thoracotomy for lung tumor (benign or malignant) were randomly divided into two groups: ketamine group (n = 31) and control groups (n = 47). Patients in the ketamine group received intravenous ketamine 1 mg/kg before incision, followed by 2 μg/kg/minute infusion for 72 hours plus sufentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after thoracotomy. Patients in the control group received intravenous a 0.9% normal saline and infusion plus sufentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. The solutions patients received were blinded. The numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores and the incidence and risk factors of CPTP were recorded during the first 6 months after surgery. Compared with control group, the incidence of chronic pain in the ketamine group did not decrease at 2 months (χ(2) = 1.599, P = .206) and 6 months (χ(2) = 0.368, P = .544) after surgery. Postoperative pain scores in the ketamine group were not significantly different from those of the control group patients at 2 months (U = 677.5, P = .593) and 6 months (U = 690.5, P = .680). The incidence of CPTP was 78.2% (61/78) at 2 months and 53.8% (42/78) at 6 months after surgery. Retractor used time (OR = 5.811, P = .002), inadequate acute pain control (NRS ≥ 5) (OR = 5.425, P = .048), and chemotherapy (OR = 3.784, P = .056) were independent risk factors for chronic postthoracotomy pain. The authors conclude that continuous intravenous ketamine (2 μg/kg/min) during the first 72 hours after thoracotomy was not beneficial to prevent chronic postthoracotomy pain. The independent risk factors for chronic postthoracotomy pain were retractor used time, inadequate acute pain control, and chemotherapy.

  16. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  17. High-NaCl intake impairs dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow in ANG II-infused rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aso; Dibona, Gerald F; Marcussen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dynamic autoregulation of renal blood flow (RBF) in ANG II-infused rats and the influence of high-NaCl intake. Sprague-Dawley rats received ANG II (250 ng·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) or saline vehicle (sham) for 14 days after which acute renal clearance experiments...

  18. A NEW ANIMAL-MODEL FOR HUMAN PREECLAMPSIA - ULTRA-LOW-DOSE ENDOTOXIN INFUSION IN PREGNANT RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FAAS, MM; SCHUILING, GA; BALLER, JFW; VISSCHER, CA; BAKKER, WW

    OBJECTIVE: An animal model for preeclampsia was developed by means of an ultra-low-dose endotoxin infusion protocol in conscious pregnant rats. STUDY DESIGN: Rats received a permanent jugular vein cannula on day 0 of pregnancy, through which endotoxin (1.0 mu/kg body weight) (n = 10) or saline

  19. Effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishida, A.; Yonemura, K.; Ohishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Honda, N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Forty-eight hours after the i.v. injection of uranyl acetate (UA, 5 mg/kg), inulin clearance rate (Cin) decreased to approximately 43% of the control value in water drinking rats (P less than 0.005). Animals receiving continuous isotonic saline infusion following UA showed higher urine flow and Cin (60% of control, P less than 0.01), and lessened intratubular cast formation when compared with water-drinking ARF rats. A short-term saline infusion following UA did not attenuate the decline in Cin (43% of control). An inverse relationship was found between Cin and the number of casts (r = -0.75, P less than 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that standardized partial regression coefficient is statistically significant between Cin and cast formation (-0.69, P less than 0.05), but not between Cin and tubular necrosis (-0.07, P greater than 0.05). Renin depletion caused by DOCA plus saline drinking did not attenuate the decline in Cin in ARF (47% of control). No significant difference was found in urinary uranium excretion between water-drinking and saline-infused ARF rats. The findings suggest that continuous saline infusion following UA attenuates the decline in Cin in ARF rats; and that this beneficial effect of saline loading is associated with lessened cast formation rather than with suppressed renin-angiotensin activity or enhanced urinary-uranium excretion

  20. Adaptations of semen characteristics and sperm motility to harsh salinity: Extreme situations encountered by the euryhaline tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii (Dumeril, 1859).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Marc; Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Dzyuba, Boris; Linhart, Otomar; Prokopchuk, Galina; Cochet, Christophe; Dugué, Rémi; Cosson, Jacky

    2016-09-15

    In most teleost fishes, sperm cells are quiescent in the seminal plasma and are activated by either a drop (fresh water fish) or an increase in osmolality (marine fish) when released in the water. It is most interesting to examine how the mechanisms of sperm motility activation can adapt to a broad range of salinities, as applies to some euryhaline species, and particularly to the tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii, which can reproduce at salinities from 0 up to 120 in the wild. Here, the gonado-somatic index, semen characteristics, and the osmotic and ionic requirements of sperm motility activation were compared in S. m. heudelotii reared in fresh water (FW), sea water (SW), or hypersaline water (HW; salinities of 0, 35, and 70, respectively). No salinity-dependent differences were found in gonado-somatic index or semen characteristics, except for an increase of seminal plasma osmolality with increasing salinity (from 318 to 349 mOsm kg(-1) in FW and HW fish, respectively). The osmolality range allowing the highest percentages of sperm activation broadened and shifted toward higher values with increasing fish ambient salinity (150-300, 300-800, and 500-1200 mOsm kg(-1), for FW, SW, and HW fish, respectively). Nevertheless, at the three fish rearing salinities, sperm could be activated in media that were hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic relative to the seminal plasma, at least when some calcium was present above a threshold concentration. The [Ca(2+)] required for the activation of S. m. heudelotii sperm is (1) higher in fish reared at a higher salinity (2) higher in hypertonic than that in hypotonic activation media, whatever the fish rearing salinity, and (3) higher in the presence of Na(+) or K(+), the negative effects of which increased with an increase in fish rearing salinity. The [Ca(2+)]/[Na(+)] ​ ratios allowing for maximal sperm motility in SW or HW fish are close to those observed in natural environments, either in sea or hypersaline

  1. Effects of erythrocyte infusion on VO2max at high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Jette Feveile; Sawka, M N; Muza, S R

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated whether autologous erythrocyte infusion would ameliorate the decrement in maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) experienced by lowlanders when they ascend to high altitude. VO2max was measured in 16 men (treadmill running) at sea level (SL) and on the 1st (HA1) and 9th (HA9) days...... of high-altitude (4,300 m) residence. After VO2max was measured at SL, subjects were divided into two matched groups (n = 8). Twenty-four hours before ascent to high altitude, the experimental group received a 700-ml infusion of autologous erythrocytes and saline (42% hematocrit), whereas the control...... group received only saline. The VO2max of erythrocyte-infused [54 +/- 1 (SE) ml.kg-1.min-1] and control subjects (52 +/- 2 ml.kg-1.min-1) did not differ at SL before infusion. The decrement in VO2max on HA1 did not differ between groups, averaging 26% overall, despite higher (P

  2. Combined enteral infusion of glutamine, carbohydrates, and antioxidants modulates gut protein metabolism in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coëffier, Moïse; Claeyssens, Sophie; Lecleire, Stéphane; Leblond, Jonathan; Coquard, Aude; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Lavoinne, Alain; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Available data suggest that nutrients can affect intestinal protein metabolism, which contributes to the regulation of gut barrier function. We aimed to assess whether an oral nutritional supplement (ONS) containing glutamine (as the dipeptide Ala-Gln), carbohydrates, and antioxidants would modulate duodenal protein metabolism in healthy humans. Thirty healthy control subjects were included and, over a period of 5 h, received by nasogastric tube either saline or ONS providing 11.7 kcal/kg as 0.877 g Ala-Gln/kg, 3.9 g carbohydrates/kg, and antioxidants (29.25 mg vitamin C/kg, 9.75 mg vitamin E/kg, 195 microg beta-carotene/kg, 5.85 mg Se/kg, and 390 microg Zn/kg) or glutamine (0.585 g/kg, 2.34 kcal/kg). Simultaneously, a continuous intravenous infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-leucine was done until endoscopy. Leucine enrichment was assessed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, and mucosal fractional synthesis rate was calculated by using intracellular amino acid enrichment as precursor. Mucosal proteolytic pathways were also evaluated. ONS infusion resulted in a doubling increase (P < 0.01) of duodenal fractional synthesis rate and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in cathepsin D-mediated proteolysis compared with saline, whereas proteasome and Ca(2+)-dependent activities were unaffected. ONS infusion significantly (P < 0.01) decreased duodenal glutathione but not glutathione disulfide concentrations or the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide. Insulinemia increased after ONS infusion, whereas plasma essential amino acids decreased. Infusion of glutamine alone did not reproduce ONS effects. ONS infusion improves duodenal protein balance in healthy humans. Further investigations are needed to study the origin of these effects and to evaluate ONS supply in stressed persons.

  3. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampen, P.

    1992-11-01

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  4. Role of permissive hypotension, hypertonic resuscitation and the global increased permeability syndrome in patients with severe hemorrhage: adjuncts to damage control resuscitation to prevent intra-abdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Juan C; Kaplan, Lewis J; Balogh, Zsolt J; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2015-01-01

    Secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are closely related to fluid resuscitation. IAH causes major deterioration of the cardiac function by affecting preload, contractility and afterload. The aim of this review is to discuss the different interactions between IAH, ACS and resuscitation, and to explore a new hypothesis with regard to damage control resuscitation, permissive hypotension and global increased permeability syndrome. Review of the relevant literature via PubMed search. The recognition of the association between the development of ACS and resuscitation urged the need for new approach in traumatic shock management. Over a decade after wide spread application of damage control surgery damage control resuscitation was developed. DCR differs from previous resuscitation approaches by attempting an earlier and more aggressive correction of coagulopathy, as well as metabolic derangements like acidosis and hypothermia, often referred to as the 'deadly triad' or the 'bloody vicious cycle'. Permissive hypotension involves keeping the blood pressure low enough to avoid exacerbating uncontrolled haemorrhage while maintaining perfusion to vital end organs. The potential detrimental mechanisms of early, aggressive crystalloid resuscitation have been described. Limitation of fluid intake by using colloids, hypertonic saline (HTS) or hyperoncotic albumin solutions have been associated with favourable effects. HTS allows not only for rapid restoration of circulating intravascular volume with less administered fluid, but also attenuates post-injury oedema at the microcirculatory level and may improve microvascular perfusion. Capillary leak represents the maladaptive, often excessive, and undesirable loss of fluid and electrolytes with or without protein into the interstitium that generates oedema. The global increased permeability syndrome (GIPS) has been articulated in patients with persistent systemic inflammation failing

  5. Albumin infusion after reperfusion prevents gut ischemia-reperfusion-induced gut-associated lymphoid tissue atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezawa, Fumie; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Okamoto, Koichi; Hara, Etsuko; Hiraide, Hoshio; Compher, Charlene W

    2006-01-01

    Our recent study clarified that gut ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) causes gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) mass atrophy, a possible mechanism for increased morbidity of infectious complications after severe surgical insults. Because albumin administration reportedly reduces hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury, we hypothesized that albumin treatment prevents GALT atrophy due to gut I/R. Male mice (n = 37) were randomized to albumin, normal saline, and sham groups. All groups underwent jugular vein catheter insertion. The albumin and normal saline groups underwent 75-minute occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. During gut ischemia, all mice received normal saline infusions at 1.0 mL/h. The albumin group was given 5% bovine serum albumin in normal saline at 1.0 mL/h for 60 minutes after reperfusion, whereas the normal saline group received 0.9% sodium chloride at 1.0 mL/h. The sham group underwent laparotomy only. Mice were killed on day 1 or 7, and the entire small intestine was harvested. GALT lymphocytes were isolated and counted. Their phenotypes (alphabetaTCR, gammadeltaTCR, CD4, CD8, B220) were determined by flow cytometry. On day 1, the gut I/R groups showed significantly lower total lymphocyte and B cell numbers in Peyer's patches and the lamina propria than the sham group. However, the albumin infusion partially but significantly restored these cell numbers. On day 7, there were no significant differences in any of the parameters measured among the 3 groups. Albumin infusion after a gut ischemic insult may maintain gut immunity by preventing GALT atrophy.

  6. The presence of PHB granules in cytoplasm protects non-halophilic bacterial cells against the harmful impact of hypertonic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obruca, Stanislav; Sedlacek, Petr; Mravec, Filip; Krzyzanek, Vladislav; Nebesarova, Jana; Samek, Ota; Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Hrubanova, Kamila; Milerova, Miluse; Marova, Ivana

    2017-10-25

    Numerous prokaryotes accumulate polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) intracellularly as a storage material. It has also been proposed that PHB accumulation improves bacterial stress resistance. Cupriavidus necator and its PHB non-accumulating mutant were employed to investigate the protective role of PHB under hypertonic conditions. The presence of PHB granules enhanced survival of the bacteria after exposure to hypertonic conditions. Surprisingly, when coping with such conditions, the bacteria did not utilize PHB to harvest carbon or energy, suggesting that, in the osmotic upshock of C. necator, the protective mechanism of PHB granules is not associated with their hydrolysis. The presence of PHB granules influenced the overall properties of the cells, since challenged PHB-free cells underwent massive plasmolysis accompanied by damage to the cell membrane and the leakage of cytoplasm content, while no such effects were observed in PHB containing bacteria. Moreover, PHB granules demonstrated "liquid-like" properties indicating that they can partially repair and stabilize cell membranes by plugging small gaps formed during plasmolysis. In addition, the level of dehydration and changes in intracellular pH in osmotically challenged cells were less pronounced for PHB-containing cultures, demonstrating the important role of PHB for bacterial survival under hyperosmotic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Infusing PDA technology into nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ann; Allen, Patricia; Goodwin, Linda; Breckinridge, Daya; Dowell, Jeffery; Garvy, Ryan

    2005-01-01

    Use of the personal digital assistant (PDA) has been infused into the accelerated baccalaureate program at Duke University to help prepare nursing students for professional practice. The authors provide an overview of the use of PDAs in the classroom, laboratory, and clinical setting. Technical aspects of PDA infusion and steps to ensure regulatory compliance are explored. Benefits of PDA use by both faculty and students in the program and challenges met with the infusion of this technology are also described.

  8. Simultaneous infusion of glutamine and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) to septic rats does not have more favorable effect on protein synthesis in muscle, liver, and small intestine than separate infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, Milan; Muthny, Tomas; Kovarik, Miroslav; Sispera, Ludek

    2006-01-01

    Glutamine and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; valine, leucine, and isoleucine) are used as nutrition supplements in the treatment of proteocatabolic illness. We hypothesized that simultaneous administration of BCAA and glutamine affects protein metabolism more significantly than separate administration. In the present study, we evaluated their effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, liver, and jejunum of septic rats. Twenty-four hours after induction of sepsis by subcutaneous injection of turpentine, the rats were infused for 6 hours with 5 mL of 1.75% glutamine, 1.75% BCAA, 1.75% glutamine+BCAA, or saline solution. The control group consisted of intact rats infused with saline. Protein synthesis was measured at the end of infusion by a "flooding method" with [3,4,5-(3)H]phenylalanine. In turpentine-treated animals, we observed a decrease in glutamine concentration in blood plasma and skeletal muscle, a decrease in BCAA concentration in liver and jejunum, and a decrease in protein synthesis in all tissues. Glutamine or glutamine+BCAA infusion increased glutamine concentration in plasma and muscle and stimulated protein synthesis in the liver. The BCAA infusion enhanced concentrations of BCAA in plasma and tissues, but the effect of BCAA on protein synthesis was insignificant. Synergistic effect of simultaneous infusion of glutamine and BCAA on protein synthesis was not observed. We conclude that glutamine infusion to rats with septic injury may significantly improve impaired protein synthesis in the liver and that there is no synergistic effect of glutamine and BCAA infusion on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle, liver, and jejunum.

  9. Hypertonic/Hyperoncotic Resuscitation from Shock: Reduced Volume Requirement and Lower Intracranial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Fig. I A-I). Cerebro ~.iscular 4. and svsternic hcmodsnarmc to!- ’. -lowing resuscitation ’from hem- orrhagic shock in the presence S2- / 4 of a...intratranial mass in dogs Cerebro - %uscular effects of resuscitation fluid choices Ancsth Analg 6’ 259 763 2tW ?%5..Cg -- ’ 384 CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE...184, 1967 8. Prior PF, Maynard DE, Brierley JB: E.E.G. monitoring for the control of anaesthesia produced by the infusion of althesin in primates . Br

  10. Experimental study on intra-arterial infusion of basic fibroblast growth factor in the ischemic limbs of rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Yang Wenduo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intra-arterial infusion of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on improving neovascularization, vascular perfusion and the function of partially ischemic limbs of rabbits. Methods: Twenty-seven New Zealand male rabbits were selected. Partial ischemia model was induced by surgical ligation of the primary branches of right femoral artery in each animal, and the left hind limb of each animal was served as a nonischemic control. Then, 27 rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups: intra-arterial (IA) infusion of bFGF (n=9), intravenous (IV) infusion of bFGF and IA infusion of saline (n=9). Infusion was separately performed immediately after vascular ligation, 8th and 15th days post-surgery with 10 μg (4 ml) of bFGF per-time (or the same volume of saline). The differences between three groups and between ischemic and nonischemic limbs of the same group were compared and evaluated by the following indexes: (1) vessel section count (VSC), vessel section surface area (VSS) and vessel section perimeter (VSP) in the field of ischemic muscle tissues taken at 22nd day postoperatively; (2) capillary refilling time of ischemic limbs; and (3) functional and trophic changes of ischemic limbs. Statistical differences were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and T test. Results: VSC, VSS and VSP of the IA-bFGF group were significantly increased than those of the IV-bFGF and IA-saline groups (P<0.01). At 22nd day postoperatively, the capillary refilling time, new hair growth, the appearance and function of all ischemic limbs in IA-bFGF group were approximately normal. However, in IA-saline group, the ischemic changes, capillary refilling time and the function of ischemic limbs were not improved significantly. All the indexes of IV-bFGF group showed no difference statistically from those of IA-saline group. Conclusions: This experimental study identifies that intra-arterial infusion of bFGF may significantly promote neovascularization and vascular

  11. Infusion volume control and calculation using metronome and drop counter based intravenous infusion therapy helper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyungnam; Lee, Jangyoung; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Insoo; Choi, Seung Pill; Jeong, Sikyung; Hong, Sungyoup

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the method of fluid infusion control using an IntraVenous Infusion Controller (IVIC). Four methods of infusion control (dial flow controller, IV set without correction, IV set with correction and IVIC correction) were used to measure the volume of each technique at two infusion rates. The infused fluid volume with a dial flow controller was significantly larger than other methods. The infused fluid volume was significantly smaller with an IV set without correction over time. Regarding the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of infused fluid volume in relation to a target volume, IVIC correction was shown to have the highest level of agreement. The flow rate measured in check mode showed a good agreement with the volume of collected fluid after passing through the IV system. Thus, an IVIC could assist in providing an accurate infusion control. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Plasma amino acids and metabolic profiling of dairy cows in response to a bolus duodenal infusion of leucine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadri, Hassan; von Soosten, Dirk; Meyer, Ulrich; Kluess, Jeannette; Dänicke, Sven; Saremi, Behnam; Sauerwein, Helga

    2017-01-01

    Leucine (Leu), one of the three branch chain amino acids, acts as a signaling molecule in the regulation of overall amino acid (AA) and protein metabolism. Leucine is also considered to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of insulin from pancreatice β-cells. Our objective was to study the effects of a duodenal bolus infusion of Leu on insulin and glucagon secretion, on plasma AA concentrations, and to do a metabolomic profiling of dairy cows as compared to infusions with either glucose or saline. Six duodenum-fistulated Holstein cows were studied in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 7 days, in which the treatments were applied at the end of each period. The treatments were duodenal bolus infusions of Leu (DIL; 0.15 g/kg body weight), glucose (DIG; at Leu equimolar dosage) or saline (SAL). On the day of infusion, the treatments were duodenally infused after 5 h of fasting. Blood samples were collected at -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 120, 180, 210, 240 and 300 min relative to the start of infusion. Blood plasma was assayed for concentrations of insulin, glucagon, glucose and AA. The metabolome was also characterized in selected plasma samples (i.e. from 0, 50, and 120 min relative to the infusion). Body weight, feed intake, milk yield and milk composition were recorded throughout the experiment. The Leu infusion resulted in significant increases of Leu in plasma reaching 20 and 15-fold greater values than that in DIG and SAL, respectively. The elevation of plasma Leu concentrations after the infusion led to a significant decrease (Pcows were reduced (Pinsulin were not affected by Leu. In DIG, insulin and glucose concentrations peaked at 30-40 and 40-50 min after the infusion, respectively. Insulin concentrations were greater (Pcows were compared with the DIG and SAL cows at 50 and 120 min after the infusion. By using this analysis, several metabolites, mainly acylcarnitines, methionine sulfoxide and components from the

  13. Metabolic cost of osmoregulation in a hypertonic environment in the invasive African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Peña-Villalobos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aquatic invertebrates reveal that salinity affects feeding and growth rates, reproduction, survival, and diversity. Little is known, however, about how salinity impacts the energy budget of vertebrates and amphibians in particular. The few studies focused on this topic in vertebrates suggest that the ingestion of salts and the resulting osmoregulatory activity is energetically expensive. We analyzed the effect of saline acclimation on standard metabolic rates (SMR and the activities of metabolic enzymes of internal organs and osmoregulatory variables (plasma osmolality and urea plasma level in females of Xenopus laevis by means of acclimating individuals to an isosmotic (235 mOsm NaCl; ISO group and hyper-osmotic (340 mOsm NaCl; HYP group environment for 40 days. After acclimation, we found that total and mass-specific SMR was approximately 80% higher in the HYP group than those found in the ISO group. These changes were accompanied by higher citrate synthase activities in liver and heart in the HYP group than in the ISO group. Furthermore, we found a significant and positive correlation between metabolic rates and plasma urea, and citrate synthase activity in liver and heart. These results support the notion that the cost of osmoregulation is probably common in most animal species and suggest the existence of a functional association between metabolic rates and the adjustments in osmoregulatory physiology, such as blood distribution and urea synthesis.

  14. Influence of repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T T; Yi, C H; Lei, W Y; Hung, X S; Yu, H C; Chen, C L

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated as a target mediator for heartburn perception and modulation of esophageal secondary peristalsis. Our aim was to determine the effect of repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. Secondary peristalsis was performed with mid-esophageal injections of air in 15 healthy adults. Two separate protocols including esophageal infusion with saline and capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce and 2 consecutive sessions of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce were randomly performed. After repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce, the threshold volume to activate secondary peristalsis was significantly increased during slow (p sauce enhanced heartburn perception (p sauce infusion (p = 0.007). Acute infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly increased pressure wave amplitudes of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.003) and rapid air injections (p = 0.01), but repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly decreased pressure wave amplitude of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.0005) and rapid air injections (p = 0.003). Repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin appears to attenuate heartburn perception and inhibit distension-induced secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. These results suggest capsaicin-sensitive afferents in modulating sensorimotor function of secondary peristalsis in human esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effect of peritoneal cavity lavage with 0.9% and 3.0% saline solution in the lung and spleen of gerbils with induced peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Vinícius Rodrigues Taranto; Barbuto, Rafael Calvão; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Pena, Guilherme Nogueira; Rocha, Silvia Lunardi; de Siqueira, Lucas Tourinho; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; de Araujo, Ivana Duval

    2014-04-01

    Peritoneal cavity lavage is used widely in the treatment of peritonitis. Nonetheless, some studies question its rationale and prove it to be deleterious to the mesothelium. The present study aims to determine whether 0.9% and 3.0% saline lavage of the peritoneal cavity have an effect on the early systemic inflammatory response, namely, in the lung injury and splenic cellularity of gerbils with induced peritonitis. Thirty-four male gerbils were divided into four groups: Control (n=9), submitted to laparotomy at time zero, re-laparotomy after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start; untreated (n=8), submitted to peritonitis induction through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for drying of abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrifice after a total of 6 h from start; saline (n=8), submitted to peritonitis induction through CLP at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for warm 0.9% saline lavage of the abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start; and hypertonic (n=9), submitted to peritonitis induction through CLP at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for warm hypertonic saline (3.0%) lavage of the abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start. After sacrifice, we collected the left lung and the spleen for morphometric analysis. In the both the saline and hypertonic groups, there was significant decrease in the mean nuclei count in the lungs, compared with the untreated group (p0.05). The present study demonstrated that the peritoneal lavage with large volumes of warm 0.9% and 3.0% saline has a beneficial effect on the early systemic inflammatory response in infected animals, modulating and reducing the lung injury but having no effect on splenic cell count.

  16. Is pomegranate peels infusion effective for disinfection of toothbrushes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lima de Luna FREIRE

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Methods of decontamination or sanitization of toothbrushes have been questioned. Objective This study assessed the effectiveness of pomegranate peels infusion as a disinfectant of toothbrushes against Streptococcus mutans. Material and method A sample of 16 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 9 years performed brushing 5 days/week, with a careful brushing once a day. After each day of brushing, the toothbrushes were washed and sprayed with one disinfectant solution. This procedure was repeated for 4 weeks using one of the different solutions per week: distilled water (G1; negative control, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn peels infusion (G2, 1% sodium hypochlorite (G3 and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (G4. After the fifth day, toothbrushes were collected for laboratory analysis. Toothbrushes heads were subjected to agitation in saline dilution of 10–1, 10–2,10–3, and 25 μL of each dilution were seeded in mitis salivarius agar culture medium for S. mutans colony-forming unit (CFU counting. One calibrated examiner (Kappa = 0.91 performed the CFU (mL–1 × 104 counts. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn Multiple Comparison tests were used at a significance level of 5%. Result G1 presented the highest number of CFU (3.9 ± 8.4, followed by G2 (3.2 ± 4.0. No S. mutans growth was observed in G3 and G4. There was no statistically significant difference between G1 and G2 and between G3 and G4 (p>0.05. Conclusion Pomegranate infusion was completely ineffective for the disinfection of toothbrushes against S. mutans when compared with 1% sodium hypochlorite and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate solutions.

  17. Cultured cells from a severe combined immunodeficient mouse have a slower than normal rate of repair of potentially lethal damage sensitive to hypertonic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Terado, T.; Ikebuchi, M.; Aoyama, T.; Komatsu, K.; Nozawa, A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of hypertonic 0.5 M NaCl treatment after irradiation on the repair of DNA damage were examined in fibroblasts of the severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse. These cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation because of a deficiency in the repair of double-strand breaks. Hypertonic treatment caused radiosensitization due to a fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) in scid cells, demonstrating that scid cells normally repair PLD. To assess the kinetics of the repair of PLD, hypertonic treatment was delayed for various times after irradiation. Potentially lethal damage was repaired during these times in isotonic medium at 37 degrees C. It was found that the rate of repair of PLD was much slower in scid cells than in BALB/c 3T3 cells, which have a open-quotes wild-typeclose quotes level of radiosensitivity. This fact indicates that the scid mutation affects the type of repair of PLD that is sensitive to 0.5 M NaCl treatment. In scid hybrid cells containing fragments of human chromosome 8, which complements the radiosensitivity of the scid cells, the rate of repair was restored to a normal level. An enzyme encoded by a gene on chromosome 8 may also be connected with PLD which is sensitive to hypertonic treatment. 29 refs., 3 figs

  18. The Impact of Cranios acral Therapy on Inhibition of Hypertonicity of the Lower Limb in Children with Dipelgia Spastic Cerebral Palsy of 3-8 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Pishyareh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitating impact of craniosacral therapy on inhibition of hypertonicity of the lower limb in children with spastic dipelgic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: 100 children with cerebral palsy were studied and 36 children selected, aged 3 to 8 years, were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group. Muscle tone was assessed using modified Ashworth scale, passive range of motion by goniometer, neurodevelopment level by Bobath scale. All children were Pre-Post-tested with in an interval of three months. Results: A further finding of the analyses revealed that significant reduction was observed in hypertonicity of the hip adductors and the ankle plantar flexors. Significant increase was observed in passive range of motion of the hip abduction and the ankle dorsiflexion. There was found no significant difference of reduction in hypertonicity of the knee flexors, of increase in passive range of motion of the knee extensor, of improvement neurodevelopmental level. Meaningful relationship was observed between reduction hypertonicity of the hip adductors and improvement of the neurodevelopmental level. Conclusion: It should be mentioned that in all above cases the was set at 5%. Implications for clinical O.T. are mentioned.

  19. No effect of continuous i.p. infusion of bupivacaine on postoperative analgesia, pulmonary function and the stress response to surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, N B; Mogensen, T; Greulich, A

    1988-01-01

    In a double-blind prospective study, 20 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery were allocated randomly to receive a continuous 8-h i.p. infusion of either physiological saline or 0.25% bupivacaine 20 ml h-1 (in saline) following a loading dose of saline 1 ml kg-1 or 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml kg-1...... was without effect in the management of pain, postoperative pulmonary dysfunction and the stress response in this group of patients....... analogue scale). Postoperative pain, impairment in pulmonary function and increase in serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were not influenced by the i.p. infusion of bupivacaine when compared with saline. This study shows that the i.p. instillation of therapeutically safe doses of bupivacaine...

  20. Infusing Systems Thinking into Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Charles W.; Tomlin, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the role of career counselors in infusing systems thinking into occupational advising. The authors conducted a qualitative review and analysis of selected literature on systems thinking and analyzed trends for adaptation to career counseling practice. This analysis suggests that career counselors need to infuse systems…

  1. The U.S. home infusion market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk-Tutor, M R

    1998-10-01

    Medicare legislation stimulated the development of home care services but also resulted in fragmentation of service components. In the 1980s, prospective pricing and diagnosis-related groups, and resulting pressures to reduce inpatient length of stay, prompted additional growth of the industry. Even so, in 1995 home care represented only 3% of total national expenditures on health care. The annual growth rate of the home infusion industry dropped from 64% in 1982-86 to 24% in 1986-93. While revenue per patient for home infusion is expected to decrease under managed care, an increasing number of patients will support continued market growth. The home infusion market is highly competitive, with only a few large national providers and many small local providers. In 1996, 29% of acute care hospitals provided or were developing a home care program. Community pharmacists' options in the home infusion area include independent services, partnerships, joint ventures, contracts with hospitals, and franchises. The home infusion market is being integrated into alternative sites, such as ambulatory infusion centers (AICs), as providers attempt to diversify to maintain managed care contracts. AICs provide infusion therapy and nursing to noninstitutionalized, nonhome-bound patients. Untapped sources for future growth of the infusion market include long-term-care facilities. More consistent studies of the home care market are needed. Despite slowed growth in recent years, home care has a strong market in the United States.

  2. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, Michel M. R. F.; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John (Iain) B.; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Schnider, Thomas W.

    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted (target) drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical

  3. [Influence of an infusion of 5- or 20% glucose solution on blood glucose and inorganic phosphate concentrations in dairy cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaek, T A A; Failing, K; Wehrend, A; Klymiuk, M C

    2011-01-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the influence of an intravenous infusion of 5% and 20% dextrose solution on the plasma concentration of glucose and inorganic phosphate in healthy, dairy cows. Ten healthy, lactating, nonpregnant 3 to 6 year-old Holstein-Friesian cows were included in this investigation. The daily milk yield was 20.3±2.7 liters. Blood plasma concentrations of inorganic phosphate and glucose were determined before, during, immediately and 60 minutes after infusion of 0.9% physiological saline, 5% or 20% dextrose solution. A statistically significant influence of dextrose infusion on blood glucose concentration was observed. After 20% dextrose infusion (200 g dextrose) the blood glucose concentration increased by approximately 13.26 mmol/l. The administration of 5% dextrose solution (50 g dextrose) yielded an increase of blood glucose concentration by 3.31 mmol/l. There was no significant correlation between plasma inorganic phosphate concentrations and infusion of 0.9% saline, 5% or 20% dextrose solution. Intravenous administration of 1000 ml of 5% or 20% dextrose solution does not induce a lasting plasma phosphate reduction and is suitable for elevating the blood glucose concentration.

