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Sample records for hypertonic saline dextran

  1. Hypertonic Saline Dextran Ameliorates Organ Damage in Beagle Hemorrhagic Shock.

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    Jing-xiang Zhao

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of hypertonic saline with 6% Dextran-70 (HSD resuscitation on organ damage and the resuscitation efficiency of the combination of HSD and lactated ringers (LR in a model of hemorrhage shock in dogs.Beagles were bled to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP at 50 ± 5 mmHg for 1 h. After hemorrhage, beagles were divided into three groups (n = 7 to receive pre-hospital resuscitation for 1 h (R1: HSD (4 ml/kg, LR (40 ml/kg, and HSD+LR (a combination of 4 ml/kg HSD and 40 ml/kg LR. Next, LR was transfused into all groups as in-hospital resuscitation (R2. After two hours of observation (R3, autologous blood was transfused. Hemodynamic responses and systemic oxygenation were measured at predetermined phases. Three days after resuscitation, the animals were sacrificed and tissues including kidney, lung, liver and intestinal were obtained for pathological analysis.Although the initial resuscitation with HSD was shown to be faster than LR with regard to an ascending MAP, the HSD group showed a similar hemodynamic performance compared to the LR group throughout the experiment. Compared with the LR group, the systemic oxygenation performance in the HSD group was similar but showed a lower venous-to-arterial CO2 gradient (Pv-aCO2 at R3 (p < 0.05. Additionally, the histology score of the kidneys, lungs and liver were significantly lower in the HSD group than in the LR group (p < 0.05. The HSD+LR group showed a superior hemodynamic response but higher extravascular lung water (EVLW and lower arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 than the other groups (p < 0.05. The HSD+LR group showed a marginally improved systemic oxygenation performance and lower histology score than other groups.Resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock with a bolus of HSD showed a similar hemodynamic response compared with LR at ten times the volume of HSD, but HSD showed superior efficacy in organ protection. Our findings suggest that

  2. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

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    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  3. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang; Chen, Wei; Xu, Liang; Wang, Huabing; Lu, Huizhi

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran) after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  5. The dynamics of vascular volume and fluid shifts of lactated Ringer's solution and hypertonic-saline-dextran solutions infused in normovolemic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tølløfsrud, S; Elgjo, G I; Prough, D S; Williams, C A; Traber, D L; Kramer, G C

    2001-10-01

    Infusions of hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions such as hypertonic saline dextran (HSD) are used in Europe for resuscitation of traumatic shock and perioperative volume support as an adjunct to conventional isotonic crystalloids. Whereas plasma volume expansion of HSD has been measured at single time points after the intravascular volume expansion, the detailed time course of fluid shifts during and after infusions have not been reported. We compared the time course of volume expansion during and after 30-min infusions of 4 mL/kg HSD and 25 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution (LR) in normovolemic conscious splenectomized sheep. Peak plasma volume (Evans blue and hemoglobin dilution) expansion was similar for HSD (7.8 +/- 0.9 mL/kg) and the larger sixfold volume of LR (7.2 +/- 0.5 mL/kg). However, 30 min after the 30-min infusion (T60), plasma expansion remained larger after HSD (5.1 +/- 0.9 mL/kg) than after LR (1.7 +/- 0.6 mL/kg). Both solutions caused an equivalent diuresis. Intravascular volume expansion efficiency (VEE), defined as milliliter plasma expansion/milliliter fluid infused at 0 (T30), 30 (T60), and 60 (T90) min after infusion ended was 1.8, 1.3, and 0.8, respectively for HSD, whereas LR provided a VEE of only 0.27, 0.07, and 0.07. The relative expansion efficiency of HSD versus LR, calculated as the ratio (VEE(HSD)/VEE(LR)), was 7-fold that of LR at the end of infusion T30, and 20-fold at T60, but decreased to 9-fold by T120. Intravascular volume dynamic studies of different volume expanders in animals and patients may provide anesthesiologists with a new tool for monitoring the effectiveness of fluid therapy. Hypertonic saline dextran (HSD) is a new plasma expander recently approved for clinical use in Europe. We compared the plasma volume expansion of HSD versus lactated Ringers (LR) in normovolemic sheep. After a 30 min infusion, HSD was 7 times as effective at expanding volume as an equal volume of LR, but for the next 90 minutes the relative

  6. Hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in infants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grewal, Simran; Goldman, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a 1-year-old patient returned from admission in the hospital for bronchiolitis, and the report I received indicated that he was treated with inhaled hypertonic saline, among other treatments...

  7. Hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in infants.

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    Grewal, Simran; Goldman, Ran D

    2015-06-01

    Recently, a 1-year-old patient returned from admission in the hospital for bronchiolitis, and the report I received indicated that he was treated with inhaled hypertonic saline, among other treatments. Is this therapy recommended for children in the acute care setting? Bronchiolitis, caused mostly by respiratory syncytial virus, is very common in the winter. It is the most frequent cause of hospitalization in infancy. Several good studies have been conducted in the past decade on the use of nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis management; however, they offer conflicting results. While there might be a role for the use of nebulized hypertonic saline in children who are hospitalized with bronchiolitis for more than 3 days, treatment in other settings does not confer enough benefit to recommend its use. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  8. The Effects of Hypertonic Saline (7.5%) Dextran-70 (HSD) on Human Red Cell Typing, Lysis, and Metabolism in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    presumably through i+s induction of rouleaux formation (7). Effects of dextran on typing or crossmatching are a direct function of the dextran molecular...typical of previous storage studies in CPDA-l (17). No pseudoagglutination or rouleaux formation occurred in the blood of the 12 donors typed in this...could decrease as well as increase red cell aggregation, even to the extent of promoting rouleaux formation (9,18,19). such concerns about possible

  9. A randomized, controlled trial of nebulized 5% hypertonic saline and mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine in bronchiolitis.

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    Tinsa, Faten; Abdelkafi, Sana; Bel Haj, Imen; Hamouda, Samia; Brini, Ines; Zouari, Bechir; Boussetta, Khadija

    2014-11-01

    Bronchiolitis is a public health problem in the word and in Tunisia. Nebulized hypertonic saline seems to have some benefits in bronchiolitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of nebulized 5% hypertonic saline alone or mixed with epinephrine in bronchiolitis as measured by improvement in clinical score, oxygen saturation or reduction in duration of hospitalization. This prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial was performed at Children's Hospital of Tunis from February 2012 to Mars 2012. A total of 94 patients less than 12 months of age with diagnosis of moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled and assigned to receive 5% nebulized hypertonic saline, mixed 5% hypertonic saline with standard epinephrine 0,1% or normal saline (placebo) at admission and every 4 hours during hospitalization. There were no significant difference between nebulized 5% hypertonic saline, mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine or normal saline at baseline, T30 min, T60 min, and T120 min after start study in Wang severity score, oxygen saturation in room air, rate respiratory and heart rate. There was no difference in duration of hospitalization. Nebulized 5% hypertonic saline or mixed 5% hypertonic saline with epinephrine are safety but does not appear effective in treating moderately ill infants with the first acute bronchiolitis.

  10. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

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    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  11. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  12. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  13. The efficacy of nebulized salbutamol, hypertonic saline and salbutamol/hypertonic saline combination in moderate bronchiolitis.

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    Ipek, Ilke Ozahı; Yalcin, Emek Uyur; Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Bozaykut, Abdulkadir

    2011-12-01

    The mainstay of treatment in bronchiolitis includes oxygenation, aspiration of secretions from the respiratory tract and maintenance of hydration. The first choice medical agent in clinical practice is nebulized bronchodilators, although their place in treatment is controversial. We investigated the therapeutic benefit of nebulized hypertonic (3%) saline (HS), by comparing four different nebulized regimens in the treatment of bronchiolitis in the emergency department. A total of 120 infants were included in this randomized, double-blind, prospective study. Infants were grouped according to the nebulized treatment they received: group 1 - salbutamol + normal saline (NS), group 2 - salbutamol + HS, group 3 - HS, group 4 - NS. Heart beat, Clinical Bronchiolitis Severity Score (CBSS) and oxygen saturation of the patients were determined before and after the nebulizations and at 48-72 h after admission by the designated study physician. Post-treatment mean CBSS were significantly lower than pre-treatment scores in all groups (p = 0.0001) with no significant difference within groups. Improvement percentages for CBSSs were significantly higher in infants without a history of atopy treated with HS and NS (p = 0.023, p = 0.0001, respectively). The CBSSs of all the infants improved after three doses of nebulized therapy regardless of the treatment regimens. The combination of salbutamol with hypertonic saline did not lead to an additive effect in the improvement of CBSSs compared to the standard salbutamol + NS combination. Atopic children benefited from salbutamol/NS combination whereas non-atopic children improved with HS and NS nebulizations based on improvement percentages of CBSS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants.

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    Zhang, Linjie; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl A; Wainwright, Claire; Klassen, Terry P

    2013-07-31

    Airway oedema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulised hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. To assess the effects of nebulised hypertonic (≥ 3%) saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. We searched CENTRAL 2013, Issue 4, OLDMEDLINE (1951 to 1965), MEDLINE (1966 to April week 4, 2013), EMBASE (1974 to May 2013), LILACS (1985 to May 2013) and Web of Science (1955 to May 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using nebulised hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as an active intervention and nebulised 0.9% saline as a comparator in infants up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis. Two review authors independently performed study selection, data extraction and assessment of risk of bias in included studies. We conducted meta-analyses using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan 5.2. We used the random-effects model for meta-analyses. We used mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) as effect size metrics. We included 11 trials involving 1090 infants with mild to moderate acute viral bronchiolitis (500 inpatients, five trials; 65 outpatients, one trial; and 525 emergency department patients, four trials). All but one of the included trials were of high quality with a low risk of bias. A total of 560 patients received hypertonic saline (3% saline n = 503; 5% saline n = 57). Patients treated with nebulised 3% saline had a significantly shorter mean length of hospital stay compared to those treated with nebulised 0.9% saline (MD -1.15 days, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.49 to -0.82, P saline group also had a significantly lower post-inhalation clinical score than the 0.9% saline group in the first three days of treatment (day 1: MD -0.88, 95% CI -1.36 to -0.39, P = 0.0004; day 2: MD -1.32, 95% CI -2.00 to -0.64, P = 0.001; day 3: MD -1.51, 95% CI -1.88 to -1.14, P

  15. Using hypertonic saline to manage bronchiolitis in infants.

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    Canty, Wendy B; Colomb-Lippa, Dawn

    2014-07-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in young children and the leading cause of infant hospitalizations. Treatment is centered on supportive measures. Recent studies suggest hypertonic saline is an effective treatment option in admitted infants, demonstrating promising reductions in length of stay and clinical severity scores.

  16. Hot Hypertonic Saline and Compression Device: A Novel Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hot Hypertonic Saline and Compression Device: A Novel Approach in Preventing Severe Hemorrhage during Extirpation of Deep Vascular Malformations of the ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  17. Normal Saline Versus Hypertonic 3% Saline: It’s Efficacy in Non-Acute Rhinosinusitis

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    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinusitis is one of the most common diseases in general and in otolaryngology practice, but the optimal therapeutic options have not yet been fully developed. This manuscript will try to compare normal saline nasal douching with hypertonic saline in reducing symptoms and improving its signs. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients suffering from non acute rhinosinusitis, documented by history, physical examination and radiologic studies were divided into normal saline and hypertonic saline groups, each consisting of 57 patients. data were obtained by physical examination and a questionnaire.. Results:  Type of treatment had no significant effect on headache, morning dryness of mouth and pharynx and fatigue. Nontheless, nasal congestion, purulent discharge and postnasal discharge were reported to have improved in the group treated with hypertonic saline versus the normal saline group. Patient satisfaction also showed better scores in the hypertonic saline group. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline (3% is more effective for nasal irrigation  than normal saline in chronic rhinosinusitis.

  18. Oral hypertonic saline causes transient fall of vasopressin in humans

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    Seckl, J.R.; Williams, D.M.; Lightman, S.L.

    1986-08-01

    After dehydration, oral rehydration causes a fall in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) that precedes changes in plasma osmolality. To investigate further the stimulus for this effect, its specificity, and association with thirst, six volunteers were deprived of water for 24 h and given a salt load on two separate occasions. On each study day they then drank rapidly 10 ml/kg of either tap water or hypertonic saline (360 mosmol/kg). There was a significant fall in plasma AVP from 2.0 +/- 0.3 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 pmol/l 5 min after drinking water and from 1.8 +/- 0.3 to 0.9 +/- 0.2 pmol/l after hypertonic saline. Plasma osmolality fell 30-60 min after water and was unchanged after saline. Plasma renin activity, oxytocin, and total protein all remained unchanged. All subjects reported diminished thirst after hypertonic saline. Gargling with water reduced thirst but did not affect plasma AVP. There appears to be a drinking-mediated neuroendocrine reflex that decreases plasma AVP irrespective of the osmolality of the liquid consumed. The sensation of thirst did not correlate with plasma osmolality and was not always related to plasma AVP concentration. AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay.

  19. Nebulized hypertonic saline solution for acute bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjie; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl A; Wainwright, Claire; Klassen, Terry P

    2008-10-08

    Airway edema and mucus plugging are the predominant pathological features in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. Nebulized hypertonic saline solution may reduce these pathological changes and decrease airway obstruction. To assess the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline solution in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2007, issue 4), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group Specialized Register; OLDMEDLINE (1951 to 1965); MEDLINE (1966 to November 2007); EMBASE (1974 to November 2007); and LILACS (November 2007). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using nebulized hypertonic saline alone or in conjunction with bronchodilators as an active intervention in infants up to 24 months of age with acute bronchiolitis. Two review authors (ZL, MRA) independently performed data extraction and study quality assessment. We pooled the data from individual trials using the Cochrane statistical package Review Manager (RevMan). We included four trials involving 254 infants with acute viral bronchiolitis (189 inpatients and 65 outpatients) in this review. Patients treated with nebulized 3% saline had a significantly shorter mean length of hospital stay compared to those treated with nebulized 0.9% saline (mean difference (MD) -0.94 days, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.40, P = 0.0006). The 3% saline group also had a significantly lower post-inhalation clinical score than the 0.9% saline group in the first three days of treatment (day 1: MD -0.75, 95% CI -1.38 to -0.12, P = 0.02; day 2: MD -1.18, 95% CI -1.97 to -0.39, P = 0.003; day 3: MD -1.28, 95% CI -2.57 to 0.00, P = 0.05). The effect of nebulized hypertonic saline in improving clinical score was greater among outpatients than inpatients. No adverse events related to 3% saline inhalation were reported. Current evidence suggests nebulized 3% saline may significantly reduce the length of hospital stay

  20. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Flores-González, J.; Matamala-Morillo, Miguel A; Patricia Rodríguez-Campoy; Juan J Pérez-Guerrero; Belén Serrano-Moyano; Paloma Comino-Vazquez; Encarnación Palma-Zambrano; Rocio Bulo-Concellón; Vanessa Santos-Sánchez; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hy...

  1. Hypertonic 3% Saline in Comparison with 0.9% (Normal Saline in Treatment of Acute Bronchiolitis

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    Abdul-karem Jasem Mohammed Al-bahadily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBronchiolitis is the commonest cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infant. Respiratory syncytial virus is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline and salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in comparison with nebulized 0.9% saline and salbutamol.Materials and MethodsA prospective case second multicenter study was done at two pediatric tertiary centers at the period from 1st of December 2014 to 31 of March 2015. A total of 100 previously well infant and children of age 1-24 months with clinical diagnoses of bronchiolitis who were admitted to the hospital were included. They were divided into two groups, the study group received 4 ml of nebulized hypertonic 3% saline (for 14 days, and second group received 4 ml of nebulized normal 0.9% saline (for 14 days, each co-administer with 0.5 ml salbutamol.ResultsAll patients with acute bronchiolitis having similar baseline characteristic, mean age 4.9 + Standard deviation (SD months, male gender constitutes 68% of the patients and the majority (67% of the cases were below 6 months. The mean of clinical severity score at admission was 6.4 for normal saline (NS group and 6.6 for hypertonic 3% saline (HS group. The mean length of hospital stay of normal saline group = 4.3 + Standard deviation (SD day and for hypertonic saline group was = 4.7 + Standard deviation (SD day.ConclusionWe didn’t find any advantage of hypertonic 3% saline over 0.9% normal saline in terms of length of hospital stay and clinical severity score.

  2. Nebulized hypertonic saline without adjunctive bronchodilators for children with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Shawn; Hill, Vanessa; Martinez, Marissa

    2010-09-01

    The goal was to determine an adverse event rate for nebulized hypertonic saline solution administered without adjunctive bronchodilators for infants with bronchiolitis. This was a retrospective cohort study of the use of nebulized 3% saline for childrenbronchiolitis at a single academic medical center. The medical records of study participants were analyzed for the use of nebulized 3% saline solution and any documented adverse events related to this therapy. Other clinical outcomes evaluated included respiratory distress scores, timing of the use of bronchodilators in relation to 3% saline solution, transfer to a higher level of care, and readmission within 72 hours after discharge. A total of 444 total doses of 3% saline solution were administered, with 377 doses (85%) being administered without adjunctive bronchodilators. Four adverse events occurred with these 377 doses, for a 1.0% adverse event rate (95% confidence interval: 0.3%-2.8%). Adverse events were generally mild. One episode of bronchospasm was documented, for a rate of 0.3% (95% confidence interval: saline solution without adjunctive bronchodilators for inpatients with bronchiolitis had a low rate of adverse events in our center. Additional clinical trials of 3% saline solution in bronchiolitis should evaluate its effectiveness in the absence of adjunctive bronchodilators.

  3. 7% Hypertonic saline in acute bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Jacobs, Jonathan D; Foster, Megan; Wan, Jim; Pershad, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that hypertonic saline (HS) may improve mucous flow in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Data suggest a trend favoring reduced length of hospital stay and improved pulmonary scores with increasing concentration of nebulized solution to 3% and 5% saline as compared with 0.9% saline mixed with epinephrine. To our knowledge, 7% HS has not been previously investigated. We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in 101 infants presenting with moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis. Subjects received either 7% saline or 0.9% saline, both with epinephrine. Our primary outcome was a change in bronchiolitis severity score (BSS), obtained before and after treatment, and at the time of disposition from the emergency department (ED). Secondary outcomes measured were hospitalization rate, proportion of admitted patients discharged at 23 hours, and ED and inpatient length of stay. At baseline, study groups were similar in demographic and clinical characteristics. The decrease in mean BSS was not statistically significant between groups (2.6 vs 2.4 for HS and control groups, respectively). The difference between the groups in proportion of admitted patients (42% in HS versus 49% in normal saline), ED or inpatient length of stay, and proportion of admitted patients discharged at 23 hours was not statistically significant. In moderate to severe acute bronchiolitis, inhalation of 7% HS with epinephrine does not appear to confer any clinically significant decrease in BSS when compared with 0.9% saline with epinephrine.

  4. Nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Susan; Baker, Chris; Lang, Michael E; Schrager, Sheree M; Liley, Fasha F; Papa, Carmel; Mira, Valerie; Balkian, Ara; Mason, Wilbert H

    2014-07-01

    Bronchiolitis is one of the most common and costly respiratory diseases in infants and young children. Previous studies have shown a potential benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline; however, its effect in the emergency department (ED) setting is unclear. To compare the effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline vs 0.9% normal saline on admission rate and length of stay in infants with bronchiolitis. We conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial during 3 consecutive bronchiolitis seasons from March 1, 2008, through April 30, 2011. We recruited a convenience sample of patients younger than 24 months with a primary diagnosis of viral bronchiolitis presenting to the ED of 2 urban free-standing tertiary children's hospitals. We excluded patients who were premature (gestational age, saline [HS group]) or 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS group]) inhaled as many as 3 times in the ED. Those admitted received the assigned medication every 8 hours until discharge. All treatment solutions were premedicated with albuterol sulfate. Hospital admission rate, length of stay for admitted patients, and Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score. A total of 197 patients were enrolled in the NS group and 211 in the HS group. Admission rate in the 3% HS group was 28.9% compared with 42.6% in the NS group (adjusted odds ratio from logistic regression, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.28-0.86]). Mean (SD) length of stay for hospitalized patients was 3.92 (5.24) days for the NS group and 3.16 (2.11) days for the HS group (P = .24). The Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score decreased after treatment in both groups; however, we found no significant difference between groups (P = .35). Hypertonic saline given to children with bronchiolitis in the ED decreases hospital admissions. We can detect no significant difference in Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score or length of stay between the HS and NS groups. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00619918.

  5. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. Results A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). Conclusions In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. Trial Registration EudraCT 2009-016042-57 PMID:26575036

  6. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-González, J Carlos; Matamala-Morillo, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Campoy, Patricia; Pérez-Guerrero, Juan J; Serrano-Moyano, Belén; Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  7. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carlos Flores-González

    Full Text Available There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay.A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011. Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively.In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before.EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  8. Hypertonic 3% Saline in Comparison with 0.9% (Normal) Saline in Treatment of Acute Bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-karem Jasem Mohammed Al-bahadily; Areege Abdul-abass Mohammed Al-Omrani; Asaad A Atiya

    2017-01-01

    BackgroundBronchiolitis is the commonest cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infant. Respiratory syncytial virus is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline and salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in comparison with nebulized 0.9% saline and salbutamol.Materials and MethodsA prospective case second multicenter study was done at two pediatric tertiary centers at the period from 1st of December 2014 ...

  9. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  10. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  11. Comparison of the in vitro effects of saline, hypertonic hydroxyethyl starch, hypertonic saline, and two forms of hydroxyethyl starch on whole blood coagulation and platelet function in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurlod, Virginie A; Howard, Judith; Francey, Thierry; Schweighauser, Ariane; Adamik, Katja N

    2015-01-01

    To compare the in vitro effects of hypertonic solutions and colloids to saline on coagulation in dogs. In vitro experimental study. Veterinary teaching hospital. Twenty-one adult dogs. Blood samples were diluted with saline, 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with 6% hydroxyethylstarch with an average molecular weight of 200 kDa and a molar substitution of 0.4 (HH), 7.2% hypertonic saline (HTS), hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 or hydroxyethyl starch 600/0.75 at ratios of 1:22 and 1:9, and with saline and HES at a ratio of 1:3. Whole blood coagulation was analyzed using rotational thromboelastometry (extrinsic thromboelastometry-cloting time (ExTEM-CT), maximal clot firmness (MCF) and clot formation time (CFT) and fibrinogen function TEM-CT (FibTEM-CT) and MCF) and platelet function was analyzed using a platelet function analyzer (closure time, CTPFA ). All parameters measured were impaired by saline dilution. The CTPFA was prolonged by 7.2% hypertonic saline solution with 6% hydroxyethylstarch with an average molecular weight of 200 kDa and a molar substitution of 0.4 (HH) and HTS but not by HES solutions. At clinical dilutions equivalent to those generally administered for shock (saline 1:3, HES 1:9, and hypertonic solutions 1:22), CTPFA was more prolonged by HH and HTS than other solutions but more by saline than HES. No difference was found between the HES solutions or the hypertonic solutions. ExTEM-CFT and MCF were impaired by HH and HTS but only mildly by HES solutions. At clinically relevant dilutions, no difference was found in ExTEM-CFT between HTS and saline or in ExTEM-MCF between HH and saline. No consistent difference was found between the 2 HES solutions but HH impaired ExTEM-CFT and MCF more than HTS. At high dilutions, FibTEM-CT and -MCF and ExTEM-CT were impaired by HES. Hypertonic solutions affect platelet function and whole blood coagulation to a greater extent than saline and HES. At clinically relevant dilutions, only CTPFA was markedly more

  12. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2011-06-01

    Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking.

  13. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl) causes minor immunological changes in normovolaemic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Aage Kølsen; Nielsen, J O D; Bendtzen, K

    2004-01-01

    Haemorrhagic shock is treated effectively by infusion of hypertonic saline/colloid solutions. Furthermore, previous studies found hypertonicity to affect immune responses in animals and in human blood cell cultures. It is unknown, however, whether hypertonic saline infusion affects immune responses...

  14. The effect of 3% and 6% hypertonic saline in viral bronchiolitis: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jasmijn; Hochs, Anne H J; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja; Boehmer, Annemie L M; Smeets, Carien C J M; Brackel, Hein; van Gent, René; Wesseling, Judith; Logtens-Stevens, Danielle; de Moor, Ronald; Rosias, Philippe P R; Potgieter, Steph; Faber, Marianne R; Hendriks, Han J E; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G; Loza, Bettina F

    2014-10-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common disorder in young children that often results in hospitalisation. Except for a possible effect of nebulised hypertonic saline (sodium chloride), no evidence-based therapy is available. This study investigated the efficacy of nebulised 3% and 6% hypertonic saline compared with 0.9% hypertonic saline in children hospitalised with viral bronchiolitis. In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, children hospitalised with acute viral bronchiolitis were randomised to receive either nebulised 3%, 6% hypertonic saline or 0.9% normal saline during their entire hospital stay. Salbutamol was added to counteract possible bronchial constriction. The primary endpoint was the length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were need for supplemental oxygen and tube feeding. From the 292 children included in the study (median age 3.4 months), 247 completed the study. The median length of hospital stay did not differ between the groups: 69 h (interquartile range 57), 70 h (IQR 69) and 53 h (IQR 52), for 3% (n=84) and 6% (n=83) hypertonic saline and 0.9% (n=80) normal saline, respectively, (p=0.29). The need for supplemental oxygen or tube feeding did not differ significantly. Adverse effects were similar in the three groups. Nebulisation with hypertonic saline (3% or 6% sodium chloride) although safe, did not reduce the length of stay in hospital, duration of supplemental oxygen or tube feeding in children hospitalised with moderate-to-severe viral bronchiolitis. ©ERS 2014.

  15. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline for Acute Bronchiolitis: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjie; Mendoza-Sassi, Raúl A; Klassen, Terry P; Wainwright, Claire

    2015-10-01

    The mainstay of treatment for acute bronchiolitis remains supportive care. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Data sources included PubMed and the Virtual Health Library of the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information up to May 2015. Studies selected were randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing nebulized HS with 0.9% saline or standard treatment. We included 24 trials involving 3209 patients, 1706 of whom received HS. Hospitalized patients treated with nebulized HS had a significantly shorter length of stay compared with those receiving 0.9% saline or standard care (15 trials involving 1956 patients; mean difference [MD] -0.45 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.82 to -0.08). The HS group also had a significantly lower posttreatment clinical score in the first 3 days of admission (5 trials involving 404 inpatients; day 1: MD -0.99, 95% CI -1.48 to -0.50; day 2: MD -1.45, 95% CI -2.06 to -0.85; day 3: MD -1.44, 95% CI -1.78 to -1.11). Nebulized HS reduced the risk of hospitalization by 20% compared with 0.9% saline among outpatients (7 trials involving 951 patients; risk ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.67-0.96). No significant adverse events related to HS inhalation were reported. The quality of evidence is moderate due to inconsistency in results between trials and study limitations (risk of bias). Nebulized HS is a safe and potentially effective treatment of infants with acute bronchiolitis. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. A clinical trial of hypertonic saline nasal spray in subjects with the common cold or rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, P; Stiffman, M; Blake, R L

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether hypertonic saline nasal spray relieves nasal symptoms and shortens illness duration in patients with the common cold or acute rhinosinusitis. Randomized trial with 2 control groups. Two family practice clinics. One hundred forty-three adult patients with a cold or sinus infection. Patients with allergic rhinitis, symptoms for more than 3 weeks, or other respiratory diagnoses were excluded, as were those who had used topical decongestants. Hypertonic saline or normal saline spray 3 times a day or observation. Subjects completed a 7-day symptom checklist that included a well-being question ("Do you feel back to normal?"). Nasal symptom score (sum of scores for nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and headache) on day 3 and day of well-being (day of symptom resolution). Data were collected for 119 subjects. No difference was found in either primary outcome when hypertonic saline was compared with either normal saline or observation. Mean day of well-being was 8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-9.7), 9.2 (95% CI, 6.9-11.43), and 8.0 (95% CI, 6.7-9.3) days in the hypertonic saline, normal saline, and observation groups, respectively. Day 3 mean nasal symptom score was 3.8 (95% CI, 3.0-4.5) for hypertonic saline, 3.7 (95% CI, 2.9-4.5) for normal saline, and 4.1 (95% CI, 3.5-4.7) for observation. Only 44% of the patients would use the hypertonic saline spray again. Thirty-two percent noted burning, compared with 13% of the normal saline group (P = .05). Hypertonic saline does not improve nasal symptoms or illness duration in patients with the common cold or rhinosinusitis.

  17. SABRE: a multicentre randomised control trial of nebulised hypertonic saline in infants hospitalised with acute bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Everard, M.L.; Hind, D.; Ugonna, K.; Freeman, J.; Bradburn, M.; Cooper, C L; Cross, E; Maguire, C.; Cantrill, H.; Alexander, J.; McNamara, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Acute bronchiolitis is the commonest cause for hospitalisation in infancy. Supportive care remains the cornerstone of current management and no other therapy has been shown to influence the course of the disease. It has been suggested that adding nebulised hypertonic saline to usual care may shorten the duration of hospitalisation. To determine whether hypertonic saline does have beneficial effects we undertook an open, multi-centre parallel-group, pragmatic RCT in ten UK hospitals.\\ud \\u...

  18. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Bendtzen, Klaus; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    with the other groups (Psaline before hysterectomy appears to have limited effect on the postoperative concentration of selected plasma cytokines and the hormonal stress......BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...

  19. [Effectiveness of inhaled hypertonic saline in children with bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangpu; Zhao, Jing

    2014-08-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of inhaled nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) solution in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Totally 129 patients with acute bronchiolitis (clinical severity score ≥ 4, aged 2-18 months) admitted to the Capital Institute of Pediatrics from November 2012 to January 2013 were enrolled. All the subjects were assigned to receive 1.5 ml compound ipratropium bromide solution for inhalation and 1 ml budesonide firstly, twice a day. Then, the subjects were randomized to receive 2 ml doses of nebulized 5% HS (Group A), 3% HS (Group B) or 0.9% NS (Group C), twice a day. The treatment lasted for 3 days. Clinical severity scores before treatment and 24, 48, 72 h after treatment were documented. Bronchospasm, nausea and emesis were recorded to assess safety. A total of 124 patients completed this research.Group A included 40 cases, Group B included 42 cases, Group C included 42 cases. Demographic characteristics, pre-treatment duration and clinical severity score before treatment were similar among the 3 group.Seventy-two hours after treatment, the clinical severity score of Group A, B, and C were 3.5 (1.0) , 4.0 (1.0) and 5.0 (0) . At 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment, the clinical severity score were significantly different among the three groups (χ(2) = 36.000, 51.200, 50.800, P saline could decrease clinical symptoms of patient with acute bronchiolitis; 5% HS was superior to 3% HS. But 2 ml dose of 5% HS may induce paroxysmal cough.

  20. Mannitol versus hypertonic saline: Safety and efficacy of mannitol and hypertonic saline in sputum induction and bronchial hyperreactivity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; Vela, C; de Esteban, B

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophilic asthma phenotype predicts good response to corticosteroids and associates to asthmatic exacerbations. Sputum induction by hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation is technically demanding. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to osmotic agents indirectly mirrors active airway inflammation. We compared the safety and ability of HS and mannitol to induce sputum and measure BHR. We evaluated the stability of inflammatory phenotypes. We studied 35 non-smoking asthmatics randomized to undergo HS and mannitol challenges on 2 days 1 week apart. Sputum was sampled for cell analysis and phenotyped as eosinophilic (≥3% eosinophils) and non-eosinophilic (mannitol and nine of them also had BHR to HS. Drops in forced expiratory volume in 1 s were higher from HS challenge than from mannitol challenge. Adequate sputum samples were obtained from 80% subjects (68% mannitol and 71% HS). Eosinophils and macrophages from both challenges correlated. Neutrophils were higher in sputum from HS. Ninety percent samples were equally phenotyped with HS and mannitol. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and BHR correlated in both challenges. HS and mannitol showed similar capacity to produce valuable sputum samples. BHR to both osmotic stimuli partially resembled airway eosinophilic inflammation but mannitol was more sensitive than HS to assess BHR. Eosinophilic phenotype remained stable in most patients with both stimuli. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    The study was aimed at developing a reference model for experimental pain and tenderness in the human temporal muscle by the local injection of hypertonic saline, potassium chloride and acidic phosphate buffer, using isotonic saline as control. The design was randomized and double-blind. Twenty...

  2. Oxytocin and prolactin release after hypertonic saline administration in melatonin-treated male Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juszczak, M.; Steger, R.W.; Fadden, C.; Bartke, A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of the present investigations was to examine the effects of melatonin (Mel) on oxytocin (OT) release under conditions of osmotic stimulation, brought about by hypertonic saline administration, as well as to determine whether osmotically stimulated OT release in Mel-treated Syrian hamster is associated with alterations in the release of prolactin (PRL) and in norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) content in the hypothalamus. In both Mel- and vehicle-treated hamsters, injection of hypertonic saline was followed by a significant decrease in OT content in the pituitary neurointermediate lobe (NIL) and elevation of plasma OT and PRL levels. Melatonin injections had no significant affect on NIL OT content in either isotonic- or hypertonic-saline treated animals. Pretreatment with Mel did not alter plasma OT or PRL levels in isotonic saline-injected animals. However, Mel facilitated the release of OT, but prevented the release of PRL after hypertonic saline administration. Melatonin treatment reduced hypothalamic NE content (but not that of DA) in isotonic-saline treated animals. After osmotic stimulation, hypothalamic content of NE and DA was significantly lower in Mel-treated than in vehicle-treated animals. Data from the present study suggest that the osmotically-stimulated release of OT and PRL seems to be related to the activation of noradrenergic rather than dopaminergic transmission. Both dopaminergic and noradrenergic transmission may be, however, involved in mediating the effects of Mel on the osmotically-activated OT and PRL release. (author). 48 refs, 3 figs.

  3. Nebulized hypertonic saline via positive expiratory pressure versus via jet nebulizer in patients with severe cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Oisin J

    2011-06-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline is a highly effective therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet 10% of patients are intolerant of hypertonic saline administered via jet nebulizer. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) nebulizers splint open the airways and offers a more controlled rate of nebulization.

  4. Prehospital guidelines for use of hypertonic saline are not followed systematically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbaek, Julie; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) was introduced in our physician-based mobile emergency care unit (MECU) in September 2006 for patients with severe traumatic brain injury and hypotension. HS has, however, rarely been used and we sought to identify barriers to its implementation.......Hypertonic saline (HS) was introduced in our physician-based mobile emergency care unit (MECU) in September 2006 for patients with severe traumatic brain injury and hypotension. HS has, however, rarely been used and we sought to identify barriers to its implementation....

  5. Hypertonic saline impedes tumor cell-endothelial cell interaction by reducing adhesion molecule and laminin expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline infusion dampens inflammatory responses and suppresses neutrophil-endothelial interaction by reducing adhesion molecule expression. This study tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline attenuates tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium through a similar mechanism. METHODS: Human colon cancer cells (LS174T) were transfected with green fluorescent protein and exposed to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6 under hypertonic and isotonic conditions for 1 and 4 hours. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were similarly exposed. Cellular apoptosis and expression of adhesion molecules and laminin were measured by flow cytometry. Tumor cell adhesion to endothelium and laminin was assessed with fluorescence microscopy. Data are represented as mean +\\/- standard error of mean, and an ANOVA test was performed to gauge statistical significance, with P <.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hypertonic exposure significantly reduced tumor cell adhesion despite the presence of the perioperative cell stressors (42 +\\/- 2.9 vs 172.5 +\\/- 12.4, P <.05), attenuated tumor cell beta-1 integrin (14.43 vs 23.84, P <.05), and endothelial cell laminin expression (22.78 +\\/- 2.2 vs 33.74 +\\/- 2.4, P <.05), but did not significantly alter cell viability. CONCLUSION: Hypertonic saline significantly attenuates tumor cell adhesion to endothelium by inhibiting adhesion molecule and laminin expression. This may halt the metastatic behavior of tumor cells shed at surgery.

  6. Effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline in the treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisoo Hatami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is the most common viral respiratory infections in children under 2 years. No effective Short-term or long-term treatment for bronchiolitis has been approved yet. Treatment is still supportive with oxygen, fluid and mechanical ventilation as necessary. Several studies have shown that 3% hypertonic saline improve immediate and longterm cleaning of small airways in these patients. This study aimed to compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline with 0.9% saline in 2-24 month children with bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: In a non-randomized clinical trial, 60 children aged 2 to 24 months with diagnosis of acute viral bronchiolitis were enrolled. Thirty children recieved 3% hypertonic saline with nebulizer as the treatment group and 30 children treated with nebulized normal saline 0.9% as the control group. In entrance, oxygen saturation (by pulse oximetry, respiratory rate, pulse rate and severity of disease were measured using a combination score (sum of Clinical Score (YALE Observation Scale and RDAI (Respiratory Distress Assessment Index . The primary outcomes change in clinical score and hospitalization rate, and secondary outcomes were duration of hospitalization, need to oxygen therapy and recovery time from wheezing and cough. Results: Two groups were not different in terms of baseline variables, except age (8.9±4.9 months in the hypertonic saline group and 6.4 ± 4.6 months in normal saline group P=0.046. After the intervention, the difference in clinical severity between the hypertonic saline group (10.9±5.6 and normal saline (10.4±5.7 was not significant (adjusted for age P=0.77. The hospitalization rate was not significantly different in the two groups (60% vs 63.3%. Length of hospital stay, the need for oxygen therapy, number of days requiring intravenous fluid therapy and recovery time from cough and wheezing were not significantly different between two groups. Conclusion: It seems, 3% hypertonic

  7. Effect of hypertonic saline on hypotension following induction of general anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Kashefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of preoperatively administered i.v. hypertonic saline on hypotension following induction of general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four patients who scheduled for elective surgery were randomly allocated to two groups of 27 patients who received hypertonic saline 5% (2.3 ml/kg or received normal saline (13 ml/kg. Infusion of hypertonic saline was done half an hour before induction of anesthesia during 30 minutes. Anesthesia was conducted in a standard protocol for all patients. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP, heart rate (HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP were assessed in all patients. Results: The mean age of patients was 36.68 ± 10.8 years. Forty percent of patients were male. The mean SBP at min 2 and min 5, mean of DBP at min 2, 5, and 15, mean of HR at all time points and mean of MAP at min 2 and 15 between groups were no significantly different (P > 0.05, but mean of SBP at min 10 and 15, mean of DBP at min 10, and mean of MAP at min 5 and 10 in hypertonic saline group was significantly more than the normal group (P 0.05. Conclusions: Infusion of hypertonic saline 5% (2.3 mg/kg before the general anesthesia led to a useful reduction in MAP and reduced heart rate, with no episodes of severe hypotension.

  8. Nebulized hypertonic saline decreases IL-8 in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-02-01

    RATIONALE: Inflammation within the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung is mediated by inflammatory chemokines, such as IL-8. IL-8 is protected from proteolytic degradation in the airways by binding to glycosaminoglycans, while remaining active. Evidence that increased hypertonicity of airway secretions induced by hypertonic saline treatment alters levels of IL-8 is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antiinflammatory effect of hypertonic saline (HTS) treatment within the CF lung by focusing on IL-8. METHODS: Degradation of IL-8 in CF lung secretions after treatment with glycosaminoglycan lyases and HTS was analyzed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. The ex vivo chemotactic activity of purified neutrophils in response to CF airway secretions was evaluated post nebulization of HTS (7% saline). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In vivo CF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) IL-8 levels were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05). Digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BALF displaced IL-8 from glycosaminoglycan matrices, rendering the chemokine susceptible to proteolytic cleavage. High sodium concentrations also liberate IL-8 in CF BALF in vitro, and in vivo in CF sputum from patients receiving aerosolized HTS, resulting in degradation of IL-8 and decreased neutrophil chemotactic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Glycosaminoglycans possess the ability to influence the chemokine profile of the CF lung by binding and stabilizing IL-8, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment disrupts the interaction between glycosaminoglycans and IL-8, rendering IL-8 susceptible to proteolytic degradation with subsequent decrease in neutrophil chemotaxis, thereby facilitating resolution of inflammation.

  9. Quantification of nonosmotic sodium storage capacity following acute hypertonic saline infusion in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, Rik H. G.; Rorije, Nienke M. G.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.; Vogt, Liffert

    2017-01-01

    The assumption that sodium accumulation in the human body is always accompanied by water retention has been challenged by data showing that sodium can be stored nonosmotically. Here we investigated the contribution of nonosmotic sodium storage to short-term sodium homeostasis after hypertonic saline

  10. Prehospital guidelines for use of hypertonic saline are not followed systematically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbaek, Julie; Steinmetz, Jacob; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2012-01-01

    Hypertonic saline (HS) was introduced in our physician-based mobile emergency care unit (MECU) in September 2006 for patients with severe traumatic brain injury and hypotension. HS has, however, rarely been used and we sought to identify barriers to its implementation....

  11. Nebulized hypertonic saline/salbutamol solution treatment in hospitalized children with mild to moderate bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhengxiu; Liu, Enmei; Luo, Jian; Li, Subi; Zeng, Fengqiong; Yang, Xiqiang; Fu, Zhou

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution and salbutamol in the treatment of mild to moderate bronchiolitis. In a randomized controlled trial, 93 infants with mild to moderate bronchiolitis were divided into two groups. The infants received inhalation of 2.5 mg (0.5 mL) salbutamol dissolved in either 4.0 mL normal (0.9%) saline (control group, n= 43) or 4.0 mL hypertonic (3%) saline (treatment group, n= 50). The therapy was repeated three times daily until discharge. Cough, wheezing, pulmonary physical signs, and the length of hospital stay were recorded. Wheezing remission time was 3.8 + or - 1.1 days in the control group and 2.7 + or - 0.9 days in the treatment group (P saline solution and salbutamol is a safe and effective therapy for patients with mild to moderate bronchiolitis.

  12. Hypertonic saline (HS) for acute bronchiolitis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, C; Cantrill, H.; Hind, D.; Bradburn, M.; Everard, M L

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bronchiolitis is the commonest cause of hospitalisation in infancy. Currently management consists of supportive care and oxygen. A Cochrane review concluded that, ?nebulised 3?% saline may significantly reduce the length of hospital stay?. We conducted a systematic review of controlled trials of nebulised hypertonic saline (HS) for infants hospitalised with primary acute bronchiolitis. Methods Searches to January 2015 involved: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; ...

  13. Hypertonic saline reduces inflammation and enhances the resolution of oleic acid induced acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Joseph F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline (HTS reduces the severity of lung injury in ischemia-reperfusion, endotoxin-induced and ventilation-induced lung injury. However, the potential for HTS to modulate the resolution of lung injury is not known. We investigated the potential for hypertonic saline to modulate the evolution and resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury. Methods Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in all experiments. Series 1 examined the potential for HTS to reduce the severity of evolving oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 12 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 12, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Series 2 examined the potential for HTS to enhance the resolution of oleic acid (OA induced acute lung injury. Following intravenous OA administration, animals were randomized to receive isotonic (Control, n = 6 or hypertonic saline (HTS, n = 6, and the extent of lung injury assessed after 6 hours. Results In Series I, HTS significantly reduced bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL neutrophil count compared to Control [61.5 ± 9.08 versus 102.6 ± 11.89 × 103 cells.ml-1]. However, there were no between group differences with regard to: A-a O2 gradient [11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 12.0 ± 0.5 KPa]; arterial PO2; static lung compliance, or histologic injury. In contrast, in Series 2, hypertonic saline significantly reduced histologic injury and reduced BAL neutrophil count [24.5 ± 5.9 versus 46.8 ± 4.4 × 103 cells.ml-1], and interleukin-6 levels [681.9 ± 190.4 versus 1365.7 ± 246.8 pg.ml-1]. Conclusion These findings demonstrate, for the first time, the potential for HTS to reduce pulmonary inflammation and enhance the resolution of oleic acid induced lung injury.

  14. Hyaluronic acid improves "pleasantness" and tolerability of nebulized hypertonic saline in a cohort of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonpensiero, Paolo; De Gregorio, Fabiola; Sepe, Angela; Di Pasqua, Antonio; Ferri, Pasqualina; Siano, Maria; Terlizzi, Vito; Raia, Valeria

    2010-11-01

    Inhaled hypertonic saline improves lung function and decreases pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. However, side effects such as cough, narrowing of airways and saltiness cause intolerance of the therapy in 8% of patients. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of an inhaled solution of hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline with hypertonic solution alone on safety and tolerability. A total of 20 patients with cystic fibrosis aged 6 years and over received a single treatment regimen of 7% hypertonic saline solution or hypertonic solution with 0.1% hyaluronate for 2 days nonconsecutively after a washout period in an open crossover study. Cough, throat irritation, and salty taste were evaluated by a modified ordinal score for assessing tolerability; "pleasantness" was evaluated by a five-level, Likert-type scale. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second was registered before and after the end of the saline inhalations. All 20 patients (nine males, 11 females, mean age 13 years, range 8.9-17.7) completed the study. The inhaled solution of 0.1% hyaluronic acid and hypertonic saline significantly improved tolerability and pleasantness compared to hypertonic saline alone. No major adverse effects were observed. No difference was documented in pulmonary function tests between the two treatments. Hyaluronic acid combined with hypertonic saline solution may contribute to improved adherence to hypertonic saline therapy. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. Considering the extraordinary versatility of hyaluronic acid in biological reactions, perspective studies could define its applicability to halting progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis.

  15. Effects of hypertonic saline vs normal saline in lactate depuration after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehortúa-López, Luis Horacio; Mendoza-Franco, Ray; Escobar-Serna, José Fernando; Urrego, Luis Alejandro; Alzate, Fernando; Jaimes, Fabian

    2017-03-11

    The postoperative care of patients exposed to cardiac surgery frequently require a thorough reanimation with intravenous fluids but crystalloid solutions like normal saline may increase the interstitial edema, and also it is well known that fluid overload increases mortality. To compare the effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) with 0.9% normal saline (NS) in the lactate depuration and the hemodynamic response of patients during the first day after on-pump cardiovascular surgery. Patients who were 18 years of age and older with coronary artery disease and/or heart valve disease, and who went to bypass surgery and/or cardiac valve replacement were included and randomly allocated to receive 4mL/kg of HS or NS intravenously for 30min once were admitted to the ICU. We measured lactate, arterial blood gases, HR, CVP and PWP on 0, 6, 12 and 24h after being admitted to the ICU. The analysis was carried out with an intention-to-treat principle. A total of 494 patients were evaluated and 102 were included and assigned to the HS groups (51 patients) or NS (51 patients). Participants' average age was 59±14 years and 59.8% were men. We did not observe any statistically significant difference between two groups in the lactate depuration or in any of the secondary outcomes. Our study failed to show better lactate depuration using a dose of HS, and did not evidence a higher incidence of adverse effects in the HS group. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypertonic (3%) saline vs 0.93% saline nebulization for acute viral bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhagwan S; Gupta, Mukesh K; Rafik, Shaikh P

    2013-08-01

    To compare the length of hospital stay (primary) and improvement in clinical severity scores (secondary) among children with bronchiolitis nebulized with 3 % hypertonic saline or 0.9% saline. Randomized double blind controlled trial. Tertiary care teaching hospital. Hospitalized children (1-24 months) with acute bronchiolitis of moderate severity. Nebulization of 4 ml of 3% hypertonic saline or 4 mL of 0.9% saline, along with 2.5 mg salbutamol, at 4-hourly intervals till the patient was ready for discharge. Baseline characteristics were similar in two groups. Median clinical severity score at admission was 6 (IQR-1) in both the groups. Clinical severity scores monitored afterwards 12-hourly till discharge (132 h) did not show statistically significant differences in 3% and 0.9% saline groups. Mean length of hospital stay (time to reach predefined clinical severity scoresaline group and 63.51 ± 21.27 h in 0.9% saline group (P=0.878). No adverse events were reported by the parents, caregivers or treating medical attendants in both groups. Nebulized 3 % saline is not superior to 0.9% saline in infants with clinically diagnosed acute bronchiolitis.

  17. Nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution treatment in ambulatory children with viral bronchiolitis decreases symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Tal, Guy; Witzling, Michaela; Someck, Eli; Houri, Sion; Cohen, Herman A; Mandelberg, Avigdor

    2002-12-01

    To determine the utility of inhaled hypertonic saline solution to treat ambulatory infants with viral bronchiolitis. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Sixty-five ambulatory infants (mean +/- SD age, 12.5 +/- 6 months) with viral bronchiolitis received either of the following: inhalation of 0.5 mL (5 mg) terbutaline added to 2 mL of 0.9% saline solution as a wet nebulized aerosol (control; group 1; n = 32) or 0.5 mL (5 mg) terbutaline added to 2 mL of 3% saline solution administered in the same manner as above (treatment; group 2; n = 33). This therapy was repeated three times every day for 5 days. The clinical severity (CS) scores at baseline on the first day of treatment were 6.4 +/- 1.8 in group 1 and 6.6 +/- 1.5 in group 2 (not significant). After the first day, the CS score was significantly lower (better) in group 2 as compared to group 1 on each of the treatment days (p hypertonic saline solution-treated patients (group 2) as compared to the 0.9% saline solution-treated patients (group 1) [p = 0.01; Fig 1 ]. We conclude that in nonasthmatic, nonseverely ill ambulatory infants with viral bronchiolitis, aerosolized 3% saline solution plus 5 mg terbutaline is effective in decreasing symptoms as compared to 0.9% saline solution plus 5 mg terbutaline.

  18. 3% Hypertonic Saline Versus Normal Saline in Inpatient Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Alyssa H; Esteban-Cruciani, Nora; Azzarone, Gabriella; Douglas, Lindsey C; Lee, Diana S; Liewehr, Sheila; Nazif, Joanne M; Agalliu, Ilir; Villegas, Susan; Rhim, Hai Jung H; Rinke, Michael L; O'Connor, Katherine

    2015-12-01

    Bronchiolitis, the most common reason for hospitalization in children younger than 1 year in the United States, has no proven therapies effective beyond supportive care. We aimed to investigate the effect of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline (HS) compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) on length of stay (LOS) in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial in an urban tertiary care children's hospital in 227 infants younger than 12 months old admitted with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis (190 completed the study); 113 infants were randomized to HS (93 completed the study), and 114 to NS (97 completed the study). Subjects received 4 mL nebulized 3% HS or 4 mL 0.9% NS every 4 hours from enrollment until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was median LOS. Secondary outcomes were total adverse events, subdivided as clinical worsening and readmissions. Patient characteristics were similar in groups. In intention-to-treat analysis, median LOS (interquartile range) of HS and NS groups was 2.1 (1.2-4.6) vs 2.1 days (1.2-3.8), respectively, P = .73. We confirmed findings with per-protocol analysis, HS and NS groups with 2.0 (1.3-3.3) and 2.0 days (1.2-3.0), respectively, P = .96. Seven-day readmission rate for HS and NS groups were 4.3% and 3.1%, respectively, P = .77. Clinical worsening events were similar between groups (9% vs 8%, P = .97). Among infants admitted to the hospital with bronchiolitis, treatment with nebulized 3% HS compared with NS had no difference in LOS or 7-day readmission rates. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Effect of hypertonic saline treatment on the inflammatory response after hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holms, Carla Augusto; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Kahvegian, Marcia; Massoco, Cristina Oliveira; Fantoni, Denise Tabacchi; Gutierrez, Paulo Sampaio; Auler Junior, Jose Otavio Costa

    2015-08-01

    Hypertonic saline has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory cascade in certain experimental conditions, including pulmonary inflammation caused by inhaled gastric contents. The present study aimed to assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of administering a single intravenous dose of 7.5% hypertonic saline in an experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid. Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized and randomly allocated into the following four groups: Sham, which received anesthesia and were observed; HS, which received intravenous 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4 ml/kg); acute lung injury, which were subjected to acute lung injury with intratracheal hydrochloric acid; and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline, which were subjected to acute lung injury with hydrochloric acid and treated with hypertonic saline. Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded over four hours. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected at the end of the observation period to measure cytokine levels using an oxidative burst analysis, and lung tissue was collected for a histological analysis. Hydrochloric acid instillation caused marked changes in respiratory mechanics as well as blood gas and lung parenchyma parameters. Despite the absence of a significant difference between the acute lung injury and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline groups, the acute lung injury animals presented higher neutrophil and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary edema, congestion and alveolar collapse in both groups; however, the differences between groups were not significant. Despite the lower cytokine and neutrophil levels observed in the acute lung injury + hypertonic saline group, significant differences were not observed among the treated and non-treated groups. Hypertonic saline infusion after intratracheal hydrochloric

  20. Rubbing salt into wounds: hypertonic saline to assist with volume removal in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszkowski, Mark; Nohria, Anju

    2010-09-01

    Traditionally accepted management strategies for patients with heart failure include sodium and fluid restriction, neurohormonal blockade, and the use of loop diuretics to achieve and maintain euvolemia. Despite continued advances in medical and device therapy, fluid management remains a significant problem in patients with the cardiorenal syndrome (manifested as diuretic resistance and worsening renal function with more aggressive attempts at volume removal). This article examines the counterintuitive use of hypertonic saline as a potential therapy to facilitate diuresis in patients with decompensated heart failure and diuretic resistance. Low-volume hypertonic saline administration offsets counterproductive neurohormonal upregulation, transiently improves hemodynamics, and promotes renal sodium excretion with accompanied net water loss and preservation of renal function. This "new" therapeutic tool should be explored further as an adjunct to current medical therapies in the management of patients with refractory volume overload.

  1. Nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo or hypertonic saline in adult critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, Casper; Perner, Anders; Møller, Morten Hylander

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nebulised dornase alfa is used off-label in critically ill patients. We aimed to assess the benefits and harms of nebulised dornase alfa versus placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline on patient-important outcome measures in adult critically ill patients. METHODS: We performed...... a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) using the Cochrane Collaboration methodology. Eligible trials were randomised clinical trials comparing nebulised dornase alfa with placebo, no prophylaxis, or hypertonic saline. The predefined outcome measures were all-cause mortality...... of the primary estimate was assessed by TSA. RESULTS: Two trials (n = 63) were included; both were judged to have high risk of bias. There was no statistically significant difference in mortality (random effects model RR (95 % CI) 0.73 (0.09-5.77); P = 0.24; I (2) = 30 %). TSA could not be conducted because less...

  2. The association of hypernatremia and hypertonic saline irrigation in hepatic hydatid cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Rujun; Wu, Renhua; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei; Zhang, Yuwei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hypernatremia is a rare but fatal complication of hypertonic saline (HS) irrigation in hepatic hydatid disease. It needs careful monitoring and treatment. Patient concerns: A 28-year-old woman with hepatic hydatid cysts who received operation treatment developed electrolyte disturbances. We also conducted a retrospective study about influence of HS application on electrolytes in patients with hepatic hydatid disease receiving surgery. Diagnoses: Hypernatremia, developed af...

  3. Hypertonic Saline for the Treatment of Bronchiolitis in Infants and Young Children: A Critical Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiolitis, an infection of the lower respiratory tract, is the leading cause of infant and child hospitalization in the United States. Therapeutic options for management of bronchiolitis are limited. Hypertonic saline inhalation therapy has been studied in numerous clinical trials with mixed results. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published updated guidelines on the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis, which include new recommendations on the use of hypertonic saline. We reviewed all published clinical trials mentioned in the 2014 AAP guidelines, as well as additional trials published since the guidelines, and critically evaluated each trial to determine efficacy, safety, and expectations of hypertonic saline inhalation therapy. A total of 2682 infants were studied over the course of 22 clinical trials. Nine trials were carried out in the outpatient/clinic/emergency department and 13 in the inpatient setting. We agree with the AAP guidelines regarding the recommendation to use nebulized hypertonic saline for infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis, with the expectation of reducing bronchiolitis scores and length of stay when it is expected to last more than 72 hours. However, we also believe there might be an advantage for hypertonic saline in reducing admission rates from the emergency department, based on close examination of the results of recent trials. This review also highlights important gaps in the available literature that need to be addressed in order to define the role of inhaled hypertonic saline therapy. PMID:26997926

  4. Hypertonic Saline for the Treatment of Bronchiolitis in Infants and Young Children: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jeffrey; El-Chaar, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiolitis, an infection of the lower respiratory tract, is the leading cause of infant and child hospitalization in the United States. Therapeutic options for management of bronchiolitis are limited. Hypertonic saline inhalation therapy has been studied in numerous clinical trials with mixed results. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published updated guidelines on the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis, which include new recommendations on the use of hypertonic saline. We reviewed all published clinical trials mentioned in the 2014 AAP guidelines, as well as additional trials published since the guidelines, and critically evaluated each trial to determine efficacy, safety, and expectations of hypertonic saline inhalation therapy. A total of 2682 infants were studied over the course of 22 clinical trials. Nine trials were carried out in the outpatient/clinic/emergency department and 13 in the inpatient setting. We agree with the AAP guidelines regarding the recommendation to use nebulized hypertonic saline for infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis, with the expectation of reducing bronchiolitis scores and length of stay when it is expected to last more than 72 hours. However, we also believe there might be an advantage for hypertonic saline in reducing admission rates from the emergency department, based on close examination of the results of recent trials. This review also highlights important gaps in the available literature that need to be addressed in order to define the role of inhaled hypertonic saline therapy.

  5. Saline in Acute Bronchiolitis RCT and Economic evaluation: hypertonic saline in acute bronchiolitis - randomised controlled trial and systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Everard, M.L.; Hind, D.; Ugonna, K.; Freeman, J.; Bradburn, M.; Dixon, S.; Maguire, C.; Cantrill, H.; Alexander, J; Lenney, W; McNamara, P; Elphick, H; Chetcuti, P.A.J.; Moya, E.F.; Powell, C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalisation in infancy. Supportive care and oxygen are the cornerstones of management. A Cochrane review concluded that the use of nebulised 3% hypertonic saline (HS) may significantly reduce the duration of hospitalisation. \\ud \\ud OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that HS reduces the time to when infants were assessed as being fit for discharge, defined as in air with saturations of > 92% for 6 hours, by 25%. \\ud \\ud DESIGN: Pa...

  6. A randomized trial of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with epinephrine in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Simran; Ali, Samina; McConnell, Don W; Vandermeer, Ben; Klassen, Terry P

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with epinephrine is more effective than nebulized 0.9% saline with epinephrine in the treatment of bronchiolitis in the emergency department. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Single-center urban pediatric emergency department. Infants younger than 12 months with mild to moderate bronchiolitis. Patients were randomized to receive nebulized racemic epinephrine in either hypertonic or normal saline. The primary outcome measure was the change in respiratory distress, as measured by the Respiratory Assessment Change Score (RACS) from baseline to 120 minutes. The change in oxygen saturation was also determined. Secondary outcome measures included the rates of hospital admission and return to the emergency department. Forty-six patients were enrolled and evaluated. The 2 study groups had similar baseline characteristics. The RACS from baseline to 120 minutes demonstrated no improvement in respiratory distress in the hypertonic saline group compared with the normal saline control group. The change in oxygen saturation in the hypertonic saline group was not significant when compared with the control group. Rates of admission and return to the emergency department were not different between the 2 groups. In the treatment of acute bronchiolitis, hypertonic saline and epinephrine did not improve clinical outcome any more than normal saline and epinephrine in the emergency setting. This differs from previously published results of outpatient and inpatient populations and merits further evaluation. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN66632312.