  4. Fluvoxamine moderates reduced voluntary activity following chronic dexamethasone infusion in mice via recovery of BDNF signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Kazuki; Izumo, Nobuo; Suzuki, Biora; Karube, Yoshiharu; Morikawa, Tomomi; Ishibashi, Yukiko; Kameyama, Toshiki; Chiba, Koji; Sasaki, Noriko; Iwata, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Manabe, Takayuki

    2014-04-01

    Major depression is a complex disorder characterized by genetic and environmental interactions. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) effectively treat depression. Neurogenesis following chronic antidepressant treatment activates brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the SSRI fluvoxamine (Flu) on locomotor activity and forced-swim behavior using chronic dexamethasone (cDEX) infusions in mice, which engenders depression-like behavior. Infusion of cDEX decreased body weight and produced a trend towards lower locomotor activity during darkness. In the forced-swim test, cDEX-mice exhibited increased immobility times compared with mice administered saline. Flu treatment reversed decreased locomotor activity and mitigated forced-swim test immobility. Real-time polymerase chain reactions using brain RNA samples yielded significantly lower BDNF mRNA levels in cDEX-mice compared with the saline group. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) gene expression was lower in cDEX-mice compared with the saline group. However, marked expression of the XBP1 gene was observed in cDEX-mice treated with Flu compared with mice given saline and untreated cDEX-mice. Expression of 5-HT2A and Sigma-1 receptors decreased after cDEX infusion compared with the saline group, and these decreases normalized to control levels upon Flu treatment. Our results indicate that the Flu moderates reductions in voluntary activity following chronic dexamethasone infusions in mice via recovery of BDNF signal cascades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medication and volume delivery by gravity-driven micro-drip intravenous infusion: potential variations during "wide-open" flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Eric T; Kumar, Vikram; Zheng, Hui; Peterfreund, Robert A

    2013-03-01

    Gravity-driven micro-drip infusion sets allow control of medication dose delivery by adjusting drops per minute. When the roller clamp is fully open, flow in the drip chamber can be a continuous fluid column rather than discrete, countable, drops. We hypothesized that during this "wide-open" state, drug delivery becomes dependent on factors extrinsic to the micro-drip set and is therefore difficult to predict. We conducted laboratory experiments to characterize volume delivery under various clinically relevant conditions of wide-open flow in an in vitro laboratory model. A micro-drip infusion set, plugged into a bag of normal saline, was connected to a high-flow stopcock at the distal end. Vertically oriented IV catheters (gauges 14-22) were connected to the stopcock. The fluid meniscus height in the bag was fixed (60-120 cm) above the outflow point. The roller clamp on the infusion set was in fully open position for all experiments resulting in a continuous column of fluid in the drip chamber. Fluid volume delivered in 1 minute was measured 4 times with each condition. To model resistive effects of carrier flow, volumetric infusion pumps were used to deliver various flow rates of normal saline through a carrier IV set into which a micro-drip infusion was "piggybacked." We also compared delivery by micro-drip infusion sets from 3 manufacturers. The volume of fluid delivered by gravity-driven infusion under wide-open conditions (continuous fluid column in drip chamber) varied 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.84-2.96) depending on catheter size and fluid column height. Total model resistance of the micro-drip with stopcock and catheter varied with flow rate. Volume delivered by the piggybacked micro-drip decreased up to 29.7% ± 0.8% (mean ± SE) as the carrier flow increased from 0 to 1998 mL/min. Delivery characteristics of the micro-drip infusion sets from 3 different manufacturers were similar. Laboratory simulation of clinical situations with gravity

  6. Maintenance of plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations during glucose infusion directs essential amino acids to extra-mammary tissues in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Richelle V; Kim, Julie J M; Doelman, John; Cant, John P

    2018-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of branched-chain AA (BCAA) supplementation when glucose is infused postruminally into lactating dairy cows consuming a diet low in crude protein (CP) and to test the hypothesis that low BCAA concentrations are responsible for the poor stimulation of milk protein yield by glucose. Twelve early-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 15% and 12% CP diets in a switchback design of 6-wk periods. Cows consuming the 12% CP diet received 96-h continuous jugular infusions of saline and 1 kg/d of glucose with 0, 75, or 150 g/d of BCAA in a Latin square sequence of treatments. Compared with saline, glucose infusion did not affect dry matter intake but increased milk yield by 2.2 kg/d and milk protein and lactose yields by 63 and 151 g/d, respectively. Mammary plasma flow increased 36% during glucose infusion compared with saline infusion, possibly because of a 31% decrease in total acetate plus β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Circulating concentrations of total essential AA and BCAA decreased 19 and 31%, respectively, during infusion of glucose, yet net mammary uptakes of AA remained unchanged compared with saline infusion. The addition of 75 and 150 g/d of BCAA to glucose infusions increased arterial concentrations of BCAA to 106 and 149%, respectively, of the concentrations in saline-infused cows, but caused a decrease in concentrations of non-branched-chain essential AA in plasma, as well as their mammary uptakes and milk protein yields. Plasma urea concentration was not affected by BCAA infusion, indicating no change in catabolism of AA. The lack of mammary and catabolic effects leads us to suggest that BCAA exerted their effects on plasma concentrations of the other essential AA by stimulating utilization in skeletal muscle for protein accretion. Results indicate that the glucose effect on milk protein yield was not limited by low BCAA concentrations, and that a stimulation of extra-mammary use

  7. Strontium-rubidium infusion pump with in-line dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, S.L.; Loberg, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    A strontium-rubidium infusion system is described which consists of: (a) means for generating rubidium 82 in a solution which can be infused into a patient; (b) means for infusing the solution into a patient; (c) means for measuring the radioactivity present in the solution as it is infused into the patient; and (d) means for controlling the means for infusing in response to the amount of radioactivity which has been infused into the patient

  8. Heart Rate Variability Responses of Individuals With and Without Saline-Induced Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Bradley, T Douglas; Millar, Philip J; Floras, John S; Rubianto, Jonathan; Gavrilovic, Bojan; Perger, Elisa; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2018-03-30

    Postoperative development of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been attributed to the fluid overloaded state of patients during the postoperative period. In this context, alterations in cardiac autonomic regulation caused by OSA may explain the increased postoperative risk for adverse cardiovascular events. This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with fluid overload-induced OSA will experience autonomic dysregulation, compared to those without fluid overload-induced OSA. Twenty-one normotensive, nonobese (mean body mass index 24.5 kg/m2) males (mean age 37 years) underwent a sleep study. Participants were randomly assigned to infusion with saline during sleep either at the minimum rate (control) or as a bolus of 22 mL/kg body weight (intervention). Participants were blinded to the intervention and crossed over to the other study arm after 1 week. Measures of heart rate variability were calculated from electrocardiography recordings presaline and postsaline infusion in the intervention arm. Heart rate variability measures computed were: standard deviation of the RR interval; root mean square of successive differences; low-frequency, high-frequency, and total power; and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power. Although presaline infusion values were similar, postsaline infusion values of the standard deviation of the RR interval and high-frequency power were lower in the group whose apnea-hypopnea index increased in response to saline infusion, compared to the group whose apnea-hypopnea index did not increase in response to saline infusion ( P variability, consistent with vagal withdrawal. Future work should explore autonomic dysregulation in the postoperative period and its association with adverse events. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha infusion produced insulin resistance but no change in the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Lars; Holst, Jens Juul; Møller, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Although TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown. We investigated whether systemic inflammation induced by TNF-α infusion in healthy volunteers alters the incretin hormone response to oral and intravenous glucose loads in a crossover study design with ten healthy male volunteers (mean age 24 years, mean body mass index 23.7 kg/m(2) ). The study consisted of four study days: days 1 and 2, 6-h infusion of saline; days 3 and 4, 6-h infusion of TNF-α; days 1 and 3, 4-h oral glucose tolerance test; and days 2 and 4, 4-h corresponding intravenous isoglycaemic glucose tolerance test. Glucose tolerance tests were initiated after 2 h of saline/TNF-α infusion. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α, interleukin 6, glucose, incretin hormones, and cortisol, and serum concentrations of C-peptide and insulin were measured throughout the study days. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Prehepatic insulin secretion rates were calculated. TNF-α infusion induced symptoms of systemic inflammation; increased plasma levels of cortisol, TNF-α, and interleukin 6; and increased the HOMA-IR. The secretion of incretin hormones as well as the incretin effect remained unchanged. In healthy young male volunteers, acute systemic inflammation induced by infusion of TNF-α is associated with insulin resistance with no change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and toxicology of continuously infused nitroimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifel, P.J.; Brown, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics and toxicology of misonidazole (MISO) and SR-2508 given by continuous intraperitoneal infusion were studied in female C 3 H mice. The survival (time to death) of animals receiving continuous infusions of SR-2508 and MISO was compared and related to plasma concentration, rate of infusion and total amount of drug delivered. Brain and plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. For SR-2508, plasma concentration was directly proportional to the infusion rate. However, as the infusion rate of MISO was doubled, the plasma concentration of MISO increased approximately 6-fold, reflecting a substantial increase in the apparent half-life. The brain/plasma concentration ratio in animals infused for up to 6 days with SR-2508 remained constant, at approximately 0.09. At plasma concentrations of 0.08-1.5 mM, animals receiving SR-2508 survived approximately 3 times as long as animals exposed to a comparable plasma concentration of MISO. Even at the lowest infusion rates employed in this study, the survival of mice receiving SR-2508 was much shorter than would have been predicted if the toxicity of these two drugs were solely related to the integral brain exposure. The low brain/plasma concentration ratio of SR-2508 was maintained throughout long continuous exposures

  11. The effect of glucagon on infusion cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.F.; Whitehouse, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    An assessment has been made of the effects of glucagon on biliary tract opacification during intravenous cholangiography. Two series of infusion cholangiograms were obtained at two investigating centres designated A and B. In series A, 41 patients had ioglycamide infusions at a rate of 0.2833 g min -1 over 1 h. In series B, 31 patients had ioglycamide infusions at a rate of 0.3886 g min -1 over 30 min. Radiographs were taken in both series immediately at the end of the infusion, 10 min later and 30 min after the infusion. Two mg of intravenous glucagon was injected into alternate cases in both series A and B immediately after the first radiograph was taken at the completion of the ioglycamide infusion. Two observers in each series then assessed the radiographic opacification of the biliary system without prior knowledge of which patients had received the glucagon. Delineation of the biliary system was considered better in both series in those patients who received glucagon when compared with the controls. Gallbladder opacification was definitely increased in series A in those receiving glucagon, and a similar tendency was shown in series B. The amount of contrast in the upper intestine was increased in series A in the glucagon group, but not in series B. It is concluded that glucagon improves visualisation of the biliary tract, especially the gallbladder at infusion cholangiography. (author)

  12. Thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic cerebral stroke: intraarterial urokinase infusion vs. intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gi Young; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Myoung Chong

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and limitation of intra-arterial urokinase (IAUK) infusion for treatment of acute cerebral stroke. Twenty-seven acute cerebral stroke patients treated with IAUK infusion within six hours of stroke onset were reviewed. All patients showed normal initial brain findings on CT. In 21 patients, urokinase(5-15 x 10 5 IU) was administered through a microcatheter placed into or proximal to occluded segment. Mechanical disruption of thrombus by guidewire was performed in 17 patients. Angiographic and clinical responses and complications after IAUK infusion, were evaluated and the results were compared with those of intravenous heparin(N=19) and urokinase infusion(N=19). Complete or partial angiographic recanalization of occluded segment was found in 18 patients (67%), and neurologic improvement was followed in 14 patients(52%). The degree of improvement on the stroke scale score after IAUK infusion was statistically more significant(p<0.05) than that shown after intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion. Complications after IAUK infusion were large(15%) and small amount intracerebral hemorrhage(15%), contrast leakage into brain parenchyma(11%), and gastrointestinal bleeding(4%). Between the IAVK and the intravenous urokinase infusion group, differences in extent and types of complications were statistically insignificant, but were significantly higher in those two groups than in the intravenous heparin infusion group. IAUK infusion may be effective for the treatment of acute cerebral stroke

  13. Financial analysis for the infusion alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perucca, Roxanne

    2010-01-01

    Providing high-quality, cost-efficient care is a major strategic initiative of every health care organization. Today's health care environment is transparent; very competitive; and focused upon providing exceptional service, safety, and quality. Establishing an infusion alliance facilitates the achievement of organizational strategic initiatives, that is, increases patient throughput, decreases length of stay, prevents the occurrence of infusion-related complications, enhances customer satisfaction, and provides greater cost-efficiency. This article will discuss how to develop a financial analysis that promotes value and enhances the financial outcomes of an infusion alliance.

  14. Krypton 81m infusion studies. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Mayron, L.W.; Friedman, A.M.; Gindler, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described to give a continuous, constant-rate, intravascular infusion of 81 Krsup(m). Modifications of earlier generators included production of sodium-free 81 Rb, the use of a solution of commercial sterile isotonic non-ionic 5% dextrose-in-water as an eluant, the incorporation of a constant-rate infusion pump, and the miniaturization of the generator column and catheter system. Results are presented of studies of 81 Krsup(m) distribution in dogs, using both intravenous and intra-arterial infusion. (author)

  15. Effects of anisodamine on the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 in experimental infusion phlebitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Xiang; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Qiu-Shi; Pan, Xue; Zhao, Qing-Xia; Wang, Xiao-Kai

    2012-01-01

    Infusion phlebitis is the most common side effect of clinical intravenous drug therapy and several clinical studies have demonstrated that anisodamine can effectively prevent the occurrence of infusion phlebitis. This study was designed to investigate effects of anisodamine on the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in a rabbit model of infusion phlebitis and to analyze the mechanisms of anisodamine effect on the prevention and treatment of experimental infusion phlebitis. Twenty-four specific pathogen-free male Japanese white rabbits were randomly assigned to the control group, the model group, the magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group. The rabbit model of infusion phlebitis, induced by intravenous administration, was established and expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 were determined and contrasted with the control group treated with normal saline. We evaluated expression by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting assay. Pathohistological changes of the model group were observed, such as loss of venous endothelial cells, inflammatory cell infiltration, edema and thrombus. The magnesium sulfate group and the anisodamine group showed significant protective effects on vascular congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferation, swelling of endothelium and perivascular hemorrhage. The model group showed the highest expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1 of the four groups (P 0.05). Anisodamine alleviates inflammatory damage by significantly reducing the expressions of VEGF and ICAM-1, and shows significant protective effects in an animal model of infusion phlebitis.

  16. Effect of corticosteroids on phlebitis induced by intravenous infusion of antineoplastic agents in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Emiko; Murase, Saori; Matsuyama, Kenji; Okamura, Noboru

    2009-08-06

    Phlebitis caused by intravenous infusion of antineoplastic agents is one of the critical problems when anticancer therapy is prolonged. We have already reported that both rapid infusion and dilution of the injection solution were effective methods for reducing phlebitis caused by vinorelbine (VNR) in rabbits. The aim of this study was to explore other practical methods for preventing phlebitis caused by VNR and doxorubicin (DXR) in a rabbit model. VNR is often used with cisplatin, and dexamethasone (DEX) has been co-administered for prevention of cisplatin-induced nausea. DXR is used with prednisolone (PSL) in the CHOP regimen for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Therefore, the present study investigated the prevention of phlebitis due to VNR with DEX and that due to DXR with PSL. VNR and DXR were diluted with normal saline to prepare test solutions at concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 1.4 mg/mL, respectively. Each test solution was infused into the auricular veins of rabbits. Two days after VNR infusion and three days after DXR infusion, the veins were evaluated histopathologically. The effect of DEX on VNR-induced phlebitis was evaluated by infusion of DEX before or after VNR. The effect of PSL on DXR-induced phlebitis was similarly evaluated by co-infusion of PSL. The histopathological features of phlebitis caused by the antineoplastic agents differed between VNR and DXR: VNR did not cause the loss of venous endothelial cells, but caused inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, and epidermal degeneration. In contrast, DXR caused the loss of venous endothelial cells and chrondrocyte necrosis. Pre-treatment and post-treatment with DEX significantly decreased VNR-induced phlebitis compared with the control group and pre-treatment was particularly effective. Co-infusion of PSL also significantly decreased phlebitis caused by DXR, but its effect was less marked. The present findings suggested that pre-treatment with DEX may be a useful method for preventing

  17. Intraileal casein infusion increases plasma concentrations of amino acids in humans: A randomized cross over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripken, Dina; van Avesaat, Mark; Troost, Freddy J; Masclee, Ad A; Witkamp, Renger F; Hendriks, Henk F

    2017-02-01

    Activation of the ileal brake by casein induces satiety signals and reduces energy intake. However, adverse effects of intraileal casein administration have not been studied before. These adverse effects may include impaired amino acid digestion, absorption and immune activation. To investigate the effects of intraileal infusion of native casein on plasma amino acid appearance, immune activation and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. A randomized single-blind cross over study was performed in 13 healthy subjects (6 male; mean age 26 ± 2.9 years; mean body mass index 22.8 ± 0.4 kg/m -2 ), who were intubated with a naso-ileal feeding catheter. Thirty minutes after intake of a standardized breakfast, participants received an ileal infusion, containing either control (C) consisting of saline, a low-dose (17.2 kcal) casein (LP) or a high-dose (51.7 kcal) of casein (HP) over a period of 90 min. Blood samples were collected for analysis of amino acids (AAs), C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxylipins at regular intervals. Furthermore, GI symptom questionnaires were collected before, during and after ileal infusion. None of the subjects reported any GI symptoms before, during or after ileal infusion of C, LP and HP. Plasma concentrations of all AAs analyzed were significantly increased after infusion of HP as compared to C (p casein, respectively. Ileal casein infusion did not affect plasma concentrations of CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α. Infusion of HP resulted in a decreased concentration of 11,12-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid whereas none of the other oxylipins analyzed were affected. A single intraileal infusion of native casein results in a concentration and time dependent increase of AAs in plasma, suggesting an effective digestion and absorption of AAs present in casein. Also, ileal infusion did not result in immune activation nor in GI symptoms. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT01509469. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF HELICHRYSUM ARENARIUM FLOWERS INFUSION ON MAST CELLS DEGRANULATION IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Karazhan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Helichrysum arenarium flowers are medical plant raw materials with a high concentration of flavonoids (2.5– 5.0%. As compounds of this group of biologically active substances often possess antiallergic activity, Helichrysum arenarium flowers are a potential antiallergic medicine. The aim is to study an antiallergic activity of Helichrysum arenarium flowers infusion on the model of mast cells degranulation in vitro. Materials and methods. Helichrysum arenarium flowers infusion was made in accordance with the requirements of the State Pharmacopoeia of the Republic of Belarus. Mast cells were obtained from the abdominal cavity of inbred mice weighing 20–25 g. Experimental animals were divided into three groups of 5 individuals in each. The intact group was not subjected to any manipulation for 14 days. The test group was sensitized with the epidermal allergen from the cat’s fur. The placebo group was subjected to the same manipulations as the test group, by phosphate buffered saline pH 7.4 for sensitization instead of the allergen. Results and discussion. The addition of Helichrysum arenarium flowers infusion to the mast cells of the intact group and the placebo group did not affect the percentage of the mast cells degranulation (p>0.05, indicating that the animals of the intact group and the placebo group did not have a hypersensitivity to the components of the medicine under investigation. In the presence of Helichrysum arenarium flowers the percentage of the mast cells degranulation of the test group decreased in comparison with the percentage of the mast cells degranulation in the presence of the allergen from 23.6±2.1% to 8.1–16.2% (p<0.05. Semi-effective concentration of Helichrysum arenarium flowers infusion was 1.33±0.04 mg / ml. The stabilizing effect on the mast cells degranulation of the Helichrysum arenarium flowers infusion was statistically significantly lower than the stabilizing effect of the Bidens tripartita herb

  19. A new infusion pathway intactness monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sata, Koji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2006-01-01

    A new infusion pathway monitoring system has been developed for hospital and home use. The system consists of linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer which constantly monitors the infusion pathway intactness. An AC (alternating current) voltage is induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. The induced AC voltage can be recorded by a main electrode wrapped around the infusion polyvinyl chloride tube. A reference electrode is wrapped on the electrode to monitor the AC voltage around the main electrode. If the injection needle or infusion tube becomes detached, then the system detects changes in the induced AC voltages and alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or PHS (personal handy phone system).

  20. Effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed G. Yacout

    2011-12-17

    Dec 17, 2011 ... a Anaesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care Department, Faculty of Medicine, ... idine infusion in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery on stress .... the spinal cord, where drug activity attenuates nociceptive sig-.

  1. Carbon Nanotube Infused Launch Vehicle Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the past 5 years Orbital ATK has been investing in, prototyping, and testing carbon nanotube infused composite structures to evaluate their impact on launch...

  2. Infusion Antihypoxants in Children with Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia and mitochondrial damage are a key component of the pathogenesis and tanatogenesis of a critical condition, suggesting the need for its prevention and maximally rapid elimination. Objective: to analyze the efficacy and safety of infusion antihypoxants used in critically ill children from the results of researches. Materials and methods. Available investigations dealing with infusion therapy in children and papers on the use of infusion antihypoxants in adults in 2005 to 2013 were sought in the medical databases PubMed and Cochrane Library with their free availability and analyzed. Results. The analysis included 70 trials. The pathophysiology and pathobiochemistry of hypoxia in critically ill children are given; the current principles of its correction by infusion therapy are considered in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of succinic acid solutions in children. Main indications for and contraindications to their use are demonstrated. Conclusion. The use of Krebs cycle substrate-based infusion antihypoxants (malate, succinate is an effective and promising procedure for the intensive therapy and correction of hypoxia in both adults and children with critical conditions. Considering the fact that papers on the use of infusion antihypoxants in children are scanty, there is a need for further investigations. 

  3. Influence of ondansetron on gastric sensorimotor responses to short duodenal acid infusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, T; Karamanolis, G; Van Oudenhove, L; Oudenhove, L V; Vos, R; Tack, J

    2011-03-01

    Duodenal acid infusion induces gastric relaxation and sensitization to distension in healthy volunteers. The acid-sensitive mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesized that 5HT(3)-blockade can inhibit the acid-induced duodenogastric sensorimotor reflex in healthy volunteers. Fourteen healthy volunteers were included in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. An infusion tube with attached pH-electrode was positioned in the duodenum and a barostat balloon was located in the gastric fundus. Proximal gastric volume and sensitivity to distension were assessed before and during duodenal acid infusion and after pretreatment with intravenous (i.v.) ondansetron (a 5HT(3)-receptor antagonist, 8 mg) or saline. An overall perception score (0-6) and an assessment of nine dyspeptic symptoms by visual analogue scales (VAS) were obtained. Results are given as mean ± SEM. Ondansetron had no effect on duodenal pH and on the acid-induced increase of proximal gastric volume (increase of 80 ± 20 vs 83 ± 15 mL after ondansetron and placebo; effect of acid acid infusion and gastric distension. 5HT(3)-receptors are involved in acid-induced duodenogastric sensitization, but not in the duodenogastric inhibitory motor reflex. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Deepanjali; Narani, Krishan Kumar; Sood, Jayashree

    2010-01-01

    Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV) infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier. PMID:20532073

  5. Significant air embolism: A possibility even with collapsible intravenous fluid containers when used with rapid infuser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Pant

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant venous air embolism may develop acutely during the perioperative period due to a number of causes such as during head and neck surgery, spinal surgery, improper central venous and haemodialysis catheter handling, etc. The current trend of using self collapsible intravenous (IV infusion bags instead of the conventional glass or plastic bottles has several advantages, one of thaem being protection against air embolism. We present a 56-year-old man undergoing kidney transplantation, who developed a near fatal venous air embolism during volume resuscitation with normal saline in collapsible IV bags used with rapid infuser system. To our knowledge, this problem with collapsible infusion bags has not been reported earlier.

  6. Lack of tolerance of headache and radial artery diameter during a 7 hour intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Tfelt-Hansen, P

    1993-01-01

    . The intensity of the headache was mild to medium (median headache score 3, range 1-7). The mean dilatation of the radial artery was 36%. The dilatation in each individual, was stable over time, both during NTG and placebo, and it did not change with the double infusion rate. The headache score in each......Nitroglycerin-(NTG)-induced headache and dilatation of the radial artery were followed in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 6 healthy volunteers. NTG 0.5 microgram.kg-1 x min-1 or saline were infused i.v. for 7 h, and subsequently the infusion rate was doubled...... individual was more fluctuant. No tolerance either to the NTG-induced headache or arterial dilatation was observed....

  7. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    : To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion...... of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean...... emptying time, gastric half emptying time, gastric retention at 15 min or small intestinal mean transit time. Glyceryl trinitrate did not influence the frequency of duodenal contractions, the amplitude of duodenal contractions or the duodenal motility index. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of glyceryl...

  8. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  9. Preoperative infusion of mitomycin-C in the bronchial artery in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellekant, C; Boijsen, E; Svanberg, L [Departments of Diagnostic Radiology and Thoracic Sugery, Malmoe Allmaenna Sjukhus, Malmoe, Sweden

    1978-01-01

    Bronchial angiography was performed in 9 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The tumour-feeding vessel was identified and infused with 10 mg of mitomycin-C (MMC) diluted in saline. At operation after 28 to 48 days complete remission of the tumour had occurred in 2 patients, almost complete in one, partial remission in 2 and a marked regression in 2. In 2 patients no change was noted. No side effects except moderate malaise and slight fever occurred.

  10. Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, P.; Birch, K.; Jensen, B.M.; Kuehl, C.

    1986-01-01

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of 125 I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate setting

  11. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Davis, C.W.; Boucher, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties......- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall....

  12. Infusions of ascorbic acid into the medial preoptic area facilitate appetitive sexual behavior in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M Dean; Pfaus, James G

    2013-10-02

    Ascorbic acid (AA), also known as Vitamin C, enhances dopamine (DA) transmission in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal terminals and augments DA-mediated behaviors. It is not yet known whether AA has a similar influence in other DA terminals, in particular terminals of the incertohypothalamic system that modulate the function of the medial preoptic area (mPOA). In female rats, DA in the mPOA plays a critical role in the generation of appetitive sexual responses, notably solicitations, hops, and darts, and we have shown previously that the role of DA in this region on female sexual behavior changes depending on the hormonal profile of the female. Since AA has often been used as a vehicle control in the examination of rat sexual behavior, the present study examined the effect of infusions of AA to the mPOA of sexual experienced ovariectomized rats under two hormonal conditions: partially-primed with estradiol benzoate (EB) alone or fully-primed with EB and progesterone. Relative to saline baselines, females under both hormonal conditions displayed a significant increase in appetitive sexual behaviors following infusions of AA. No difference in lordosis behavior was observed following AA infusions relative to saline baselines. We suggest that the mechanism by which AA infusions to the mPOA increase appetitive sexual behaviors in female rats may be through dose-dependent DA receptor interactions, possibly through both presynaptic release mechanisms and postsynaptic DA D1-related messenger systems. © 2013.

  13. Requirement for the eIF4E binding proteins for the synergistic down-regulation of protein synthesis by hypertonic conditions and mTOR inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Michael J; Elia, Androulla; Morley, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates the phosphorylation and activity of several proteins that have the potential to control translation, including p70S6 kinase and the eIF4E binding proteins 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2. In spite of this, in exponentially growing cells overall protein synthesis is often resistant to mTOR inhibitors. We report here that sensitivity of wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to mTOR inhibitors can be greatly increased when the cells are subjected to the physiological stress imposed by hypertonic conditions. In contrast, protein synthesis in MEFs with a double knockout of 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2 remains resistant to mTOR inhibitors under these conditions. Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and protein kinase B (Akt) is blocked by the mTOR inhibitor Ku0063794 equally well in both wild-type and 4E-BP knockout cells, under both normal and hypertonic conditions. The response of protein synthesis to hypertonic stress itself does not require the 4E-BPs. These data suggest that under certain stress conditions: (i) translation has a greater requirement for mTOR activity and (ii) there is an absolute requirement for the 4E-BPs for regulation by mTOR. Importantly, dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase and Akt is not sufficient to affect protein synthesis acutely.

  14. Intravenous infusion of docosahexaenoic acid increases serum concentrations in a dose-dependent manner and increases seizure latency in the maximal PTZ model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Kwong, Kei-Man; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Bazinet, Richard P; Burnham, W M

    2015-09-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) that has been shown to raise seizure thresholds in the maximal pentylenetetrazole model following acute subcutaneous (s.c.) administration in rats. Following s.c. administration, however, the dose-response relationship for DHA has shown an inverted U-pattern. The purposes of the present experiment were as follows: (1) to determine the pattern of serum unesterified concentrations resulting from the intravenous (i.v.) infusions of various doses of DHA, (2) to determine the time course of these concentrations following the discontinuation of the infusions, and (3) to determine whether seizure protection in the maximal PTZ model would correlate with serum unesterified DHA levels. Animals received 5-minute i.v. infusions of saline or 25, 50, 100, or 200mg/kg of DHA via a cannula inserted into one of the tail veins. Blood was collected during and after the infusions by means of a second cannula inserted into the other tail vein (Experiment 1). A separate group of animals received saline or 12.5-, 25-, 50-, 100-, or 200 mg/kg DHA i.v. via a cannula inserted into one of the tail veins and were then seizure-tested in the maximal PTZ model either during infusion or after the discontinuation of the infusions. Slow infusions of DHA increased serum unesterified DHA concentrations in a dose-dependent manner, with the 200-mg/kg dose increasing the concentration approximately 260-fold compared with saline-infused animals. Following discontinuation of the infusions, serum concentrations rapidly dropped toward baseline, with half-lives of approximately 40 and 11s for the 25-mg/kg dose and 100-mg/kg dose, respectively. In the seizure-tested animals, DHA significantly increased latency to seizure onset in a dose-dependent manner. Following the discontinuation of infusion, seizure latency rapidly decreased toward baseline. Overall, our study suggests that i.v. infusion of unesterified DHA results in

  15. Saline Flush After Rocuronium Bolus Reduces Onset Time and Prolongs Duration of Effect: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Sayaka; Masui, Kenichi; Kazama, Tomiei

    2016-03-01

    Circulatory factors modify the onset time of neuromuscular-blocking drugs. Therefore, we hypothesized that infusion of a saline flush immediately after rocuronium administration would shorten the onset time without influencing the duration of the rocuronium effect. Forty-eight patients were randomly allocated to the control or saline flush group. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil, and all patients received 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium in 10 mL of normal saline. In the saline flush group, 20 mL normal saline was immediately infused after rocuronium administration. Neuromuscular blockade was assessed using acceleromyography at the adductor pollicis muscle with train-of-four (TOF) stimulation. The neuromuscular indices for rocuronium were calculated as follows: the latent onset time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium infusion until first occurrence of depression of the first twitch of the TOF (T1) ≥5%; onset time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium infusion until first occurrence of depression of the T1 ≥95%; clinical duration, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium administration until T1 recovered to 25% of the final T1 value; recovery index, defined as the time for recovery of T1 from 25% to 75% of the final T1 value; and the total recovery time, defined as the time from the start of rocuronium administration until reaching a TOF ratio of 0.9. Significance was designated at P rocuronium bolus by 17%, 24%, and 14%, respectively. In addition, the recovery phase was significantly prolonged in the saline flush group. The mean clinical duration (5th-95th percentile range) in the saline flush group and control group was 35 minutes (27-63 minutes) and 31 minutes (19-48 minutes; P = 0.032), respectively; the recovery index was 13 minutes (8-25 minutes) and 10 minutes (7-19 minutes; P = 0.019), respectively; and the total recovery time was 61 minutes (44-108 minutes) and 50 minutes (35-93 minutes; P = 0

  16. A new venous infusion pathway monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Hiromichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sata, Koji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton

    2007-01-01

    A new infusion catheter pathway monitoring system employing linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer has been developed for hospital and home use. The sensor consists of coaxial three-layer conductive tapes wrapped around the polyvinyl chloride infusion tube. The inner tape is the main electrode, which records an AC (alternating current) voltage induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. The outside tape layer is a reference electrode to monitor the AC voltage around the main electrode. The center tape layer is connected to system ground and functions as a shield. The microcomputer calculates the ratio of the induced AC voltages recorded by the main and reference electrodes and if the ratio indicates a detached infusion, alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or low transmitting power mobile phone.