  7. Ghrelin reduces hypertonic saline intake under a variety of natriorexigenic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G.; Daniels, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ghrelin on saline intake have not been investigated. Accordingly, we tested the effect of ghrelin on water and 1.8% NaCl intake in two-bottle test conditions under five stimuli that increase hypertonic saline intake: central angiotensin II administration, 24 h fluid deprivation, water deprivation followed by partial rehydration, dietary sodium deficiency, and polyethylene glycol administration combined with dietary sodium deficiency. We found that ghrelin attenuated saline intake stimulated by angiotensin II, by water deprivation followed by partial rehydration, and by dietary sodium deficiency. We did not detect an effect of ghrelin on saline intake after 24 h fluid deprivation without partial rehydration or after the combination of polyethylene glycol and dietary sodium deficiency. The finding that ghrelin reduced hypertonic saline intake under some, but not all, natriorexigenic conditions mirrors the previously published findings that in one-bottle tests of drinking, ghrelin reduces water intake under only some conditions. The results provide evidence for a new role for ghrelin in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis. PMID:21784787

  8. Ghrelin reduces hypertonic saline intake in a variety of natriorexigenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Daniels, Derek

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ghrelin on saline intake have not been investigated. Accordingly, we tested the effect of ghrelin on water and 1.8% NaCl intake in two-bottle test conditions with the following five stimuli that increase hypertonic saline intake: central angiotensin II administration; 24 h fluid deprivation; water deprivation followed by partial rehydration; dietary sodium deficiency; and polyethylene glycol administration combined with dietary sodium deficiency. We found that ghrelin attenuated saline intake stimulated by angiotensin II, by water deprivation followed by partial rehydration and by dietary sodium deficiency. We did not detect an effect of ghrelin on saline intake after 24 h fluid deprivation without partial rehydration or after the combination of polyethylene glycol and dietary sodium deficiency. The finding that ghrelin reduced hypertonic saline intake in some, but not all, natriorexigenic conditions mirrors the previously published findings that in one-bottle tests of drinking, ghrelin reduces water intake in only some conditions. The results provide evidence for a new role for ghrelin in the regulation of body fluid homeostasis.

  9. Hypertonic Saline for the Treatment of Bronchiolitis in Infants and Young Children: A Critical Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Jeffrey; El-Chaar, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Bronchiolitis, an infection of the lower respiratory tract, is the leading cause of infant and child hospitalization in the United States. Therapeutic options for management of bronchiolitis are limited. Hypertonic saline inhalation therapy has been studied in numerous clinical trials with mixed results. In 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published updated guidelines on the diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis, which include new recommendations on the use of hypertonic sal...

  10. In Vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Görlinger Klaus

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH, and 0.9% saline solution (as control were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. Methods The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes®, Fresenius Kabi, Germany, hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl, hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany or NaCl 0.9% (ISO in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM, the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm] and clotting time (CT, [s]. Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU/min]. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. Statistics: 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p Results Dilution impaired whole blood coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40

  11. In vitro impairment of whole blood coagulation and platelet function by hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Alexander A; Maschler, Stephanie; Schöchl, Herbert; Flöricke, Felix; Görlinger, Klaus; Zanger, Klaus; Kienbaum, Peter

    2011-02-10

    Hypertonic saline hydroxyethyl starch (HH) has been recommended for first line treatment of hemorrhagic shock. Its effects on coagulation are unclear. We studied in vitro effects of HH dilution on whole blood coagulation and platelet function. Furthermore 7.2% hypertonic saline, 6% hydroxyethylstarch (as ingredients of HH), and 0.9% saline solution (as control) were tested in comparable dilutions to estimate specific component effects of HH on coagulation. The study was designed as experimental non-randomized comparative in vitro study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent blood samples were taken from 10 healthy volunteers and diluted in vitro with either HH (HyperHaes, Fresenius Kabi, Germany), hypertonic saline (HT, 7.2% NaCl), hydroxyethylstarch (HS, HAES6%, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) or NaCl 0.9% (ISO) in a proportion of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40%. Coagulation was studied in whole blood by rotation thrombelastometry (ROTEM) after thromboplastin activation without (ExTEM) and with inhibition of thrombocyte function by cytochalasin D (FibTEM), the latter was performed to determine fibrin polymerisation alone. Values are expressed as maximal clot firmness (MCF, [mm]) and clotting time (CT, [s]). Platelet aggregation was determined by impedance aggregrometry (Multiplate) after activation with thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP) and quantified by the area under the aggregation curve (AUC [aggregation units (AU)/min]). Scanning electron microscopy was performed to evaluate HyperHaes induced cell shape changes of thrombocytes. 2-way ANOVA for repeated measurements, Bonferroni post hoc test, p coagulation and thrombocyte aggregation in all dilutions in a dose dependent fashion. In contrast to dilution with ISO and HS, respectively, dilution with HH as well as HT almost abolished coagulation (MCFExTEM from 57.3 ± 4.9 mm (native) to 1.7 ± 2.2 mm (HH 40% dilution; p coagulation is significant after 10% dilution or more. This effect can

  12. [Effect of 3% hypertonic saline as early fluid resuscitation in pediatric septic shock].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Ren, Xiaoxu; Gun, Linying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Yiming

    2015-08-01

    The mainstay of therapy in patients with septic shock is early and aggressive intravenous fluid resuscitation. However the type of intravenous fluid that would be ideal for managing septic shock has been intensely debated. In this study, the authors observed the effects of 3% hypertonic saline solution compared with normal saline solution as early fluid resuscitation in children with septic shock. In this prospective study, 44 septic shock children seen in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Children's Hospital Affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics were enrolled from January 2012 to January 2014, of whom 33 were male and 11 were female. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: normal saline group (NS group, 24 patients) and 3% hypertonic saline group (HS group,20 patients). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups of patients in age, gender, pediatric critical illness score (PCIS), oxygenation index (OI = PaO2/FiO2), arterial lactate, initial hemodynamic parameters, serum sodium and treatment at time of admission. Patients in NS group received normal saline guided by standard therapy. Those in HS group received 6 ml/kg 3% hypertonic saline as a single bolus over 10 min to 15 min with a maximum of 2 boluses and other standard therapy. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), arterial lactate, oxygenation index, urine output, serum sodium, lactate clearance rate, PCIS, fluid infusion volume, vasoactive - inotropic score, mechanical ventilation time , as well as incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and 28 days in - hospital mortality were recorded for all patients. (1) HR, MAP in both groups were significantly higher after infusion than those on admission. There were no significant difference in HR and MAP at 1h, 3h, 6h and 24h after infusion between NS group and HS group. (2) OI in HS group was significantly higher than that on admission at 3 hours after infusion [(321. 8 ± 50. 7) vs. (296. 5 ± 58. 2

  13. Early Halt of a Randomized Controlled Study with 3% Hypertonic Saline in Acute Bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsin, Ania; Sauvaget, Emilie; Bresson, Violaine; Retornaz, Karine; Cabrera, Maria; Jouve, Elisabeth; Truillet, Romain; Bosdure, Emmanuelle; Dubus, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Albeit not recommended because of contradictory results, nebulized 3% hypertonic saline is widely used for treating acute viral bronchiolitis. Whether clinical differences may be attributed to the type of nebulizer used has never been studied. By modifying the amount of salt deposited into the airways, the nebulizer characteristics might influence clinical response. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial included infants hospitalized in a French university hospital for a first episode of bronchiolitis. Each child received 6 nebulizations of 3% hypertonic saline during 48 h delivered with 1 of the 3 following nebulizers: 2 jet nebulizers delivering large or small particles, with a low aerosol output, and 1 mesh nebulizer delivering small particles, with a high aerosol output. The primary endpoint was the difference in the Wang score at 48 h. Only 61 children of 168 were recruited before stopping this study because of severe adverse events (n = 4) or parental requests for discontinuation due to discomfort to their child during nebulization (n = 2). One minor adverse event was noted in 91.8% (n = 56/61) of children. A high aerosol output induced 75% of the severe adverse events; it was significantly associated with the nebulization-induced cough between 24 and 48 h (p = 0.036). Decreases in Wang scores were not significantly different between the groups at 48 h, 9 recoveries out of 10 being obtained with small particles. No beneficial effects and possibly severe adverse events are observed with 3% hypertonic saline in the treatment of bronchiolitis. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Complications associated with prolonged hypertonic saline therapy in children with elevated intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, David D; Meltzer, Hal S; Crawford, John R; Hilfiker, Mary L; Shellington, David K; Peterson, Bradley M; Levy, Michael L

    2013-07-01

    Safe upper limits for therapeutic hypernatremia in the treatment of intracranial hypertension have not been well established. We investigated complications associated with hypernatremia in children who were treated with prolonged infusions of hypertonic saline. Retrospective chart analysis. PICU in university-affiliated children's hospital. All children from 2004 to 2009 requiring intracranial pressure monitoring (external ventricular drain or fiberoptic intraparenchymal monitor) for at least 4 days who were treated with hypertonic saline infusion for elevated intracranial pressure and did not meet exclusion criteria. Continuous hypertonic saline infusion on a sliding scale was used to achieve target sodium levels that would keep intracranial pressure less than 20 mm Hg once the conventional therapies failed. Eighty-eight children met inclusion criteria. Etiologies of elevated intracranial pressure included trauma (n = 48), ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (n = 20), infection (n = 8), acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (n = 5), neoplasm (n = 2), and others (n = 5). The mean peak serum sodium was 171.3 mEq/L (range, 150-202). The mean Glasgow Outcome Score was 2.8 (± 1.1) at time of discharge from the hospital. Overall mortality was 15.9%. Children with sustained (> 72 hr) serum sodium levels above 170 mEq/L had a significantly higher occurrence of thrombocytopenia (p syndrome (p = 0.029) after controlling for variables of age, gender, Pediatric Risk of Mortality score, duration of barbiturate-induced coma, duration of intracranial pressure monitoring, vasopressor requirements, and underlying pathology. Children with sustained serum sodium levels greater than 165 mEq/L had a significantly higher prevalence of anemia (p syndrome than those whose sodium level was maintained below these thresholds.

  15. SABRE: a multicentre randomised control trial of nebulised hypertonic saline in infants hospitalised with acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L; Hind, Daniel; Ugonna, Kelechi; Freeman, Jennifer; Bradburn, Mike; Cooper, Cindy L; Cross, Elizabeth; Maguire, Chin; Cantrill, Hannah; Alexander, John; McNamara, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is the commonest cause for hospitalisation in infancy. Supportive care remains the cornerstone of current management and no other therapy has been shown to influence the course of the disease. It has been suggested that adding nebulised hypertonic saline to usual care may shorten the duration of hospitalisation. To determine whether hypertonic saline does have beneficial effects we undertook an open, multi-centre parallel-group, pragmatic RCT in ten UK hospitals. Infants admitted to hospital with a clinical diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis and requiring oxygen therapy were randomised to receive usual care alone or nebulised 3% hypertonic saline (HS) administered 6-hourly. Randomisation was within 4 h of admission. The primary outcome was time to being assessed as 'fit' for discharge with secondary outcomes including time to discharge, incidence of adverse events together with follow up to 28 days assessing patient centred health related outcomes. A total of 317 infants were recruited to the study. 158 infants were randomised to HS (141 analysed) and 159 to standard care (149 analysed). There was no difference between the two arms in time to being declared fit for discharge (hazard ratio: 0-95, 95% CI: 0.75-1.20) nor to actual discharge (hazard ratio: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.76-1.23). There was no difference in adverse events. One infant in the HS group developed bradycardia with desaturation. This study does not support the use of nebulised HS in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis over usual care with minimal handlings. NCT01469845. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Nebulized hypertonic-saline vs epinephrine for bronchiolitis; proof of concept study of cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeraj; Puliyel, Ashish; Manchanda, Ayush; Puliyel, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    To apply cumulative sum (CUSUM) to monitor a drug trial of nebulized hypertonic-saline in bronchiolitis. To test if monitoring with CUSUM control lines is practical and useful as a prompt to stop the drug trial early, if the study drug performs significantly worse than the comparator drug. Prospective, open label, controlled trial using standard therapy (epinephrine) and study drug (hypertonic-saline) sequentially in two groups of patients. Hospital offering tertiary-level pediatric care. Children, 2 months to 2 years, with first episode of bronchiolitis, excluding those with cardiac disease, immunodeficiency and critical illness at presentation. Nebulized epinephrine in first half of the bronchiolitis season (n = 35) and hypertonic saline subsequently (n = 29). Continuous monitoring of response to hypertonic-saline using CUSUM control charts developed with epinephrine-response data. Clinical score, tachycardia and total duration of hospital stay. In the epinephrine group, the maximum CUSUM was +2.25 (SD 1.34) and minimum CUSUM was -2.26 (SD 1.34). CUSUM score with hypertonic saline group stayed above the zero line throughout the study. There was no statistical difference in the post-treatment clinical score at 24 hours between the treatment groups {Mean (SD) 3.516 (2.816): 3.552 (2.686); 95% CI: -1.416 to 1.356}, heart rate {Mean (SD) 136 (44): 137(12); 95% CI: -17.849 to 15.849) or duration of hospital stay (Mean (SD) 96.029 (111.41): 82.914 (65.940); 95% CI: -33.888 to 60.128}. The software we developed allows for drawing of control lines to monitor study drug performance. Hypertonic saline performed as well or better than nebulized epinephrine in bronchiolitis.

  17. Evaluation of the Maintained Effect of 3% Hypertonic Saline Solution in an Animal Model of Intracranial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Leonardo M; de Andrade, Almir F; Belon, Alessandro R; Soares, Matheus S; Amorim, Robson Luis; Otochi, Jose Pinhata; Teixeira, Manoel J; Paiva, Wellingson S

    2016-10-25

    BACKGROUND Current clinical treatment methods for refractory intracranial hypertension include elevation of the decubitus, ventilation adjustment, and use of hypertonic solutions such as hypertonic saline and mannitol solutions. Previous studies have shown that hypertonic solutions are particularly effective. Although several concentrations of saline solution have been proposed, a 3% solution is the most widely used. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maintained efficacy of a 3% hypertonic saline solution in an experimental model of intracranial hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHODS A porcine model of reversible intracranial hypertension was created by inserting a balloon catheter into the brain parenchyma, which was inflated and deflated to simulate intracranial hypertension and its surgical correction. The experiment included 3 groups of animals (A, B, and C) with different balloon inflation volumes. In group B, balloons were inflated 2 times to simulate reexpansion. A 20 mL/kg bolus of 3% saline solution was infused using a pump 90 minutes after the start of balloon inflation, and the effects of intracranial pressure were evaluated 60 minutes after infusion. RESULTS No increases outside of the normal range were observed in mean serum sodium concentrations (p=0.09). In addition, we identified no differences within each group in serum sodium levels measured during hypertonic saline infusion (p=0.21). No significant reductions in intracranial pressure were observed in any of the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS Bolus infusion of 3% hypertonic saline solution with the aid of a pump does not significantly reduce intracranial pressure in an animal model of intracranial hypertension.

  18. Effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Percário, Sandro; Ribeiro, Rubens Fernando Gonçalves; Cavalcante, Lainy Carollyne da Costa; Monteiro, Andrew Moraes; Couteiro, Rodrigo Paracampo; Rodrigues, Ivone Aline da Silva; Santos, Hellen Aparecida Geyer Dos

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Hypertonic saline solution group (HSS) treated with hypertonic saline solution (4ml/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Hypertonic saline solution group (Per+HSS) with both treatments. After reperfusion, blood samples were collected for BUN and creatinine serum levels analyzes. TBARS were evaluated in plasma and renal tissue to assess oxidative stress. Kidney histopathological examination were performed. Per+HSS group showed a lower degree of renal dysfunction in relation to I/R group, whereas the technique of remote ischemic perconditioning isolated or associated with saline solution significantly reduced oxidative stress and histological damage. Remote ischemic perconditioning associated or not to saline solution promoted reduction of acute renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  19. Nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution treatment in hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelberg, Avigdor; Tal, Guy; Witzling, Michaela; Someck, Eli; Houri, Sion; Balin, Ami; Priel, Israel E

    2003-02-01

    To determine the utility of inhaled hypertonic saline solution to treat infants hospitalized with viral bronchiolitis. Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Fifty-two hospitalized infants (mean +/- SD age, 2.9 +/- 2.1 months) with viral bronchiolitis received either inhalation of epinephrine, 1.5 mg, in 4 mL of 0.9% saline solution (group 1; n = 25) or inhalation of epinephrine, 1.5 mg, in 4 mL of 3% saline solution (group 2; n = 27). This therapy was repeated three times every hospitalization day until discharge. The percentage improvement in the clinical severity scores after inhalation therapy was not significant in group 1 on the first, second, and third days after hospital admission (3.5%, 2%, and 4%, respectively). In group 2, significant improvement was observed on these days (7.3%, 8.9%, and 10%, respectively; p saline solution decreased the hospitalization stay by 25%: from 4 +/- 1.9 days in group 1 to 3 +/- 1.2 days in group 2 (p infants hospitalized with viral bronchiolitis, aerosolized 3% saline solution/1.5 mg epinephrine decreases symptoms and length of hospitalization as compared to 0.9% saline solution/1.5 mg epinephrine.

  20. Nebulized 5% or 3% hypertonic or 0.9% saline for treating acute bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ansari, Khalid; Sakran, Mahmoud; Davidson, Bruce L; El Sayyed, Rafah; Mahjoub, Hella; Ibrahim, Khalid

    2010-10-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of 5%, 3%, and 0.9% saline solution for treating acute bronchiolitis in the prehospital setting. This was a double-blind trial including consecutive infants aged saline with epinephrine every 4 hours. The primary efficacy outcome was bronchiolitis severity score improvement at 48 hours (chi2 analysis). Scores and oxygen saturation immediately before and after each treatment were recorded to assess safety. A total of 187 previously healthy infants (median age, 3.1 months) diagnosed with bronchiolitis were enrolled. Positivity for respiratory syncytial virus was similar in the 3 treatment groups (mean, 56%). At 48 hours, the mean severity score for the 5% saline group was 3.69+/-1.09, and that for the 0.9% saline group was 4.12+/-1.11 (P=.04; difference, 0.43, 95% confidence interval for the difference, 0.02-0.88). The mean severity score for the 3% saline group was intermediate at 4.00+/-1.22. Revisit rates after discharge were similar in the 3 treatment groups. No adverse reactions or other safety concerns were identified. Nebulization with 5% hypertonic saline is safe, can be widely generalizable, and may be superior to current treatment for early outpatient treatment of bronchiolitis. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Animal experimentation of reimplantation of hypertonic saline-induced devitalized bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chang-liang; Yang, Yi; Sun, Xin; Guo, Wei

    2012-12-18

    To observe the healing process and the change of biomechanical properties of hypertonic saline-induced devitalized bone segment, so as to provide fundamental theory for clinical treatment. A model of New Zealand rabbit ulnar segments devitalized by hypertonic saline was established and then reimplanted in situ. The ulnar specimens were taken for examination of X-rays, light microscope and three-point-bend test at the end of 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. The devitalized bone healed at the end of 12 weeks in the X-ray film. The histological examination showed that osteoblast multiplied and secreted osteoid gradually. The maximal breaking load of the devitalized bone continuously increased and reached the top at the end of 24 weeks [control group (206.25±16.64) N vs. devitalized group (196.88±8.24) N, P>0.05]. The devitalized bone healed through intramembranous and endochondral ossification, and the endochondral ossification predominated; the biomechanical strength of devitalized bone continually increased as time lasted.

  2. Computerized Assessment of Wheezing in Children With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis Before and After Hypertonic Saline Nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Tina E; Kamps, Arvid Wa; Sjoerdsma, Machtelt H; Vermeulen, Stephanie; Veeger, Nic Jgm; Bont, Louis J

    2015-09-01

    Studies suggest an effect of nebulized hypertonic saline solution on air-flow limitation in subjects with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis, but results are based on subjective scores of clinical severity and are not clear. In this observational study, we used a noninvasive computerized tool to quantify wheezing before and after nebulization with hypertonic saline in children admitted for RSV infection. Twenty-seven children (≤ 24 months old) admitted to the pediatric ward of the Medical Center Leeuwarden with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed RSV bronchiolitis were included. Subjects were simultaneously assessed both clinically and by computerized acoustic monitoring before and 15 min after treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline solution. Clinical assessment, defined by the Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score, did not change after nebulization (n = 27, 5.0 vs 4.7, P = .17). Computerized acoustic monitoring showed no improvement in wheezing (n = 27, 3.4% vs 2.0%, P = .05) or inspiration/expiration ratio (0.85 vs 0.85, P = .93) after nebulization. Hypertonic saline nebulization does not improve air flow, as assessed by both clinical and computerized acoustic scores, in children admitted for RSV. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. [Nebulized hypertonic saline and acute viral bronchiolitis in infants: current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, E; David, M; Bresson, V; Retornaz, K; Bosdure, E; Dubus, J-C

    2012-06-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis affects infants, is frequent, and can be severe. Its treatment is only based on symptoms. Hypertonic saline (HS) may act favorably in this situation by fighting virus-induced dehydration of the airway liquid surface. Because of an osmotic action, HS attracts the water from the epithelial cells and improves mucociliary clearance. Five double-blind placebo-controlled studies concerning hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis showed that repeated nebulizations of 3% HS induce a 20% improvement in the clinical severity score and reduced the hospital length of stay by 24h. Tolerance is excellent. On the other hand, a few questions remain unresolved: what is the optimal salt concentration? What is the recommended nebulizer? What is the best frequency for nebulizer use? Can nebulized HS be used at home? What are the results with systematic physiotherapy when HS is used? Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypertonic saline reduces vascular leakage in a mouse model of severe dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Grace Kai Xin; Ng, Jowin Kai Wei; Tan, Kar Wai; Angeli, Veronique; Moochhala, Shabbir; Ooi, Eng Eong; Alonso, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Dengue (DEN) is a mosquito-borne viral disease and represents a serious public health threat and an economical burden throughout the tropics. Dengue clinical manifestations range from mild acute febrile illness to severe DEN hemorrhagic fever/DEN shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Currently, resuscitation with large volumes of isotonic fluid remains the gold standard of care for DEN patients who develop vascular leakage and shock. Here, we investigated the ability of small volume of hypertonic saline (HTS) suspensions to control vascular permeability in a mouse model of severe DEN associated with vascular leakage. Several HTS treatment regimens were considered and our results indicated that a single bolus of 7.5% NaCl at 4 mL per kg of body weight administered at the onset of detectable vascular leakage rapidly and significantly reduced vascular leak for several days after injection. This transient reduction of vascular leakage correlated with reduced intestine and liver damage with restoration of the hepatic functions, and resulted in delayed death of the infected animals. Mechanistically, we showed that HTS did not directly impact on the viral titers but resulted in lower immune cells counts and decreased systemic levels of soluble mediators involved in vascular permeability. In addition, we demonstrated that neutrophils do not play a critical role in DEN-associated vascular leakage and that the therapeutic effect of HTS is not mediated by its impact on the neutrophil counts. Together our data indicate that HTS treatment can transiently but rapidly reduce dengue-associated vascular leakage, and support the findings of a recent clinical trial which evaluated the efficacy of a hypertonic suspension to impact on vascular permeability in DSS children.

  5. Nebulized hypertonic saline in the treatment of viral bronchiolitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzik, Brian A; Al-Qadhi, Samim A; Kent, Steven; Flavin, Michael P; Hopman, Wilma; Hotte, Simon; Gander, Sarah

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the use of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline (HS) for treating viral bronchiolitis in moderately ill hospitalized infants by a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled, multicenter trial. A total of 96 infants (mean age, 4.7 months; range, 0.3 to 18 months) admitted to the hospital for treatment of viral bronchiolitis were recruited from 3 regional pediatric centers over 3 bronchiolitis seasons (December 2003 to May 2006). Patients were randomized to receive, in a double-blind fashion, repeated doses of nebulized 3% HS (treatment group) or 0.9% normal saline (NS; control group), in addition to routine therapy ordered by the attending physician. The principal outcome measure was hospital length of stay (LOS). On an intention-to-treat basis, the infants in the HS group had a clinically relevant 26% reduction in LOS to 2.6 +/- 1.9 days, compared with 3.5 +/- 2.9 days in the NS group (P = .05). The treatment was well tolerated, with no adverse effects attributable to the use of HS. The use of nebulized 3% HS is a safe, inexpensive, and effective treatment for infants hospitalized with moderately severe viral bronchiolitis.

  6. Sensory findings after stimulation of the thoracolumbar fascia with hypertonic saline suggest its contribution to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Andreas; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Magerl, Walter; Benrath, Justus; Klein, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-02-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline into deep tissues of the back (subcutis, muscle, or the surrounding fascia) can induce acute low back pain (LBP). So far, no study has analyzed differences in temporal, qualitative, and spatial pain characteristics originating from these tissues. The current study aimed to investigate the role of the thoracolumbar fascia as a potential source of LBP. In separate sessions, 12 healthy subjects received ultrasound-guided bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.9%) or hypertonic saline (5.8%) into the erector spinae muscle, the thoracolumbar fascia (posterior layer), and the overlying subcutis. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity, duration, quality, and spatial extent. Pressure pain thresholds were determined pre and post injection. Injections of hypertonic saline into the fascia resulted in significantly larger area under the curve of pain intensity over time than injections into subcutis (Ppain durations and, to a lesser extent, on higher peak pain ratings. Pressure hyperalgesia was only induced by injection of hypertonic saline into muscle, but not fascia or subcutis. Pain radiation and pain affect evoked by fascia injection exceeded those of the muscle (PPain descriptors after fascia injection (burning, throbbing, and stinging) suggested innervation by both A- and C-fiber nociceptors. These findings show that the thoracolumbar fascia is the deep tissue of the back that is most sensitive to chemical stimulation, making it a prime candidate to contribute to nonspecific LBP but not to localized pressure hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced pulmonary injury by aerosolized hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, C J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) provide potential strategies to attenuate inappropriate inflammatory reactions. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of intratracheal aerosolized HTS modulates the development of lung injury in pancreatitis. METHODS: Pancreatitis was induced in 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20% L-arginine (500 mg\\/100 g body weight). At 24 and 48 h, intratracheal aerosolized HTS (7.5% NaCl, 0.5 mL) was administered to 8 rats, while a further 8 received 0.5 mL of aerosolized normal saline (NS). At 72 hours, pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) and endothelial permeability (bronchoalveolar lavage and wet:dry weight ratios) were assessed. In addition, histological assessment of representative lung tissue was performed by a blinded assessor. In a separate experiment, polymorphonucleocytes (PMN) were isolated from human donors, and exposed to increments of HTS. Neutrophil transmigration across an endothelial cell layer, VEGF release, and apoptosis at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h were assessed. RESULTS: Histopathological lung injury scores were significantly reduced in the HTS group (4.78 +\\/- 1.43 vs. 8.64 +\\/- 0.86); p < 0.001). Pulmonary neutrophil sequestration (1.40 +\\/- 0.2) and increased endothelial permeability (6.77 +\\/- 1.14) were evident in the animals resuscitated with normal saline when compared with HTS (0.70 +\\/- 0.1 and 3.57 +\\/- 1.32), respectively; p < 0.04). HTS significantly reduced PMN transmigration (by 97.1, p = 0.002, and induced PMN apoptosis (p < 0.03). HTS did not impact significantly upon neutrophil VEGF release (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intratracheal aerosolized HTS attenuates the neutrophil-mediated pulmonary insult subsequent to pancreatitis. This may represent a novel therapeutic strategy.

  8. Abnormal increase in urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in response to hypertonic saline in essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graffe Carolina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysregulation of the expression/shuttling of the aquaporin-2 water channel (AQP2 and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC in renal collecting duct principal cells has been found in animal models of hypertension. We tested whether a similar dysregulation exists in essential hypertension. Methods We measured urinary excretion of AQP2 and ENaC β-subunit corrected for creatinine (u-AQP2CR, u-ENaCβ-CR, prostaglandin E2 (u-PGE2 and cyclic AMP (u-cAMP, fractional sodium excretion (FENa, free water clearance (CH2O, as well as plasma concentrations of vasopressin (AVP, renin (PRC, angiotensin II (Ang II, aldosterone (Aldo, and atrial and brain natriuretic peptide (ANP, BNP in 21 patients with essential hypertension and 20 normotensive controls during 24-h urine collection (baseline, and after hypertonic saline infusion on a 4-day high sodium (HS diet (300 mmol sodium/day and a 4-day low sodium (LS diet (30 mmol sodium/day. Results At baseline, no differences in u-AQP2CR or u-ENaCβ-CR were measured between patients and controls. U-AQP2CR increased significantly more after saline in patients than controls, whereas u-ENaCβ-CR increased similarly. The saline caused exaggerated natriuretic increases in patients during HS intake. Neither baseline levels of u-PGE2, u-cAMP, AVP, PRC, Ang II, Aldo, ANP, and BNP nor changes after saline could explain the abnormal u-AQP2CR response. Conclusions No differences were found in u-AQP2CR and u-ENaCβ-CR between patients and controls at baseline. However, in response to saline, u-AQP2CR was abnormally increased in patients, whereas the u-ENaCβ-CR response was normal. The mechanism behind the abnormal AQP2 regulation is not clarified, but it does not seem to be AVP-dependent. Clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT00345124.

  9. Comparison of 3% and 7.5% Hypertonic Saline in Resuscitation After Traumatic Hypovolemic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juan; Ren, Hui-Qin; Zhao, Qing-Bo; Wu, You-Liang; Qiao, Zhuo-Yi

    2015-03-01

    Hypertonic saline solutions (HSSs) (7.5%) are useful in the resuscitation of patients with hypovolemic shock because they provide immediate intravascular volume expansion via the delivery of a small volume of fluid, improving cardiac function. However, the effects of using 3% HSS in hypovolemic shock resuscitation are not well known. This study was designed to compare the effects of and complications associated with 3% HSS, 7.5% HSS, and standard fluid in resuscitation. In total, 294 severe trauma patients were enrolled from December 2008 to February 2012 and subjected to a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Individual patients were treated with 3% HSS (250 mL), 7.5% HSS (250 mL), or lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) (250 mL). Mean arterial pressure, blood pressure, and heart rate were monitored and recorded before fluid infusion and at 10, 30, 45, and 60 min after infusion, and the incidence of complications and survival rate were analyzed. The results indicate that 3% and 7.5% HSSs rapidly restored mean arterial pressure and led to the requirement of an approximately 50% lower total fluid volume compared with the LRS group (P shock.

  10. Hypertonic saline for the management of raised intracranial pressure after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangat, Halinder S; Härtl, Roger

    2015-05-01

    Hyperosmolar agents are commonly used as an initial treatment for the management of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). They have an excellent adverse-effect profile compared to other therapies, such as hyperventilation and barbiturates, which carry the risk of reducing cerebral perfusion. The hyperosmolar agent mannitol has been used for several decades to reduce raised ICP, and there is accumulating evidence from pilot studies suggesting beneficial effects of hypertonic saline (HTS) for similar purposes. An ideal therapeutic agent for ICP reduction should reduce ICP while maintaining cerebral perfusion (pressure). While mannitol can cause dehydration over time, HTS helps maintain normovolemia and cerebral perfusion, a finding that has led to a large amount of pilot data being published on the benefits of HTS, albeit in small cohorts. Prophylactic therapy is not recommended with mannitol, although it may be beneficial with HTS. To date, no large clinical trial has been performed to directly compare the two agents. The best current evidence suggests that mannitol is effective in reducing ICP in the management of traumatic intracranial hypertension and carries mortality benefit compared to barbiturates. Current evidence regarding the use of HTS in severe TBI is limited to smaller studies, which illustrate a benefit in ICP reduction and perhaps mortality. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Protective effect of bronchial challenge with hypertonic saline on nocturnal asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Borges

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation of hypertonic saline (HS causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Repeated inhalation of HS leads to substantially reduced bronchoconstriction, known as the refractory period. Refractoriness due to different stimuli has also been described (cross-refractoriness. Nocturnal asthma is defined as an increase in symptoms, need for medication, airway responsiveness, and/or worsening of lung function that usually occurs from 4 to 6 am. Our objective was to determine the effect of refractoriness on nocturnal asthma. The challenge test consisted of inhalations of 4.5% saline with increasing durations until a reduction of 20% in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (PD20HS or total time of 15.5 min. Twelve subjects with nocturnal asthma were challenged with HS at 16:00 and 18:00 h and FEV1 was measured at 4:00 h. One to 2 weeks later, FEV1 was determined at 16:00 and 4:00 h. LogPD20HS at 18:00 h was significantly greater than logPD20HS at 16:00 h, 0.51 ± 0.50 and 0.69 ± 0.60 mg, respectively (P = 0.0033. When subjects underwent two HS challenges in the afternoon, mean (± SD FEV1 reduction was 206 ± 414 mL or 9.81 ± 17.42%. On the control day (without challenge in the afternoon FEV1 reduction was 523 ± 308 mL or 22.75 ± 15.40% (P = 0.021. Baseline FEV1 values did not differ significantly between the control and study days, 2.48 ± 0.62 and 2.36 ± 0.46 L, respectively. The refractory period following HS challenges reduces the nocturnal worsening of asthma. This new concept may provide beneficial applications to asthmatic patients.

  12. Hypertonic saline solution and high-dose furosemide infusion in cardiorenal syndrome: our experience

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    Francesco Ventrella

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heart failure is frequently complicated by renal failure, and this association is a negative prognostic factor. These patients sometimes present oligo-/anuria and resistance to high-dose furosemide, a condition referred to as the cardiorenal syndrome (CRS. Acute or chronic reductions in left ventricular function result in decreased blood flow, with reduction of renal perfusion and activation of several neurohormonal systems, which cause resistance to diuretic therapy. This condition often requires ultrafiltration, which is an effective, but invasive and expensive procedure. Infusions of hypertonic saline solution (HSS and high-dose furosemide can be an effective alternative. Materials and methods From November 2009 through May 2010, our team treated 20 patients with CRS and resistance to iv boluses of high-dose furosemide. These patients were treated with small-volume (150-250 mL infusions of HSS (NaCl 1.57 – 4.5%, depending on serum Na values and high-dose furosemide twice a day. The aim of this treatment is to modify renal hemodynamics and the water-saline balance in the kidney by counteracting the extracellular fluid accumulation and eliminating symptoms of congestion. Results In 18 patients (90%, urine output was restored and renal function improved during the first hours of treatment. Clinical improvement was evident from the first day of therapy, and there were no adverse events. Two patients (10% did not respond to the treatment: one (who had been in critical condition since admission died; the other required regular sessions of ultrafiltration. Conclusions HSS combined with high-dose furosemide is a safe, effective, low-cost approach to the treatment of CRS that is resistant to diuretic therapy.

  13. Nebulized hypertonic saline for bronchiolitis in the emergency department: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Todd A; Shaw, Kathy N; Kittick, Marlena; Yakscoe, Stephen; Zorc, Joseph J

    2014-07-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is the most frequent lower respiratory tract infection in infants, yet there are no effective therapies available. Current evidence is unclear about the role of hypertonic saline (HS) for the acute treatment of bronchiolitis. To determine whether nebulized 3% HS compared with normal saline (NS) improves respiratory distress in infants with bronchiolitis not responding to standard treatments in the emergency department. A randomized clinical trial with blinding of investigators, health care providers, and parents was conducted at a single urban pediatric ED. The participants included children aged 2 to less than 24 months with their first episode of bronchiolitis and a Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score of 4 to 15 after nasal suctioning and a trial of nebulized albuterol. Patients were randomized to receive either nebulized 3% HS (HS group) or NS (NS group). The primary outcome was change in respiratory distress at 1 hour after the intervention, as measured by the Respiratory Assessment Change Score (a decrease indicates improvement). Secondary outcomes included vital signs, oxygen saturation, hospitalization, physician clinical impression, parental assessment, and adverse events. The 31 patients enrolled in each treatment arm had similar baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. At 1 hour after the intervention, the HS group demonstrated significantly less improvement in the median Respiratory Assessment Change Score compared with the NS group (HS, -1 [interquartile range, -5 to 1] vs. NS, -5 [interquartile range, -6 to -2]; P = .01). There were no significant differences in heart rate, oxygen saturation, hospitalization rate, or other outcomes. There were no adverse events. Infants with bronchiolitis and persistent respiratory distress after standard treatment in the emergency department had less improvement after receiving 3% HS compared with those who received NS. Based on these results and the existing evidence

  14. Salt Appetite Is Reduced by a Single Experience of Drinking Hypertonic Saline in the Adult Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Michael P.; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F. R.; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  15. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  16. Dose Response Effects of Hypertonic Saline and Dextran on Cardiovascular Responses in Sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    expanding PV, but use of HS >7.5% may be limited by resulting hypernatremia . INTRODUCTION The rationale behind fluid resuscitation of the hypotensive...for HSD was arbitrary and the dose of 4 mL/kg was selected as a single dose which induced only modest hypernatremia (14,19). Few studies have

  17. Agreement of measured and calculated serum osmolality during the infusion of mannitol or hypertonic saline in patients after craniotomy: a prospective, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Chen, Han; Hao, Jing-Jing; Yin, Ning-Ning; Xu, Ming; Zhou, Jian-Xin

    2015-10-07

    Mannitol and hypertonic saline are used to ameliorate brain edema and intracranial hypertension during and after craniotomy. We hypothesized that the agreement of measured and calculated serum osmolality during the infusion of hypertonic saline would be better than mannitol. The objective was to determine the accuracy of serum osmolality estimation by different formulas during the administration of hyperosmolar agent. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial was conducted in a 30-bed neurosurgical intensive care unit at a university hospital. Thirty-five adult patients requiring the use of hyperosmolar agents for prevention or treatment of brain edema after elective craniotomy were enrolled, and randomly assigned 1:1 to receive 125 mL of either 20 % mannitol (mannitol group) or 3.1 % sodium chloride solution (hypertonic saline group) in 15 min. Serum osmolality, serum sodium and potassium concentration, blood urea nitrogen and blood glucose concentration were measured during the study period. The primary outcome was the agreement of measured and estimated serum osmolality during the infusion of the two experimental agents. We used Bland and Altman's limits of agreement analysis to clarify the accuracy of estimated serum osmolality. Bias and upper and lower limits of agreement of bias were calculated. For each formula, the bias was statistically lower in hypertonic saline group than mannitol group (p mannitol group and hypertonic saline group, respectively) was derived from the formula '2 × ([serum sodium] + [serum potassium]) + [blood urea nitrogen] + [blood glucose]'. Compared to mannitol, a better agreement between measured and estimated serum osmolality was found during the infusion of hypertonic saline. This result indicates that, if hypertonic saline is chosen to prevent or treat brain edema, calculated serum osmolality can be used as a reliable surrogate for osmolality measurement. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02037815.

  18. Investigating effects of hypertonic saline solutions on lipid monolayers at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Nava Ocampo, Maria F.

    2017-05-01

    More than 70,000 people worldwide suffer from cystic fibrosis, a genetic disease characterized by chronic accumulation of mucus in patients’ lungs provoking bacterial infections, and leading to respiratory failure. An employed age-old treatment to prevent the symptoms of the disease is inhalation of hypertonic saline solution, NaCl at concentrations higher than in the human body (~150 mM). This procedure clears the mucus in the lungs, bringing relief to the patient. However, the biophysical mechanisms underlying this process are not entirely clear. We undertook a new experimental approach to understand the effects of sprayed saline solutions on model lung surfactants towards understanding the mechanisms of the treatment. The surface of lungs contains mainly 1,2-Dipalmitol-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DPPC). As previously assumed by others, we considered that monolayer of DPPC at the air-water interface serves as model system for the lungs surface; we employed a Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) trough and PM-IRRAS to measure surface-specific infrared spectra of the surfactant monolayers and effects on the interfacial tensions. We investigated spraying hyper-saline solutions onto surfactant monolayers at the airwater interface in two parts: (i) validation of our methodology and techniques with stearic acid and (ii) experiments with DPPC monolayers at the air-water interface. Remarkably, when micro-droplets of NaCl were sprayed to the monolayer of stearic acid, we observed enhanced organization of the surfactant, interpreted from the intensities of the CH2 peaks in the surface-specific IR spectra. However, our results with DPPC monolayers didn’t show an effect with the salt added as aerosol, possibly indicating that the experimental methodology proposed is not adequate for the phenomena studied. In parallel, we mimicked respiratory mucous by preparing salt solutions containing 1% (wt%) agar and measured effects on their viscosities. Interestingly, we found that NaCl was much

  19. Hypertonic saline (HS) for acute bronchiolitis: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Chin; Cantrill, Hannah; Hind, Daniel; Bradburn, Mike; Everard, Mark L

    2015-11-23

    Acute bronchiolitis is the commonest cause of hospitalisation in infancy. Currently management consists of supportive care and oxygen. A Cochrane review concluded that, "nebulised 3 % saline may significantly reduce the length of hospital stay". We conducted a systematic review of controlled trials of nebulised hypertonic saline (HS) for infants hospitalised with primary acute bronchiolitis. Searches to January 2015 involved: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Ovid MEDLINE; Embase; Google Scholar; Web of Science; and, a variety of trials registers. We hand searched Chest, Paediatrics and Journal of Paediatrics on 14 January 2015. Reference lists of eligible trial publications were checked. Randomised or quasi-randomised trials which compared HS versus either normal saline (+/- adjunct treatment) or no treatment were included. Eligible studies involved children less than 2 years old hospitalised due to the first episode of acute bronchiolitis. Two reviewers extracted data to calculate mean differences (MD) and 95 % Confidence Intervals (CIs) for length of hospital stay (LoS-primary outcome), Clinical Severity Score (CSS) and Serious Adverse Events (SAEs). Meta-analysis was undertaken using a fixed effect model, supplemented with additional sensitivity analyses. We investigated statistical heterogeneity using I(2). Risk of bias, within and between studies, was assessed using the Cochrane tool, an outcome reporting bias checklist and a funnel plot. Fifteen trials were included in the systematic review (n = 1922), HS reduced mean LoS by 0.36, (95 % CI 0.50 to 0.22) days, but with considerable heterogeneity (I(2) = 78 %) and sensitivity to alternative analysis methods. A reduction in CSS was observed where assessed [n = 516; MD -1.36, CI -1.52, -1.20]. One trial reported one possible intervention related SAE, no other studies described intervention related SAEs. There is disparity between the overall combined effect on LoS as compared with the

  20. Hypertonic saline/epinephrine treatment in hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis reduces hospitalization stay: 2 years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Guy; Cesar, Karine; Oron, Anat; Houri, Sion; Ballin, Ami; Mandelberg, Avigdor

    2006-03-01

    We recently published preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of hypertonic saline in infants with viral bronchiolitis. To further establish the efficacy of nebulized hypertonic saline in these infants. In a continuing, second-year randomized, doubleblind controlled trial, an additional 41 infants (age 2.6 +/- 1 months) hospitalized with viral bronchiolitis were recruited during the winter of 2001-2002. The infants received inhalation of 1.5 mg epinephrine dissolved either in 4 ml normal (0.9%) saline (Group I, n=20) or 4 ml hypertonic (3%) saline (Group II, n=22). The therapy was repeated three times daily until discharge. Pooling our 2 years of experience (2000-2002), a total of 93 hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis were recruited; 45 were assigned to Group I and 48 to Group II. The clinical scores at baseline were 7.6 +/- 0.7 for Group I vs. 7.4 +/- 1.3 for Group II (P = NS). However, the clinical scores at days 1 and 2 after inhalation differed significantly between the two groups, invariably favoring Group II: 7 +/- 1 vs. 6.25 +/- 1.1 (Psaline to 1.5 mg epinephrine reduced the hospitalization stay from 3.5 +/- 1.7 days in Group I to 2.6 +/- 1.4 in Group II (Psaline to the inhalation mixture decreased hospitalization stay from 3.6 +/- 1.6 to 2.8 +/- 1.3 days (Psaline/1.5 mg epinephrine benefits hospitalized infants with viral bronchiolitis.

  1. Method of Hypertonic Saline Administration: Effects on Osmolality in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguigan, Kelly L; Dennis, Bradley M; Hamblin, Susan E; Guillamondegui, Oscar D

    2017-05-01

    Hypertonic saline (HTS) is an effective therapy for reducing intracranial pressure (ICP). The ideal method of administration is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the method of HTS infusion and time to goal osmolality. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted in severe TBI patients with ICP monitoring in place who received 2 doses of HTS. Patients were divided into bolus versus continuous infusion HTS cohorts. The primary outcome was median time to goal osmolality. Secondary outcomes included percentage of patients reaching goal osmolality, percent time at goal osmolality, mean cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and ICP, ICU length of stay, and mortality. Safety outcomes included rates of hyperchloremia, hypernatremia, and acute kidney injury (AKI). 162 patients were included with similar baseline characteristics. Time to goal osmolality was similar between cohorts (bolus 9.78h vs. continuous 11.4h, p=0.817). A significant difference in the percentage of patients reaching goal osmolality favoring the continuous group was found (93.9% vs 73.3%, p=0.003). The continuous group was maintained at goal osmolality for a higher percentage of osmolality values after reaching goal (80% vs. 50%, p=0.032). No difference was seen in CPP, ICP, length of stay and mortality. Rates of hypernatremia were similar, but significant higher rates of hyperchloremia (0.77vs 1.58 events per HTS days, p<0.001) and AKI (0% vs 12.9%, p=0.025) were observed in the continuous cohort. Although no difference in time to goal osmolality was observed, continuous HTS was associated with a higher percentage of patients achieving goal osmolality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypertonic saline (HTS versus standard (isotonic fluid therapy for traumatic brain injuries: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrit Lourens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the foremost causes of mortality secondary to trauma. Poorer outcomes are associated with secondary insults, after the initial brain injury occurred. The management goal of TBI is to prevent or minimise the effects of secondary brain injuries. The primary objective of this systematic review/meta-analysis was to assess the effects of Hypertonic Saline (HTS compared to Standard Fluid Therapy (SFT in the treatment and resuscitation of TBI patients. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE (from 1966, EBSCOhost, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Proquest Medical Library and EMBASE (from 1980 in May 2010 and updated searches in February 2011. Data were assessed and extracted by two independent authors. Risk ratios (RR with a 95% confidence interval (CI were used as the effect measure. The review included three RCTs (1184 participants of which two were of high to moderate quality (1005 participants. HTS was not found to be associated with a reduction in mortality (3 RCTs, 1184 participants, RR 0.91, 95%CI 0.76 to 1.09 and morbidity in TBI patients. No significant improvement in haemodynamical stability was found whereas insufficient data were available to indicate a reduction in the intracranial pressure (ICP. In the HTS group, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP (MD 3.83 mmHg, 95%CI 1.08 to 6.57 and serum sodium level (MD 8 mEq/L, 95%CI 7.47 to 8.53 were higher. Existing studies show no indication that HTS, in comparison to SFT, reduces mortality or morbidity after the occurrence of TBI. Against this backdrop, some uncertainties still exist in terms of the use of different concentrations and volumes of HTS, the timing of administration as well as the benefit in specific injury profiles. As a result, formulating conclusive recommendations is complex.

  3. Predictors of Acute Kidney Injury in Neurocritical Care Patients Receiving Continuous Hypertonic Saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Michael J; Riha, Heidi; Bode, Lauren; Chang, Jason J; Jones, G Morgan

    2017-01-01

    Continuous intravenous 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) infusions are commonly used for the management of cerebral edema following severe neurologic injuries. Despite widespread use, data regarding the incidence and predictors of nephrotoxicity are lacking. The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence and identify predictors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in neurocritical care patients administered continuous infusion HTS. This was an institutional review board-approved, multicenter, retrospective cohort study of patients receiving HTS infusions at 2 academic medical centers. A univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify predictors of AKI. Data regarding AKI were evaluated during treatment with HTS and up to 24 hours after discontinuation. A total of 329 patients were included in our analysis, with 54 (16%) developing AKI. Those who developed AKI experienced significantly longer stays in the intensive care unit (14.8 vs 11.5 days; P = .006) and higher mortality (48.1% vs 21.9%; P < .001). We identified past medical history of chronic kidney disease (odds ratio [OR]: 9.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-50.6; P = .007), serum sodium greater than 155 mmol/L (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 2.1-8.0; P < .001), concomitant administration of piperacillin/tazobactam (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.7-9.3; P = .002), male gender (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.5-6.6; P = .002), and African American race (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-5.2; P = .007) as independent predictors of AKI. Acute kidney injury is relatively common in patients receiving continuous HTS and may significantly impact clinical outcomes.

  4. Furosemide continuous rate infusion diluted with 5% dextrose in water or hypertonic saline in normal adult dogs: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, D; Atkins, C; Papich, M; DeFrancesco, T; Griffiths, E; Penteado, M; Kurtz, K; Klein, A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term safety and diuretic efficacy of furosemide constant rate infusion (CRI) diluted with 5% dextrose in water (D5W) compared to dilution with 2.4% hypertonic saline in healthy dogs. Six healthy dogs. Dogs were studied in a randomized, blinded, crossover manner. Furosemide 3.3mg/kg was diluted to 2.2mg/mL with either 1.5mL/kg D5W for the DEX method or with 1.0mL/kg D5W and 0.5mL/kg of 7.2% hypertonic saline for the H-SAL method. After a 0.66mg/kg furosemide IV bolus, the infusion rate was 0.3 mL/kg/hr for 5 h such that both methods delivered 0.66 mg/kg/hr (total 3.3mg/kg) furosemide in equal volume for the study duration. Urine output, water intake, central venous pressure (CVP), physical parameters, furosemide concentrations, blood and urine electrolytes, and urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) were evaluated. Measured variables were not different between methods but showed changes over time consistent with diuresis. Mean CVP decreased over time similarly for both methods. Plasma furosemide and urine concentrations were stable and not different between methods. Both furosemide CRI methods showed an increase in the UAldo:C, however, the rise was greater for DEX than for H-SAL. Diuresis was similar for both furosemide CRI methods; however, the H-SAL method induced less renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation than the DEX method. The absence of intravascular volume expansion based on CVP suggests that dilution of a furosemide CRI with 2.4% hypertonic saline may be well tolerated in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Saline in acute bronchiolitis RCT and economic evaluation: hypertonic saline in acute bronchiolitis - randomised controlled trial and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L; Hind, Daniel; Ugonna, Kelechi; Freeman, Jennifer; Bradburn, Mike; Dixon, Simon; Maguire, Chin; Cantrill, Hannah; Alexander, John; Lenney, Warren; McNamara, Paul; Elphick, Heather; Chetcuti, Philip Aj; Moya, Eduardo F; Powell, Colin; Garside, Jonathan P; Chadha, Lavleen Kumar; Kurian, Matthew; Lehal, Ravinderjit S; MacFarlane, Peter I; Cooper, Cindy L; Cross, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalisation in infancy. Supportive care and oxygen are the cornerstones of management. A Cochrane review concluded that the use of nebulised 3% hypertonic saline (HS) may significantly reduce the duration of hospitalisation. To test the hypothesis that HS reduces the time to when infants were assessed as being fit for discharge, defined as in air with saturations of > 92% for 6 hours, by 25%. Parallel-group, pragmatic randomised controlled trial, cost-utility analysis and systematic review. Ten UK hospitals. Infants with acute bronchiolitis requiring oxygen therapy were allocated within 4 hours of admission. Supportive care with oxygen as required, minimal handling and fluid administration as appropriate to the severity of the disease, 3% nebulised HS every ± 6 hours. The trial primary outcome was time until the infant met objective discharge criteria. Secondary end points included time to discharge and adverse events. The costs analysed related to length of stay (LoS), readmissions, nebulised saline and other NHS resource use. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were estimated using an existing utility decrement derived for hospitalisation in children, together with the time spent in hospital in the trial. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and other databases from inception or from 2010 onwards, searched ClinicalTrials.gov and other registries and hand-searched Chest, Paediatrics and Journal of Paediatrics to January 2015. We included randomised/quasi-randomised trials which compared HS versus saline (± adjunct treatment) or no treatment. We used a fixed-effects model to combine mean differences for LoS and assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I (2) statistic. The trial randomised 158 infants to HS (n = 141 analysed) and 159 to standard care (n = 149 analysed). There was no difference between the two arms in the time to being declared fit for

  6. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: Best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Bet 1. Nebulised hypertonic saline significantly decreases length of hospital stay and reduces symptoms in children with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    A short-cut review was carried out to establish whether nebulised hypertonic saline reduces length of stay and symptoms in children with bronchiolitis. One Cochrane review was found, which addressed this question. This review is summarised. The clinical bottom line is that nebulised hypertonic saline does reduce length of stay and symptoms in children with bronchiolitis.

  7. Comparison of equimolar doses of mannitol and hypertonic saline for the treatment of elevated intracranial pressure after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Chen, Tao; Chen, Shu-da; Cai, Jing; Hu, Ying-Hong

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of mannitol and hypertonic saline for reducing intracranial pressure (ICP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI).PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched until July 3, 2014 using the terms intracranial hypertension, mannitol, and hypertonic saline. Randomized controlled trials and 2-arm prospective studies in which elevated ICP was present after TBI treated with mannitol or hypertonic saline were included. The primary outcome was the change of ICP from baseline to termination of the infusion, while the secondary outcomes were change from baseline to 30, 60, and 120 minutes after terminating the infusion and change of osmolarity from baseline to termination.A total 7 studies with 169 patients were included. The mean age of patients receiving mannitol ranged from 30.8 to 47 years, and for patients receiving hypertonic saline ranged from 35 to 47 years. A pooled difference in means = -1.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.95 to -0.44, P = 0.008) indicated that hypertonic saline reduced ICP more effectively than mannitol when compared from the baseline value to the last measurement after treatment. At 30 minutes after intervention, there was no difference in the mean ICP change between the groups, whereas at 60 minutes after intervention (pooled difference in means = -2.58, 95% CI: -4.37 to -0.80, P = .005) and 120 min after intervention (pooled difference in means = -4.04, 95% CI: -6.75 to -1.32, P = .004) hypertonic saline resulted in a significantly greater decrease in ICP. The pooled difference in means = 1.84 (95% CI: -1.64 to 5.31, P = .301) indicated no difference in serum osmolarity between patients treated with hypertonic saline or mannitol.Hypertonic saline is more effective than mannitol for reducing ICP in cases of TBI.

  8. The association of hypernatremia and hypertonic saline irrigation in hepatic hydatid cysts: A case report and retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rujun; Wu, Renhua; Lv, Qingguo; Tong, Nanwei; Zhang, Yuwei

    2017-09-01

    Hypernatremia is a rare but fatal complication of hypertonic saline (HS) irrigation in hepatic hydatid disease. It needs careful monitoring and treatment. A 28-year-old woman with hepatic hydatid cysts who received operation treatment developed electrolyte disturbances. We also conducted a retrospective study about influence of HS application on electrolytes in patients with hepatic hydatid disease receiving surgery. Hypernatremia, developed after HS irrigation. Normal saline, 5% dextrose and other supportive treatment were administered. In the retrospective study, a comparison of electrolyte and glucose fluctuation was made among different HS application groups. The patient developed hypernatremia after irrigation with HS and died from severe complications. Although some cases of complications are found, no significant relationship between HS irrigation and hypernatremia was reported according to the retrospective study. Hypernatremia after HS irrigation remains rare but might cause severe complications. Monitoring and appropriate treatment are needed to improve prognosis.

  9. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  10. A randomized trial of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in hospitalized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Pedro; Mendes, Ana Luisa; Neto, Ana S

    2016-04-01

    Acute bronchiolitis is a common disorder of infants that often results in hospitalization. Apart from supportive care, no therapy has been shown to influence the course of the disease, except for a possible effect of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS). To determine whether this does have beneficial effects on length of stay in hospital or on severity scores, we undertook a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in a pediatric department of a Portuguese hospital. Previously healthy infants, younger than 12 months, hospitalized with mild-to-moderate acute viral bronchiolitis were randomized to receive either nebulized 3% (hypertonic, HS) or 0.9% (normal, NS) saline during their entire hospital stay. Primary endpoints were: length of hospital stay and severity scores on each day of hospitalization. Need for supplemental oxygen, further add-on medications and adverse effects were also analyzed. Sixty-eight patients completed the study (HS: 33; NS: 35). The median length of hospital stay did not differ between groups: HS: 5.6 ± 2.3 days; NS: 5.4 ± 2.1 days (P = 0.747). We found no difference between groups in severity scores from day 1 to day 4. There were no differences in need for supplemental oxygen or add-on medications. Patients in HS group had significantly more cough (46% vs. 20%, P = 0.025) and rhinorrhoe (58% vs. 31%, P = 0.30). This study does not support the use of nebulized HS over NS in therapy of hospitalized children with mild-to-moderate acute viral bronchiolitis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effectiveness of 3% hypertonic saline nebulization in acute bronchiolitis among Indian children: A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh V Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline (HS and 0.9% normal saline with nebulized 0.9% normal saline with salbutamol in patients of acute viral bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into three groups, that is, 3% HS group, 0.9% normal saline group and 0.9% saline with salbutamol group. Four doses at interval of 6 h were given daily until discharge. Average CS score and length of hospital stay were compared. One-way analysis of variance paired t-test and Chi-square test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ages of the patients in three groups were 6.03 ± 3.71, 5.69 ± 3.34 and 5.48 ± 3.35 respectively. The 3rd day CS scores for all the groups were 1.0 ± 1.1, 1.9 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 0.5 respectively (P = 0.000. The average length of hospital stay was 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.4 days respectively (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The present study concludes that 3% HS nebulization (without additional bronchodilators is an effective and safe treatment for nonasthmatic, moderately ill patients of acute bronchiolitis. The economic benefit of this comparably priced modality of treatment can be enormous in terms of hospital costs with parents returning to work sooner.