  17. Design of Infusion Schemes for Neuroreceptor Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karine

    2016-01-01

    for bolus infusion (BI) or programmed infusion (PI) experiments. Steady-state quantitative measurements can be made with one short scan and venous blood samples. The GABAA receptor ligand [(11)C]Flumazenil (FMZ) was chosen for this purpose, as it lacks a suitable reference region. Methods. Five bolus [(11)C...... state was attained within 40 min, which was 8 min earlier than the optimal BI (B/I ratio = 55 min). Conclusions. The system can design both BI and PI schemes to attain steady state rapidly. For example, subjects can be [(11)C]FMZ-PET scanned after 40 min of tracer infusion for 40 min with venous...

  18. Forearm metabolism during infusion of adrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    Human skeletal muscle metabolism is often investigated by measurements of substrate fluxes across the forearm. To evaluate whether the two forearms give the same metabolic information, nine healthy subjects were studied in the fasted state and during infusion of adrenaline. Both arms were...... catheterized in a cubital vein in the retrograde direction. A femoral artery was catheterized for blood sampling, and a femoral vein for infusion of adrenaline. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Forearm subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... by the local 133Xe washout method. Metabolic fluxes were calculated as the product of forearm blood flow and a-v differences of metabolite concentrations. After baseline measurements, adrenaline was infused at a rate of 0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1. No difference in the metabolic information obtained in the fasting...

  19. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  20. Anestesi Infus Gravimetrik Ketamin dan Propofol pada Anjing (THE GRAVIMETRIC INFUSION ANAESTHESIA WITH KETAMINE AND PROPOFOL IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Sudisma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aim was to evaluate quality of anaesthesia by using gravimetric infusion anaesthesia withketamine and propofol in dogs. The quality of anaesthesia, duration of actions, and the physiological responsseof anaesthesia were evaluated in twenty domestic dogs. Anaesthesia was induced intramuscularly withatropine (0.03 mg/kg-xylazine (2 mg/kg (AX, intravenously ketamine-propofol (KP (4 mg/kg, andmaintained with continuous intravenous infusion with pre-mixed propofol (P and normal saline containing2 mg/ml of propofol and 2 mg/ml of ketamine (K. Domestic stray dogs were randomly divided into fivegroups. Groups AXKP-K2P2, AXKP-K4P4, and AXKP-K6P6 were treated with ketamine-propofol the dose0.2 mg/kg/minute, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg/minute respectively, while group AXKP-P4 was given propofol 0.4 mg/kg/minute and group AXKP-I was given isoflurane 1-2%. Heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR,electrocardiogram (ECG, blood oxygen saturation (SpO2, end tidal CO2 (ET CO2, and capillary refill time(CRT were measured. No significant difference (P>0.05 found between the groups in anaesthetion times.All groups showed rapid and smooth inductions, prolonged surgical stage, and rapid recovery. Groups AXKPK2P2and AXKP-K4P4 showed minimal physiological effect on the dogs. The HR, RR, ET CO2, SpO2, CRT,and ECG wave were stabl. Combination of AXKP-K6P6 induced SpO2 depression, increased and instabilityof HR, RR and ET CO2. Groups AXKP-P4 showed decreased of HR and respiratory depression. All anaestheticcombinations showed no significant influence (P>0.05 on the electricity of the dog’s heart. The combinationof ketamine-propofol at dose 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg/minute were found to be better as an application formaintaining anaesthesia by gravimetric continuous intravenous infusion. The method is a suitablealternative for inhalation anaesthesia in dogs.

  1. The effects of short term intravenous infusion of a soybean based lipid emulsion on some blood constituents in sheep: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of intravenous infusion of a soybean based lipid emulsion (Lipovenoes 10% on some blood constituents in sheep, a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design experiment was conducted in four clinically healthy ewes. Lipid emulsion (LE group or normal saline (NS group was infused intravenously at a rate of 0.025 mL kg-1 per min for 6 hr and the concentrations of blood triglyceride, glucose, insulin, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium and potassium were measured before (baseline and then at timepoints 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hr after infusion. Compared to the baseline values and/or NS infusion, LE infusion resulted in a significant increase in the concentrations of triglyceride (p 0.05. In conclusion, intravenous infusion of Lipovenoes temporarily influenced some blood constituents. Increased triglyceride concentrations were associated with an increase in HOMA-IR values indicating a state of insulin resistance. No remarkable adverse effect was observed following LE infusion and lipid based emulsions can be safely used in ruminants not suffering from extensive lipid mobilization.

  2. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  3. Dexmedetomidine infusion during middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia to provide oligaemic surgical field: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgery requires bloodless surgical field for better operating conditions, deep level of anaesthesia and rapid emergence. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists could provide desired surgical field, sedation and analgesia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine infusion as anaesthetic adjuvant during middle ear surgery using operating microscope. Methods: Sixty four adult patients aged 18-58 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grades I and II, of both gender were randomised into two comparable equal groups of 32 patients each for middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia with standard anaesthetic technique. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients of Group I were given dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h and patients of Group II were given placebo infusion of normal saline. Isoflurane concentration was titrated to achieve a systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline value. All patients were assessed intra-operatively for bleeding at surgical field, haemodynamic changes, awakening time and post-operative recovery. Results: Statistically significant reduction was observed in the required percentage of isoflurane (0.8 ± 0.6% to maintain the systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline values in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion when compared to those receiving placebo infusion (1.6 ± 0.7%. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion had statistically significant lesser bleeding at surgical field (P < 0.05. The mean awakening time and recovery from anaesthesia did not show any significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion can be safely used to provide oligaemic surgical field for better visualization using operating microscope for middle ear surgery.

  4. Enhanced vasculotoxic metal excretion in post-myocardial infarction patients following a single edetate disodium-based infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Ivan A; Navas-Acien, Ana; Ergui, Ian; Lamas, Gervasio A

    2017-10-01

    Toxic metals have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We have hypothesized that enhanced excretion of vasculotoxic metals might explain the positive results of the Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT). The purpose of this study was to determine whether a single infusion of the edetate disodium- based infusion used in TACT led to enhanced excretion of toxic metals known to be associated with cardiovascular events. Twenty six patients (post-MI, age > 50 years, serum creatinine ≤ 2.0mg/dL) were enrolled in this open-label study. Urinary levels of 20 toxic metals normalized to urinary creatinine concentrations were measured at baseline in overnight urine collections, for 6h following a placebo infusion of 500mL normal saline and 1.2% dextrose, and for 6h following a 3g edetate disodium-based infusion. Self-reported metal exposure, smoking status, food frequency, occupational history, drinking water source, housing and hobbies were collected at baseline by a metal exposure questionnaire. The mean age was 65 years (range 51-81 years). All patients were male. 50% had diabetes mellitus and 58% were former smokers. Mean (SD) serum creatinine was 0.95 (0.31) mg/dL. Toxic metals were detected in the baseline urine of >80% of patients. After placebo infusion there were no significant changes in total urinary metal levels. After edetate infusion, total urinary metal level increased by 71% compared to baseline (1500 vs. 2580µg/g creatinine; P<0.0001). The effect of edetate was particularly large for lead (3835% increase) and cadmium (633% increase). Edetate disodium-based infusions markedly enhanced the urinary excretion of lead and cadmium, toxic metals with established epidemiologic evidence and mechanisms linking them to coronary and vascular events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hormonal Contraception, Body Water Balance and Thermoreregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    were independent of changes in plasma volume. We have begun testing the impact of OC P and OC E+P on osmotic regulation of AVP during hypertonic saline infusion, but have completed only three subjects so have no comment at this point.

  6. Infusion of solutions of pre-irradiated components in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgina; Arnaud, Francoise; Haque, Ashraful; Kino, Tomoyuki; Facemire, Paul; Carroll, Erica; Auker, Charles; McCarron, Richard; Scultetus, Anke

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a 14-day toxicology assessment for intravenous solutions prepared from irradiated resuscitation fluid components and sterile water. Healthy Sprague Dawley rats (7-10/group) were instrumented and randomized to receive one of the following Field IntraVenous Resuscitation (FIVR) or commercial fluids; Normal Saline (NS), Lactated Ringer's, 5% Dextrose in NS. Daily clinical observation, chemistry and hematology on days 1,7,14, and urinalysis on day 14 were evaluated for equivalence using a two sample t-test (p<0.05). A board-certified pathologist evaluated organ histopathology on day 14. Equivalence was established for all observation parameters, lactate, sodium, liver enzymes, creatinine, WBC and differential, and urinalysis values. Lack of equivalence for hemoglobin (p=0.055), pH (p=0.0955), glucose (p=0.0889), Alanine-Aminotransferase (p=0.1938), albumin (p=0.1311), and weight (p=0.0555, p=0.1896), was deemed not clinically relevant due to means within physiologically normal ranges. Common microscopic findings randomly distributed among animals of all groups were endocarditis/myocarditis and pulmonary lesions. These findings are consistent with complications due to long-term catheter use and suggest no clinically relevant differences in end-organ toxicity between animals infused with FIVR versus commercial fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Saline-enhanced radiofrequency thermal ablation of the lung: a feasibility study in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Sang Won; Li, Chun Ai; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Kon; Jin, Zhewu; Chung, Myoung Ja [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi Suk [Yangi Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    To assess the feasibility and safety of CT-guided percutaneous transthoracic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with saline infusion of pulmonary tissue in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups: an RFA group (n=10) and a saline-enhanced RFA (SRFA) group (n=18). In the RFA group, percutaneous RFA of the lung was performed under CT guidance and using a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode. In the SRFA group, 1.5 ml of 0.9% saline was infused slowly through a 21-gauge, polyteflon-coated Chiba needle prior to and during RFA. Lesion size and the healing process were studied in rabbits sacrificed at times from the day following treatment to three weeks after, and any complications were noted. In the SRFA group, the mean diameter (12.5{+-}1.6 mm) of acute RF lesions was greater than that of RFA lesions (8.5{+-}1.4 mm) (p < .05). The complications arising in 12 cases were pneumothorax (n=8), thermal injury to the chest wall (n=2), hemothorax (n=1), and lung abscess (n=1). Although procedure-related complications tended to occur more frequently in the SRFA group (55.6%) than in the RFA group (20%), the difference was not statistically significant (p .11). Saline-enhanced RFA of pulmonary tissue in rabbits produces more extensive coagulation necrosis than conventional RFA procedures, without adding substantial risk of serious complications.

  8. Propofol Infusion Syndrome Heralded by ECG Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijzen, Elsbeth J.; Jacobs, Bram; Aslan, Adnan; Rodgers, Michael G. G.

    2012-01-01

    Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is well known, often associated with, lethal complication of sedation with propofol. PRIS seems to be associated with young age, traumatic brain injury (TBI), higher cumulative doses of propofol, and the concomitant use of catecholamines. Known manifestations of

  9. Comparison of infusion pumps calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Godinho, Isabel; do Céu Ferreira, Maria; Furtado, Andreia; Lucas, Peter; Silva, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, several types of infusion pump are commonly used for drug delivery, such as syringe pumps and peristaltic pumps. These instruments present different measuring features and capacities according to their use and therapeutic application. In order to ensure the metrological traceability of these flow and volume measuring equipment, it is necessary to use suitable calibration methods and standards. Two different calibration methods can be used to determine the flow error of infusion pumps. One is the gravimetric method, considered as a primary method, commonly used by National Metrology Institutes. The other calibration method, a secondary method, relies on an infusion device analyser (IDA) and is typically used by hospital maintenance offices. The suitability of the IDA calibration method was assessed by testing several infusion instruments at different flow rates using the gravimetric method. In addition, a measurement comparison between Portuguese Accredited Laboratories and hospital maintenance offices was performed under the coordination of the Portuguese Institute for Quality, the National Metrology Institute. The obtained results were directly related to the used calibration method and are presented in this paper. This work has been developed in the framework of the EURAMET projects EMRP MeDD and EMPIR 15SIP03.

  10. Infusing Functional Law into the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.; Fine, Bobbie

    The court system touches the lives of many children in the school system, some through divorce, and others through their own illegal behavior. Principals and administrators need to infuse a functional knowledge of the legal system so that these children will be better able to cope and deal with life events that cause them to be placed in contact…

  11. Reaction between infusion water and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettinger, I L

    1977-09-01

    This paper discusses the effect of infused water on the initial gas emission rate and on the pore structure of the coal. Water traps methane in micro-pores, so that lengthy periods are needed for the methane to penetrate large voids and cavities.

  12. Bronchial arterial infusion versus bronchial combined pulmonary arterial infusion for pulmonary metastatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Sheng; Dong Weihua; Jia Ningyang; Zhang Dianbo; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pulmonary metastatic tumor response to different ways of transcatheter arterial infusion. Methods: Thirty-five patients with pulmonary metastatic tumors were randomized divided into two groups: 15 patients with 49 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and 20 patients with 65 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BM)combined with pulmonary arterial infusion (PAI). The therapeutic response was assessed by the WHO evaluation criteria. Results: The total effective rate(CR + PR) of BAI was 65.3% (32/49), PAI + BAI was 61.5%(40/65) showing no statistical difference. The median survival time of BAI was 9 mo, BAI + PAI was 11.5 mo, demonstrating no statistical significance. Conclusions: BAI should be the primary treatment for pulmonary metastatic tumor. (authors)

  13. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca; Tripepi, Manuela; Brunelli, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na + /K + -ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  14. Subcutaneous infusion in palliative care: a focus on the neria soft 90 infusion set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Janice

    2014-11-01

    Subcutaneous administration of medications and/or fluids can play a crucial part in supporting patients at home and thereby avoiding the need for hospitalisation. It is an area of patient care that has received little attention compared with other types of parenteral therapies. However, it is an effective and safe route for continuous administration for individuals requiring palliative care. Technological advancements have led to improved subcutaneous infusion devices, such as fine-gauge cannulae with integral sharps protection, as well as integral hypoallergenic dressings. These design features not only help to increase patient comfort but also minimise the potential for needlestick injuries, as well as providing the health professional with one sterile package containing all of the components needed to establish subcutaneous infusion. However, technological developments alone are insufficient to improve patient outcomes. Knowledge of the individual patient, together with their diagnosis and intended treatment, will influence the choice of subcutaneous infusion device, with the overall aim of minimising the potential for complications and improving comfort. This paper provides an overview of subcutaneous infusion, including the importance of patient assessment and the education and training needs of health professionals, and then focuses on one specific subcutaneous infusion device: the neria soft 90 infusion set.

  15. Response to intravenous fentanyl infusion predicts subsequent response to transdermal fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Norihito; Kanai, Akifumi; Suzuki, Asaha; Nagahara, Yuki; Okamoto, Hirotsugu

    2016-04-01

    Prediction of the response to transdermal fentanyl (FENtd) before its use for chronic pain is desirable. We tested the hypothesis that the response to intravenous fentanyl infusion (FENiv) can predict the response to FENtd, including the analgesic and adverse effects. The study subjects were 70 consecutive patients with chronic pain. The response to fentanyl at 0.1 mg diluted in 50 ml of physiological saline and infused over 30 min was tested. This was followed by treatment with FENtd (Durotep MT patch 2.1 mg) at a dose of 12.5 µg/h for 2 weeks. Pain intensity before and after FENiv and 2 weeks after FENtd, and the response to treatment, were assessed by the numerical rating scale (NRS), clinical global impression-improvement scale (CGI-I), satisfaction scale (SS), and adverse effects. The NRS score decreased significantly from 7 (4-9) [median (range)] at baseline to 3 (0-8) after FENiv (p 0.04, each). The analgesic and side effects after intravenous fentanyl infusion can be used to predict the response to short-term transdermal treatment with fentanyl.

  16. Superselective uterine arterial infusion and embolization in the treatment of ectopic pregnancies of 56 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Chaolin; Li Changfu; Zhang Yanhua; Liu Feng; Guan Yafang; Liu Zhen; Wang Weibo; Niu Haijuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To probe a simple, safe, and minimally invasive method to treat ectopic pregnancy with preservation of the organs. Methods: Superselective catheterization of uterine artery through cannulation of right femoral artery was achieved in 56 patients with ectopic pregnancy. Location of the lesions involved, feeding arteries, and active bleeding were observed on angiography. 150 mg of methylamine neopterin diluted in 100 ml of saline water was infused slowly into the target artery. Small gelatin spongy particles with size of 0.5 mm in diameter were used to embolize the uterine artery until its branches were totally obliterated. Follow-up was undertaken to observe the results of the treatment. Results: Superselective uterine arterial infusion and embolization were successfully performed in all 56 patients without any related complications. Active bleeding in the peritoneum in 33 eases ceased soon after embolization. The embryos in 13 patients were confirmed to have died by ultrasound two days after the procedure. Beta-HCG value dropped to below 5 U/L within two to twelve days. Hemorrhage in the peritoneum dissolved after seven days in all cases. Mixed mass disappeared after one month. Histerosalpingography was performed three months after the procedure in 19 patients and patent fallopians were demonstrated in 11 patients. Conclusions: Superselective uterine arterial infusion and embolization is a minimally invasive procedure, which can be used to effectively treat ectopic pregnancy by disabling the ectopic embryo and embolizing leaking arteries with the advantages of preserving the fallopian tubes. (authors)

  17. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after Cardiothoracic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Regina Turner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI is reported to be between 3-30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate during cardiac surgery will attenuate the postoperative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed acute kidney injury (AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 hours after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24% who received sodium chloride (SC and 17 patients (27% who received sodium bicarbonate (SB were observed to develop AKI post surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p-value=0.68 for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC . The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI.

  18. Last Glacial Maximum Salinity Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that salinity can be reconstructed from sediment porewater. The goal of our study is to reconstruct high precision salinity during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Salinity is usually determined at high precision via conductivity, which requires a larger volume of water than can be extracted from a sediment core, or via chloride titration, which yields lower than ideal precision. It has been demonstrated for water column samples that high precision density measurements can be used to determine salinity at the precision of a conductivity measurement using the equation of state of seawater. However, water column seawater has a relatively constant composition, in contrast to porewater, where variations from standard seawater composition occur. These deviations, which affect the equation of state, must be corrected for through precise measurements of each ion's concentration and knowledge of apparent partial molar density in seawater. We have developed a density-based method for determining porewater salinity that requires only 5 mL of sample, achieving density precisions of 10-6 g/mL. We have applied this method to porewater samples extracted from long cores collected along a N-S transect across the western North Atlantic (R/V Knorr cruise KN223). Density was determined to a precision of 2.3x10-6 g/mL, which translates to salinity uncertainty of 0.002 gms/kg if the effect of differences in composition is well constrained. Concentrations of anions (Cl-, and SO4-2) and cations (Na+, Mg+, Ca+2, and K+) were measured. To correct salinities at the precision required to unravel LGM Meridional Overturning Circulation, our ion precisions must be better than 0.1% for SO4-/Cl- and Mg+/Na+, and 0.4% for Ca+/Na+, and K+/Na+. Alkalinity, pH and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon of the porewater were determined to precisions better than 4% when ratioed to Cl-, and used to calculate HCO3-, and CO3-2. Apparent partial molar densities in seawater were

  19. [Effects of intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate on metastases and survival benefit of hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiong-ying; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Huang, Jin-hua; Luo, Rong-guang; Miao, Bi-jian; Wang, Yan

    2013-10-22

    To evaluate the metastasis and survival of an intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits. VX2 tumor was implanted in left lateral lobe of liver of 18 white New Zealand rabbits. The animals were randomized into 3 groups (n = 6 each) and underwent an intra-arterial infusion of phosphate-buffered saline or 3-BrPA via hepatic artery at 14 days post-implantation. At 28 days post-implantation, 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed. The abdomen of these rabbits was opened and inspected for metastases. Then the survival of the remaining rabbits was observed. At 28 days post-implantation, in PBS group, there were intrahepatic metastasis and abdominal cavity dissemination (n = 3), renal metastases (n = 2) and lung metastases (n = 2); in early 3-BrPA infusion group, intrahepatic metastasis (n = 2), abdominal cavity dissemination (n = 1) and lung metastases (n = 1); in late 3-BrPA infusion group, intrahepatic metastasis (n = 1) and lung metastases (n = 1). The survival of the remaining animals was observed. Rabbits in early 3-BrPA infusion group survived significantly longer than those in PBS group [(27 ± 5) vs (17 ± 3) days, P = 0.041]; rabbits in late 3-BrPA infusion group [(42 ± 6) days] survived significantly longer than those in early 3-BrPA infusion group (P = 0.007). An intra-arterial infusion of 3-BrPA could reduce metastasis and prolong survival in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. The earlier the infusion, the better the outcome.

  20. 75 FR 21641 - Infusion Pumps; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...] Infusion Pumps; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... announcing a public meeting regarding external infusion pumps. The purpose of the meeting is to inform the public about current problems associated with external infusion pump use, to help the agency identify...

  1. Continuous infusion of chemotherapy: focus on 5-fluorouracil and fluorodeoxyuridine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, R. L.; Bakker, P. J.; Veenhof, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    Continuous infusion of chemotherapy is one of the developments to try to improve the treatment of metastatic cancer. There is a sound theoretical rationale to deliver cytotoxic drugs as a continuous infusion. Furthermore, the development of reliable venous access devices and portable infusion pumps

  2. Food image-induced brain activation is not diminished by insulin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfort-DeAguiar, R; Seo, D; Naik, S; Hwang, J; Lacadie, C; Schmidt, C; Constable, R T; Sinha, R; Sherwin, R

    2016-11-01

    The obesity epidemic appears to be driven in large part by our modern environment inundated by food cues, which may influence our desire to eat. Although insulin decreases food intake in both animals and humans, the effect of insulin on motivation for food in the presence of food cues is not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intravenous insulin infusion on the brain response to visual food cues, hunger and food craving in non-obese human subjects. Thirty-four right-handed healthy non-obese subjects (19F/15M, age: 29±8 years.; BMI: 23.1±2.1 kg m -2 ) were divided in two groups matched by age and BMI; the insulin group (18 subjects) underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-clamp, and the control group (16 subjects) received an intravenous saline infusion, while viewing high and low-calorie food and non-food pictures during a functional MRI scan. Motivation for food was determined via analog scales for hunger, wanting and liking ratings. Food images induced brain responses in the hypothalamus, striatum, amygdala, insula, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsolateral PFC and occipital lobe (whole brain correction, Pinsulin and saline infusion groups. Hunger ratings increased throughout the MRI scan and correlated with preference for high-calorie food pictures (r=0.70; Pbrain activity nor food cravings were affected by hyperinsulinemia or hormonal status (leptin and ghrelin levels) (P=NS). Our data demonstrate that visual food cues induce a strong response in motivation/reward and cognitive-executive control brain regions in non-obese subjects, but that these responses are not diminished by hyperinsulinemia per se. These findings suggest that our modern food cue saturated environment may be sufficient to overpower homeostatic hormonal signals, and thus contribute to the current obesity epidemic.

  3. An audit of hospital based outpatient infusions and a pilot program of community-based monoclonal antibody infusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doran, J-P

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. METHODS: An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent\\'s University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. RESULTS: All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.

  4. Productive use of saline lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Water is essential for life, and not least for agricultural activity. It interacts with solar energy to determine the climate of the globe, and its interaction with carbon dioxide inside a plant results in photosynthesis on which depends survival of all life. Much of the water available to man is used for agriculture and yet its usage has not been well managed. One result has been the build up of soil salinity. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Department of Research and Isotopes, to make more productive use of salt-affected land and to limit future build up of salinity. (IAEA)

  5. Software Engineering Technology Infusion Within NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this paper, several software engineering technologies used within NASA are studied, and the mechanisms, schedules, and efforts at transferring these technologies are investigated. The goals of this study are: 1) to understand the difference between technology transfer (the adoption of a new method by large segments of an industry) as an industry-wide phenomenon and the adoption of a new technology by an individual organization (called technology infusion); and 2) to see if software engineering technology transfer differs from other engineering disciplines. While there is great interest today in developing technology transfer models for industry, it is the technology infusion process that actually causes changes in the current state of the practice.

  6. Anaphylaxis after intravenous infusion of dexketoprofen trometamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Guler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a highly water-soluble salt and active enantiomer of rac-ketoprofen. Its parenteral form is commonly used for acute pain management in emergency departments of our country. Side effects such as diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting may be seen after the use of DT. Anaphylactic shock (AS secondary to infusion of DT is very rare and, to our knowledge, it is the first case report describing this side effect. This case report was presented to emphasize that AS may be seen after the use of DT. Keywords: Anaphylactic shock, Dexketoprofen trometamol, Intravenous infusion (MeSH database

  7. Infusion phlebitis assessment measures: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Polit, Denise F; Murfield, Jenny E; Rickard, Claire M

    2014-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation. The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Method We conducted a systematic literature review of the Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCO CINAHL until September 2013. All English-language studies (randomized controlled trials, prospecti...

  8. Infusion phlebitis assessment measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Polit, Denise F; Murfield, Jenny E; Rickard, Claire M

    2014-04-01

    Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation. The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility. We conducted a systematic literature review of the Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCO CINAHL until September 2013. All English-language studies (randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort and cross-sectional) that used an infusion phlebitis scale were retrieved and analysed to determine which symptoms were included in each scale and how these were measured. We evaluated studies that reported testing the psychometric properties of phlebitis assessment scales using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Infusion phlebitis was the primary outcome measure in 233 studies. Fifty-three (23%) of these provided no actual definition of phlebitis. Of the 180 studies that reported measuring phlebitis incidence and/or severity, 101 (56%) used a scale and 79 (44%) used a definition alone. We identified 71 different phlebitis assessment scales. Three scales had undergone some psychometric analyses, but no scale had been rigorously tested. Many phlebitis scales exist, but none has been thoroughly validated for use in clinical practice. A lack of consensus on phlebitis measures has likely contributed to disparities in reported phlebitis incidence, precluding meaningful comparison of phlebitis rates. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Scavenged body heat powered infusion pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Alexander; Ehringer, William D; McNamara, Shamus

    2013-01-01

    An infusion pump powered by body heat is investigated in this paper, with the goal of addressing the needs of dermal wound healing. The infusion pump incorporates a Knudsen gas pump, a type of thermally driven pump, to pneumatic push the pharmaceutical agent from a reservoir. Two designs are considered: an integrated pump and reservoir, and a design with cascaded pump and reservoir. Thermal models are developed for both pumps, and the simulations agree well with the experimental results. The integrated pump and reservoir design uses hydrophobic materials to prevent a flow from occurring unless the infusion pump is placed on a human body. Flow rates in the µL min −1 range for the integrated pump and reservoir, and approximately 70 µL min −1 for the cascaded pump were obtained. The dynamic behavior of the cascaded pump is described based on the thermal models. Multiple copies of the cascaded pump are easily made in series or parallel, to increase either the pressure or the flow rate. The flow rate of multiple pumps in series does not change, and the pressure of multiple pumps in parallel does not change. (paper)

  10. Intragastric nutrient infusion reduces motivation for food in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Calyn B; Loney, Gregory C; Lilly, Nicole; Terrill, Sarah J; Williams, Diana L

    2018-03-13

    The idea that gut-derived satiation signals influence food reward has recently gained traction, but this hypothesis is largely based on studies focused on neural circuitry, not the peripherally released signals. Here, we directly tested the hypothesis that intragastric (IG) nutrient infusion can suppress motivation for food. In a series of experiments, IG sucrose infusion (15 kcal) significantly and reliably reduced operant responding for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule. Moreover, food deprivation for 24 h before the test session did not prevent the suppressive effect of nutrients. The suppressive effect of IG sucrose on fixed ratio 5 (FR5) operant responding was also assessed as a comparison. The effect of IG nutrients to reduce motivation was not limited to sucrose; IG Ensure infusion (9.3 kcal) also significantly reduced PR operant responding for sucrose pellets. To verify that these effects are not secondary to the osmotic challenge of concentrated nutrients, we tested IG infusion of non-caloric saline solutions equiosmolar to 40% sucrose or Ensure, and found no effect. Finally, we focused on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK) as candidate mediators for the effect of IG nutrients. Pretreatment with Exendin-9, a GLP-1R antagonist, delivered IP, significantly attenuated the ability of IG nutrients to suppress PR responding and breakpoint in males, but not females, whereas pretreatment with Devazepide, a CCKA receptor antagonist, failed to do so in both sexes. Together, these data support the idea that nutrient-induced satiation signals influence food reward, and may implicate GLP-1 in this process.

  11. Effect of Insulin Infusion on Liver Protein Synthesis during Hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan; Jespersen, Bente

    2011-01-01

    Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure that may contribute to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients receiving maintenance HD. The present study investigated the additional effect of glucose and glucose-insulin infusion on liver protein synthesis during HD...... compared with a meal alone. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three arms, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were assigned to receive a conventional HD session with either: • no treatment (NT) • IV infusion of glucose (G) • IV infusion of glucose-insulin (GI) During infusions blood glucose levels were...... maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results Blood...

  12. Infusion MR arteriography during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. Evaluation of clinical usefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Minako; Takizawa, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    We developed a new method of infusion MR arteriography (IMRA) via an implantable port system using an infusion pump for the evaluation of drug distribution during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. The purposes of this study were to optimize the method and evaluate its clinical usefulness. We used 3D-T1 turbo field echo (TFE) as the most suitable sequence for IMRA according to the results of a phantom model experiment. We examined 33 cases of liver cancer that had been treated by arterial infusion chemotherapy via the port system. The following investigations were performed: degree of tumor enhancement, intra- and extra- hepatic perfusion abnormality, and related toxicity. The evaluation of images was performed separately by two radiologists. IMRA provided good images of contrast enhancement, to reveal the perfusion patterns. The treatment response rate in the tumor group with well enhancement was higher than that of the group with poor enhancement (p<0.0001). Extrahepatic perfusion was well visualized and was correlated with toxicity (p<0.0001). IMRA is a useful method to evaluate drug perfusion for the optimization of arterial infusion chemotherapy. (author)

  13. [Clinical pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of a preservative-free hypertonic ophthalmic solution for patients with symptomatic corneal edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouland, J-F

    2015-11-01

    This exploratory clinical trial aims to assess the effect on visual acuity and central corneal thickness of an unpreserved hypertonic ophthalmic solution containing sodium chloride (5%) and sodium hyaluronate, in patients with chronic corneal edema caused by endothelial disease reducing their visual acuity. Twenty patients were enrolled and treated with the hypertonic solution (1 to 2 drops per eye, 4 times a day over 28 days). Progression of visual acuity (ETDRS score) and corneal thickness (ultrasonic pachymetry) was measured from baseline (without treatment) through the treatment period (Day 7 and Day 28). The analyses were performed on 18 patients (Full Analysis Set [FAS] population). The causes of corneal edema were Fuchs endothelial dystrophy in 10 cases and post-cataract surgery endothelial decompensation in 8 patients. The mean visual acuity values for the FAS population compared between baseline (Day-7) and one week of treatment (Day+7) show a significant 5-point VA improvement (Psolution containing sodium chloride and sodium hyaluronate significantly improved ETDRS visual acuity after one week of use. In this clinical trial, the solution also showed excellent tolerability results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Proinflammatory Cytokine Infusion Attenuates LH's Feedforward on Testosterone Secretion: Modulation by Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rebecca; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Takahashi, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Context: In the experimental animal, inflammatory signals quench LH's feedforward drive of testosterone (T) secretion and appear to impair GnRH-LH output. The degree to which such suppressive effects operate in the human is not known. Objective: To test the hypothesis that IL-2 impairs LH's feedforward drive on T and T's feedback inhibition of LH secretion in healthy men. Setting: Mayo Center for Translational Science Activities. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 35 healthy men, 17 young and 18 older. Interventions: Randomized prospective double-blind saline-controlled study of IL-2 infusion in 2 doses with concurrent 10-minute blood sampling for 24 hours. Main Outcome Measures: Deconvolution analysis of LH and T secretion. Results: After saline injection, older compared with young men exhibited reduced LH feedforward drive on T secretion (P feedback inhibition of LH secretion (P feedforward onto T secretion declined markedly especially in young subjects (P feedback on LH secretion especially in older volunteers. Conclusion: This investigation confirms combined feedforward and feedback deficits in older relative to young men given saline and demonstrates 1) joint mechanisms by which IL-2 enforces biochemical hypogonadism, viz, combined feedforward block and feedback amplification; and 2) unequal absolute inhibition of T and LH secretion by IL-2 in young and older men. These outcomes establish that the male gonadal axis is susceptible to dual-site suppression by a prototypic inflammatory mediator. Thus, we postulate that selected ILs might also enforce male hypogonadism in chronic systemic inflammation. PMID:26600270

  15. Effect of intravenous glucose infusion on renal function in normal man and in insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, M; Parving, H H; Christiansen, JS

    1981-01-01

    The effect of intravenous glucose infusion on glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow (constant infusion technique using 125I-iothalamate and 131I-hippuran) and on urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin were studied in ten normal subjects and seven metabolically well......-controlled insulin-dependent diabetics. Following glucose infusion in normal subjects (n = 10) blood glucose increased from 4.7 +/- 0.1 to 10.9 +/- 0.4 mmol/l (SEM) (p less than or equal to 0.01). Glomerular filtration rate increased from 116 +/- 2 to 123 +/- 3 ml/mi x 1.73 m2 (p less than or equal to 0.01), while...... no change in renal plasma flow was seen - 552 +/- 11 versus 553 +/- 18 ml/min x 1.73 m2. Volume expansion with intravenous saline infusion in six of the normal subjects induced no changes in blood glucose or kidney function. In seven strictly controlled insulin-dependent diabetics, blood glucose values were...

  16. Infusion of exogenous cholecystokinin-8, gastrin releasing peptide-29 and their combination reduce body weight in diet-induced obese male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalhal, Thaer R; Washington, Martha C; Newman, Kayla; Heath, John C; Sayegh, Ayman I

    2017-02-01

    We hypothesized that exogenous gastrin releasing peptide-29 (GRP-29), cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8) and their combination reduce body weight (BW). To test this hypothesis, BW was measured in four groups of diet-induced obese (DIO) male rats infused in the aorta (close to the junctions of the celiac and cranial mesenteric arteries) with saline, CCK-8 (0.5 nmol/kg), GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg) and CCK-8+GRP-29 (0.5 nmol/kg each) once daily for a total of 23 days. We found that CCK-8, GRP-29 and CCK-8+GRP-29 reduce BW relative to saline control. In conclusion, CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination reduce BW in the DIO rat model. If infused near their gastrointestinal sites of action CCK-8, GRP-29 and their combination may have a role in regulating BW. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effect of prolonged intravenous glucose and essential amino acid infusion on nitrogen balance, muscle protein degradation and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene expression in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scaife Jes R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous infusions of glucose and amino acids increase both nitrogen balance and muscle accretion. We hypothesised that co-infusion of glucose (to stimulate insulin and essential amino acids (EAA would act additively to improve nitrogen balance by decreasing muscle protein degradation in association with alterations in muscle expression of components of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Methods We examined the effect of a 5 day intravenous infusions of saline, glucose, EAA and glucose + EAA, on urinary nitrogen excretion and muscle protein degradation. We carried out the study in 6 restrained calves since ruminants offer the advantage that muscle protein degradation can be assessed by excretion of 3 methyl-histidine and multiple muscle biopsies can be taken from the same animal. On the final day of infusion blood samples were taken for hormone and metabolite measurement and muscle biopsies for expression of ubiquitin, the 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and proteasome sub-units C2 and C8. Results On day 5 of glucose infusion, plasma glucose, insulin and IGF-1 concentrations were increased while urea nitrogen excretion and myofibrillar protein degradation was decreased. Co-infusion of glucose + EAA prevented the loss of urinary nitrogen observed with EAA infusions alone and enhanced the increase in plasma IGF-1 concentration but there was no synergistic effect of glucose + EAA on the decrease in myofibrillar protein degradation. Muscle mRNA expression of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, 14-kDa E2 and proteasome sub-unit C2 were significantly decreased, after glucose but not amino acid infusions, and there was no further response to the combined infusions of glucose + EAA. Conclusion Prolonged glucose infusion decreases myofibrillar protein degradation, prevents the excretion of infused EAA, and acts additively with EAA to increase plasma IGF-1 and improve net nitrogen balance. There was no evidence of

  18. Extended infusion versus intermittent infusion of imipenem in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Tammam, Tarek Fouad; Ebaed, Mohy El Deen; Sarhan, Hatem A; Gad, Gamal F; Hussein, Amal K

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation support can be the main source of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is a serious infection that may be associated with dangerous gram-negative bacteria mainly, and it leads to an increase in the mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Imipenem is one of the strongest antibiotics now available for treating VAP which is associated with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and it belongs to beta-lactam antibiotic group (carbapenem). This study tried to investigate the efficacy of imipenem against VAP when it was infused within 180 min versus the efficacy when it was infused within 30-60 min. This study was conducted in main ICU in general hospital which consists of surgical and medical beds within 2 years. One hundred and eighty-seven patients were enrolled on it. This study is a retrospective cohort which was conducted within 2 years. The efficacy of imipenem which was administered by intermittent infusion (30-60 min) within first year was compared with the efficacy of imipenem which was administered by extended infusion (180 min) within second year in the field of VAP curing and cost reduction. All data were collected retrospectively from patient medical files and were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 20. The study was designed to measure clinical and cost reduction outcomes, mortality and hospital stay. The results indicated that there is a significant decrease in mortality, number of recurrent infection, and ICU stay length, and the number of mechanical ventilator days was associated with extended imipenem infusion during the second year of the study. The use of imipenem with extended infusion over 3 hours enhances its clinical outcomes in the treatment of VAP.

  19. Effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Fuglsang, Stefan; Graff, J

    2006-01-01

    of glyceryl trinitrate 1 microg/kg x min or saline. A gamma camera technique was used to measure gastric emptying and small intestinal transit after a 1600-kJ mixed liquid and solid meal. Furthermore, duodenal motility was assessed by manometry. RESULTS: Glyceryl trinitrate did not change gastric mean......BACKGROUND: Glyceryl trinitrate is a donor of nitric oxide that relaxes smooth muscle cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about the effect of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric emptying and no data exist on the possible effect of glyceryl trinitrate on small intestinal transit. AIM......: To examine the effect of intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate on gastric and small intestinal motor function after a meal in healthy humans. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study. Each volunteer was examined during intravenous infusion...

  20. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Singh, S S; Singh, S R [Directorate of Water Management Research, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), Walmi Complex, P.O. - Phulwari Sharif, Patna (India)

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation.

  1. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.

    2001-05-01

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  2. Low-dose ketamine infusion for labor analgesia: A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Joel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most primary and secondary level hospitals in developing countries provide inadequate labor analgesia due to various medical, technical and economic reasons. This clinical trial was an effort to study the efficacy, safety and feasibility of intravenous (IV ketamine to provide labor analgesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 parturients were consented and randomly assigned to receive either IV ketamine or 0.9% saline. A loading dose of ketamine (0.2 mg/kg was followed-by an infusion (0.2 mg/kg/h until the delivery of the neonate. Similar volume of saline was infused in the placebo-group. Intramuscular meperidine was the rescue analgesic in both groups. The pain score, hemodynamic parameters of mother and fetus and the anticipated side-effects of ketamine were observed for. The newborn was assessed by the Neonatologist. Results: The pain score showed a decreasing trend in the ketamine group and after the 1 st h more than 60% of women in the ketamine group had pain relief, which was statistically significant. There was no significant clinical change in the maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart rate. However, 17 (48.5% of them had transient light headedness in the ketamine group. All the neonates were breast fed and the umbilical cord blood pH was between 7.1 and 7.2. The overall satisfaction was significantly high in the intervention group (P = 0.028. Conclusion: A low-dose ketamine infusion (loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg delivered over 30 min, followed-by an infusion at 0.2 mg/kg/h could provide acceptable analgesia during labor and delivery.

  3. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M

    2016-10-01

    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, T. J.; Jackett, D. R.; Millero, F. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Barker, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater - 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density) than does Practical Salinity. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic), Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg-1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p) in the world ocean. To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811). In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally).

  5. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity...

  6. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  7. Anaphylaxis after intravenous infusion of dexketoprofen trometamol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Sertac; Ertok, Ilyas; Sahin, Nurdan Yilmaz; Ramadan, Hayri; Katirci, Yavuz

    2016-09-01

    Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a highly water-soluble salt and active enantiomer of rac-ketoprofen. Its parenteral form is commonly used for acute pain management in emergency departments of our country. Side effects such as diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting may be seen after the use of DT. Anaphylactic shock (AS) secondary to infusion of DT is very rare and, to our knowledge, it is the first case report describing this side effect. This case report was presented to emphasize that AS may be seen after the use of DT.

  8. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  9. Developing a System for Integraded Automatic Control of Mutiple Infusion Pumps : The Multiplex infusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Most errors in ICUs are related to intravenous (IV) therapy. Previous studies suggested that hard to operate infusion pumps and the high cognitive workload for ICU nurses contribute to these errors. Conventional IV therapy requires separate lumens for incompatible IV drugs. This often requires the

  10. Tolerance to continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion can be reversed by pulsatile bolus infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetla, H. W.; Staal, M. J.; van Laar, T.

    Study design: Pilot study. Objective: To study the effect of pulsatile bolus infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) on daily ITB dose, in patients showing dose increases, probably due to tolerance. Setting: Department of neurology and neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, the

  11. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-07-01

    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  12. Pulsatile versus steady infusions for hepatic artery chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Wright, K.C.; Chaynsangavej, C.; Gianturco, C.; Lamki, L.; Wallace, S.

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic artery chemotherapy for unresectable liver tumors requires an even distribution of the drugs in the tumor or vascular bed. This cannot be determined angiographically because the drugs are infused at a much lower rate than the contrast media. It is easy, however, to determine the quality of the perfusion by injecting a small volume of Tc-99m MAA in one of the side ports while chemotherapeutic agent is being infused at the same rate. Usually this shows a uniform, satisfactory distribution of isotope. Occasionally, however, some areas fail to receive Tc-99m in spite of what appears to be a good position of the catheter tip. Since ''streaming'' of the infused drugs has been blamed for their uneven distribution, the authors decided to compare the usual steady flow infusions with infusions made pulsatile by the addition of a pulsing device (Gianturco Pump) attached to the infusion tubing. Eighty-three patients were studied with steady as well as pulsatile infusions. In 16 of these patients the perfusion pattern was definitely changed by the pulsatile infusion. In one patient the pulsatile mode resulted in an unwanted gastric perfusion. In 5 patients the distribution was improved in one hepatic lobe and in 10 patients it was improved in both lobes. These results show that hepatic artery perfusions can occasionally be improved by pulsing the infusate. However, pulsing can produce the unwanted perfusion of extra-hepatic areas

  13. Clinical applications of continuous infusion chemotherapy ahd concomitant radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Rotman, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: theoretical basis and clinical applications of 5-FU as a radiosensitizer; treatment of hepatic metastases from gastro intestingal primaries with split course radiation therapy; combined modality therapy with 5-FU, Mitomycin-C and radiation therapy for sqamous cell cancers; treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation; a treatment of invasiv bladder cancer by the XRT/5FU protocol; concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous infusion in advanced malignancies; cis platin by continuous infusion with concurrent radiation therapy in malignant tumors; combination of radiation with concomitant continuous adriamycin infusion in a patient with partially excised pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremeity; treatment of recurrent carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses using concomitant infusion cis-platinum and radiation therapy; hepatic artery infusion for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation; study of simultaneous radiation therapy, continuous infusion, 5FU and bolus mitomycin-C; cancer of the esophagus; continuous infusion VP-16, bolus cis-platinum and simultaneous radiation therapy as salvage therapy in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma; and concomitant radiation, mitomycin-C and 5-FU infusion in gastro intestinal cancer

  14. Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janh Carlo de Amorim Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira J.C.A., Botelho G.G. & Acceta J.L. [Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate.] Perfil hepático de gatos domésticos anestesiados com Propofol em infusão contínua. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:127-132, 2015. Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: janhcarlo@yahoo.com.br This study was performed to evaluate the hepatic biochemical profile of cats when submitted to continuous infusion of propofol at a 0,3 mg/kg/min in dosage, for 90 minutes, and comparing to the results obtained from cats receiving continuous infusion of saline solution. Both groups were analyzed during a pre-determined period of time totalizing 12 hours of observation and analysis. The following enzymes activity levels were determined: Aspartate-Aminotransferase (AST, Alanina-Aminotransferase (ALT, Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP; serum levels of Albumin (A, Total Bilirrubin (BT and Total Serum Proteins (sTP. Twenty healthy cats were analyzed on this study, their weights varying from two to four kg and ages between three to five years old, submitted to experimental procedures performed during the months of January and February, 2010. The analysis of these results showed a major difference (p<0,05 between the ALT serum activities at the following moments: T2 (30 minutes, T3 (60 minutes, and T5 (12 hours; AST and AP serum activities at T2. None of the animals presented averages of the results above parameters of normality. The other parameters examined did not present any significant differences, concluding that total intravenous anesthesia using continuous infusion of propofol was safe to hold cats for invasive surgical procedures, therefore providing more information regarding the safe use of this drug in this species.

  15. Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janh Carlo de Amorim Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira J.C.A., Botelho G.G. & Accetta J.L. [Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate.] Perfil hepático de gatos domésticos anestesiados com propofol em infusão contínua. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:116-120, 2014. Cirurgia e Anatomia Topográfica, UNIPLI/Anhanguera, Rua Visconde do Rio Branco, 137, Centro, Niterói, RJ 24020-001, Brasil. E-mail: janhcarlo@yahoo.com.br This study was performed to monitor the hepatic biochemical profile of cats when submitted to continuous infusion of propofol at a 0.3 mg/kg/min dosage, for 90 minutes, and comparing to results obtained from cats who received continuous infusion of saline solution. Both groups were analyzed during a pre-determined period of time totalizing 12 hours of observation and analysis. The following enzymes activity levels were determined: Aspartate-Aminotransferase (AST, Alanina-Aminotransferase (ALT, Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT and Alkaline Fosfatasis (FA; serum levels of Albumin (A, Total Bilirrubin (BT and Total Serum Proteins (PT. Twenty healthy cats were analyzed on this study, their weights varying from two to four kg and ages between three to five years old, submitted to experimental procedures performed during the months of January and February, 2010. The analysis of these results showed a major difference (p<0.05 between the ALT serum activities at the following moments: T2 (30 minutes, T3 (60 minutes, and T5 (12 hours; AST and FA serum activities at T2. None of the animals presented averages of the results above parameters of normality. The other parameters examined did not present any significant differences, concluding that total intravenous anesthesia using continuous infusion of propofol was safe to hold cats for invasive surgical procedures, therefore providing more information regarding the safe use of this drug in this species.

  16. Determination of 24-hour insulin infusion pattern by an artificial endocrine pancreas for intravenous insulin infusion with a miniature pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølendorf, K; Christiansen, J S; Bojsen, J

    1981-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Intravenous insulin infusion with a glucose controlled insulin infusion system (GCIIS) is known to restore glucose homeostasis. A simpler approach to improve blood glucose regulation is preprogrammed intravenous insulin infusion with portable pumps without sensor-mediated feedback. We...... report a study designed to evaluate whether the preprogrammed insulin infusion pattern to be used in the miniature insulin infusion pump (MIIP) could be optimized by concomitant employment of the GCIIS for blood glucose control. Six juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetics (mean age 31 yrs) were...... studied. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was 6.2 mmol/l +/- 0.5 (SD) during glucose controlled infusion and 5.3 +/- 0.6 during the combined MIIP + GCIIS-day. The insulin requirements calculated from the s.c. regimen (56 U +/- 10 SD) were identical to the GCIIS-measured (51 U +/- 14) and to the amounts delivered...

  17. Assessment of implantable infusion pumps for continuous infusion of human insulin in rats: potential for group housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Molck, Anne-Marie; Martensson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    compound in these studies, and a comparator model of persistent exposure by HI infusion from external pumps has recently been developed to support toxicological evaluation of long-acting insulin analogues. However, this model requires single housing of the animals. Developing an insulin-infusion model...... which allows group housing would therefore greatly improve animal welfare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of implantable infusion pumps for HI infusion in group-housed rats. Group housing of rats implanted with a battery-driven pump proved to be possible. Intravenous...... infusion of HI lowered blood glucose levels persistently for two weeks, providing a comparator model for use in two-week repeated-dose toxicity studies with new long-acting insulin analogues, which allows group housing, and thereby increasing animal welfare compared with an external infusion model....

  18. Duodenal and ileal glucose infusions differentially alter gastrointestinal peptides, appetite response, and food intake: a tube feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides. Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner. Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a subsequent meal. Although glucose to the duodenum also suppressed appetite ratings, eating behavior was not altered. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000429853. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. The effects of aminophylline infusion in the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbation. Evaluation with 81mKr ventilation scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Yasuko; Shimada, Takao

    1998-01-01

    The use of intravenous aminophylline in the treatment of children with acute asthma remains controversial. Most authors suggest that aminophylline be used with caution because of its poor efficacy with adverse reactions and instead recommend other drugs, such as β 2 -adrenergic agonists and glucocorticoids. However other studies have reported the benefits of aminophylline, and current Japanese guidelines for the management of asthma recommend its use. Here, we have evaluated the efficacy of aminophylline infusion in children with acute asthma exacerbations. Twenty children with acute asthma exacerbations were given an infusion of 5 mg/kg of aminophylline over 5 minutes, 30 minutes after the same volume of normal saline had been infused as a control. 81m Kr ventilation scintigraphy was done sequentially, and lung function was measured with spirometry before and after each infusion. Side effects were also evaluated with a questionnaire. Ventilation images obtained with 81m Kr scintigraphy, which initially showed widespread ventilatory defects caused by bronchoconstriction, decreased 54.9% after aminophylline infusion (p 81m Kr bolus inhalation procedure, also showed significant improvement (p<0.0001). These improvement were accompanied by improvements in lung function as assessed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (p<0.01) and maximum expiratory flow rates at 25% (p<0.001) and 50% (p<0.001). No serious adverse reactions were recognized in any subjects. Our results show that aminophylline is a useful bronchodilator which decreased ventilatory imbalance and improves lung function in both central and peripheral airways. (author)

  20. Is continuous infusion of imipenem always the best choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchánková, Hana; Lipš, Michal; Urbánek, Karel; Neely, Michael N; Strojil, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Monte Carlo simulations allow prediction and comparison of concentration-time profiles arising from different dosing regimens in a defined population, provided a population pharmacokinetic model has been established. The aims of this study were to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of imipenem in critically ill patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and to assess the probability of target attainment (PTA) and cumulative fraction of response (CFR) using EUCAST data. A two-compartment model based on a data set of 19 subjects was employed. Various dosage regimens at 0.5-h and 3-h infusion rates and as continuous infusion were evaluated against the pharmacodynamic targets of 20%fT >MIC , 40%fT >MIC and 100%fT >MIC . For the target of 40%fT >MIC , all 0.5-h infusion regimens achieved optimal exposures (CFR ≥ 90%) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with nearly optimal exposure against Klebsiella pneumoniae (CFR ≥ 89.4%). The 3-h infusions and continuous infusion exceeded 97% CFR against all pathogens with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., where the maximum CFRs were 85.5% and 88.4%, respectively. For the 100%fT >MIC target, only continuous infusion was associated with nearly optimal exposures. Higher PTAs for the targets of 40%fT >MIC and 100%fT >MIC were achieved with 3-h infusions and continuous infusion in comparison with 0.5-h infusions; however, continuous infusion carries a risk of not reaching the MIC of less susceptible pathogens in a higher proportion of patients. In critically ill patients with HAP with risk factors for Gram-negative non-fermenting bacteria, maximum doses administered as extended infusions may be necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidural blood flow and regression of sensory analgesia during continuous postoperative epidural infusion of bupivacaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Højgaard, L; Scott, N B

    1988-01-01

    Epidural blood flow was measured in seven patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery during combined lumbar epidural and general anesthesia. After an initial dose of 20 ml plain bupivacaine 0.5%, a continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine 0.5% (8 ml/hr) was given for 16 hours...... for postoperative pain relief. The epidural blood flow was measured by a local 133Xe clearance technique in which 15-35 MBq 133Xe diluted in 1 ml saline was injected through the epidural catheter on the day before surgery (no bupivacaine), 30 minutes after the initial dose of bupivacaine on the morning before...... surgery, and 8, 12, and 16 hours later during the continuous infusion. Initial blood flow was 6.0 +/- 0.7 ml/min per 100 g tissue (mean +/- SEM). After epidural bupivacaine, blood flow increased in all seven patients to 7.4 +/- 0.7 ml (P less than 0.02). Initial level of sensory analgesia was T4.5 +/- 0...

  2. Intraoperative esmolol infusion reduces postoperative analgesic consumption and anaesthetic use during septorhinoplasty: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Celebi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Esmolol is known to have no analgesic activity and no anaesthetic properties; however, it could potentiate the reduction in anaesthetic requirements and reduce postoperative analgesic use. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous esmolol infusion on intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumptions as well as its effect on depth of anaesthesia. Methods: This randomized-controlled double blind study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital between March and June 2010. Sixty patients undergoing septorhinoplasty were randomized into two groups. History of allergy to drugs used in the study, ischaemic heart disease, heart block, bronchial asthma, hepatic or renal dysfunction, obesity and a history of chronic use of analgesic or β-blockers were considered cause for exclusion from the study. Thirty patients received esmolol and remifentanil (esmolol group and 30 patients received normal saline and remifentanil (control group as an intravenous infusion during the procedure. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and bispectral index values were recorded every 10min. Total remifentanil consumption, visual analogue scale scores, time to first analgesia and total postoperative morphine consumption were recorded. Results: The total remifentanil consumption, visual analogue scale scores at 0, 20 and 60 min, total morphine consumption, time to first analgesia and the number of patients who needed an intravenous morphine were lower in the esmolol group. Conclusions: Intravenous infusion of esmolol reduced the intraoperative and postoperative analgesic consumption, reduced visual analogue scale scores in the early postoperative period and prolonged the time to first analgesia; however it did not influence the depth of anaesthesia.

  3. Postoperative fentanyl patch versus subacromial bupivacaine infusion in arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merivirta, Riika; Äärimaa, Ville; Aantaa, Riku; Koivisto, Mari; Leino, Kari; Liukas, Antti; Kuusniemi, Kristiina

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the effectiveness of subacromial bupivacaine infusion and a transdermal fentanyl patch in the treatment of postoperative pain after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Sixty patients with rotator cuff disease scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled in the study. For the treatment of postoperative pain, 30 patients constituted group F and received a 12.0-μg/h fentanyl patch for 72 hours and saline solution infusion in a subacromial manner at the rate of 4 mL/h. The remaining 30 patients constituted group B and received a placebo patch and an infusion of 2.5-mg/mL bupivacaine in a subacromial manner for 72 hours. The primary outcome measure was the postoperative numerical rating scale pain score. The consumption of opioids, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen was also recorded. The Constant scores and general recovery were followed up until the 90th postoperative day. There was no statistically significant difference in the numerical rating scale scores (P = .60) between the groups. No differences in the use of rescue analgesic were observed except that the patients receiving bupivacaine used more ibuprofen (median, 1,200 mg v 600 mg) during the day of surgery (P = .042). No difference was found in general recovery between the groups. A fentanyl patch delivering 12-μg/h fentanyl offers an easy and safe treatment option as a part of multimodal analgesia with few adverse effects in the treatment of postoperative pain in a carefully selected patient group after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Level I, randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dextrose boluses versus burette dextrose infusions in prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm infants and its management remains a challenge in resource limited settings. Use of dextrose infusion by the recommended infusion pumps is not feasible in our environment due to their high costs and yet the current use of mini dextrose ...

  5. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U- 14 C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production

  6. Differential effects of insulin injections and insulin infusions on levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that while injections of insulin cause an increase in fat mass, infusions of insulin increase fat mass. The aim of this paper was to test the hypothesis that if an increase in glycogen is an indicator of an impending increase in adipose mass, then insulin infusions should not increase glycogen, while insulin ...

  7. ArtsIN: Arts Integration and Infusion Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, Lynn C.; Pinciotti, Patricia; Gorton, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching to meet the diverse learning needs of twenty-first century, global learners can be challenging, yet a growing body of research points to the proved successes of arts-infused and integrated curricula, especially for building capacity for learning and motivation. This article presents the ArtsIN: Arts Integration and Infusion framework, a…

  8. Effect of serotonin infusions on the mean plasma concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples were assayed for protein, fat and lactose constituents. The daily amounts of milk were determined throughout the experiment. Infusions of 1 ng 5HT did not change the plasma concentrations of the T3, T4 and GH throughout the experiment period. Infusions of 4 and 8 ng 5HT significantly (p<0.01) increased the ...

  9. Perisciatic infusion of ropivacaine and analgesia after hallux valgus repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, D; Jørgensen, B G; Laigaard, F

    2010-01-01

    Moderate to severe pain after hallux valgus repair can be successfully treated with a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block in ambulatory patients. Different anesthesiologists use various infusion rates for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of two infusion...

  10. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  11. Effect of perioperative insulin infusion on surgical morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Gunjan Y; Murad, M Hassan; Flynn, Errol David

    2008-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients.......To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients....

  12. The Effects of In-Hospital Intravenous Cold Saline in Postcardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Targeted Temperature Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppogu, Nissi; Panza, Gregory A; Kilic, Sena; Gowdar, Shreyas; Kallur, Kamala R; Jayaraman, Ramya; Lundbye, Justin; Fernandez, Antonio B

    2018-03-01

    Recent data suggest that rapid infusion of intravenous (IV) cold saline for Targeted Temperature Management (TTM) after cardiac arrest is associated with higher rates of rearrest, pulmonary edema, and hypoxia, with no difference in neurologic outcomes or survival when administered by Emergency Medical Services. We sought to determine the effects of IV cold saline administration in the hospital setting in postcardiac arrest patients to achieve TTM and its effect on clinical parameters and neurologic outcomes. A cohort of 132 patients who completed TTM after cardiac arrest in a single institution was retrospectively studied. Patients who did not receive cold saline were matched by age, gender, Glasgow coma scale, downtime, and presenting rhythm to patients who received cold saline. Demographics, cardiac rearrest, diuretic use, time to target temperature, and Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scores were recorded among other variables. Patients who received cold saline achieved target temperature sooner (280 vs. 345 minutes, p = 0.05), had lower lactate levels on day 1 (4.2 ± 3.5 mM vs. 6.0 ± 4.9 mM, p = 0.019) and day 2 (1.3 ± 2.2 mM vs. 2.2 ± 3.2 mM, p = 0.046), increased incidence of pulmonary edema (51.5% vs. 31.8%, p = 0.006), and increased diuretic utilization (63.6% vs. 42.4%, p = 0.014). There was no significant difference in cardiac rearrest, arterial oxygenation, and CPC scores (ps > 0.05). Infusion of IV cold saline is associated with shorter time to target temperature, increased incidence of pulmonary edema, and diuretic use, with no difference in cardiac rearrest, survival, and neurologic outcomes.

  13. Canadian Palliative Community Milrinone Infusions: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimche, Ruthanne; Salcedo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Symptom managementfor end-of-life heartfailure (HF) patients is a significant concern. Currently, Canadian practice does not support community milrinone therapy in end-of-life HF patients. Two patients had severe HF that was unresponsive to optimal medications. Further optimization and furosemide infusions were ineffective for symptom management. Both patients' symptoms were better controlled with optimal medication, furosemide, and milrinone infusions. A tailored discharge plan was developed to assist with community milrinone infusions. We discuss the challenges and successes of transitioning two patients to the community. By providing symptom management and meaningful patient and family experience, both patients were able to die in a setting of their choosing. Milrinone infusions as a bridge to end of life may improve symptoms and quality of life. Select patients may benefit from milrinone infusions with resources put in place; these end-of-life HF patients can be supported in the community.