  12. Effects of simulated weightlessness on intramuscular hypertonic saline induced muscle nociception and spinal Fos expression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing; Pertovaara, Antti; You, Hao-Jun

    2015-01-12

    We assessed the effects of simulated weightlessness, hindlimb unloading (HU) by 7 days of tail suspension, on noxious mechanically and heat evoked spinal withdrawal reflexes and spinal Fos expression during muscle nociception elicited by intramuscular (i.m.) injection of hypertonic (HT; 5.8%) saline into gastrocnemius muscle in rats. In HU rats, i.m. HT saline-induced secondary mechanical hyperalgesia was enhanced, and secondary heat hypoalgesia was significantly delayed. After 7 days of HU, basal Fos expression in spinal L4-6 segments was bilaterally enhanced only in superficial (I-II) but not middle and deep laminae (III-VI) of the spinal dorsal horn, which finding was not influenced by tail denervation. Unilateral i.m. HT saline injection increased spinal Fos expression bilaterally in both the control rats and 7 days of HU rats. The HT saline-induced bilateral increase of spinal Fos occurred within 0.5h and reached its peak within 1h, after which it gradually returned to the control levels within 8h. Spatial patterns of spinal Fos expression differed between the control group and 7 days of HU group. In superficial laminae, the HT saline-induced increases in Fos expression were higher and in the middle and deep laminae V-VI lower in the 7 days of HU than control rats. It is suggested that supraspinal mechanisms presumably underlie the effects of HU on spinally-organized nociception. Simulated weightlessness may enhance descending facilitation and weaken descending inhibition of nociception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hypertonic saline enhances host response to bacterial challenge by augmenting receptor-independent neutrophil intracellular superoxide formation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether hypertonic saline (HTS) infusion modulates the host response to bacterial challenge. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in 30 Balb-C mice by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli (5 x 107 organisms per animal). In 10 mice, resuscitation was performed at 0 and 24 hours with a 4 mL\\/kg bolus of HTS (7.5% NaCl), 10 animals received 4 mL\\/kg of normal saline (0.9% NaCl), and the remaining animals received 30 mL\\/kg of normal saline. Samples of blood, spleen, and lung were cultured at 8 and 36 hours. Polymorphonucleocytes were incubated in isotonic or hypertonic medium before culture with E. coli. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow cytometry, whereas intracellular bacterial killing was measured after inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin B. Intracellular formation of free radicals was assessed by the molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and ERK-1 phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation were determined. Data are represented as means (SEM), and an analysis of variance test was performed to gauge statistical significance. RESULTS: Significantly reduced bacterial culture was observed in the animals resuscitated with HTS when compared with their NS counterparts, in blood (51.8 +\\/- 4.3 vs. 82.0 +\\/- 3.3 and 78.4 +\\/- 4.8, P = 0.005), lung (40.0 +\\/- 4.1 vs. 93.2 +\\/- 2.1 and 80.9 +\\/- 4.7, P = 0.002), and spleen (56.4 +\\/- 3.8 vs. 85.4 +\\/- 4.2 and 90.1 +\\/- 5.9, P = 0.05). Intracellular killing of bacteria increased markedly (P = 0.026) and superoxide generation was enhanced upon exposure to HTS (775.78 +\\/- 23.6 vs. 696.57 +\\/- 42.2, P = 0.017) despite inhibition of MAP kinase and NFkappaB activation. CONCLUSIONS: HTS significantly enhances intracellular killing of bacteria while attenuating receptor-mediated activation of proinflammatory cascades.

  14. Effect of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment in Emergency Departments on the Hospitalization Rate for Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoulvant, François; Bellêttre, Xavier; Milcent, Karen; Teglas, Jean-Paul; Claudet, Isabelle; Le Guen, Christèle Gras; de Pontual, Loïc; Minodier, Philippe; Dubos, François; Brouard, Jacques; Soussan-Banini, Valérie; Degas-Bussiere, Vanessa; Gatin, Amélie; Schweitzer, Cyril; Epaud, Ralph; Ryckewaert, Amélie; Cros, Pierrick; Marot, Yves; Flahaut, Philippe; Saunier, Pascal; Babe, Philippe; Patteau, Géraldine; Delebarre, Mathilde; Titomanlio, Luigi; Vrignaud, Bénédicte; Trieu, Thanh-Van; Tahir, Abdelilah; Regnard, Delphine; Micheau, Pascale; Charara, Oussama; Henry, Simon; Ploin, Dominique; Panjo, Henri; Vabret, Astrid; Bouyer, Jean; Gajdos, Vincent

    2017-08-07

    Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants. Previous studies, underpowered to examine hospital admission, have found a limited benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment in the pediatric emergency department (ED). To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis. The Efficacy of 3% Hypertonic Saline in Acute Viral Bronchiolitis (GUERANDE) study was a multicenter, double-blind randomized clinical trial on 2 parallel groups conducted during 2 bronchiolitis seasons (October through March) from October 15, 2012, through April 15, 2014, at 24 French pediatric EDs. Among the 2445 infants (6 weeks to 12 months of age) assessed for inclusion, 777 with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis with respiratory distress and no chronic medical condition were included. Two 20-minute nebulization treatments of 4 mL of HS, 3%, or 4 mL of normal saline (NS), 0.9%, given 20 minutes apart. Hospital admission rate in the 24 hours after enrollment. Of the 777 infants included in the study (median age, 3 months; interquartile range, 2-5 months; 468 [60.2%] male), 385 (49.5%) were randomized to the HS group and 387 (49.8%) to the NS group (5 patients did not receive treatment). By 24 hours, 185 of 385 infants (48.1%) in the HS group were admitted compared with 202 of 387 infants (52.2%) in the NS group. The risk difference for hospitalizations was not significant according to the mixed-effects regression model (adjusted risk difference, -3.2%; 95% CI, -8.7% to 2.2%; P = .25). The mean (SD) Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score improvement was greater in the HS group (-3.1 [3.2]) than in the NS group (-2.4 [3.3]) (adjusted difference, -0.7; 95% CI, -1.2 to -0.2; P = .006) and similarly for the Respiratory Assessment Change Score. Mild adverse events, such as worsening of cough, occurred more frequently among children in the HS group

  15. In vitro effects of 3% hypertonic saline and 20% mannitol on canine whole blood coagulation and platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamik, Katja-Nicole; Butty, Emmanuelle; Howard, Judith

    2015-09-24

    Hyperosmolar therapy, using either mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS), is considered the treatment of choice for intracranial hypertension. However, hyperosmolar agents may impair coagulation and platelet function, limiting their use in patients at risk for hemorrhage. Despite this, studies evaluating the effects of mannitol compared to other hyperosmolar agents in dogs are largely lacking. The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects on global hemostasis and platelet function of 20% mannitol and 3% HTS on canine blood. Citrated whole blood from 15 healthy dogs was diluted with 0.9% saline, 20% mannitol and 3% HTS in ratios of 1:16 and 1:8. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) was used to assess clotting time (CT), clot formation time (CFT) and maximal clot firmness (MCF) following extrinsic activation (Ex-tem) and after platelet inhibition (Fib-tem). A platelet function analyzer (PFA-100) was used to assess closure time (Ct(PFA)). No significant differences were observed between untreated whole blood and samples diluted with saline. Samples diluted with both mannitol and HTS were hypocoagulable compared to untreated whole blood samples. At a dilution of 1:16, no significant differences were found between any measured parameter in samples diluted with saline compared to mannitol or HTS. At a 1:8 dilution, Ct(PFA) was prolonged in samples diluted with mannitol and HTS compared to saline, and Ct(PFA) was prolonged more with mannitol than HTS. Ex-tem CT was increased at a 1:8 dilution with mannitol compared to HTS. Ex-tem CFT was prolonged at a 1:8 dilution with both agents compared to saline, and was prolonged more with mannitol than HTS. Ex-tem MCF was reduced at a 1:8 dilution with both agents compared to saline. Data in this study indicate that both mannitol and HTS affect canine platelet function and whole blood coagulation in vitro in a dose-dependent fashion. The most pronounced effects were observed after high dilutions with mannitol, which

  16. Evaluating the effect of administrating hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions on clinical improvement, serum electrolyte concentrations and renal function of calves affected by diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hasanpour

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted on 40 calves under the age of one mouth with 30 calves affected by diarrhea allocated to 3 treatment groups of 10 calves each and the control group consisting of 10 calves. The control group received neither treatment nor any injections. In the first treatment group, only antibiotics were administered without any fluid therapy. In the second treatment group, apart from antibiotic therapy of diarrhea, hypertonic saline solution (7.5% was administered at a dose of 5 ml/kg as slow intravenous infusion alongside oral ORS solution whereas in the third treatment group isotonic saline solution (0.9% was given intravenously according to the formula (Body weight × %Dehydration alongside oral ORS solution. In all groups, clinical examination and blood sampling was undertaken at times 0, 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours following treatment. At time 0, the diarrhea had resulted in clinical and laboratory signs such as a fever, the dehydration, tachycardia, oligopnea, increased packed sell volume, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, increased serum creatinine and BUN values. Following treatment, fever subsided and the dehydration was corrected and this correction occurred faster in calves which had received hypertonic saline solution. Correction of sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus and calsium imbalance occurred faster in patients which were treated by hypertonic solution. Fluid therapy with saline solutions prevented the increase in serum creatinine and BUN values. In conclusion, the administration of hypertonic saline solutions leads to much faster and more reliable clinical improvement and electrolyte imbalance correction in calves affected by diarrhea.

  17. Nebulised hypertonic saline (3%) among children with mild to moderately severe bronchiolitis--a double blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Aayush; Sharma, Arun; Basnet, Srijana; Sharma, Pushpa Raj; Gami, Fakir Chandra

    2015-09-10

    To Assess the efficacy of nebulised hypertonic saline (HS) (3%) among children with mild to moderately severe bronchiolitis. Infants aged 6 weeks to 24 months, with a first episode of wheezing and Clinical Severity scores (Arch Dis Child 67:289-93, 1992) between 1 and 8, were enrolled over 4 months duration. Those with severe disease, co-morbidities, prior wheezing, recent bronchodilator and steroid use were excluded. Patients were randomized in a double-blind fashion, to receive two doses of nebulized 3% HS (Group 1) or 0.9% normal saline (Group 2) with 1.5 mg of L-Epineprine, delivered 30 min apart. Parents were contacted at 24 h and 7 days. The principal outcome measure was the mean change in clinical severity score at the end of 2 h of observation. A total of 100 infants (mean age 9.6 months, range 2-23 months; 61 % males) were enrolled. Patients in both groups had mild to moderately severe disease at presentation. On an intention-to-treat basis, the infants in the HS group had a significant reduction (3.57 ± 1.41) in the mean clinical severity score compared to those in the NS group (2.26 ± 1.15); [p saline for outpatient management of infants with mild to moderately severe viral bronchiolitis in improving Clinical Severity Scores, facilitating early Out-Patient Department discharge and preventing hospital re-visits and admissions in the 24 h of presentation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCTID012766821. Registered on January 12, 2011.

  18. Hypertonic saline solution reduces mesenteric microcirculatory dysfunctions and bacterial translocation in a rat model of strangulated small bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz Zanoni, Fernando; Costa Cruz, José Walber Miranda; Martins, Joilson Oliveira; Benabou, Simon; Vicente Greco, Karin; Ramos Moreno, Ana Carolina; Baquerizo Martinez, Marina; Ferraro Calderaro, Franco; Rocha e Silva, Mauricio; Sannomiya, Paulina

    2013-07-01

    We examined the effects of hypertonic saline (HS) on inflammatory, metabolic variables, and bacterial translocation (BT) in rats submitted to intestinal obstruction and ischemia (IO). Male Wistar rats were submitted to IO and treated, 2 h thereafter, with lactated Ringer's (LR) (4 mL/kg per 5 min, i.v.) or HS (7.5% NaCl, 4 mL/kg per 5 min, i.v.). Twenty-four hours after IO, rats were also submitted to enterectomy/enteroanastomosis to resection of necrotized small bowel. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were investigated by intravital microscopy and the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 by immunohistochemistry. Bacterial cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and blood were used to evaluate BT. Levels of chemokines (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants 1 and 2), insulin, and corticosterone were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intestinal histology, serum urea and creatinine levels, and hepatic enzymes activities were performed to evaluate local and remote damage. Relative to IO and LR-treated rats, which exhibited increases in the number of rolling (1.5-fold), adhered (3.5-fold) and migrated (9.0-fold) leukocytes, and increased expression of P-selectin (3-fold) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (3-fold) on mesenteric microcirculation, treatment with HS followed by enterectomy reduced leukocyte-endothelial interactions and expression of both adhesion molecules to values attained in sham rats. Serum chemokines were normalized after treatment with both solutions followed by enterectomy. Hypertonic saline-treated rats demonstrated a significant reduction in BT to 50% in liver and spleen samples and bacteremia (14%), compared with 82% of BT in liver and spleen samples of IO and LR-treated rats and bacteremia (57%). Local intestinal damage was attenuated, and renal and hepatic function preserved by treatment with HS followed by enterectomy. Survival rate increased to 86% up to 15 days. Data presented

  19. Wheal-and-flare responses to intradermally injected adenosine 5'-monophosphate, hypertonic saline, and histamine: comparison of atopic and nonatopic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukanovic, R; Finnerty, J P; Holgate, S T

    1989-09-01

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in increasing concentrations, and saline solutions of corresponding tonicity, were injected intradermally in seven atopic and seven normal subjects. Skin wheal-and-flare responses were elicited in a dose-dependent fashion in all subjects, and no difference was found between responses produced by AMP and responses produced by saline of corresponding tonicity. Also, no difference in response to AMP and saline was found between atopic and nonatopic subjects. We further investigated, in seven atopic subjects, whether the skin wheal-and-flare response to the single, highest dose of AMP, saline, and histamine could be inhibited by preadministration of 180 mg of terfenadine, a potent H1 antagonist. A significant inhibition of the wheal-and-flare response to histamine and no significant inhibition to AMP were found. There was a significant inhibition of the flare response caused by hypertonic saline but no inhibition of the wheal response. We interpret these findings as indicating that AMP does not specifically lead to mast cell degranulation in the skin and that there are functional differences between cutaneous and lung mast cells. The observation that terfenadine significantly inhibited the flare response to hypertonic saline suggests that this stimulus produced histamine release.

  20. Hypertonic saline as a therapy for pediatric concussive pain: a randomized controlled trial of symptom treatment in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumba-Brown, Angela; Harley, Jim; Lucio, Simon; Vaida, Florin; Hilfiker, Mary

    2014-03-01

    Three-percent hypertonic saline (HTS) is a hyperosmotic therapy used in pediatric traumatic brain injury to treat increased intracranial pressure and cerebral edema. It also promotes plasma volume expansion and cerebral perfusion pressure, immunomodulation, and anti-inflammatory response. We hypothesized that HTS will improve concussive symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury. The study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Children, 4 to 7 years of age with a Glasgow Coma Scale score greater than 13, were enrolled from a pediatric emergency department following closed-head injury upon meeting Acute Concussion Evaluation criteria with head pain. Patients were randomized to receive 10 mL/kg of HTS or normal saline (NS) over 1 hour. Self-reported pain values were obtained using the Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale initially, immediately following fluids, and at 2 to 3 days of discharge. The primary outcome measure was change in self-reported pain following fluid administration. Secondary outcome measures were a change in pain and postconcussive symptoms within 2 to 3 days of fluid administration. We used an intention-to-treat analysis. Forty-four patients, ranging from 7 to 16 years of age with comparable characteristics, were enrolled in the study; 23 patients (52%) received HTS, and 21 (48%) received NS. There was a significant difference (P pain following fluid administration between the HTS group (mean improvement = 3.5) and the NS group (mean improvement = 1.1). There was a significant difference (P = 0.01) identified in the self-reported improvement of pain at 2 to 3 days after treatment between the HTS group (mean improvement = 4.6) and the NS group (mean improvement = 3.0). We were unable to determine a difference in other postconcussive symptoms following discharge. Three-percent HTS is more effective than NS in acutely reducing concussion pain in children.

  1. Seven percent hypertonic saline--0.1% hyaluronic acid in infants with mild-to-moderate bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenna, Raffaella; Papoff, Paola; Moretti, Corrado; De Angelis, Daniela; Battaglia, Massimo; Papasso, Stefano; Bernabucci, Mariangela; Cangiano, Giulia; Petrarca, Laura; Salvadei, Serena; Nicolai, Ambra; Ferrara, Marianna; Bonci, Enea; Midulla, Fabio

    2014-09-01

    Our study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 7% hypertonic saline and 0.1% hyaluronic acid (7% HS-HA) given by inhalation, in infants hospitalized for mild-to-moderate bronchiolitis. In a double-blind controlled study, 39 infants (23 boys) saline (NS) (n:18) at a dose of 2.5 ml twice a day for 3 days. All infants were assigned a clinical severity score at admission and four times daily during hospitalization. Main outcome measures were number of days hospitalization, safety and daily reduction in the severity score. No difference was found between the two groups for clinical severity score at admission. One child in the study group and two in the NS group interrupted the study protocol; 19% of infants in the study group and 11% in the NS group had mild cough after the aerosol. The length of stay in the control group and treatment groups were 4.8 ± 1.5 versus 4.1 ± 1.9 days, respectively (P = 0.09). There was a trend for shortening the hospitalization days in the treatment group by 14.6%. The use of NS in the control group was identified as an independent risk factor for length of hospital stay using the multivariate logistic regression model (P = 0.04). No difference was observed between the two groups for the clinical score reduction during the first 3 days hospitalization. 7% HS-HA is a safe and effective therapy in treating infants hospitalized for mild-to-moderate bronchiolitis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect of inhaled hypertonic saline on hospital admission rate in children with viral bronchiolitis: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzik, Brian A; Flavin, Michael P; Kent, Steven; Zielinski, David; Kwan, Charisse W; Adeleye, Adetayo; Vegsund, Bjorn C; Rossi, Carlo

    2010-11-01

    We sought to determine whether inhaled 3% hypertonic saline (HS) reduces admission to hospital in ambulatory children with moderately severe viral bronchiolitis. Secondary objectives compared changes in respiratory scores before and after treatment and assessed the need for unscheduled medical intervention within 7 days. Children under the age of 2 years presenting with moderately severe viral bronchiolitis to the emergency department of 4 general hospitals from November 2008 to March 2009 were randomly assigned to receive 3 consecutive 4-mL doses of nebulized 3% HS (treatment group) or 0.9% normal saline (NS; control group) in a double blind fashion, each coadministered with 1 mg salbutamol. Outcome measures included the difference in hospital admission rate and changes in respiratory distress scores. A total of 81 children (mean age 8.9 mo, range 0.7-22 mo) were assessed over 88 visits on an intention-to-treat basis. No statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups. Children in the HS group had a nonsignificant trend toward greater improvement compared with NS controls with a same-day admission rate of 18% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9%-32%) versus 27% (95% CI 16%-42%), respectively. Respiratory Assessment Change Scores (RACS) favoured the HS group over NS controls (mean RACS 4.7 [95% CI 3.6-5.8] v. 3.7 [95% CI 2.5-4.9], respectively), although the CIs overlap and these differences were not statistically significant. The short-term use of nebulized 3% HS did not result in any statistically significant benefits, although a nonsignificant trend toward a decrease in admission rate and improvement in respiratory distress was found. A larger study would be required to determine whether these trends arise from a clinically relevant treatment effect.

  3. Reposição de volume na sepse com solução salina hipertônica Sepsis volume reposition with hypertonic saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Friedman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão discute os efeitos hemodinâmicos e imunomoduladores da solução hipertônica em choque experimental e em pacientes com sepse. Comentamos sobre os mecanismos de ação da solução hipertônica, recorrendo a dados sobre choque hemorrágico e séptico. Atuações específicas da solução salina hipertônica aplicáveis a sepse grave e choque séptico são enfatizadas. Os dados disponíveis corroboram os benefícios em potencial da infusão de solução salina hipertônica em vários aspetos da fisiopatologia da sepse, inclusive hipoperfusão dos tecidos, consumo reduzido de oxigênio, disfunção endotelial, depressão miocárdica e presença de um amplo elenco de citocinas próinflamatórias e várias espécies de oxidantes. Uma terapia que, ao mesmo tempo, bloqueie os componentes prejudiciais da sepse terá um impacto no seu tratamento. Estudos prospectivos adequadamente desenhados poderão no futuro comprovar o papel benéfico da solução salina hipertônica.The present review discusses the hemodynamic and immune-modulatory effects of hypertonic saline in experimental shock and in patients with sepsis. We comment on the mechanisms of action of hypertonic saline, calling upon data in hemorrhagic and septic shock. Specific actions of hypertonic saline applicable to severe sepsis and septic shock are highlighted. Data available support potential benefits of hypertonic saline infusion in various aspects of the pathophysiology of sepsis, including tissue hypoperfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, endothelial dysfunction, cardiac depression, and the presence of a broad array of pro-inflammatory cytokines and various oxidant species. A therapy that simultaneously blocks the damaging components of sepsis will have an impact on the management of sepsis. Proper designed prospective studies may prove a beneficial role for hypertonic saline solution in the future.

  4. A Review of the Efficacy of 7.5% NaCl/6% Dextran-70 (HSD) in Experimental Animals and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    survival data discussed above (14,15), this dose was chosen to circumvent the potential hypernatremia and its associated neurological sequelae (15). Wade...hypertonic saline to dextran raised concerns of hypernatremia and its associated convulsions and hyperchloremic acidosis. Also, HSD could be...reactions occurred and there were no cases of central pontine myelinolysis (33). Also, hypernatremia or hyperosmolality associated with HSD infusion

  5. Ghrelin reduces hypertonic saline intake under a variety of natriorexigenic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G.; Daniels, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that has been studied extensively for its role in food intake and energy balance. More recent studies show that ghrelin reduces water intake in rats and some non-mammalian species. Despite the importance of the regulation of NaCl intake in body fluid homeostasis, the effects of ghrelin on saline intake have not been investigated. Accordingly, we tested the effect of ghrelin on water and 1.8% NaCl intake in two-bottle test conditions under five stimuli that increase hy...

  6. Management of severe hyponatremia: infusion of hypertonic saline and desmopressin or infusion of vasopressin inhibitors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Shapiro, Joseph I; Raj, Dominic S; Murata, Glen H; Glew, Robert H; Malhotra, Deepak

    2014-11-01

    Rapid correction of severe hyponatremia carries the risk of osmotic demyelination. Two recently introduced methods of correction of hyponatremia have diametrically opposite effects on aquaresis. Inhibitors of vasopressin V2 receptor (vaptans) lead to the production of dilute urine, whereas infusion of desmopressin causes urinary concentration. Identification of the category of hyponatremia that will benefit from one or the other treatment is critical. In general, vaptans are effective in hyponatremias presenting with concentrated urine and, with the exception of hypovolemic hyponatremia, can be used as their primary treatment. Desmopressin is effective in hyponatremias presenting with dilute urine or developing urinary dilution after saline infusion. In this setting, desmopressin infusion helps prevent overcorrection of the hyponatremia. Monitoring of the changes in serum sodium concentration as a guide to treatment changes is imperative regardless of the initial treatment of severe hyponatremia.

  7. Efficacy of oral tolvaptan versus 3% hypertonic saline for correction of hyponatraemia in post-operative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulak Tosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hyponatraemia is frequent in post-operative patients and may be corrected with hypertonic saline (HTS. Oral tolvaptan is used to treat hypervolaemic or euvolaemic hyponatraemia. This study was performed to assess the efficacy of oral tolvaptan in correcting postoperative hyponatraemia compared to HTS. Methods: This prospective, randomised study was conducted in 40 symptomatic patients with serum sodium level ≤130 mEq/L. In Group H (n = 20, 3% HTS was infused at 20–30 mL/h aiming for correction of 6 mEq/L/day. Group T received oral tolvaptan 15 mg on the 1st day. If daily correction was <4 mEq/L, the dose was increased by 15 mg/day to a maximum of 45 mg. The primary outcome was serum sodium concentration 48 hours after starting treatment. Paired t-test was used to compare changes in sodium levels. Results: Baseline sodium and values at 12, 24 and 48 h were comparable in both groups. At 72 h, Group T had significantly higher sodium levels as compared to Group H (133.4 ± 1.9 vs. 131.3 ± 2.4 mEq/L. Intragroup analysis had shown a significant increase in sodium levels from baseline values in both groups at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Group H had a significantly lower potassium level and lower negative fluid balance on day 3. Conclusion: Oral tolvaptan and 3% HTS were equally effective in correcting hyponatraemia at 48 hours, but serum sodium levels were higher at 72 hours after oral tolvaptan.

  8. LL-37 complexation with glycosaminoglycans in cystic fibrosis lungs inhibits antimicrobial activity, which can be restored by hypertonic saline.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergsson, Gudmundur

    2009-07-01

    There is an abundance of antimicrobial peptides in cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs. Despite this, individuals with CF are susceptible to microbial colonization and infection. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial response within the CF lung, focusing on the human cathelicidin LL-37. We demonstrate the presence of the LL-37 precursor, human cathelicidin precursor protein designated 18-kDa cationic antimicrobial protein, in the CF lung along with evidence that it is processed to active LL-37 by proteinase-3. We demonstrate that despite supranormal levels of LL-37, the lung fluid from CF patients exhibits no demonstrable antimicrobial activity. Furthermore Pseudomonas killing by physiological concentrations of exogenous LL-37 is inhibited by CF bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid due to proteolytic degradation of LL-37 by neutrophil elastase and cathepsin D. The endogenous LL-37 in CF BAL fluid is protected from this proteolysis by interactions with glycosaminoglycans, but while this protects LL-37 from proteolysis it results in inactivation of LL-37 antimicrobial activity. By digesting glycosaminoglycans in CF BAL fluid, endogenous LL-37 is liberated and the antimicrobial properties of CF BAL fluid restored. High sodium concentrations also liberate LL-37 in CF BAL fluid in vitro. This is also seen in vivo in CF sputum where LL-37 is complexed to glycosaminoglycans but is liberated following nebulized hypertonic saline resulting in increased antimicrobial effect. These data suggest glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 complexes to be potential therapeutic targets. Factors that disrupt glycosaminoglycan-LL-37 aggregates promote the antimicrobial effects of LL-37 with the caveat that concomitant administration of antiproteases may be needed to protect the now liberated LL-37 from proteolytic cleavage.

  9. A comparison of equivolume, equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic saline and mannitol for brain relaxation during elective supratentorial craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Palazón, Joaquín; Fuentes-García, Diego; Doménech-Asensi, Paloma; Piqueras-Pérez, Claudio; Falcón-Araña, Luis; Burguillos-López, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    Hyperosmolar solutions have been used in neurosurgery to reduce brain volume and facilitate surgical exposure. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of equivolume, equiosmolar solutions of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) on brain relaxation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay, postoperative outcomes and incidence of side-effects in patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy. In a randomised, prospective, double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing elective supratentorial craniotomy were randomised 1:1 to receive 3 ml/kg of either 20% mannitol or 3% HS. The primary outcome was the surgical condition of the brain assessed by the neurosurgeon using a 4-point scale after opening the dura (1 = relaxed, 2 = satisfactory, 3 = firm and 4 = bulging). Secondary outcomes were electrolytes, blood gases, plasma osmolality and haemodynamic variables measured at 0 min, 30 min, 2 h and 6 h after infusion. Also, predefined postoperative complications, length of ICU and hospital stay were recorded. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison; p mannitol, 1(1-3) versus HS, 1(1.4) points; p = 0.55]. Patients with brain midline shift showed a worse response to hyperosmolar solutions than those without midline shift: 37% versus 8%, respectively; OR = 6.6 (95% CI, 1.54-28.83); p = 0.006. Plasma osmolality increased during the study period (6 h) in both the groups (p mannitol and 3% HS are safe and effective for intraoperative brain debulking during elective supratentorial craniotomy, but less effective in patients with pre-existing mass effect and midline shift.

  10. Hypertonic Saline Solution Drives Neutrophil from Bystander Organ to Infectious Site in Polymicrobial Sepsis: A Cecal Ligation and Puncture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobaldo, Mariana Cardillo; Llimona, Flavia; Petroni, Ricardo Costa; Rios, Ester Correia Sarmento; Velasco, Irineu Tadeu; Soriano, Francisco Garcia

    2013-01-01

    The effects of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) have been shown in several animal models of ischemia and shock. Literature has shown potential benefits of HSS modulating inflammatory response after sepsis in an animal model. We studied the HSS effects in sepsis through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in Balb-C mice. Groups studied: 1- CLP without treatment (CLP-C); 2- CLP treated with normal saline solution NaCl 0.9% – 34 ml/Kg (CLP-S); 3- CLP treated with HSS NaCl 7.5% – 4 ml/Kg (CLP-H); and 4- group (Basal) without no CLP or treatment. Volume infusion was always applied 30 min after CLP. Lung and peritoneal lavage were harvested after 6h and 24h of CLP to analyze cytokines amount, oxide nitric, lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. Neutrophil infiltration, ICAM-1, CXCR-2, and CXCL-1 in lung were reduced by HSS (CLP-H) compared to CLP-C or CLP-S. Neutrophil in peritoneal lavage was increased in 24h with HSS (CLP-H) compared to CLP and CLP-S. Peritoneal CXCR-2 was increased in CLP-C and CLP-S but presented a lower increase with HSS (CLP-H) after 6 hours. GRK-2 presented difference among the groups at 24 h, showing a profile similar to neutrophil infiltration. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) were reduced by HSS treatment; CLP-S increased TNF-α. IL-10 was increased in lung tissue by the HSS treatment. The oxidative stress (TBARS and nitric oxide biochemistry markers) was reduced with HSS. Animal survival was 33.3% in CLP-C group, 46.6% in CLP-S group and 60% in the CLP-H group after the sixth day. The HSS protects the animal against sepsis. Our results suggest that the volume replacement modulate pro and anti-inflammatory mediators of an inflammatory response, but HSS presented a more effective and potent effect. PMID:24069301

  11. Hypertonic Saline in Conjunction with High-Dose Furosemide Improves Dose-Response Curves in Worsening Refractory Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Salvatore; Di Gaudio, Francesca; La Rocca, Vincenzo; Balistreri, Fabio; Greco, Massimiliano; Torres, Daniele; Lupo, Umberto; Rizzo, Giuseppina; di Pasquale, Pietro; Indelicato, Sergio; Cuttitta, Francesco; Butler, Javed; Parrinello, Gaspare

    2015-10-01

    Diuretic responsiveness in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is better assessed by urine production per unit diuretic dose than by the absolute urine output or diuretic dose. Diuretic resistance arises over time when the plateau rate of sodium and water excretion is reached prior to optimal fluid elimination and may be overcome when hypertonic saline solution (HSS) is added to high doses of furosemide. Forty-two consecutively hospitalized patients with refractory CHF were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to furosemide doses (125 mg, 250 mg, 500 mg) so that all patients received intravenous furosemide diluted in 150 ml of normal saline (0.9%) in the first step (0-24 h) and the same furosemide dose diluted in 150 ml of HSS (1.4%) in the next step (24-48 h) as to obtain 3 groups as follows: Fourteen patients receiving 125 mg (group 1), fourteen patients receiving 250 mg (group 2), and fourteen patients receiving 500 mg (group 3) of furosemide. Urine samples of all patients were collected at 30, 60, and 90 min, and 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 24 h after infusion. Diuresis, sodium excretion, osmolality, and furosemide concentration were evaluated for each urine sample. After randomization, 40 patients completed the study. Two patients, one in group 2 and one in group 3 dropped out. Patients in group 1 (125 mg furosemide) had a mean age of 77 ± 17 years, 43% were male, 6 (43%) had heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and 64% were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV; the mean age of patients in group 2 (250 mg furosemide) was 80 ± 8.1 years, 15% were male, 5 (38%) had HFpEF, and 84% were in NYHA class IV; and the mean age of patients in group 3 (500 mg furosemide) was 73 ± 12 years, 54% were male, 6 (46%) had HFpEF, and 69% were in NYHA class IV. HSS added to furosemide increased total urine output, sodium excretion, urinary osmolality, and furosemide urine delivery in all patients and at all time points. The percentage increase was 18,14, and

  12. Association Between Hypertonic Saline and Hospital Length of Stay in Acute Viral Bronchiolitis: A Reanalysis of 2 Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Corinne G; Harrison, Wade N; Ralston, Shawn L

    2016-06-01

    Two previous meta-analyses of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) on hospital length of stay (LOS) in acute viral bronchiolitis have suggested benefit. Neither study fully addressed the issue of excessive heterogeneity in the cohort of studies, indicating that it may be inappropriate to combine such dissimilar studies to estimate a common treatment effect. To reanalyze the existing data set for sources of heterogeneity to delineate the population most likely to benefit from HS. We used the previously analyzed cohort of randomized trials from 2 published meta-analyses comparing HS with normal saline (or, in 1 case, with standard of care) in infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis. We also repeated the search strategy used by the most recent Cochrane Review in the Medline database through September 2015. Eighteen randomized clinical trials of HS in infants with bronchiolitis reporting LOS as an outcome measure were included. The guidelines used for abstracting data included LOS, study year, setting, sample size, type of control, admission/discharge criteria, adjunct medications, treatment frequency, mean day of illness at study enrollment, mean severity of illness scores, and mean age. Weighted mean difference in LOS and study heterogeneity as measured by the I2 statistic. There were 18 studies included of 2063 infants (63% male), with a mean age of 4.2 months. The mean LOS was 3.6 days. Two main sources of heterogeneity were identified. First, the effect of HS on LOS was entirely sensitive to the removal of one study population, noted to have a widely divergent definition of the primary outcome. Second, there was a baseline imbalance in mean day of illness at presentation between treatment groups. Controlling for either of these factors resolved the heterogeneity (I2 = reduced from 78% to 45% and 0%, respectively) and produced summary estimates in support of the null hypothesis (that HS does not affect LOS). There was a weighted mean difference in LOS of -0.21 days

  13. Local Irritation Toxicity Study of Hypertonic Saline/Dextran 70 (Trade Name) and Constituents in New Zealand White Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    those deaths occur due to hemorrhage (1). Conventional treatment cf hemorrhage has involved infusion of isotonic resuscitation ’uids at volumes...of sulfaquinoxaline in the drinking water for coccidiosis, were checked daily for signs of illness, and weighed weekly. Dose Levels. Preparation. and...sulfaquinoxaline (MSD AG Vet, Division of Merck Co., Inc., Lot No. EZA-715) in the drinking water was administered from 13 May 1988 to 22 May 1988 to all

  14. A comparative study on the efficacy of 10% hypertonic saline and equal volume of 20% mannitol in the treatment of experimentally induced cerebral edema in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ming

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertonic saline and mannitol are commonly used in the treatment of cerebral edema and elevated intracranial pressure (ICP at present. In this connection, 10% hypertonic saline (HS alleviates cerebral edema more effectively than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. However, the exact underlying mechanism for this remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the possible mechanism whereby 10% hypertonic saline can ameliorate cerebral edema more effectively than mannitol. Results Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were subjected to permanent right-sided middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and treated with a continuous intravenous infusion of 10% HS, 20% mannitol or D-[1-3H(N]-mannitol. Brain water content (BWC as analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of SD rats decreased more significantly after 10% HS treatment compared with 20% mannitol. Concentration of serum Na+ and plasma crystal osmotic pressure of the 10% HS group at 2, 6, 12 and 18 h following permanent MCAO increased significantly when compared with 20% mannitol treated group. Moreover, there was negative correlation between the BWC of the ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere and concentration of serum Na+, plasma crystal osmotic pressure and difference value of concentration of serum Na+ and concentration of brain Na+ in ipsilateral ischemic hemisphere in the 10% HS group at the various time points after MCAO. A remarkable finding was the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue. Conclusions We conclude that 10% HS is more effective in alleviating cerebral edema than the equal volume of 20% mannitol. This is because 10% HS contributes to establish a higher osmotic gradient across BBB and, furthermore, the progressive accumulation of mannitol in the ischemic brain tissue counteracts its therapeutic efficacy on cerebral edema.

  15. Combined radiofrequency ablation and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution instillation: an in vivo study of rabbit liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Min; Han, Joon-Koo; Kim, Se-Hyung; Choi, Byung-Ihn [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-Kon; Kim, Sang-Won [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    We wanted to determine whether combined radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and acetic acid-hypertonic saline solution (AHS) instillation can increase the extent of thermally mediated coagulation in in vivo rabbit liver tissue. We also wished to determine the optimal concentration of the solution in order to maximize its effect on extent of the RFA-induced coagulation. Forty thermal ablation zones were produced in 40 rabbits by using a 17-gauge internally cooled electrode with a 1-cm active tip under ultrasound guidance. The rabbits were assigned to one of four groups: group A: RFA alone (n=10); group B: RFA with 50% AHS instillation (n=10); group C: RFA with 25% AHS instillation (n=10); group D: RFA with 15% AHS instillation (n=10). A range of acetic acid concentrations diluted in 36% NaCl to a total volume of 2 mL were instilled into the liver before RFA. The RF energy (30W) was applied for three minutes. After RFA, in each group, the maximum diameters to the thermal ablation zones in the gross specimens were compared. Technical success and the complication that arose were evaluated by CT and on the basis of autopsy findings. All procedures are technically successful. There were six procedure-related complications (6/40; 15%); two localized perihepatic hematomas and four chemical peritonitis. The incidence of chemical peritonitis was highest for group B with the 50% AHS solution instillation (30%). With instillation of 15% AHS solution, a marked decrease of tissue impedance (24.5 {+-} 15.6 {omega}) and an increase of current (250 mA) occurred as compared to RFA alone. With instillation of the solutions before RFA (group B, C and D). this produced a greater mean diameter of coagulation necrosis than the diameters for rabbits not instilled with the solution (group A) ({rho}<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between group B, C, and D. Combined AHS instillation and RFA can increase the dimension of coagulation necrosis in the liver with a single

  16. Hyperoxia and hypertonic saline in patients with septic shock (HYPERS2S): a two-by-two factorial, multicentre, randomised, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfar, Pierre; Schortgen, Frédérique; Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Charpentier, Julien; Guérot, Emmanuel; Megarbane, Bruno; Grimaldi, David; Grelon, Fabien; Anguel, Nadia; Lasocki, Sigismond; Henry-Lagarrigue, Matthieu; Gonzalez, Frédéric; Legay, François; Guitton, Christophe; Schenck, Maleka; Doise, Jean Marc; Devaquet, Jérôme; Van Der Linden, Thierry; Chatellier, Delphine; Rigaud, Jean Philippe; Dellamonica, Jean; Tamion, Fabienne; Meziani, Ferhat; Mercat, Alain; Dreyfuss, Didier; Seegers, Valérie; Radermacher, Peter

    2017-03-01

    There is insufficient research into the use of mechanical ventilation with increased inspiratory oxygen concentration (FiO2) and fluid resuscitation with hypertonic saline solution in patients with septic shock. We tested whether these interventions are associated with reduced mortality. This two-by-two factorial, multicentre, randomised, clinical trial (HYPERS2S) recruited patients aged 18 years and older with septic shock who were on mechanical ventilation from 22 centres in France. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1:1 to four groups by a computer generated randomisation list stratified by site and presence or absence of acute respiratory distress syndrome by use of permuted blocks of random sizes. Patients received, in an open-labelled manner, mechanical ventilation either with FiO2 at 1·0 (hyperoxia) or FiO2 set to target an arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation of 88-95% (normoxia) during the first 24 h; patients also received, in a double-blind manner, either 280 mL boluses of 3·0% (hypertonic) saline or 0·9% (isotonic) saline for fluid resuscitation during the first 72 h. The primary endpoint was mortality at day 28 after randomisation in the intention-to-treat population. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01722422. Between Nov 3, 2012, and June 13, 2014, 442 patients were recruited and assigned to a treatment group (normoxia [n=223] or hyperoxia [n=219]; isotonic [n=224] or hypertonic [n=218]). The trial was stopped prematurely for safety reasons. 28 day mortality was recorded for 434 patients; 93 (43%) of 217 patients had died in the hyperoxia group versus 77 (35%) of 217 patients in the normoxia group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·27, 95% CI 0·94-1·72; p=0·12). 89 (42%) of 214 patients had died in the hypertonic group versus 81 (37%) of 220 patients in the isotonic group (HR 1·19, 0·88-1·61; p=0·25). We found a significant difference in the overall incidence of serious adverse events between the hyperoxia (185 [85%]) and

  17. The effect of continuous hypertonic saline infusion and hypernatremia on mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sean K R; Kolmodin, Leif; Sekhon, Mypinder S; Qiao, Lu; Zou, Jie; Henderson, William R; Griesdale, Donald E G

    2016-06-01

    Hypertonic saline (HTS) is used to control intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, in prior studies, the resultant hypernatremia has been associated with increased mortality. We aimed to study the effect of HTS on ICP and mortality in patients with severe TBI. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 231 patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] ≤ 8) admitted to two neurotrauma units from 2006-2012. We recorded daily HTS, ICP, and serum sodium (Na) concentration. We used Cox proportional regression modelling for hospital mortality and incorporated the following time-dependent variables: use of HTS, hypernatremia, and desmopressin administration. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] age of patients was 34 (17) and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) GCS was 6 [3-8]. Hypertonic saline was administered as a continuous infusion in 124 of 231 (54%) patients over 788 of 2,968 (27%) patient-days. Hypernatremia (Na > 145 mmol·L(-1)) developed in 151 of 231 (65%) patients over 717 of 2,968 (24%) patients-days. In patients who developed hypernatremia, the median [IQR] Na was 146 [142-147] mmol·L(-1). Overall hospital mortality was 26% (59 of 231 patients). After adjusting for baseline covariates, neither HTS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 2.05; P = 0.84) nor hypernatremia (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 0.68 to 2.55; P = 0.42) was associated with hospital mortality. There was no effect modification by either HTS or hypernatremia on each another. Patients who received HTS observed a significant decrease in ICP during their ICU stay compared with those who did not receive HTS (4 mmHg; 95% CI, 2 to 6; P hypernatremia are not associated with hospital mortality in patients with severe TBI.

  18. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment reduces both rate and duration of hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis in infants: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Wen-Li; Wang, Chuang-Ming; Chou, Hsin-Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD) and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) [duration of hospitalization: WMD = -0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.38 to -0.54, p bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = -0.77, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = -0.85, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.39, p bronchiolitis in infants. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P Metabolic acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results

  20. Minimally invasive assessment of the effect of mannitol and hypertonic saline therapy on traumatic brain edema using measurements of reduced scattering coefficient (μs').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jieru; Qian, Zhiyu; Yang, Tianming; Li, Weitao; Hu, Guangxia

    2010-10-01

    Minimally invasive functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRs) technology was utilized to assess the effects of mannitol and hypertonic saline (HS) in treating traumatic brain edema (TBE). Rats with TBE models were given mannitol or HS in different dosages for different groups. The reduced scattering coefficient (μ(s)') of the local cortex of rats was simultaneously monitored and recorded in vivo and real time by the minimally invasive fNIRs system. Brain water content (BWC) was measured by the wet and dry weight method at 1, 6, 24, 72, and 120 h after injury and treatment. Effects of treating TBE with different dehydration agents were then assessed by recording μ(s)' and BWC before and after administration of dehydration. In this study, the dynamic changes of brain edema and the effects of dehydration therapy were continuously monitored. Results implied that μ(s)' of the local cortex in rats is a good indicator for assessing effects of treatment of TBE. By recording changes in the value of μ(s)', the following conclusions were obtained: HS is more effective than mannitol in reducing cerebral edema. The effect of dehydration of HS is only related to osmotic gradient and has no correlation with concentration.

  1. Novel hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) method for decontamination and concentration of sputum samples for Mycobacterium tuberculosis microscopy and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoza, Christian A; Ricaldi, Jessica N; Chauca, José; Rojas, Gabriel; Munayco, César; Agapito, Juan; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Guerra, Humberto

    2008-09-01

    This study evaluated a new decontamination and concentration (DC) method for sputum microscopy and culture. Sputum samples from patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) (n=106) were tested using the proposed hypertonic saline-sodium hydroxide (HS-SH) DC method, the recommended N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium citrate-sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH) DC method and unconcentrated direct smear (Ziehl-Neelsen) techniques for the presence of mycobacteria using Löwenstein-Jensen culture and light microscopy. Of 94 valid specimens, 21 (22.3%) were positive in culture and were further characterized as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears was increased from 28.6% using the direct method to 71.4% (HS-SH) and 66.7% (NALC-NaOH) using DC methods. Both concentration techniques were highly comparable for culture (kappa=0.794) and smear (kappa=0.631) for AFB. Thus the proposed HS-SH DC method improved the sensitivity of AFB microscopy compared with a routine unconcentrated direct smear; its performance was comparable to that of the NALC-NaOH DC method for AFB smears and culture, but it was methodologically simpler and less expensive, making it a promising candidate for evaluation by national TB control programmes in developing countries.

  2. Hypertonic saline resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock does not decrease in vivo neutrophil interactions with endothelium in the blood-brain microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wanfeng; Marks, Joshua A; Sanati, Paymon; Sims, Carrie; Sarani, Babak; Smith, Douglas H; Pascual, Jose L

    2011-08-01

    Resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock with isotonic crystalloids has been shown to activate polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Although hypertonic saline (HTS) can reduce PMN activation and interactions with endothelial cells (EC) in systemic microvascular beds, no data exist demonstrating that the same occurs in the unique blood-brain barrier microcirculation. We hypothesized that resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock with HTS would blunt brain in vivo PMN-EC interactions. Wistar rats (250-350 g) underwent craniotomy and placement of a window for live intravital viewing of pial vessels. Twenty animals were bled to a mean arterial pressure of 30 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg for 1 hour and resuscitated with shed blood and either 5% HTS (6 mL/kg) or Ringer's lactate (RL) (2× shed blood volume). Circulating rhodamine-6G-labeled PMN in pial venules were captured by videomicroscopy at baseline (preshock), end of the shock period, after resuscitation, and every 15 minutes to 30 minutes for 2 hours. Hemodynamics and arterial gases were monitored. Off-line footage analysis allowed comparisons of PMN-EC interactions between groups. Animals in both groups developed significant metabolic acidosis (p nature of the blood-brain interface.

  3. Immune-Inflammatory and Metabolic Effects of High Dose Furosemide plus Hypertonic Saline Solution (HSS) Treatment in Cirrhotic Subjects with Refractory Ascites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellia, Chiara; Clemente, Giuseppe; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Vassallo, Valerio; Di Bona, Danilo; Gulotta, Eliana; Ciaccio, Marcello; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin. Aims We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS) compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Methods 59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125–250mg⁄bid) plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38), or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21). Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment. Results Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge. Discussion Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients. PMID:27941973

  4. Immune-Inflammatory and Metabolic Effects of High Dose Furosemide plus Hypertonic Saline Solution (HSS Treatment in Cirrhotic Subjects with Refractory Ascites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Tuttolomondo

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic liver diseases are usually thin as a result of hypermetabolism and malnutrition expressed by reduced levels of leptin and impairment of other adyponectins such as visfatin.We evaluated the metabolic and inflammatory effects of intravenous high-dose furosemide plus hypertonic saline solutions (HSS compared with repeated paracentesis and a standard oral diuretic schedule, in patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites.59 consecutive cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites unresponsive to outpatient treatment. Enrolled subjects were randomized to treatment with intravenous infusion of furosemide (125-250mg⁄bid plus small volumes of HSS from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group A, n:38, or repeated paracentesis from the first day after admission until 3 days before discharge (Group B, n: 21. Plasma levels of ANP, BNP, Leptin, visfatin, IL-1β, TNF-a, IL-6 were measured before and after the two type of treatment.Subjects in group A were observed to have a significant reduction of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, ANP, BNP, and visfatin, thus regarding primary efficacy endpoints, in Group A vs. Group B we observed higher Δ-TNF-α, Δ-IL-1β, Δ-IL-6, Δ-ANP, Δ-BNP, Δ-visfatin, Δ-Leptin at discharge.Our findings underline the possible inflammatory and metabolic effect of saline overload correction in treatment of cirrhosis complications such as refractory ascites, suggesting a possible role of inflammatory and metabolic-nutritional variables as severity markers in these patients.

  5. Does nebulized epinephrine improve the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution in the treatment of hospitalized moderate acute bronchiolitis? A double blind, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-González, Jose Carlos; Dominguez-Coronel, Maria Teresa; Matamala Morillo, Miguel Angel; Aragón Ramírez, Miriam; García Ortega, Rosa María; Dávila Corrales, Francisco Javier; García Palacios, Maria Victoria; Perez Guerrero, Juan Jesus; García García, Laura; Lechuga Sancho, Alfonso María

    2016-04-01

    Nebulized 3% hypertonic saline solution (HSS 3%) has proven to reduce hospital stay in infants with acute bronchiolitis, as compared with nebulized physiological saline solutions. There are no studies assessing the effectiveness of nebulized epinephrine in patients treated with HSS 3%. The aim of this study was to compare the length of stay (LOS) in hospitalized patients treated with HSS 3% with placebo vs. HSS 3% with epinephrine. Secondarily we aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of both treatments. We performed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, including infants hospitalized for moderate acute bronchiolitis. Both groups received standard life support and were randomly treated with nebulized HSS 3% (7 mL) with either placebo 3 mL or epinephrine 3 mL. Nebulizations were initially administered every four hours and this interval was modified according to the patient's response. Sixty-four infants were included, 32 patients in each group. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (P=0.948) in length of stay, disease severity, SatO2, respiratory rate or heart rate. On the third day of hospitalization, severity and respiratory rate in the HSS 3%+E presented a non statistically significant trend to an earlier improvement, (P=0.063 and P=0.096 repectively). No adverse events occurred. Four patients (two from each group) required transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit. With a third of the final estimated sample, we find a trend to an earlier clinical recovery in the epinephrine group, even though no statistical significant differences in LOS were found. The study needs to be continued until the total sample is recruited.

  6. Roles of the periaqueductal gray in descending facilitatory and inhibitory controls of intramuscular hypertonic saline induced muscle nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing; Sun, Tao; Lumb, Bridget M; You, Hao-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Despite the importance of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the modulation of nociception and pain, many aspects of the roles of the different columns of the PAG in descending controls: facilitation and inhibition, are not understood. Employing a tonic muscle pain model established by i.m. injection of 5.8% saline into the gastrocnemius muscle, we now report the results of investigations designed to explore any differences in Fos expression in the different functional columns of the PAG in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In a second series of experiments, effects of the PAG on descending control of spinally-organized nociception were assessed by measuring hind paw withdrawal reflexes to noxious mechanical and heat stimulation before and after electrolytic lesion of specific columns of the PAG. Our results show that Fos expression within different columns of the PAG increases significantly and differentially following i.m. injection of 5.8% saline. The mean number of Fos positive neurons in the dorsolateral (dl), lateral (l), dorsomedial (dm) PAG elicited by i.m. injection of 5.8% saline reached a peak at 4h with a gradual decrease over time, whereas the maximum number of Fos-positive neurons in the ventrolateral (vl) PAG was observed 8h after i.m. injection. Contralateral lesion of the dl PAG significantly depressed ipsilateral secondary mechanical hyperalgesia in intramuscularly induced (5.8% saline) nociception (P0.05). By contrast, contralateral lesion of the vl PAG completely blocked the occurrence of ipsilateral heat hypoalgesia (P0.05). In conclusion, functions of specific columns of the PAG in the control of spinal nociceptive activities are not homogeneous. It is suggested that, in this muscle pain model, the dl PAG and vl PAG participate in descending facilitation and inhibition of nociception, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypertonic saline plus i.v. furosemide improve renal safety profile and clinical outcomes in acute decompensated heart failure: A meta-analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vecchis, R; Esposito, C; Ariano, C; Cantatrione, S

    2015-05-01

    In advanced congestive heart failure (CHF), intravenous (i.v.) inotropic agents, i.v. diuretics, ultrafiltration, and hemodialysis have been shown to not yield better clinical outcomes. In this scenario, the simultaneous administration of hypertonic saline solution (HSS) and furosemide may offer a more effective therapeutic option with a good safety profile. Therefore, a meta-analysis was performed to compare combined therapy, consisting of i.v. furosemide plus concomitant administration of HSS, with i.v. furosemide alone for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). The outcomes we chose were all-cause mortality, risk of re-hospitalization for ADHF, length of hospital stay, weight loss, and variation of serum creatinine. Based on five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 1,032 patients treated with i.v. HSS plus furosemide vs. 1,032 patients treated with i.v. furosemide alone, a decrease in all-cause mortality in patients treated with HSS plus furosemide was proven [RR = 0.57; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.44-0.74, p = 0.0003]. Likewise, combined therapy with HSS plus furosemide was shown to be associated with a reduced risk of ADHF-related re-hospitalization (RR = 0.51; 95 % CI = 0.35-0.75, p = 0.001). Besides, combined therapy with HSS plus furosemide was found to be associated with a reduced length of hospital stay (p = 0.0002), greater weight loss (p furosemide for diuretic-resistant CHF patients led to a better renal safety profile and improved clinical endpoints such as mortality and heart failure-related hospitalizations.

  8. Troponin I release after intravenous treatment with high furosemide doses plus hypertonic saline solution in decompensated heart failure trial (Tra-HSS-Fur).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Gaspare; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Torres, Daniele; Cardillo, Mauro; Schimmenti, Caterina; Lupo, Umberto; Iatrino, Rossella; Petrantoni, Rossella; Montaina, Carla; Giambanco, Salvatore; Paterna, Salvatore

    2012-09-01

    High values of cardiac troponin in acute decompensated congestive heart failure (ADHF) identify patients at higher risk and worsened prognosis. A cardiac troponin increase during therapy indicates the need for more appropriate intervention, aimed at compensating cardiac disease and effectively minimizing myocardial wall stress and subsequent cytolysis. This study evaluated the effects of an intravenous high dose of furosemide with (group A) or without small volume hypertonic saline solution (HSS) (group B) on myocardial cytolysis in patients with ADHF. A total of 248 consecutive patients with ADHF (148 men, mean age 74.9 ± 10.9 years) were randomly assigned to group A or B. Plasma levels of cardiac troponin-I, brain natriuretic peptide, glomerular filtration rate by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, bioelectrical impedance analysis measurements, and delta pressure/delta time (dP/dt) rate were observed on admission and discharge for all patients. We observed a significant reduction of cardiac troponin in both groups and a significant improvement in renal function, hydration state, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (P < .0001), end diastolic volume (P < .01), ejection fraction (P < .01), and dP/dt (P < .004) in group A. We also observed a significant reduction in body weight (64.4 vs 75.8 kg) (P < .001), cardiac troponin I (0.02 vs 0.31 ng/mL) (P < .0001) and brain natriuretic peptide (542 vs 1,284 pg/mL) (P < .0001), and hospitalization time (6.25 vs 10.2 days) (P < .0001) in the HSS group. These data demonstrate that intravenous high doses of furosemide do not increase myocardial injury and, in addition, when associated to HSS, significantly reduce cardiac troponin I release. This behavior is mirrored by the achievement of improved hemodynamic compensation at echocardiography and body hydration normalization. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment Reduces Both Rate and Duration of Hospitalization for Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants: An Updated Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS [duration of hospitalization: WMD = −0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.38 to −0.54, p < 0.001; rate of hospitalization: risk ratio = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37–0.93, p = 0.02]. Furthermore, nebulized HS treatment had a beneficial effect in reducing the clinical severity (CS score of acute bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = −0.77, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = −0.85, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.39, p < 0.001; Day 3: WMD = −1.14, 95% CI = −1.69 to −0.58, p < 0.001. There was no decrease in the rate of readmission (risk ratio = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.68–1.73, p = 0.74. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased both the rate and the duration of hospitalization. Due to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness, HS should be considered for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants.

  10. Isotonic and hypertonic sodium loading in supine humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L J; Jensen, T U; Bestle, M H

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis that hypertonic saline infusion induces a greater natriuresis than infusion of the same amount of sodium as isotonic saline was tested in 8 supine subjects on fixed sodium intake of 150 mmol NaCl day(-1). Sodium loads equivalent to the amount of sodium contained in 10% of measured...... extracellular volume were administered intravenously over 90 min either as isotonic saline or as hypertonic saline (850 mmol L(-1)). A third series without saline infusion served as time control. Experiments lasted 8 h. Water balance and sodium loads were maintained by replacing the excreted amounts every hour...... stimulus. Renal sodium excretion increased more than a factor of four with isotonic and hypertonic saline but also increased during time control (factor of three). Cumulated sodium excretions following isotonic (131 +/- 13 mmol) and hypertonic saline (123 +/- 10 mmol) were statistically identical exceeding...