  14. Superselective intraarterial infusion therapy for head and neck carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Hiroaki; Sawada, Shoichi; Takeda, Taizo

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of superselective intraarterial cisplatin (CDDP) infusion therapy combined with irradiation for 23 patients, mainly advanced head and neck carcinoma. All patients received intraarterial CDDP infusions with intravenous sodium thiosulfate (STS) neutralization. CDDP infusion was performed by the Seldinger's technique in 16 patients and by the implanted intraarterial reservoir system in 7 patients. STS was also infused by the reservoir system implanted at the forearm in most patients. An overall response was observed in 21 of the 23 (91.3%) patients. Complete and partial responses were achieved in 16 (69.6%) and 5 (21.7%) patients, respectively. There were no patients with worse than grade III complications. We concluded that superselective intraarterial infusion therapy with a high dose of CDDP and STS was very effective for the management of advanced head and neck carcinomas and we recommend the implantable reservoir system for both CDDP and STS administration as an easy and low-invasive method. (author)

  15. Association of Post-Saline Load Plasma Aldosterone Levels With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Verheyen, Nicolas D; Url-Michitsch, Marion; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Colussi, GianLuca; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieske, Burkert; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in hypertension. Current evidence suggests a contribution to LVH of plasma aldosterone levels that are inappropriately elevated for the salt status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inappropriate modulation of aldosterone production by a saline load is associated with left ventricular (LV) mass in hypertensive patients. In 90 hypertensive patients free of clinically relevant cardiovascular complications in whom secondary forms of hypertension were ruled out, we performed a standard intravenous saline load (0.9% NaCl, 2 l in 4 hours) with measurement of plasma aldosterone and active renin at baseline and end of infusion. Bi-dimensional echocardiography was performed for the assessment of cardiac morphology and function. LVH was present in 19% of patients who had significantly worse renal function and higher body mass, blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured both at baseline and after the saline load than patients without LVH. LV mass was directly related to age, body mass, systolic blood pressure, duration of hypertension, baseline, and post-saline load plasma aldosterone levels and inversely to glomerular filtration. Multivariate regression analysis showed independent correlation of LV mass with body mass, systolic blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load, but not at baseline. In patients with hypertension, aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load are related to LV mass independent of age, body mass, and blood pressure, suggesting that limited ability of salt to modulate aldosterone production could contribute to LVH. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A randomized controlled trial comparing parenteral normal saline with and without 5% dextrose on the course of labor in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chanderdeep; Kalra, Jasvinder; Bagga, Rashmi; Kumar, Praveen

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare intravenous normal saline with and without 5% dextrose on the course of labor in nulliparous women in active phase of spontaneous labor. In a randomized controlled trial, term, nulliparous women with singleton pregnancy in active labor were randomized into one of two groups receiving either normal saline or normal saline alternating with 5% dextrose at rate of 175 ml/h. The primary outcome was total length of labor from onset of study fluid in vaginally delivered women. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were also analyzed. Of 250 women enrolled, in vaginally delivered subjects, there was significant difference in the duration of labor (p=0.0) and prolonged labor (p=0.01), with favorable results for women in 5% dextrose alternating with normal saline. No statistically significant differences were observed in the cesarean section rates between the groups. The cord pH was significantly higher in neonates born to women in 5% dextrose alternating with normal saline infusion as compared to normal saline alone (p=0.01), however, no neonate in the study had acidemia. Administration of a 5% dextrose solution alternating with normal saline is a better parenteral fluid for significantly decreasing duration of labor in term vaginally delivered nulliparous women in spontaneous active labor as compared to normal saline alone.

  17. Estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of estuarine turbidity, flushing, salinity, and circulation on the ecology of the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of fresh water, the variations in salinity, and the circulation patterns created by temperature and salinity changes are analyzed. The application of remote sensors for long term observation of water temperatures is described. The sources of sediment and the biological effects resulting from increased sediments and siltation are identified.

  18. ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. ) seedlings to salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity stress on five cultivars of common bean: Bassbeer, Beladi, Giza 3, HRS 516 and RO21 were evaluated on a sand/peat medium with different salinity levels (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) applied 3 weeks after germination for duration of 10 days. Salinity had adverse effects not only on the biomass yield and ...

  19. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  20. Bupivacaine constant continuous surgical wound infusion versus continuous epidural infusion for post cesarean section pain, randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. ELShamaa

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that bupivacaine administered by continuous epidural infusion provided a significantly lower pain scores with mobilization, and hence better analgesia for post cesarean section pain in the first postoperative day compared to continuous bupivacaine wound infusion through fenestrated catheter using the constant flow PainFusor system.

  1. Early mechanism of action of arterially infused ethanol: an experimental study on the influence of infusion speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joon Koo

    1988-01-01

    Abdominal aortography and histopathologic examination after absolute ethanol infusion at fast (0.4cc/sec) and slow speed (0.04cc/sec) were performed on 16 rats (2 controls. 7 fast infusion group. 7 slow infusion group). Angiographic and histopathologic findings were correlated and the findings of slow and fast infusion groups were studied. The results are as follows: 1. Histopathologic findings of the fast infusion group revealed wide area of glomerular and tubular collapses, obliteration of the free space between the Bowmann's capsule and glomerulus, sloughing and loss of the endothelium, fresh thrombi attached to the wall, and cleavage of the muscle layer of the arteries. 2. Angiographic findings of the fast infusion group revealed luminal irregularity, early obstruction of the aorta and the renal arteries, and delayed circulation time. 3. Histopathologic findings of the slow infusion group revealed degenerated, coalesced red blood cell packed in the glomeruli, focal areas of severe glomerular and tubular damage on relatively normal background, endothelial and muscular damage of the arteries. 4. Angiographic findings of the slow infusion group revealed focal perfusion defect of the kidney, delayed circulation time, and mild luminal irregularity, but there was no obstruction of the major arteries. 5. In conclusion, author believes that endothelial damage and thrombus formation from the damaged vessel wall, as well as direct cytotoxicity and in situ emboli formation play a significant role in the embolic effect of absolute ethanol.

  2. Continuous indomethacin infusion may be less effective than bolus infusions for ductal closure in very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, NKS; Jagroep, FK; Jaarsma, AS; Elzenga, NJ; Bos, AF

    The effectiveness of continuous indomethacin (INDO) infusion versus bolus infusions for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was investigated. The study design was an open-label case series (continuous INDO) with historic controls matched for gestational age (bolus INDO). Ductal closure rates

  3. Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides spatially continuous high-resolution surface salinity imagery in a synoptic manner from small aircraft. Its output complements data collected from...

  4. Proinflammatory Cytokine Infusion Attenuates LH's Feedforward on Testosterone Secretion: Modulation by Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes; Yang, Rebecca; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Takahashi, Paul

    2016-02-01

    In the experimental animal, inflammatory signals quench LH's feedforward drive of testosterone (T) secretion and appear to impair GnRH-LH output. The degree to which such suppressive effects operate in the human is not known. To test the hypothesis that IL-2 impairs LH's feedforward drive on T and T's feedback inhibition of LH secretion in healthy men. Mayo Center for Translational Science Activities. A total of 35 healthy men, 17 young and 18 older. Randomized prospective double-blind saline-controlled study of IL-2 infusion in 2 doses with concurrent 10-minute blood sampling for 24 hours. Deconvolution analysis of LH and T secretion. After saline injection, older compared with young men exhibited reduced LH feedforward drive on T secretion (P enforces biochemical hypogonadism, viz, combined feedforward block and feedback amplification; and 2) unequal absolute inhibition of T and LH secretion by IL-2 in young and older men. These outcomes establish that the male gonadal axis is susceptible to dual-site suppression by a prototypic inflammatory mediator. Thus, we postulate that selected ILs might also enforce male hypogonadism in chronic systemic inflammation.

  5. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of glucagon-like peptide 1 lowers plasma glucose and reduces appetite in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, M B; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, J J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefo....... CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that 48-h continuous subcutaneous infusion of GLP-1 in type 2 diabetic patients 1) lowers fasting as well as meal-related plasma glucose, 2) reduces appetite, 3) has no gastrointestinal side effects, and 4) has no negative effect on blood pressure.......OBJECTIVE: The gut hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has insulinotropic and anorectic effects during intravenous infusion and has been proposed as a new treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. The effect of a single subcutaneous injection is brief because of rapid degradation. We therefore......, previously shown to lower blood glucose effectively in type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting plasma glucose (day 2) decreased from 14.1 +/- 0.9 (saline) to 12.2 +/- 0.7 mmol/l (GLP-1), P = 0.009, and 24-h mean plasma glucose decreased from 15.4 +/- 1.0 to 13.0 +/- 1.0 mmol/l, P = 0.0009. Fasting and total area...

  6. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at ‘0’ or 6 h post-training. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h post-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD ‘0’ h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  7. Advancing medication infusion safety through the clinical integration of technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, Donald; O'Shea, Kristen; Muller, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Adverse drug events resulting from errors in prescribing or administering medications are preventable. Within a hospital system, numerous technologies are employed to address the common sources of medication error, including the use of electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. Infusion safety is inherently risky because of the high-risk medications administered and the lack of integration among the stand-alone systems in most institutions. Intravenous clinical integration (IVCI) is a technology that connects electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. It combines the safety features of an automatically programmed infusion pump (drug, concentration, infusion rate, and patient weight, all auto-programmed into the device) with software that provides visibility to real-time clinical infusion data. Our article describes the characteristics of IVCI at WellSpan Health and its impact on patient safety. The integrated infusion system has the capability of reducing medication errors, improving patient care, reducing in-facility costs, and supporting asset management. It can enhance continuous quality improvement efforts and efficiency of clinical work flow. After implementing IVCI, the institution realized a safer patient environment and a more streamlined work flow for pharmacy and nursing.

  8. Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuaki; Kido, Choichiro

    1987-01-01

    Some techniques of the most recent interventional radiology are very useful for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer and changing the style of hepatic infusion chemotherapy. This report shows our latest results and methods of hepatic infusion chemotherapy for metastatic liver cancer. 1. For the catheter placement, a new catheterization route via the left subclavian artery into the hepatic artery was developed and performed in 132 cases. Superselective catheterization succeeded in 123 cases (93.2 %). This procedure is less invasive than laparotomy and less troublesome than other percutaneous routes. 2. For useful infusion system, an implantable injection port ''Reservoir'' was developed and it was used in 87 cases. This method makes arterial infusion chemotherapy easy, and imploves their quality of life. 3. To acquire adequate drug delivery, arterial redistribution by steel coils was done, and 109 arteries in 80 cases were occluded. This method is very useful to make multiple hepatic artery single and it is important to avoid gasroduodenal complications. 4. Now, using these techniques, the phase II study of 5FU, ADM, MMC combined hepatic infusion in patients with non-resectable metastatic liver cancer is done. Up to this time, such a phase study on arterial infusion chemotherapy was difficult because of technical problems, but these new techniques make it possible. In conclusion, these new methods change the style and conception of hepatic infusion, and these make much progress on the treatment of patients with metastatic liver cancer. (author)

  9. Alfaxalone for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing field castration: continuous infusion compared with intravenous boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Julia; Ekiri, Abel; de Vries, Annemarie

    2017-07-01

    To compare alfaxalone as continuous intravenous (IV) infusion with intermittent IV injections for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing castration. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A group of 33 entire male Welsh ponies undergoing field castration. After preanaesthetic medication with IV detomidine (10 μg kg -1 ) and butorphanol (0.05 mg kg -1 ), anaesthesia was induced with IV diazepam (0.05 mg kg -1 ) followed by alfaxalone (1 mg kg -1 ). After random allocation, anaesthesia was maintained with either IV alfaxalone 2 mg kg -1  hour -1 (group A; n = 16) or saline administered at equal volume (group S; n = 17). When necessary, additional alfaxalone (0.2 mg kg -1 ) was administered IV. Ponies were breathing room air. Using simple descriptive scales, surgical conditions and anaesthesia recovery were scored. Total amount of alfaxalone, ponies requiring additional alfaxalone and time to administration, time from induction to end of infusion and end of infusion to standing were noted. Indirect arterial blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rates, end-expiratory carbon dioxide partial pressure and arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. Data were analysed using Student t, Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests, where appropriate (p < 0.05). Total amount of alfaxalone administered after induction of anaesthesia (0.75 ± 0.27 versus 0.17 ± 0.23 mg kg -1 ; p < 0.0001) and time to standing (14.8 ± 4 versus 11.6 ± 4 minutes; p = 0.044) were higher in group A compared to group S. Ponies requiring additional alfaxalone boluses [four (group A) versus seven (group S)] and other measured variables were similar between groups; five ponies required oxygen supplementation [three (group A) versus two (group S)]. Continuous IV infusion and intermittent administration of alfaxalone provided similar anaesthesia quality and surgical conditions in ponies undergoing field castration. Less alfaxalone

  10. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P

  11. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne A. Wurtsbaugh; Craig Miller; Sarah E. Null; R. Justin DeRose; Peter Wilcock; Maura Hahnenberger; Frank Howe; Johnnie Moore

    2017-01-01

    Many of the world’s saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and...

  12. Estimation of salinity power potential in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    Salinity gradient as a source of energy has much potential, but this has been recognized only recently. The energy density of this source is equivalent to about 250 m water head for a salinity difference of 35 ppt. This source exists...

  13. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  14. Placebo versus low-dose ketamine infusion in addition to remifentanil target-controlled infusion for conscious sedation during oocyte retrieval: A prospective, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morue, Hélène I; Raj-Lawrence, Shalini; Saxena, Sarah; Delbaere, Anne; Engelman, Edgard; Barvais, Luc A

    2018-04-30

    Currently, there is no gold standard for monitored anaesthesia care during oocyte retrieval. In our institution, the standard is a conscious sedation technique using a target-controlled infusion (TCI) of remifentanil, titrated to maintain a visual analogue pain score less than 30 mm. This protocol is well accepted by patients but is associated with frequent episodes of respiratory depression. The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine could reduce these episodes. Controlled, randomised, prospective, double-blinded study. The current study was conducted in a tertiary-level hospital in Brussels (Belgium) from December 2013 to June 2014. Of the 132 women undergoing oocyte retrieval included, 121 completed the study. After randomisation, patients received either a ketamine infusion (40 μg kg min over 5 min followed by 2.5 μg kg min) or a 0.9% saline infusion in addition to the variable remifentanil TCI. The primary outcome was the number of respiratory depression episodes. Effect site target remifentanil concentrations, side effects, pain score, patient satisfaction and incidence of pregnancy were also recorded. No significant difference in the incidence of respiratory events was noted (pulse oximetry oxygen saturation the ketamine group and 63% in the control group; P = 0.121). No patient required ventilatory support. In the ketamine group, visual analogue pain score and remifentanil concentrations were significantly reduced, but the latter remained above 2 ng ml. Postoperative nausea was less frequent in the ketamine group, 4 versus 15% (P = 0.038). The addition of ketamine did not influence length of stay nor patient satisfaction. The addition of low plasma levels of ketamine to a TCI remifentanil conscious sedation technique did not decrease the incidence nor the severity of respiratory depression. Continuous monitoring of capnography and oxygen saturation is

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of levobupivacaine 0.5 %, a local anesthetic, infusion in the surgical wound after modified radical mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Laso, Lourdes; López Picado, Amanda; Antoñanzas Villar, Fernando; Lamata de la Orden, Laura; Ceballos Garcia, Mar; Ibañez López, Carolina; Pipaon Ruilope, Lorena; Lamata Hernandez, Felix; Valero Martinez, Cesar; Aizpuru, Felipe; Hernandez Chaves, Roberto

    2015-09-01

    Effective treatment of postoperative pain contributes to decreasing the rate of complications as well as the total cost of the operated patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the costs and the efficiency of use of continuous infusion of levobupivacaine 0.5 % with the help of an infusion pump in modified radical mastectomy. A cost calculation of the analgesic procedures (continuous infusion of levobupivacaine 0.5 % [levobupivacaine group (LG)] or saline [saline group (SG)] (2 ml/h 48 h) has been carried out based on the data of a previous clinical trial (double-blind randomized study) of patients who underwent modified radical mastectomy surgery. The measure of the effectiveness was the point reduction of pain derived from the verbal numeric rating scale (VNRS). The usual incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was performed. Considering only the intravenous analgesia, overall costs were lower in LG, as less analgesia was used (EUR14.06 ± 7.89 vs. 27.47 ± 14.79; p mastectomy, therefore providing patients with a higher quality of care in the prevention of pain. clinicaltrials.gov: reference number NCT01389934. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01389934

  16. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC 50 values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC 50 obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC 50 ). This LC 50 value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC 50 . For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC 50 and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC 50 of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC 50 values. In contrast, LC 50 determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature

  17. Do laboratory salinity tolerances of freshwater animals correspond with their field salinity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kefford, Ben J.; Papas, Phil J.; Metzeling, Leon; Nugegoda, Dayanthi

    2004-06-01

    The degree to which laboratory derived measures of salinity tolerance reflect the field distributions of freshwater biota is uncertain. In this paper we compare laboratory-derived acute salinity tolerance (LC{sub 50} values) of freshwater macroinvertebrates (range 5.5-76 mS/cm) and fish (range 2.7-82 mS/cm) from southeastern Australia with the salinity from which they have been collected in the field. Only 4% of the macroinvertebrates were collected at salinity levels substantially higher than their 72-h LC{sub 50} obtained from directly transferring animals from low salinity water to the water they were tested (direct transfer LC{sub 50}). This LC{sub 50} value was correlated with the maximum salinity at which a species had been collected. For common macroinvertebrates, the maximum field salinity was approximated by the direct transfer 72-h LC{sub 50}. For adult freshwater fish, 21% of species were collected at salinities substantially greater than their acute direct transfer LC{sub 50} and there was a weak relationship between these two variables. Although there was a weak correlation between the direct transfer LC{sub 50} of early life stages of freshwater fish and the maximum field salinity, 58% of the field distribution were in higher than their LC{sub 50} values. In contrast, LC{sub 50} determined from experiments that acclimated adult fish to higher salinity (slow acclimation) provided a better indication of the field distribution: with only one fish species (7%) being in conflict with their maximum field salinity and a strong positive relationship between these variables. This study shows that laboratory measures of acute salinity tolerance can reflect the maximum salinity that macroinvertebrate and fish species inhabit and are consistent with some anecdotal observations from other studies. - Acute laboratory salinity tolerances relate to maximum salinity where organisms occur in nature.

  18. A low dose lipid infusion is sufficient to induce insulin resistance and a pro-inflammatory response in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hanyu; Lum, Helen; Alvarez, Andrea; Garduno-Garcia, Jose de Jesus; Daniel, Benjamin J; Musi, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    The root cause behind the low-grade inflammatory state seen in insulin resistant (obesity and type 2 diabetes) states is unclear. Insulin resistant subjects have elevations in plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which are ligands for the pro-inflammatory toll-like receptor (TLR)4 pathway. We tested the hypothesis that an experimental elevation in plasma FFA (within physiological levels) in lean individuals would upregulate TLR4 and activate downstream pathways (e.g., MAPK) in circulating monocytes. Twelve lean, normal glucose-tolerant subjects received a low dose (30 ml/h) 48 h lipid or saline infusion on two different occasions. Monocyte TLR4 protein level, MAPK phosphorylation, and expression of genes in the TLR pathway were determined before and after each infusion. The lipid infusion significantly increased monocyte TLR4 protein and phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Lipid-mediated increases in TLR4 and p38 phosphorylation directly correlated with reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity (M value). Lipid increased levels of multiple genes linked to inflammation, including several TLRs, CD180, MAP3K7, and CXCL10. Monocytes exposed in vivo to lipid infusion exhibited enhanced in vitro basal and LPS-stimulated IL-1β secretion. In lean subjects, a small increase in plasma FFA (as seen in insulin resistant subjects) is sufficient to upregulate TLR4 and stimulate inflammatory pathways (MAPK) in monocytes. Moreover, lipids prime monocytes to endotoxin. We provide proof-of-concept data in humans indicating that the low-grade inflammatory state characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes could be caused (at least partially) by pro-inflammatory monocytes activated by excess lipids present in these individuals.

  19. The Tolerability and Efficacy of Rapid Infliximab Infusions in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taha; Shah, Bhavesh; El-Dib, Mohammed; Farraye, Francis A

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have assessed the loss of efficacy or patient and caregiver satisfaction with rapid infliximab infusions. The aim of this study is to assess the tolerability, loss of efficacy and to describe the impact on resource utilization and patient satisfaction in rapid infliximab infusions. Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease receiving rapid infliximab infusions were included in the study. Subjects received maintenance infusions from June 2011 to June 2013. Incidence of adverse reactions and the total number of rapid infliximab infusions were recorded. Efficacy was compared to published studies evaluating the long-term efficacy of infliximab infusions. Patient satisfaction was addressed through a survey following the implementation of the rapid infusion protocol. Seventy-five subjects with IBD were included in the study. Five hundred and twenty-two rapid infliximab infusions were provided to patients. There were no acute or delayed infusion reactions. Ten subjects (13 %) required either a dose escalation or interval adjustment between infliximab infusions. A majority of patients reported increased satisfaction with 1-h infliximab infusions, and 97 % of surveyed patients opted to continue rapid infusions. The rapid infliximab infusion protocol increased infusion unit efficiency by increasing capacity by 15 %. Cost savings in the elimination of nursing time translated to approximately $108,150 savings at our institution. Rapid infliximab infusions do not appear to increase the risk of loss of response compared to historical studies of long-term infliximab efficiency. A rapid infliximab infusion protocol improved efficiency in our infusion unit and increased patient and nursing satisfaction.

  20. A new infusion pathway monitoring system utilizing electrostatic induced potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Hiromichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Hahn, Alien W; Caldwell, W Morton

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new infusion pathway monitoring system employing linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer. The system is available for hospital and home use and it constantly monitors the intactness of the pathway. The sensor is an electro-conductive polymer electrode wrapped around the infusion polyvinyl chloride infusion tube. This records an AC (alternating current) voltage induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. If the injection needle or infusion tube becomes detached, then the system detects changes in the induced AC voltage and alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or PHS (personal handy phone System).

  1. Effects of dexmedetomidine infusion during spinal anesthesia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç

    2018-02-19

    Feb 19, 2018 ... administered in cases with high scores on the visual analog scale. ... dexmedetomidine infusion had a hemodynamic depressant effect intraoperatively whereas it had no ..... ety depresses the relevant centers in the brain and.

  2. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel concept utilizing resin infusion to rigidize inflatable structures was developed at JSC ES. This ICA project intends to complete manufacturing of a prototype...

  3. Infusing Social Responsibility into the Curriculum and Cocurriculum: Campus Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter highlights good practices and lessons learned for infusing social responsibility--contributing to the larger community and taking seriously the perspectives of others--as outcomes of college.

  4. Effect of insulin pump infusion on comprehensive stress state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of insulin pump infusion on comprehensive stress state of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. ... Relevant diabetes-associated serum indices, oxidative stress and stress hormone levels were compared between the ... from 32 Countries:.

  5. Vacuum Infusion of Low-Cost Aerospce Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labordus, Maarten

    2002-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking TNO Industrie as follows: A mold system will be designed in which the hydrostatic pressure can be measured in the resin during the vacuum infusion process...

  6. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  7. Osmotic Drying and Nutrient Infusion of Fruits and Vegetables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    .... Initially, six commercial fruit products were chosen for long-term storage. Two representative products, mango-flavored apple cubes and cherries, were then prepared with infused vitamins and minerals...

  8. Differential effects of fresh frozen plasma and normal saline on secondary brain damage in a large animal model of polytrauma, hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwabejire, John O; Imam, Ayesha M; Jin, Guang

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that the extent of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in large animal models can be reduced with early infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), but the precise mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether resuscitation with FFP or normal saline differed in th...... in their effects on cerebral metabolism and excitotoxic secondary brain injury in a model of polytrauma, TBI, and hemorrhagic shock....

  9. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabò, Ilaria; Bonacci, Antonella; Coscarelli, Francesca [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy); Tripepi, Manuela [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biology, 201 Leidy Laboratories, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brunelli, Elvira, E-mail: brunelli@unical.it [Department of Ecology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Cosenza) (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was

  10. Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen can relieve tissue-damaging oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Injection of hydrogen-rich saline is an effective method for transporting molecular hydrogen. We hypothesized that hydrogen-rich saline would promote the repair of spinal cord injury induced by Allen′s method in rats. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after injury, then once daily for 2 weeks, 0.25 mL/kg hydrogen-rich saline was infused into the subarachnoid space through a catheter. Results at 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks after injury showed that hydrogen-rich saline markedly reduced cell death, inflammatory cell infiltration, serum malondialdehyde content, and caspase-3 immunoreactivity, elevated serum superoxide dismutase activity and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity, and improved motor function in the hindlimb. The present study confirms that hydrogen-rich saline injected within 2 weeks of injury effectively contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury in the acute stage.

  11. Intravitreal methotrexate infusion for proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaka A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ama Sadaka,1 Robert A Sisk,1–3 James M Osher,1,3 Okan Toygar,4 Melinda K Duncan,5 Christopher D Riemann1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 2Department of Opthalmology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Bahcesehir University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal methotrexate infusion (IMI during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for retinal detachment in patients with high risk for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR.Methods: Patients presenting with severe recurrent PVR with tractional retinal detachment and/or a history of severe ocular inflammation were treated with IMI. Clinical outcomes were determined from a retrospective medical chart review.Results: Twenty-nine eyes presenting with either tractional retinal detachment and recurrent PVR (n=22 or a history of severe inflammation associated with high PVR risk (n=7 received IMI during PPV. Best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months was ≥20/200 in 19 of 29 eyes (66% and remained stable or improved compared with initial presentation in 24 of 29 eyes (83%. At the last follow-up examination, the retinas of 26 of 29 eyes (90% remained attached after IMI while three eyes required another reattachment procedure. Three additional eyes (10% developed recurrent limited PVR without recurrent RD and were observed. No complications attributable to IMI occurred during a mean follow-up of 27 months.Conclusion: Eyes at high risk for PVR development due to a history of prior PVR or intraocular inflammation had a low incidence of PVR following IMI at the time of PPV for RD repair. No significant safety issues from IMI were observed in this series. Keywords: tractional retinal detachment, recurrent retinal detachment, pars

  12. Infusing Software Engineering Technology into Practice at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressburger, Thomas; Feather, Martin S.; Hinchey, Michael; Markosia, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    We present an ongoing effort of the NASA Software Engineering Initiative to encourage the use of advanced software engineering technology on NASA projects. Technology infusion is in general a difficult process yet this effort seems to have found a modest approach that is successful for some types of technologies. We outline the process and describe the experience of the technology infusions that occurred over a two year period. We also present some lessons from the experiences.

  13. Infusion of iloprost without a peristaltic pump: Safety and tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faggioli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iloprost is a potent prostacyclin (PGI2 analogue that is effective in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, vasculitis, pulmonary hypertension, and secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Intravenous infusions are generally administered with the aid of a peristaltic pump to reduce the risk of adverse reactions caused by unintentional increases in the infusion rate. This increases the cost of care in terms of equipment and personnel and may limit the use of this drug. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 18,432 iloprost infusions administered between 1999 and 2009 to 272 patients with systemic sclerosis (n = 253 and 19 with peripheral arterial disease (n = 19. All infusions were administered in the day hospital over 6 h with a normal IV set-up with a roller flow regulator. Flow rates were set to deliver iloprost at 1-2 ng/kg/min. Rates were verified by direct drop counts during the first 15-20 minutes of the infusion and at each subsequent check. Results: There were no adverse events that were fatal, life-threatening, or associated with prolongation of hospitalization and very few events requiring intensive care or continuous monitoring. The latter included 4 cases of tachycardia/arrhythmia (extrasystoles in most cases, 3 cases of hypotension (systolic pressure < 80 mmHg, and 2 cases of hypertension (BP > 170/100 mmHg. All other adverse reactions were mild, reversible, and similar to those seen with iloprost infusion with peristaltic pump. Only one patient had to be switched to another prostanoid (due to intolerance. Discussion: Iloprost infusion administered with a normal IV flow regulator appears to be as safe, well tolerated, and effective as traditional infusion with a peristaltic pump.

  14. Prepreg and infusion processes for modern wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shennan, C. [Hexcel, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    The different elements of wind turbine blades have been analyzed for their main function, performance requirements and drivers. Key drivers can be simplified to either performance or cost. The use of prepreg and infusion to make these blade elements has then been compared and shows, from a comparison of test laminates, that prepreg typically delivers higher mechanical performance on both glass and carbon. One of the main process differences, cure temperature, has been overcome with the introduction of M79 which cures at 70 deg. - 80 deg. C. M79 combines this low cure temperature with a much lower reaction enthalpy allowing shorter cure cycles. This means that prepregs can now be cured in the same molds, at the same temperatures and with the same foam as used in a conventional infusion process. Although prepreg and infusion are usually used separately for making blade elements, they may also be used in combination: co-infused and co-cured using prepregs for the hard to infuse unidirectional load-carrying elements and infusion for the other elements. This can thus simplify the production process. The conclusion is that unidirectional prepregs are ideally suited for the performance driven parts of the blade such as in load carrying elements. (Author)

  15. Tracer studies with aortic infusion result in improper tracer distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisneski, J.A.; Brooks, G.A.; Neese, R.A.; Stanley, W.C.; Morris, D.L.; Gertz, E.W.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that lactate turnover can be accurately assessed by infusing radioactive lactate tracer into the aorta and sampling blood in the vena cava. However, there may be streaming of newly infused tracer in the aorta, resulting in a nonuniform arterial specific activity (SA). Furthermore vena caval blood may not be representative of mixed venous blood. The authors examined this problem in 7 anesthetized dogs with sampling catheters in the pulmonary (PA), carotid (CA), and femoral (FA) arteries, and the superior (SVC) and inferior (IVC) vena cavi. [1- 14 C]lactate was continuously infused into the left ventricle through a catheter introduced through the femoral artery. The same SA (dpm/μmol) was found in the CA and FA, indicating adequate mixing of newly infused tracer with trace. Three dogs showed differences between SVC, IVC and PA, suggesting a mixed venous sample can not be obtained from the VC. When the catheter was moved into the aorta, wide differences in SA appeared between the CA and FA, clearly reflecting streaming of tracer. These differences also appeared in the SVC and IVC. In conclusion, adequate mixing does not occur between tracer and trace in arterial blood with aortic infusion. Further, VC sampling will not give a consistent mixed venous SA. Therefore, for practical reasons, aortic tracer infusion with vena caval sampling will lead to erroneous turnover values

  16. Lipolytic response to glucose infusion in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have determined the effect of various rates of glucose infusion on the rates of release of glycerol (R/sub a/ glycerol), free fatty acids (R/sub a/ FFA), and on energy metabolism in normal human volunteers. Plasma kinetics were determined with use of the stable isotopic tracers D-5-glycerol and [1- 13 C]palmitate, and energy metabolism was determined by indirect calorimetry. The effect of glucose infusion on R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA was dose-dependent. At 4 mg x kg -1 x min -1 , both R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA were suppressed; at 8 mg x kg -1 x min -1 , R/sub a/ FFA was even more depressed, but R/sub a/ glycerol was similar to the value during the 4 mg x kg -1 x min -1 infusion. At all infusion rates tested, the amount of potential energy available from the sum of the glucose infusion and endogenously mobilized fat was always greater than when no glucose was infused. Glucose decreased fat mobilization by both inhibiting lipolysis and stimulating reesterification, thus causing a significant increase in triglyceride-fatty acid substrate cycling within the adipose tissue. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay

  17. Influence of salinity and cadmium on the survival and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    osmoregulated at salinities between 5 and 25 and osmoconformed at salinities greater than 25. Chiromantes eulimene followed a hyper-hypo-osmoregulatory strategy; it hyper-regulated in salinities from 0 up to isosmotic conditions at about 28 (c.