  11. Prehospital Resuscitation of Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock with Hypertonic Solutions Worsens Hypocoagulation and Hyperfibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delano, Matthew J.; Rizoli, Sandro B.; Rhind, Shawn G.; Cuschieri, Joseph; Junger, Wolfgang; Baker, Andrew J.; Dubick, Michael A.; Hoyt, David B.; Bulger, Eileen M.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired hemostasis frequently occurs after traumatic shock and resuscitation. The prehospital fluid administered can exacerbate subsequent bleeding and coagulopathy. Hypertonic solutions are recommended as first-line treatment of traumatic shock; however, their effects on coagulation are unclear. This study explores the impact of resuscitation with various hypertonic solutions on early coagulopathy after trauma. We conducted a prospective observational subgroup analysis of large clinical trial on out-of-hospital single-bolus (250 mL) hypertonic fluid resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock trauma patients (systolic blood pressure, ≤70 mmHg). Patients received 7.5% NaCl (HS), 7.5% NaCl/6% Dextran 70 (HSD), or 0.9% NaCl (normal saline [NS]) in the prehospital setting. Thirty-four patients were included: 9 HS, 8 HSD, 17 NS. Treatment with HS/HSD led to higher admission systolic blood pressure, sodium, chloride, and osmolarity, whereas lactate, base deficit, fluid requirement, and hemoglobin levels were similar in all groups. The HSD-resuscitated patients had higher admission international normalized ratio values and more hypocoagulable patients, 62% (vs. 55% HS, 47% NS; P trauma through imbalances in both procoagulants and anticoagulants and both profibrinolytic and antifibrinolytic activities. PMID:25784523

  12. Hyaluronic acid improves the tolerability of hypertonic saline in the chronic treatment of cystic fibrosis patients: a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Mirco; Casciaro, Rosaria; Lucca, Francesca; Troiani, Patrizia; Salonini, Elena; Favilli, Federica; Quattrucci, Serena; Sher, Daniel; Assael, Baroukh Maurice

    2014-04-01

    TRIAL DESIGN AND METHODS: Between December 2009 and July 2011, four cystic fibrosis (CF) centers in Italy participated in a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial to test whether 7% hypertonic saline (HS) administered together with 0.1% hyaluronic acid (HA) was better tolerated by patients who previously did not tolerate HS well on its own. Participants were CF patients at least 8 years old, in clinically stable conditions, with forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) at least 50% predicted. Forty patients were recruited and randomized to receive either HS or HS plus HA (5 mL to be inhaled over 15 min, twice daily for 28 days). Primary endpoints were cough, throat irritation, salty taste, and overall acceptability, as assessed by each patient on a semiquantitative scale on a diary card. Secondary endpoint was FEV1 change at the end of treatment. Patients were randomized into randomly permuted blocks. The first and last doses were administered in hospital. In between, patients were treated at home. Patients, all caregivers, and the statistician who conducted the analysis (different from the one who generated the random list) were blinded to group assignment. Severity of cough, throat irritation, and saltiness were more severe in patients treated with HS alone, both after the first inhalation and over the entire treatment period. Overall pleasantness was rated higher by patients treated with the combination product. All differences were highly significant. There were no changes in FEV1 between the first and last administrations. Five patients did not complete the study. Four patients (two from each group) withdrew because of cough or throat irritation. One more patient from the HS group withdrew because of a respiratory exacerbation at week 3. HS is currently a cornerstone in the treatment of CF patients. The addition of HA to HS reduces the prevalence and severity of cough, throat irritation, and saltiness and may improve compliance in patients

  13. Acute and Subacute Toxicity of 7.5% Hypertonic Saline-6% Dextran-70 (HSD) in Dogs. 2. Biochemical and Behavioral Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    hypernatremia . Thus, as part of the new drug the views of the Department of the Army or the Department of b Defense. (AR 360-5) application to FDA for HSD. the...clinical concern in response to hypernatiem~a. 120 [In the present study, a cause-effect relationship between 100 " hypernatremia and behavioral

  14. The relationship between serum sodium and intracranial pressure when using hypertonic saline to target mild hypernatremia in patients with head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Diana L; Swanson, Joseph M; Wood, G Christopher; Magnotti, Louis J; Boucher, Bradley A; Croce, Martin A; Harrison, Charles G; Muhlbauer, Michael S; Fabian, Timothy C

    2012-10-15

    Limited data suggest mild hypernatremia may be related to lower intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The practice at the study center has been to use hypertonic saline (HTS) to generate a targeted serum sodium of 145 to 155 mEq/l in patients with TBI. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum sodium values and ICP, and to evaluate the acute effect of HTS on ICP. A retrospective review of patients who were admitted to the trauma ICU for TBI, had an ICP monitor placed, and received at least one dose of HTS between January 2006 and March 2011 was performed. Data were collected for up to 120 hours after ICP monitor placement. The primary outcome was the relationship between serum sodium and maximum ICP. Secondary outcomes were the relationship between serum sodium and the mean number of daily interventions for ICP control, and the acute effect of HTS on ICP during the 6 hours after each dose. Linear regression was used to analyze the primary outcome. Analysis of variance on ranks and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to evaluate the number of interventions and the acute effect of HTS on ICP, respectively. Eighty-one patients were enrolled with mean ± standard deviation age of 36 ± 15 years and median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 7 (interquartile range, 4 to 7). A total of 1,230 serum sodium values (range, 118 to 174 mEq/l) and 7,483 ICP values (range, 0 to 159 mmHg) were collected. There was no correlation between serum sodium and maximum ICP (R(2) = 0.0052). The overall mean ± standard deviation number of interventions for elevated ICP per day was 4.2 ± 2.9, 2.9 ± 2.0, and 2.6 ± 2.3 for patients with a mean serum sodium of 155 mEq/l, respectively (P < 0.001). Regarding the acute effect of HTS on ICP, there was no statistical difference in mean ICP compared with baseline during hours 1 through 6 following HTS doses (baseline, 13.7 ± 8.4 mmHg; hour 1, 13.6 ± 8.3 mmHg; hour 2, 13

  15. The safety and efficacy of inhaled dry powder mannitol as a bronchial provocation test for airway hyperresponsiveness: a phase 3 comparison study with hypertonic (4.5% saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freed-Martens Ruth

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled mannitol is a new bronchial provocation test (BPT developed to improve portability and standardisation of osmotic challenge testing. Osmotic challenge tests have an advantage over the traditional methods of measuring airway hyperresponsiveness using methacholine as they demonstrate higher specificity to identify asthma and thus the need for treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. The safety and the efficacy of mannitol (M as a BPT to measure airway hyperresponsiveness were compared to hypertonic (4.5% saline (HS in people both with and without signs and symptoms of asthma. Methods A phase III, multi-centre, open label, operator-blinded, crossover design, randomised trial, with follow-up. Asthmatics and non-asthmatics (6–83 yr were recruited and 592 subjects completed the study. Mannitol was delivered using a low resistance dry powder inhaler and HS was delivered using an ultrasonic nebuliser. The FEV1 was measured 60 seconds after each dose of mannitol (5,10,20,40,80,160,160,160 mg and after each exposure to HS (0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0,8.0 minutes. A 15% fall in FEV1 defined a positive test. Adverse events were monitored and diaries kept for 7 days following the tests. Results Mean pre-test FEV1 (mean ± SD was 95.5 ± 14% predicted. 296 were positive to mannitol (M+ and 322 positive to HS (HS+. A post study physician conducted clinical assessment identified 82.3% asthmatic (44% classified mild and 17.7% non-asthmatic. Of those M+, 70.1% were taking ICS and of those mannitol negative (M-, 81.1 % were taking ICS. The % fall in FEV1 for mannitol in asthmatics was 21.0% ± 5.7 and for the non-asthmatics, 5.5% ± 4.8. The median PD15 M was 148 mg and PD15 HS 6.2 ml. The sensitivity of M to identify HS+ was 80.7% and the specificity 86.7%. The sensitivity of M compared with the clinical assessment was 59.8% and specificity 95.2% and increased to 88.7% and 95.0% respectively when the M- subjects taking ICS were excluded

  16. Operating room use of hypertonic solutions: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Azoubel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions have been widely used during prehospital care of trauma patients and have shown positive hemodynamic effects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in intra-operative use of hypertonic solutions. We reviewed 30 clinical studies on the use of hypertonic saline solutions during surgeries, with the majority being cardiac surgeries. Reduced positive fluid balance, increased cardiac index, and decreased systemic vascular resistance were the main beneficial effects of using hypertonic solutions in this population. Well-designed clinical trials are highly needed, particularly in aortic aneurysm repair surgeries, where hypertonic solutions have shown many beneficial effects. Examining the immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic solutions should also be a priority in future studies.

  17. Small volume 7.5% NaCl with 6% Dextran-70 or 6% and 10% hetastarch are associated with arrhythmias and death after 60 minutes of severe hemorrhagic shock in the rat in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letson, Hayley L; Dobson, Geoffrey P

    2011-06-01

    Hypertonic saline solutions in combination with colloids may have some applications in critically ill patients. Our aim was to examine the effects of small volumes (0.7-1 mL/kg intravenous) of 7.5% NaCl with different colloids on cardiac stability, hemodynamics, and mortality after severe hemorrhagic shock. Male fed Sprague-Dawley rats (300-450 g, n = 48) were anesthetized and randomly assigned to one of six groups: (1) untreated (bleed only), (2) 7.5% NaCl, (3) 7.5% NaCl/6% dextran-70, (4) 7.5% NaCl/6% hetastarch (HES), (5) 6% HES alone, and (6) 7.5% NaCl/10% HES. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by phlebotomy until the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 35 mm Hg to 40 mm Hg and continued for 20 minutes until ∼40% blood loss. Animals were left in shock for 60 minutes at 34°C. 0.3 mL (animals with no deaths. Addition of 6% HES to hypertonic saline resulted in aberrant arrhythmias and 38% mortality. Six percent HES alone was proarrhythmic and led to 38% mortality. 7.5% NaCl with 10% HES resulted in 100% mortality (p Small volumes of 7.5% NaCl led to fewer arrhythmias and a 2.6 times survival benefit over untreated rats, and a partial resuscitation of MAP into the "permissive range." Dextran-70 or HES in 7.5% NaCl were proarrhythmic and HES led to increased mortality (p critical for successful resuscitation, care should be exercised when using dextran-70 or 6 and 10% HES in small volume hypertonic saline solutions for early hypotensive resuscitation.

  18. Comparison of the effects of 7.2% hypertonic saline and 20% mannitol on whole blood coagulation and platelet function in dogs with suspected intracranial hypertension - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yozova, Ivayla D; Howard, Judith; Henke, Diana; Dirkmann, Daniel; Adamik, Katja N

    2017-06-19

    Hyperosmolar therapy with either mannitol or hypertonic saline (HTS) is commonly used in the treatment of intracranial hypertension (ICH). In vitro data indicate that both mannitol and HTS affect coagulation and platelet function in dogs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 20% mannitol and 7.2% HTS on whole blood coagulation using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and platelet function using a platelet function analyzer (PFA®) in dogs with suspected ICH. Thirty client-owned dogs with suspected ICH needing osmotherapy were randomized to receive either 20% mannitol (5 ml/kg IV over 15 min) or 7.2% HTS (4 ml/kg IV over 5 min). ROTEM® (EXTEM® and FIBTEM® assays) and PFA® analyses (collagen/ADP cartridges) were performed before (T0), as well as 5 (T5), 60 (T60) and 120 (T120) minutes after administration of HTS or mannitol. Data at T5, T60 and T120 were analyzed as a percentage of values at T0 for comparison between groups, and as absolute values for comparison between time points, respectively. No significant difference was found between the groups for the percentage change of any parameter at any time point except for FIBTEM® clotting time. Within each group, no significant difference was found between time points for any parameter except for FIBTEM® clotting time in the HTS group, and EXTEM® and FIBTEM® maximum clot firmness in the mannitol group. Median ROTEM® values lay within institutional reference intervals in both groups at all time points, whereas median PFA® values were above the reference intervals at T5 (both groups) and T60 (HTS group). Using currently recommended doses, mannitol and HTS do not differ in their effects on whole blood coagulation and platelet function in dogs with suspected ICH. Moreover, no relevant impairment of whole blood coagulation was found following treatment with either solution, whereas a short-lived impairment of platelet function was found after both solutions.

  19. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormonesTumor necrosis factor-alpha binding capacity and anti-infliximab antibodies measured by fluid-phase radioimmunoassays as predictors of clinical efficacy of infliximab in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J.A.; Bendtzen, K.; Tonnesen, E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...... in a double-blind study to infusion of NaCl 7.5% (HS), NaCl 0.9% (NS4), both 4 ml kg(-1), or NaCl 0.9% 32 ml kg(-1) (NS32) over 20 min. Blood was collected at baseline, 1, 4, and 24 h after surgery (n=34) for the determination of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-1ra, and tumour necrosis...... factor-alpha. Serum cortisol and vasopressin were measured at these time points and 48 h after operation. Epinephrine and norepinephrine (n=26) were quantified at baseline, after infusion, 25 min after incision, 1, and 4 h after surgery. Finally, C-reactive protein was measured at baseline, 24, and 48 h...

  20. Abstracts of the International Conference on Hypertonic Resuscitation (5th) Held in Galveston, Texas on 3-5 June 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    fluids to hypertonic "’small volume" fluids through the I/O route. Hypertonic saline (HTS) is effective in small volumes, but hypernatremia limits the...34small volume" hypertonic fluids is effective. Hypernatremia seen with HTS is not a significant problem with Isosal - a new "isonatremic" hypertonic...significant rise of plasma C1-, from 122 to 141 mEq/l, but no rise was observed in the three isochloremic groups. HAD and NLD induced hypernatremia (174 mEq/1

  1. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... be treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions improve cardiac function in children after open-heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Michael; Plank, Christian; Meissner, Udo; Eberle, Klaus-Peter; Weyand, Michael; Cesnjevar, Robert; Dötsch, Jörg; Rascher, Wolfgang

    2006-07-01

    Hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions are used for the improvement of micro- and macrocirculation in various types of shock. In pediatric intensive care medicine, controlled, randomized studies with hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions are lacking. Hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions may improve cardiac function in children. The primary objective of this controlled, randomized, blinded study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects and safety of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution infusions in children shortly after open-heart surgery for congenital cardiac disease. The secondary objective was to determine whether the administration of hypertonic-hyperoncotic solutions could be a potential and effective therapeutic option for preventing a probable capillary leakage syndrome that frequently occurs in children after open-heart surgery. The children were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 25. The hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution group received Poly-(O-2)-hydroxyethyl-starch 60.0 g, with molecular weight of 200 kDa, Na+ 1232 mmol/L and osmolality of 2464 mOsmol/L (7.2% sodium chloride with 6% hydroxyethyl-starch 200 kDa). The isotonic saline solution group received isotonic saline solution (0.9% sodium chloride). Atrial and ventricular septal defects were corrected using a homograft patch. Monitoring consisted of an arterial, a central venous, and a thermodilution catheter (PULSIOCATH). Cardiac index, extravascular lung water index, stroke volume index, mean arterial blood pressure, and systemic vascular resistance index were measured (Pulse Contour Cardiac Output technique). Immediately after surgery, patients were loaded either with hypertonic-hyperoncotic solution or with isotonic saline solution (4 mL/kg). Blood samples (sodium concentration, osmolality, thrombocyte count, fibrinogen, and arterial blood gases) were drawn directly before; immediately after; 15 minutes after; and, 1, 4, 12, and 24 hours after the end of volume loading. Hemodynamic parameters were registered at the

  4. Short-term effects of hypertonic saline solution in acute heart failure and long-term effects of a moderate sodium restriction in patients with compensated heart failure with New York Heart Association class III (Class C) (SMAC-HF Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, Salvatore; Fasullo, Sergio; Parrinello, Gaspare; Cannizzaro, Sergio; Basile, Ivana; Vitrano, Gabriella; Terrazzino, Gabriella; Maringhini, Giorgio; Ganci, Filippo; Scalzo, Sebastiano; Sarullo, Filippo M; Cice, Gennaro; Di Pasquale, Pietro

    2011-07-01

    Hypertonic saline solution (HSS) and a moderate Na restriction plus high furosemide dose showed beneficial effects in compensated heart failure (HF), in short and long terms. The study was aimed to verify the effects of this combination on hospitalization time, readmissions and mortality in patients in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III. Chronic ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy uncompensated patients with HF in NYHA III functional class with ejection fraction <40%, serum creatinine <2.5 mg/dL, blood urea nitrogen <60 mg/dL and reduced urinary volume were single-blind randomized in 2 groups: the first group received a 30-minute intravenous infusion of furosemide (250 mg) plus HSS (150 mL) twice daily and a moderate Na restriction (120 mmol); the second group received furosemide intravenous bolus (250 mg) twice a day, without HSS and a low Na diet (80 mmol); both groups received a fluid intake of 1000 mL/d. After discharge, the HSS group continued with 120 mmol Na/d; the second group continued with 80 mmol Na/d. A total of 1771 patients (881 HSS group and 890 without HSS group) met inclusion criteria: the first group (881 patients), compared with the second (890 patients), showed an increase in diuresis and serum Na levels, a reduction in hospitalization time (3.5 + 1 versus 5.5 + 1 days, P < 0.0001) and, during follow-up (57 + 15 months), a lower rate in readmissions (18.5% versus 34.2%, P < 0.0001) and mortality (12.9% versus 23.8%, P < 0.0001); the second group also showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. This study suggests that in-hospital HSS administration, combined with moderate Na restriction, reduces hospitalization time and that a moderate sodium diet restriction determines long-term benefit in patients with NYHA class III HF.

  5. EFFICIENCY OF HYPERTONIC SOLUTION INHALATION IN CHILDREN WITH BRONCHITIS AND BRONCHIOLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Simonova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic bronchitis and bronchiolitis in children with congenital malformation are often characterized by the severe course of disease. The efficiency of treatment of those conditions can be increased through addition of sodium chloride (NaCl, hypertonic saline which takes a hydrostatic and osmotic effect on mucous membrane of the bronchial tree in broncholytic therapy. Aim: To evaluate the efficiency of 3% NaCl hypertonic solution inhalation in children with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis in the setting of bronchi congenital malformation (Kartagener's syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Patients and methods: The participantsof this study were 28 children in the age of 4–17.5 years with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis in the setting of Kartagener's syndrome and primary ciliary dyskinesia in the first days o facute exacerbation of the disease (15 patients in treatment group and 13 patients in control group. In the therapy scheme of treatment group the 3 NaCl hypertonic solution in administered dose of 2 ml was applied 2 times/day during 14 days besides other treatment methods. Results: In patients with chronic bronchiolitis 3% NaCl hypertonic saline inhalation in administered dose of 2 ml twice a day had improved the clinical presentation of disease; by the 14th day of studythe FEV-1 value improved from 70.0 ± 2.1 to 82 ± 3.2% (p = 0.024. The side effects in form of cough aggravation were registered in 13% cases. Among additional criteria of efficiency the improvement of MОС-75 from 52.1 ± 5.2 to 71.2 ± 1.4% (p = 0.011 was also marked in patients. The adverse experience, such as shivering, hypoexcitability and sleep disturbance, were registered in 7% of cases. Conclusion: Inhalation of 3% NaCl hypertonic saline allows the fast arresting of wheezing and eliminates the mycostasis in children with chronic bronchitis/bronchiolitis.

  6. Solução salina hipertônica para prevenção de insuficiência renal em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca descompensada e hiponatremia Hypertonic saline solution for renal failure prevention in patients with decompensated heart failure

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    Victor Sarli Issa

    2007-10-01

    insuficiência renal.BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia and congestive phenomena indicate a bad prognosis in decompensated heart failure. The occurrence of renal failure is associated to an increased death risk. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the hypertonic saline solution in patients with decompensated heart failure for renal failure prevention. METHODS: Patients with decompensated heart failure, congestion and hyponatremia participated in the study. In addition to the standard treatment, the patients received hypertonic saline solution and were submitted to clinical as well as laboratory assessment. RESULTS: Nine patients were enrolled in the study. Mean age was 55 + 14.2 years, being 5 male (55.5% and 4 (44.5% female patients. All of them presented functional class III-IV of the New York Heart Association (NYHA, and 5 (55.5% received dobutamine. All of them presented initial creatinine > 1.4 mg/dl. The mean tonicity of the solution was 4.39% + 0.018% (2.5% to 7.5% and the duration of treatment was 4.9 days + 4.1 days (1-15 days. There were no severe adverse effects; none of the patients presented clinical worsening or neurologic disorders; hypokalemia occurred in 4 cases (44.5%. The comparison of the variables before and after treatment showed a decrease in urea (105 mg/dl + 74.8 mg/dl vs. 88 mg/dl + 79.4 mg/dl; p = 0.03 and increase in the urinary volume (1,183 ml/day vs. 1,778 ml/day; p = 0.03; there was no tendency to creatinine decrease (2.0 mg/dl + 0.8 mg/dl vs. 1.7 mg/dl + 1.0 mg/dl; p = 0.08. Despite the elevation in sodium levels (131 mEq/l + 2.8 mEq/l vs. 134 mEq/l + 4.9 mEq/l and weight decrease (69.5 kg + 18.6 kg vs. 68.2 kg + 17.1 kg, there was no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION: The use of hypertonic saline solution in patients with decompensated heart failure can be a safe therapeutic method and potentially related to clinical improvement and renal failure prevention.

  7. Broncoprovocação com solução salina hipertônica em crianças asmáticas Brocoprovocación con solución salina hipertónica en niños asmáticos Bronchoprovocation with hypertonic saline solution in asthmatic children

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    Cínthia Maria X. Costa

    2012-09-01

    ,5%, considerándose el resultado positivo como la reducción del volumen espiratorio forzado en el primer segundo (VEF1 ≥20%. RESULTADOS: Sesenta individuos eran atópicos. La frecuencia de positividad de la prueba de broncoprovocación fue mayor en el Grupo MG que en el IL (93 versus 65%. El tiempo necesario para la reducción de 20% del VEF1 para el grupo de atópicos fue menor en el MG cuando comparado al IL, 90 (30 a 330 versus 210 (30 a 690 segundos, con pOBJECTIVE: To verify if the bronchoprovocation test with 4.5% hypertonic saline solution allows to detect the gradient of response in asthmatic children and adolescents, according to asthma severity. METHODS: 75 asthmatic patients aged six to 18 years-old were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. They were classified according to asthma severity in: intermittent or mild persistent (IM and moderate or severe persistent (MS. They were also classified according to sensitization to inhaled allergens in atopics: positive skin prick test to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae and Blomia tropicalis; or non- atopic with negative skin prick tests. All patients underwent a bronchoprovocation test with 4.5% hypertonic saline solution. The result of the bronchoprovocation test was considerd positive if at least a reduction of 20% in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 was noted. RESULTS: 60 individuals were atopic. The bronchoprovocation test was positive more frequently in the MS group than in the IM one (93 versus 65%. Less time was needed for a 20% fall of FEV1 in the MG compared to the IL group [90 (30 - 330 versus 210 (30 - 690 seconds; p<0.05]. The percentage of FEV1 fall was higher in the MG group than in the IL one [26,4% (14 - 63 versus 20% (0 - 60; p<0.05]. CONCLUSIONS: The 4.5% hypertonic saline solution bronchoprovocation test is safe and easy to perform. It detects a gradient of response in asthmatic children and adolescents regarding asthma severity. Higher frequency of positive tests, shorter

  8. Hypertonic saline solution increases cerebral perfusion pressure during clinical orthotopic liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure: preliminary results Solução salina hipertônica aumenta a pressão de perfusão cerebral no transplante do fígado para hepatite fulminante: resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Avancini Rocha Filho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available During orthotopic liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure, some patients may develop sudden deterioration of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, mainly due to increased intracranial pressure and hypotension, which are likely responsible for postoperative neurological morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we hypothesized that the favorable effects of hypertonic saline solution (NaCl 7.5%, 4 mL/kg infusion on both systemic and cerebral hemodynamics, demonstrated in laboratory and clinical settings of intracranial hypertension and hemorrhagic shock resuscitation, may attenuate the decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure that often occurs during orthotopic liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. METHODS: 10 patients with fulminant hepatic failure in grade IV encephalopathy undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation with intracranial pressure monitoring were included in this study. The effect on cerebral and systemic hemodynamics in 3 patients who received hypertonic saline solution during anhepatic phase (HSS group was examined, comparing their data with historical controls obtained from surgical procedure recordings in 7 patients (Control group. The maximal intracranial pressure and the corresponding mean arterial pressure values were collected in 4 time periods: (T1 the last 10 min of the dissection phase, (T2 the first 10 minutes at the beginning of anhepatic phase, (T3 at the end of the anhepatic phase, and (T4 the first 5 minutes after graft reperfusion. RESULTS: Immediately after hypertonic saline solution infusion, intracranial pressure decreased 50.4%. During the first 5 min of reperfusion, the intracranial pressure remained stable in the HSS group, and all these patients presented an intracranial pressure lower than 20 mm Hg, while in the Control group, the intracranial pressure increased 46.5% (P Neste estudo testamos a hipótese de que os efeitos benéficos decorrentes da administração da solu

  9. Use of Hypertonic Continuous Venovenous Hemodiafiltration to Control Intracranial Hypertension in an End-Stage Renal Disease Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen I. Rifkin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF using solutions designed to maintain hypernatremia is described in an end-stage renal disease (ESRD patient with cerebral edema (CE due to an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Hypernatremia was readily achieved and maintained without complication. CVVHDF should be considered as an alternative treatment option in ESRD patients with cerebral edema who require hypertonic saline therapy.

  10. Rapid Resuscitation with Small Volume Hypertonic Saline Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were entered into a computer data base and analysed. Results: Forty five patients were enrolled and resuscitated with 250 mls 7.5% HSS. Among the studied patients, 88.9% recovered from shock immediately after being infused with 7.5% HSS. Of patients with a single injury, 96.6% recovered from shock whereas ...

  11. Hypertonic saline in the treatment of corneal jellyfish stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu Yao, Hsin; Cho, Ta Hsiung; Lu, Ching Hsiang; Lin, Feng Chi; Horng, Chi Ting

    2016-02-01

    A 20-year-old male soldier was hit by the jellyfish. The ophthalmic examination revealed that epithelial keratitis and corneal oedema in the right eye. We prescribed 3% NaCl eyedrops and 0.3% Norfloxacin eyedrops in the treatment of the corneal jellyfish stings. Two weeks later, the cornea in the right eye healed. In this case report, 3% NaCl eyedrops was effective in the treatment of acute phase of jellyfish stings of the cornea. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Hot Hypertonic Saline and Compression Device: A Novel Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    technique. Skin maps of the lesions were made with alcohol-based marker to isolate their locations on the skin, ensuring a distance of about 1 cm border away from the periphery of the swellings. The marked borders signified the sites for the placement of the compression devices. The skin and the deeper tissues were then.

  13. Early Implementation of THAM for ICP Control: Therapeutic Hypothermia Avoidance and Reduction in Hypertonics/Hyperosmotics

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    F. A. Zeiler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tromethamine (THAM has been demonstrated to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP. Early consideration for THAM may reduce the need for other measures for ICP control. Objective. To describe 4 cases of early THAM therapy for ICP control and highlight the potential to avoid TH and paralytics and achieve reduction in sedation and hypertonic/hyperosmotic agent requirements. Methods. We reviewed the charts of 4 patients treated with early THAM for ICP control. Results. We identified 2 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and 2 with traumatic brain injury (TBI receiving early THAM for ICP control. The mean time to initiation of THAM therapy was 1.8 days, with a mean duration of 5.3 days. In all patients, after 6 to 12 hours of THAM administration, ICP stability was achieved, with reduction in requirements for hypertonic saline and hyperosmotic agents. There was a relative reduction in mean hourly hypertonic saline requirements of 89.1%, 96.1%, 82.4%, and 97.0% for cases 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively, comparing pre- to post-THAM administration. Mannitol, therapeutic hypothermia, and paralytics were avoided in all patients. Conclusions. Early administration of THAM for ICP control could potentially lead to the avoidance of other ICP directed therapies. Prospective studies of early THAM administration are warranted.

  14. Hypertonicity: Clinical entities, manifestations and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Ing, Todd S; Raj, Dominic S; Malhotra, Deepak; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Rohrscheib, Mark; Khitan, Zeid J; Murata, Glen H; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2017-01-01

    Hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and is associated with mortality and severe short-term and long-term neurological sequelae. The main clinical syndromes of hypertonicity are hypernatremia and hyperglycemia. Hypernatremia results from relative excess of body sodium over body water. Loss of water in excess of intake, gain of sodium salts in excess of losses or a combination of the two are the main mechanisms of hypernatremia. Hypernatremia can be hypervolemic, euvolemic or hypovolemic. The management of hypernatremia addresses both a quantitative replacement of water and, if present, sodium deficit, and correction of the underlying pathophysiologic process that led to hypernatremia. Hypertonicity in hyperglycemia has two components, solute gain secondary to glucose accumulation in the extracellular compartment and water loss through hyperglycemic osmotic diuresis in excess of the losses of sodium and potassium. Differentiating between these two components of hypertonicity has major therapeutic implications because the first component will be reversed simply by normalization of serum glucose concentration while the second component will require hypotonic fluid replacement. An estimate of the magnitude of the relative water deficit secondary to osmotic diuresis is obtained by the corrected sodium concentration, which represents a calculated value of the serum sodium concentration that would result from reduction of the serum glucose concentration to a normal level. PMID:28101446

  15. Poststroke hypertonicity: upper limb assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Hypertonicity is common in patients with upper limb dysfunction following hemiplegic stroke and is associated with greater impairment, worse function, and lower health-related quality of life. In addition to increased rest activity, abnormal patterns of muscle activation, such as spastic co-contraction, may contribute to disability. In the upper limb, flexor muscles are more commonly involved distally, and at the shoulder, spasticity of adductors, flexors, and internal rotators is most often observed. Prior to interventions, a history regarding prior interventions, comorbid diagnoses, and limitations imposed by abnormal tone should be elicited. Commonly used scales to assess hypertonicity include the Modified Ashworth, the Modified Tardieu, the Spasm Frequency, the Disability Assessment, the Fugl-Meyer, and the Motor Assessment Scales. Treatment interventions for upper limb hypertonicity include stretching, splinting, strengthening of antagonist muscles, oral medications, and focal injections (phenol or botulinum toxins). Intrathecal baclofen may also impact upper limb tone. For focal injections, correct identification of muscles contributing to problematic tone is evaluated by eliciting resistance to movement at rest and observation of patterns of tightness as the limb is used functionally. The botulinum toxins have been shown to decrease tone in stroke survivors and improve active and passive functioning. Because secondary changes such as contractures and weakness may occur with prolonged hypertonicity, therapy to improve range of motion, strengthen weakened muscles, and incorporate use of the limb should be considered following focal injections, oral medications, or intrathecal pump placement.

  16. Efeitos da solução salina hipertônica a 7,5% em glicose a 5% nas concentrações séricas de sódio, cloreto e potássio de eqüinos com hipovolemia induzida Effects of 7,5% hypertonic saline in 5% glucose on serum levels of sodium, chloride and potassium in induced hypovolemic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Bordin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos de soluções salinas isotônica e hipertônica em eqüinos hipovolêmicos sobre as concentrações séricas de sódio, cloreto e potássio e freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (FR. Quinze eqüinos machos com peso entre 390 e 475kg e idades entre quatro e 18 anos foram submetidos à retirada de sangue correspondente a 2% do peso corporal e distribuídos em três grupos de igual número: o grupo GSH recebeu solução hipertônica de NaCl a 7,5% em glicose a 5%; o GSI, solução isotônica de NaCl a 0,9%; e o GC não foi tratado. Os eletrólitos séricos foram avaliados antes (T0, após a retirada de sangue (T1 e após a infusão das soluções, entre 20 e 30 minutos (T2, entre 60 e 70 minutos (T3 e entre 120 e 130 minutos (T4. Após T0, houve elevação da FC e da FR, e as concentrações séricas de Na, Cl, K permaneceram inalteradas. Após a infusão, houve melhora das variáveis clínicas em GSI e GSH, em relação ao GC. Quanto a T3 e T4, os valores de Na em T2 do GSH foram maiores, e os de Cl e de K não se alteraram. As soluções hipertônica e isotônica são seguras na correção da hipovolemia induzida e não produzem alteração eletrolítica significativa.The effect of isotonic and hypertonic solutions on serum levels of sodium, chloride and potassium and cardiac (CR and respiratory rates (RR of hypovolemic horses were studied. Fifteen horses weighting from 390 to 475kg, aging from four to 18-years-old were submitted to bleeding of 2% of body weight and divided in three groups: 7.5% NaCl hypertonic saline in 5% glucose (GSH, 0.9% NaCl isotonic saline and control group (GC. Serum electrolytes were evaluated before (T0 and after bleeding (T1 and after the administration of the solutions between 20 and 30 minutes (T2, 60 and 70 minutes (T3 and 120 and 130 minutes (T4. After T0, CR and RR increased while serum sodium, chloride, potassium were not affected. After the treatment, the clinical variables

  17. Avaliação laboratorial do uso de solução salina hipertônica e isotônica e de furosemida no tratamento da intoxicação por amônia em bovinos Laboratorial evaluation of hypertonic and isotonic saline solution and furosemide use for the ammonia poisoning treatment in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Satiko Kitamura

    2010-08-01

    cattle, 25 steers were used. Ammonium chloride solution was infused intravenously (iv in each steer until the onset of convulsive episode. Thereafter, the animals were distributed in one of the five different groups, as follows: 1 control: infusion (iv of 300mL isotonic saline solution (ISS throughout the following 4h; 2 infusion (iv of ISS 30mL kg-1 BW throughout the following 4h and administration of 4L water (W through stomach tube; 3 the same as group 2, plus a single dose (iv 2g furosemide kg-1 BW (F; 4 injection of 5mL kg-1 BW hypertonic saline solution (HSS (7.2% (iv throughout the first 30min, followed by 20mL kg-1 BW of ISS and 4L W.; 5 the same as group 4 and a single dose of F. For the next 4h after the convulsion, plasma concentration of ammonia and glucose, serum urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium, urine total volume and specific gravity, and urinary excretion of ammonium and urea were followed. At the convulsion, the ammonia blood levels were high and similar among the groups, but at the 120th min the animals treated with HSS+ISS+W (groups 4 and 5 had lower values than the control. Furosemide (groups 3 and 5 did not prevent an increase in the total excretion of urine. The therapy with HSS+ISS+W still increased the urinary volume and the total urinary excretion of urea and ammonium during the critical 1st h of treatment, while the use of ISS+W had intermediate results. The efficiency of the treatment with HSS+ISS+W or ISS+W was better than the control group. Although with lower efficiency as seen in the treatment with HSS+ISS+W, the ISS+W caused an improvement in the clinical picture and at the end of the experiment generated an adequate ammonia detoxification.

  18. Iron-dextran injection into the substantia nigra in rats decreases striatal dopamine content ipsilateral to the injury site and impairs motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso

    2010-06-01

    Iron chloride injections into the rat SNc can cause chronic decreases in striatal dopamine (DA) levels. However, changes in striatal DA content after iron-dextran injection into rat SNc have not been completely elucidated. The aim of this work was to measure striatal DA concentrations after iron-dextran injection into the SNc. We divided 40 male Wistar rats into five groups, including control, saline injected then sacrificed 7 days or 30 days later, and iron-dextran injected then sacrificed 7 days or 30 days later. Striatal DA content was measured in control animals and in all animals sacrificed 7 days or 30 days after injection, and motor performance was assessed in iron-dextran and saline injected groups 30 days after injection. The striatal DA levels were determined using HPLC. There were significant (P iron-dextran treated rats compared to control and saline-injected rats. There were no significant differences in DA concentration between the sham-operated (i.e., saline-injected) and control rats. We also observed motor deficits in the iron-dextran injected rats. The striatal DA reduction observed after iron-dextran injection may be attributable to iron-induced oxidative injury in the SNc. Motor deficits, in turn, may be explained by subsequent disturbances in striatal and cortical dopaminergic neuromodulation.

  19. HYPERTONIC SOLUTIONS EFFICACY IN ACUTE UNCOMPLICATED RHINOSINUSITIS TREATMENT IN CHILDREN

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    М.R. Bogomilskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of acute rhinosinusitis in children. It contains data from our own research upon hypertonic solution efficacy and suitability in complex therapy of rhinosinusitis. It was shown that inclusion of hypertonic solution of sea water spray into treatment scheme of acute rhinosinusitis allows to reach amelioration of nasal functions and patient’s well being in short term, reduces total duration of the disease, thus decresing the risk of complications development. Key words: rhinosinusitis, treatment, childhood, hypertonic solution, sea water. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (5: 124–129.

  20. Cardiopulmonary effects of 7.2% saline solution compared with gelatin infusion in the early postoperative period after coronary artery bypass grafting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FCPS, Rashid Mazhar; Samenesco, Adrian; Royston, David; Rees, Alun

    1998-01-01

    ...: We report a clinical study on the use of 7.2%, 2400 mOsm/L, hypertonic saline solution compared with gelatin in early postoperative period after coronary artery bypass surgery. Methods: Two groups ( n  = 10 each...

  1. Efeitos cardiovascular e metabólico da reposição volêmica com solução salina hipertônica 7,5% associada ou não ao hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 em gatas com hipovolemia induzida Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of volemic expansion with 7.5% hypertonic saline alone or in combination with hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 in cats with induced hypovolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doughlas Regalin

    2010-08-01

    Cl 7,5% isoladamente aumenta rapidamente a PAM, PAS e PAD em gatos com hipovolemia induzida, mantendo esse efeito por apenas 30 minutos, enquanto que a administração de hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 associado à NaCl 7,5% promove reestabelecimento mais tardio (após 30 minutos, porém mais duradouro (até 120 minutos da PAM, PAS e PAD em gatas com hipovolemia induzida. A administração de HES 130/0,4 associada à NaCl 7,5% promove aumento acentuado da PVC por até 60 minutos após a administração.Hypovolemia is characterized by body fluid loss leading to an inadequate circulatory flow and consequently tissue injury. The aim of this study was to compare the volume expansion using hypertonic saline solution (NaCl 7.5% alone or in combination with hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 (HES 130/0.4 in cats under general anesthesia with isoflurane and exposed to experimental hypovolemia. Twelve adult mixed breed cats, average weight of 3.07±0.56kg were used in this study. The queens were anesthetized using isoflurane and after surgical prepare, anesthesia were maintained with 1 MAC of isoflurane and the animals were mechanically ventilated. After waiting for anesthesia stabilization, baseline cardiovascular and hemogasometric parameters were recorded. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawing 30mL kg-1 of blood from the femoral artery, after an hour, data were reassessed, and then, the animals were allocated into two groups: HSG (hypertonic saline group, n=6, which received 4mL kg-1 of 7.5% NaCl, and HSCG (hypertonic saline, associated to HES 130/0,4 group n=6 which received 4mL kg-1 of 7.5% NaCl associated to 30ml kg-1 of HES 130/0.4. After the treatments, cardiovascular and hemogasometric parameters were assessed for 120 minutes. Systolic blood pressure (SAP, diastolic blood pressure (DAP, mean arterial pressure (MAP were significantly higher after volemic expansion on HSG at T0. From T45 to T120, SAP, DAP and MAP were significantly higher in HSCG when compared to HSG. Central venous

  2. High and Low Molecular Weight Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)-Dextrans to Assess Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption: Technical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Angelika; Bredno, Jörg; Wendland, Michael; Derugin, Nikita; Ohara, Peter; Wintermark, Max

    2011-03-01

    This note is to report how histological preparation techniques influence the extravasation pattern of the different molecular sizes of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans, typically used as markers for blood-brain barrier leakage. By using appropriate preparation methods, false negative results can be minimized. Wistar rats underwent a 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion and magnetic resonance imaging. After the last imaging scan, Evans blue and FITC-dextrans of 4, 40, and 70 kDa molecular weight were injected. Different histological preparation methods were used. Sites of blood-brain barrier leakage were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. Extravasation of Evans blue and high molecular FITC-dextrans (40 and 70 kDa) in the infarcted region could be detected with all preparation methods used. If exposed directly to saline, the signal intensity of these FITC-dextrans decreased. Extravasation of the 4-kDa low molecular weight FITC-dextran could only be detected using freshly frozen tissue sections. Preparations involving paraformaldehyde and sucrose resulted in the 4-kDa FITC-dextran dissolving in these reactants and being washed out, giving the false negative result of no extravasation. FITC-dextrans represent a valuable tool to characterize altered blood-brain barrier permeability in animal models. Diffusion and washout of low molecular weight FITC-dextran can be avoided by direct immobilization through immediate freezing of the tissue. This pitfall needs to be known to avoid the false impression that there was no extravasation of low molecular weight FITC-dextrans.

  3. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  4. New Form of Hypertonic Solution for Nebulization Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Simonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucolytic, expectorative and antitussive drugs are traditionally used in acute or chronic respiratory episodes affected by acute respiratory infections. Today, preference is given to drugs in a form of solutions for nebulization therapy. The article presents data on the new dosage form of 7% inhalation hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid used in mucostasis therapy for chronic respiratory diseases. The information on the properties and the favorable effect of hyaluronic acid is provided. We discuss the evidence base of inhalation of the hypertonic solution in combination with hyaluronic acid in cystic fibrosis.

  5. Safety of total dose iron dextran infusion in geriatric patients with chronic kidney disease and iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossabhoy, Neville R; Turley, Steven; Gascoyne, Rebecca; Tapolyai, Mihaly; Sulaiman, Karina

    2014-08-01

    There are limited data on total dose infusion (TDI) using iron dextran in geriatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Our goal was to evaluate the safety of TDI in this setting. We conducted a retrospective chart review spanning a 5 year period (2002-2007), including all patients with CKD and IDA who were treated with iron dextran TDI. Patient demographics were noted, and laboratory values for creatinine, hemoglobin and iron stores were recorded pre- and post-dose. TDI diluted in normal saline was administered intravenously over 4-6 hours after an initial test dose. One hundred fifty-three patients received a total of 250 doses of TDI (mean ± SD=971 ± 175 mg); age was 69 ± 12 years and creatinine 3.3 ± 1.9 mg/dL. All stages of CKD were represented (stage 4 commonest). Hemoglobin and iron stores improved post-TDI (Piron dextran produced 6 AEs (5.45%), whereas 140 doses of low molecular weight (LMW) iron dextran produced 2 AEs (1.43%), a non-significant trend (P=0.1433 by Fishers Exact Test). Iron dextran TDI is relatively safe and effective in correcting IDA in geriatric CKD patients. Fewer AEs were noted with the LMW compared to the HMW product. LMW iron dextran given as TDI can save both cost and time, helping to alleviate issues of non-compliance and patient scheduling.

  6. Clinical Question: Nasal saline or intranasal corticosteroids to treat allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Stefani; Brown, Elizabeth Aubrey; Franklin, Rachel; Wickersham, Elizabeth A; McCarthy, Laine H

    2016-01-01

    In pediatric populations, is nasal saline irrigation as effective as intranasal corticosteroids at relieving allergic rhinitis symptoms? No. Intranasal steroids are more effective than nasal saline alone to reduce symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) in children. Combination therapy further improves symptom reduction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE FOR THE ANSWER: B SEARCH TERMS: Allergic Rhinitis, Nasal Saline, Nasal corticosteroids, children younger than age 18. DATE SEARCH WAS CONDUCTED: August and September 2014, October 2015. Meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohort studies, nasal spray, hypertonic saline solution, nasal lavage, rhinitis, intranasal administration, nasal saline, human, English language. Antihistamines, Adults, Articles older than 2008.

  7. In vivo biocompatibility of dextran-based hydrogels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cadee, JA; van Luyn, MJA; Brouwer, LA; Plantinga, JA; van Wachem, PB; de Groot, CJ; den Otter, W; Hennink, WE

    2000-01-01

    Dextran-based hydrogels were obtained by polymerization of aqueous solutions of methacrylated dextran (dex-MA) or lactate-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-derivatized dextran (dex-lactate-HEMA). Both nondegradable dex-MA and degradable dex-lactate-HEMA disk-shaped hydrogels, varying in initial water

  8. Hydroxyethyl starch as a substitute for dextran 40 for thawing peripheral blood progenitor cell products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenlu; Heditke, Sarah; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Waters-Pick, Barbara; Hari, Parameswaran; Margolis, David A; Keever-Taylor, Carolyn A

    2015-12-01

    Removing DMSO post-thaw results in: reduced infusion reactions, improved recovery and stability of viable CD34+ cells. Validated methods use 5%-8.3% Dextran 40 with 2.5%-4.2% HSA for this purpose. Recent shortages of clinical grade Dextran require identification of suitable alternatives. PBPC were used to compare a standard 2X wash medium of 5 parts 10% Dextran 40 in saline (DEX) with 1 part 25% HSA (8.3% DEX/ 4.2% HSA) with Hydroxyethyl Starch (HES)-based solutions. Cells in replicate bags were diluted with an equal volume of wash solution, equilibrated 5 minutes, the bag filled with wash medium, pelleted and the supernatant expressed. Bags were restored to the frozen volume in wash medium and tested by single platform flow cytometry and CFU. Total viability, viable TNC, MNC, and CD34+ cell recovery, and CD34+ cell viability were compared immediately post-thaw and after 90 minutes. 5.2% HES/4.2% HSA did not differ from our standard in CD34 recovery or viability. Due to concerns that high concentrations of HES could affect renal function we tested 0.6% HES/2.5% HSA resulting in significantly poorer CD34 recovery and viability. Results improved using 2.4% HES/4.2% HSA and when 0.6% HES/4.2%HSA was used no significant differences were seen. CFU assays confirmed no differences between the standard dextran arm and HES at 2.4% or 0.6% so long as HSA was at 4.2%. We conclude that HES from 0.6% to 5.2% with 4.2% HSA is a suitable substitute for Dextran 40 as a reconstitution/washing medium for PBPC products. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transperitoneal transport of sodium during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Brahm, J

    1996-01-01

    The mechanisms of transperitoneal sodium transport during hypertonic peritoneal dialysis were evaluated by kinetic modelling. A total of six nested mathematical models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective and lymphatic convective solute transport....... Experimental results were obtained from 26 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The model validation procedure demonstrated that only diffusive and non-lymphatic convective transport mechanisms were identifiable in the transperitoneal transport of sodium. Non-lymphatic convective sodium...

  10. Dextran degrading activity of oral microbial flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, K; Mizuno, F; Matsuda, Y; Takahashi, N; Horikawa, T

    1976-03-01

    Dextran degrading activity of the human oral microflora was detected by culturing in TYD broth (Tryptose 1.0%, Yeast extract 0.3%, Dextran T-150 (Pharmacia, MW 150,000) 0.15%). All of the plaue and saliva samples collected from 10 subjects showed a dextran degrading activity, both cultured aerobically and anaerobically, while the anaerobic culture was more active than the aerobic. Furthermore, some individual differences were observed in their activity. Crude enzyme(s) was extracted from the supernatant of a mixed culture of plaque sample by adding ammonium-sulfate to 0.6 and 0.8 saturation (called E-1 and E-2, respectively). E-1 contained 2 dextran-degrading enzymes, one being thought to be an endo-enzyme, with the optimal of H being 5.0 and the other an exo-enzyme with the optimal pH being 7.0-7.5. On the other hand, E-2 contained 1 enzyme of the endo-type. Thirteen strains producing dextranase were isolated from the plaque and were identified as Bacteroides oralis-like organisms. Several other organisms were thought to produce dextranase, although we failed to isolate them in this experiment.

  11. Indicators: Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity is the dissolved salt content of a body of water. Excess salinity, due to evaporation, water withdrawal, wastewater discharge, and other sources, is a chemical sterssor that can be toxic for aquatic environments.

  12. Production of Dextran from Sugar Cane Molasses by Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Faramarzi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Dextran is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that are widely used in medicine as a blood volume extender. The aim of this study was to produce dextran from cane molasses using Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria. Methods: In this experimental study, for bacterial growth and dextran production, sugarcane molasses was added to the culture medium at different concentrations. Dextran sedimentation was obtained by shaking and centrifugation by adding ethanol after 48 hours. Response surface design was used for qualitative identification of the polarization of dextran and statistical analysis methods. Results: After assessing the separation and interactive effects of the parameters on the optimum amount of dextran produced from sugarcane molasses as 50 g, 35 º C and 5/8 = pH , the Dextran produced was more than 82 g/l. The correlation of the computational model for the dextran produced was 99.5%, which indicated excellent agreement with the experimental and computational models of high accuracy. Conclusion: Dextran produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides bacteria and sugarcane molasses as substrate, is a cheap and affordable compared to current methods of dextran production. In addition to producing a clinical product, the molasses pollution could be dramatically decreased. Key words: Dextran, Molasses, Leuconostoc Mesenteroides

  13. Dextran-encapsulated photoluminescent gold nanoclusters: synthesis and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Wei-Ju; Chen, Wei-Yu; Lai, Hong-Zheng; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chiang, Hsiang-Lin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-07-01

    Dextrans are widely used as additives in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics because of their hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, and low toxicity. These features allow the use of dextrans to modify the surface of nanoparticles to improve cell compatibility for biomedical applications. Additionally, dextran molecules covalently bound with fluorescent dyes are frequently used as tracers in animal studies. These facts show that dextrans are useful compounds for biomedicine-related applications and research. Our aim was to explore a facile way to generate dextran-derived nanoparticles with photoluminescent property for the use in fluorescence imaging of bacteria and cancer cells. Dextran-encapsulated gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@dextran) were generated through a one-pot reaction by stirring dextrans and aqueous tetrachloroauric acid overnight. The generated AuNCs exhibit bright and green photoluminescence under the illumination of an ultraviolet lamp ( λ max = 365 nm), and high cell biocompatibility was found as well. Therefore, the generated AuNCs can be used as fluorescence tracers and nanoprobes. We explored the suitability of AuNCs@dextran as labeling agents for bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After the bacteria were labeled by AuNCs@dextran, they became quite visible under a fluorescence microscope. Additionally, we demonstrated that nanocomposites composed of AuNCs@dextran and silica beads can be readily internalized by cancer cells. The nanocomposites can be readily detected in the cells through their photoluminescence, suggesting possible applications in drug delivery and fluorescence imaging.

  14. The effects of exogenous ghrelin on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in lean and obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Yumiko; Hiraishi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takuji

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a peptide hormone possessing a variety of physiological and pharmacological actions. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous ghrelin on chemically induced colitis in genetically predisposed lean (TSNO) and obese (TSOD) mice after different schedule of administration. To induce colitis, animals were given drinking water containing 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 5 days. The TSOD and TSNO mice received daily intraperitoneal injections with saline...

  15. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Matuszyk; Dagmara Ceranowicz; Zygmunt Warzecha; Piotr Ceranowicz; Krzysztof Fyderek; Krystyna Gałązka; Jakub Cieszkowski; Joanna Bonior; Jolanta Jaworek; Małgorzata Pihut; Artur Dembiński

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8?nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthe...

  16. Objective evaluation of a splint designed to reduce hypertonicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, J J

    1981-03-01

    Snook's spasticity reduction splint was evaluated objectively with five severely and profoundly handicapped subjects. The force of spastic wrist flexors in pounds of pull was measured on a spring-weighted scale. Findings demonstrated that the device designed for this study was useful in measuring hypertonus; splint wearing resulted in a reduction of the passive component of muscle tone and that this reduction was related to the length of time the subjects wore splints; the effects of splint wearing were not necessarily permanent. Components that contribute to the condition of hypertonicity are discussed, as well as the implications of the study findings for occupational therapists.

  17. Optimization of dextran syntesis and acidic hydrolisis by surface response analysis

    OpenAIRE

    GUIMARÃES, D.P.; COSTA,F.A.A.; Rodrigues,M. I.; MAUGERI, F.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of some variables in the in vitro synthesis of dextran by dextransucrase from Leusconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512F, as well as in the acidic hydrolysis of the dextran produced, were studied in order to maximize the production of clinical dextran (dextran 70 and dextran 40). The experiments were conducted using a factorial design and surface response analysis.

  18. Optimization of dextran syntesis and acidic hydrolisis by surface response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUIMARÃES D.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of some variables in the in vitro synthesis of dextran by dextransucrase from Leusconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B512F, as well as in the acidic hydrolysis of the dextran produced, were studied in order to maximize the production of clinical dextran (dextran 70 and dextran 40. The experiments were conducted using a factorial design and surface response analysis.

  19. Effect of a hypertonic balanced ketone solution on plasma, CSF and brain beta-hydroxybutyrate levels and acid-base status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hayden; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian; Jones, Mark; Worrall, Simon; Chuah, Teong; Ordonez, Jenny

    2013-04-01

    Although glucose is the main source of energy for the human brain, ketones play an important role during starvation or injury. The purpose of our study was to investigate the metabolic effects of a novel hypertonic sodium ketone solution in normal animals. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (420-570 g) were divided into three groups of five, one control and two study arms. The control group received an intravenous infusion of 3 % NaCl at 5 ml/kg/h. The animals in the two study arms were assigned to receive one of the two formulations of ketone solutions, containing hypertonic saline with 40 and 120 mmol/l beta-hydroxybutyrate, respectively. This was infused for 6 h and then the animal was euthanized and brains removed and frozen. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) demonstrated strong evidence of a change over time (p < 0.0001). There was also strong evidence of a difference between groups (p < 0.0001). Multiple comparisons showed all these means were statistically different (p < 0.05). Measurement of BHB levels in brain tissue found strong evidence of a difference between groups (p < 0.0001) with control: 0.15 mmol/l (0.01), BHB 40: 0.19 mmol/l (0.01), and BHB 120: 0.28 mmol/l (0.01). Multiple comparisons showed all these means were statistically different (p < 0.05). There were no differences over time (p = 0.31) or between groups (p = 0.33) or an interaction between groups and time (p = 0.47) for base excess. The IV infusions of hypertonic saline/BHB are feasible and lead to increased plasma, CSF and brain levels of BHB without significant acid/base effects.

  20. Maternal plasma hypertonicity is accentuated in the postterm rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladella, Subhashini J; Desai, Mina; Cho, Yong; Ross, Michael G

    2003-11-01

    In humans and rats, pregnancy-associated maternal plasma volume expansion and plasma hypotonicity may facilitate maternal-to-fetal water transfer. Although reduced amniotic fluid volume occurs commonly in postterm pregnancy, the mechanisms are unknown. We previously demonstrated a reversal of pregnancy-induced maternal plasma hypotonicity that occurs in the near term (20 days) pregnant rats. We sought to determine whether the relative maternal plasma hypertonicity continues in the postterm period. Rat gestation (normal, 21 days) was prolonged with subcutaneous progesterone injection. Pregnant rats at gestation, 18 days, 21 days, and 24 days and nonpregnant rats were studied. Maternal and fetal hematocrit levels, plasma osmolality, electrolyte levels, and amniotic fluid volume were determined. In addition, maternal and fetal tissues were analyzed for water and electrolyte content. Compared with term (21days), postterm pregnant rats (24 days) had a significant increase in maternal and fetal plasma osmolality (293.7+/-1.4 mOsm/kg vs 302.8+/-3.7 mOsm/kg and 301.0+/-2.0 mOsm/kg vs 310.3+/-3.2 mOsm/kg, respectively; Ppostterm period. Postterm rats demonstrated an increased fetal mortality rate (24%) and a significantly reduced amniotic fluid volume (4.2+/-0.6 mL vs 6.6+/-0.6 mL, Ppostterm pregnancy. This continued hypertonicity may induce a fetal-to-maternal water flow and contribute to postterm oligohydramnios and increased fetal morbidity and mortality rates.

  1. What are the effects of hypertonic saline plus furosemide in acute heart failure?

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Zepeda; Carmen Rain; Paola Sepúlveda

    2015-01-01

    En la búsqueda de nuevas terapias para resolver la resistencia a los diuréticos en insuficiencia cardiaca aguda se ha planteado la adición de suero hipertónico. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen nueve estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Se concluye que el suero hipertónico asoci...

  2. Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation Restores Inflammatory Cytokine Balance in Post-Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock Patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rhind, Shawn G; Rizoli, Sandro B; Shek, Pang N; Inaba, Kenji; Filips, Dennis; Tien, Homer; Brenneman, Fred; Rotstein, Ori D

    2004-01-01

    .... Early monocyte dysregulation and excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production are thought to play a key role in the development of post-traumatic multi-organ dysfunction in resuscitated trauma patients...

  3. What are the effects of hypertonic saline plus furosemide in acute heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Zepeda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de nuevas terapias para resolver la resistencia a los diuréticos en insuficiencia cardiaca aguda se ha planteado la adición de suero hipertónico. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen nueve estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Se concluye que el suero hipertónico asociado a furosemida probablemente disminuye la mortalidad, estadía y reingreso hospitalario en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada.

  4. Avaliação hemodinâmica e metabólica da cetamina e cetamina S(+ após a reposição volêmica com hidroxietilamido 130/0,4 e solução salina hipertônica 7,5% Hemodynamic and metabolic evaluation of ketamine and S(+ ketamine after volemic expansion with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0,4 and hypertonic saline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Oleskovicz

    2008-08-01

    a PAM no período imediato, mas melhora os demais parâmetros hemodinâmicos e metabólicos; a administração de CR ou CL produz efeitos hemodinâmicos e metabólicos similares no paciente hipovolêmico.The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamics and hemogasometrics effects, after the administration of hypertonic solution (NaCl 7.5% or in association with hidroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES, in dogs with induced experimental hypovolemia and treated with racemic ketamine (RK or S(+ ketamine (SK. After the hypovolemia induction, administration of NaCl 7.5% (4 ml kg-1 was performed in two groups called hypertonic S(+ group (HSG and hypertonic racemic group (HRG, or NaCl 7.5% (4 ml kg-1 in association with HES, in the same ratio of removed blood, in two groups called hypertonic colloid S(+ group (HCSG and hypertonic colloid racemic group (HCRG. After 30 minutes, it was administered by intravenous injection, SK (5tymg kg-1 in HSG and HCSG groups, or RK (10 mg kg-1 in HRG and HCRG groups. To evaluate the significance of the results, it was used One-way Analysis of variance (ANOVA for repeated measures and Student Newman Keuls method (P£0.05. The heart rate and the systolic arterial pressure were reduced after hypovolemia and administration of the RK. Mean and diastolic arterial pressure were reduced after hypovolemia and either SK or RK administration. The central venous pressure was increased after administration of the colloid. The cardiac output, index cardiac, and index systolic were reduced after hypovolemia in all groups and, after phase of expansion in HSG and HRG. The pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure was increased after colloid administration. The left ventricular work index was reduced after hypovolemia in HCSG and HCRG. The systemic vascular resistance index was increased after hypovolemia and decreased after administration of the SK. The CO2 concentration to the end of the expiration increased after administration of ketamine in HCSG and

  5. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and anaphylactoid reaction in rats and mice after intravenous dextran and white egg administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplancic, Bozidar; Stambolija, Vasilije; Holjevac, Jadranka; Zemba, Mladen; Balenovic, Igor; Drmic, Domagoj; Suran, Jelena; Radic, Bozo; Filipovic, Marinko; Blagaic, Alenka Boban; Brcic, Luka; Kolenc, Danijela; Grabarevic, Zeljko; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2014-03-15

    Anesthetized mice or rats received intravenously 6%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 90% dextran and/or white egg (1ml/rat or 0.15ml/mouse) into their tails. Medication (/kg b.w., 5ml/kg) was given intraperitoneally (BPC 157 10µg, 1µg, 10ng, and 10pg/kg, chloropyramine 20mg/kg, and cimetidine 10mg/kg intraperitoneally, alone or in combination while controls received an equivolume of saline), immediately after challenge or, alternatively, at 5min after or 24 or 48h before challenge. The effect was assessed at 5, 10, 20 and 30min after dextran and/or white egg challenge. We commonly noted prominent edema involving the face, upper and lower lip, snout, paws and scrotum (presented with extreme cyanosis), poor respiration and the number of fatalities after dextran and/or white egg application. Contrary, BPC 157 regimens (10µg, 1µg, 10ng, and 10pg/kg) effectively, may both prevent anaphylactoid reactions that may arise from dextran and/or white egg application and furthermore, rescue already advanced reactions when given after the challenge. Chloropyramine and cimetidine given alone were only moderately effective. When given together with BPC 157, the observed effect correlates with the strong effect of BPC 157 given alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of hypertonic buffer composition on lymph node uptake and bioavailability of rituximab, after subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, Anas M; Turner, Michael R; Mager, Donald E; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V

    2015-03-01

    The subcutaneous administration of biologics is highly desirable; however, incomplete bioavailability after s.c. administration remains a major challenge. In this work we investigated the effects of excipient dependent hyperosmolarity on lymphatic uptake and plasma exposure of rituximab as a model protein. Using Swiss Webster (SW) mice as the animal model, we compared the effects of NaCl, mannitol and O-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) on the plasma concentration of rituximab over 5 days after s.c. administration. An increase was observed in plasma concentrations in animals administered rituximab in hypertonic buffer solutions, compared with isotonic buffer. Bioavailability, as estimated by our pharmacokinetic model, increased from 29% in isotonic buffer to 54% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl, to almost complete bioavailability in hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS or mannitol. This improvement in plasma exposure is due to the improved lymphatic trafficking as evident from the increase in the fraction of dose trafficked through the lymph nodes in the presence of hypertonic buffers. The fraction of the dose trafficked through the lymphatics, as estimated by the model, increased from 0.05% in isotonic buffer to 13% in hypertonic buffer containing NaCl to about 30% for hypertonic buffers containing high dose OPLS and mannitol. The data suggest that hypertonic solutions may be a viable option for improving s.c. bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of hypertonic medium on human cell growth: III. Changes in cell kinetics of EUE cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciari, C; Mazzini, G; Fuhrman Conti, A M; De Grada, L; Manfredi Romanini, M G

    1989-04-01

    The effects of hypertonicity on cell kinetics of EUE cells in culture have been investigated. After 4 days of growth in a hypertonic medium, the plating efficiency of EUE cells was reduced and cell growth was significantly slowed. Flow cytometric measurements of DNA content in synchronized cells, as well as flow cytometric determinations of DNA content and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in asynchronous cells, also showed that the cell cycle is slowed in a hypertonic medium. In addition, the fraction of cycling cells is smaller and their progression through the S phase slower than in an isotonic medium.

  8. 21 CFR 520.1182 - Iron dextran suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron dextran suspension. 520.1182 Section 520.1182... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1182 Iron dextran suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter (mL) of suspension contains 55.56 milligrams (mg) iron as ferric...

  9. [Heart arrest during dextran infusion despite hapten blockade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, B; Sommer, K; Koch, H

    1984-02-01

    In a running clinical prospective study on the incidence of adverse reactions to colloidal polysaccharides (randomised, single blind, n = 300) a bronchospasm followed by cardiac arrest occurred during dextran infusion although the necessary hapten blockage with monovalent dextran-1 had been effected. Resuscitation was successful. Directly after this, surgery was carried out as planned under general anaesthesia. The 69-year-old patient was discharged without noticeable sequelae. For the first time in the literature on dextran the studied sample allows a generalisation: The event occurred with an incidence of about 0.9% (of 116 patients who had received dextran infusion). This incidence corresponds to a confidence interval ranging from 0.02 to 4.96%. If the study would be continued as planned, the upper limit of this interval signals the probability of another case of severe intolerance. The diagnosis "dextran adverse reaction" can be made in this case by clinical symptoms. Since no previous or concomitant medication had been administered as provided in the protocol to confirm the diagnosis as an adverse reaction to dextran by determination of the titer of dextran antibodies prior to infusion is not required and it may be concluded that dextran was the causative agent.

  10. Dextran-based microspheres as controlled delivery systems for proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt-Wensink, K.D.F.

    2007-01-01

    Dextran-based microspheres as controlled delivery systems for proteins Dextran based microspheres are investigated as controlled delivery system for proteins. Microspheres were prepared by polymerization of dex-HEMA in an aqueous two-phase system of dex-HEMA and PEG. Protein loaded microspheres are

  11. Salinity Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  12. Upper Limb Hypertonicity in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Review Study on Medical and Rehabilitative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rassafiani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypertonicity is the most common type of cerebral palsy consists of 85% of the affected children. It has a very complex nature making intervention and management very difficult. This article tries to make reader familiar with various types of intervention and introduce a new intervention process to help clinicians decide better. Literature was reviewed with two criteria including: identifying various interventions and their effects on upper limb hypertonicity and level ofinvasiveness of each intervention. This paper suggested a new way of looking at hypertonicitybased on its two components (i.e., neural and biomechanical and effectiveness of each intervention on these components. In the treatment and management of hypertonicity, clinicians are required tolook at all aspects of hypertonicity and then based on the provided decision tree, decide which kind of treatment to be used for the child.

  13. Effects of PMMA and Cross-Linked Dextran Filler for Soft Tissue Augmentation in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for evaluation of the ability to maintain efficacy and biocompatibility of cross-linked dextran in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (DiHM and cross-linked dextran mixed with PMMA in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (PDiHM, compared with hyaluronic acid (HA filler. Saline and HA solution was administered in the negative and positive control groups, and DiHM and PDiHM were administered in the test groups (n = 10 in each group. The site of cranial subcutaneous injection was the mid-point of the interpupillary line, and the site of intraoral submucosal injection was the ridge crest 2 mm below the cervical line of the mandibular left incisor. Before and immediately after filler injection, intraoral photos and lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken for analysis and comparison of the effect of the filler on the injection sites. The filler injected areas were converted into sequential size changes (% of the baseline. Histomorphologic examination was performed after 12 weeks. The smallest value in the filler injected area was observed during the experimental period in the normal saline group (p < 0.001, which was almost absorbed at 4 weeks (7.19% ± 12.72%. The HA group exhibited a steady decrease in sequential size and showed a lower value than the DiHM and PDiHM groups (saline < HA < DHiM, PDHiM, p < 0.001. DiHM and PDiHM tended to increase for the first 4 weeks and later decreased until 12 weeks. In this study on DiHM and PDiHM, there was no histological abnormality in cranial skin and oral mucosa. DiHM and PDiHM filler materials with injection system provide an excellent alternative surgical method for use in oral and craniofacial fields.

  14. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

    OpenAIRE

    Susann Neiser; Taija S. Koskenkorva; Katrin Schwarz; Maria Wilhelm; Susanna Burckhardt

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous iron preparations are typically classified as non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based complexes. The carbohydrate shell for each of these preparations is unique and is key in determining the various physicochemical properties, the metabolic pathway, and the immunogenicity of the iron-carbohydrate complex. As intravenous dextran can cause severe, antibody-mediated dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR), the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of various int...

  15. Meltable dextran esters as biocompatible and functional coating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, Tim; Wotschadlo, Jana; Laudeley, Peggy; Heinze, Thomas

    2011-08-08

    The conversion of dextran with in situ synthesized iminium chlorides of long chain carboxylic acids was used to obtain pure and defined melting dextran esters in an efficient one-pot synthesis. The melting point of these esters can be tailored by the degree of substitutions (DS), the molecular weight of the starting polymer, and the chain length of the ester moiety. The dextran esters give homogeneous and completely transparent melts, which form stable films on a broad variety of materials. Even complex geometries, such as implants, can be evenly coated by multiple melting steps. The films do not display any inhomogeneity and have a very low surface roughness. Therefore, no unspecific protein binding is observed. Moreover, the dextran esters are biocompatible as demonstrated for the interaction with three types of cells namely human brain microvascular endothelial cell, primary human fibroblasts, and mouse myoblast cells.

  16. Environmental hypertonicity causes induction of gluconeogenesis in the air-breathing singhi catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Das

    Full Text Available The air-breathing singhi catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the effect of hyperosmotic stress, due to exposure to hypertonic environment (300 mM mannitol for 14 days, on gluconeogenesis in this catfish. In situ exposure to hypertonic environment led to significant stimulation of gluconeogenic fluxes from the perfused liver after 7 days of exposure, followed by further increase after 14 days in presence of three different potential gluconeogenic substrates (lactate, pyruvate and glutamate. Environmental hypertonicity also caused a significant increase of activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes, namely phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase and glucose 6-phosphatase by about 2-6 fold in liver, and 3-6 fold in kidney tissues. This was accompanied by more abundance of enzyme proteins by about 1.8-3.7 fold and mRNAs by about 2.2-5.2 fold in both the tissues with a maximum increase after 14 days of exposure. Hence, the increase in activities of key gluconeogenic enzymes under hypertonic stress appeared to be as a result of transcriptional regulation of genes. Immunocytochemical analysis further confirmed the tissue specific localized expression of these enzymes in both the tissues with the possibility of expressing more in the same localized places. The induction of gluconeogenesis during exposure to environmental hypertonicity possibly occurs as a consequence of changes in hydration status/cell volume of different cell types. Thus, these adaptational strategies related to gluconeogenesis that are observed in this catfish under hypertonic stress probably help in maintaining glucose homeostasis and also for a proper energy supply to support metabolic demands mainly for ion transport and other altered metabolic processes under various

  17. Nasal irrigation with saline solution significantly improves oxygen saturation in infants with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Silvana; Ronfani, Luca; Ghirardo, Sergio; Minen, Federico; Taddio, Andrea; Jaber, Mohamad; Rizzello, Elisa; Barbi, Egidio

    2016-03-01

    Published guidelines do not recommend nasal irrigation in bronchiolitis, but it is common practice in Italy, despite a lack of data on its benefits or adverse effects. This single-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial compared nasal irrigation using either isotonic 0.9% sodium chloride or hypertonic 3% sodium chloride with simple supportive care in infants with bronchiolitis. We randomly assigned 133 infants up one year of age, who were admitted to the emergency department with bronchiolitis and an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of between 88 and 94%, to the isotonic (n = 47), hypertonic (n = 44) or standard care (n = 42) groups. Variations in SpO2 and the wheeze, air exchange, respiratory rate, muscle use (WARM) respiratory distress score were recorded at zero, five, 15, 20 and 50 minutes. Five minutes after the intervention, the median SpO2 value (95%) in the isotonic group was higher than both the hypertonic (94%) and the standard care (93%) groups. The differences between the isotonic and standard treatment groups were statistically significant at each time point, while the hypertonic group only reached significantly higher values after 50 minutes. However, the WARM score did not improve. A single nasal irrigation with saline solution significantly improved oxygen saturation in infants with bronchiolitis. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Rhabdomyolysis after intramuscular iron-dextran in malabsorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Foulkes, W.D.; Sewry, C.; Calam, J.; Hodgson, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    The case of a 59 year old white man who had chronic malabsorption and selective IgA deficiency with severe iron deficiency is reported. In addition, he was deficient in vitamin E and selenium, important antioxidants which protect against lipid peroxidation. He was intolerant of oral iron and when treated with iron-dextran developed symptoms suggestive of polymyositis with evidence of rhabdomyolysis. It is suggested that free iron within iron-dextran activated free radicals, initiating lipid p...

  19. Splenic siderosis and parenteral iron dextran in maintenance haemodialysis patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, J. A.; Slater, D N; Parsons, M. A.; Fox, M.; Smith, S.; Platts, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The histological features of 40 spleens surgically removed from maintenance haemodialysis patients are reported. Twenty-four of the 40 (60%) showed massive iron loading and a significant direct correlation was found between iron loading and the amount of intravenous iron dextran administered. Since parenteral iron dextran appears to be a major factor in causing iron overload in haemodialysis patients its use as a method of iron replacement in these patients would appear inappropriate.

  20. Radiation cross-linked collagen/dextran dermal scaffolds: effects of dextran on cross-linking and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Wei, Shicheng; Zhai, Maolin

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation effectively cross-links collagen into network with enhanced anti-degradability and biocompatibility, while radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold lacks flexibility, satisfactory surface appearance, and performs poor in cell penetration and ingrowth. To make the radiation-cross-linked collagen scaffold to serve as an ideal artificial dermis, dextran was incorporated into collagen. Scaffolds with the collagen/dextran (Col/Dex) ratios of 10/0, 7/3, and 5/5 were fabricated via (60)Co γ-irradiation cross-linking, followed by lyophilization. The morphology, microstructure, physicochemical, and biological properties were investigated. Compared with pure collagen, scaffolds with dextran demonstrated more porous appearance, enhanced hydrophilicity while the cross-linking density was lower with the consequence of larger pore size, higher water uptake, as well as reduced stiffness. Accelerated degradation was observed when dextran was incorporated in both the in vitro and in vivo assays, which led to earlier integration with cell and host tissue. The effect of dextran on degradation was ascribed to the decreased cross-linking density, looser microstructure, more porous and hydrophilic surface. Considering the better appearance, softness, moderate degradation rate due to controllable cross-linking degree and good biocompatibility as well, radiation-cross-linked collagen/dextran scaffolds are expected to serve as promising artificial dermal substitutes.

  1. Dextran and gelatin based photocrosslinkable tissue adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Nie, Jun; Yang, Dongzhi

    2012-11-06

    A two-component tissue adhesive based on biocompatible and bio-degradable polymers (oxidized urethane dextran (Dex-U-AD) and gelatin) was prepared and photocrosslinked under the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The adhesive could adhere to surface of gelatin, which simulated the human tissue steadily. The structures of above Dex-U-AD were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and XRD. The adhesion property of result products was evaluated by lap-shear test. The maximum adhesion strength could reach to 4.16±0.72 MPa which was significantly higher than that of fibrin glue. The photopolymerization process of Dex-U-AD/gelatin was monitored by real time infrared spectroscopy (RTIR). It took less than 5 min to complete the curing process. The cytotoxicity of Dex-U-AD/gelatin also was evaluated which indicated that Dex-U-AD/gelatin gels were nontoxic to L929 cell. The relationship between all the above-mentioned properties and degree of oxidization of Dex-U-AD was assessed. The obtained products have the potential to serve as tissue adhesive in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitrosative Stress and Apoptosis by Intravenous Ferumoxytol, Iron Isomaltoside 1000, Iron Dextran, Iron Sucrose, and Ferric Carboxymaltose in a Nonclinical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toblli, J E; Cao, G; Giani, J F; Dominici, F P; Angerosa, M

    2015-07-01

    Iron is involved in the formation as well as in the scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Thus, iron can induce as well as inhibit both oxidative and nitrosative stress. It also has a key role in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species-mediated apoptosis. We assessed the differences in tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in the liver, heart, and kidneys of rats treated weekly with intravenous ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, iron dextran, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose (40 mg iron/kg body weight) for 5 weeks. Nitrotyrosine was quantified in tissue homogenates by Western blotting and the distribution of nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 was assessed in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Ferric carboxymaltose and iron sucrose administration did not result in detectable levels of nitrotyrosine or significant levels of caspase 3 vs. control in any of the tissue studied. Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were significantly (piron dextran and iron isomaltoside 1000, as well as in the liver and kidneys of ferumoxytol-treated animals compared to isotonic saline solution (control). Nitrotyrosine and caspase 3 levels were shown to correlate positively with the amount of Prussian blue-detectable iron(III) deposits in iron dextran- and iron isomaltoside 1000-treated rats but not in ferumoxytol-treated rats, suggesting that iron dextran, iron isomaltoside 1000 and ferumoxytol induce nitrosative (and oxidative) stress as well as apoptosis via different mechanism(s). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiser, Susann; Koskenkorva, Taija S; Schwarz, Katrin; Wilhelm, Maria; Burckhardt, Susanna

    2016-07-21

    Intravenous iron preparations are typically classified as non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based complexes. The carbohydrate shell for each of these preparations is unique and is key in determining the various physicochemical properties, the metabolic pathway, and the immunogenicity of the iron-carbohydrate complex. As intravenous dextran can cause severe, antibody-mediated dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR), the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of various intravenous iron preparations, non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based, to induce these reactions. An IgG-isotype mouse monoclonal anti-dextran antibody (5E7H3) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were developed to investigate the dextran antigenicity of low molecular weight iron dextran, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, ferric gluconate, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, as well as isomaltoside 1000, the isolated carbohydrate component of iron isomaltoside 1000. Low molecular weight iron dextran, as well as dextran-based ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside 1000, reacted with 5E7H3, whereas ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, and isolated isomaltoside 1000 did not. Consistent results were obtained with reverse single radial immunodiffusion assay. The results strongly support the hypothesis that, while the carbohydrate alone (isomaltoside 1000) does not form immune complexes with anti-dextran antibodies, iron isomaltoside 1000 complex reacts with anti-dextran antibodies by forming multivalent immune complexes. Moreover, non-dextran based preparations, such as iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, do not react with anti-dextran antibodies. This assay allows to assess the theoretical possibility of a substance to induce antibody-mediated DIARs. Nevertheless, as this is only one possible mechanism that may cause a hypersensitivity reaction, a broader set of assays will be required to get an understanding of the mechanisms that may

  4. Assessment of Dextran Antigenicity of Intravenous Iron Preparations with Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Neiser

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous iron preparations are typically classified as non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based complexes. The carbohydrate shell for each of these preparations is unique and is key in determining the various physicochemical properties, the metabolic pathway, and the immunogenicity of the iron-carbohydrate complex. As intravenous dextran can cause severe, antibody-mediated dextran-induced anaphylactic reactions (DIAR, the purpose of this study was to explore the potential of various intravenous iron preparations, non-dextran-based or dextran/dextran-based, to induce these reactions. An IgG-isotype mouse monoclonal anti-dextran antibody (5E7H3 and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were developed to investigate the dextran antigenicity of low molecular weight iron dextran, ferumoxytol, iron isomaltoside 1000, ferric gluconate, iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, as well as isomaltoside 1000, the isolated carbohydrate component of iron isomaltoside 1000. Low molecular weight iron dextran, as well as dextran-based ferumoxytol and iron isomaltoside 1000, reacted with 5E7H3, whereas ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, sodium ferric gluconate, and isolated isomaltoside 1000 did not. Consistent results were obtained with reverse single radial immunodiffusion assay. The results strongly support the hypothesis that, while the carbohydrate alone (isomaltoside 1000 does not form immune complexes with anti-dextran antibodies, iron isomaltoside 1000 complex reacts with anti-dextran antibodies by forming multivalent immune complexes. Moreover, non-dextran based preparations, such as iron sucrose and ferric carboxymaltose, do not react with anti-dextran antibodies. This assay allows to assess the theoretical possibility of a substance to induce antibody-mediated DIARs. Nevertheless, as this is only one possible mechanism that may cause a hypersensitivity reaction, a broader set of assays will be required to get an understanding of the

  5. New Collagen-Dextran-Zinc Oxide Composites for Wound Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Păunica-Panea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper was the design, development, and characterization of some new composites, based on collagen and dextran as natural polymers and zinc oxide as antimicrobial, to be used in wound healing. Collagen hydrogels with various concentrations of dextran and zinc oxide were investigated in terms of rheological analysis. The spongious composites, obtained by freeze-drying of hydrogels, were evaluated by morphology (SEM, water uptake, and biological (enzymatic biodegradation analysis. All the results were strongly influenced by the nature and concentration of composite components. Based on the performances of the hydrogels, stationary rheometry, porous structure, morphology, and biological behavior, the antimicrobial spongious composite based on collagen and dextran with 50% ZnO were the most promising for future applications in wound dressing and a biomaterial with high potential in skin regeneration.

  6. A comparison of analytic procedures for measurement of fractional dextran clearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelder, MH; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D

    1998-01-01

    Fractional dextran clearances have been extensively used to study glomerular size selectivity. We report on an analysis of different laboratory procedures involved in measuring fractional dextran clearances. The deproteinization of plasma samples by 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) revealed a protein

  7. Use of Small Volume Hypertonic Acetate Dextran during Aortic Occlusion in Pigs: Assessment of Blood Flow and Antioxidant Status in Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    that HAD was able to buffer against metabolic acidosis in arterial blood Table 2 - Indices of Oxidative Stress in Tissue after Aortic Occlusion and...limited effects on metabolic acidosis reported in other pre-clinical studies, further development of HAD as a resuscitation fluid may not be justified...resuscitation. The premise was that replacing chloride with acetate would reduce the development of hyperchloremic acidosis and supply buffering base to

  8. Inducible nucleosome depletion at OREBP-binding-sites by hypertonic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith H Y Tong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osmotic Response Element-Binding Protein (OREBP, also known as TonEBP or NFAT5, is a unique transcription factor. It is hitherto the only known mammalian transcription factor that regulates hypertonic stress-induced gene transcription. In addition, unlike other monomeric members of the NFAT family, OREBP exists as a homodimer and it is the only transcription factor known to bind naked DNA targets by complete encirclement in vitro. Nevertheless, how OREBP interacts with target DNA, also known as ORE/TonE, and how it elicits gene transcription in vivo, remains unknown. METHODOLOGY: Using hypertonic induction of the aldose reductase (AR gene activation as a model, we showed that OREs contained dynamic nucleosomes. Hypertonic stress induced a rapid and reversible loss of nucleosome(s around the OREs. The loss of nucleosome(s was found to be initiated by an OREBP-independent mechanism, but was significantly potentiated in the presence of OREBP. Furthermore, hypertonic induction of AR gene was associated with an OREBP-dependent hyperacetylation of histones that spanned the 5' upstream sequences and at least some exons of the gene. Nevertheless, nucleosome loss was not regulated by the acetylation status of histone. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings offer novel insights into the mechanism of OREBP-dependent transcriptional regulation and provide a basis for understanding how histone eviction and transcription factor recruitment are coupled.

  9. Electrical stimulation to reduce chronic toe-flexor hypertonicity. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, J S

    1984-04-01

    Electrical stimulation reduces hypertonicity, but the mechanism for the effectiveness is not well understood. In this particular case, electrical stimulation to the toe extensors resulted in inhibition of the toe-flexor hypertonicity. This phenomenon may be explained by Sherrington's theory of reciprocal inhibition. Liberson found that electrical stimulation of an agonist is associated with a concomitant inhibition of the antagonist in the healthy individual. I applied Liberson's findings in my treatment of the patient. By facilitating the toe extensors, and thus inhibiting the toe flexors, toe posturing improved considerably and allowed the patient volitionally to control his toes, which, in turn, improved his foot and toe comfort. Stimulation also allowed the patient to assume a plantigrade and forefoot weight-bearing position to improve his gait. This patient benefitted dramatically from the use of electrical stimulation in inhibiting hypertonicity, and I believe this modality may be helpful in other cases dealing with increased muscle tone. The patient will continue to be observed on a regular basis for reassessment of the long-term effects of electrical stimulation on hypertonicity and on the skin at the electrode sites.

  10. More complications in patients with septic shock treated with dextran compared with crystalloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders Mølgaard; Peter Jakobsen, Rasmus; Strøm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    of patients admitted to our intensive care unit with septic shock and treated with dextran-70 in the period from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009. The controls were included from 1 March 2012 to 28 February 2013 when dextran-70 was replaced with crystalloids. RESULTS: There were 91 patients in the dextran...

  11. Practically Saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Schroeder MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2, and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak.

  12. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin (Hb) entrapped in the dextran (De) film on the surface of a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIMPF6) modified carbon paste electrode (CILE) has been investigated. UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that Hb retained its native ...

  13. Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin entrapped in dextran film on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    app. ) for the electro- catalytic reaction was calculated as 0⋅17 μM. Keywords. Hemoglobin; dextran; direct electrochemistry; ionic liquid; cyclic voltammetry. 1. Introduction ... in recent years for its potential applications in bio- sensors and bioreactors. ..... had showed some advantages such as biocompatible interface and ...

  14. Microbial Dextran-Hydrolyzing Enzymes: Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalikova, Elvira; Susi, Petri; Korpela, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Dextran is a chemically and physically complex polymer, breakdown of which is carried out by a variety of endo- and exodextranases. Enzymes in many groups can be classified as dextranases according to function: such enzymes include dextranhydrolases, glucodextranases, exoisomaltohydrolases, exoisomaltotriohydrases, and branched-dextran exo-1,2-α-glucosidases. Cycloisomalto-oligosaccharide glucanotransferase does not formally belong to the dextranases even though its side reaction produces hydrolyzed dextrans. A new classification system for glycosylhydrolases and glycosyltransferases, which is based on amino acid sequence similarities, divides the dextranases into five families. However, this classification is still incomplete since sequence information is missing for many of the enzymes that have been biochemically characterized as dextranases. Dextran-degrading enzymes have been isolated from a wide range of microorganisms. The major characteristics of these enzymes, the methods for analyzing their activities and biological roles, analysis of primary sequence data, and three-dimensional structures of dextranases have been dealt with in this review. Dextranases are promising for future use in various scientific and biotechnological applications. PMID:15944458

  15. Role of granulocytes in the induction of an experimental endocarditis with a dextran-producing Streptococcus sanguis and its dextran-negative mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, M. J.; Thompson, J.; Leijh, P. C.; van Furth, R.

    1984-01-01

    The role of granulocytes in the induction of endocarditis with a dextran-producing Streptococcus sanguis and a dextran-negative mutant of this strain was studied. The number of colony-forming units of Streptococcus sanguis needed to colonize the vegetations in 50% of the rabbits (ID50) was significantly lower for the parent strain than for the dextran-negative mutant. However, in granulocytopenic rabbits the ID50s of both strains did not differ measurably. Dextran-negative streptococci were more readily cleared from the circulation than dextran-positive, but in this respect no difference was found between control and granulocytopenic rabbits, which indicates that clearance cannot account for the difference in ID50 between the two strains in the control group. At serum concentrations of 5% and lower, in-vitro granulocytes phagocytosed the dextran-negative streptococci more rapidly than the dextran-positive. The intracellular killing of the streptococci was no influenced by dextran production. This study suggests that an impaired phagocytic removal of attached bacteria from the vegetational surface can be a factor promoting the induction of endocarditis by dextran-producing streptococci. PMID:6201185

  16. Approximate Mathematical Modeling of Osmotic Dehydration of Cone-Shaped Fruits and Vegetables in Hypertonic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sirousazar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water loss kinetics in osmotic dehydration of cone-shaped fruits and vegetables was modeled on the basis of diffusion mechanism, using the Fick’s second law. The model was developed by taking into account the influences of the fruit geometrical characteristics, initial water content of fruit, water diffusion coefficient in fruit, and the water concentration in hypertonic solution. Based on the obtained model, it was shown that the water diffusion coefficient and the initial water concentration of fruit have direct effects on the dehydration rate and also inverse influence on the dehydration duration. The geometrical parameters of fruit and water concentration in hypertonic solution showed direct effect on the dehydration duration as well as inverse effect on the dehydration rate. The presented model seems to be useful tool to predict the dehydration kinetics of cone-shaped fruit during osmotic dehydration process and to optimize the process prior to perform the experiments.

  17. [Tactics of antihypertensive therapy in patients with hypertonic crisis complicated with hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhakov, G I; Gendlin, G E; Anisimova, A V; Melekhov, A V; Ostrovskaya, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    To determine an optimal tactics of antihypertensive therapy in patients with hypertonic crisis complicated with hemorrhagic stroke. We examined 86 inpatients, 42 men and 44 women, aged 46-87 years, with hypertonic crisis complicated with hemorrhagic stroke. The severity of neurological deficit, parameters of cardiac output and Kaplan-Meier survival curve based on the level of arterial pressure (AP) were assessed. The best survival rate of the patients with systolic blood pressure >162 mm Hg to the 20th min from the beginning of treatment with the greater rate of its increase was established. The efficacy of antihypertensive therapy did not depend on the baseline neurological deficit. The remote survival rate did not depend on such factors as sex, age, baseline AP level, AP, frequency of heart contractions, hematoma's volume.

  18. Effect of Molecular Weight and Molar Ratio of Dextran on Self-Assembly of Dextran Stearate Polymeric Micelles as Nanocarriers for Etoposide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Varshosaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphiphilic polymer surfactants are composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers and are widely used in targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study was the evaluation of the effect of molecular weight and molar ratio of dextran on physicochemical properties of dextran stearate polymeric micelles. Dextran stearate was synthesized by acylation of dextran with stearoyl chloride. Etoposide loaded polymeric micelles were prepared by dialysis method. The resulting micelles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential, critical micelle concentration (CMC, drug loading capacity, and release efficiency. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of micelles were studied in CT-26 colorectal carcinoma cell line. Molecular weight and molar ratio of dextran-stearate were impressive on zeta potential, CMC, drug loading capacity, and release efficiency. Unlike polymer molecular weight, molar ratio of stearate had a significant effect on cytotoxicity and particle size of etoposide loaded micelles. Although molecular weight of dextran had no significant effect on cytotoxicity of micelles on CT-26 cells, it had drastic attributes for stability of polymeric micelles. Consequently, both variables of molecular weight of dextran and molar ratio of stearate should be taken into account to have a stable and effective micelle of dextran-stearate.

  19. Influence of dextran molecular weight on capture in and release from decylamine carboxymethylcellulose capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, E; Speaker, T J

    1998-01-01

    A series of dextran molecular weight markers were encapsulated in decylamine carboxymethylcellulose microcapsules to serve as probes of capsule retentivity. The capsules were prepared by allowing microdrops of aqueous sodium carboxymethylcellulose to fall into aqueous decylamine acetate solution. Salt exchange reaction at the droplet pseudointerface resulted in self-assembling films which essentially instantaneously enclosed the droplets. Concentrations of anionic polymer were varied in the range from 1-3%. Chromophore-bearing dextrans were incorporated into these capsules by blending the dextrans with the carboxymethylcellulose prior to the encapsulation step. Four dextrans of differing (light scattering) molecular weights were used: 2 x 10(6), 6 x 10(5), 7 x 10(4), and 1.9 x 10(4) amu. The mass balance of dextran retained in the capsules, released on washing the capsules or which escaped encapsulation was determined spectrophotometrically. To measure total dextran in a population of washed capsules, the capsules were lysed in a 0.3 M solution of sodium chloride. To monitor dextran release, washed capsules were suspended in water and dextran concentration in the supernatant was measured. Encapsulation efficiency exceeded 80% for high molecular weight dextran but was lower with the smaller dextrans.

  20. Liposomal internal viscosity affects the fate of membrane deformation induced by hypertonic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kei; Yanagisawa, Miho

    2017-12-13

    Artificial lipid membranes have been utilized to understand the physical mechanisms of the deformation patterns of live cells. However, typical artificial membrane systems contain only dilute components compared to those in the cytoplasm of live cells. By using giant unilamellar liposomes containing dense protein solutions similar to those in live cells, we here reveal that viscosity derived from internal crowding affects the deformation patterns of lipid membranes. After hypertonic treatment, liposome deformation patterns transitioned from budding to tubing when the initial internal macromolecular concentrations were increased. Remarkably, instead of observing different transition concentrations between two species of macromolecules, the viscosity at the transition concentration was found to be similar. Further analyses clearly demonstrated that the internal viscosity affects the deformation patterns of lipid membranes induced by hypertonic treatment. These results indicate that the viscosity of the cytoplasm is a key factor in determining cell deformation, and suggest the association of a process involving dynamic instability, such as a viscous fingering phenomenon, during the determination of deformation patterns by hypertonic treatment.

  1. The interactions of fibrinogen and dextrans with erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampling, M.; Sirs, John A.

    1972-01-01

    1. The rate of packing of erythrocytes in whole blood, under a centrifugal field of 200 g, has been studied using an automatic recording centrifuge. 2. Reduction of the supernatant fibrinogen concentration, by repeatedly washing the cells, lowers the rate of packing and reduces the cell flexibility. 3. Resuspending the cells in their own plasma or in isotonic solutions containing fibrinogen restores their flexibility. 4. Rouleaux formation has been shown to have no effect on the rate of packing by comparison of blood diluted with plasma, isotonic NaCl or Ringer—Locke solutions. While the degree of rouleaux formation varied with the diluent used, the rate of packing and packed cell haematocrit were the same, for the same dilution. 5. Both formalin and dextran altered the degree of rouleaux formation and reduced erythrocyte flexibility. Dextran was found to act indirectly on the erythrocyte flexibility by reducing the plasma fibrinogen concentration. PMID:5046146

  2. Intravenous iron dextran for severe refractory restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo, William G

    2010-05-01

    Reduced brain iron is strongly associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Oral iron supplements are commonly recommended for RLS but are largely ineffective due to poor absorption and poor tolerability at required doses. Intravenous iron dextran has been shown to increase brain iron content. Surprisingly only a few reports have ever presented data on the clinical effect of high dose intravenous iron for RLS. We retrospectively identified 25 subjects (age 53.2+/-11.9, 7 male) that received intravenous iron for RLS refractory to conventional treatments. We infused 1g of high molecular weight iron dextran over five hours. The age of RLS onset was 32.6+/-13.0 years and 15 subjects had a positive family history of RLS. Patients attempted 7.5+/-2.7 medications for RLS prior to iron therapy. Baseline ferritins ranged from 5 to 248 ng/ml (mean 43.5+/-58.0) and 20/25 had ferritins of less than 50. Two subjects did not complete their entire infusion due to anaphylactic type symptoms but are included. Overall, 2 subjects reported complete amelioration of all RLS symptoms, 11 reported marked improvement, 2 moderate improvement, 3 mild improvement, and 6 reported no improvement. For those with improvement, the duration of effect was highly variable (mean 15.8+/-17.7 weeks, range 1-60 weeks). Twelve subjects had multiple infusions. Iron dextran can dramatically improve refractory RLS but results are inconsistent and not predicted by patient demographics. Although burdened by a higher rate of anaphylactic reactions, iron dextran may be superior to other IV iron preparations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiation synthesis of biocompatible hydrogels of dextran methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafulera, Kamila; Wach, Radosław A.; Olejnik, Alicja K.; Rosiak, Janusz M.; Ulański, Piotr

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize biocompatible dextran-based hydrogels through crosslinking initiated by ionizing radiation. A series of derivatives of dextran has been synthesized by coupling of methacrylated glycidyl to the structure of this polysaccharide, yielding dextran methacrylate (Dex-MA) of the degree of methacrylate substitution (DS) up to 1.13 as characterised by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Chemically crosslinked hydrogels were formed by electron-beam irradiation of Dex-MA in aqueous solution in the absence of low-molecular-weight additives such as catalysts, monomers or crosslinking agents. Crosslinking of Dex-MA in aqueous solutions of 20 g/l and above was an efficient process, the gels were formed at doses as low as 0.5 kGy (experiments conducted up to 100 kGy) and were characterised by high content of insoluble fraction (70-100%). Due to high crosslinking density the equilibrium degree of swelling of fabricated gels was controlled principally by the initial concentration of Dex-MA solution subjected to irradiation, and it was in the range of 20 to over 100 g of water absorbed by gram of gel. Cytocompatibility of hydrogels was examined using XTT assay through evaluation of the cell viability being in indirect contact with hydrogels. The results indicated that hydrogels of Dex-MA of the average DS below 1 were not cytotoxic. Altogether, our data demonstrate that irradiation of methacrylated dextran in aqueous solution is an efficient method of fabrication of biocompatible hydrogels, which applications in regeneration medicine are anticipated.

  4. Add-on treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline in a child with plastic bronchitis after the Glenn procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Lis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis (PB, although a rare cause of airway obstruction, has mortality rates up to 50% in children after Fontan-type cardiac surgery. We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.

  5. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predoi, D.; Ciobanu, C.S. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, P.O. Box MG 07, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Radu, M.; Costache, M.; Dinischiotu, A. [Molecular Biology Center, University of Bucharest, 91-95 Splaiul Independentei, 76201, Bucharest 5 (Romania); Popescu, C.; Axente, E.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Gyorgy, E., E-mail: egyorgy@cin2.es [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiations Physics, P. O. Box MG 36, 77125 Bucharest (Romania); Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Centre d' Investigacions en Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia (CSIC-CIN2), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, non-irradiated iron oxide-dextran composite material. The biocompatibility of the iron oxide-dextran thin films was demonstrated by 3-(4.5 dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-based colorimetric assay, using human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid, dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles and thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laser immobilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biocompatibility of dextran-iron oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Production of insoluble dextran using cell-bound dextransucrase of Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-523.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Prabhu Arcot; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2002-09-27

    Water-insoluble, cell-free dextran biosynthesis from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-523 has been examined. Cell-bound dextransucrase is used to produce cell-free dextran in a sucrose-rich acetate buffer medium. A comparison between the soluble and insoluble dextrans is made for various sucrose concentrations, and 15% sucrose gave the highest amount of cell-free dextran for a given time. L. mesenteroides B-523 produces more insoluble dextran than soluble dextran. The near cell-free synthesis was validated in a batch reactor, by monitoring the cell growth which is a small (10(6)-10(7) CFU/mL) and constant value throughout the synthesis.

  7. Antibiofilm effects of topical corticosteroids and intranasal saline in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps depend on bacterial species and their biofilm-forming capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirkovic, Ivana; Pavlovic, Bojan; Bozic, Dragana D; Jotic, Ana; Bakic, Ljubica; Milovanovic, Jovica

    2017-04-01

    Microbial biofilms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP). Intranasal application of corticosteroids and saline is a reliable option for their management. The aim of our study was to evaluate in vitro antibiofilm effects of corticosteroids and isotonic and hypertonic nasal saline in CRSwNP patients. The sinus mucosal specimens were harvested from the ethmoid cavity of 48 patients with CRSwNP and further subjected to hematoxylin-eosin staining and microbiology analysis. The biofilm-forming capacity of isolated bacterial strains was detected by microtiter-plate method and the effects of therapeutic doses of mometasone, fluticasone, isotonic and hypertonic saline on biofilm production were investigated. Bacterial strains were isolated in 42 (87.5%) patients: one organism in 34 (80.9%) and two organisms in 8 (19.1%). Staphylococcus epidermidis (34%) and Staphylococcus aureus (28%) were the most prevalent bacteria in biofilms of CRSwNP patients. Corticosteroids and saline solutions significantly reduced biofilm formation (p corticosteroids and saline solutions also greatly depended on bacterial biomass (p < 0.05), with the most significant effect on high compared to small amount of formed biofilm. The topical steroids and nasal saline are shown to be potent antibiofilm agents in patients with CRSwNP. The effects of tested compounds depend on bacterial species and volume of formed biofilm.

  8. Lower molecular weight intravenous iron dextran for restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Allen, Richard P; Earley, Christopher J

    2013-03-01

    Various techniques used to assess brain iron concentrations have demonstrated the presence of low iron stores in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Previous open-label and randomized studies generally support the value of iron treatment for RLS symptoms. Only one of these studies assessed iron therapy response to changes in brain iron status. The current study was designed to assess the effect of iron therapy on RLS symptoms and on CSF measures of brain iron status. Idiopathic RLS patients drawn from the Korean population received four weekly intravenous (IV) doses of 250 mg low-molecular weight iron dextran for a total dose of 1g. One week after the last dose, any subject on RLS medication tapered off the RLS medications. Blood and CSF samples were taken to measure iron parameters at baseline and again, three weeks after the last dose. We have been following their response to the drug for two years after treatment. Twenty-five patients (age 55.2 ± 9.3, 18 female) enrolled in this study without serious adverse reactions. Seventeen of the 25 patients (68%) showed moderate or complete improvement of all RLS symptoms after treatment based on the Korean-translated versions of the International RLS Severity scale (K-IRLS). Changes in the K-IRLS did not correlate significantly with changes in CSF ferritin. The response to IV iron could not be predicted by patients' demographics, or by blood or CSF iron baseline characteristics. RLS symptom improvement started between one and six weeks after treatment and the treatment benefits lasted from one month to 22 months. Fourteen patients, (56%) completely stopped all medications, for a mean duration of 31.3 ± 33.1 weeks. These results are comparable to those from a prior study with high molecular weight dextran. Intravenous low-molecular weight iron dextran produced significant improvement of RLS symptoms in a majority of patients without any significant adverse effects. Serious anaphylaxis occurs with high molecular

  9. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  10. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin’s anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties.

  11. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties.

  12. Biomedical properties and preparation of iron oxide-dextran nanostructures by MAPLE technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ciobanu Carmen; Iconaru Simona; Gyorgy Eniko; Radu Mihaela; Costache Marieta; Dinischiotu Anca; Le Coustumer Philippe; Lafdi Khalid; Predoi Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In this work the chemical structure of dextran-iron oxide thin films was reported. The films were obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt. % dextran with 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The IONPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM≅25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the growth of the hybrid, iron oxide NPs-dextran thin films. Results Dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles thin f...

  13. Cellular interactions of lauric acid and dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Pallab [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400076 (India); Giri, Jyotsnendu [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400076 (India); Banerjee, Rinti [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh [School of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400076 (India); Bahadur, Dhirendra [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400076 (India)]. E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in

    2007-04-15

    In vitro cytocompatibility and cellular interactions of lauric acid and dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles were evaluated with two different cell lines (mouse fibroblast and human cervical carcinoma). Lauric acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles were less cytocompatible than dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles and cellular uptake of lauric acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles was more than that of dextran-coated magnetite nanoparticles. Lesser cytocompatibility and higher uptake of lauric acid-coated magnetite nanoparticles as compared to dextran-coated magnetic nanoparticles may be due to different cellular interactions by coating material. Thus, coating plays an important role in modulation of biocompatibility and cellular interaction of magnetic nanoparticles.

  14. Interleukin-10 is differentially expressed in the small intestine and the colon experiencing chronic inflammation and ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackeyram, D; Young, D; Kim, C J; Yang, C; Archbold, T L; Mine, Y; Fan, M Z

    2017-03-31

    Intestinal inflammation induced with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is used to study acute or chronic ulcerative colitis in animal models. Decreased gut tissue anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 concentration and mRNA abundance are associated with the development of chronic bowel inflammation. Twelve piglets of 3 days old were fitted with an intragastric catheter and randomly allocated into control and DSS groups by administrating either sterile saline or 1.25 g of DSS/kg body weight (BW) in saline per day, respectively, for 10 days. Growth rate and food conversion efficiency were reduced (pIL-10 were reduced (pIL-10 mRNA abundance was increased (pIL-10 in the young pigs, mimicking the IL-10 expression pattern in humans Associated with chronic bowel inflammation.

  15. Hypertonic conditions trigger transient plasmolysis, growth arrest and blockage of transporter endocytosis in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsikas, Vassilis; Karachaliou, Mayia; Gournas, Christos; Diallinas, George

    2011-01-01

    By using Aspergillus nidulans strains expressing functional GFP-tagged transporters under hypertonic conditions, we noticed the rapid appearance of cortical, relatively static, fluorescent patches (0.5-2.3 μm). These patches do not correspond to transporter microdomains as they co-localize with other plasma membrane-associated molecules, such as the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and the SsoA t-Snare, or the lipophilic markers FM4-64 and filipin. In addition, they do not show characteristics of lipid rafts, MCCs or other membrane microdomains. Deconvoluted microscopic images showed that fluorescent patches correspond to plasma membrane invaginations. Transporters remain fully active during this phenomenon of localized plasmolysis. Plasmolysis was however associated with reduced growth rate and a dramatic blockage in transporter and FM4-64 endocytosis. These phenomena are transient and rapidly reversible upon wash-out of hypertonic media. Based on the observation that block in endocytosis by hypertonic treatment altered dramatically the cellular localization of tropomyosin (GFP-TpmA), although it did not affect the cortical appearance of upstream (SlaB-GFP) or downstream (AbpA-mRFP) endocytic components, we conclude that hypertonicity modifies actin dynamics and thus acts indirectly on endocytosis. This was further supported by the effect of latrunculin B, an actin depolymerization agent, on endocytosis. We show that the phenomena observed in A. nidulans also occur in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that they constitute basic homeostatic responses of ascomycetes to hypertonic shock. Finally, our work shows that hypertonic treatments can be used as physiological tools to study the endocytic down-regulation of transporters in A. nidulans, as non-conditional genetic blocks affecting endocytic internalization are lethal or severely debilitating.

  16. Hypertonic stress induces c-fos but not c-jun expression in the human embryonal EUE epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, D; Fuhrman Conti, A M; De Grada, L; Larizza, L

    1995-12-01

    Recent evidence has indicated a role for the two early response genes c-fos and c-jun in transcriptional regulation of genes acting in osmoregulation. On this basis we investigated their expression in response to hypertonic stress in the human embryonal EUE epithelial cell line. EUE cells have proven to be a useful tool for studying long-term in vitro adaptation to hypertonic stress. After culturing EUE cells in hypertonic medium a marked c-fos induction was observed, both at the mRNA and the protein level. Northern analysis of fos-mRNA showed a peak expression at 4 h, followed by a progressive decline till complete extinction at 8 h. Immunofluorescence analysis of FOS protein evidenced a similar, although slightly delayed kinetics of expression. Conversely, neither c-jun nor c-myc up-regulation could be detected. The treatment of EUE cells with cycloheximide led to superinduction of c-fos expression, (with high levels up to 12 h), and to a c-jun expression that was just detectable. Hypertonic stimulation of the transformed cell lines A549, MCF7 and JR induced both c-fos and c-jun only in JR cells. Hypertonic shock was also effective in inducing c-fos expression in fetal human diploid fibroblasts, although the response was earlier and more transient than in EUE cells. These findings indicate that c-fos is a primary response gene in hypertonic stress-activated cells, although the pattern and kinetics of its induction may differ according to the type of cell.

  17. Preparation, characterization and dynamical mechanical properties of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hatice Kaplan; Kavlak, Serap; ParviziKhosroshahi, Shahed; Güner, Ali

    2017-04-20

    Dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) with appropriate surface chemistry exhibit many interesting properties that can be exploited in a variety of biomedical applications such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement, tissue repair, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation. This paper reports the experimental detail for preparation, characterization and investigation of thermal and dynamical mechanical characteristics of the dextran-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles. In our work, DIONPs were prepared in a 1:2 ratio of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salt in the HCl solution with NaOH at given temperature. The obtained dextran-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles structure-property correlation was characterized by spectroscopic methods; attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and XRD. Coating dextran on the iron-oxide proof of important peaks can be seen from the ATR-FTIR. Dramatic crystallinity increment can be observed from the XRD pattern of the iron-oxide dextran nanoparticles. The thermal analysis was examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Dynamical mechanical properties of dextran nanoparticles were analysed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Thermal stability of the iron oxide dextran nanoparticles is higher than that of the dextran.

  18. IL-2 loaded dextran microspheres with attractive histocompatibility properties for local IL-2 cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, JW; Van Luyn, MJA; Cade, JA; Hennink, WE; Bijleveld, C; Den Otter, W

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradable dextran microspheres (MS) were developed as a slow-release system for interleukin-2 (IL-2) to apply them for local IL-2 therapy of cancer. We describe the tissue reactions induced by these MS without or with IL-2 in rats. Dextran MS stain bright red-purple with the periodic acid Schiff

  19. Injectable dextran hydrogels fabricated by metal-free click chemistry for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Li, Zihan; Shi, Ting; Zhao, Peng; An, Kangkang; Lin, Chao; Liu, Hongwei

    2017-04-01

    Injectable dextran-based hydrogels were prepared for the first time by bioorthogonal click chemistry for cartilage tissue engineering. Click-crosslinked injectable hydrogels based on cyto-compatible dextran (Mw=10kDa) were successfully fabricated under physiological conditions by metal-free alkyne-azide cycloaddition (click) reaction between azadibenzocyclooctyne-modified dextran (Dex-ADIBO) and azide-modified dextran (Dex-N 3 ). Gelation time of these dextran hydrogels could be regulated in the range of approximately 1.1 to 10.2min, depending on the polymer concentrations (5% or 10%) and ADIBO substitution degree (DS, 5 or 10) of Dex-ADIBO. Rheological analysis indicated that the dextran hydrogels were elastic and had storage moduli from 2.1 to 6.0kPa with increasing DS of ADIBO from 5 to 10. The in vitro tests revealed that the dextran hydrogel crosslinked from Dex-ADIBO DS 10 and Dex-N 3 DS 10 at a polymer concentration of 10% could support high viability of individual rabbit chondrocytes and the chondrocyte spheroids encapsulated in the hydrogel over 21days. Individual chondrocytes and chondrocyte spheroids in the hydrogel could produce cartilage matrices such as collagen and glycosaminoglycans. However, the chondrocyte spheroids produced a higher content of matrices than individual chondrocytes. This study indicates that metal-free click chemistry is effective to produce injectable dextran hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel in situ forming, degradable dextran hydrogels by michael addition chemistry: synthesis, rheology, and degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, C.; van der Aa, L.J.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; Feijen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Various vinyl sulfone functionalized dextrans (dex-VS) (Mn,dextran = 14K or 31K) with degrees of substitution (DS) ranging from 2 to 22 were conveniently prepared by a one-pot synthesis procedure at room temperature. This procedure involved reaction of a mercaptoalkanoic acid with an excess amount

  1. Red blood cell rouleaux formation in dextran solution: dependence on polymer conformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshtein, G; Tamir, I; Yedgar, S

    1998-01-01

    The velocity of rouleaux formation (RF), as previously shown, increases with increasing dextran concentration up to a critical concentration (Ca), beyond which the addition of dextran reduces the RF velocity (RFV). de Gennes' model for polymer solutions suggests that dextrans exist in two conformations: a coil structure at low concentrations, which changes to a network beyond a critical concentration (C*). In the present study we examined the relation between Ca and C* for dextrans of different molecular weight, and found that they coincide. This suggests that the change in dextran behavior, from increasing to decreasing RFV, occurs when their conformation changes from coil to network. In addition, it has been reported that in dilute dextran solutions the intercellular distance (D) between RBC in rouleaux increases with the molecular weight of the dextran. We found that D correlates with Rf, the end-to-end distance of the polymer molecule, and for all dextrans D < or = 1.5 Rf. In accord with de Gennes' Model for polymers between surfaces, this corresponds to intercellular interaction with two overlapping surface-associated polymer layers, which may extend "tails" to interact with the opposing cells.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of dextran-capped silver nanoparticles with enhanced antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guili; Lin, Qiuxia; Wang, Chunren; Li, Junjie; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Yan; Wang, Changyong

    2012-05-01

    Dextran-capped silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing silver nitrate with NaBH4 in the presence of dextran as capping agent. The characters of silver nanoparticles were investigated using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, nano-grainsize analyzer, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the silver nanoparticles capped with dextran were in uniform shape and narrow size distribution. Moreover, compared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-capped silver nanoparticles, the dextran-capped ones possessed better stability. Antibacterial tests of these silver nanoparticles were carried out for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results suggested that the dextran-capped silver nanoparticles had high antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, the cytotoxicity in vitro of the dextran-capped silver nanoparticles was investigated using mouse fibrosarcoma cells (L929). The toxicity was evaluated by the changes of cell morphology and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Results indicated that these silver nanoparticles had slight effect on the survival and proliferation of L-929 cells at their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). After modified by dextran, the physiochemical properties of the silver nanoparticles had been improved. We anticipated that these dextran-capped silver nanoparticles could be integrated into systems for biological and pharmaceutical applications.

  3. Enhanced binding by dextran-grafting to Protein A affinity chromatographic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Zhu, Kai; Huang, Yongdong; Li, Qiang; Li, Xiunan; Zhang, Rongyue; Su, Zhiguo; Wang, Qibao; Ma, Guanghui

    2017-04-01

    Dextran-grafted Protein A affinity chromatographic medium was prepared by grafting dextran to agarose-based matrix, followed by epoxy-activation and Protein A coupling site-directed to sulfhydryl groups of cysteine molecules. An enhancement of both the binding performance and the stability was achieved for this dextran-grafted Protein A chromatographic medium. Its dynamic binding capacity was 61 mg immunoglobulin G/mL suction-dried gel, increased by 24% compared with that of the non-grafted medium. The binding capacity of dextran-grafted medium decreased about 7% after 40 cleaning-in-place cycles, much lower than that of the non-grafted medium as decreased about 15%. Confocal laser scanning microscopy results showed that immunoglobulin G was bound to both the outside and the inside of dextran-grafted medium faster than that of non-grafted one. Atomic force microscopy showed that this dextran-grafted Protein A medium had much rougher surface with a vertical coordinate range of ±80 nm, while that of non-grafted one was ±10 nm. Grafted dextran provided a more stereo surface morphology and immunoglobulin G molecules were more easily to be bound. This high-performance dextran-grafted Protein A affinity chromatographic medium has promising applications in large-scale antibody purification. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ultraviolet A: Visible spectral absorbance of the human cornea after transepithelial soaking with dextran-enriched and dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Marco; Micali, Norberto; Villari, Valentina; Serrao, Sebastiano; Pucci, Giuseppe; Barberi, Riccardo; Lombardo, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the stromal concentration of 2 commercially available transepithelial riboflavin 0.1% solutions in human donor corneas with the use of spectrophotometry. University of Calabria, Rende, Italy. Experimental study. The absorbance spectra of 12 corneal tissues were measured in the 330 to 700 nm wavelength range using a purpose-designed spectrophotometry setup before and after transepithelial corneal soaking with a 15% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6) or a hypotonic dextran-free riboflavin 0.1% solution (n = 6). Both ophthalmic solutions contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and trometamol as enhancers. In addition, 4 deepithelialized corneal tissues underwent stromal soaking with a 20% dextran-enriched riboflavin 0.1% solution and were used as controls. All the riboflavin solutions were applied topically for 30 minutes. The stromal concentration of riboflavin was quantified by analysis of absorbance spectra of the cornea collected before and after application of each solution. The mean stromal riboflavin concentration was 0.012% ± 0.003% (SD), 0.0005% ± 0.0003% (P < .001), and 0.004% ± 0.001% (P < .01) in tissues soaked with 20% dextran-enriched, 15% dextran-enriched, and hypotonic dextran-free solutions, respectively. The difference of stromal riboflavin concentration between the 2 transepithelial solutions was statistically significant (P < .01). Dextran-enriched solutions required complete corneal deepithelialization to permit effective stromal soaking with riboflavin. Nevertheless, riboflavin in hypotonic dextran-free solution with enhancers permeates across stroma through an intact epithelium. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel injectable tissue adhesive based on oxidized dextran and chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Biji; Soman, Dawlee; Payanam, Umashanker; Laurent, Alexandre; Labarre, Denis; Jayakrishnan, Athipettah

    2017-04-15

    A surgical adhesive that can be used in different surgical situations with or without sutures is a surgeons' dream and yet none has been able to fulfill many such demanding requirements. It was therefore a major challenge to develop an adhesive biomaterial that stops bleeding and bond tissues well, which at the same time is non-toxic, biocompatible and yet biodegradable, economically viable and appealing to the surgeon in terms of the simplicity of application in complex surgical situations. With this aim, we developed an in situ setting adhesive based on biopolymers such as chitosan and dextran. Dextran was oxidized using periodate to generate aldehyde functions on the biopolymer and then reacted with chitosan hydrochloride. Gelation occurred instantaneously upon mixing these components and the resulting gel showed good tissue adhesive properties with negligible cytotoxicity and minimal swelling in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Rheology analysis confirmed the gelation process by demonstrating storage modulus having value higher than loss modulus. Adhesive strength was in the range 200-400gf/cm 2 which is about 4-5 times more than that of fibrin glue at comparable setting times. The adhesive showed burst strength in the range of 400-410mm of Hg which should make the same suitable as a sealant for controlling bleeding in many surgical situations even at high blood pressure. Efficacy of the adhesive as a hemostat was demonstrated in a rabbit liver injury model. Histological features after two weeks were comparable to that of commercially available BioGlue®. The adhesive also demonstrated its efficacy as a drug delivery vehicle. The present adhesive could function without the many toxicity and biocompatibility issues associated with such products. Though there are many tissue adhesives available in market, none are free of shortcomings. The newly developed surgical adhesive is a 2-component adhesive system based on time-tested, naturally occurring polysaccharides

  6. Development of poly-l-lysine-coated calcium-alginate microspheres encapsulating fluorescein-labeled dextrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Luc; Harmer, Andrea; Lilge, Lothar

    2005-09-01

    A technique to produce fluorescent cell phantom standards based on calcium alginate microspheres with encapsulated fluorescein-labeled dextrans is presented. An electrostatic ionotropic gelation method is used to create the microspheres which are then exposed to an encapsulation method using poly-l-lysine to trap the dextrans inside. Both procedures were examined in detail to find the optimal parameters producing cell phantoms meeting our requirements. Size distributions favoring 10-20 microns microspheres were obtained by varying the high voltage and needle size parameters. Typical size distributions of the samples were centered at 150 μm diameter. Neither the molecular weight nor the charge of the dextrans had a significant effect on their retention in the microspheres, though anionic dextrans were chosen to help in future capillary electrophoresis work. Increasing the exposure time of the microspheres to the poly-l-lysine solution decreased the leakage rates of fluorescein-labeled dextrans.

  7. Coagulation competence for predicting perioperative hemorrhage in patients treated with lactated Ringer's vs. Dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kirsten C; Højskov, Michael; Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2015-01-01

    to receive either lactated Ringer's solution or Dextran 70 (Macrodex ®) that affects coagulation competence. RESULTS: By thrombelastography evaluated coagulation competence, Dextran 70 reduced "maximal amplitude" (MA) by 25 % versus a 1 % reduction with the administration of lactated Ringer's solution (P ....001). Blinded evaluation of the blood loss was similar in the two groups of patients - 2339 ml with the use of Dextran 70 and 1822 ml in the lactated Ringer's group (P = 0.27). Yet, the blood loss was related to the reduction in MA (r = -0.427, P = 0.008) and by multiple regression analysis independently...... associated with MA (P = 0.01). Thus, 11 patients in the dextran group (58 %) developed a clinical significant blood loss (>1500 ml) compared to only four patients (22 %) in the lactated Ringer's group (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: With the use of Dextran 70 vs. lactated Ringer's solution during cystectomy...

  8. Terpene and dextran renewable resources for the synthesis of amphiphilic biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvès, Marie-Hélène; Sfeir, Huda; Tranchant, Jean-François; Gombart, Emilie; Sagorin, Gilles; Caillol, Sylvain; Billon, Laurent; Save, Maud

    2014-01-13

    The present work shows the synthesis of amphiphilic polymers based on the hydrophilic dextran and the hydrophobic terpenes as renewable resources. The first step concerns the synthesis of functional terpene molecules by thiol-ene addition chemistry involving amino or carboxylic acid thiols and dihydromyrcenol terpene. The terpene-modified polysaccharides were subsequently synthesized by coupling the functional terpenes with dextran. A reductive amination step produced terpene end-modified dextran with 94% of functionalization, while the esterification step produced three terpene-grafted dextrans with a number of terpene units per dextran of 1, 5, and 10. The amphiphilic renewable grafted polymers were tested as emulsifiers for the stabilization of liquid miniemulsion of terpene droplets dispersed in an aqueous phase. The average hydrodynamic diameter of the stable droplets was observed at about 330 nm.

  9. [Anaphylaxis after iron dextran administration in a pregnant woman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenhorst, Madeleine S Q; Harmsze, Ankie M; Hasaart, Tom H M

    2012-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a frequent cause of anaemia in pregnancy and often results in fatigue and malaise. To prevent complications during labour, timely iron suppletion is important. A 30-year-old multiparous female presented at the outpatient clinic in her 38th week of this pregnancy because of fatigue and lightheadedness. She had been prescribed oral iron suppletion a month earlier but had not taken the tablets. Because her haemoglobin level had decreased to 6.3 mmol/l, it was decided to start her on intravenous iron dextran treatment. During administration of the test dose, the patient experienced acute dyspnoea and severe abdominal and back pain. Foetal bradycardia was observed and the patient underwent an emergency caesarean section. She delivered a healthy boy whose arterial pH was 7.05 (base excess: -7.6 mmol/l) and venous pH was 7.18 (base excess: -6.8 mmol/l). This case demonstrates that dextran anaphylaxis can occur, with potentially lethal consequences, even when no known underlying risk factors are present.

  10. The photocrosslinkable tissue adhesive based on copolymeric dextran/HEMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Mu, Xueyan; Li, Haibo; Wu, Weilong; Nie, Jun; Yang, Dongzhi

    2013-02-15

    We developed a copolymeric bioadhesive system with the potential to be used as a tissue adhesive based on biopolymer dextran. Copolymeric hydrogels comprising a urethane dextran (Dex-U) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) were prepared and crosslinked under the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In this study, the photopolymerization process was monitored by real time infrared spectroscopy (RTIR). The adhesion strength was evaluated by lap-shear-test. The surface tension, viscosity of the solutions and the cytotoxicity assays were investigated. Compared to Dex-U system, the addition of HEMA remarkably improved the properties of Dex-H system especially the adhesion strength and the nontoxicity. And materials variation could be tailored to match the need of tissues. The copolymeric tissue adhesives demonstrated promising adhesion strength and nontoxicity. The maximum adhesion strength reached to 4.33±0.47 Mpa which was 86 times higher than that of Tisseel. The obtained products have the potential to serve as tissue adhesive in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dextran-Polyacrylamide as Matrices for Creation of Anticancer Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Telegeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug targeting to specific organs and tissues is one of the crucial endeavors of modern pharmacotherapy. Controlled targeting at the site of action and reduced time of exposure of nontargeted tissues increase the efficacy of the treatment and reduce toxicity and side effects, improving compliance and convenience. Nanocarriers based on the branched copolymers dextran-graft-polyacrylamide were synthesized and characterized and were tested on phagocytic cells. It was shown that these nanoparticles are actively captured by phagocytic cells and that they are not cytotoxic. The polymer nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin at different concentrations from 0.1 to 10 μg/mL yielded dose-dependent decrease in viability of chronic myelogenous leukemia and histiocytic lymphoma cells. The lowest percentage of viable cells was observed for lymphoma cells (22%. Taking into account the fact that our nanoparticles will act mainly on malignant phagocytic cells and do not affect healthy cells, they can thus potentially be used for the therapeutic treatment of tumor cells having phagocytic activity. The effect of nanosilver on cell viability was lower than the one of polymer/cisplatin composite. The data from the cytotoxic studies indicate that nanosilver induces toxicity in cells. However, when the copolymers were conjugated to both nanosilver and cisplatin, such a nanosystem displayed less cytotoxic effect compared to the conjugates of dextran-polyacrylamide and cisplatin.