  18. The effect of salinity on some endocommensalic ciliates from shipworms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    . Seasonal incidence and relative abundance of these ciliates showed that they were more abundant during the low saline than the high saline periods. Eventhough these ciliates can endure higher salinities through gradual acclimatization of their habitat...

  19. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrã o, Só nia; Schmö ckel, S. M.; Tester, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making

  20. Prospective, randomized, and controlled trial on ketamine infusion during bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy: Effects on postoperative pain and recovery profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, June Young; Kim, Byoung-Gook; Hwang, Jin-Young; Park, Seong-Joo; Oh, Ah-Young; Jeon, Young-Tae; Ryu, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy using bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) is frequently performed for excellent cosmesis. However, postoperative pain is remained as concerns due to the extent tissue dissection and tension during the operation. Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that reduces acute postoperative pain. We evaluated the effects of intraoperative ketamine infusion on postoperative pain control and recovery profiles following BABA robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy. Methods: Fifty-eight adult patients scheduled for BABA robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy were randomized into a control group (n = 29) and ketamine group (n = 29). Following induction of anesthesia, patients in each group were infused with the same volume of saline or ketamine solution (1 mg/kg bolus, 60 μg/kg/h continuous infusion). Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil was used to induce and maintain anesthesia. Pain scores (101-point numerical rating scale, 0 = no pain, 100 = the worst imaginable pain), the consumption of rescue analgesics, and other postoperative adverse effects were assessed at 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Results: Patients in the ketamine group reported lower pain scores than those in the control group at 6 hours (30 [30] vs 50 [30]; P = 0.017), 24 hours (20 [10] vs 30 [20]; P ketamine infusion during anesthesia resulted in lower postoperative pain scores following BABA robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy, with no increase in adverse events. PMID:27930531

  1. Acute effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on blood pressure and heart rate responses to intraduodenal glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thazhath, Sony S; Marathe, Chinmay S; Wu, Tongzhi; Chang, Jessica; Khoo, Joan; Kuo, Paul; Checklin, Helen L; Bound, Michelle J; Rigda, Rachael S; Horowitz, Michael; Jones, Karen L; Rayner, Christopher K

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on blood pressure and heart rate during an intraduodenal glucose infusion in type 2 diabetes. Nine subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomised to receive intravenous exenatide or saline control in a crossover design. Glucose (3 kcal min -1 ) was infused via an intraduodenal manometry catheter for 60 min. Blood pressure, heart rate, and the frequency and amplitude of duodenal pressure waves were measured at regular intervals. Gastrointestinal symptoms were monitored using 100 mm visual analogue scales. During intraduodenal glucose infusion (0-60 min), diastolic (p (0-60)  = 0.03) and mean arterial (p (0-60)  = 0.03) blood pressures and heart rate (p (0-60)  = 0.06; p (0-120)  = 0.03)) were higher with exenatide compared to placebo. The increase in the area under the curve for diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial blood pressure was related directly to the suppression of the duodenal motility index with exenatide compared to control (p = 0.007 and 0.04, respectively). In type 2 diabetes, intravenous exenatide increases mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate during an intraduodenal glucose infusion, supporting the need for further research with exenatide for its potential use in postprandial hypotension. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The effect of a pre-anesthetic infusion of amino acids on body temperature, venous blood pH, glucose, creatinine, and lactate of healthy dogs during anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Ngwenyama, Thandeka R; O'Brien, Mauria A; McMichael, Maureen; Schaeffer, David J

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of preanesthetic, intravenous (IV) amino acids on body temperature of anesthetized healthy dogs. Randomized, experimental, crossover study. Eight mixed-breed dogs approximately 2 years of age weighing 20.7 ± 2.1 kg. Dogs received 10% amino acid solution (AA) or 0.9% saline (SA) IV at 5 mL kg(-1) over 60 minutes. Body temperature (BT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals during infusions. Dogs were then anesthetized with sevoflurane for 90 minutes. BT was recorded at 5 minute intervals during anesthesia. Jugular blood samples were analyzed for pH, glucose, creatinine, and lactate concentrations at baseline, after infusion, after anesthesia and after 24 hours. BT at conclusion of infusion decreased -0.34 ± 0.42 °C in group AA and -0.40 ± 0.38 °C in group SA and was not different between groups (p = 0.072). BT decreased 2.72 ± 0.37 °C in group AA and 2.88 ± 0.26 °C in group SA after anesthesia and was different between groups (p dogs, preanesthetic IV infusion of amino acids attenuated heat loss compared to controls, however, the amount attenuated may not be clinically useful. Further studies are warranted to determine if nutrient-induced thermogenesis is beneficial to dogs undergoing anesthesia. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  3. Time factor of BSH from intravenous infusion to neutron irradiation for BNCT in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Nagahiro, S.; Kitamura, K.; Nakagawa, Y.; Hatanaka, H.; Haritz, D.; Grochulla, F.; Haselsberger, K.; Gabel, D.

    2000-01-01

    The present report evaluates the time factor of BSH from infusion to irradiation in patients with glioblastoma as a cooperative study in Europe and Japan. For BNCT with BSH after intravenous infusion, this work confirms that the planned neutron irradiation after intravenous BSH infusion appears to be optimal around 12-19 hours after the infusion. (author)

  4. Approaches to improving brain protection in cardiac and aortic surgery:an experimental study in a porcine model with hypertonic saline dextran, levosimendan, leukocyte depleting filter and different acid base management strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaakinen, H. (Hanna)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In the repair of complex congenital heart defects or in surgery of the aortic arch, normal circulation may be temporarily halted to ensure a clean, bloodless operation field. The brain is the organ most vulnerable to ischemic injury during this no-flow period, and the mortality and morbidity of these procedures today consists mostly of neurological complications. Hypothermia decreases the need for oxygen and other metabolites, and cooling the patient with an extracorporeal heart-l...

  5. Effect of intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine GM-CSF and IL-8 on CMT score, somatic cell count, and milk mononuclear cell populations in Holstein cows with Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, Yoshio; Ozawa, Tomomi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kushibiki, Shiro; Inumaru, Shigeki; Shingu, Hiroyuki; Nagasawa, Yuya; Watanabe, Atsushi; Hata, Eiji; Hayashi, Tomohito

    2017-09-01

    The effect of intramammary infusion of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rbGM-CSF) and interleukin-8 (rbIL-8) on mononuclear cell populations in quarters, somatic cell count (SCC) and the California Mastitis Test (CMT) score were investigated. From the selected cows with naturally occurring Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis, one quarter of each cow were selected for the infusions of rbGM-CSF (400 μg/5 mL/quarter, n = 9), rbIL-8 (1 mg/5 mL/quarter, n = 9), and phosphate-buffered saline (5 mL/quarter, n = 7). The CMT score of both cytokines post infusion temporarily increased between days 0 and 1 and significantly decreased between days 7 and 14 compared to the preinfusion level. The SCC on day 14 after infusions of rbGM-CSF tended to be lower than that of the control group. The percentage of CD14+ cells increased on days 1 and 2 post infusion of rbGM-CSF. The percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells also increased on days 2 and 3, suggesting that the infusion of rbGM-CSF enhanced cellular immunity in the mammary gland. In contrast, the percentage of CD14+ cells decreased on days 0.25 and 1 post infusion of rbIL-8. No significant changes in the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in milk after infusion of rbIL-8 were evident during the experimental period, which suggested that rbIL-8 had little effect on the function of T cells in the mammary gland. These results indicated that rbGM-CSF and rbIL-8 decreased the CMT score by a different mechanism and may have a potential as therapeutic agents for subclinical mastitis.

  6. Cisplatin-Induced Renal Salt Wasting Requiring over 12 Liters of 3% Saline Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong-Chi Pham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is known to induce Fanconi syndrome and renal salt wasting (RSW. RSW typically only requires transient normal saline (NS support. We report a severe RSW case that required 12 liters of 3% saline. A 57-year-old woman with limited stage small cell cancer was admitted for cisplatin (80 mg/m2 and etoposide (100 mg/m2 therapy. Patient’s serum sodium (SNa decreased from 138 to 133 and 125 mEq/L within 24 and 48 hours of cisplatin therapy, respectively. A diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH was initially made. Despite free water restriction, patient’s SNa continued to decrease in association with acute onset of headaches, nausea, and dizziness. Three percent saline (3%S infusion with rates up to 1400 mL/day was required to correct and maintain SNa at 135 mEq/L. Studies to evaluate Fanconi syndrome revealed hypophosphatemia and glucosuria in the absence of serum hyperglycemia. The natriuresis slowed down by 2.5 weeks, but 3%S support was continued for a total volume of 12 liters over 3.5 weeks. Attempts of questionable benefits to slow down glomerular filtration included the administration of ibuprofen and benazepril. To our knowledge, this is the most severe case of RSW ever reported with cisplatin.

  7. The clinical usefulness evaluation of normal saline injection in coronary artery computed tomography angiography (Coronary CTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Kyo; Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this study is that in coronary artery angiography computed tomography (coronary CTA), to gain high quality of image and to use low dose radiation by administrating normal saline and converting the mode of scanning heart rate (HR) characteristics before infusing contrast media. All patients data (total specimens: 200, male: 108, female: 92) were measured by using appropriate mode of scanning the heart rate (HR) after injection of saline. in addition we measured radiation dose (CTDIvol, effective dose) in all examinations. CT number and noise, and blurring of coronary artery (proximal RCA, middle RCA, proximal LCA) were measured and compared. The result of this study after injection of saline, mean heart rate was decreased about 4.8±0.3 bpm (beats per minute). 33 patients (13%) got converting scan mode due to reducing heart rate (HR). In prospective gating mode, radiation dose were measured less 6.0±1.0 mSv (54.1%) than retrospective gating mode. Also showed a significant difference in heart rate decrease in image evaluation.

  8. The clinical usefulness evaluation of normal saline injection in coronary artery computed tomography angiography (Coronary CTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kang Kyo; Lee, Mi Hwa; Cho, Pyong Kon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is that in coronary artery angiography computed tomography (coronary CTA), to gain high quality of image and to use low dose radiation by administrating normal saline and converting the mode of scanning heart rate (HR) characteristics before infusing contrast media. All patients data (total specimens: 200, male: 108, female: 92) were measured by using appropriate mode of scanning the heart rate (HR) after injection of saline. in addition we measured radiation dose (CTDIvol, effective dose) in all examinations. CT number and noise, and blurring of coronary artery (proximal RCA, middle RCA, proximal LCA) were measured and compared. The result of this study after injection of saline, mean heart rate was decreased about 4.8±0.3 bpm (beats per minute). 33 patients (13%) got converting scan mode due to reducing heart rate (HR). In prospective gating mode, radiation dose were measured less 6.0±1.0 mSv (54.1%) than retrospective gating mode. Also showed a significant difference in heart rate decrease in image evaluation

  9. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL, 1902-present, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  10. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water......A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... potential, but increased abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in both leaf and xylem sap. At each salinity level, incorporation of biochar increased shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, An, gs, midday leaf water potential, and decreased ABA concentration in the leaf and xylem sap as compared...

  11. Infusion Nursing: An Evidence-Based Approach - Third edition Alexander Mary Infusion Nursing: An Evidence-Based Approach - Third edition 625pp Elsevier 9781416064107 1416064109 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    This book considers all aspects of infusion therapy and provides a solid evidence base. Its 30 chapters are well organised into six sections covering physiological considerations, infusion therapies and nursing practice.

  12. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.

    2014-01-01

    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  13. Continuous intravenous infusions of bromodeoxyuridine as a clinical radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Mitchell, J.B.; Russo, A.; Aiken, M.; Morstyn, G.; Hsu, S.M.; Rowland, J.; Glatstein, E.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients were treated with continuous intravenous (24-hour) infusions of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) at 650 or 1000 mg/m2/d for up to two weeks. Myelosuppression, especially thrombocytopenia, was the major systemic toxicity and limited the infusion period to nine to 14 days. However, bone marrow recovery occurred within seven to ten days, allowing for a second infusion in most patients. Local toxicity (within the radiation field) was minimal, with the exception of one of four patients, who underwent abdominal irradiation. Pharmacology studies revealed a steady-state arterial plasma level of 6 x 10(-7) mol/L and 1 x 10(-6) mol/L during infusion of 650 and 1000 mg/m2/d, respectively. In vivo BUdR uptake into normal bone marrow was evaluated in two patients by comparison of preinfusion and postinfusion in vitro radiation survival curves of marrow CFUc with enhancement ratios (D0-pre/D0-post) of 1.8 (with 650 mg/m2/d) and 2.5 (with 1000 mg/m2/d). In vivo BUdR incorporation into normal skin and tumor cells using an anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry was demonstrated in biopsies from three patients revealing substantially less cellular incorporation into normal skin (less than 10%) compared with tumor (up to 50% to 70%). The authors conclude that local and systemic toxicity of continuous infusion of BUdR at 1000 mg/m2/d for approximately two weeks is tolerable. The observed normal tissue toxicity is comparable with previous clinical experience with intermittent (12 hours every day for two weeks) infusions of BUdR. Theoretically, a constant infusion should allow for greater incorporation of BUdR into cycling tumor cells and thus, for further enhancement of radiosensitization

  14. Effect of the perioperative infusion of dexmedetomidine on chronic pain after breast surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Jain

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This prospective double-blind trial was undertaken to analyze the role of perioperatively administered dexmedetomidine on the occurrence of chronic pain in cases undergoing surgery for breast cancer. Subjects and Methods: Eighty-six cases were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either dexmedetomidine (2 μg/ml in group D or saline in group C, in a loading dose of 0.5 ml/kg, intravenous (IV, 30 min prior to induction, followed by a continuous infusion of 0.25 ml/kg/h IV till the completion of surgery, and then the dose tapered to 0.1 ml/kg/h for up to 24 h. The standardized questionnaires that measured chronic pain (Brief Pain Inventory, BPI; Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire, SF-MPQ2 and quality of life (Quality of Life Scale, QOLS were gathered after 3 months of surgery as a primary outcome. Pain (verbal numerical score, VNS, sedation scores (Ramsay scoring, and analgesic requirements were also assessed for 72 h postoperatively. Results: In total, 84 cases (n=42 were analyzed for acute pain and 69 (34 in group D and 35 in group C for chronic pain. The consumption of isoflurane/fentanyl intra-operatively and paracetamol postoperatively was significantly lower in Group D. The sedation scores were non-significant between the groups. The VNS at rest and after movement was significantly lower in group D at corresponding times (except at 60 min throughout the assessment period. The BPI and SF-MPQ2 scores were significantly lower in group D in most of the factors. The QOLS score was significantly better in group D in all items except for relationships, friends, and learning. Conclusion: The perioperative infusion of dexmedetomidine has a pivotal role in attenuating the incidence and severity of chronic pain and improving the quality of life in cases undergoing breast cancer surgery.

  15. Liquid-liquid displacement in slippery liquid-infused membranes (SLIMs)

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyar, Hanieh; Lv, Pengyu; Wood, Jeffery A.; Porada, Slawomir; Lohse, Detlef; Lammertink, Rob G. H.

    2018-01-01

    Liquid-infused membranes inspired by slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) have been recently introduced to membrane technology. The gating mechanism of these membranes is expected to give rise to anti-fouling properties and multi-phase transport capabilities. However, the long-term retention of the infusion liquid has not yet been explored. To address this issue, we investigate the retention of the infusion liquid in slippery liquid-infused membranes (SLIMs) via liquid-liquid displ...

  16. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kibae; Hassan, Arshad; Lee, Chong Hyun; Bae, Jinho

    2017-12-18

    In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS), and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under -20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of -35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF) tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  17. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  18. Microstrip Patch Sensor for Salinity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibae Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a compact microstrip feed inset patch sensor is proposed for measuring the salinities in seawater. The working principle of the proposed sensor depends on the fact that different salinities in liquid have different relative permittivities and cause different resonance frequencies. The proposed sensor can obtain better sensitivity to salinity changes than common sensors using conductivity change, since the relative permittivity change to salinity is 2.5 times more sensitive than the conductivity change. The patch and ground plane of the proposed sensor are fabricated by conductive copper spray coating on the masks made by 3D printer. The fabricated patch and the ground plane are bonded to a commercial silicon substrate and then attached to 5 mm-high chamber made by 3D printer so that it contains only 1 mL seawater. For easy fabrication and testing, the maximum resonance frequency was selected under 3 GHz and to cover salinities in real seawater, it was assumed that the salinity changes from 20 to 35 ppt. The sensor was designed by the finite element method-based ANSYS high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS, and it can detect the salinity with 0.01 ppt resolution. The designed sensor has a resonance frequency separation of 37.9 kHz and reflection coefficients under −20 dB at the resonant frequencies. The fabricated sensor showed better performance with average frequency separation of 48 kHz and maximum reflection coefficient of −35 dB. By comparing with the existing sensors, the proposed compact and low-cost sensor showed a better detection capability. Therefore, the proposed patch sensor can be utilized in radio frequency (RF tunable sensors for salinity determination.

  19. Infusion-related reactions to infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a clinical practice setting: relationship to dose, antihistamine pretreatment, and infusion number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael J; Weber, Deborah A; Guthrie, Judith A; Bykerk, Vivian P; Lee, Peter; Keystone, Edward C

    2004-10-01

    We describe infusion-related reactions to infliximab (during infusion or within 1 hour postinfusion) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated in a quaternary care center. We followed 113 patients for a mean of 60.6 +/- 28.9 weeks, obtaining 10.5 +/- 4.9 infusions per patient. We observed 1183 infusions resulting in 104 infusion reactions (8.8%). All reactions resolved within several hours following cessation of the infusion and none was serious enough to warrant hospitalization. Reactions included allergic reactions (pruritus, urticaria) in 4.2% of infusions, cardiopulmonary (hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia) in 3.0%, and miscellaneous reactions (headache, nausea, vomiting) in 2.0%. Reactions occurred in 8.0% of 3 mg/kg infusions and in 10.3% of 5 mg/kg infusions. Reactions occurred in 13.2% of infusions that involved antihistamine pretreatment compared to only 7.5% of infusions that involved no pretreatment. At both infliximab doses, there was a similar frequency of infusion reactions in patients pretreated due to a previous infusion (12.6%) compared to those pretreated strictly based on infusion number (14.7%). A number of the reactions involving antihistamine pretreatment may be explained by known side effects of diphenhydramine, including headache, dizziness, nausea, and palpitations. Infusion-related reactions to infliximab were infrequent, rarely severe, and easily manageable. The frequency of reactions was equivalent in patients treated with 3 mg/kg compared to 5 mg/kg. Reactions were significantly more frequent in infusions where patients were pretreated with the antihistamine diphenhydramine, compared to those not involving pretreatment.

  20. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  1. Symptomatic Tarlov Cysts: Surgical Treatment by Subcutaneous Infusion Port.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Hongyi; Li, Jing; Zeng, Tao; Lin, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The treatment of Tarlov cysts is challenging and difficult. The objective of our study was to describe the security and efficacy of the subcutaneous infusion port for drainage of symptomatic Tarlov cysts. The authors executed a retrospective review of data from 5 symptomatic Tarlov cysts patients who were treated using a subcutaneous infusion port from June 2014 to July 2017. Numerical Rating Scale scores and the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores of back pain were analyzed. Complications and adverse effects on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, and 28 were also analyzed. The mean follow-up was 12.6 months. Five adults (3 females and 2 males) who had been symptomatic received a subcutaneous infusion port. After treatment, all patients experienced pain relief and pain alleviation lasted from 1 day to 3 years without complications and adverse effects. A subcutaneous infusion port is a useful treatment option for symptomatic Tarlov cysts. When the patients' symptoms returned and the cysts repressurized, we quickly and simply drained the cysts by using the infusion port. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Resin infusion of large composite structures modeling and manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, A.C. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The resin infusion processes resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are cost effective techniques for the fabrication of complex shaped composite structures. The dry fibrous preform is placed in the mold, consolidated, resin impregnated and cured in a single step process. The fibrous performs are often constructed near net shape using highly automated textile processes such as knitting, weaving and braiding. In this paper, the infusion processes RTM, RFI and VARTM are discussed along with the advantages of each technique compared with traditional composite fabrication methods such as prepreg tape lay up and autoclave cure. The large number of processing variables and the complex material behavior during infiltration and cure make experimental optimization of the infusion processes costly and inefficient. Numerical models have been developed which can be used to simulate the resin infusion processes. The model formulation and solution procedures for the VARTM process are presented. A VARTM process simulation of a carbon fiber preform was presented to demonstrate the type of information that can be generated by the model and to compare the model predictions with experimental measurements. Overall, the predicted flow front positions, resin pressures and preform thicknesses agree well with the measured values. The results of the simulation show the potential cost and performance benefits that can be realized by using a simulation model as part of the development process. (au)

  3. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, [ 3 H]NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine

  4. Analog experiment of transarterial catheter hyperthermic infusion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Shufeng Li Zheng; Gu Weizhong; Ru Fuming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to the heating effect by transarterial catheter hyperthermic infusion with the evaluation of the feasibility in controlling the tumor temperature. Methods: Infusing 55-68 degree C liquid at the speed of 10-40 ml/min through 6F, 5F or 3F catheter with different length respectively under the similar clinical condition. The liquid temperature at the terminal exit of the catheter was measured with a digital thermometer. The factors related to the liquid temperature at the exit of the catheter were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results: The infusion temperature , rate and the catheter length were the main related factors to the liquid temperature at the exit of the catheter as the condition similar in clinical use. When 60-65 degree C liquid was infused at the rate of 20-40 ml/min through 5F catheter with length of 80 cm, the mean and 95% confident interval of the liquid temperature at the catheter exit were (47.55±0.44) degree C and 44.61-48.49 degree C respectively. Conclusions: The liquid temperature at the exit of infusion catheter can be regulated and controlled through adjusting the liquid perfusion temperature and speed. (authors)

  5. N2-fixation in fababean (vicia faba l.) grown in saline and non saline conditions using 15N tracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.; Kurdali, F.

    2002-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of growing fababean and barley under saline conditions, in terms of, dry matter yield, total nitrogen and, percentages and amount of N derived from soil, fertilizer and atmosphere using 15 N isotope dilution method. Three saline treatments were performed: First, plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss), Second, Plants were grown in saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Ss); and Third, Plants grown in non saline soil and irrigated with saline water (Ws Sn). Furthermore, a control treatment was performed by using non-saline soil and non-saline water (Wn Sn). The different salinity treatments reduced plant growth and the reduction was more pronounced in fababean than in barley. However, under conditions of either saline soil-soft irrigation water or non saline soil-salty irrigation water, the relative growth reduction did not exceed 50% of the control; whereas, a significant negative effect was obtained when plants were grown under completely saline conditions of both soil and irrigation water. Percentage of N 2 -fixed (% Ndfa) was not negatively affected by saline conditions. However, our results clearly demonstrated that the effect of salinity in fababean was more evident on plant growth than on N 2 -fixing activity. Further studies are needed to obtain more salt tolerant faba bean genotypes in terms of growth and yield. This could be simultaneously improve yield and N 2 -fixation under sever saline conditions. (author)

  6. Ultrastructural study on the effects of retrograde infusion of water-soluble contrast medium the rabbit submandibular gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Park, Tae Won

    1987-01-01

    The author observed the effects of retrograde infusion of water soluble contrast media (Telebrix 30) on the rabbit submandibular glands and compared the effects of different degrees of filling. 26 rabbit were divided into 2 group of 1 2 each as experimental and 1 group of 2 as normal controls. One experimental group was filed with 0.2 ml and the other with 0.4 ml. Right submandibular gland of each rabbit was infused with contrast media and left one with physiologic saline as a ex perimental control, at a constant rate of 0.12 ml/min. Using an infusion pump via the main excretory duct. Immediately after the inclusion of contrast media, oblique lateral radiographs of the glands were made with occlusal film in order to confirm the glandular filling. The rabbit were sacrificed after varying periods (1, 8, 24 hours and 3, 6, 10 days) and the tissues were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. The results were as follows: 1. In glands filled with 0.2 ml contrast media, the initial changes were a few vacuole formation in the acini and slight dilation of the intralobular duct. The moderately severe changes such as vacuole formation in the acini, the abnormal substructure within the secretory granule, dilation of acinar and intercalated duct lumen, scalloping of striated duct lumen and inflammatory cell infiltrate were observed at 3 days. The general appearance was successively recovered, so the tissue had a normal appearance at 10 days. 2. In glands filled with 0.4 ml contrast media, the most prominent alterations such as severe acinar atrophy, decreased number of secretory granules, proliferation of connective tissue stroma and pronounced inflammatory cell infiltrates appeared at 6 days. Although the general appearance returned to be almost normal at 10 days, acinar cells showed some atrophy and decreased secretory granules. 3. In glands subjected to 0.4 ml infusion, the alterations were more severe and recovery was slower than those seen in the glands

  7. Salinity tolerance of the South African endemic amphipod ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinities were prepared using natural seawater and synthetic sea salt. Grandidierella lignorum tolerated all salinities, but showed highest survival at salinities of 7–42. Salinity tolerance was modified by temperature, with highest survival occurring between 10 and 25 °C. These represent the range of conditions at which ...

  8. Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between Saline and ... Setting 4 dSm-1 as the limit between saline and non-saline soils in kriging algorithms resulted in a .... number of sample points within the search window,.

  9. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  10. Intracranial hemodynamics during intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, H.K.; Holm, S.; Friberg, L.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced headache are not fully elucidated. In this study we administered GTN 0.5 microg/kg/min i.v. for 20 min in six healthy volunteers. Before, during and 60 min after the infusion, we investigated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood...... volume (CBV), both estimated with SPECT, and blood flow velocity (BFV) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), measured with transcranial Doppler. Headache was scored on a numerical verbal rating (0-10) scale. rCBF was unchanged, CBV was slightly increased (13%) during GTN infusion, whereas BFV decreased...... both during (20%) and 60 min (15%) after GTN. Headache was short-lived and maximal during infusion. This discrepancy of time-effect curves for the effect of GTN on headache and dilatation of MCA indicates that MCA is most likely not the primary source of pain in GTN-induced headache. The time...

  11. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  12. The effects of aminophylline infusion in the treatment of children with acute asthma exacerbation. Evaluation with {sup 81m}Kr ventilation scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Yasuko; Shimada, Takao [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-09-01

    The use of intravenous aminophylline in the treatment of children with acute asthma remains controversial. Most authors suggest that aminophylline be used with caution because of its poor efficacy with adverse reactions and instead recommend other drugs, such as {beta}{sub 2}-adrenergic agonists and glucocorticoids. However other studies have reported the benefits of aminophylline, and current Japanese guidelines for the management of asthma recommend its use. Here, we have evaluated the efficacy of aminophylline infusion in children with acute asthma exacerbations. Twenty children with acute asthma exacerbations were given an infusion of 5 mg/kg of aminophylline over 5 minutes, 30 minutes after the same volume of normal saline had been infused as a control. {sup 81m}Kr ventilation scintigraphy was done sequentially, and lung function was measured with spirometry before and after each infusion. Side effects were also evaluated with a questionnaire. Ventilation images obtained with {sup 81m}Kr scintigraphy, which initially showed widespread ventilatory defects caused by bronchoconstriction, decreased 54.9% after aminophylline infusion (p<0.0001). Ventilatory defects, caused by both central and peripheral airway disturbances and confirmed with the {sup 81m}Kr bolus inhalation procedure, also showed significant improvement (p<0.0001). These improvement were accompanied by improvements in lung function as assessed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (p<0.01) and maximum expiratory flow rates at 25% (p<0.001) and 50% (p<0.001). No serious adverse reactions were recognized in any subjects. Our results show that aminophylline is a useful bronchodilator which decreased ventilatory imbalance and improves lung function in both central and peripheral airways. (author)

  13. Glucose and insulin dynamics associated with continuous rate infusion of dextrose solution or dextrose solution and insulin in healthy and endotoxin-exposed horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Janet H; McKenzie, Harold C; McCutcheon, L Jill; Geor, Raymond J

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effects of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of dextrose solution or dextrose solution and insulin on glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy and endotoxin-exposed horses. 9 adult mares. During phase 1, treatments consisted of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group; n = 4) or 20% dextrose solution (group 1; 4) administered IV as a 360-minute CRI. During phase 2, treatments consisted of 360-minute CRIs of 20% dextrose solution and insulin administered simultaneously at 367.6 mg/kg/h (30 kcal/kg/d) and 0.07 U/kg/h, respectively, in healthy horses (group 2; n = 4) or horses administered 35 ng of lipopolysaccharide/kg, IV, 24 hours before starting the dextrose solution and insulin CRIs (group 3; 4). A balanced crossover study design was used in both phases. Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Infusion of dextrose solution alone resulted in hyperglycemia for most of the 360-minute CRI. Insulin concentration increased significantly in group 1, compared with that in the control group. Mean insulin concentration of group 2 was significantly higher throughout most of the infusion period, compared with concentrations of the control group and group 1. Mean glucose concentration did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3. Insulin infusion at a rate of 0.07 U/kg/h was found to be effective for the prevention of hyperglycemia when administered concurrently with dextrose solution. This rate was considered to be safe because horses did not become hypoglycemic during infusions of dextrose solution.

  14. Tolerance and diagnostic accuracy of an abbreviated adenosine infusion for myocardial scintigraphy: a randomized, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuth, M G; Reyes, G A; He, Z X; Cwajg, E; Mahmarian, J J; Verani, M S

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 2-fold: (1) to determine the tolerance of adenosine perfusion tomography with the use of an abbreviated (3-minute) infusion in comparison to the standard (6-minute) infusion, and (2) to assess the relative diagnostic accuracy of a 3-minute adenosine infusion in patients referred for arteriography. An abbreviated adenosine infusion may decrease the frequency and duration of side effects and be a more cost-effective alternative. We prospectively randomized 599 patients undergoing adenosine myocardial perfusion tomography to either a 3-minute or 6-minute adenosine infusion at 140 microg/kg per minute. Among the 599 enrolled patients, 142 subsequently underwent coronary angiography. Patients randomized to the 3-minute adenosine infusion tolerated the procedure better than those randomized to the standard infusion (P <.01). Flushing, headache, neck pain, and atrioventricular block were all significantly less frequent (P <.01) with the abbreviated infusion. Moreover, patients receiving the abbreviated infusion had less hypotension and tachycardia (P <.05). The sensitivity of the test for detection of coronary artery disease was 88% for both the 3- and 6-minute infusions. In patients with abnormal scan results, perfusion defect size was slightly larger in those receiving a 6-minute infusion versus those receiving a 3-minute infusion (P =.05). An abbreviated 3-minute adenosine infusion, in combination with perfusion tomography, has similar sensitivity for detection of coronary artery disease and is better tolerated than the standard 6-minute infusion.