  12. Tissue reactions of in situ formed dextran hydrogels crosslinked by stereocomplex formation after subcutaneous implantation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, GW; Hennink, WE; Brouwer, LA; den Otter, W; Veldhuis, TFJ; van Nostrum, CF; van Luyn, MJA

    In this study, the in vivo biocompatibility of physically crosslinked dextran hydrogels was investigated. These hydrogels were obtained by mixing aqueous solutions of dextran grafted with L-lactic acid oligomers and dextran grafted with D-lactic acid oligomers. Gelation occurs due to stereocomplex

  13. Biomedical properties and preparation of iron oxide-dextran nanostructures by MAPLE technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Gyorgy, Eniko; Radu, Mihaela; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Lafdi, Khalid; Predoi, Daniela

    2012-03-13

    In this work the chemical structure of dextran-iron oxide thin films was reported. The films were obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt. % dextran with 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). The IONPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM≅25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the growth of the hybrid, iron oxide NPs-dextran thin films. Dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles thin films were indexed into the spinel cubic lattice with a lattice parameter of 8.36 Å. The particle sized calculated was estimated at around 7.7 nm. The XPS shows that the binding energy of the Fe 2p3/2 of two thin films of dextran coated iron oxide is consistent with Fe3+ oxides. The atomic percentage of the C, O and Fe are 66.71, 32.76 and 0.53 for the films deposited from composite targets containing 1 wt.% maghemite and 64.36, 33.92 and 1.72 respectively for the films deposited from composite targets containing 5 wt.% maghemite. In the case of cells cultivated on dextran coated 5% maghemite γ-Fe2O3, the number of cells and the level of F-actin were lower compared to the other two types of thin films and control. The dextran-iron oxide continuous thin films obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt.% dextran as well as 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method presented granular surface morphology. Our data proved a good viability of Hep G2 cells grown on dextran coated maghemite thin films. Also, no changes in cells morphology were noticed under phase contrast microscopy. The data strongly suggest the potential use of iron oxide-dextran nanocomposites as a potential marker for biomedical applications.

  14. Nitroglycerin Attenuates Vasoconstriction of HBOC-201 during Hemorrhagic Shock Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Noack E. Nitric oxide (NO) formation from nitrovasodilators occurs independently of hemoglobin or non-heme iron . Eur 1 Pharmacol 1987;142:465-9...gen monitoring during hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation: a comparison or lactated Ringer’s solution, hypertonic saline dextran , and HBOC-201.1

  15. Cell kinetics of PHA-activated lymphocytes are slowed by prolonged hypertonic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman Conti, A M; Tori, R; Ronchetti, E; De Grada, L; Pellicciari, C; Manfredi Romanini, M G

    1990-01-01

    The effect of prolonged exposure to a hypertonic medium on human lymphocytes during mitogenic stimulation with phytohemagglutinin was investigated. The process of chromatin decondensation during the first 24 hrs stimulation (G0 to G1 transition) and the changes in kinetic parameters and the occurrence of chromosome aberrations from 48 hrs to 72 hrs of stimulation were studied. In HT medium, lymphocyte transition from G0 to G1 was slowed; there were fewer S-phase cells, after 48 hrs PHA stimulation, whereas after 72 hrs the resistant cells showed the same frequency of S-phase cells as the controls. The mitotic index was always smaller, and the frequency of G0/G1 cells larger. No significant increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations were found. These findings suggest that human peripheral lymphocytes can survive and grow in a hypertonic medium; chromosome damages, if not repaired, may be lethal, and only lymphocytes with normal karyotypes can survive for long times in the HT medium, although with modified kinetic characteristics.

  16. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  17. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  18. Salinity and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salinity on greenhouse grown crops, especially when grown in substrate systems, differs from the impact of salinity on crops grown under field conditions. The most striking difference between greenhouse and field conditions is the overall much higher concentrations of nutrients in

  19. Assessment Impact of Foot Sensory Modulation on Inhibition of Hypertonicity of the Lower Limb in Children with Diplegia Spastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Fatoureh-Chi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess impact of foot sensory modulation on inhibition of hypertonicity of the lower limb in children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: 24 selected children (aged 2.5 to 4.5 years were randomly assigned to a control and experimental groups. Muscle tone was assessed using modified Ashworth scale, passive Range of motion by goniameter (Pedretti, neurodevelopmental level by Bobath scale. All children were pre-post tested in an interval of ten weeks. Results: Significant reduction was observed in hypertonicity of hip extensor (p<0/1 and ankle planter flexor (P<0/05. Significant increase was observed in passive Range of motion of hip flexion (P<0/1, knee extension (P<0/05 and ankle dorsi flexion (P<0/05. There was found no significant difference of reduction in hypertonicity of knee flexor and improvement neurodevelopmental level. Meaningful relationship was observed between reduction hypertonicity of the hip extensor (P<0/05 and improvement of neurodevelopmental level (P<0/05. Conclusion: Impact of sensory modulation on children with diplegia spastic cerebral palsy reduces spasticity of lower limb and also extends joints domain of motion.

  20. No increase in small-solute transport in peritoneal dialysis patients treated without hypertonic glucose for fifty-four months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagniez, Dominique; Duhamel, Alain; Boulanger, Eric; Lessore de Sainte Foy, Celia; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-08-31

    Glucose is widely used as an osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD), but exerts untoward effects on the peritoneum. The potential protective effect of a reduced exposure to hypertonic glucose has never been investigated. The cohort of PD patients attending our center which tackled the challenge of a restricted use of hypertonic glucose solutions has been prospectively followed since 1992. Small-solute transport was assessed using an equivalent of the glucose peritoneal equilibration test after 6 months, and then every year. Study was stopped on July 1st, 2008, before use of biocompatible solutions. Repeated measures in patients treated with PD for 54 months were analyzed by using (1) the slopes of the linear regression for D4/D0 ratios over time computed for each individual, and (2) a linear mixed model. In the study period, 44 patients were treated for a total of 2376 months, 2058 without hypertonic glucose. There was one episode of peritoneal infection every 18 patient-months. The mean of slopes of the linear regression for D4/D0 ratios was found to be significantly positive (Student's test, p solute transport. In this large series, minimizing the use of hypertonic glucose solutions was associated in patients on long term PD with an overall decrease of small-solute transport within 54 months, despite a high rate of peritoneal infection.

  1. Plasma FITC-dextran exchange between the primary and secondary circulatory systems in the Atlantic cod, Gadus Morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Claes; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-dextran) exchange between the primary (PCS) and secondary (SCS) circulatory systems in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua (Linnaeus, 1752), were studied using 20-kDa (n = 4) and 500-kDa (n = 4) FITC-dextran. In order to give a qualitative perspective...... of the injected 500-kDa FITC-dextran was also examined, and it was observed that of the 500-kDa FITC-dextran lost from the primary and secondary vascular systems, 63.0 +/- 9.2% could be recovered from the liver....

  2. Salinity in rose production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Reis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rose is one of the most important ornamental plants in the world. However, the cultivation systems used for roses often impose salt stress. Saline conditions occur naturally in some regions or by human activity in others with use of low quality water or excessive fertilizer application. In general, roses are considered sensitive to salinity. However, tolerance levels can be different among roses species and cultivars. Therefore, studies are needed that take into account characteristics of each species and how the exposure to salinity occurs. Management of water and nutrients can be important tools for mitigating the effects of high salt concentrations. Also, advances in biotechnology can be used for a better understanding of the physiological responses to salinity and to develop more salt tolerant rose cultivars. Thus, this paper aims to review the progress made and future prospects of salinity tolerance in commercial rose production.

  3. Remote sensing of salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The complex dielectric constant of sea water is a function of salinity at 21 cm wavelength, and sea water salinity can be determined by a measurement of emissivity at 21 cm along with a measurement of thermodynamic temperature. Three aircraft and one helicopter experiments using two different 21 cm radiometers were conducted under different salinity and temperature conditions. Single or multiple ground truth measurements were used to calibrate the data in each experiment. It is inferred from these experiments that accuracies of 1 to 2%/OO are possible with a single surface calibration point necessary only every two hours if the following conditions are met--water temperatures above 20 C, salinities above 10%/OO, and level plane flight. More frequent calibration, constraint of the aircraft's orientation to the same as it was during calibration, and two point calibration (at a high and low salinity level) rather than single point calibration may give even better accuracies in some instances.

  4. Removal of Soluble Fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase-1 by Dextran Sulfate Apheresis in Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadhani, Ravi; Hagmann, Henning; Schaarschmidt, Wiebke; Roth, Bernhard; Cingoez, Tuelay; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Wenger, Julia; Lucchesi, Kathryn J; Tamez, Hector; Lindner, Tom; Fridman, Alexander; Thome, Ulrich; Kribs, Angela; Danner, Marco; Hamacher, Stefanie; Mallmann, Peter; Stepan, Holger; Benzing, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) is an antiangiogenic protein believed to mediate the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia. We conducted an open pilot study to evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of therapeutic apheresis with a plasma-specific dextran sulfate column to remove circulating sFlt-1 in 11 pregnant women (20-38 years of age) with very preterm preeclampsia (23-32 weeks of gestation, systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg, new onset protein/creatinine ratio >0.30 g/g, and sFlt-1/placental growth factor ratio >85). We evaluated the extent of sFlt-1 removal, proteinuria reduction, pregnancy continuation, and neonatal and fetal safety of apheresis after one (n=6), two (n=4), or three (n=1) apheresis treatments. Mean sFlt-1 levels were reduced by 18% (range 7%-28%) with concomitant reductions of 44% in protein/creatinine ratios. Pregnancy continued for 8 days (range 2-11) and 15 days (range 11-21) in women treated once and multiple times, respectively, compared with 3 days (range 0-14) in untreated contemporaneous preeclampsia controls (n=22). Transient maternal BP reduction during apheresis was managed by withholding pre-apheresis antihypertensive therapy, saline prehydration, and reducing blood flow through the apheresis column. Compared with infants born prematurely to untreated women with and without preeclampsia (n=22 per group), no adverse effects of apheresis were observed. In conclusion, therapeutic apheresis reduced circulating sFlt-1 and proteinuria in women with very preterm preeclampsia and appeared to prolong pregnancy without major adverse maternal or fetal consequences. A controlled trial is warranted to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Evaluation of the safety of iron dextran with parenteral nutrition in the paediatric inpatient setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dale; Barsky, Diane; Hughes, Rachel; Driggers, Julia; Poupard, Nicole; Mascarenhas, Maria

    2017-11-01

    Practitioners often avoid administering iron dextran in parenteral nutrition (PN) for hospitalised children because of the concern for anaphylaxis. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the risk of anaphylaxis associated with exposure to PN containing iron dextran in the inpatient setting. Charts were reviewed for all children admitted to The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from January 1, 2011 to December 30, 2013 who received PN containing low molecular weight (LMW) iron dextran. Subject characteristics, primary diagnoses and PN orders were evaluated. The pharmacy adverse events database was queried for adverse drug reactions. Over three years, 89 subjects received PN containing a maintenance dose of LMW iron dextran with a total of 2774 days of exposure. Subjects ranged from two months to 21 years of age and received between 1 and 196 days of PN containing iron dextran. The mean dose of iron dextran in children decreased as the weight category increased from iron dextran can be safely administered to hospitalised children, and further studies are need to evaluate the potential to prevent iron deficiency anaemia and the need for additional IV iron infusions. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  6. Magnetic catechin-dextran conjugate as targeted therapeutic for pancreatic tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittorio, Orazio; Voliani, Valerio; Faraci, Paolo; Karmakar, Biswajit; Iemma, Francesca; Hampel, Silke; Kavallaris, Maria; Cirillo, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    Catechin-dextran conjugates have recently attracted a lot of attention due to their anticancer activity against a range of cancer cells. Magnetic nanoparticles have the ability to concentrate therapeutically important drugs due to their magnetic-spatial control and provide opportunities for targeted drug delivery. Enhancement of the anticancer efficiency of catechin-dextran conjugate by functionalisation with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Modification of the coating shell of commercial magnetic nanoparticles (Endorem) composed of dextran with the catechin-dextran conjugate. Catechin-dextran conjugated with Endorem (Endo-Cat) increased the intracellular concentration of the drug and it induced apoptosis in 98% of pancreatic tumour cells placed under magnetic field. The conjugation of catechin-dextran with Endorem enhances the anticancer activity of this drug and provides a new strategy for targeted drug delivery on tumour cells driven by magnetic field. The ability to spatially control the delivery of the catechin-dextran by magnetic field makes it a promising agent for further application in cancer therapy.

  7. The molecular mass of dextran used to modify magnetite nanoparticles affects insulin amyloid aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siposova, Katarina [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia); Pospiskova, Kristyna [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bednarikova, Zuzana [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Safarik University, Kosice (Slovakia); Safarik, Ivo [Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials, Palacky University, Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Safarikova, Mirka [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Biology Centre, ISB, CAS, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Kubovcikova, Martina; Kopcansky, Peter [Department of Magnetism, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia); Gazova, Zuzana, E-mail: gazova@saske.sk [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2017-04-01

    Protein transformation from its soluble state into amyloid aggregates is associated with amyloid-related diseases. Amyloid deposits of insulin fibrils have been found in the sites of subcutaneous insulin application in patients with prolonged diabetes. Using atomic force microscopy and ThT fluorescence assay we have investigated the interference of insulin amyloid aggregation with superparamagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-based nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with dextran (DEX); molecular mass of dextran was equal to 15–20, 40 or 70 kDa. The obtained data indicate that all three types of dextran coated nanoparticles (NP-FeDEXs) are able to inhibit insulin fibrillization and to destroy amyloid fibrils. The extent of anti-amyloid activities depends on the properties of NP-FeDEXs, mainly on the size of nanoparticles which is determined by molecular mass of dextran molecules. The most effective inhibiting activity was observed for the smallest nanoparticles coated with 15–20 kDa dextran. Contrary, the highest destroying activity was observed for the largest NP-FeDEX (70 kDa dextran). - Highlights: • Interference of dextran- magnetite nanoparticles with insulin amyloid aggregation. • Nanoparticles inhibited insulin fibrillization and depolymerized insulin amyloid fibrils. • Size of nanoparticles significantly influences their anti-amyloid activities. • The most effective inhibition of insulin amyloid fibrillization was detected for the smallest nanoparticles. • Contrary, DC{sub 50} values decreased with increasing size of nanoparticles.

  8. Characterization of iron oxide-dextran magnetic nanoparticle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, J.; Bai, R.; Chiou, W.; Briber, R. M.; Borchers, J. A.; Dennis, C. L.; Gruettner, C.

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles, with structures from core-shell to nanocrystallites in a matrix, are candidates for use in biomedical applications. ``Superparamagnetic iron oxide'' (SPIO) nanoparticles are nanocrystallites of iron oxide in a dextran matrix, with sizes between 20nm and 250nm. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and hysteresis measurements were used for structural and magnetic characterization. Additionally, cryoquench-TEM was performed, allowing direct imaging without false aggregation from drying. The DLS-determined size of the particles is 250nm, but cryoquench-TEM yields a smaller size of 150nm. In addition, the particles are relatively well-dispersed, but dimers and trimers are observed. This corresponds with the evidence of weak interactions in magnetic hysteresis measurements. Further magnetic characterization will provide information on how the magnetic properties of these SPIO particles correlate with their size and structure.

  9. 3-hydroxyflavone-bovine serum albumin interaction in Dextran medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voicescu Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic analysis of a bioactive flavonol, 3-Hydroxyflavone (3-HF, in systems based on Dextran 70 (Dx70 (an important bio-relevant polysacharide and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA (a carrier protein, have been studied by fluorescence and circular dichroism. Changes produced by different concentrations of Dx70 on the fluorescent characteristics of 3-HF, and on the excited - state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT process were studied. The influence of 3-HF binding and of Dx70 on the secondary structure of BSA were investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The influence of temperature (30-80°C range on the intrinsic Tryptophan fluorescence in 3-HF/BSA/Dx70 systems, was investigated. The results are discussed with relevance to 3-HF as a sensitive fluorescence probe for exploring flavone-protein interaction in plasma expander media and also for its biological evaluation.

  10. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-10-01

    Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (piron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion.

  11. Chitosan/dextran multilayer microcapsules for polyphenol co-delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paini, Marco, E-mail: marco.paini@unige.it [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa (Italy); Research Center for Biologically Inspired Engineering in Vascular Medicine and Longevity (BELONG), Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy); Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro A.; Perego, Patrizia [Department of Civil, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Genoa, via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa (Italy); Research Center for Biologically Inspired Engineering in Vascular Medicine and Longevity (BELONG), Via Montallegro 1, 16145 Genoa (Italy); Ruggiero, Carmelina; Pastorino, Laura [Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics and Systems Engineering, University of Genoa, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    Polysaccharide-based nanostructured polymeric microcapsules were fabricated by the electrostatic layer-by-layer self-assembly technique and used to encapsulate mixtures of four different polyphenols in order to achieve their controlled release. The real-time fabrication of the dextran/chitosan multilayer was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and the morphology of the nanostructured polymeric capsules was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The polyphenol encapsulation was obtained by reversible permeability variation of the capsule shell in ethanol:water mixtures. The loading efficiency in different water:ethanol mixtures and the release rate in acidic conditions were characterized by UV spectroscopy and HPLC. The higher loading efficiency was obtained with an ethanol:water 35:65 phenolic solution, equal to 42.0 ± 0.6%, with a total release of 11.5 ± 0.7 mg of total polyphenols per 11.3 μL of microcapsules after 240 min of incubation in acidic environment. The results suggest that polysaccharide-based capsules can be successfully used to encapsulate and release low water-soluble molecules, such as polyphenols. - Highlights: • Chitosan/dextran nanocapsules were made by layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. • Different ethanol:water mixtures of four polyphenols were encapsulated. • An encapsulation efficiency of 42.0 ± 0.6% was obtained using ethanol:water 35:65. • Release profiles in acidic environment were monitored by UV spectroscopy and HPLC. • Nanocapsules had shown a complete release after 60 min in acidic environment.

  12. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657

  13. Correction of Hemodynamics with Hypertonic Sodium Chloride Solution in Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Zhbannikov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the capabilities of small-volume hypertonic infusion in the context of early goal-directed therapy for critical conditions in surgical patients.Subjects and methods. Twenty-nine patients (SAPS II 47.5±6.81 scores operated on for generalized peritonitis (n=24 or severe concomitant injury with damages to chest and/or abdominal organs (n=5 who had the clinical and laboratory signs of a systemic inflammatory reaction were intravenously injected 4 ml/kg of 7.5% of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HS and colloidal solution, followed by infusion and, if indicated, inotropic maintenance of hemodynamics for 6 hours in order to achieve the goal vales of mean blood pressure (BP, central venous pressure (CVP, central venous blood oxygen saturation (ScvO2, and diuresis. Plasma concentrations of sodium, chlorine, and lactate, acid-base balance, and osmotic blood pressure were monitored.Results. The patients were found to have infusion therapy-refractory critical arterial hypotension, low ScvO2, and oliguria before small-volume circulation maintenance. In all the patients, HS infusion originally caused a rapid rise in BP up to the goal value, with its further colloid infusion maintenance requiring additional dopamine infusion in 12 patients and red blood cell transfusion in 3. This could stabilize over 6 hours BP at the required level in 25 patients, in 9 of whom CVP only approximated the goal value. All the patients were found to have a significant increase in ScvO2 up to an average of 68% in response to HP infusion after 30—60 minutes; in 14 out of them ScvO2 exceeded 70%. By hour 6, ScvO2 stabilized at its goal level in 23 (79% examinees. Administration of HS caused a significantly increased diuresis. In patients with recovered renal function, the observed hypernatremia, hyperchloremia with hyperchloremic acidosis were transient.Conclusion. The results of the study show it possible to include small-volume hypertonic infusion at

  14. Interference of dextran in biuret-type assays of serum proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanghe, Joris R; Hamers, Nicole; Taes, Youri E; Libeer, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Dextran interference in biuret-type assays of total serum proteins was investigated in a Belgian National External Quality Assurance Survey with 256 participants. In vitro supplementation of therapeutic (10% Gentran 70) dextran concentrations showed a broadly varying (from 0 to 20%) negative interference. The analytical interference was found to depend on both the sodium hydroxide and tartrate concentrations in the reagent formulation. The dry chemistry biuret method was not affected by the dextran interference. In a number of cases, the effects observed may be of clinical importance. Both clinicians and laboratory staff should be aware of the persistence of this analytical problem.

  15. Formation of nanoparticles by cooperative inclusion between (S)-camptothecin-modified dextrans and ?-cyclodextrin polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Thorbj?rn Terndrup; Amiel, Catherine; Duroux, Laurent; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen; St?de, Lars Wagner; Wimmer, Reinhard; Wintgens, V?ronique

    2015-01-01

    Novel (S)-camptothecin–dextran polymers were obtained by “click” grafting of azide-modified (S)-camptothecin and alkyne-modified dextrans. Two series based on 10 kDa and 70 kDa dextrans were prepared with a degree of substitution of (S)-camptothecin between 3.1 and 10.2%. The binding properties with β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin polymers were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy, showing no binding with β-cyclodextrin but high binding with β-cyclodext...

  16. Dead Sea salt irrigations vs saline irrigations with nasal steroids for symptomatic treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomized, prospective double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Michael; Hamilton, Craig; Samuelson, Christian G; Maley, Alexander; Wilson, Meghan N; Venkatesan, T K; Joseph, Ninos J

    2012-01-01

    Intranasal steroids are 1 of the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and saline irrigations are commonly used as an adjunct to medical therapy. We aimed to compare the efficacy of Dead Sea salt (DSS) irrigations and DSS nasal spray vs saline irrigations and topical nasal steroid spray in the treatment of symptoms of CRS. A total of 145 symptomatic adult patients without acute infection were initially enrolled and 114 completed the study. Patients completed a Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test 20 (SNOT-20) survey (primary outcome metric) and underwent endonasal examination, acoustic rhinometry, and smell testing (secondary outcome metrics). Patients were randomized to 2 groups. The experimental group (n = 59) self-administered hypertonic DSS spray and DSS irrigation; the control group (n = 55) self-administered fluticasone spray and hypertonic saline irrigation and spray. Patients and staff were blinded to group assignment. Outcomes were reassessed at 4 weeks. The 2 groups were homogeneous with respect to pretreatment primary and secondary outcome metrics. Dropout rates were 30% in the DSS group and 36.6% in the control group. Both groups showed significant improvement in mean SNOT-20 scores following treatment; however, the degree of improvement was not significantly different between groups (p = 0.082). There were no significant changes in secondary outcome metrics between the 2 groups. For patients with CRS, treatment with DSS irrigations and sprays appears as effective for symptom reduction as a combination of hypertonic saline irrigations and sprays and a topical steroid spray. Copyright © 2011 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  17. Correlation of bladder base elevation with pelvic floor hypertonicity in women with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Fei-Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2007-01-01

    To determine whether the bladder base elevation as revealed by cystogram under fluoroscopy is associated with pelvic floor hypertonicity or bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in women. Sixty-two women who were referred to our videourodynamic laboratory for assessment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were included in this retrospective analysis. Thirty-one of these women with bladder base elevation-revealed by cystogram under fluoroscopy during videourodynamic study-served as the experimental group, and another group of 31 women without bladder base elevation served as control. None of the patients had neuropathy, previous pelvic surgery or chronic urinary retention. The clinical symptoms, urodynamic diagnosis, and parameters were compared between the two groups. The mean voiding pressure (Pdet.Qmax) and postvoid residual (PVR) were significantly greater, and maximum flow rate (Qmax) and voided volume were significantly lower in the bladder base elevation group. When a Pdet.Qmax of >or=35 cmH2O combined with a Qmax of elevation group had BOO than controls (51.6% vs. 9.7%, P=0.0003). Pelvic floor muscle electromyogram (EMG) was dyscoordinated during the voiding phase in 18 (58.1%) and 9 (29%) of the patients with and without bladder base elevation, respectively (P=0.0212). Women with LUTS and bladder base elevation revealed in the filling phase of videourodynamic study had significantly higher voiding pressure and incidence of dyscoordinated pelvic floor EMG activities during voiding, suggesting a higher incidence of BOO and pelvic floor hypertonicity. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Cell cycle effects of hypertonic stress on various human cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicciari, C; Filippini, C; De Grada, L; Fuhrman Conti, A M; Manfredi Romanini, M G

    1995-03-01

    Long-term exposure to hypertonic (HT) culture media has been found to perturb the cell cycle and change gene expression in various animal cell types. A lower growth rate, with exit of cells from the cycling compartment has been observed previously in human transformed EUE cells. The aim of this study was to investigate if the kinetic changes after long-term HT stress, were typical of transformed cells or could be also found in primary cultures of normal cells. Human transformed cells from normal and neoplastic tissues, and normal human cells of epithelial and connective origin have been studied. After the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd), the frequency of S-phase cells was estimated by dual-parameter flow cytometry of DNA content versus BrdUrd immunolabelling; the total growth fraction was also estimated, after immunolabelling with an anti-PCNA antibody. We also investigated, by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, changes in the amount of a 35 kDa protein band, which increased in EUE cells grown in an HT medium, and which may be directly involved in cell resistance to hypertonicity. Lower BrdUrd labelling indices and higher frequencies of cells in the G0/1 range of DNA content were common features of all the cells in HT media, irrespective of their tissue of origin; other cycle phases may also be involved, depending on the cell type considered. The mechanisms by which cells cope with the HT environment could however differ, since only some cell types showed an increase of the 35 kDa stress protein found originally in HT EUE cells.

  19. Surface functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles formed by self-associating hydrophobized oxidized dextrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Shimon; Ickowicz, Diana E.; Melnik, Kristie; Yudovin-Farber, Ira; Recko, Daniel; Rampersaud, Arfaan; Domb, Abraham J.

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles surface covered with oleic acid layer followed by a second layer of hydrophobized oxidized dextran aldehyde were prepared and tested for physico-chemical properties and ligand- and cell-specific binding. It was demonstrated that oleic acid-iron oxide nanoparticles coated with an additional layer of hydrophobized oxidized dextran were dispersible in buffer solutions and possess surface aldehyde active groups available for further binding of ligands or markers via imine or amine bond formation. Hydrophobized dextrans were synthesized by periodate oxidation and conjugation of various alkanamines to oxidized dextran by imination. Physico-chemical properties, as separation using magnetic field, magnetite concentration, and particle diameter, of the prepared magnetic samples are reported. The biotin-binding protein, neutravidin, was coupled to the particle surface by a simple reductive amination procedure. The particles were used for specific cell separation with high specificity.

  20. Probing Conformational Change of Bovine Serum Albumin–Dextran Conjugates under Controlled Dry Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Shuqin; Li, Yunqi; Zhao, Qin; Li, Ji; Xia, Qiuyang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Huang, Qingrong (Rutgers); (Chinese Aca. Sci.); (Jiangnan)

    2015-04-29

    The time-dependent conformational change of bovine serum album (BSA) during Maillard reaction with dextran under controlled dry heating has been studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and circular dichroism analysis. Through the research on the radii of gyration (Rg), intrinsic fluorescence, and secondary structure, conjugates with dextran coating were found to inhibit BSA aggregation and preserve the secondary structure of native BSA against long-time heat treatment during Maillard reaction. The results suggested that the hydrophilic dextran was conjugated to the compact protein surface and enclosed it and more dextran chains were attached to BSA with the increase of the heating time. The study presented here will be beneficial to the understanding of the conformational evolution of BSA molecules during the dry-heating Maillard reaction and to the control of the protein–polysaccharide conjugate structure.

  1. Specific MR imaging of human-lymphocytes by monoclonal antibody-guided dextran-magnetite particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulte, J. W. M.; Hoekstra, Y; Kamman, R. L.; Magin, R. L.; Webb, A. G.; Briggs, R. W.; Go, K. G.; Hulstaert, C. E.; Miltenyi, S.; The, T. Hauw; de Leij, L

    Human lymphocytes were labeled with biotinylated anti-lymphocyte-directed monoclonal antibodies, to which streptavidin and subsequently biotinylated dextran-magnetite particles were coupled. This labeling resulted in a strong and selective negative contrast enhancement of lymphocyte suspensions at

  2. Iron dextran in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia of pregnancy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-16

    deficiency anaemia were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group A received the usual recom. mended dose of iron dextran (Imferon; Fisons) and group 8 received two-thirds of the recommended dose. A further 30 patients ...

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Streptococcus mutans dextran glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saburi, Wataru; Hondoh, Hironori, E-mail: hondoh@abs.agr.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589 (Japan); Unno, Hideaki [Faculty of Engineering, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan); Okuyama, Masayuki; Mori, Haruhide [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589 (Japan); Nakada, Toshitaka [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Matsuura, Yoshiki [Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kimura, Atsuo [Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8589 (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    Dextran glucosidase from S. mutans was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. Dextran glucosidase from Streptococcus mutans is an exo-hydrolase that acts on the nonreducing terminal α-1,6-glucosidic linkage of oligosaccharides and dextran with a high degree of transglucosylation. Based on amino-acid sequence similarity, this enzyme is classified into glycoside hydrolase family 13. Recombinant dextran glucosidase was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 6000 as a precipitant. The crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.72, b = 86.47, c = 104.30 Å. A native data set was collected to 2.2 Å resolution from a single crystal.

  4. Elongation of fibers from highly viscous dextran solutions enables fabrication of rapidly dissolving drug carrying fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, John P; Lai, David; Lounds, Maxwell; Chung, Kyeongwoon; Kim, Jinsang; Mansfield, John F; Takayama, Shuichi

    2015-01-28

    A simple method is presented for forming thread-like fibers from highly viscous dextran solutions. Based on the cohesive and adhesive forces between a dextran solution and the substrate to which it is applied, multiple fibers of approximately 10 μm in diameter can be elongated simultaneously. These fibers can be woven into multiple layers to produce fabrics of varying fiber orientations and mechanical properties. Various bioactive agents can be incorporated into the dextran solution prior to fiber formation, including hemostatic and antibiotic agents. Fabrics containing thrombin are capable of coagulating human platelet poor plasma in vitro. Fabrics containing antibiotics are capable of suppressing bacterial growth in a disk diffusion assay. These data suggest that this new material composed entirely of dextran has promise as a drug delivery component in wound dressings. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods...

  6. Effect of intravenous iron-dextran (Imferon) infusion on antigen induced monarticular arthritis in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, C N; Blackham, A; Morris, C J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of intravenously infused iron-dextran (Imferon) on the progression of antigen induced monarticular arthritis in rabbits was studied. A rapid deposition of iron and apoferritin in the synovia of arthritis joints occurred after infusion of iron-dextran during either the acute or chronic phases of the disease. This coincided with the appearance of catalytic (bleomycin reactive) iron in the synovial fluid. There was no evidence, however, for an exacerbation of the antigen induced arthr...

  7. Hybrid dextran-iron oxide thin films deposited by laser techniques for biomedical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Predoi, Daniela; Ciobanu, Carmen Steluta; Mihaela RADU; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca; Gyorgy, Eniko

    2012-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method. The nanoparticles were mixed with dextran in distilled water. The obtained solutions were frozen in liquid nitrogen and used as targets during matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation for the growth of hybrid, iron oxide nanoparticles-dextran thin films. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations revealed that the obtained films preserve the structure and composition of the initial, n...

  8. Influence of Blood Viscosity on Blood Flow and the Effect of Low Molecular Weight Dextran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormandy, John A.

    1971-01-01

    Changes in whole blood viscosity are related to changes in the leg blood flow during infusions of low-molecular-weight dextran and Hartmann's solution. A close inverse correlation exists between changes in viscosity and blood flow, the change in blood flow being about three times greater than the change in blood viscosity. The dextran and Hartmann's solution had a similar effect on blood viscosity and blood flow if corrections are made for the difference in haemodilution. PMID:5129616

  9. One pot light assisted green synthesis, storage and antimicrobial activity of dextran stabilized silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain,Muhammad Ajaz; Shah, Abdullah; Jantan, Ibrahim; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ahmed, Riaz; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Background Green synthesis of nanomaterials finds the edge over chemical methods due to its environmental compatibility. Herein, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) mediated with dextran. Dextran was used as a stabilizer and capping agent to synthesize Ag NPs using silver nitrate (AgNO3) under diffused sunlight conditions. Results UV–vis spectra of as synthesized Ag nanoparticles showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range from ~405-452 nm. Scanning electron...

  10. Modulating the Synthesis of Dextran with the Acceptor Reaction Using Native and Encapsulated Dextransucrases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Gómez de Segura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dextransucrases are glucansucrases with broad applications in the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Using sucrose as the glucosyl donor, they synthesize both high molecular weight (HMW dextrans and potential prebiotic oligosaccharides. The process selectivity can be modulated by varying the reaction conditions. When no other molecule is present in the reaction, only dextrans are synthesized. In the presence of methyl α-D-glucopyranoside, the synthesis of methyl polyglucosides takes place, diminishing the transfer of glucose molecules to form dextran. In this work, the formation of HMW soluble dextran and methyl polyglucosides was studied with dextransucrases from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, strains B-512F and B-1299. The amount of dextran formed with dextransucrase B-512F was reduced up to 4 % with respect to the control in absence of acceptor, using a mass ratio of sucrose:methyl α-D-glucopyranoside of 1:4. The encapsulation in alginate retains the dextran inside the beads, causing a distortion of the biocatalyst and finally releasing the polysaccharides into the reaction medium.

  11. An efficient acetylation of dextran using in situ activated acetic anhydride with iodine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD A. HUSSAIN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A facile, efficient, cost-effective and solvent-free acetylation method has been developed for the acetylation of dextran. Dextran acetates were successfully synthesized using different molar ratios of acetic anhydride in the presence of iodine as a catalyst without the use of any solvent. The reactions were realized at 50 °C for 3 h under stirring and nitrogen. This efficient method yielded highly pure and organosoluble dextran esters. The reaction appears highly effective for obtaining higher degrees of substitution (DS with great efficiency. Under solvent-free conditions, dextran triacetates were efficiently synthesized. It was also observed that the molar ratio can easily control the DS of pendant groups onto the polymer backbone. Hence, a range of products with varying DS were successfully designed, purified and characterized. Covalent attachment of the pendant groups onto the polymer backbone was verified by spectroscopic techniques. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the obtained dextran esters were thermally as stable as dextran. The DS of the pendant groups onto the polymer backbone was calculated using standard acid base titration after saponification. Furthermore, all products were thoroughly characterized by thermal analysis (TG and DTG, and FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic analysis.

  12. Effects of dextran on five biuret-based procedures for total protein in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D B; Pierce, G F; Lichti, D; Landt, M; Koenig, J; Chan, K M

    1985-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of dextran on values for total protein in serum as measured by the biuret method with five widely used automated instruments: the American Monitor Parallel; the Du Pont aca II; the Roche Cobas-Bio; the Kodak Ektachem 400; and the Beckman Astra 8. Dextran concentrations as great as 25 or 30 g/L had relatively little or no influence on total protein measurements by the latter three instruments. Dextran concentrations exceeding 6 g/L caused falsely low results with the aca, whereas the Parallel gave falsely high results when the dextran concentration exceeded 2 g/L. The aca total protein procedure could be protected from the interference by dextran concentrations up to 30 g/L by injecting 0.4-0.8 mL of ethylene glycol directly into the reagent pack before sampling. However, we could not eliminate the interference with the Parallel procedure by any simple means; we thus recommend that it not be used for measuring total protein in serum samples from patients who are being treated with dextran.

  13. Dextrans produced by lactic acid bacteria exhibit antiviral and immunomodulatory activity against salmonid viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Vázquez, Montserrat; Ballesteros, Natalia; Canales, Ángeles; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, Sylvia; Pérez-Prieto, Sara Isabel; Prieto, Alicia; Aznar, Rosa; López, Paloma

    2015-06-25

    Viral infections in the aquaculture of salmonids can lead to high mortality and substantial economic losses. Thus, there is industrial interest in new molecules active against these viruses. Here we describe the production, purification, and the physicochemical and structural characterization of high molecular weight dextrans synthesized by Lactobacillus sakei MN1 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides RTF10. The purified dextrans, and commercial dextrans with molecular weights ranging from 10 to 2000kDa, were assayed in infected BF-2 and EPC fish cell-line monolayers for antiviral activity. Only T2000 and dextrans from MN1 and RTF10 had significant antiviral activity. This was similar to results obtained against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. However the dextran from MN1 showed ten-fold higher activity against hematopoietic necrosis virus than T2000. In vivo assays using the MN1 polymer confirmed the in vitro results and revealed immunomodulatory activity. These results together with the high levels of dextran production (2gL(-1)) by Lb. sakei MN1, indicate the compounds potential utility as an antiviral agent in aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The molecular mass of dextran used to modify magnetite nanoparticles affects insulin amyloid aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siposova, Katarina; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Safarik, Ivo; Safarikova, Mirka; Kubovcikova, Martina; Kopcansky, Peter; Gazova, Zuzana

    2017-04-01

    Protein transformation from its soluble state into amyloid aggregates is associated with amyloid-related diseases. Amyloid deposits of insulin fibrils have been found in the sites of subcutaneous insulin application in patients with prolonged diabetes. Using atomic force microscopy and ThT fluorescence assay we have investigated the interference of insulin amyloid aggregation with superparamagnetic Fe3O4-based nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with dextran (DEX); molecular mass of dextran was equal to 15-20, 40 or 70 kDa. The obtained data indicate that all three types of dextran coated nanoparticles (NP-FeDEXs) are able to inhibit insulin fibrillization and to destroy amyloid fibrils. The extent of anti-amyloid activities depends on the properties of NP-FeDEXs, mainly on the size of nanoparticles which is determined by molecular mass of dextran molecules. The most effective inhibiting activity was observed for the smallest nanoparticles coated with 15-20 kDa dextran. Contrary, the highest destroying activity was observed for the largest NP-FeDEX (70 kDa dextran).

  15. Water Kefir grain as a source of potent dextran producing lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Slađana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water kefir is abeverage fermented by a microbial consortium captured in kefir grains. The kefir grains matrix is composed of polysaccharide, primarily dextran, whichis produced by members of the microbial consortium. In this study, we have isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB from non-commercial water kefir grains (from Belgrade, Serbia and screened for dextran production. Among twelve Lisolates threeproduced slime colonies on modified MRS (mMRS agar containing sucrose instead of glucoseand were presumed to produce dextran. Three LABwere identified based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequencing as Leuconostoc mesenteroides(strains T1 and T3 and Lactobacillus hilgardii (strain T5. The isolated strains were able to synthesize a substantial amount of dextran in mMRS broth containing 5% sucrose. Maximal yields (11.56, 18.00 and 18.46 g/l were obtained after 16h, 20h and 32h for T1, T3 and T5, respectively. Optimal temperature for dextran production was 23oC for two Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains and 30oC for Lactobacillus hilgardii strain. The produced dextrans were identified based on paper chromatography while the main structure characteristics of purified dextranwere observed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our study shows that water kefir grains are a natural source of potent dextranproducing LAB. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31035

  16. Construction of a dextran-free Leuconostoc citreum mutant by targeted disruption of the dextransucrase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Q; Li, L; Kim, Y J; Han, N S

    2014-10-01

    Leuconostoc citreum is an important lactic acid bacterium in fermented foods, but dextran production often causes undesired ropiness. To prevent this side effect, a dextran-free mutant needs to be created. Homologous recombination of the dextransucrase gene (dsrC) was conducted using a segregationally unstable plasmid, pCBM32-DSUDs. A mutant was obtained on sucrose agar medium, and a site-specific insertional inactivation in the gene was confirmed. When cultured in sucrose medium, the mutant strain produced no dextransucrase or dextran. Additionally, it showed a longer lag phase (9 h) than the wild-type strain (3 h), providing new insights into the role of dextransucrase in carbohydrate metabolism of Leuconostoc. In this study, a dextransucrase knockout mutant was constructed. It was found that Leuc. citreum dextransucrase not only synthesizes dextran for cell protection but also provides fructose as an important carbon source for cell growth. This knockout mutation was generated for the first time in Leuc. citreum. The dextran-free mutant has the potential to be used for various industrial purposes, including as a starter culture for production of nonviscous fermented foods and as a dextran-free host for production of recombinant proteins. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Minimally invasive transdermal delivery of iron-dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juluri, Abhishek; Modepalli, Naresh; Jo, Seongbong; Repka, Michael A; Shivakumar, H Nanjappa; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2013-03-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent and serious health issues among people all over the world. Iron-dextran (ID) colloidal solution is one among the very few US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved iron sources for parenteral administration of iron. Parenteral route does not allow frequent administration because of its invasiveness and other associated complications. The main aim of this project was to investigate the plausibility of transdermal delivery of ID facilitated by microneedles, as an alternative to parenteral iron therapy. In vitro permeation studies were carried out using freshly excised hairless rat abdominal skin in a Franz diffusion apparatus. Iron repletion studies were carried out in hairless anemic rat model. The anemic rats were divided into intact skin (control), microneedle pretreated, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) groups depending on the mode of delivery of iron. The hematological parameters were measured intermittently during treatment. There was no improvement in the hematological parameters in case of control group, whereas, in case of microneedle pretreated and i.p. group, there was significant improvement within 2-3 weeks. The results suggest that microneedle-mediated delivery of ID could be developed as a potential treatment method for iron-deficiency anemia. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dextran sulfate nanoparticles as a theranostic nanomedicine for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Roun; You, Dong Gil; Um, Wooram; Choi, Ki Young; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Jong-Sung; Choi, Yuri; Kwon, Seunglee; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kwon, Ick Chan; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Kang, Young Mo; Park, Jae Hyung

    2017-07-01

    With the aim of developing nanoparticles for targeted delivery of methotrexate (MTX) to inflamed joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an amphiphilic polysaccharide was synthesized by conjugating 5β-cholanic acid to a dextran sulfate (DS) backbone. Due to its amphiphilic nature, the DS derivative self-assembled into spherical nanoparticles (220 nm in diameter) in aqueous conditions. The MTX was effectively loaded into the DS nanoparticles (loading efficiency: 73.0%) by a simple dialysis method. Interestingly, the DS nanoparticles were selectively taken up by activated macrophages, which are responsible for inflammation and joint destruction, via scavenger receptor class A-mediated endocytosis. When systemically administrated into mice with experimental collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), the DS nanoparticles effectively accumulated in inflamed joints (12-fold more than wild type mice (WT)), implying their high targetability to RA tissues. Moreover, the MTX-loaded DS nanoparticles exhibited significantly improved therapeutic efficacy against CIA in mice compared to free MTX alone. Overall, the data presented here indicate that DS nanoparticles are potentially useful nanomedicines for RA imaging and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Photocrosslinkable bioadhesive based on dextran and PEG derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxia; Wang, Tao; Hu, Lihui; Wei, Yaohua; Liu, Jianning; Mu, Xueyan; Nie, Jun; Yang, Dongzhi

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a hybrid photopolymeric bioadhesive system consisting of urethane methacrylated dextran (Dex-U) and 3, 4-Dihydroxyphenyl-l-alanine (DOPA) modified three-arm poly (ethylene glycol) s (PEG-DOPAs) was designed. The process of photopolymerization was detected by Photo-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (Photo-DSC). The adhesion strength was evaluated by the lap shear tests. The surface tension of the solutions, burst pressures and the cytotoxicity assays were also investigated. The addition of PEG-DOPAs significantly improved the properties of Dex-U especially in the field of adhesion strength and burst pressure. And materials variation could be tailored to match the demands for tissue repair. Compared to the Dex-U systems, the maximum adhesion strength of the copolymeric system increased from 2.7±0.1 MPa to 4.0±0.6 MPa. Owing to its strong adhesion strength, rapid curing rate and good biocompatibility, such photocrosslinkable hydrogelsa could be applied to the areas of bioadhesive. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amphiphilic photosensitive dextran-g-poly(o-nitrobenzyl acrylate) glycopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Soliman Mehawed Abdellatif; Colombeau, Ludovic; Nouvel, Cécile; Babin, Jérôme; Six, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-20

    Among all photosensitive monomers reported in the literature, o-nitrobenzyl acrylate (NBA) was selected in this present study. Two strategies were compared to produce azido-terminated poly(o-nitrobenzyl acrylate) (PNBA) using controlled Single Electron Transfer-Living Radical Polymerization (SET-LRP). In a parallel way, dextran (Dex) was modified by the introduction of several alkynyl-terminated hydrophobic chains. Finally, an Huisgen-type Copper (I)-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) click-chemistry was carried out to produce amphiphilic Dex-g-PNBA glycopolymers with different number and length of PNBA grafts. 2D DOSY (1)H NMR was used to prove the formation of such glycopolymers. Preliminary study on Dex-g-PNBA self-assembly was done by measuring the critical water content (CWC) above which Dex-g-PNBA started to auto-organize themselves to produce nano-objects. Finally, under UV irradiation, PNBA grafts turn into poly(acrylic acid) ones giving light-sensitive properties to such amphiphilic Dex-g-PNBA. Such properties were evaluated and compared with those of PNBA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomedical properties and preparation of iron oxide-dextran nanostructures by MAPLE technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciobanu Carmen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this work the chemical structure of dextran-iron oxide thin films was reported. The films were obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt. % dextran with 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs. The IONPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM≅25 ns, ν = 10 Hz was used for the growth of the hybrid, iron oxide NPs-dextran thin films. Results Dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles thin films were indexed into the spinel cubic lattice with a lattice parameter of 8.36 Å. The particle sized calculated was estimated at around 7.7 nm. The XPS shows that the binding energy of the Fe 2p3/2 of two thin films of dextran coated iron oxide is consistent with Fe3+ oxides. The atomic percentage of the C, O and Fe are 66.71, 32.76 and 0.53 for the films deposited from composite targets containing 1 wt.% maghemite and 64.36, 33.92 and 1.72 respectively for the films deposited from composite targets containing 5 wt.% maghemite. In the case of cells cultivated on dextran coated 5% maghemite γ-Fe2O3, the number of cells and the level of F-actin were lower compared to the other two types of thin films and control. Conclusions The dextran-iron oxide continuous thin films obtained by MAPLE technique from composite targets containing 10 wt.% dextran as well as 1 and 5 wt.% iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method presented granular surface morphology. Our data proved a good viability of Hep G2 cells grown on dextran coated maghemite thin films. Also, no changes in cells morphology were noticed under phase contrast microscopy. The data strongly suggest the potential use of iron oxide-dextran nanocomposites as a potential marker for biomedical applications.

  2. [The peritoneal kinetic study performed with hypertonic glucose permits better evaluation of UF capacity and determination of sieving of sodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Reyes, M J; Bajo Rubio, M A; del Peso Gilzanz, G; Estrada, P; Sousa, S; Sánchez-Villanueva, R; Heras, M; Ossorio, M; Sánchez-Vega, C; Selgas, R

    2010-01-01

    The use of solutions containing hypertonic glucose (3.86%/4.25%) has been postulated as the method of choice for study the peritoneal function, and permits a better evaluation of the ultrafiltration (UF) capacity. The aim of our study was to analyze the UF capacity and its relation with the peritoneal permeability and sieving of sodium, performing the peritoneal kinetic study with hypertonic glucose solutions. We performed 184 peritoneal kinetic studies with hypertonic glucose solutions in stable patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), with a mean time on PD of 16 +/- 22 months. We measured the mass transfer coefficient of creatinine (CrMTC), dialysate to plasma ratio of creatinine (D/PCr), UF capacity and sieving of sodium at 60 minutes (difNa60). The mean values were: CrMTC: 9.1 +/- 4.5 ml/min, D/PCr: 0.71 +/- 0.09, UF 759 +/- 233 ml/4 h and difNa60: 4.7 +/- 2.3. The best multivariate model that predicts the UF capacity included: difNa60, CrMTC, age and time on PD (r = 0.57; p > 0.0001). In patients with UF lower than 600 ml/4 h (Percentil 25) the correlation between UF and CrMTC was lost, but remains the correlation with difNa60 (r = 0.48). The patients with previous peritonitis (n = 38) showed no differences in UF, CrMTC or D/Pcr, but the had lower difNa60 (3.7 +/- 2.8 vs. 4.9 +/- 2.1; p = 0.002) than the remaining patients. The peritoneal kinetic study performed with hypertonic glucose allows to standardize the UF capacity and by determination of sieving of sodium, the early detection of water transport alterations, before the UF capacity and small solutes permeability alteration develops.

  3. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrini A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

  4. The permeability of the posterior blood ocular barrier after xenon photocoagulation: a study using fluorescein labelled dextrans.

    OpenAIRE

    McNaught, E I; Foulds, W S; Johnson, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    Xenon photocoagulation burns in the rabbit fundus were studied angiographically with fluorescein labelled dextrans of molecular weights in the range 3000 to 150 000. Recent photocoagulation burns showed dye leakage to all molecular weights used. Angiograms 2 days after burns had been produced showed leakage of dextrans of molecular weights up to and including 70 000 but no leakage of dextran of 150 000 molecular weight. At 7 days after photocoagulation healed burns remained permeable to dextr...

  5. Treatment of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Codelivery of Disease Associated Peptide and Dexamethasone in Acetalated Dextran Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that can cause loss of motor function and is thought to result, in part, from chronic inflammation due to an antigen-specific T cell immune response. Current treatments suppress the immune system without antigen specificity, increasing the risks of cancer, chronic infection, and other long-term side effects. In this study, we show treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS, by coencapsulating the immunodominant peptide of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) with dexamethasone (DXM) into acetalated dextran (Ac-DEX) microparticles (DXM/MOG/MPs) and administering the microparticles subcutaneously. The clinical score of the mice was reduced from 3.4 to 1.6 after 3 injections 3 days apart with the coencapsulated microparticulate formulation (MOG 17.6 μg and DXM 8 μg). This change in clinical score was significantly greater than observed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), empty MPs, free DXM and MOG, DXM/MPs, and MOG/MPs. Additionally, treatment with DXM/MOG/MPs significantly inhibited disease-associated cytokine (e.g., IL-17, GM-CSF) expression in splenocytes isolated in treated mice. Here we show a promising approach for the therapeutic treatment of MS using a polymer-based microparticle delivery platform. PMID:24433027

  6. Different Effects of Three Selected Lactobacillus Strains in Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Wei, Hongyun; Lu, Fanggen; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Deliang; Gu, Li; Ouyang, Chunhui

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the changes of different Lactobacillus species in ulcerative colitis patients and to further assess the therapeutic effects of selected Lactobacillus strains on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice. Forty-five active ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and 45 population-based healthy controls were enrolled. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and real-time PCR were performed for qualitative and quantitative analyses, respectively, of the Lactobacillus species in UC patients. Three Lactobacillus strains from three species were selected to assess the therapeutic effects on experimental colitis. Sixty 8-week-old BALB/c mice were divided into six groups. The five groups that had received DSS were administered normal saline, mesalazine, L. fermentum CCTCC M206110 strain, L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 strain, or L. plantarum NCIMB8826 strain. We assessed the severity of colitis based on disease activity index (DAI), body weight loss, colon length, and histologic damage. The detection rate of four of the 11 Lactobacillus species decreased significantly (P weight loss and colon length shortening, lower DAI scores, and lower histologic scores (P weight loss and colon length shortening, higher histologic scores, and more severe inflammatory infiltration (P weight loss and colon length shortening (P probiotic effect of L. plantarum NCIMB8826 on UC has yet to be assessed.

  7. Activation of Human Complement System by Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Is Not Affected by Dextran/Fe Ratio, Hydroxyl Modifications, and Crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K; Holers, V Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, S Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum. Using complement inhibitors and measuring levels of fluid phase markers (sC5b-9, C5a, and Bb), we found that the majority of human complement activation by SPIO is through the alternative pathways (AP). SPIO prepared with high dextran/iron ratio showed some complement activation via calcium-sensitive pathways, but the AP was responsible for the bulk of complement activation and amplification. Activation via the AP required properdin, the positive regulator of the alternative C3bBb convertase. Modification of sugar alcohols of dextran with alkylating, acylating, or crosslinking agents did not overcome complement activation and C3 opsonization. These data demonstrate that human complement activation is independent of dextran modification of SPIO and suggest a crucial role of the AP in immune recognition of nano-assemblies in human serum.

  8. Rheology and bioactivity of high molecular weight dextrans synthesised by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarour, Kenza; Llamas, Mª Goretti; Prieto, Alicia; Rúas-Madiedo, Patricia; Dueñas, María Teresa; de Palencia, Pilar Fernández; Aznar, Rosa; Kihal, Mebrouk; López, Paloma

    2017-10-15

    Dextrans synthesised by three Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains, isolated from mammalian milks, were studied and compared with dextrans produced by Lc. mesenteroides and Lactobacillus sakei strains isolated from meat products. Size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering detection analysis demonstrated that the dextrans have molecular masses between 1.74×10 8 Da and 4.41×10 8 Da. Rheological analysis of aqueous solutions of the polymer revealed that all had a pseudoplastic behaviour under shear conditions and a random, and flexible, coil structure. The dextrans showed at shear zero a difference in viscosity, which increased as the concentration increased. Also, the purified dextrans were able to immunomodulate in vitro human macrophages, partially counteracting the inflammatory effect of Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide. During prolonged incubation on a solid medium containing sucrose, dextran-producing bacteria showed two distinct phenotypes not related to the genus or species to which they belonged. Colonies of Lc. mesenteroides CM9 from milk and Lb. sakei MN1 from meat formed stable and compact mucoid colonies, whereas the colonies of the other three Leuconostoc strains became diffuse after 72h. This differential behaviour was also observed in the ability of the corresponding strains to bind to Caco-2 cells. Strains forming compact mucoid colonies showed a high level of adhesion when grown in the presence of glucose, which decreased in the presence of sucrose (the condition required for dextran synthesis). However no influence of the carbon source was detected for the adhesion ability of the other Lc. mesenteroides strains, which showed variable levels of binding to the enterocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dextran: Influence of Molecular Weight in Antioxidant Properties and Immunomodulatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius C. Soeiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dextrans (α-d-glucans extracted from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, with molecular weights (MW of 10 (D10, 40 (D40 and 147 (D147 kDa, were evaluated as antioxidant, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory drugs for the first time. None presented anticoagulant activity. As for the antioxidant and immunomodulatory tests, a specific test showed an increase in the dextran activity that was proportional to the increase in molecular weight. In a different assay, however, activity decreased or showed no correlation to the MW. As an example, the reducing power assay showed that D147 was twice as potent as other dextrans. On the other hand, all three samples showed similar activity (50% when it came to scavenging the OH radical, whereas only the D10 sample showed sharp activity (50% when it came to scavenging the superoxide ion. D40 was the single dextran that presented with immunomodulatory features since it stimulated the proliferation (~50% of murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 and decreased the release of nitric oxide (~40% by the cells, both in the absence and presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS. In addition, D40 showed a greater scavenging activity (50% for the hydrogen peroxide, which caused it to also be the more potent dextran when it came to inhibiting lipid peroxidation (70%. These points toward dextrans with a 40 kDa weight as being ideal for antioxidant and immunomodulatory use. However, future studies with the D40 and other similarly 40 kDa dextrans are underway to confirm this hypothesis.

  10. Pulmonary permeability assessed by fluorescent-labeled dextran instilled intranasally into mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei Chen

    Full Text Available Several different methods have been used to assess pulmonary permeability in response to acute lung injury (ALI. However, these methods often involve complicated procedures and algorithms that are difficult to precisely control. The purpose of the current study is to establish a feasible method to evaluate alterations in lung permeability by instilling fluorescently labeled dextran (FITC-Dextran intranasally.For the mouse model of direct ALI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS was administered intranasally. FITC-Dextran was instilled intranasally one hour before the mice were euthanized. Plasma fluorescence intensities from the LPS group were significantly higher than in the control group. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of the procedure, we also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tight and adherens junction markers and pathological changes. Consistent results were observed when the LPS group was compared with the control group. Simultaneously, we found that the concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran was LPS dose-dependent. The concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran also increased with initial intranasal FITC-Dextran doses. Furthermore, increased fluorescence intensity of plasma FITC-Dextran was found in the intraperitoneally LPS-induced ALI model.In conclusion, the measurement of FITC-Dextran in plasma after intranasal instillation is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method to evaluate lung permeability alterations in vivo. The concentration of FITC-Dextran in the plasma may be useful as a potential peripheral biomarker of ALI in experimental clinical studies.

  11. N-Acetylcysteine plus Saline Hydration versus Saline Hydration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) in patients undergoing coronary angiography pretreated with N-acetylcysteine NAC plus saline hydration or saline hydration alone and to determine the association between various risk factors and RCIN. Methods: Patients were ...

  12. under salinity stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... (2002) reported that K and Zn deficiencies in the plant were mainly induced by soil salinity. Zhang et al. (2011) investigated the effects of applying different concentra- tions of the macronutrients K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the responses of contrasting rice (O. sativa L.) genotypes under salt stress. A solution ...

  13. The effect of a knee brace on gait parameters of hypertonic hemiplegic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Modisane

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the useof a knee brace on 15 subjects with hypertonic hemiparesis. The middlecerebral artery was involved in all subjects. The Ashworth scale was usedto screen for the presence of spasticity in the quadriceps muscles.Measurements of gait speed, step and stride length were taken in the middle 10 metres of a 15 metre paper walkway. A comparison of these gait parameters without and with the use of a knee brace was made. A ques-tionnaire was also used to evaluate how subjects responded to the use of aknee brace.The results showed that the mean speed for all 15 subjects increased withthe use of a brace, (p = 0.05. Step and stride length without and with the use of a brace showed no statistical differences.It was therefore concluded that the FECK brace appears to have an effect on the walking speed of subjects withhypertonic  hemiparesis

  14. Iron dextran treatment does not induce serum protein carbonyls in the newborn pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caperna, T J; Shannon, A E; Blomberg, L A; Garrett, W M; Ramsay, T G

    2012-01-01

    Oxidation of serum proteins can lead to carbonyl formation that alters their function and is often associated with stress-related diseases. As it is recommended that all pigs reared in modern production facilities be given supplemental iron at birth to prevent anemia, and metals can catalyze the carbonylation of proteins, the primary objective of this study was to determine whether standard iron dextran treatment was associated with enhanced serum protein oxidation in newborn piglets. Piglets were treated with 100 mg of iron dextran intramuscularly either on the day of birth, or on the third day after birth. Blood samples were collected from piglets 48 or 96 h after treatment and serum was harvested. For quantification, serum protein carbonyls were converted to hydrazones with dinitrophenyl hydrazine and analyzed spectrophotometrically. To identify and determine relative distribution of carbonylated proteins, serum protein carbonyls were derivatized with biotin hydrazide, separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, stained with avidin-fluorescein and identified by mass spectrometry. The standard iron dextran treatment was associated with no increase in total oxidized proteins if given either on the first or third day of life. In addition, with a few noted exceptions, the overall distribution and identification of oxidized proteins were similar between control and iron dextran-treated pigs. These results indicate that while iron dextran treatment is associated with a marked increase in circulating iron, it does not appear to specifically induce the oxidation of serum proteins.

  15. Metallization and biopatterning on ultra-flexible substrates via dextran sacrificial layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Pushkarsky, Ivan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-01-01

    Micro-patterning tools adopted from the semiconductor industry have mostly been optimized to pattern features onto rigid silicon and glass substrates, however, recently the need to pattern on soft substrates has been identified in simulating cellular environments or developing flexible biosensors. We present a simple method of introducing a variety of patterned materials and structures into ultra-flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layers (elastic moduli down to 3 kPa) utilizing water-soluble dextran sacrificial thin films. Dextran films provided a stable template for photolithography, metal deposition, particle adsorption, and protein stamping. These materials and structures (including dextran itself) were then readily transferrable to an elastomer surface following PDMS (10 to 70∶1 base to crosslinker ratios) curing over the patterned dextran layer and after sacrificial etch of the dextran in water. We demonstrate that this simple and straightforward approach can controllably manipulate surface wetting and protein adsorption characteristics of PDMS, covalently link protein patterns for stable cell patterning, generate composite structures of epoxy or particles for study of cell mechanical response, and stably integrate certain metals with use of vinyl molecular adhesives. This method is compatible over the complete moduli range of PDMS, and potentially generalizable over a host of additional micro- and nano-structures and materials.

  16. Metallization and biopatterning on ultra-flexible substrates via dextran sacrificial layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tseng

    Full Text Available Micro-patterning tools adopted from the semiconductor industry have mostly been optimized to pattern features onto rigid silicon and glass substrates, however, recently the need to pattern on soft substrates has been identified in simulating cellular environments or developing flexible biosensors. We present a simple method of introducing a variety of patterned materials and structures into ultra-flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS layers (elastic moduli down to 3 kPa utilizing water-soluble dextran sacrificial thin films. Dextran films provided a stable template for photolithography, metal deposition, particle adsorption, and protein stamping. These materials and structures (including dextran itself were then readily transferrable to an elastomer surface following PDMS (10 to 70∶1 base to crosslinker ratios curing over the patterned dextran layer and after sacrificial etch of the dextran in water. We demonstrate that this simple and straightforward approach can controllably manipulate surface wetting and protein adsorption characteristics of PDMS, covalently link protein patterns for stable cell patterning, generate composite structures of epoxy or particles for study of cell mechanical response, and stably integrate certain metals with use of vinyl molecular adhesives. This method is compatible over the complete moduli range of PDMS, and potentially generalizable over a host of additional micro- and nano-structures and materials.

  17. Dextran synthesized by Leuconostoc mesenteroides BD1710 in tomato juice supplemented with sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Hang, Feng; Guo, Benheng; Liu, Zhenmin; You, Chunpin; Wu, Zhengjun

    2014-11-04

    The characteristics of the growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides BD1710 and the synthesis of dextran in tomato juice supplemented with 15% sucrose were assayed. L. mesenteroides BD1710 could synthesize approximately 32 g L(-1) dextran in the tomato-juice-sucrose medium when cultured at 28 °C for 48 h, which was on the same level as the dextran yield in a chemically defined medium. The viscosity of the cultured tomato-juice-sucrose medium with various dextran contents was also measured. The results of the monosaccharide composition, molecular-weight distribution, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (NMR) showed that the polysaccharide synthesized by L. mesenteroides BD1710 in the tomato-juice-sucrose medium was dextran with a peak molecular weight of 6.35 × 10(5)Da, a linear backbone composed of consecutive α-(1 → 6)-linked d-glucopyranosyl units and approximately 6% α-(1 → 3) branches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation of hydroxypropyl cyclosophoraose/dextran microspheres for the controlled release of ciprofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Benel; Jeong, Da Ham; Joo, Sang Woo; Choi, Jae Min; Jung, Seung Ho; Cho, Eun Na [Center for Biotechnology Research in UBITA (CBRU), Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Yung [Dept. Biological Science, Mokpo National University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of); Park, Se Yeon [Dept. Applied Chemistry, Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Hydroxypropyl cyclosophoraose/dextran (HPCys/dextran) microspheres were prepared using an emulsion polymerization method for use as drug carriers to achieve the controlled release of a poorly water-soluble antibacterial drug, ciprofloxacin (CFX). Cyclosophoraoses are cyclic (1 → 2)-β-d-glucans isolated from the Rhizobium species. Characteristics of HPCys/dextran microspheres were investigated using Fourier transform infrared analysis, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The amount of CFX released from these microspheres at pH 7.4 (intestinal phase pH) was about two times higher than that released at pH 1.2 (gastric phase pH). Furthermore, HPCys/dextran microspheres did not show any toxicity in human embryonic kidney cells. We propose that HPCys/dextran microspheres could be used as an effective pH-dependent release system for poorly water-soluble drugs such as CFX.

  19. Production of dextran from sucrose by a newly isolated strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (PCSIR-3) with reference to L. mesenteroides NRRL B-512F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Qader, S A; Iqbal, L; Rizvi, H A; Zuberi, R

    2001-10-01

    A newly isolated strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (PCSIR-3) produced a different dextran compared with that of L. mesenteroides NRRL B-512F. Different media compositions used for dextran production showed that media containing CaCl(2) produced dextran in higher quantities compared with other media. The viscosity of the dextran produced in different media varied in nature. Dextran from media 1 and 2 was of higher molecular mass compared with that from media 3, 4 and 5. Dextran production is also effected by the sucrose concentration in the media. The higher the initial concentration of sucrose, the higher is the yield of dextran produced per unit volume; however, the percentage conversion of sucrose into dextran decreases. A continuous drop in pH was associated with growth and dextran production. The yield of dextran increases during the growth phase and maximum yield was obtained at the end of the exponential phase. Dextran produced by L. mesenteroides PCSIR-3 is quite different from the dextran produced by NRRL B-512F. Maximum dextran production from L. mesenteroides PCSIR-3 occurs in 18 h compared with 12 h for NRRL B-512F.

  20. Effect of dextran and dextran sulfate on the structural and rheological properties of model acid milk gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachekrepapol, U; Horne, D S; Lucey, J A

    2015-05-01

    Various types of polysaccharides are widely used in cultured dairy products. However, the interaction mechanisms, between milk proteins and these polysaccharides, are not entirely clear. To explore the interactions between uncharged and charged polysaccharides and the caseins, we used a model acid-milk-gel system, which allowed acidification to occur separately from gelation. The effect of adding uncharged dextran (DX; molecular weight ~2.0×10(6) Da) and negatively charged dextran sulfate (DS; molecular weight ~1.4×10(6) Da) to model acid milk gels was studied. Two concentrations (0.075 and 0.5%, wt/wt) of DX or DS were added to cold milk (~0°C) that had been acidified to pH values 4.4, 4.6, 4.8, or 4.9. Acidified milks containing DX or DS were then quiescently heated at the rate of 0.5°C/min to 30°C, which induced gelation, and gels were then held at 30°C for 17 h to facilitate gel development. Dynamic small-amplitude-oscillation rheology and large-deformation (shear) tests were performed. Microstructure of gels was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Gels made with a high concentration of DX gelled at a lower temperature, but after 17 h at 30°C, these gels exhibited lower storage moduli and lower yield-stress values. At pH 4.8 or 4.9 (pH values greater than the isoelectric point of caseins), addition of 0.5% DS to acidified milk resulted in lower gelation temperature. At pH 4.4 (pH values less than the isoelectric point of caseins), addition of 0.5% DS to acidified milk resulted in gels with very high stiffness values. Gels made at pH 4.8 or 4.9 with both concentrations of DS had much lower stiffness and yield-stress values than control gels. Microstructural analysis indicated that gels made at pH 4.4 with the addition of 0.5% DX exhibited large protein strands and pores, whereas gels made with 0.075% DX or the control gels had a finer protein matrix. At higher pH values (>4.4), gels made with 0.5% DX had a finer structure. At all pH values, gels made

  1. THE UPTAKE OF IRON IN RABBIT SYNOVIAL TISSUE FOLLOWING INTRA-ARTICULAR INJECTION OF IRON DEXTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, J.; Chapman, J. A.; Muirden, K. D.

    1964-01-01

    Iron dextran (molecular weight 7,000) diffuses rapidly from the joint cavity through the synovium, along lymphatics and extracellular tissue spaces; articular cartilage is impermeable to iron dextran. There is also rapid cellular uptake by synovial lining cells, particularly of the vacuolar type; endoplasmic reticulum-containing lining cells rarely take up iron dextran. Cellular uptake is probably effected by pseudopodial folds projecting from the cell surface and enclosing extracellular material. Cells containing iron may degenerate and be ingested by phagocytes, and this may account for the concentration of iron in a smaller proportion of cells on or below the synovial surface in the later stages. At 6 to 18 hours after injection there is a mild inflammatory reaction and some synovial proliferation; from this stage onwards intracellular iron occurs in the form of haemosiderin. Granules of haemosiderin are present in the synovium 3 months after injection and possibly longer. PMID:14203385

  2. The control of saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, T.

    1963-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of the watertable, water-conducting properties of the soil, climatic factors and groundwater salinity on the salinization of soils in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Areas, Australia.

    Average daily capillary flow rates were calculated from measured salinization (by

  3. Morphological alterations of exogenous surfactant inhibited by meconium can be prevented by dextran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stichtenoth Guido

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant dysfunction due to inhibition is involved in the pathophysiology of meconium aspiration syndrome. Dextran addition has been shown to reverse exogenous surfactant inactivation by meconium, but the precise mechanisms and the morphological correlate of this effect are yet unknown. Morphological surfactant analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and stereology allows the differentiation of active (large aggregates = LA and inactive (small aggregates = SA subtypes. Methods To determine the in vitro effects of meconium and dextran addition on the morphology of a modified porcine natural surfactant (Curosurf, Curosurf samples were either incubated alone or together with meconium or with meconium and dextran, fixed and processed for TEM. Volume fractions of surfactant subtypes [lamellar body-like forms (LBL, multilamellar vesicles (MV, unilamellar vesicles (UV] were determined stereologically. Results All preparations contained LBL and MV (corresponding to LA as well as UV (corresponding to SA. The volume fraction of UV increased with addition of meconium and decreased with further addition of dextran. Correspondingly, the UV/(LBL+MV ratio (resembling the SA/LA ratio increased when meconium was added and decreased when dextran was added to the surfactant-meconium mixture. Conclusion Meconium causes alterations in the ultrastructural composition of Curosurf that can be visualized and analyzed by TEM and stereology. These alterations resemble an increase in the SA/LA ratio and are paralleled by an increase in minimum surface tension. Dextran prevents these effects and may therefore be a useful additive to exogenous surfactant preparations to preserve their structural and functional integrity, thereby improving their resistance to inactivation.

  4. Effect of microstructure on population growth parameters of Escherichia coli in gelatin-dextran systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Kathleen; Noriega, Estefanía; Van den Broeck, Rob; David, Charlotte C; Hofkens, Johan; Van Impe, Jan F

    2014-09-01

    Current literature acknowledges the effect of food structure on bacterial dynamics. Most studies introduce this "structure" factor using a single gelling agent, resulting in a homogeneous environment, whereas in practice most food products are heterogeneous. Therefore, this study focuses on heterogeneous protein-polysaccharide mixtures, based on gelatin and dextran. These mixtures show phase separation, leading to a range of heterogeneous microstructures by adjusting relative concentrations of both gelling agents. Based on confocal microscope observations, the growth of Escherichia coli in gelatin-dextran systems was observed to occur in the dextran phase. To find a relation between microscopic and population behavior, growth experiments were performed in binary and singular gelatin-dextran systems and culture broth at 23.5°C, with or without adding 2.9% (wt/vol) NaCl. The Baranyi and Roberts growth model was fitted to the experimental data and parameter estimates were statistically compared. For salted binary mixtures, a decrease in the population maximum cell density was observed with increasing gelatin concentration. In this series, for one type of microstructure, i.e., a gelatin matrix phase with a disperse dextran phase, the maximum cell density decreased with decreasing percentage of dextran phase. However, this relation no longer held when other types of microstructure were observed. Compared to singular systems, adding a second gelling agent in the presence of NaCl had an effect on population lag phases and maximum cell densities. For unsalted media, the growth parameters of singular and binary mixtures were comparable. Introducing this information into mathematical models leads to more reliable growth predictions and enhanced food safety. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Effect of peritoneal cavity lavage with 0.9% and 3.0% saline solution in the lung and spleen of gerbils with induced peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Vinícius Rodrigues Taranto; Barbuto, Rafael Calvão; Vidigal, Paula Vieira Teixeira; Pena, Guilherme Nogueira; Rocha, Silvia Lunardi; de Siqueira, Lucas Tourinho; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; de Araujo, Ivana Duval

    2014-04-01

    Peritoneal cavity lavage is used widely in the treatment of peritonitis. Nonetheless, some studies question its rationale and prove it to be deleterious to the mesothelium. The present study aims to determine whether 0.9% and 3.0% saline lavage of the peritoneal cavity have an effect on the early systemic inflammatory response, namely, in the lung injury and splenic cellularity of gerbils with induced peritonitis. Thirty-four male gerbils were divided into four groups: Control (n=9), submitted to laparotomy at time zero, re-laparotomy after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start; untreated (n=8), submitted to peritonitis induction through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for drying of abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrifice after a total of 6 h from start; saline (n=8), submitted to peritonitis induction through CLP at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for warm 0.9% saline lavage of the abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start; and hypertonic (n=9), submitted to peritonitis induction through CLP at time zero, re-laparotomy intended for warm hypertonic saline (3.0%) lavage of the abdominal cavity and resection of the ischemic cecum after 2 h, and sacrificed after a total of 6 h from start. After sacrifice, we collected the left lung and the spleen for morphometric analysis. In the both the saline and hypertonic groups, there was significant decrease in the mean nuclei count in the lungs, compared with the untreated group (p0.05). The present study demonstrated that the peritoneal lavage with large volumes of warm 0.9% and 3.0% saline has a beneficial effect on the early systemic inflammatory response in infected animals, modulating and reducing the lung injury but having no effect on splenic cell count.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Graft Copolymer of Dextran and 2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane Sulphonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkanna Azmeera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel biodegradable graft copolymer of dextran (Dx and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS was synthesized by grafting poly-AMPS chains onto dextran backbone by free radical polymerization using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN as an initiator. Different amounts of AMPS were used to synthesize four different grades of graft copolymers with different side chain lengths. These grafted polymers were characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1HNMR, rheological technique, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. They exhibited efficient flocculation performance in kaolin suspension.

  7. THE DETERMINATION OF SERUM IRON AFTER THE INTRAVENOUS INJECTION OF IRON-DEXTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D.

    1960-01-01

    A rapid technique for the determination of iron in serum, after the intravenous injection of iron-dextran, is presented. Dithionite is used for the reduction of ferric to ferrous iron. The use of a detergent solution enables protein precipitation to be omitted. The iron reagent, 4: 7-diphenyl-1: 10-phenanthroline, and its ferrous complex are both soluble in the dilute detergent solution. Lipaemic serum can be used without affecting the results. The recovery of added ferric iron, as iron-dextran, is quantitative. PMID:13843331

  8. Camomile autofermentation in polyethylene glycol/dextran two-phase system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković Sanja D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the investigation of the extractive bioconversion of apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside in camomile ligulate flowers into apigenin by autofermentation in polyethylene glycol 6000/dextran 200000 two-phase system. In 22.5% polyethylene glycol/14% dextran aqueous two-phase system the obtained yield of apigenin in the top phase was 96.5%. In the presence of plant material that partiotioned to the interphase, the yield of apigenin in the top phase was 3.5 times higher in comparison to the model system.

  9. An efficiently sustainable dextran-based flocculant: Synthesis, characterization and flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruo-Han; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Hu, Xue-Qin; Gan, Wei-Wei; Li, Qiu-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Polysaccharide-modified flocculant is a notable material in the field of wastewater treatment. Synthesis of biopolysaccharide derivatives as eco-friendly flocculants is remarkably desired for environmental protection. This work presents an efficient flocculant synthesized through copolymerization of acrylamide, sodium acrylate (AS), and dextran. Physicochemical properties of the flocculant were evaluated. Process parameters of coal-washing wastewater flocculation were tested using Response Surface Method. The application of graft polymers exhibited efficient flocculation performance at low level of flocculant dosage in alkalescent environment. The improved dextran contributes to handle industrial effluent and sanitary sewage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of dextran of 250.000 molecular weight on experimental cholesterin-sclerosis in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, S; Arpád, H; Gábor, L

    1976-07-01

    Effect of dextran of 250000 molecular weight on experimental cholesterin-sclerosis of rabbits was studied. Doses of 120 (mg/week) kg and 1200 (mg/week) kg administered during 12 weeks have resulted a protective effect. When doses of 1200 (mg/week) kg have been administered--in the aortic adventitia intensive cellular reaction, no hitherto described was revealed, which was considered to be a sing of the exhaustion of RES. This publication authors regard as a preliminary one. To clear whether the cellular reaction observed is a dextran-specific or macro-moleculespecific one further investigations are needed.

  11. Protein quantification in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran using the Bradford method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Helder; Slater, Nigel K H; Marcos, João C

    2009-12-01

    Some experimental methodologies require the quantification of protein in the presence of polymers like poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and dextran (DEX). In the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) extraction of biomolecules, the interference of these phase-forming polymers on the Bradford quantification assay is commonly recognized. However, how these polymers interfere has not been reported hitherto. In this study we show that while dextran concentrations of 20% (w/w) can be used without error, loss of accuracy occurs for solutions with PEG concentrations >10% (w/w). Above this value a substantial decrease on the assay sensitivity is observed.

  12. Novel dextran derivatives with unconventional structure formed in an efficient one-pot reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotzel, Konrad; Heinze, Thomas

    2016-11-03

    An efficient one-pot synthesis of new dextran derivatives is described. The functional groups of β-alanine, i.e., the carboxyl- and amine group, are converted independently in one-step by iminium chloride to form products with a single substituent. The dextran N-[(dimethylamino)methylene]-β-alanine ester is formed selectively. The structure of the resulting polymers is unambiguously determined by means of NMR- and FTIR-spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pterins as sensors of response to the application of Fe3+ -dextran in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutna, Miriam; Svoboda, Martin; Breinekova, Klara

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to assess the effect of a single administration of Fe(3+)-dextran on immune cell counts and pterin biomolecule production as novel sensors of the piglets' immune system activation, and to determine concentrations of cortisol, a traditional hormonal biosensor of the stress response. Pterins (neopterin and biopterin) in the piglets' blood serum were analyzed by separation using reversed-phase HPLC. A single dose of Fe(3+)-dextran produced a special stress situation in the piglets' organism which manifested itself by an increased production of neopterin (p livestock animals.

  14. Efficient fabrication of high-capacity immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media: The role of the dextran-grafting process and its manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lan; Zhang, Jingfei; Huang, Yongdong; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Rongyue; Zhu, Kai; Suo, Jia; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Zhigang; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-03-01

    Novel high-capacity Ni(2+) immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media were prepared through the dextran-grafting process. Dextran was grafted to an allyl-activated agarose-based matrix followed by functionalization for the immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic media. With elaborate regulation of the allylation degree, dextran was completely or partly grafted to agarose microspheres, namely, completely dextran-grafted agarose microspheres and partly dextran-grafted ones, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscope results demonstrated that a good adjustment of dextran-grafting degree was achieved, and dextran was distributed uniformly in whole completely dextran-grafted microspheres, while just distributed around the outside of the partly dextran-grafted ones. Flow hydrodynamic properties were improved greatly after the dextran-grafting process, and the flow velocity increased by about 30% compared with that of a commercial chromatographic medium (Ni Sepharose FF). A significant improvement of protein binding performance was also achieved by the dextran-grafting process, and partly dextran-grafted Ni(2+) chelating medium had a maximum binding capacity for His-tagged lactate dehydrogenase about 2.5 times higher than that of Ni Sepharose FF. The results indicated that this novel chromatographic medium is promising for applications in high-efficiency and large-scale protein purification. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The influence of bumetanide on the membrane potential of mouse skeletal muscle cells in isotonic and hypertonic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mil, H G J; Geukes Foppen, R J; Siegenbeek van Heukelom, J

    1996-01-01

    Increasing the medium osmolality, with a non-ionic osmoticant, from control (289 mOsm) to 319 mOsm or 344 mOsm in the lumbrical muscle cell of the mouse, resulted in a depolarization of the membrane potential (Vm) of 5.9 mV and 10.9 mV, respectively.In control medium, the blockers of chloride related cotransport bumetanide and furosemide, induced a hyperpolarization of −3.6 and −3.0 mV and prevented the depolarization due to hypertonicity. When bumetanide was added in hypertonic media Vm fully repolarized to control values.In a medium of 266 mOsm, the hyperpolarization by bumetanide was absent.At 344 mOsm the half-maximal effective concentration (IC50) was 0.5 μM for bumetanide and 21 μM for furosemide.In solutions containing 1.25 mM sodium the depolarization by hypertonicity was reduced to 2.3 mV.Reducing chloride permeability, by anthracene 9 carboxylic acid (9-AC) in 289 mOsm, induced a small but significant hyperpolarization of −2.6 mV. Increasing medium osmolality to 344 mOsm enlarged this hyperpolarization significantly to −7.6 mV.In a solution of 344 mOsm containing 100 μM ouabain, the bumetanide-induced hyperpolarization of Vm was absent.The results indicate that a Na-K-2Cl cotransporter is present in mouse lumbrical muscle fibre and that its contribution to Vm is dependent on medium osmolality. PMID:9117096

  16. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased transfer of iron to the fetus after total dose infusion of iron dextran during pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bingham, D; Khalaf, M.M.; Walters, G; Whicher, J T

    1983-01-01

    After total dose infusion of iron dextran to 14 pregnant women the saturation of transferrin and the concentration of ferritin were increased in the cord blood at birth, compared with untreated cases. These changes suggest that the fetal iron stores may be increased by such treatment.

  18. Amphiphilic starlike dextran wrapped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle clsuters as effective magnetic resonance imaging probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongying; Liu, Yanhong; Wang, Dan; Wu, Changqiang; Xia, Chunchao; Gong, Qiyong; Song, Bin; Ai, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Starlike polymers have been widely used in various fields, such as tissue engineering, imaging, gene and drug delivery because of their unique structures and properties. Dextran has long been used as a temporary plasma substitute because of its excellent biocompatibility. In this study, starlike polysaccharide with multiple dextran arms was designed and developed by attaching dextran to a β-cyclodextrin core through click chemistry. Next, starlike dextran was modified with aliphatic chains and these amphiphilic polymers can self-assemble into nanoscale micelles in water, and their critical micelle concentration values (3.7 × 10(-8) M) are much lower comparing to its linear analogs (1.7 × 10(-7) M), resulting in more stable nanostructures in aqueous environment. These micelles can encapsulate multiple superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and forming clustering particle nanostructures in water, and the resulting nanocomposites have a high T(2) relaxivity of 436.8 Fe mm(-1) s(-1) under a 1.5T clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. Further, dual functional probes were developed by loading both superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and small molecule anticancer drug doxorubicin into polymeric micelles. Multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells MCF-7/Adr treated with these probes can be characterized under MRI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Treatment of iron deficiency by a bolus intravenous iron dextran in peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, Maxence; Cuny, Pascale; Lecouf, Angélique; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine whether a single dose of iron dextran can correct iron deficiency during a period of four months in peritoneal dialysis patients. This was a prospective observational study in peritoneal dialysis patients who had anemia (hemoglobiniron deficiency (ferritiniron or who could not tolerate oral iron were included in the study. At baseline, based on the iron deficiency estimation, a single dose of iron dextran was infused over four hours. Of 17 patients included, 12 completed the study. The mean iron dose infused was 742±150mg. No clinically significant adverse event was reported during the infusion. Four months after the iron dextran infusion there was a significant increase of the mean hemoglobin level (10.1±0.7g/dl vs 11.4±1.2g/dL, Piron infusion 10 patients had a blood ferritin level higher than 100μg/L and a transferrin saturation higher than 20%. There was no significant modification of the erythropoietin dose during the four months period. In patients treated by peritoneal dialysis, the anemia due to iron deficiency can be treated by a single infusion of iron dextran for a period of four months. Copyright © 2011 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetics of dextran crosslinking by epichlorohydrin: a rheometry and equilibrium swelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami Meybodi, Zahraalsadat; Imani, Mohammad; Atai, Mohammad

    2013-02-15

    Curing behavior and gel properties of dextran are investigated during its crosslinking by epichlorohydrin (ECH) using rheometry and equilibrium swelling studies. Each ECH/anhydroglucose unit of different molar ratio (0.16-0.99) was added to a known volume of aqueous dextran solution (25%, w/w) in the presence of sodium hydroxide (1.2-3.6 M) as a catalyst. Gel point was investigated as a function of the reactants concentration. The rheological behavior of the curing gels was evaluated using a rheokinetic model. Swelling behavior of the cured, cylindrical specimens was also studied gravimetrically. Increasing NaOH and ECH concentrations significantly increased the crosslinking reaction rate leading to shorter gel points, which was attributed to more ionization of hydroxyl functional groups of dextran due to higher NaOH concentrations. Degree of swelling vs. the reaction time was decreased sharply as a direct function of increasing NaOH and ECH concentrations up to certain levels, which then leveled off. In contrast, higher NaOH concentrations increased the swelling ratio probably due to the alkaline induced degradation of dextran chains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chitosan-dextran sulfate hydrogels as a potential carrier for probiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yucel Falco, Cigdem; Falkman, Peter; Risbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Physical and chemical (crosslinked with genipin) hydrogels based on chitosan and dextran sulfate were developed and characterized as novel bio-materials suitable for probiotic encapsulation. The swelling of the hydrogels was dependent on the composition and weakly influenced by the pH of the media...

  2. Leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Shalviri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To inform healthcare professionals of a rare serious reaction leading to leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran and report comments for preventing such reactions.A case of leg amputation following intramuscular injection of iron dextran reported to Iranian Pharmacovigilance Center was reviewed. Patient and reaction data was collected by assessing the reported yellow card, patient chart review and interviewing with patient and physicians. World Health Organization definition for serious reactions was used to determine the seriousness of the reaction. Naranjo algorithm was used to determine probability scale. The probability of the reaction was determined based on questionnaire of Schumock et al. The studied case is classified as a rare and serious but preventable reaction induced by intramuscular injection of iron dextran in a 32 year old woman. The probability of the reaction is appeared to be “probable” based on Naranjo algorithm. It seems that Iron dextran could cause serious and life threatening adverse effects. It is necessary for healthcare professionals to be informed of such rare but serious reaction in order to apply preventive actions.

  3. Iron dextran in the treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deficiency anaemia were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group A received the usual recommended dose of iron dextran (Imferon; Fisons) and group 8 received two-thirds of the recommended dose. A further 30 patients received oral iron ...

  4. Phase separation of aqueous mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) and dextran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, M.W.; Linden, van der E.; Tromp, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: The phase behavior of aqueous mixtures of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and dextran is studied as a function of the polymer concentration, the PEO molar mass, and temperature. The molar mass distributions of the two polymers in the coexisting phases are measured. From the temperature

  5. Multistaged Nanovaccines Based on Porous Silicon@Acetalated Dextran@Cancer Cell Membrane for Cancer Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontana, Flavia; Shahbazi, Mohammad Ali; Liu, Dongfei

    2017-01-01

    A novel porous silicon (Psi)-based nanovaccines for cancer immunotherapy was developed by nanoprecipitation in glass capillary microfluidics. One of these systems, thermally oxidized Psi (TOPSi)@AcDEX (Acetalated dextran), was then encapsulated with vesicles derived from cancer cells, in order...

  6. The molecular mass of dextran used to modify magnetite nanoparticles affects insulin amyloid aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sipošová, K.; Pospíšková, K.; Bednáriková, Z.; Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava; Kubovčíková, M.; Kopčanský, P.; Gázová, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 427, April (2017), s. 48-53 ISSN 0304-8853 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : amyloid aggregation * nanoparticles * magnetic fluid * dextran * insulin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 2.630, year: 2016

  7. Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1149 as probiotic and its dextran with anticancer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RISHIKESH SHUKLA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-1149 was evaluated for its probiotic properties. It displayed in vitro cell surface traits in terms of hydrophobicity, autoaggregation property and cell adhesive capacity on HeLa, murine macrophage and HT29 cell lines, which revealed its capability to adhere and colonize the intestine. The tolerance to various biological barriers such as lysozyme (100 μg/ml, gastric juice (pH 3.0 and bile salts (0.5%, w/v with 92%, 61.6% and 219% growth, respectively, confirmed its ability to survive in extreme conditions of digestive tract. It showed bile salts hydrolase activity signifying its ability to deconjugate bile salts. The whole cells of Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-1149 showed β-galactosidase activity with 94 Miller units displaying its importance in lactose utilization. The effect of dextran from Leuconostoc mesenteroides B-1149 having α-(1,6 linear glycosidic linkages and α-(1,3 branching was evaluated against cervical cancer (HeLa and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines. The dextran from L. mesenteroides B-1149 (100 μg/ml showed 25% inhibition of HeLa cell lines and 1000 μg/ml dextran displayed 40% inhibition of HT29 cell lines. The effect of dextran on murine monocyte-macrophage line (J774A.1 showed increase in growth of macrophages confirming its biocompatible nature.

  8. Tuning complement activation and pathway through controlled molecular architecture of dextran chains in nanoparticle corona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, Jean-Baptiste; Eleamen Oliveira, Elquio; Vauthier, Christine

    2017-11-05

    The understanding of complement activation by nanomaterials is a key to a rational design of safe and efficient nanomedicines. This work proposed a systematic study investigating how molecular design of nanoparticle coronas made of dextran impacts on mechanisms that trigger complement activation. The nanoparticles used for this work consisted of dextran-coated poly(isobutylcyanoacrylate) (PIBCA) nanoparticles have already been thoroughly characterized. Their different capacity to trigger complement activation established on the cleavage of the protein C3 was also already described making these nanoparticles good models to investigate the relation between the molecular feature of their corona and the mechanism by which they triggered complement activation. Results of this new study show that complement activation pathways can be selected by distinct architectures formed by dextran chains composing the nanoparticle corona. Assumptions that explain the relation between complement activation mechanisms triggered by the nanoparticles and the nanoparticle corona molecular feature were proposed. These results are of interest to better understand how the design of dextran-coated nanomaterials will impact interactions with the complement system. It can open perspectives with regard to the selection of a preferential complement activation pathway or prevent the nanoparticles to activate the complement system, based on a rational choice of the corona configuration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pterins as Sensors of Response to the Application of Fe3+-Dextran in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klara Breinekova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to assess the effect of a single administration of Fe3+-dextran on immune cell counts and pterin biomolecule production as novel sensors of the piglets' immune system activation, and to determine concentrations of cortisol, a traditional hormonal biosensor of the stress response. Pterins (neopterin and biopterin in the piglets' blood serum were analyzed by separation using reversed-phase HPLC. A single dose of Fe3+-dextran produced a special stress situation in the piglets' organism which manifested itself by an increased production of neopterin (p < 0.05 and biopterin (p < 0.01 in the experimental piglets. Changes in cortisol concentrations and leukocyte counts were influenced by handling stress and were not specifically correlated to iron dextran application. Iron concentrations in the internal environment of the experimental piglets’ group were higher by an order of magnitude compared with the controls, and the highest serum concentrations of iron (p < 0.01 were reached 24 h following Fe3+-dextran administration. The data presented offer a new perspective on the evaluation of stress situations in the animal organism and, not least importantly, extends the rather modest current list of references on the role of pterins in livestock animals.

  10. One pot light assisted green synthesis, storage and antimicrobial activity of dextran stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Muhammad Ajaz; Shah, Abdullah; Jantan, Ibrahim; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ahmed, Riaz; Bukhari, Syed Nasir Abbas

    2014-12-03

    Green synthesis of nanomaterials finds the edge over chemical methods due to its environmental compatibility. Herein, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) mediated with dextran. Dextran was used as a stabilizer and capping agent to synthesize Ag NPs using silver nitrate (AgNO3) under diffused sunlight conditions. UV-vis spectra of as synthesized Ag nanoparticles showed characteristic surface plasmon band in the range from ~405-452 nm. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies showed spherical Ag NPs in the size regime of ~50-70 nm. Face centered cubic lattice of Ag NPs was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed that dextran not only acts as reducing agent but also functionalizes the surfaces of Ag NPs to make very stable dispersions. Moreover, on drying, the solution of dextran stabilized Ag NPs resulted in the formation of thin films which were found stable over months with no change in the plasmon band of pristine Ag NPs. The antimicrobial assay of the as synthesized Ag NPs showed remarkable activity. Being significantly active against microbes, the Ag NPs can be explored for antimicrobial medical devices.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Schiff base contained dextran microgels in water-in-oil inverse microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongying; Jia, Qingming; Shan, Shaoyun

    2016-11-05

    Polysaccharide-based microgels with high water content, excellent biocompatibility and controllable particle size have been widely studied as ideal candidates for drug release and delivery. In this study, microgels based on dextran were developed via the Schiff base formation between aldehyded dextran and ethylenediamine in a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion. Particle size of the resulted microgel was controllable between 800 and 1100nm by modulating the amount of the employed co-surfactants (Span 80/Tween 80). Furthermore, fluoresceins (e.g., aminofluorescein) and drugs (e.g., doxorubicin) with free amino groups can be conjugated onto the network of the dextran-based microgel via Schiff base linkages. Since the Schiff base linkages are degradable via hydrolysis and their stability decreases with the environmental pH decreases, the resulted Schiff bases contained microgel showed a pH dependent degradation profile. These results indicated that the pH-sensitive microgel based on dextran could be used as promising drug delivery systems for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase separation induced fractionation in molar mass in aqueous mixtures of gelatin and dextran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, M.W.; Tromp, R.H.; Weenen, H.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the effects of phase separation of aqueous mixtures of gelatin and dextran on the fractionation in molar mass of these two components is given. Molar mass distributions in coexisting phases were investigated using size exclusion chromatography with multiangle laser light scattering.

  13. Immunochemical analysis of the idiotypes of mouse myeloma proteins with specificity for levan or dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, M; Raschke, W C; Carson, D; Cohn, M

    1974-01-01

    This paper deals solely with idiotypic determinants, the configurations of which are modified when the antibody bearing them interacts with its ligand. This phenomenon is measured as an inhibition of the reaction between anti-idiotype and idiotype. Two points are made: (a) The assay for ligand-modifiable determinants can be used to determine the "size" of the combining site. This is illustrated here with the anti-alpha(1 --> 6) dextran mouse myeloma immunoglobulin W3129. Whether the interaction between a homologous series of alpha(1 --> 6) oligosaccharide ligands and the combining site of W3129 is measured by inhibition of precipitation with alpha(1 --> 6) dextran (4) or of binding of W3129 to anti-W3129 idiotype, the finding is the same. The order of inhibition is isomaltohexaose = isomaltopentaose > isomaltotetraose > isomaltotriose > isomaltose. The combining site is optimally complementary to isomaltopentaose. (b) Cross-idiotypic specificity is closely correlated with cross-combining specificity; the converse is not true. This is illustrated here with three groups of mouse myeloma immunoglobulin, each specific for alpha(1 --> 3) dextran, alpha(1 -->6) dextran, beta(2 --> 1) or beta(2 --> 6) levan. If a given anti-idiotypic serum cross-reacted with several myeloma proteins, they always had similar combining specificity. Thus the three proteins, J558, MOPC 104E, and UPC 102, which cross-react with anti-J558 have combining specificity for alpha(1 --> 3) dextran; cross-reacting W3082, UPC 61, and Y5476 have specificity for levan; and cross-reacting W3129 and W3434 have specificity for alpha(1 --> 6) dextran. This extends previous studies with proteins specific for phosphorylcholine (7) or gamma-globulin (8). As expected, the converse is not true, for proteins may have combining specificity for alpha(1 --> 6) dextran e.g. QUPC 52, or levan e.g. J606, UPC 10 and yet not carry the above-mentioned reference idiotypes. The correlation between cross-idiotypic and

  14. Dextran-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) polymersome for oral delivery of insulin: In vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Alabdollah, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hadizadeh, Farzin

    2016-04-10

    Insulin is the first line therapy in type 1 diabetes and usually patients suffer from three or more daily insulin injections. It is obvious that patient compliance can be improved greatly if insulin could be formulated in an oral dosage form. In the current study, polymersomes based on amphiphilic copolymers of dextran (DEX)5000-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)13,000 and DEX25000-PLGA48000 were synthesized and used for the encapsulation of insulin. The polymersomes were prepared using a modified direct hydration method by blending an aqueous solution of insulin with DEX-PLGA copolymers at room temperature. The in vitro insulin release through the nanopolymersomal system was studied in HCl 0.1N (pH1.2) and phosphate buffered saline (pH7.4). The results demonstrated that the average insulin encapsulation efficiency was >90%. The in vitro release experiment demonstrated that while insulin release in the simulated gastric condition was negligible, a significant amount of insulin was released in the simulated intestinal condition. According to the results of a circular dichroism test, secondary and tertiary structures of the released insulin were identical to that of standard insulin. Permeability studies across MDCK cells showed that permeability levels after 240 min were 16.89 ± 0.39% with DEX5000-PLGA13000 and 9.34 ± 0.79% with DEX25000-PLGA48000, indicating a noticeable increase compared with free insulin. Significant hypoglycemic effects in the in vivo diabetic rat model revealed the efficacy of the DEX-PLGA-based polymersomes as oral insulin carriers. Thus, insulin-loaded, self-assembled DEX-PLGA polymersomes showed promising in vitro and in vivo efficiency and can be considered as a potential oral insulin carrier system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Pharmaco-physiologic correlations of iron-dextran complexes in laboratory animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilov, P

    1986-01-01

    Investigated were the Bulgarian preparation dextrofer-100 (Pharmachim) and miofer-100 (Farbwerke, Hoechst, West Germany)--iron-dextran preparations with 100 mg Fe3+/cm3 each. Use was made of 62 domestic cats, 8 guinea pigs, and 18 albino rats. tI was found that the venous introduction of iron-dextran complexes into uretane-treated cats at rates of 100 to 500 mg Fe3+/kg body mass lowered the blood pressure by 10 to 65 per cent; the depressive effect was more strongly manifested with the use of miofer-100. At 100 mg Fe3+/kg and higher doses led to alfa-adrenolytic manifestations (an inverse effect of noradrenaline), and did not change the action of acetyl-choline, histamine, and serotonin. At venous injection the iron-dextran complexes diminished the amplitudes of the heart contractions (with cats in situ). With regard to the nervous-and-muscle condition these preparations were found to manifest an action that resembled that of curare (the effect produced by miofer was stronger). Dextrofer-100 in a five-fold application to guinea pigs at the rate of 0.2 cm3+ (= 20 mg Fe3+) blocked the sensibilizing action of horse serum--it gave protection from an aphylactic shock in about 70 per cent of the animals. In muscular application to albino rats with experimentally induced dextran edema this preparation manifested an antiedema action. The iron-dextran complexes lowered the contraction capacity of ileum sections (taken from guinea pigs) that was manifested under the action of serotonin and histamine.

  16. Functional analysis of truncated and site-directed mutagenesis dextransucrases to produce different type dextrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Li, Meng-Qi; Hu, Xue-Qin; Li, Yao

    2017-07-01

    Dextrans with distinct molecular size and structure are increasingly being used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Dextran is produced by dextransucrase (DSR, EC2.4.5.1), which is produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides. DSR belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family (GH70) and synthesizes branched α-glucan (dextran) with both 5% α(1-3) and 95% α(1-6) glycosidic linkages. The DSR gene dex-YG (Genebank, Accession No. DQ345760) was cloned from the wild strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides 0326. This study generated a series of C-terminally truncated variants of dextransucrase and substituting the amino-acid residues in the active site of DSR. With shorter length of DSR, its polysaccharide-synthesizing capability was impaired heavily, whereas oligosaccharide (acting as prebiotics)-synthesizing capability increased significantly, efficiently producing special sizes of dextran. All truncated mutant enzymes were active. Results demonstrated that the catalytic domain dextransucrase was likely in 800 aa or less. Based on the three-dimensional structure model of dextransucrase built through homology modeling methods, the DSR and its mutants with the acceptor substrate of maltose and donor substrate of sucrose were studied by molecular-docking method. Substituting these amino-acid residues significantly affected enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type dextran, mutant enzymes catalyzed the synthesis of a-glucan with 1-9% α(1-3) and 90-98% α(1-6) branching linkages. Some mutants introduced a small amount of α(1-4) linkages and α(1-2) linkages. This strategy can be effectively used for the rational protein design of dextransucrase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High impact of in situ dextran coating on biocompatibility, stability and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaterabadi, Zhila; Nabiyouni, Gholamreza; Soleymani, Meysam

    2017-06-01

    Biocompatible ferrofluids based on dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles were fabricated by conventional co-precipitation method. The experimental results show that the presence of dextran in reaction medium not only causes to the appearance of superparamagnetic behavior but also results in significant suppression in saturation magnetization of dextran coated samples. These results can be attributed to size reduction originated from the role of dextran as a surfactant. Moreover, weight ratio of dextran to magnetic nanoparticles has a remarkable influence on size and magnetic properties of nanoparticles, so that the sample prepared with a higher weight ratio of dextran to nanoparticles has the smaller size and saturation magnetization compare with the other samples. In addition, the ferrofluids containing such nanoparticles have an excellent stability at physiological pH for several months. Furthermore, the biocompatibility studies reveal that surface modification of nanoparticles by dextran dramatically decreases the cytotoxicity of bare nanoparticles and consequently improves their potential application for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Derivatization of Dextran for Multiply Charged Ion Formation and Electrospray Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Jesus B.; Hibbard, Hailey A. J.; Reynolds, Melissa M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the use of a simple, one-pot derivatization to allow the polysaccharide dextran to carry multiple positive charges, shifting its molecular weight distribution to a lower m/ z range. We performed this derivatization because molecular weight measurements of polysaccharides by mass spectrometry are challenging because of their lack of readily ionizable groups. The absence of ionizable groups limits proton abstraction and suppresses proton adduction during the ionization process, producing mass spectra with predominantly singly charged metal adduct ions, thereby limiting the detection of large polysaccharides. To address this challenge, we derivatized dextran T1 (approximately 1 kDa) by attaching ethylenediamine, giving dextran readily ionizable, terminal amine functional groups. The attached ethylenediamine groups facilitated proton adduction during the ionization process in positive ion mode. Using the low molecular weight dextran T1, we tracked the number of ethylenediamine attachments by measuring the mass shift from underivatized to derivatized dextran T1. Using electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we observed derivatized dextran chains ranging from two to nine glucose residues with between one and four attachments/charges. Our success in shifting derivatized dextran T1 toward the low m/ z range suggests potential for this derivatization as a viable route for analysis of high molecular weight polysaccharides using electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Salinity tolerance in halophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Timothy J; Colmer, Timothy D

    2008-01-01

    Halophytes, plants that survive to reproduce in environments where the salt concentration is around 200 mm NaCl or more, constitute about 1% of the world's flora. Some halophytes show optimal growth in saline conditions; others grow optimally in the absence of salt. However, the tolerance of all halophytes to salinity relies on controlled uptake and compartmentalization of Na+, K+ and Cl- and the synthesis of organic 'compatible' solutes, even where salt glands are operative. Although there is evidence that different species may utilize different transporters in their accumulation of Na+, in general little is known of the proteins and regulatory networks involved. Consequently, it is not yet possible to assign molecular mechanisms to apparent differences in rates of Na+ and Cl- uptake, in root-to-shoot transport (xylem loading and retrieval), or in net selectivity for K+ over Na+. At the cellular level, H+-ATPases in the plasma membrane and tonoplast, as well as the tonoplast H+-PPiase, provide the trans-membrane proton motive force used by various secondary transporters. The widespread occurrence, taxonomically, of halophytes and the general paucity of information on the molecular regulation of tolerance mechanisms persuade us that research should be concentrated on a number of 'model' species that are representative of the various mechanisms that might be involved in tolerance.

  20. Investigation of urinary excretion of hydroxyethyl starch and dextran by uhplc-hrms in different acquisition modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, S; Deventer, K; Giron, A J; Roels, K; Herregods, L; Verstraete, A; Van Eenoo, P

    2014-06-01

    Plasma volume expanders (PVEs) such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES) and dextran are misused in sports because they can prevent dehydration and reduce haematocrit values to mask erythropoietin abuse. Endogenous hydrolysis generates multiple HES and dextran oligosaccharides which are excreted in urine. Composition of the urinary metabolic profiles of PVEs varies depending on post-administration time and can have an impact on their detectability. In this work, different mass spectrometry data acquisition modes (full scan with and without in-source collision-induced dissociation) were used to study urinary excretion profiles of HES and dextran, particularly by investigating time-dependent detectability of HES and dextran urinary oligosaccharide metabolites in post-administration samples. In-source fragmentation yielded the best results in terms of limit of detection (LOD) and detection times, whereas detection of HES and dextran metabolites in full scan mode with no in-source fragmentation is related to recent administration (< 24 hours). Urinary excretion studies showed detection windows for HES and dextran respectively of 72 and 48 hours after administration. Dextran concentrations were above the previously proposed threshold of 500 µg · mL(-1) for 12 hours. A "dilute-and-shoot" method for the detection of HES and dextran in human urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometry was developed for this study. Validation of the method showed an LOD in the range of 10-500 µg · mL(-1) for the most significant HES and dextran metabolites in the different modes. The method allows retrospective data analysis and can be implemented in existing high-resolution mass spectrometry-based doping control screening analysis.

  1. INVESTIGATION OF URINARY EXCRETION OF HYDROXYETHYL STARCH AND DEXTRAN BY UHPLC-HRMS IN DIFFERENT ACQUISITION MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Esposito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plasma volume expanders (PVEs such as hydroxyethyl starch (HES and dextran are misused in sports because they can prevent dehydration and reduce haematocrit values to mask erythropoietin abuse. Endogenous hydrolysis generates multiple HES and dextran oligosaccharides which are excreted in urine. Composition of the urinary metabolic profiles of PVEs varies depending on post-administration time and can have an impact on their detectability. In this work, different mass spectrometry data acquisition modes (full scan with and without in-source collision-induced dissociation were used to study urinary excretion profiles of HES and dextran, particularly by investigating time-dependent detectability of HES and dextran urinary oligosaccharide metabolites in post-administration samples. In-source fragmentation yielded the best results in terms of limit of detection (LOD and detection times, whereas detection of HES and dextran metabolites in full scan mode with no in-source fragmentation is related to recent administration (< 24 hours. Urinary excretion studies showed detection windows for HES and dextran respectively of 72 and 48 hours after administration. Dextran concentrations were above the previously proposed threshold of 500 μg · mL-1 for 12 hours. A “dilute-and-shoot” method for the detection of HES and dextran in human urine by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-high resolution Orbitrap™ mass spectrometry was developed for this study. Validation of the method showed an LOD in the range of 10-500 μg · mL-1 for the most significant HES and dextran metabolites in the different modes. The method allows retrospective data analysis and can be implemented in existing high-resolution mass spectrometry-based doping control screening analysis.

  2. Pretreatment with hypertonic NaCl protects MDCK cells against high urea concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhofer, W; Müller, E; Burger-Kentischer, A; Fraek, M L; Thurau, K; Beck, F

    1998-02-01

    In antidiuresis, the cells of the renal medulla are exposed to high extracellular concentrations of NaCl and urea. Since urea equilibrates with the intracellular compartment and is known to perturb intracellular macromolecules, high urea concentrations may well disturb the structure and function of cell proteins. Two types of organic substances are believed to counteract the adverse effects of high intracellular urea concentrations: specific organic osmolytes of the trimethylamine family [betaine and glycerophosphorylcholine (GPC)], which accumulate in renal medullary cells during prolonged periods of antidiuresis and cytoprotective heat shock proteins (HSPs), the tissue content of two of which (HSPs 27 and 72) is much higher in the inner medulla than in the iso-osmotic renal cortex. To evaluate the contribution of trimethylamines and HSPs to cytoprotection in the presence of high urea concentrations, the effect of HSP induction and osmolyte accumulation prior to exposure to high urea concentrations was examined in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Accumulation of organic osmolytes and synthesis of HSP27 and HSP72 was initiated by hypertonic stress (increasing the osmolality of the medium from 290 to 600 mosmol/kg H2O by NaCl addition). Control, non-conditioned cells remained in the isotonic medium for the same period. Upon subsequent exposure to an additional 600 mM urea in the medium for 24 h, 90% of the osmotically conditioned cells but only 15% of non-conditioned cells survived. The HSP72 and trimethylamine contents of the NaCl-conditioned MDCK cells, but not HSP27 content, correlated positively with cell survival. To separate the effects of organic osmolytes and HSP72, chronically NaCl-adapted MDCK cells were returned to isotonic medium for 1 or 2 days, so depleting them of trimethylamine osmolytes. HSP72, with its longer half life, remained elevated. Subsequent exposure of these cells to 600 mM urea in the medium resulted in about 80% survival. These

  3. Novel magnetic nanoparticles coated by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-bearing dextran, and the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Min Choi, Jae

    2015-01-01

    We present the synthesis of novel magnetic nanoparticles functionalized by benzene- and β-cyclodextrin-derivatized dextran. The grafting strategy was based on the [alkynyl-iron] cluster in the modified dextrans, which were prepared by click reaction from alkyne-modified dextran and benzyl azide...... or mono-6-O-deoxy-monoazido β-cyclodextrin. Characterization was then carried out by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Using the developed magnetic nanoparticles...... to be significant. Furthermore, the polysaccharide derivative-coated magnetic adsorbents could be recovered by an external magnet for reuse....

  4. Infusion of hypertonic saline (7.5%) does not change neutrophil oxidative burst or expression of endothelial adhesion molecules after abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Rasmussen, Torsten Bøgh; Krog, Jan

    2006-01-01

    to surgery. METHODS: Fifteen women scheduled for open abdominal hysterectomy were randomized double-blindly to infusion of 4 mL/kg 7.5% NaCl, 4 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl, or 32 mL/kg 0.9% NaCl over 20 minutes. Blood was collected at baseline, after infusion, 1, 4, and 24 hours postoperatively for the determination...... in circulating neutrophils after elective abdominal hysterectomy. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-Nov...

  5. Metabolic cost of osmoregulation in a hypertonic environment in the invasive African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Narváez, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Studies of aquatic invertebrates reveal that salinity affects feeding and growth rates, reproduction, survival, and diversity. Little is known, however, about how salinity impacts the energy budget of vertebrates and amphibians in particular. The few studies focused on this topic in vertebrates suggest that the ingestion of salts and the resulting osmoregulatory activity is energetically expensive. We analyzed the effect of saline acclimation on standard metabolic rates (SMR) and the activities of metabolic enzymes of internal organs and osmoregulatory variables (plasma osmolality and urea plasma level) in females of Xenopus laevis by means of acclimating individuals to an isosmotic (235 mOsm NaCl; ISO group) and hyper-osmotic (340 mOsm NaCl; HYP group) environment for 40 days. After acclimation, we found that total and mass-specific SMR was approximately 80% higher in the HYP group than those found in the ISO group. These changes were accompanied by higher citrate synthase activities in liver and heart in the HYP group than in the ISO group. Furthermore, we found a significant and positive correlation between metabolic rates and plasma urea, and citrate synthase activity in liver and heart. These results support the notion that the cost of osmoregulation is probably common in most animal species and suggest the existence of a functional association between metabolic rates and the adjustments in osmoregulatory physiology, such as blood distribution and urea synthesis. PMID:27334694

  6. Metabolic cost of osmoregulation in a hypertonic environment in the invasive African clawed frog Xenopus laevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Peña-Villalobos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of aquatic invertebrates reveal that salinity affects feeding and growth rates, reproduction, survival, and diversity. Little is known, however, about how salinity impacts the energy budget of vertebrates and amphibians in particular. The few studies focused on this topic in vertebrates suggest that the ingestion of salts and the resulting osmoregulatory activity is energetically expensive. We analyzed the effect of saline acclimation on standard metabolic rates (SMR and the activities of metabolic enzymes of internal organs and osmoregulatory variables (plasma osmolality and urea plasma level in females of Xenopus laevis by means of acclimating individuals to an isosmotic (235 mOsm NaCl; ISO group and hyper-osmotic (340 mOsm NaCl; HYP group environment for 40 days. After acclimation, we found that total and mass-specific SMR was approximately 80% higher in the HYP group than those found in the ISO group. These changes were accompanied by higher citrate synthase activities in liver and heart in the HYP group than in the ISO group. Furthermore, we found a significant and positive correlation between metabolic rates and plasma urea, and citrate synthase activity in liver and heart. These results support the notion that the cost of osmoregulation is probably common in most animal species and suggest the existence of a functional association between metabolic rates and the adjustments in osmoregulatory physiology, such as blood distribution and urea synthesis.

  7. INFLUÊNCIA DE DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE FERRO DEXTRAN NO DESEMPENHO DE LEITÕES INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF IRON DEXTRAN IN THE PERFORMANCE OF PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Marchatti Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental de Felixlândia, Minas Gerais, e teve como objetivo estudar a influência de diferentes níveis de ferro dextran injetados, intramuscularmente, sobre o desempenho de leitões aos 21 e 35 dias de idade. A amostra tomada de um plantel de 120 matrizes e 8 varões constou de 16 leitegadas, provenientes de porcas da raça Large White, com a mesma ordem de parição, filhos do mesmo varão. Foram usadas quatro leitegadas para cada tratamento assim distribuídos: T1 - 100 mg de ferro dextran no 3° dia de vida; T2 - 50 mg de ferro dextran no 3° dia de vida e 50 mg de ferro dextran no 6° dia de vida; T3 - 100 mg de ferro dextran no 3° dia de vida e 100 mg no 12° dia de vida; T4 - 50 mg de ferro dextran no 3° dia de vida, 50 mg de ferro dextran no 6° dia, 50 mg de ferro dextran no 9° dia e 50 mg de ferro dextran no 12° dia de vida. O tratamento 2 possibilitou o melhor ganho de peso, tanto aos 21 como aos 35 dias. Quando se analisou os pesos médios aos 35 dias, verificou-se que os melhores tratamentos foram os de números 1 e 2. Esses resultados nos indicam que a dosagem de 100 mg de ferro dextran aplicada da uma só vez (T. 1, ou parcialmente (T. 2, nas condições que foi realizado o experimento foram as que obtiveram os melhores índices de peso médio aos 35 dias de vide dos leitões.

    The present investigation was carried out in the Experimental Farm in the County of Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State and had the objective of studying the influence of intramuscular injections of different levels of iron dextran in the development of piglets, evaluated at 21 and 35 days of age. Sixteen litters from Large White sows, from a herd of 120 sows and 8 boars, were used in these experiment. For each treatment it was used 4 litters as it follows: T1 - 100 mg of iron

  8. The Impact of Cranios acral Therapy on Inhibition of Hypertonicity of the Lower Limb in Children with Dipelgia Spastic Cerebral Palsy of 3-8 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Pishyareh

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitating impact of craniosacral therapy on inhibition of hypertonicity of the lower limb in children with spastic dipelgic cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: 100 children with cerebral palsy were studied and 36 children selected, aged 3 to 8 years, were randomly assigned to a control and an experimental group. Muscle tone was assessed using modified Ashworth scale, passive range of motion by goniometer, neurodevelopment level by Bobath scale. All children were Pre-Post-tested with in an interval of three months. Results: A further finding of the analyses revealed that significant reduction was observed in hypertonicity of the hip adductors and the ankle plantar flexors. Significant increase was observed in passive range of motion of the hip abduction and the ankle dorsiflexion. There was found no significant difference of reduction in hypertonicity of the knee flexors, of increase in passive range of motion of the knee extensor, of improvement neurodevelopmental level. Meaningful relationship was observed between reduction hypertonicity of the hip adductors and improvement of the neurodevelopmental level. Conclusion: It should be mentioned that in all above cases the was set at 5%. Implications for clinical O.T. are mentioned.

  9. Renal response to graded intravenous hypertonic NaCl infusion in healthy and hypertensive subjects:dose-related impairment in distal NaCl reabsorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radó, J.P.; Juhos, E.; Dorhout Mees, E.J.

    The effects of graded acute intravenous hypertonic NaCl loads on the baseline relationship between osmolal clearance and free water reabsorption established during high NaCl dietary intake and on the fractional excretion of various ions were investigated in 15 healthy subjects and in 12 “normal

  10. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweis, S.; Rinaldo, A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Daly, E.; Maritan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and

  11. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  12. Activation of Human Complement System by Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Is Not Affected by Dextran/Fe Ratio, Hydroxyl Modifications, and Crosslinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K

    2016-01-01

    , whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry......While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions...

  13. A new process for the production of clinical dextran by mixed-culture fermentation of Lipomyces starkeyi and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D; Day, D F

    1994-10-01

    A mixed-culture fermentation system was designed for the production of size-limited dextrans. This process was simpler and more economical than traditional methods. It required the establishment of microbial consortia of Lipomyces starkeyi ATCC 74054 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 10830. Controlling initial conditions, growth, and enzyme production by both organisms controlled the product size. In this process, both strains were grown separately and then mixed. Dextran fermentation was then allowed to proceed. At the desired time (and molecular size), the fermentation was harvested. The optimum pH and temperature for production of clinical dextran (75,000 MW) were 5.2 (+/- 0.1) and 28 (+/- 0.5) degrees C, respectively. Varying the ratio of L. mesenteroides to L. starkeyi in the inoculum did not significantly affect either the final cell ratios or dextran production.

  14. Formation of nanoparticles by cooperative inclusion between (S-camptothecin-modified dextrans and β-cyclodextrin polymers

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    Thorbjørn Terndrup Nielsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel (S-camptothecin–dextran polymers were obtained by “click” grafting of azide-modified (S-camptothecin and alkyne-modified dextrans. Two series based on 10 kDa and 70 kDa dextrans were prepared with a degree of substitution of (S-camptothecin between 3.1 and 10.2%. The binding properties with β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin polymers were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence spectroscopy, showing no binding with β-cyclodextrin but high binding with β-cyclodextrin polymers. In aqueous solution nanoparticles were formed from association between the (S-camptothecin–dextran polymers and the β-cyclodextrin polymers.

  15. Mechanisms of complement activation by dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoworms in mouse versus human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Nirmal K; Mehta, Gaurav; Chao, Ying

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The complement system is a key component of innate immunity implicated in the neutralization and clearance of invading pathogens. Dextran coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle is a promising magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. However, dextran SPIO has...... been associated with significant number of complement-related side effects in patients and some agents have been discontinued from clinical use (e.g., Feridex™). In order to improve the safety of these materials, the mechanisms of complement activation by dextran-coated SPIO and the differences between...... mice and humans need to be fully understood. METHODS: 20 kDa dextran coated SPIO nanoworms (SPIO NW) were synthesized using Molday precipitation procedure. In vitro measurements of C3 deposition on SPIO NW using sera genetically deficient for various components of the classical pathway (CP), lectin...

  16. Comparison between the use of saline and seawater for nasal obstruction in children under 2 years of age with acute upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Tülin; Çizmeci, Mehmet Nevzat; Bozkaya, Davut; Kanburoğlu, Mehmet Kenan; Şahin, Şanlıay; Taş, Tuğba; Yüksel, Çiğdem Nükhet; Tatli, Mustafa Mansur

    2016-06-23

    The effectiveness of isotonic and hypertonic saline solutions used to open the nasal passage and improve clinical symptoms was compared in children under 2 years of age admitted with the common cold. The study was performed as a randomized, prospective, and double-blind study. The study included 109 children. The children using saline (0.9%) and seawater (2.3%) as nasal drops (the patient group) and the control group (in which nasal drops were not administered) were compared. Seventy-four patients received nasal drops from package A (seawater) in single days and from package B (physiological saline) in double days. The mean age of the patients was 9.0 ± 3.9 months and the numbers of boys and girls were 65 (59.6%) and 44 (40.4%), respectively. There was no significant difference between Groups A and B in terms of nasal congestion (P > 0.05). However, a significant difference was found between the control group and Groups A and B (P sleep quality, and nutrition with the use of both saline and seawater in children with the common cold. Seawater or saline drops may be added to standard treatment protocols.