  15. Using higher doses to compensate for tubing residuals in extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy J; Bhowmick, Tanaya; Gross, Alan; Vanschooneveld, Trevor C; Weinstein, Melvin P

    2013-06-01

    To mathematically assess drug losses due to infusion line residuals and evaluate methods to compensate for drug loss due to residual volumes in intravenous pump tubing. Literature was accessed through Ovid MEDLINE (1996-February 2013), using combinations of the search terms tubing residuals, residual volume, residual medication, intravenous infusions, intravenous injections, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, β-lactams, equipment design, infusion pumps, extended infusion, extended administration, and prolonged infusion. In addition, select reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles that involved extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam implementation strategies were included in the review. Infusion pump characteristics and tubing residuals can affect extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam dosing strategies. Two studies addressing tubing residuals were identified. Both studies recommended increasing infusion volumes to compensate for tubing residuals. One study also recommended decreasing infusion-line dead space by using alternative infusion pump systems. Study calculations suggest that higher doses of piperacillin-tazobactam may be used to account for medication left in tubing residuals if alternative infusion pump systems cannot be obtained, and increased infusion volumes are not an option. Extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam has been used as a method of maximizing pharmacodynamic target attainment. Use of higher doses of piperacillin-tazobactam may be a reasonable method to compensate for drug loss due to residual volumes in large-bore intravenous pump tubing.

  16. The Effects of Stereotactic Cerebroventricular Administration of Albumin, Mannitol, Hypertonic Sodium Chloride, Glycerin and Dextran in Rats with Experimental Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Tuncay; Gezercan, Yurdal; Menekse, Guner; Turkoz, Yusuf; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Okten, Ali Ihsan; Akyuva, Yener; Onal, Selami Cagatay

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents on edematous brain tissue in rats with experimental head trauma. The study included 54 female Sprague-Dawley rats with weights ranging between 200 and 250 g. Six experimental groups were examined with each group containing 9 rats. All rats were exposed to head trauma, and treatment groups were administered 2 µl of one of the drugs (albumin, mannitol, hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl), glycerin and dextran) 6, 12 and 24 hours after the trauma via the cerebroventricular route and using a stereotactic device. Rats were sacrificed 48 hours after the trauma, and brain tissues were extracted without damage. Biochemical analyses including reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) were performed on the injured left hemisphere. Compared with the control group, the albumin, mannitol, 3% NaCl and glycerin treatment groups revealed dramatic increases in GSH levels (p < 0.001). Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of brain edema and lipid peroxidation, failed to show a statistically significant decrease, but there was a decreasing trend observed in the inter-group comparisons. NO levels were also decreased in the 3% NaCl treatment group. An analysis of TNF-α and IL-1β, two proinflammatory cytokines associated with the trauma, revealed that IL-1β decreased significantly in all treatment groups (p=0.001), whereas no significant difference was detected in TNF-α levels. Cerebroventricular administration of hyperoncotic/hyperosmotic agents provides substantial effects on the treatment of brain edema.

  17. Acute extracellular fluid volume changes increase ileocolonic resistance to saline flow in anesthetized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Jr. A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of acute extracellular fluid volume changes on saline flow through 4 gut segments (ileocolonic, ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and proximal colon, perfused at constant pressure in anesthetized dogs. Two different experimental protocols were used: hypervolemia (iv saline infusion, 0.9% NaCl, 20 ml/min, volume up to 5% body weight and controlled hemorrhage (up to a 50% drop in mean arterial pressure. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 6 was gradually and significantly decreased during the expansion (17.1%, P<0.05 and expanded (44.9%, P<0.05 periods while mean ileal flow (N = 7 was significantly decreased only during the expanded period (38%, P<0.05. Mean colonic flow (N = 7 was decreased during expansion (12%, P<0.05 but returned to control levels during the expanded period. Mean ileocolonic sphincter flow (N = 6 was not significantly modified. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 10 was also decreased after hemorrhage (retracted period by 17% (P<0.05, but saline flow was not modified in the other separate circuits (N = 6, 5 and 4 for ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic groups, respectively. The expansion effect was blocked by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, iv both on the ileocolonic (N = 6 and ileal (N = 5 circuits. Acute extracellular fluid volume retraction and expansion increased the lower gastrointestinal resistances to saline flow. These effects, which could physiologically decrease the liquid volume being supplied to the colon, are possible mechanisms activated to acutely balance liquid volume deficit and excess.

  18. Effects of methacholine infusion on desflurane pharmacokinetics in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Kozian

    2015-12-01

    We measured airway pressures, pulmonary resistance, and mean paO2 as well as hemodynamic variables in all pigs before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during methacholine administration by infusion. By MIGET, fractional alveolar ventilation and pulmonary perfusion in relation to the V.A/Q. compartments, data of logSDQ̇ and logSDV̇ (the second moments describing global dispersion, i.e. heterogeneity of distribution were estimated prior to and after MCh infusion. The uptake and elimination of desflurane was determined by MMIMS.

  19. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  20. Equipment for a 'non-stop' water infusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, J C

    1978-01-01

    This paper gives a definition of the non-stop infusion system (technique employed during the winning operation to prevent the emission of coal-dust). The system works at low-output and reduced pressure level; delivery and control is continuous. Explains the principles behind the MECANELEC flow regulator and the SCHLUMBERGER device to monitor correct operation. Describes a SCHLUMBERGER unit used in the Houilleres de Blanzy as well as a combined MECANELEC-SCHLUMBERGER installation in service at HBNPC. This combination allows water infusion to be carried out as required by the conditions. Possibility of introducing necessary improvements (such as a device to prevent leakage) is discussed.

  1. [Radiotherapy and implantable medical device: example of infusion pumps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrous-Anane, S; Benhassine, S; Lopez, S; Cristina, K; Mazeron, J-J

    2013-12-01

    Indication for radiotherapy is often questioned for patients equipped with implantable medical devices like infusion pumps as the radiation tolerance is poor or not known. We report here on the case of a patient who we treated with pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer and who had an infusion pump in iliac fossa. We conducted a series of tests on five identical pumps that insured that the treatment protocol is harmless to the implanted device. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Subcutaneous drug infusions: a review of problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitten, T

    2001-02-01

    Subcutaneous drug infusion using a portable syringe driver has had a significant impact on patient comfort in palliative care. It permits the continuous delivery of a range of drug therapies, so bypassing problems of dysphagia, weakness and the inability of many patients in the terminal phase to take oral medication. The devices are not problem-free, however. Mechanical problems, reactions at the infusion site and difficulties with the mixing of drugs in the syringe are all widely recognized. This article reviews some general issues with the operation of portable syringe drivers, and discusses a range of potential problems and their solutions.

  3. Delivery interaction between co-infused medications: an in vitro modeling study of microinfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Amy C; Lovich, Mark A; Parker, Michael J; Zheng, Hui; Peterfreund, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that steady-state drug delivery by continuous infusion is predictably affected by a second drug infusion in the same lumen. Clinicians commonly administer two drugs by continuous infusion through one central venous catheter lumen (co-infusion). To limit fluid delivery, low flow rate carriers transport concentrated drug solutions; a method called microinfusion. How microinfusion delivery of one drug is affected by a second drug infusion has not been explored. Two water-soluble dyes, tartrazine and erioglaucine, infused at 3 ml · h(-1), modeled drug delivery through a four stopcock linear manifold and catheter lumen. A pump drove a carrier fluid (10 ml · h(-1)). After tartrazine reached steady-state delivery, erioglaucine entered downstream or upstream of the tartrazine infusion. Quantitative spectrophotometry measured dye delivery. Starting erioglaucine's infusion upstream of tartrazine's entry caused a transient tartrazine bolus (duration 10 min, peak drug delivery 20% higher than target levels). Starting erioglaucine's infusion downstream produced a similar amplitude, briefer, bolus. Stopping the erioglaucine infusion caused a transient reduction in tartrazine delivery. Measured delivery profiles were comparable to prediction models. We confirmed the hypothesis that delivery of one infused drug is transiently affected by starting or stopping a second drug infusion in the same line. The magnitude of the changes can be estimated quantitatively. The clinical impact depends on the drugs being co-infused and patient sensitivity, but could be clinically important; the findings have safety implications for infused medication delivery to critically ill or anesthetized children. We recommend minimizing infusion system dead volumes, connecting the most essential infusion(s) to the main fluid pathway as close as possible to the patient, and recognizing the potential for unintended alterations in delivery when multiple drugs co-infuse. © 2012

  4. An experimental study on the influence of infusion speed on the early mechanism of embolic effect of arterially infused absolute Ethanol in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Byung Hee; Park, Kil Sun; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung

    1990-01-01

    In order to clarify the early mechanism of action of the tissue necrosis induced by intraarterially infused absolute ethanol, abdominal aortography and histopathologic examination after absolute ethanol infusion into aorta at fast (0.4ml/sec) and slow speed (0.04ml/sec) were performed on 22 rats (2 controls, 7 in fast infusion group, 7 in slow infusion group, 3 in fast and 3 in slow infusion groups during aorta compression, respectively). Histopathologic features under the light and scanning electron microscope were correlated with the angiographic findings within 30 minutes after ethanol infusion. The results are as follows : 1. In fast infusion group, histopathologic examination of the kidney showed severe glomerular and tubular damage. Extensive damage on endothelial and medial layer was noted in arteries, and fresh thrombi originated from the damaged arterial wall were seen. 2. Angiographic findings in the fast infusion group were luminal irregularity and early obstruction of large arteries. And circulation time was prolonged. 3. In slow infusion group, histopathologic examination of the kidney showed focal area of severe glomerular and tubular damage on relatively normal background. Endothelial and muscular damage was noted in arteries, but the degree of the damage was less severe than that of the fast infusion group. 4. Angiographic findings in the slow infusion group were focal perfusion defect of the kidney, delayed circulation time, and mild luminal irregularity, but obstruction of the major arteries was not seen

  5. Mercury 203 distribution in pregnant and nonpregnant rats following systemic infusions with thiol-containing amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschner, M.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-01-01

    Near-term pregnant (gestational day 17) and nonpregnant Long-Evans female rats were continuously infused into the external jugular vein with 0.1 mmole/hour L-cysteine, 0.1 mmole/hour L-leucine, or saline. At 24, 48, and 72 hours, 50 mumole/hour [ 203 Hg]-MeHgCl was administered over 1 hour. Total 203 Hg body burden, brain, kidney, liver, and blood 203 Hg concentrations were determined at 96 hours by gamma scintillation spectrometry. Despite significantly greater 203 Hg whole body retention in the pregnant animals 203 Hg concentrations in blood, brain, kidney, and liver were higher in nonpregnant rats. In addition, brain 203 Hg concentrations in both pregnant and virgin rats were significantly higher in L-cysteine-treated rats compared with controls. These results suggest that the fetus may act as a sink for MeHg, thus decreasing 203 Hg concentrations in maternal blood, brain, kidney, and liver. Furthermore, the data indicate that brain uptake of methylmercury in both pregnant and nonpregnant rats is enhanced by chronic L-cysteine infusion, lending support to the hypothesis that methylmercury in the rat may be translocated across the blood-brain barrier by the neutral amino acid carrier transport system

  6. Early effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion on vasopressin-stimulated breakdown and metabolism of inositol lipids in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    The turnover of vasopressin-stimulated 32P-phosphoinositides and 32P-phosphatidic acid and accumulation of [2-3H]-inositol phosphates were examined in hepatocytes from rats infused i.v. with saline and E. coli endotoxin for 3 hrs. Within 60s of VP stimulation the decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate labeling as well as the increased uptake of 32P into phosphatidic acid were similar in both groups. However, at a later time (300s) the 32P-phosphatidylinositol turnover was greatly decreased concomitantly with a higher labeling of phosphatidic acid. The accumulation of [2-3H]-inositol phosphates in ET-cells was significantly decreased both at 30s and 600s after VP addition. The distribution of [2-3H]-inositol labeling accumulated in the different inositol phosphate fractions over the first 30s of VP stimulation showed a tendency to lower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate, and a significantly lower accumulation of inositol bisphosphate simultaneously with a higher labeling of the inositol tetrakisphosphate fraction. These observations reflect an early effect of ET-infusion on VP-stimulated inositol lipid turnover and on the subsequent metabolism of the released inositol phosphates

  7. Infusions of muscimol into the lateral septum do not reduce rats' defensive behaviors toward a cat odor stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, San-San A; Patel, Ronak; Menard, Janet L

    2015-01-01

    The lateral septum (LS) is implicated in behavioral defense. We tested whether bilateral infusions of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the LS suppress rats' defensive responses to cat odor. Rats received intra-LS infusions of either saline or muscimol (40 ng/rat) and were exposed to either a piece of a cat collar that had been previously worn by a cat or to a control (cat odor free) collar. Rats exposed to the cat odor collar displayed more head-out postures, while intra-LS application of muscimol reduced the number of head-out postures. However, this reduction was also present in rats exposed to a control (cat odor free) collar. This latter finding suggests that despite its involvement in other defensive behaviors (e.g., open arm avoidance in the elevated plus maze), the LS does not selectively regulate rats' receptor defensive responding to the olfactory cues present in our cat odor stimulus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Knee strength retention and analgesia with continuous perineural fentanyl infusion after total knee replacement: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangar, Devanand; Karlnoski, Rachel A; Sprenker, Collin J; Downes, Katheryne L; Taffe, Narrene; Wainwright, Robert; Gustke, Kenneth; Bernasek, Thomas L; Camporesi, Enrico

    2014-04-01

    Despite providing adequate pain relief, a femoral nerve block can induce postoperative muscle weakness after total knee arthoplasty (TKA). Fentanyl has been shown to have peripheral effects but has not been used as a perineural infusate alone after TKA. Sixty patients scheduled for TKA were randomized to one of three blinded groups: a continuous 24 h infusion of either fentanyl 3 μg/ml, ropivacaine 0.1%, or 0.9% normal saline through a femoral nerve sheath catheter at 10 ml/h. The main outcome was maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) in the quadriceps femoris (knee extension), measured by a handheld dynamometer (Nm/kg). Other variables assessed were preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores, hamstrings MVIC (knee flexion), active range of motion of the operative knee, distance ambulated, incidence of knee buckling, supplemental morphine usage, postoperative side effects, and serum fentanyl levels. Quadriceps MVIC values were significantly greater in the fentanyl group compared to the group that received ropivacaine (median values, 0.08 vs. 0.03 Nm/kg; p = 0.028). The incidence of postoperative knee buckling upon ambulation was higher in the ropivacaine group compared to the fentanyl group, although not statistically significant (40% vs. 15 %, respectively; p = 0.077). VAS scores while ambulating were not significantly different between the fentanyl group and the ropivacaine group (p = 0.270). Postoperative morphine consumption, nausea and vomiting, and resting VAS scores were similar among the three groups. A continuous perineural infusion of fentanyl produced greater strength retention than ropivacaine post-TKA.

  9. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Contribute to Bone Formation Following Infusion into Femoral Cavities of a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Xujun; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are conflicting data in literature regarding contribution of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to bone formation when the cells are systemically delivered in recipient animals. To understand if BMSCs contribute to bone cell phenotype and bone formation in osteogenesis imperfecta bones (OI), MSCs marked with GFP were directly infused into the femurs of a mouse model of OI (oim). The contribution of the cells to the cell phenotype and bone formation was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical loading of recipient bones. Two weeks following infusion of BMSCs, histological examination of the recipient femurs demonstrated presence of new bone when compared to femurs injected with saline which showed little or no bone formation. The new bone contained few donor cells as demonstrated by GFP fluorescence. At six weeks following cell injection, new bone was still detectable in the recipient femurs but was enhanced by injection of the cells suspended in pepsin solublized type I collagen. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining showed that donor GFP positive cells in the new bone were localized with osteocalcin expressing cells suggesting that the cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo. Biomechanical loading to failure in thee point bending, revealed that, femurs infused with BMSCs in PBS or in soluble type I collagen were biomechanically stronger than those injected with PBS or type I collagen alone. Taken together, the results indicate that transplanted cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo and contributed to bone formation in vivo; we also speculate that donor cells induced differentiation or recruitment of endogenous cells to initiate reparative process at early stages following transplantation. PMID:20570757

  10. Diluent choice for subcutaneous infusion: a survey of the literature and Australian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Charne; McLeod, Fiona

    2005-02-01

    Continuous subcutaneous infusion is a method frequently used in palliative care to manage patient symptoms. To deliver the dose required and prevent subcutaneous sites from becoming inflamed and painful, the drug is often diluted in a solution, most commonly sterile water for injection or sodium chloride. The use of sterile water for injection has been recommended for cyclizine yet beyond this example there appears to be limited clinical direction regarding diluent selection. Inconsistency or lack of guidelines can be problematic if a diluent that may enhance the effectiveness of a drug compared with an alternate is not used because of lack of knowledge or guidance. This investigation considered existing literature, drug databases and directories, and involved a survey of palliative care services to examine evidence and experience relating to diluent selection. A number of inconsistencies emerged in both the literature and practice. With the exception of five drugs for which only saline was recommended, there appeared to be an inclination to use water unless contraindicated. Given an increasing reliance on this method of symptom management, the absence of formal clinical evidence or recommendations and ambiguity in relation to the use of diluents highlights the need for these deficits to be addressed as quickly as possible.

  11. Freshwater salinization syndrome on a continental scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S; Likens, Gene E; Pace, Michael L; Utz, Ryan M; Haq, Shahan; Gorman, Julia; Grese, Melissa

    2018-01-23

    Salt pollution and human-accelerated weathering are shifting the chemical composition of major ions in fresh water and increasing salinization and alkalinization across North America. We propose a concept, the freshwater salinization syndrome, which links salinization and alkalinization processes. This syndrome manifests as concurrent trends in specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, and base cations. Although individual trends can vary in strength, changes in salinization and alkalinization have affected 37% and 90%, respectively, of the drainage area of the contiguous United States over the past century. Across 232 United States Geological Survey (USGS) monitoring sites, 66% of stream and river sites showed a statistical increase in pH, which often began decades before acid rain regulations. The syndrome is most prominent in the densely populated eastern and midwestern United States, where salinity and alkalinity have increased most rapidly. The syndrome is caused by salt pollution (e.g., road deicers, irrigation runoff, sewage, potash), accelerated weathering and soil cation exchange, mining and resource extraction, and the presence of easily weathered minerals used in agriculture (lime) and urbanization (concrete). Increasing salts with strong bases and carbonates elevate acid neutralizing capacity and pH, and increasing sodium from salt pollution eventually displaces base cations on soil exchange sites, which further increases pH and alkalinization. Symptoms of the syndrome can include: infrastructure corrosion, contaminant mobilization, and variations in coastal ocean acidification caused by increasingly alkaline river inputs. Unless regulated and managed, the freshwater salinization syndrome can have significant impacts on ecosystem services such as safe drinking water, contaminant retention, and biodiversity. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  12. The effect of saline lock on phlebitis rates of patients in cardiac care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali-Babadi, Maryam; Ghadiriyan, Raziyeh; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in the field of intravenous therapy, phlebitis is still a common complication of peripheral venous catheter and finding an appropriate solution to prevent and reduce the incidence of this complication remains challenging. One of the methods used in reducing the incidence of phlebitis is the use of saline lock, which is forgotten in most hospitals. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate its impact on the incidence and severity of phlebitis. In a single-blind (the researcher) clinical trial, 88 patients with peripheral venous catheter admitted in cardiac care units in selected hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were selected through convenient sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups of intervention and control groups using random number table. The intervention group received 3 ml of 0.9% normal saline sterilized before and after each intravenous drug or every 12 h. However, in the control group, the intravenous drugs were given as routine and saline lock was not used. The evaluation of intravenous catheter regarding the incidence of phlebitis and its degrees using Jackson's Visual Infusion Phlebitis Scale was performed 6 times within 72 h (every 12 h). Results were evaluated by SPSS software using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, t-test, and Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding the degree of phlebitis (P = 0.003). The percentage of phlebitis incidence in the control group was 88.6% and in the intervention group was 43.2%. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P phlebitis in the group without saline lock (control), compared to the intervention group, was 10.3 times greater (CI = 95%). The incidence of phlebitis in both groups increased with increase in the duration of catheter placement. The results of this study showed that the use of saline lock in the intervention group compared

  13. Doing Business with China: Curriculum Internationalisation through an Infusion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Byoungho; Swinney, Jane; Cao, Huantian; Muske, Glenn; Nam, Jinhee; Kang, Ji Hye

    2011-01-01

    The US apparel and textiles industry operates within an interdependent global system, necessitating workforces competent for day-to-day operations. The US workforce lacks preparedness in working globally; this study tests an infusion method of curriculum internationalisation to enhance students' global understanding. Four cognitive and…

  14. Effects of Psidium guajava Leaf Infusion on Streptococci viridans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Yi Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is recognized as the most important oral burden. It is caused by the formation of lactate acid formed through reaction of bacteria and carbohydrates. Streptococci viridans has been proven as the primary etiologic agents for dental caries. Low accessibility in oral care services leads the Indonesian community to use plants in order to prevent dental caries. One of those plants is Psidium guajava (pink guava. The leaves were suggested to have antimicrobial effects on some gram-positive bacteria. When the organism is resistant to specific substance tested on media, a circular/inhibition zone around a disc containing antimicrobial substance was formed. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of inhibition zones by infusion of Psidium guajava leaf on Streptococci viridians in vitro. Methods: This laboratory experiment was carried out in September to October 2014 at the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Infusions of Psidium guajava leaf were made into four different concentrations (10%, 25%, 50% and 100%, respectively and the identification of inhibition zones on Streptococci viridans obtained from the laboratory was tested using modified disk diffusion test. Distilled water acted as negative control. The results were then interpreted after 24 hours of incubation. Every procedure was repeated three times. Results: All four concentrations of Psidium guajava leaf infusions have formed inhibition zones on the media, with the highest concentration (100% producing largest average diameter. Conclusions: The infusion of Psidium guajava leaf produces inhibition zones on Streptococci virdans in vitro.

  15. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, Els; Vrieze, Anne; Nieuwdorp, Max; Fuentes, Susana; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; de Vos, Willem M.; Visser, Caroline E.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Bartelsman, Joep F. W. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Speelman, Peter; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Keller, Josbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. We randomly assigned patients to receive one of three therapies: an initial

  16. Perisciatic infusion of ropivacaine and analgesia after hallux valgus repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, D; Jørgensen, B G; Laigaard, F

    2010-01-01

    Moderate to severe pain after hallux valgus repair can be successfully treated with a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block in ambulatory patients. Different anesthesiologists use various infusion rates for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of two infusi...... rates of ropivacaine 2 mg/ml: 5 and 8 ml/h....

  17. Technology Infusion Challenges from a Decision Support Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    In a restricted science budget environment and increasingly numerous required technology developments, the technology investment decisions within NASA are objectively more and more difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Under these conditions it is rationally desirable to build an investment portfolio, which has the highest possible technology infusion rate. Arguably the path to infusion is subject to many influencing factors, but here only the challenges associated with the very initial stages are addressed: defining the needs and the subsequent investment decision-support process. It is conceivable that decision consistency and possibly its quality suffer when the decision-making process has limited or no traceability. This paper presents a structured decision-support framework aiming to provide traceable, auditable, infusion- driven recommendations towards a selection process in which these recommendations are used as reference points in further discussions among stakeholders. In this framework addressing well-defined requirements, different measures of success can be defined based on traceability to specific selection criteria. As a direct result, even by using simplified decision models the likelihood of infusion can be probed and consequently improved.

  18. Antioxidant and Astroprotective Effects of a Pulicaria incisa Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Elmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, an infusion prepared from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa (Pi was tested for its protective and antioxidant effects on astrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. The Pi infusion attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS following treatment with hydrogen peroxide and zinc and prevented the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. The Pi infusion also exhibited an antioxidant effect in vitro and induced GDNF transcription in astrocytes. It is proposed that this Pi infusion be further evaluated for use as a functional beverage for the prevention and/or treatment of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress plays a role.

  19. Continuous infusion in haemophilia: current practice in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batorova, A.; Holme, P.; Gringeri, A.; Richards, M.; Hermans, C.; Altisent, C.; Lopez-Fernández, M.; Fijnvandraat, K.

    2012-01-01

    . Continuous infusion (CI) of factor VIII (FVIII) is an effective method for replacement therapy in haemophilia. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding association of CI with the development of inhibitors. The aim of this study was to gain information on the current practices in Europe

  20. Infusing Creativity into Eastern Classrooms: Evaluations from Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vivian M. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Infusing creativity elements into regular classroom was an important movement in recent Asian educational reforms. A large-scale research study was conducted in Hong Kong to explore the possibilities, outcomes and difficulties of this kind of curriculum change from students' perspectives. Based mainly on Western creativity literature, this study…

  1. The effects of incisional bupivacaine infusions on postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The aim of this study was to determine opioid requirements and pain intensity scores in patients after a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) administered with a bupivacaine infusion for a 30-hour period, and then to compare the data with that of a control group. Method: This was a prospective, parallel, ...

  2. Curriculum Infusion as College Student Mental Health Promotion Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Darrow, Sherri A.; Haggerty, Melinda; Neill, Thomas; Carvalho, Amana; Uschold, Carissa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes efforts to increase faculty involvement in suicide prevention and mental health promotion via curriculum infusion. The participants were faculty, staff, and 659 students enrolled in classes of a large eastern university from Fall 2007-Spring 2011. Counselors, health educators, and medical providers recruited faculty from a…

  3. Unintentional Infusion of Phenylephrine into the Epidural Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Kress R; Lane, Jason; Packer, Robyn; Gupta, Rajnish K

    2016-03-01

    We describe a patient who received an unintentionally prolonged epidural infusion of phenylephrine. The patient experienced no major morbidity. However, this case highlights the continuing problem of wrong-route drug administration and the urgent need to adopt route-specific connections.

  4. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  5. Infusing Adlerian Theory into an Introductory Marriage and Family Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFountain, Rebecca M.; Mustaine, Beverly L.

    1998-01-01

    Important contributions of "Individual Psychology" to marriage and family counseling are examined. Through "open forum family counseling," a framework is provided for infusing these ideas into training family practitioners. Key concepts, assessment techniques, strategies to help individuals understand their own family of…

  6. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert

    2012-08-01

    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  7. Development of a Multidisciplinary Middle School Mathematics Infusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Maria; Hecht, Deborah; Burghardt, M. David; Hacker, Michael; Saxman, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project "Mathematics, Science, and Technology Partnership" (MSTP) developed a multidisciplinary instructional model for connecting mathematics to science, technology and engineering content areas at the middle school level. Specifically, the model infused mathematics into middle school curriculum…

  8. Arts-Infused Learning in Middle Level Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorimer, Maureen Reilly

    2011-01-01

    To address arts education disparities in middle level schools, this paper explores evidence that infusing the visual and performing arts into language arts, math, science, and history/social studies courses is a pedagogical approach that meets the developmental needs of early adolescents and fosters a relevant, challenging, integrative, and…

  9. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... infusion pH under dark conditions on Staphylococcus ... Methodology and Results: A. annua leaves were collected in ... bacteria were isolated from the surface water (lotic hydrosystems) in .... Its climate is tropical and humid and ... used in this study. ... were first homogenized and then l 100 was taken and.

  10. Infusion and diffusion of African scientific information into Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the importance of knowledge as a prerequisite for sustainable development which is contingent on information, its value and ability to be produced, used, reused, and shared. The paper explains the opportunities of Open Access Initiatives (OA) as a tool for infusing and diffusing African scientific ...

  11. Using Cross-Curricular Ideas to Infuse Paralympic Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepfer, Amanda T. S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    The Paralympic Games are the second largest sport event in the world. They occur two weeks after the Olympic Games in the same geographic location and sport venues. Despite the Paralympic Games' longevity, many Americans do not even know they exist. One way to meaningfully share information about this event with people of all ages is to infuse a…

  12. Enzymuria in neonates receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Brygge, K; Brendstrup, L

    1992-01-01

    with non-treatment periods in the same newborn infant (33 infants). The same tendency applied to AAP. Newborn infants receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin were not found to be at greater risk of nephrotoxicity than those receiving intermittent gentamicin treatment, using NAG and AAP...

  13. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald

    2013-01-01

    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  14. Continuous infusion of vancomycin : Effective, efficient and safe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maarseveen, E.; Touw, D.; Bouma, A.; Van Zanten, A.

    Aims: Vancomycin is an antibiotic which is used in (suspected or proven) bacteriaemia, peritonitis or osteomyelitis with grampositive micro-organisms. Currently in most Dutch hospitals vancomycin is administered as an intermittent infusion. As the killing of vancomycin is dependent of the AUC/MIC

  15. Prostacyclin infusion may prevent secondary damage in pericontusional brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinstrup, Peter; Nordström, Carl-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator, inhibitor of leukocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation, and has been suggested as therapy for cerebral ischemia. A case of focal traumatic brain lesion that was monitored using intracerebral microdialysis, and bedside analysis and display is reported here........ When biochemical signs of cerebral ischemia progressed, i.v. infusion of prostacyclin was started....

  16. Current use of intraosseous infusion in Danish emergency departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Rune; Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intraosseous infusion (IOI) is recommended when intravenous access cannot be readily established in both pediatric and adult resuscitation. We evaluated the current use of IOI in Danish emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: An online questionnaire was e-mailed to the Heads of Department...

  17. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2007-01-01

    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  18. A naturalistic glyceryl trinitrate infusion migraine model in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Bhatt, Deepak Kumar; Ploug, Kenneth Beri

    2012-01-01

    Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) infusion is a reliable method to provoke migraine-like headaches in humans. Previous studies have simulated this human model in anaesthetized or in awake rodents using GTN doses 10,000 times higher than used in humans. The relevance of such toxicological doses to migraine...

  19. Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion in patients with 'brittle' diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVries, J H; Eskes, S A; Snoek, Frank J

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the effects of continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) using implantable pumps on glycaemic control and duration of hospital stay in poorly controlled 'brittle' Dutch diabetes patients, and to assess their current quality of life. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were...

  20. A theoretical alternative intraosseous infusion site in severely hypovolemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkhensani Mogale

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that the venous system tends to collapse during hypovolemic shock. The use of the bone marrow space for infusions is an effective alternative, with the tibial insertion site being the norm. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine a quick intraosseous infusion method that could be an alternative to the tibial route in neonates during emergency situations. Method: A sample of 30 neonatal cadavers was dissected to explore a possible alternative to the tibial insertion site. The needle was inserted in the superolateral aspect of the humerus. The needle infusion site was then dissected to determine possible muscular and neurovascular damage that might occur during the administration of this procedure, with the greatest concern being the posterior circumflex humeral artery and axillary nerve exiting the quadrangular space. The distance of the needle insertion site was measured in relation to the soft tissue aswell as to bony landmarks. Results: The calculated 95% confidence interval shows that the needle can be safely inserted into the intraosseous tissue at the greater tubercle of the humerus 9.5 mm – 11.1 mm from the acromion. This is about a little finger’s width from the acromioclavicular joint. Conclusion: Anatomically, the described site is suggested to offer a safe alternative access point for emergency infusion in severely hypovolemic newborns and infants, without the risk of damage to any anatomical structures.

  1. Infusing Multicultural Literature into Teacher Education Programs: Three Instructional Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kristina M.; Bowles, Freddie A.; Lincoln, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Today's classrooms in the United States reflect the growing diversity of the changing world. In order to prepare high-quality multicultural educators, the authors of this article, three teacher educators at a large, mid-south, research-one university, collaborated to share successful strategies to infuse multicultural literature into the three…

  2. Temperature responses of exercizing dogs to infusion of electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Brzezinska, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of infusions with solutions of various ionic and osmotic composition on exercise temperature responses was studied in dogs who do not regulate their temperature by sweating. The results suggest an association between plasma Na+ and Ca++ level within the normal physiological range and the control of body temperature during exercise.

  3. Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion for advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu CAO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of chemotherapy via arterial infusion in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods Forty-seven patients with advanced gastric cancer were given chemotherapy via arterial infusion.Chemotherapy plan was as follows: 5-Fluorouracil(Fu 500mg/m2,cyclophosphamide(MMX 10mg/m2,Hydroxycamptothecin(HPT 20mg/m2,once per week,2 weeks as a course,a total of 2-3 courses.Results After chemotherapy via arterial infusion,complete remission(CR was achieved in 1 case,partial remission(PR in 28 cases,stabilization of disease(SD in 16 cases,progression of disease(PD was found in 2 cases,and rate with response(CR+PR was 61.7%.Four of 28 PR patients underwent tumorectomy,the pathology revealed the presence of cancer cells around the vascular vessels,manifesting karyopyknosis,karyorrhexis,coagulation and necrosis of cytoplasm,intercellular edema,hyperplasia of fibroblasts,inflammatory cell infiltration,thickening of endothelium,and thrombosis.One,two and three-year survival rates were 70.2%,14.9% and 2.1%,respectively.The average survival period was 17.2 months.Conclusion Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion,as a part of the combined treatment,is beneficial to the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer.

  4. [Research and application of microcontroller system for target controlled infusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuke; Dou, Jianhong; Zhang, Xingan; Wang, Ruosong

    2005-08-01

    This paper presents a microcontroller system for target controlled infusion according to pharmacodynamic parameters of intravenous anesthetics. It can control the depth of anesthesia by adjusting the level of plasma concentrations. The system has the advantages of high precision, extending power and easy manipulation. It has been used in the clinical anesthesia.

  5. Animal model of rapid crystalloid infusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Stillitano Orgaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe an animal model of rapid intravenous infusion with different volumes of crystalloid and discuss the clinical findings. METHODS: Fifty six male Wistar rats were used, divided randomly in seven groups (n = 8. The rats of groups 1 to 6 received lactated Ringer´s solution intravenously, in the rate of 25 ml/min, with different volumes proportional to blood volume (BV. The rats of group 0 were submitted to the same procedure, but did not receive the fluid (control group. The data included respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2 in two times (before and after the infusion, and upshots (respiratory arrest and death. Dunnett´s test and ANOVA were used. RESULTS: The clinical signs significantly changed in the 2, 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups. The respiratory arrest was observed in the 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups, but death was present only in 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups. CONCLUSIONS: The infusion of crystalloid in the same volume of blood volume did not cause significant variation in respiratory and heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen and did not induce respiratory arrest. The infusion of a volume of 3 fold blood volume was lethal to all animals.

  6. Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Neuropathic Pain Management: A Promising Therapy in Need of Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot P; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren

    2017-02-01

    Intravenous ketamine infusions have been used extensively to treat often-intractable neuropathic pain conditions. Because there are many widely divergent ketamine infusion protocols described in the literature, the variation in these protocols presents a challenge for direct comparison of one protocol with another and in discerning an optimal protocol. Careful examination of the published literature suggests that ketamine infusions can be useful to treat neuropathic pain and that certain characteristics of ketamine infusions may be associated with better clinical outcomes. Increased duration of relief from neuropathic pain is associated with (1) higher total infused doses of ketamine; (2) prolonged infusion durations, although the rate of infusion does not appear to be a factor; and (3) coadministration of adjunct medications such as midazolam and/or clonidine that mitigate some of the unpleasant psychomimetic side effects. However, there are few studies designed to optimize ketamine infusion protocols by defining what an effective infusion protocol entails with regard to a respective neuropathic pain condition. Therefore, despite common clinical practice, the current state of the literature leaves the use of ketamine infusions without meaningful guidance from high-quality comparative evidence. The objectives of this topical review are to (1) analyze the available clinical evidence related to ketamine infusion protocols and (2) call for clinical studies to identify optimal ketamine infusion protocols tailored for individual neuropathic pain conditions. The Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine classification for levels of evidence was used to stratify the grades of clinical recommendation for each infusion variable studied.

  7. Post-ruminal branched-chain amino acid supplementation and intravenous lipopolysaccharide infusion alters blood metabolites, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen balance of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löest, C A; Gilliam, G G; Waggoner, J W; Turner, J L

    2018-04-27

    Steers exposed to an endotoxin may require additional branched-chain AA (BCAA) to support an increase in synthesis of immune proteins. This study evaluated effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and BCAA supplementation on blood metabolites and N balance of 20 ruminally-cannulated steers (177 ± 4.2 kg BW). The experiment was a randomized block design, with 14-d adaptation to metabolism stalls and diet (DM fed = 1.5% BW) and 6-d collection. Treatments were a 2 × 2 factorial of LPS (0 vs 1.0 to 1.5 μg/kg BW; -LPS vs +LPS) and BCAA (0 vs 35 g/d; -BCAA vs +BCAA). The LPS in 100 mL sterile saline was infused (1 mL/min via i.v. catheter) on d 15. The BCAA in an essential AA solution were abomasally infused (900 mL/d) 3 times daily in equal portions beginning on d 7. Blood, rumen fluid, and rectal temperature were collected on d 15 at h 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 after LPS infusion. Feces and urine were collected from d 16 to 20. Rectal temperatures were greater for +LPS vs. -LPS steers at 4 h and lower at 8 h after LPS infusion (LPS h, P BCAA than -BCAA steers at 12 h after LPS infusion (BCAA × h, P BCAA, P BCAA than -BCAA steers at 0 h and 24 h after LPS infusion (BCAA × h, P ≤ 0.05). Steers receiving +LPS had lower rumen pH at 8 h, greater total VFA at 8 h, and lower rumen NH3 at 24 h after LPS infusion compared with -LPS steers (LPS × h, P ≤ 0.04). Total tract passage rates, DM, OM, NDF, ADF, and N intake, fecal N, digested N, and retained N were lower (P BCAA vs -BCAA steers. The absence of LPS × BCAA interactions (P ≥ 0.20) for N balance indicated that post-ruminal supplementation of BCAA did not alleviate the negative effects of endotoxin on N utilization by growing steers.

  8. Comparison of Morphine, Morphine-Lidocaine, and Morphine-Lidocaine-Ketamine Infusions in Dogs Using an Incision-Induced Pain Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaccini, Ludovica; Claude, Andrew K; Meyer, Robert E

    We aimed to compare antinociceptive effects of IV infusions of morphine (M), morphine-lidocaine (ML), or morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combined, in a mild-to-moderate pain model in dogs. Eighteen adult hounds were heavily sedated with IV morphine (0.2 mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine to undergo thoracic skin incisions. After reversal, dogs were randomly assigned to receive loading doses of lidocaine and ketamine (MLK), lidocaine and saline (ML), or equivalent volume of saline (M), followed by 18 hr constant infusions of morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr) and ketamine (0.6 mg/kg/hr); morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr) and lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr); or morphine (0.12 mg/kg/hr), respectively. Pain was assessed with Short Form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale and mechanical nociception with von Frey filaments (VFFS). Data were analyzed with linear mixed model on ranks. Independently of treatment, Short Form Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale was significantly higher than baseline for 24 hr (p < .0001), while VFFS was significantly lower than baseline for 48 hr post-recovery (p < .0001), with no difference between MLK and M groups. The ML group recorded significantly lower VFFS (p = .02) than the M group for the entire study. In conclusion, there was no significant analgesic difference between MLK and M alone.

  9. Comparison of the intracoronary continuous infusion method using a microcatheter and the intravenous continuous adenosine infusion method for inducing maximal hyperemia for fractional flow reserve measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Myeong-Ho; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Yang, Hyoung-Mo; Park, Jin-Sun; Zheng, Mingri; Lim, Hong-Seok; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Choi, So-Yeon; Choi, Un-Jung; Hwang, Joung-Won; Kang, Soo-Jin; Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Shin, Joon-Han

    2009-06-01

    Inducing stable maximal coronary hyperemia is essential for measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). We evaluated the efficacy of the intracoronary (IC) continuous adenosine infusion method via a microcatheter for inducing maximal coronary hyperemia. In 43 patients with 44 intermediate coronary lesions, FFR was measured consecutively by IC bolus adenosine injection (48-80 microg in left coronary artery, 36-60 microg in the right coronary artery) and a standard intravenous (IV) adenosine infusion (140 microg x min(-1) x kg(-1)). After completion of the IV infusion method, the tip of an IC microcatheter (Progreat Microcatheter System, Terumo, Japan) was positioned at the coronary ostium, and FFR was measured with increasing IC continuous adenosine infusion rates from 60 to 360 microg/min via the microcatheter. Fractional flow reserve decreased with increasing IC adenosine infusion rates, and no further decrease was observed after 300 microg/min. All patients were well tolerated during the procedures. Fractional flow reserves measured by IC adenosine infusion with 180, 240, 300, and 360 microg/min were significantly lower than those by IV infusion (P < .05). Intracoronary infusion at 180, 240, 300, and 360 microg/min was able to shorten the times to induction of optimal and steady-stable hyperemia compared to IV infusion (P < .05). Functional significances were changed in 5 lesions by IC infusion at 240 to 360 microg/min but not by IV infusion. The results of this study suggest that an IC adenosine continuous infusion method via a microcatheter is safe and effective in inducing steady-state hyperemia and more potent and quicker in inducing optimal hyperemia than the standard IV infusion method.

  10. Effect of glucose infusion on endurance performance after beta-adrenoceptor blocker administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, M.A.; Mooij, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of glucose infusion on endurance performance after beta-adrenoceptor blocker administration. Van Baak MA, Mooij JM. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. To investigate the effect of glucose (Glc) infusion on endurance performance after

  11. Home Healthcare Medical Devices: Infusion Therapy - Getting the Most Out of Your Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Home Health and Consumer Devices Brochure - Home Healthcare Medical Devices: Infusion Therapy - Getting the Most ... if needed. What is the role of your home healthcare provider and supplier in your infusion therapy? ...

  12. Saline agriculture: A technology for economic utilization and improvement of saline environments (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, Z.; Malik, K.A.; Khurshid, S.J.; Awan, A.R.; Akram, M.; Hashmi, Z.; Ali, Y.; Gulnaz, A.; Hussain, M.; Hussain, F.

    2005-01-01

    The salinity problem is one of the severe constraints for agriculture in Pakistan. In a socio-economic and salinity and drainage survey over an area of about 25000 acres of salt-affected land recently, crop production is found to be very low. Livestock is underfed and malnourished. Pakistan has spent and allocated over one billion US dollars on Salinity Control and Reclamation Projects (SCARP), of course, with dubious results. Over the years, a Saline Agriculture Technology has been developed as a cheap alternative at NIAB for comfortably living with salinity and to profitably utilize saline land rather than its reclamation. The soil improvement is a fringe benefit in this approach. The Saline Agriculture Technology has been tested at laboratory level, at field stations and at farms of some progressive farmers. Now we are sharing this technology with farming communities through a 'Saline Agriculture Farmer Participatory Development Project in Pakistan', with assistance from the National Rural Support Programme. The new project has been launched simultaneously in all four provinces of Pakistan on 25000 acres of salt-affected land. Under this project seeds of salt tolerant crop varieties wheat, cotton, rice, castor, brassica and barley and saplings of trees/shrubs, e.g. Acacia ampliceps, A. nilotica, Casuarina glauca, ber, jaman, etc selected for development work in various institutions of Pakistan are being provided to farmers. Know-how on new irrigation techniques like bed-and-corrugation and bed-and-furrow, agronomic practices like laser land leveling, planting on beds and in auger holes and soil/water amendment practices (use of gypsum and mineral acids) are being shared with farmers. These interventions are quite efficient, save water up to 40% and enable farmers to utilize bad quality water. In general, farmers are being familiarized with prevalent animal diseases, nutritional problems and prophylactic techniques. They are being helped in developing Saline

  13. [A Case of HPN, In Which QOL Improvement Was Achieved by Combining Continuous Infusion with Once-Weekly Intermittent Infusion - Contribution of Pharmacists to Health Promotion among Home Patients Receiving Infusion Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Namihiro; Hamana, Tomoko; Oka, Toyoka; Hirohara, Masayoshi; Kushida, Kazuki

    2016-12-01

    Patients receiving parenteral nutrition at home have the following two options: 24-h continuous or intermittent infusion. To date, for patients with impaired glucose tolerance and/or other metabolic disorders or for those with decreased cardiac/ pulmonary/renal function, it is desirable to opt for continuous infusion to minimize the variance in the body's metabolic rate as much as possible. Furthermore, it should be noted that continuous infusion evokes a stronger feeling among patients of being constrained because it restricts their everyday activities. This case witnesses collaborations among the patient's doctor, dispensary's pharmacy, and patient's family. Because ofthe use ofintermittent infusion more or less once per week in addition to continuous infusion, significant improvement in quality of life was achieved, and the patient was able to enjoy taking a short trip. To assist a home patient receiving infusion therapy, it is essential that the pharmacist be equipped with skills to manage risks associated with infusion therapy and have knowledge about insurance to cover incidents concerning infusion fluids or medical materials. It will certainly depend on the degree ofindependence ofpatients and the level ofcare their families can provide; however, should we manage to use a similar medical procedure in at least a few cases in the future, we may be able to contribute to "joie de vivre" in home patients receiving infusion therapy.

  14. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip...

  15. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  16. Decline of the world's saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Miller, Craig; Null, Sarah E.; Derose, R. Justin; Wilcock, Peter; Hahnenberger, Maura; Howe, Frank; Moore, Johnnie

    2017-11-01

    Many of the world's saline lakes are shrinking at alarming rates, reducing waterbird habitat and economic benefits while threatening human health. Saline lakes are long-term basin-wide integrators of climatic conditions that shrink and grow with natural climatic variation. In contrast, water withdrawals for human use exert a sustained reduction in lake inflows and levels. Quantifying the relative contributions of natural variability and human impacts to lake inflows is needed to preserve these lakes. With a credible water balance, causes of lake decline from water diversions or climate variability can be identified and the inflow needed to maintain lake health can be defined. Without a water balance, natural variability can be an excuse for inaction. Here we describe the decline of several of the world's large saline lakes and use a water balance for Great Salt Lake (USA) to demonstrate that consumptive water use rather than long-term climate change has greatly reduced its size. The inflow needed to maintain bird habitat, support lake-related industries and prevent dust storms that threaten human health and agriculture can be identified and provides the information to evaluate the difficult tradeoffs between direct benefits of consumptive water use and ecosystem services provided by saline lakes.

  17. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.

    are described. Two of the maxima arise from the influence of Red Sea and the Persian Gulf Water. The third, which lies at the bottom of the Equatorial Surface Water, forms due to freshening at the surface of high salinity Arabian Sea near-surface waters...

  18. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  19. Intraoperative Low-Dose Ketamine Infusion Reduces Acute Postoperative Pain Following Total Knee Replacement Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelin Cengiz, P.; Gokcinar, D.; Karabeyoglu, I.; Topcu, H.; Cicek, G. S.; Gogus, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intraoperative low-dose ketamine with general anesthesia on postoperative pain after total knee replacement surgery. Study Design: A randomized, double-blind comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January and June 2011. Methodology: Sixty adults undergoing total knee arthroplasty were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups of equal size to receive either racemic ketamine infusion (6.25 g/kg/minute) or the same volume of saline. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure each patient's level of pain at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Time to first analgesic request, postoperative morphine consumption and the incidence of side effects were also recorded. Results: Low-dose ketamine infusion prolonged the time to first analgesic request. It also reduced postoperative cumulative morphine consumption at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours postsurgery (p < 0.001). Postoperative VAS scores were also significantly lower in the ketamine group than placebo, at all observation times. Incidences of side effects were similar in both study groups. Conclusion: Intraoperative continuous low-dose ketamine infusion reduced pain and postoperative analgesic consumption without affecting the incidence of side effects. (author)

  20. Fish oil, but not soy bean or olive oil enriched infusion decreases histopathological severity of acute pancreatitis in rats without affecting eicosanoid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Maik; Heukamp, Ina; Gregor, Ja Ilja; Schimke, Ingolf; Kristiansen, Glen; Wenger, Frank Axel

    2011-12-01

    Different dietary fatty acids affect eicosanoid metabolism in different ways, thus influencing the pro- and anti-inflammatory balance of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Therefore, we analyzed the impact of [n-3], [n-6], and [n-9] fatty acids on eicosanoid metabolism and histopathology in acute pancreatitis in rats. Seventy-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 15). Group 1 underwent only laparotomy, while in groups, 2-5 pancreatitis was induced. Groups 1 and 2 were then given saline infusion, groups 3-5 received fat emulsion (group 3: rich in [n-6], group 4: rich in [n-9], group 5: rich in [n-3] fatty acids) for another 18 h. Infusion rich in [n-3] fatty acids significantly decreased histopathological severity of pancreatitis, compared to all other groups. There was no difference concerning the concentrations of prostaglandins and leukotrienes between all groups. Parenteral infusion rich in [n-3] fatty acids reduced histopathological severity of acute pancreatitis in rats without changing eicosanoid metabolism at the endpoint.

  1. Intraoperative low-dose ketamine infusion reduces acute postoperative pain following total knee replacement surgery: a prospective, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Pelin; Gokcinar, Derya; Karabeyoglu, Isil; Topcu, Hulya; Cicek, Gizem Selen; Gogus, Nermin

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of intraoperative low-dose ketamine with general anesthesia on postoperative pain after total knee replacement surgery. A randomized, double-blind comparative study. Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from January and June 2011. Sixty adults undergoing total knee arthroplasty were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomly allocated into two groups of equal size to receive either racemic ketamine infusion (6 μg/kg/minute) or the same volume of saline. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure each patient's level of pain at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Time to first analgesic request, postoperative morphine consumption and the incidence of side effects were also recorded. Low-dose ketamine infusion prolonged the time to first analgesic request. It also reduced postoperative cumulative morphine consumption at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours postsurgery (p < 0.001). Postoperative VAS scores were also significantly lower in the ketamine group than placebo, at all observation times. Incidences of side effects were similar in both study groups. Intraoperative continuous low-dose ketamine infusion reduced pain and postoperative analgesic consumption without affecting the incidence of side effects.

  2. Using miniature osmotic infusion pumps to maintain tritiated thymidine exposure to cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, J.E.; Hake, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    To provide a constant level of tracer doses of tritiated thymidine to cultured cells during continuous infusion, miniature osmotic infusion pumps were used to provide replacement thymidine. By determining the loss of isotope from the media during nonreplacement, the rate of constant infusion replacement to maintain thymidine levels was calculated. The replacement rates were similar for the three cell lines examined and allowed a standard osmotic pump infusion

  3. Impact of infusion speed on the safety and effectiveness of prothrombin complex concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Pabinger , Ingrid; Tiede , Andreas; Kalina , Uwe; Knaub , Sigurd; Germann , Reinhard; Ostermann , Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) infusion is preferred for emergency reversal of coumarin therapy. Rapid infusion can potentially save crucial time; however, the possible impact of high infusion speed on PCC safety and effectiveness has not been delineated. In a prospective multinational clinical trial with 43 patients receiving PCC (Beriplex? P/N) for emergency reversal of coumarin therapy, infusion speeds were selected by the investigators. In a two-phase statistica...

  4. Hydrogen-rich saline controls remifentanil-induced hypernociception and NMDA receptor NR1 subunit membrane trafficking through GSK-3β in the DRG in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Shu, Ruichen; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Haiyun; Li, Nan; Wang, Guolin

    2014-07-01

    Although NMDAR trafficking mediated by GSK-3β involvement in transmission of pronociceptive messages in the spinal cord has been confirmed by our previous studies, whether NMDAR trafficking is implicated in peripheral sensitization remains equivocal. It is demonstrated that inflammation is associated with spinal NMDAR-containing nociceptive neurons activation and the maintenance of opioid induced pain hypersensitivity. However, whether and how hydrogen-rich saline, as an effective anti-inflammatory drug, could prevent hyperalgesia through affecting peripheral sensitization caused by NMDAR activation remains to be explored. To test these effects, hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5 or 10 ml/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally after remifentanil infusion, NMDAR antagonist MK-801 or GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8 was administrated intravenously before remifentanil infusion in rats. We examined time course of hydrogen concentration in blood after hydrogen-rich saline administration. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated by measuring PWT and PWL for 48 post-infusion hours, respectively. Western blotting and real-time qPCR assay were applied to analyze the NR1 membrane trafficking, GSK-3β expression and activity in DRG. Inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) expressions in DRG were also analyzed. We found that NR1 membrane trafficking in DRG increased, possibly due to GSK-3β activation after remifentanil infusion. We also discovered that hydrogen-rich saline not 2.5 ml/kg but 5 and 10 ml/kg could dose-dependently attenuate mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia without affecting baseline nociceptive threshold, reduce expressions of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and decrease NR1 trafficking mediated by GSK-3β, and minimal effective concentration was observed to be higher than 10 μmol/L, namely peak concentration in arterial blood after administration of HRS 2.5 ml/kg without any influence on hyperalgesia. Our results indicated that

  5. Management of saline soils in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawitz, E.

    1983-01-01

    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  6. Preoperative glutamine infusion improves glycemia in heart surgery patients Infusão pré-operatória de glutamina melhora a glicemia em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Nasser Hissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of pre-operative L-alanyl-glutamine (L-Ala-Gln on blood glucose control in patients with coronary obstruction, selected for myocardial revascularization. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (63±8 years were randomly assigned to receive 250ml of L-Ala-Gln 20% plus saline 750 ml (Group L- Ala-Gln, n=11 or saline 1000 ml (Group Saline, n=11 over 3 hours before operation. Pre-operative blood samples were collected 3h before (T-1 and at the beginning of the surgical procedure (T-2. Intra-operative samples were collected immediately before the start (T-3 and the end of extra-corporeal perfusion (T- 4. Post-operative samples were collected 12h (T-12 and 24h later (T-24. RESULTS: Glycemia decreased significantly in L-Ala-Gln treated patients during the intraoperative period. The same effect did not occur in saline patients. As the rate of insulin infusion, administered routinely to patients undergoing surgery with extracorporeal circulation was constant in both groups during surgery, the reduction of blood glucose in group L-Ala-Gln does not seem to be related to exogenous insulin. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative use of L-Ala-Gln improves glycemic control in patients with coronary artery occlusion, submitted to myocardial revascularization.OBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do uso pré-operatório da L-alanil-glutamina (L-Ala-Gln no controle glicêmico em pacientes, selecionados para a revascularização do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Vinte e dois pacientes cardiopatas (63±8 anos foram randomizados para receber 250 ml de L-Ala-Gln 20% em 750 ml de solução salina (Grupo L-Ala-Gln, n=11 ou soro fisiológico 1000 ml (Grupo Salina, n=11. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas no pré-operatório, três horas antes (T-1: basal e no início do procedimento cirúrgico (T-2; imediatamente antes do início (T-3 e no final da perfusão extra-corpórea (T-4; 12h (T-12 e 24h após a conclusão do procedimento. As infusões, com duração de 3 horas, foram

  7. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC...

  8. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion...

  9. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  10. Cardiovascular effects of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine in calves anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, ketamine and isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marcelo A; Dias, Bianca P; Bovino, Fernanda; Deschk, Maurício; Abimussi, Caio Jx; Oliva, Valéria Nls; Rodrigues, Celso A; Santos, Paulo Sp

    2014-03-01

    To assess the cardiovascular changes of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine in calves anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, ketamine and isoflurane during mechanical ventilation. Prospective, randomized, cross-over, experimental trial. A total of eight, healthy, male Holstein calves, aged 10 ± 1 months and weighing 114 ± 11 kg were included in the study. Calves were administered xylazine followed by ketamine and midazolam, orotracheal intubation and maintenance on isoflurane (1.3%) using mechanical ventilation. Forty minutes after induction, lidocaine (2 mg kg⁻¹ bolus) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9%) was administered IV followed by a continuous rate infusion (100 μg kg⁻¹ minute⁻¹) of lidocaine (treatment L) or saline (treatment C). Heart rate (HR), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP and MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure (PAOP), cardiac output, end-tidal carbon dioxide (Pe'CO2 ) and core temperature (CT) were recorded before lidocaine or saline administration (Baseline) and at 20-minute intervals (T20-T80). Plasma concentrations of lidocaine were measured in treatment L. The HR was significantly lower in treatment L compared with treatment C. There was no difference between the treatments with regards to SAP, DAP, MAP and SVRI. CI was significantly lower at T60 in treatment L when compared with treatment C. PAOP and CVP increased significantly at all times compared with Baseline in treatment L. There was no significant difference between times within each treatment and between treatments with regards to other measured variables. Plasma concentrations of lidocaine ranged from 1.85 to 2.06 μg mL⁻¹ during the CRI. At the studied rate, lidocaine causes a decrease in heart rate which is unlikely to be of clinical significance in healthy animals, but could be a concern in compromised animals. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists

  11. N-3 PUFAs protect against aortic inflammation and oxidative stress in angiotensin II-infused apolipoprotein E-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Wales

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm is associated with infiltration of inflammatory cells into the aortic wall. The inflammatory response is also evident in animal models, such as apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/- mice that have been infused with angiotensin II, prior to development of aortic aneurysm. Since omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs and their metabolites have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activity, we hypothesised that dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs would protect against inflammatory processes in this mouse model. Twenty C57 and 20 ApoE-/- 3-4 week old male mice were supplemented with a low (0.14%, n = 10/group or high (0.70%, n = 10/group n-3 PUFA diet for 8 weeks before 2-day infusion with 0.9% saline or angiotensin II (1000 ng/kg/min. Four ApoE-/- mice on the low n-3 PUFA diet and none of the ApoE-/- mice on the high n-3 PUFA diet showed morphological evidence of abdominal aortic dissection. The plasma concentration of the n-3 PUFA metabolite, resolvin D1 was higher in angiotensin II-infused ApoE-/- mice fed the high, compared to the low n-3 PUFA diet. The number of neutrophils and macrophages infiltrating the abdominal aorta was elevated in ApoE-/- mice on the low n-3 PUFA diet, and this was significantly attenuated in mice that were fed the high n-3 PUFA diet. Most neutrophils and macrophages were associated with dissected aortas. Immunoreactivity of the catalytic subunit of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase, Nox2, and superoxide were elevated in ApoE-/- mice that were fed the low n-3 PUFA diet, and this was also significantly attenuated in mice that were fed the high n-3 PUFA diet. Together, the findings indicate that supplementation of ApoE-/- mice with a diet high in n-3 PUFA content protected the mice against pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress responses following short-term infusion with angiotensin II.

  12. Flexural creep behavior of epoxy/cotton composite materials before and after saline absorption for orthopedics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxis, L. C.; Georgali, A.; Portan, D. V.; Papanicolaou, G. C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, epoxy resin-non-woven cotton fibers fabric composite plates were manufactured by using the vacuum infusion technique. Next, flexural creep-recovery experiments were performed in order to study the viscoelastic behavior of both the neat resin and the composite material manufactured under both dry and wet conditions. A low cost, mechanically operated flexural creep testing machine was designed and manufactured according to ASTM standards, for providing an economical means of performing flexural creep experiments. Initially, specimens were immersed in physiological saline for different periods of time at constant temperature of 37°C and subsequently tested under flexural creep conditions in order to study the effect of saline absorption on the creep-recovery behavior of the composites. The specific environmental conditions were chosen such as to simulate the real conditions existed into the human body. The combined effect of applied stress, time of immersion, creep time and amount of saline absorbed on the overall flexural viscoelastic behavior of composites was studied. The maximum amount of saline absorbed by the composites was 3.2%, which is double the saline intake of pure resin. It is believed that the 1.5% extra saline was absorbed into the now formed interphase between the matrix and the hydrophobic cotton fibers. It was observed that the creep strain increases as the immersion time increases. This is believed to occur because of the cumulative effect of absorbed saline from the fibers, the matrix, as well as from the fiber-matrix interphase resulting in the fiber matrix debonding and easier relaxation of the macromolecules at higher moisture contents leading to larger deformations at longer times. However, it should be noted that the strain levels of the epoxy resin/cotton fibers fabric composites, never surpassed those of the pure resin, indicating that the fabric successfully reinforces the composite even under the immersion of the

  13. Screening of recombinant inbred lines for salinity tolerance in bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-05

    Oct 5, 2011 ... 2Department of Molecular Physiology, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran ... indexes for screening bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance. ... published on screening methods in salinity tolerance in.

  14. Identification of Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Salicornia bigelovii

    KAUST Repository

    Salazar Moya, Octavio Ruben

    2017-01-01

    by providing a genome, transcriptomes, and organellar proteomes, contributing to salinity tolerance research overall. We identified a set of candidate genes for salinity tolerance with the aim of shedding some light on the mechanisms by which this plant thrives

  15. Time-dependence of salinity in monsoonal estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vijith, V.; Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    processes (diffusion, gravity current formation, impact of tidal asymmetries, etc.) is balanced by salinity-egress induced by runoff. Here we point out that the salinity field of the estuaries that are located on the coasts of the Indian subcontinent...

  16. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  17. Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) Data, 1985-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...

  18. Sustainable management of coastal saline soils in the Saloum river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conductivity, pH, water soluble cations and anions) were analysed to estimate the salinity level at each .... (floodplain, low terrace), saline soils are now .... Apart from having a high salt content, ..... permeability and thereby promotes continuous.

  19. Microbial Fuel Cells under Extreme Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzon del Olmo, Oihane

    I developed a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) that unprecedentedly works (i.e., produces electricity) under extreme salinity (≈ 100 g/L NaCl). Many industries, such as oil and gas extraction, generate hypersaline wastewaters with high organic strength, accounting for about 5% of worldwide generated effluents, which represent a major challenge for pollution control and resource recovery. This study assesses the potential for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to treat such wastewaters and generate electricity under extreme saline conditions. Specifically, the focus is on the feasibility to treat hypersaline wastewater generated by the emerging unconventional oil and gas industry (hydraulic fracturing) and so, with mean salinity of 100 g/L NaCl (3-fold higher than sea water). The success of this novel technology strongly depends on finding a competent and resilient microbial community that can degrade the waste under extreme saline conditions and be able to use the anode as their terminal electron acceptor (exoelectrogenic capability). I demonstrated that MFCs can produce electricity at extremely high salinity (up to 250 g/l NaCl) with a power production of 71mW/m2. Pyrosequencing analysis of the anode population showed the predominance of Halanaerobium spp. (85%), which has been found in shale formations and oil reservoirs. Promoting Quorum sensing (QS, cell to cell communication between bacteria to control gene expression) was used as strategy to increase the attachment of bacteria to the anode and thus improve the MFC performance. Results show that the power output can be bolstered by adding 100nM of quinolone signal with an increase in power density of 30%, for the first time showing QS in Halanaerobium extremophiles. To make this technology closer to market applications, experiments with real wastewaters were also carried out. A sample of produced wastewater from Barnet Shale, Texas (86 g/L NaCl) produced electricity when fed in an MFC, leading to my discovery of another

  20. Combined radiosensitizer infusion and irradiation of osteogenic sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffinet, D.R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Donaldson, S.S.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Wilbur,