  17. The effects of synthesis method on the physical and chemical properties of dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Anastasia K; Mathias, Ronita; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach

    2015-06-15

    Iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dextran were synthesized via four variations on the co-precipitation method. The methods ranged from in situ formation of the nanoparticles within the dextran solution to the adsorption of dextran to the nanoparticle surface following nucleation and extensive washing. The timing of the addition of dextran into the reaction mixture was found to greatly influence the physical and chemical properties of the magnetic nanoparticles. Batches of dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by each method in triplicate, and the nanoparticles were further crosslinked with epichlorohydrin. The properties of the nanoparticles such as size, percentage of dextran coating, stability in solution, crystallinity, and magnetic properties were evaluated. The simultaneous semi-two-step method injected the reducing agent and the dextran solution into the reaction vessel at the same time. This method resulted in the greatest batch-to-batch reproducibility of nanoparticle properties and the least variation in nanoparticles synthesized in the same batch. The two-step method resulted in the greatest variation of the characteristics examined between batches. The one-step method was synthesized with both five grams and one gram of dextran to investigate the effects of solution viscosity on the resulting nanoparticle characteristics. The one-step method with five grams of dextran resulted in nanoparticles with significantly smaller crystal sizes (5.4 ± 1.9 nm) and lower specific adsorption rate (SAR) values (138.4 ± 13.6 W/g) in an alternating magnetic field (58 kA/m, 292 kHz). However, this method resulted in nanoparticles that were very stable in PBS over 12 hours, which is most likely due to the greater dextran coating (60.0 ± 2.7 weight percent). For comparison, the simultaneous semi-two-step method generated nanoparticles 179.2 ± 18.3 nm in diameter (crystal size 12.1 ± 0.2 nm) containing 18.3 ± 1.2 weight percent dextran with a SAR

  18. Effect of equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic sodium lactate versus mannitol in craniectomy patients with moderate traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad R. Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain relaxation and prevention from cerebral edema are essential in craniectomy. Osmotherapy with 20% mannitol are generally used to withdraw fluid from the brain parenchyma, however may cause hemodynamic fluctuation, due to increase diuresis. On the other hand 0.5 M hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL appeared as an alternative of osmotherapy. This study  aimed to observe the effect of hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL on brain relaxation, blood glucose level and hemodynamic variables in craniectomy due to moderate brain injury.Methods: A randomized controlled study of 42 cases with moderate brain injury, aged 18 - 65 years, ASA 1 - 3, between September-November 2012, was carried out. The patients were divided into group M (n = 21 that received 2.5 mL/kg 20% mannitol and group HSL that received 2.5 mL/kg 0.5M HSL. Mean arterial pressures (MAP, central venous pressures (CVP and urine output were measured after induction, and at 15, 30, 45, 60 min after infusion. Brain relaxation was assessed at a four-point scale after opening the duramater. Blood glucose levels were measured before induction and at 60 min after the infusion. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. Unpaired t-test was used to compare hemodynamic and blood glucose level, and chi-square was used to compare brain relaxation.Results: MAP at 60 minute was significantly higher in HSL group than M group (81.66 ± 7.85 vs 74.33 ± 6.18 mmHg; p = 0.002. There was no difference in brain relaxation (p = 0.988. A significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in group HSL (17.95 ± 11.46 mg/dL; p = 0.001.Conclusion: Half-molar HSL was as effective as 20% mannitol in producing brain relaxation, with better hemodynamic stability and gave significant increase in blood glucose level.Keywords: brain relaxation, hemodynamic, hypertonic sodium lactate, mannitol, traumatic brain injury

  19. Utilization of nebulized 3% saline in infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Todd A; Byczkowski, Terri; Ruddy, Richard M; Zorc, Joseph J; Test, Matthew; Shah, Samir S

    2015-05-01

    To describe utilization of 3% hypertonic saline (HTS) in hospitalized infants and to evaluate the association between HTS use and length of stay (LOS) in a real-world setting. This multicenter retrospective cohort study included infants≤12 months hospitalized with bronchiolitis between October 2008 and September 2011 using the Pediatric Health Information System. HTS use was categorized as trial, rescue, daily, or sporadic. Differences in LOS were compared after matching daily HTS recipients and nonrecipients on propensity score. There were 63,337 hospitalizations for bronchiolitis. HTS was used in 24 of 42 hospitals and 2.9% of all hospitalizations. HTS use increased from 0.4% of visits in 2008 to 9.2% of visits in 2011. There was substantial variation in HTS use across hospitals (range 0.1%-32.6%). When used, HTS was given daily during 60.6% of hospitalizations, sporadically in 10.4%, as a trial in 11.3%, and as a rescue in 17.7%. The propensity score-matched analysis of daily HTS recipients (n=953) vs nonrecipients (n=953) showed no difference in mean LOS (HTS 2.3 days vs nonrecipients 2.5 days; β-coefficient -0.04; 95% CI -0.15, 0.07; P=.5) or odds of staying longer than 1, 2, or 3 days. Daily HTS recipients had a 33% decreased odds of staying in the hospital>4 days compared with nonrecipients (OR 0.67; 95% CI 0.47, 0.97; P=.03). Variation in HTS use and the lack of association between HTS and mean LOS demonstrates the need for further research to standardize HTS use and better define the infants for whom HTS will be most beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; van der Zee, Sjoerd E. A. T. M.; Maritan, Amos; Porporato, Amilcare

    2010-05-01

    Large areas of cultivated land worldwide are affected by soil salinity. Estimates report that 10% of arable land in over 100 countries, and nine million km2 are salt affected, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. High salinity causes both ion specific and osmotic stress effects, with important consequences for plant production and quality. Salt accumulation in the root zone may be due to natural factors (primary salinization) or due to irrigation (secondary salinization). Simple (e.g., vertically averaged over the soil depth) coupled soil moisture and salt balance equations have been used in the past. Despite their approximations, these models have the advantage of parsimony, thus allowing a direct analysis of the interplay of the main processes. They also provide the ideal starting point to include external, random hydro-climatic fluctuations in the analysis of long-term salinization trends. We propose a minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In fact, soil salinity statistics are obtained as a function of climate, soil and vegetation parameters. These, in turn, can be combined with soil moisture statistics to obtain a full characterization of soil salt concentrations and the ensuing risk of primary salinization. In particular, the solutions show the existence of two quite distinct regimes, the first one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant with increasing rainfall frequency, and the

  1. Quadruple-responsive nanocomposite based on dextran-PMAA-PNIPAM, iron oxide nanoparticles, and gold nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenqian; Lv, Weipeng; Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengbao; Fan, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    A quadruple-responsive nanocomposite that responds to temperature, pH, magnetic field, and NIR is obtained by incorporating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and gold nanorods (AuNRs) into a dextran-based smart copolymer network. The dual-sensitive copolymer is prepared by sequential RAFT polymerization of methacrylic acid and N-isopropylacrylamide from trithiocarbonate groups linked to dextran in one pot. These functionalized nanocomposites with superior stability can respond to the four stimuli mentioned above well. As evidenced by UV-vis and TEM measurements, the temperature-induced unusual blue-shift in the longitudinal plasmon band is possibly due to the side-to-side assembly of AuNRs. Copyright © 2012 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Investigating the effective hydrodynamic size of dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishnava, Prem; Gumber, Vikas; Regmi, Rajesh; Black, Correy; Dixit, Ambesh; Naik, Vaman; Sudakar, Chandran; Naik, Ratna; Lawes, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    We report synthesis and functionalization of magnetite nanoparticles by coating with dextran having 5, 15-20, 60-90, and 670 kDa molecular weights. The hydrodynamic radii of the functionalized nanoparticles suspended in water measured by dynamic light scattering technique assuming the bulk value for viscosity, were 91, 100, 106, and 132 nm, respectively. By measuring the ac magnetic loss, we determined the effective sizes to be 105, 113, 122, and 136 nm, respectively. The sizes measured by these techniques are approximately twice as large as expected given the iron oxide nanoparticle size and surfactant molecular chain length, at least for the lower molecular weight dextran. Comparing the results of hydrodynamic sizes studies, we conclude that the effective viscosity for the coated nanoparticles may be different than the bulk viscosity of the carrier liquid.

  3. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by /sup 3/H-labeled dextran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using /sup 3/H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and /sup 3/H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma.

  4. Optimization of dextran production by Weissella cibaria NITCSK4 using Response Surface Methodology-Genetic Algorithm based technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanimozhi, J; Moorthy, I Ganesh; Sivashankar, R; Sivasubramanian, V

    2017-10-15

    The most influencing factor on dextran production by Weissella cibaria NITCSK4 were screened using Plackett Burman design at 95% confidence limit with higher value of co-efficient of determination (R(2)) 99.58%. The combined effects of significant factors, namely, sucrose, temperature, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) and yeast extract were studied and optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The input parameters of non-linear models predicted by RSM were subsequently optimized using the genetic algorithm (GA) for obtaining a maximum dextran yield. The maximum yield was obtained with sucrose concentration of 15.78%, yeast extract 1.27%, K2HPO4 1.25%, and at 26°C. The predicted conditions were experimentally validated and 43.79mg/ml of dextran was produced. The dextran yield was 51% higher as compared to unoptimized medium. The molecular weight of resulting dextran produced at 26°C is >2000kDa. The NMR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that the NITCSK4 produced linear dextran with predominant α (1-6) linkage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of heating effect and acoustic properties of dextran stabilized magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozefczak, Arkadiusz [Faculty of Physics, Institute of Acoustics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)]. E-mail: aras@amu.edu.pl; Skumiel, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics, Institute of Acoustics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents acoustic properties of water-based biocompatible fluids in which magnetite particles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were coated with two layers of surfactants: sodium oleate and dextran. The attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic wave measurements shows good structural stability of the fluid under the influence of a magnetic field. Hyperthermic tests proved that the magnetic fluid is suitable for therapeutic use as an agent which can release thermal energy (hyperthermia)

  6. Development of radiolabeled mannose-dextran conjugates for sentinel lymph node detection; Desenvolvimento de conjugados de dextran manose radiomarcados para deteccao de linfonodo sentinela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Nunez, Eutimio Gustavo

    2011-07-01

    Early diagnosis of tumors and metastasis is the current cornerstone in public health policies directed towards the fights against cancer. In breast cancer and melanoma, the sentinel lymph node biopsy has been widely used for diagnoses of metastasis. The minor impact in patient of this technique compared with total nodes dissection and the accurate definition of therapeutic strategies have powered its spreading. The aim of this work was the development of radiolabeled dextran-mannose conjugates for diagnosis using the stable technetium core [{sup 99m}Tc(CO)3]{sup +}. Cysteine, a trident ligand, was attached to the conjugates backbone, as a chelate for {sup 99m}Tc labeling. Radiolabeling conditions established for all products considered in this study showed high radiochemical purities (> 90%) and specific activities (>59,9 MBq/nmol) as well and high stability obtained through in vitro tests. The lymphatic node uptake increased significantly (4-folds) when mannose units were added to the conjugates compared with those without this monosaccharide. The radiolabeled cysteine-mannose-dextran conjugate with 30 kDa ({sup 99m}Tc - DCM2) showed the best performance at different injected activities among the studied tracers. Concentrations of this radio complex higher than 1 M demonstrated an improvement of lymph node uptakes. Comparisons of {sup 99m}Tc - DCM2 performance with commercial radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil market for lymph node detection showed its upper profile. (author)

  7. High salinity wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linarić, M; Markić, M; Sipos, L

    2013-01-01

    The shock effect, survival and ability of activated sludge to acclimatize to wastewater containing different concentrations of NaCl and Na2SO4 were investigated under laboratory conditions. To accomplish this, the potential penetration of a sewage system by seawater as a consequence of storm surge flooding was simulated. The experiments were conducted using activated sludge taken from the aeration tank of a communal wastewater treatment plant and adding different concentrations up to 40 g/L of NaCl and 4.33 g/L of Na2SO4. The effects of salinity on the activated sludge were monitored for 5 weeks based on the values of pH, dissolved oxygen, total suspended solids, volatile suspended solids, sludge volume, sludge volume index, electrokinetic potential, respirometric measurements and enzymatic activity. The addition of salt sharply reduced or completely inhibited the microbial activity in activated sludge. When salt concentrations were below 10 g/L NaCl, microorganisms were able to acclimatize in several weeks and achieve the same initial activity as in raw sludge samples. When the salt concentration was above 30 g/L NaCl, the acclimatization process was very slow or impossible.

  8. Toxicity, toxicokinetics and biodistribution of dextran stabilized Iron oxide Nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remya, N S; Syama, S; Sabareeswaran, A; Mohanan, P V

    2016-09-10

    Advancement in the field of nanoscience and technology has alarmingly raised the call for comprehending the potential health effects caused by deliberate or unintentional exposure to nanoparticles. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have an increasing number of biomedical applications and hence a complete toxicological profile of the nanomaterial is therefore a mandatory requirement prior to its intended usage to ensure safety and to minimize potential health hazards upon its exposure. The present study elucidates the toxicity of in house synthesized Dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DINP) in a regulatory perspective through various routes of exposure, its associated molecular, immune, genotoxic, carcinogenic effects and bio distribution profile. Synthesized ferrite nanomaterials were successfully coated with dextran (dextran helps in improvising particle stability in biological environments. The nanoparticles do not seem to induce oxidative stress mediated toxicological effects, nor altered physiological process or behavior changes or visible pathological lesions. Furthermore no anticipated health hazards are likely to be associated with the use of DINP and could be concluded that the synthesized DINP is nontoxic/safe to be used for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Peripheral iron dextran induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in rat substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Song, Ning; Wang, Jun; Ren, Li-Ying; Xie, Jun-Xia

    2007-07-01

    Iron accumulation is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. To demonstrate the relationship between peripheral iron overload and dopaminergic neuron loss in rat substantia nigra (SN), in the present study we used fast cyclic voltammetry, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry, Perls' iron staining, and high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection to study the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and increased iron content in the SN of iron dextran overloaded animals. The findings showed that peripheral iron dextran overload increased the iron staining positive cells and reduced the number of TH-immunoreactive neurons in the SN. As a result, dopamine release and content, as well as its metabolites contents were decreased in caudate putamen. Even more dramatic changes were found in chronic overload group. These results suggest that peripheral iron dextran can increase the iron level in the SN, where excessive iron causes the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. The chronic iron overload may be more destructive to dopaminergic neurons than the acute iron overload.

  10. Use of iron sucrose in dialysis patients sensitive to iron dextran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Ayham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of iron sucrose in hemodialysis (HD patients with documented hypersensitivity reactions to iron dextran. Of 205 HD patients who received low molecular weight iron dextran, 15 (7.3% patients developed documented hypersensitivity reactions. The patients were treated with iron sucrose (100 mg administered as an intravenous push over 5-10 minutes once a week for 8 weeks. Complete blood count, serum iron, serum ferritin, and parathyroid hormone were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study (except parathyroid hormone. All patients received subcutaneous erythropoietin at a constant dose of 5000 IU twice weekly unless a change was required. All the patients completed the study period and none of them developed hypersensitivity reactions to iron sucrose. The mean hematocrit increased from 23.8% to 32.27% (p < 0.0001, the mean serum ferritin from 185 ng/mL to 599 ng/mL (p < 0.0001, and the mean serum iron from 29.3 ng/dL to 76.8 ng/dL (p = 0.01. We conclude that iron sucrose is safe and effective in HD patients with documented hypersensitivity reactions to low molecular weight iron dextran.

  11. Size-controlled synthesis of dextran sulfate coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrett, Benjamin R; Frendo, Michele; Vogan, Jacob; Louie, Angelique Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-01-24

    In the generation of nanoparticles for biological applications, the control over synthetic parameters influencing the particles' physicochemical properties are of great interest due to the strong influence of particle size and surface properties on cellular uptake and biodistribution. We have synthesized dextran sulfate coated particles and systematically evaluated synthetic parameters that may influence the properties of these nanoparticles as potential magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents. The amount of base, polysaccharide content, ratio of iron salts, and reaction time were optimized to yield approximately 30 nm particles as determined by dynamic light scattering with good MR properties (r{sub 1} = 14.46 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1} and r{sub 2} = 72.55 mM{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and in good yield (50%). Particle sizes and relaxivities are compared with clinically available dextran coated particles and the resulting physical properties of the dextran sulfate coated particles show these particles could be used as potential MR contrast agents for cardiovascular imaging.

  12. Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Van Osselaer

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The selectin-mediated rolling of leukocytes along the endothelial cells is a prerequisite step followed by firm adhesion and extravasation into the inflamed tissue. This initial contact can be suppressed by sulphated polysaccharides. We have studied the effect of sulphated polysaccharides on the ultimate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN recruitment and plasma leakage in rabbit skin in response to intradermal injection of various inflammatory mediators. PMN infiltration evoked by various PMN chemoattractants (FMLP, C5a desArg, LTB4 and IL-8 was significantly inhibited after intravenous injection of dextran sulphate (25 mg/kg, heparin (2 × 90 mg/kg or fucoidan (1 mg/kg. PMN-dependent plasma leakage was equally well reduced by the different sulphated polymers. Vascular permeability induced by histamine or thrombin acting via a PMN-independent mechanism was not reduced. Fucoidan was the only polysaccharide able to suppress IL-1-induced PMN infiltration for 60–70%. Local administration of dextran sulphate had no effect on PMN-dependent plasma leakage. Differential inhibition of PMN recruitment was determined after injection of dextran sulphate or fucoidan depending on the type of insult. Therefore, these results suggest that different adhesion pathways are utilized during PMN recruitment in vivo in response to chemoattractants and IL-1.

  13. Intraoperative OCT Pachymetry in Patients Undergoing Dextran-Free Riboflavin UVA Accelerated Corneal Collagen Crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechichi, Miguel; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Daya, Sheraz; Mencucci, Rita; Lanza, Michele; Meduri, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    To assess intraoperative corneal pachymetry in patients undergoing accelerated corneal collagen crosslinking with a dextran-free riboflavin solution. Prospective, non-comparative, multicenter interventional study. Thirty patients with progressive keratoconus were enrolled in the study from the Siena Crosslinking Center™ in Siena, Italy and the Eye Center in Catanzaro, Italy. The mean age was 26.9 ± 6.5 years. Patients underwent pulsed light accelerated crosslinking (PL-ACXL) by KXL I UV-A source (Avedro Inc., Waltham, MS, USA) with 8 min (1 s on/1 s off) of UV-A exposure, 30 mW/cm(2) and an energy dose of 7.2 J/cm(2). Corneal stroma was soaked with a dextran-free 0.1% riboflavin solution plus hydroxyl-propyl methylcellulose (HPMC) (VibeX Rapid, Avedro). Intraoperative corneal thickness was preoperatively (PRE-OP) evaluated by corneal optical coherence tomography (iVUE Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) after epithelium removal (EPI-R), after 10 min of riboflavin soaking (RS) and after UV-A irradiation (IR). Statistical analysis was conducted using a Wilcoxon test and SPSS v16.0. A p-value of collagen crosslinking by using dextran free HPMC 0.1% riboflavin solution.

  14. Magnetic retardance and magnetic heating in dextran-citrate coated ferrofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fung Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs coated by citrate and dextran prepared by the co-precipitation method was described. Influence induced by the mass variation of coating dextran was investigated. Magneto-optical birefringence of biocompatible dextran-citrate (DC coated ferrofluids (FFs was obtained by the Stokes polarimeter. Next, uniform design method was used to find the DC coated FF with high retardance and low dichroism. Retardance of the optimized A9 sample with 1 g/ml was measured as 56.7898° (dichroism was 0.3716 under 64.5 mT. Further, magnetic heating effect in alternating magnetic field was investigated. When the concentrations of A9 were of 2 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml, under the external alternating magnetic field with applied apparent current of 210 A, after heating 5 s the temperature of the DC coated FFs was greater than 47 °C, respectively, reached the requirements for the magnetic inductive heating treatment of cancer tumor. The potential of DC coated FFs in hyperthermia was highly evaluated.

  15. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  16. Comparing the Efficacy of 7%, 3% and 0.9% Saline in Moderate to Severe Bronchiolitis in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Seçil; Şehriyaroğlu, Ahmet; Esen, Feyza; Özdemir, Ahmet; Kardaş, Zehra; Altuğ, Umut; Karakuş, Esef; Özcan, Alper; Kısaarslan, Ali Fatih; Elmalı, Ferhan; Torun, Yasemin Altuner; Köse, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    There is no standard treatment option in acute bronchiolitis. 3-7% hypertonic saline (HS) seems to be the effective treatment choice for reducing the hospitalization day. To compare the effect of nebulized 7% HS/salbutamol and 3% HS/salbutamol to 0.9% saline/salbutamol. The primary outcome measure was the effect of study drugs on the length of hospital stay (LOS). Secondary outcome measures were safety and efficacy in reducing the clinical severity score (CSS) at the 24 hours of the study. Prospective, double-blinded randomized clinical study. The study consists of 104 infants. Groups were constituted according to the treatment they received: These are, group A - 0.9% saline/salbutamol, group B -3% HS/salbutamol and group C-7% HS/salbutamol. Heart beat, Bronchiolitis CSS and oxygen saturation of the patients were determined before and after nebulization. The patients were monitored for adverse reactions. Length of hospital stay in group A, B and C were as follows; 72.0 (20-288) hours in group A, 64.0 (12-168) hours in group B and 60.0 (12-264) hours in group C. No significant differences was observed among three groups (p>0.05). 7% HS and 3% HS does not have any effect to decrease LOS for infants with bronchiolitis.

  17. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  18. Optical sensor for seawater salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C; Klimant, I; Krause, C; Werner, T; Mayr, T; Wolfbeis, O S

    2000-01-01

    An optical sensor for the measurement of salinity in seawater has been developed. It is based on a chloride-quenchable fluorescent probe (lucigenin) immobilized on a Nafion film. Two approaches for measuring salinity via chloride concentration are presented. In the first, a change in salinity corresponds to a change in the fluorescence intensity of lucigenin. In the second, the fluorescence intensity information is converted into a phase angle information by adding an inert phosphorescent reference luminophore (a ruthenium complex entrapped in poly(acrylonitrile) beads). Under these conditions, the chloride-dependent fluorescence intensity of lucigenin can be converted into a chloride-dependent fluorescence phase shift which serves as the analytical information. This scheme is referred to as dual lifetime referencing (DLR). The sensor was used to determine the salinity in seawater and brackish water of the North Sea.

  19. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  20. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  1. Mechanism of Introduction of Exogenous Genes into Cultured Cells Using DEAE-Dextran-MMA Graft Copolymer as Non-Viral Gene Carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuhiko Onishi; Tomohiko Takasaki; Naoji Kubota; Jun Yoshida; Masaaki Mizuno; Junko Higashihara; Masayasu Onishi; Yuki Eshita

    2009-01-01

    Comparative investigations were carried out regarding the efficiency of introduction of exogenous genes into cultured cells using a cationic polysaccharide DEAE-dextran-MMA (methyl methacrylate ester) graft copolymer (2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran-methyl methacrylate graft copolymer; DDMC) as a nonviral carrier for gene introduction. The results confirmed that the gene introduction efficiency was improved with DDMC relative to DEAE-dextran. Comparative investigations were carried out using vari...

  2. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  3. Saline waters and soil quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Dazzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The processes of secondary salinization due to anthropic actions are considered one of the most important environmental emergencies owing to their level of dangerousness. The soils of the dry areas of the Mediterranean basin are particularly prone to these processes. In such environments, it is imperative to resort to irrigation that allow for the reduction of risks due to soil moisture deficit and for the stabilization of yields. Frequently, saline waters are used that cause a lowering of the soil quality. If on one hand the presence of salts can benefit the soils mainly improving soil structure, on the other high levels of salts produce negative effects on soils and crops.When sodium prevails problems of soil quality can rise such as structure degradation, low hydraulic conductivity, soil sealing. The processes of secondary soil salinization due to the use of saline waters for irrigation are particularly evident in our Country among others. In Italy, saline soils are mainly distributed in long strips of the coastal belt of the Tyrrhenian sea and Adriatic sea, in the coastal belt of Apulia, Basilicata and Sardinia and in wide areas of Sicily. It is not possible to suggest general actions to combat soil salinization because we must take into consideration that in the relationship soil-water two different quality concept interact: one linked to the soils, the other to the waters.

  4. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of the...

  5. Saline nasal irrigation for upper respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabago, David; Zgierska, Aleksandra

    2009-11-15

    Saline nasal irrigation is an adjunctive therapy for upper respiratory conditions that bathes the nasal cavity with spray or liquid saline. Nasal irrigation with liquid saline is used to manage symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive evidence supports the use of spray and liquid saline nasal irrigation to manage symptoms of mild to moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory tract infections. Consensus guidelines recommend saline nasal irrigation as a treatment for a variety of other conditions, including rhinitis of pregnancy and acute rhinosinusitis. Saline nasal irrigation appears safe, with no reported serious adverse events. Minor adverse effects can be avoided with technique modification and salinity adjustment.

  6. Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Kuo; Chen, Wen-Chang; Lai, Sheng-Feng; Liu, Chi-Jen; Wang, Cheng-Liang; Wang, Chang-Hai; Chen, Hsiang-Hsin; Hua, Tzu-En; Cheng, Yi-Yun; Wu, M. K.; Hwu, Y.; Yang, Chung-Shi; Margaritondo, G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated iron oxide nanoparticles with two different surface modifications, dextran coating and cross-linked dextran coating, showing that their different internalization affects their capability to enhance radiation damage to cancer cells. The internalization was monitored with an ultrahigh resolution transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), indicating that the differences in the particle surface charge play an essential role and dominate the particle-cell interaction. We found that dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles cannot be internalized by HeLa and EMT-6 cells without being functionalized with amino groups (the cross-linked dextran coating) that modify the surface potential from -18 mV to 13.4 mV. The amount of cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles uptaken by cancer cells reached its maximum, 1.33 × 109 per HeLa cell, when the co-culture concentration was 40 µg Fe mL-1 or more. Standard tests indicated that these internalized nanoparticles increased the damaging effects of x-ray irradiation, whereas they are by themselves biocompatible. These results could lead to interesting therapy applications; furthermore, iron oxide also produces high contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and therapy stages.

  7. In situ preparation of gold nanoparticle-loaded lysozyme-dextran nanogels and applications for cell imaging and drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huanxin; Yao, Ping

    2013-03-01

    An effective, green, and facile approach to synthesize gold nanoparticle-loaded protein-polysaccharide nanogels was developed in this study. Biocompatible gold nanoparticle-loaded lysozyme-dextran (Au@Lys-Dex) nanogels were produced using lysozyme-dextran nanogels as reducing and stabilizing agents. Lysozyme-dextran nanogels have a size of about 200 nm and a structure of lysozyme core and dextran shell. At pH around 4, AuCl4- ions are attracted and locally enriched by lysozyme due to the electrostatic and coordination interactions. When the solution is under UV irradiation, the AuCl4- ions are reduced to gold nanoparticles in situ by solvated electrons and reactive radicals produced from aromatic amino acid residues in the lysozyme. The produced gold nanoparticles with a size of about 8 nm are trapped inside the nanogels and the Au@Lys-Dex nanogels are well dispersible by virtue of the dextran shell. Antitumor drug, doxorubicin, can be loaded effectively inside Au@Lys-Dex nanogels via diffusion. In vitro study demonstrates the doxorubicin loaded Au@Lys-Dex nanogels have the same antitumor activity as free doxorubicin. The nanogels can be used as a contrasting agent in optical cell imaging, in which direct visual images of the subcellular distributions of the gold nanoparticles and the released doxorubicin are presented synchronously. The dual functional drug loaded Au@Lys-Dex nanogels are a promising system for simultaneous drug delivery and biomedical imaging.

  8. Enhancement of irradiation effects on cancer cells by cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide (CLIO) nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F-K; Chen, W-C; Lai, S-F [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, 123, University Rd, Sec. 3, Douliu, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China); Liu, C-J; Wang, C-L; Wang, C-H; Chen, H-H; Hua, T-E; Cheng, Y-Y; Wu, M K; Hwu, Y [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China); Yang, C-S [Center for Nanomedicine Research, National Helath Research Institute, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Margaritondo, G [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: chenwc@yuntech.edu.tw, E-mail: giorgio.margaritondo@epfl.ch

    2010-01-21

    We investigated iron oxide nanoparticles with two different surface modifications, dextran coating and cross-linked dextran coating, showing that their different internalization affects their capability to enhance radiation damage to cancer cells. The internalization was monitored with an ultrahigh resolution transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), indicating that the differences in the particle surface charge play an essential role and dominate the particle-cell interaction. We found that dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles cannot be internalized by HeLa and EMT-6 cells without being functionalized with amino groups (the cross-linked dextran coating) that modify the surface potential from -18 mV to 13.4 mV. The amount of cross-linked dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles uptaken by cancer cells reached its maximum, 1.33 x 10{sup 9} per HeLa cell, when the co-culture concentration was 40 {mu}g Fe mL{sup -1} or more. Standard tests indicated that these internalized nanoparticles increased the damaging effects of x-ray irradiation, whereas they are by themselves biocompatible. These results could lead to interesting therapy applications; furthermore, iron oxide also produces high contrast for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and therapy stages.

  9. Arginine as an eluent overcomes the hindrance of monoclonal antibody quantification by dextran sulfate in protein A affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Gyun; Park, Hong Woo

    2015-01-01

    Analytical chromatography using protein A affinity columns was employed for the fast and simple quantitative analysis of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells. Reliable results could not be obtained from analysis of rCHO cell culture supernatants containing dextran sulfate using elution buffers such as phosphate, glycine, or MgCl2 . These problems increased as the number of analysis and the concentration of dextran sulfate in samples increased. Arginine was identified as an alternative eluent to overcome the hindrance by dextran sulfate. When the samples contain dextran sulfate up to 100 mg/L, the elution buffer containing 0.6-1.0 M arginine at pH 3.0-3.8 is useful for the effective analysis. Reproducible results in the mAb quantification could be obtained by this developed arginine elution buffer from rCHO cell culture supernatants containing dextran sulfate. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  10. Scale up of dextran production from a mutant of Pediococcus pentosaceus (SPAm using optimized medium in a bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Patel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The mutant of Pediococcus pentosaceus (SPAm produced earlier by UV-mutagenesis exhibiting higher dextransucrase activity as compared to wild-type was used. The generated mutant SPAm gave 12.2 mg/ml, a 20% higher dextran than wild-type. Response surface methodology was carried out for further enhancement of dextran production. To enhance dextran production by the mutant SPAm, Plackett-Burman Design and a 2² full factorial Central Composite Design was employed. After response optimization, the optimum concentration of sucrose and yeast extract was 5.115% (w/v and 0.635% (w/v, respectively. The experimental values of dextran 36.0 mg/ml at flask level and 35.0 mg/ml at bioreactor level were in good agreement with the predicted value of 40.8 mg/ml. The increase in dextran production by the mutant SPAm using the optimized medium was 3 fold higher as compared to unoptimized medium.

  11. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Davis, C.W.; Boucher, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties......- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall....

  12. Role of carbohydrate receptors in the macrophage uptake of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ying; Karmali, Priya Prakash; Simberg, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO, Ferumoxides, Feridex), an important MRI intravenous contrast reagent, is efficiently recognized and eliminated by macrophages in the liver, spleen, lymph nodes and atherosclerotic lesions. The receptors that recognize nanoparticles are poorly defined and understood. Since SPIO is coated with bacterial polysaccharide dextran, it is important to know whether carbohydrate recognition plays a role in nanoparticle uptake by macrophages. Lectin-like receptors CD206 (macrophage mannose receptor) and SIGNR1 were previously shown to mediate uptake of bacterial polysaccharides. We transiently expressed receptors MGL-1, SIGNR-1 and msDectin-1 in non-macrophage 293T cells using lipofection. The expression was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR. Following incubation with the nanoparticles, the uptake in receptor-expressing cells was not statistically different compared to control cells (GFP-transfected). At the same time, expression of scavenger receptor SR-A1 increased the uptake of nanoparticles three-fold compared to GFP-transfected and control vector-transfected cells. Blocking CD206 with anti-CD206 antibody or with the ligand mannan did not affect SPIO uptake by J774.A1 macrophages. Similarly, there was no inhibition of the uptake by anti-CD11b (Mac-1 integrin) antibody. Polyanionic scavenger receptor ligands heparin, polyinosinic acid, fucoidan and dextran sulfate decreased the uptake of SPIO by J774A.1 macrophages and Kupffer cells by 60-75%. These data unambiguously show that SPIO is taken up via interaction by scavenger receptors, but not via dextran recognition by carbohydrate receptors. Understanding of nanoparticle-receptor interaction can provide guidance for the design of long circulating, non-toxic nanomedicines.

  13. Hyaluronan with dextran added to therapeutic lung surfactants improves effectiveness in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen W; Taeusch, H William; Clements, John A

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants in current clinical use are largely ineffective in treating acute lung injury (ALI)/ acute respiratory distress syndrome. In part, this ineffectiveness is due to inactivation of surfactant by serum leakage into the alveoli. Previously, we reported that adding hyaluronan and some nonionic polymers to synthetic lipids combined with native SP-B and SP-C enhanced surface activity. In this study, we first tested two therapeutic lung surfactants and then retested after adding hyaluronan, polyethylene glycol or dextran alone or in two-polymer combinations including hyaluronan in the absence or presence of serum. Surface activities were measured in a modified bubble surfactometer. Results indicate that the inhibition threshold (defined as the amount of serum required to produce a minimum surface tension above 10 mN/m after 5 minutes of cycling) was 35 times higher with hyaluronan plus dextran added to Infasurf than with Infasurf alone, and better than all other mixtures tested. The threshold for Survanta with hyaluronan plus polyethylene glycol was 7 times higher than Survanta alone. We next tested selected surfactant mixtures in an animal model that mimicked ALI. All measurements of lung function showed significant improvement (P ≤ .05) with hyaluronan, or with hyaluronan and dextran added to Infasurf compared to Infasurf alone. Also, for these two groups, lung function was still improving at the end of the experiment. We conclude that certain polymers added to clinical surfactants can greatly increase resistance to inactivation in vitro, while in vivo, both Infasurf mixtures containing hyaluronan tended to normalize measures of lung function unlike other mixtures tested.

  14. Bacteria penetrate the inner mucus layer before inflammation in the dextran sulfate colitis model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin E V Johansson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the large intestine with its enormous amount of commensal bacteria is a challenge that became easier to understand when we recently could describe that colon has an inner attached mucus layer devoid of bacteria (Johansson et al. (2008 Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 15064-15069. The bacteria are thus kept at a distance from the epithelial cells and lack of this layer, as in Muc2-null mice, allow bacteria to contact the epithelium. This causes colitis and later on colon cancer, similar to the human disease Ulcerative Colitis, a disease that still lacks a pathogenetic explanation. Dextran Sulfate (DSS in the drinking water is the most widely used animal model for experimental colitis. In this model, the inflammation is observed after 3-5 days, but early events explaining why DSS causes this has not been described.When mucus formed on top of colon explant cultures were exposed to 3% DSS, the thickness of the inner mucus layer decreased and became permeable to 2 microm fluorescent beads after 15 min. Both DSS and Dextran readily penetrated the mucus, but Dextran had no effect on thickness or permeability. When DSS was given in the drinking water to mice and the colon was stained for bacteria and the Muc2 mucin, bacteria were shown to penetrate the inner mucus layer and reach the epithelial cells already within 12 hours, long before any infiltration of inflammatory cells.DSS thus causes quick alterations in the inner colon mucus layer that makes it permeable to bacteria. The bacteria that reach the epithelial cells probably trigger an inflammatory reaction. These observations suggest that altered properties or lack of the inner colon mucus layer may be an initial event in the development of colitis.

  15. LONG-LIVED BONE MARROW PLASMA CELLS DURING IMMUNE RESPONSE TO ALPHA (1→3 DEXTRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Chernyshova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Production kinetics and some functional properties of long-lived marrow plasma cells were studied in mice immunized with T-independent type 2 antigens. Alpha (1→3 dextran was used as an antigen for immunization. The mice were immunized by dextran, and the numbers of IgM antibody producing cells were determined by ELISPOT method. The cell phenotype was determined by cytofluorimetric technique. In the area of normal bone marrow lymphocytes ~4% of T and ~85% of B cells were detected. About 35% of the cells expressed a plasmocyte marker (CD138; 3% were CD138+IgM+, and about 6% of the lymphocytes were double-positive for CD138+IgA+. Among spleen lymphocytes, 50% of T and 47% of B cells were detected. About 1.5% lymphocytes were CD138+, and 0.5% were positive for CD138 and IgM. Time kinetics of antibody-producing cells in bone marrow and spleen was different. In spleen populations, the peak amounts of antibody-secreting cells have been shown on the day 4; the process abated by the day 28. Vice versa, the numbers of the antibody-producing cells in bone marrow started to increase on the day 4. The process reached its maximum on day 14, and after 28th day became stationary. The in vitro experiments have shown that supplementation of bone marrow cells from immune mice with dextran did not influence their functional activity. It was previously shown for cells responding to T-dependent antigens only. A specific marker for the long-lived plasma cells is still unknown. However, these cells possess a common CD138 marker specific for all plasma cells. A method for isolation of bone marrow CD138+ cells was developed. The CD138+ cells were of 87-97% purity, being enriched in long-lived bone marrow cells, and produced monospecific antibodies. 

  16. Influence of dextran coating on the magnetic behaviour of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutz, Silvio [Institute for Physical High Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Jena (Germany)]. E-mail: silvio.dutz@ipht-jena.de; Andrae, Wilfried [Institute for Physical High Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Jena (Germany); Hergt, Rudolf [Institute for Physical High Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Mueller, Robert [Institute for Physical High Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Oestreich, Christiane [Institute of Ceramic Materials, Freiberg University of Mining and Technology (Germany); Schmidt, Christopher [Institute for Physical High Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Department of Materials Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Jena (Germany); Toepfer, Jorg [Department of Materials Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Jena (Germany); Zeisberger, Matthias [Institute for Physical High Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bellemann, Matthias E. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Applied Sciences, Jena (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with mean diameters in the range from 10 to 30 nm were prepared by modified chemical precipitation routes. The particles were suspended in an aqueous solution by coating of the particles with carboxymethyldextran. A stability against agglomeration was achieved over a period of more than 7 days. In the present investigation, the structural and the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were investigated. The influence of the dextran shell on the strength of the dipole-dipole interactions between the neighbouring particles was determined by investigation of the remanence behaviour (Henkel plot) of coated as well as of uncoated particles.

  17. Removal of methyl violet dye by adsorption onto N-benzyltriazole derivatized dextran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cho, Eunae; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Kim, Hwanhee

    2015-01-01

    with equilibrium isotherms including the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin models. Based on the Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity was determined to be 95.24 mg of dye per gram of the adsorbent. The adsorption obeyed pseudo-second order kinetics, and a negative Delta G(0) value indicated adsorption...... was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Dextran was substituted with a triazole-linked benzyl group. For decolorization of the dye effluent, adsorption is a very effective treatment; here, the driving force is based on hydrogen bonding, pi...

  18. Impact of supramolecular interactions of dextran-β-cyclodextrin polymers on invertase activity in freeze-dried systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santagapita, Patricio R; Mazzobre, M Florencia; Buera, M Pilar; Ramirez, Héctor L; Brizuela, Leissy Gómez; Corti, Horacio R; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD)-grafted dextrans with spacer arms of different length were employed to evaluate the impact of supramolecular interactions on invertase activity. The modified dextrans were used as single additives or combined with trehalose in freeze-dried formulations containing invertase. Enzyme activity conservation was analyzed after freeze-drying and thermal treatment. The change of glass transition temperature (Tg ) was also evaluated and related to effective interactions. Outstanding differences on enzyme stability were mainly related to the effect of the spacer arm length on polymer-enzyme interactions, since both the degree of substitution and the molecular weight were similar for the two polymers. This change of effective interactions was also manifested in the pronounced reduction of Tg values, and were related to the chemical modification of the backbone during oxidation, and to the attachment of the β-CD units with spacer arms of different length on dextran. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  19. [Soluble high molecular weight derivatives of trypsin pancreatic inhibitor. Isolation and properties of dextran-bound pancreatic inhibitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, N I; Kazanskaia, N F; Sakharov, I Iu

    1977-07-01

    A method of isolating preparations of pancreatic inhibitor of trypsin, bound with soluble polysaccharide carriers, is worked out. It is demonstrated that the reaction of a pancreatic inhibitor and cyanuric chloride-activated dextran proceeds for OH groups of tyrosine residues and for-epsilon-NH2 groups of lysine residues. A method is offered of the protection of amino groups with citraconic anhydride for the complete retaining of the inhibitory activity during attachment to dextran. Thermic denaturation of pancreatic inhibitor preparations at pH 4.7 and 97 degrees C is studied. It is found that the modification by 2-amino-4.6-dichloro-s-triazine stabilizes the protein molecule, while the interaction with the matrix of soluble dextran does not carry any contribution to thermostability of the pancreatic inhibitor.

  20. Structure and antioxidant activity of soy protein isolate-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bei; Zhou, Xiaosong; Li, Bing; Chen, Caiyan; Zhang, Xiaosa; Chen, Siqiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate- (SPI-) dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment. Results revealed that the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence intensity increased as the photocatalytic power increased (P photocatalysis. Moreover, significant changes of secondary structure occurred in SPI-dextran conjugates. The α-helix, β-sheet, β-turns, and random coil were changed from approximately 10.6%, 37.9%, 12.9%, and 38.6% to 3.8%, 10.4%, 17.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, after treatment at photocatalytic power of 1000 W. In addition, SPI-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment exhibited high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and possessed increased reducing power. All data indicated that TiO2 photocatalysis was an efficient method for promoting protein-polysaccharide copolymerisation.

  1. The effect of medium structure complexity on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in gelatin-dextran systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Kathleen; Noriega, Estefanía; Verherstraeten, Niels; David, Charlotte C; Hofkens, Johan; Van Impe, Jan F

    2015-04-16

    As most food systems are (semi-)solid, the effect of food structure on bacterial growth has been widely acknowledged. However, studies on the growth dynamics of yeasts have neglected the effect of food structure. In this paper, the growth dynamics of the spoilage yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated at 23.5 °C in broth, singular, homogeneous biopolymer systems and binary biopolymer systems with a heterogeneous microstructure. The biopolymers gelatin and dextran were used to introduce the different levels of structure. The metabolizing ability of gelatin and dextran by S. cerevisiae was examined. To study microbial behavior in the binary systems at the micro level, mixtures were imaged with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Growth dynamics and microscopic images of S. cerevisiae were compared with those obtained for Escherichia coli in the same model system (Boons et al., 2014). Different phase-separated, heterogeneous microstructures were obtained by changing the amount of added gelatin and dextran. Regardless of the microstructure, S. cerevisiae was preferentially located in the dextran phase. Metabolizing ability-tests indicated that gelatin could be consumed by S. cerevisiae but in the presence of glucose, no change in gelatin concentration was observed. No indication of dextran metabolizing ability was observed. When supplementing broth with gelatin or dextran alone, an enhanced growth rate and maximum cell density were observed. This enhancement was further increased by adding a second biopolymer, introducing a heterogeneous microstructure and hence increasing the medium structure complexity. The results obtained indicate that food structure complexity plays a significant role in the growth dynamics of S. cerevisiae, an important food spoiler. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Evaluation of changes in serum chemistry in association with feed withdrawal or high dose oral gavage with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) induced gut leakage in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) has been shown to be effective at inducing enteric inflammation in broiler chickens, resulting in increased leakage of orally administered fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran to circulation. In a previous study, two doses of DSS (0.45g/dose) administered as oral gavage re...

  3. Inhibitory action of dextran on the corrosion of 6061Al–15%(v SiC(P composite in HCl medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Charitha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dextran, a biopolymer was used as an eco-friendly inhibitor to control the corrosion of 6061Al–15%(v SiC(P composite in 0.25 M HCl medium. The electrochemical studies like potentiodynamic polarization method, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were adopted. Evaluation of kinetic and thermodynamic parameters was done. Inhibitor adsorption on the surface of the composite was confirmed by surface morphology studies like SEM and EDX studies. Maximum inhibition efficiency of 80% was obtained at 303 K. Dextran acted as mixed type of inhibitor, underwent physical adsorption and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  4. Rapid Size- Controlled Synthesis of Dextran-Coated, Copper-Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ray M.

    2011-12-01

    Development of dual modality probes enabled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has been on the rise in recent years due to the potential for these probes to facilitate combining the complementary high resolution of MRI and the high sensitivity of PET. The efficient synthesis of multimodal probes that include the radiolabels for PET can be hindered due to prolonged reaction times during radioisotope incorporation, and the resulting decay of the radiolabel. Along with a time-efficient synthesis, one also needs an optimal synthesis that yields products in a desirable size range (between 20-100 nm) to increase blood retention time. In this work, we describe a novel, rapid, microwave-based synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles doped with copper (DIO/Cu). Traditional methods for synthesizing dextran-coated iron oxide particles require refluxing for 2 hours and result in approximately 50 nm particles. We demonstrate that microwave synthesis can produce 50 nm nanoparticles in 5 minutes of heating. We discuss the various parameters used in the microwave synthesis protocol to vary the size distribution of DIO/Cu, and demonstrate the successful incorporation of copper into these particles with the aim of future use for rapid 64Cu incorporation.

  5. Carboxymethylated dextran-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for regenerable bioseparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zhou, Yu; Li, Meng; Xia, Ning; Huang, Qiyu; Do, Huy; Liu, You-Nian; Zhou, Feimeng

    2011-11-01

    Carboxymethylated dextran (CMD)-coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized using a co-precipitation method. Compared to neutral dextran coated MNPs, the CMD coating provides good dispersity and colloidal stability to the CMD-MNPs. In particular, the carboxyl groups on the CMD can be readily activated for covalent attachment of antibody molecules. The superparamagnetic property of the antibody-covered CMD-MNPs enables the captured antigen to be separated from the sample solution and CMD coating significantly reduces the nonspecific binding of the nanoparticles. Regeneration of the anti-BSA antibody-covered CMD-MNPs with NaOH does not significantly decrease the antibody activity, and the repeated magnetic separation and washing steps cause only small loss of the starting materials. The method was found to be highly reproducible (RSDs for BSA adsorption and desorption are between 0.78% and 5.1%). The anti-BSA antibody-covered CMD-MNPs possess good selectivity and are able to capture protein antigens from real samples.

  6. Rapid size-controlled synthesis of dextran-coated, 64Cu-doped iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ray M; Gilbert, Dustin A; Liu, Kai; Louie, Angelique Y

    2012-04-24

    Research into developing dual modality probes enabled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) has been on the rise recently due to the potential to combine the high resolution of MRI and the high sensitivity of PET. Current synthesis techniques for developing multimodal probes is largely hindered in part by prolonged reaction times during radioisotope incorporation--leading to a weakening of the radioactivity. Along with a time-efficient synthesis, the resulting products must fit within a critical size range (between 20 and 100 nm) to increase blood retention time. In this work, we describe a novel, rapid, microwave-based synthesis technique to grow dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles doped with copper (DIO/Cu). Traditional methods for coprecipitation of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles require refluxing for 2 h and result in approximately 50 nm diameter particles. We demonstrate that microwave synthesis can produce 50 nm nanoparticles with 5 min of heating. We discuss the various parameters used in the microwave synthesis protocol to vary the size distribution of DIO/Cu and demonstrate the successful incorporation of (64)Cu into these particles with the aim of future use for dual-mode MR/PET imaging.

  7. The tolerability of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles during in vivo observation of the rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Cristina L; Prodan, Alina M; Ciobanu, Carmen S; Predoi, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have attracted a lot of interest due to their widespread biomedical and diagnostic applications. Coating the SPIONs with various surface layers can provide an interface between the core and the surrounding environment. The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo behaviour of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (D-IONPs) in aqueous suspensions. The SPIONs stabilized with dextran (D-IONPs) were synthesized in aqueous solutions by co-precipitation method. The average grain size deduced from transmission electron microscopy is 7.5 nm. The hematological parameters registered for the rats exposed to D-IONPs at 1 ml/kg have had values approximately equal to those examined for the control specimen. The architecture of liver and kidneys was not affected after one day of intraperitoneal injection of D-IONPs compared to the reference group. After 21 and 28 days respectively from the administration of the D-IONPs solution, the liver and kidneys from the injected rats showed a normal aspect without abnormalities compared to the rats uninjected. Our findings suggest that the administration of 1 ml/kg D-IONPs did not cause any toxicological effect since the parameters of renal and liver function were in the normal range as reported to the control group.

  8. Rapid microwave-assisted synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Elizabeth A.; Atkins, Tonya M.; Gilbert, Dustin A.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Liu, Kai; Louie, Angelique Y.

    2012-06-01

    Currently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are the only nanosized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents approved for clinical use, yet commercial manufacturing of these agents has been limited or discontinued. Though there is still widespread demand for these particles both for clinical use and research, they are difficult to obtain commercially, and complicated syntheses make in-house preparation unfeasible for most biological research labs or clinics. To make commercial production viable and increase accessibility of these products, it is crucial to develop simple, rapid and reproducible preparations of biocompatible iron oxide nanoparticles. Here, we report a rapid, straightforward microwave-assisted synthesis of superparamagnetic dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were produced in two hydrodynamic sizes with differing core morphologies by varying the synthetic method as either a two-step or single-step process. A striking benefit of these methods is the ability to obtain swift and consistent results without the necessity for air-, pH- or temperature-sensitive techniques; therefore, reaction times and complex manufacturing processes are greatly reduced as compared to conventional synthetic methods. This is a great benefit for cost-effective translation to commercial production. The nanoparticles are found to be superparamagnetic and exhibit properties consistent for use in MRI. In addition, the dextran coating imparts the water solubility and biocompatibility necessary for in vivo utilization.

  9. Magnetic Composite Thin Films of Fe xO y Nanoparticles and Photocrosslinked Dextran Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsen, Annette; Utech, Stefanie; Maskos, Michael; Knoll, Wolfgang; Jonas, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic hydrogel composites are promising candidates for a broad field of applications from medicine to mechanical engineering. Here, surface-attached composite films of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and a polymeric hydrogel (HG) were prepared from magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and a carboxymethylated dextran with photoreactive benzophenone substituents. A blend of the MNP and the dextran polymer was prepared by mixing in solution, and after spin-coating and drying the blend film was converted into a stable MNP-HG composite by photocrosslinking through irradiation with UV light. The bulk composite material shows strong mobility in a magnetic field, imparted by the MNPs. By utilizing a surface layer of a photoreactive adhesion promoter on the substrates, the MNP-HG films were covalently immobilized during photocrosslinking. The high stability of the composite was documented by rinsing experiments with UV-Vis spectroscopy, while surface plasmon resonance and optical waveguide mode spectroscopy was employed to investigate the swelling behavior in dependence of the nanoparticle concentration, the particle type, and salt concentration.

  10. Recognition of dextran-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle conjugates (Feridex) via macrophage scavenger receptor charged domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ying; Makale, Milan; Karmali, Priya Prakash; Sharikov, Yuriy; Tsigelny, Igor; Merkulov, Sergei; Kesari, Santosh; Wrasidlo, Wolf; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Simberg, Dmitri

    2012-05-16

    Dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (dextran-SPIO conjugates) offer the attractive possibility of enhancing MRI imaging sensitivity so that small or diffuse lesions can be detected. However, systemically injected SPIOs are rapidly removed by macrophages. We engineered embryonic cells (HEK293T) to express major macrophage scavenger receptor (SR) subtypes including SR-AI, MARCO, and endothelial receptor collectin-12. These SRs possess a positively charged collagen-like (CL) domain and they promoted SPIO uptake, while the charge neutral lipoprotein receptor SR-BI did not. In silico modeling indicated a positive net charge on the CL domain and a net negative charge on the cysteine-rich (CR) domain of MARCO and SR-AI. In vitro experiments revealed that CR domain deletion in SR-AI boosted uptake of SPIO 3-fold, while deletion of MARCO's CR domain abolished this uptake. These data suggest that future studies might productively focus on the validation and further exploration of SR charge fields in SPIO recognition.

  11. Amphiphilic derivatives of dextran: adsorption at air/water and oil/water interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotureau, E; Leonard, M; Dellacherie, E; Durand, A

    2004-11-01

    Ionic amphiphilic dextran derivatives were synthesized by the attachment of sodium sulfopropyl and phenoxy groups on the native polysaccharide. A family of dextran derivatives was thus obtained with varying hydrophobic content and charge density in the polymer chains. The surface-active properties of polymers were studied at the air-water and dodecane-water interfaces using dynamic surface/interfacial tension measurements. The adsorption was shown to begin in a diffusion-limited regime at low polymer concentrations, that is to say, with the diffusion of macromolecules in the bulk solution. In contrast, at long times the interfacial adsorption is limited by interfacial phenomena: adsorption kinetics or transfer into the adsorbed layer. A semiempirical equation developed by Filippov was shown to correctly fit the experimental curves over the whole time range. The presence of ionic groups in the chains strongly lowers the adsorption kinetics. This effect can be interpreted by electrostatic interactions between the free molecules and the already adsorbed ones. The adsorption kinetics at air-water and oil-water interfaces are compared.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, and Toxicity Evaluation of Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Balas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the synthesis of dextran-coated iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (DIO-NPs with spherical shape and uniform size distribution as well as their accumulation and toxic effects on Jurkat cells up to 72 h. The characterization of dextran-coated maghemite nanoparticles was done by X-ray diffraction and dynamic light scattering analyses, transmission electron microscopy imaging, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, magnetic hysteresis, and relaxometry measurements. The quantification of DIO-NPs intracellular uptake showed a progressive accumulation of iron as a function of time and dose accompanied by additional lysosome formation and an increasing darkening exhibited by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner. The cytotoxicity assays revealed a decrease of cell viability and a loss of membrane integrity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Exposure to DIO-NPs determined an increase in reactive oxygen species level up to 72 h. In the first two days of exposure, the level of reduced glutathione decreased and the amount of malondyaldehyde increased, but at the end of the experiment, their concentrations returned to control values. These nanoparticles could be used as contrast agents for MRI but several parameters concerning their interaction with the cells should be taken into consideration for a safe utilization.

  13. Multifunctional colloidal nanofiber composites including dextran and folic acid as electro-active platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzayev, Zakir M O; Bunyatova, Ulviye; Şimșek, Murat

    2017-06-15

    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of novel colloidal multifunctional polymer nanofiber composites (NFCs) from water dispersion blends of intercalated silicate layered nanocomposites of poly (2-vinyl-N-pyrrolidone)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) and dextran/ODA-MMT as matrix and partner polymer intercalated nanocomposites in the presence of NaOH and folic acid (FA) as doping agents by green reactive electrospinning. Chemical and physical structures, surface morphology and electrical properties were investigated. Effects of matrix/partner polymer ratios, doping agents, absorption time of NaOH, and temperature on electrical parameters of NFCs were evaluated. The presence of FA and increasing dextran fraction in NFCs resulted in reducing fiber diameter and improving diameter distribution. High complexing behaviors of matrix/partner polymer chains, organoclay, FA, and NaOH significantly improved conductivity parameters, especially 5-min of absorption time (≈10 -2 -10 - 3 Sm -1 ). The conductivity of the samples decreased with increasing temperature. NFCs fabricated for the first time are promising candidates for various biomedical, electrochemical and electronic applications as electro-active platforms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dextran templating for the synthesis of metallic and metal oxide sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Dominic; Arcelli, Laura; Ikoma, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Junzo; Mann, Stephen

    2003-06-01

    Silver or gold-containing porous frameworks have been used extensively in catalysis, electrochemistry, heat dissipation and biofiltration. These materials are often prepared by thermal reduction of metal-ion-impregnated porous insoluble supports (such as alumina and pumice), and have surface areas of about 1 m2 g-1, which is typically higher than that obtained for pure metal powders or foils prepared electrolytically or by infiltration and thermal decomposition of insoluble cellulose supports. Starch gels have been used in association with zeolite nanoparticles to produce porous inorganic materials with structural hierarchy, but the use of soft sacrificial templates in the synthesis of metallic sponges has not been investigated. Here we demonstrate that self-supporting macroporous frameworks of silver, gold and copper oxide, as well as composites of silver/copper oxide or silver/titania can be routinely prepared by heating metal-salt-containing pastes of the polysaccharide, dextran, to temperatures between 500 and 900 °C. Magnetic sponges were similarly prepared by replacing the metal salt precursor with preformed iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles. The use of dextran as a sacrificial template for the fabrication of metallic and metal oxide sponges should have significant benefits over existing technologies because the method is facile, inexpensive, environmentally benign, and amenable to scale-up and processing.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakić, Milorad; Glišić, Slobodan; Nikolić, Goran; Nikolić, Goran M.; Cakić, Katarina; Cvetinov, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs - DS) were synthesized from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and dextran sulphate sodium salt (DS). The characterization of AgNPs - DS was performed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antimicrobial activity. The formation of AgNPs - DS was monitored by colour changes of the reaction mixture from yellowish to brown and by measuring the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak in UV-VIS spectra at 420 nm. The SEM analysis was used for size and shape determination of AgNPs - DS. The presence of elemental silver and its crystalline structure in AgNPs - DS were confirmed by EDX and XRD analyses. The possible functional groups of DS responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were determinated by FTIR spectroscopy. The AgNPs - DS showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Bacillus luteus in haus strain, Bacillus subtilis ATTC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Escherichia coli ATTC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 700603, Proteus vulgaris ATTC 8427, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATTC 2091.

  16. Corneal Thickness During Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking with Isotonic Riboflavin Solution without Dextran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refik Oltulu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To monitor the corneal thickness change during the dextran-free isotonic riboflavin solution-aided corneal collagen crosslinking procedure in keratoconus patients. Materials and Methods: Corneal thickness measurements during the corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL treatment for progressive keratoconus were evaluated. The corneal thickness measurements were obtained with ultrasonic pachymetry device at five different time points: 0, 15, and 30 minutes after epithelial removal and 15 and 30 minutes after the initiation of UVA irradiation. Results: Twenty-four eyes of 24 patients with progressive keratoconus were included in the study. The thinnest pachymetric values obtained at the 0, 15, and 30 minute measurements after corneal deepithelisation were 409.38±10.43 µm (383-435 µm, 434.56±17.68 µm (400-485 µm, and 457.44±21.78 µm (428-516 µm, respectively. Pachymetric values obtained at 15 and 30 minutes after UVA application to the cornea were 471.69±23.38 µm (439-526 µm and 482.63±23.69 µm (436-524 µm, respectively. The gradual increase was found to be statistically significant when each measurement was compared with the previous values (p<0.001. Conclusion: We found that the corneal thickness was not decreased during the CXL with dextran-free isotonic riboflavin solution; on the contrary, corneal thickness was increased regularly during the procedure. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 272-4

  17. Poultry enteric inflammation model with dextran sodium sulfate mediated chemical induction and feed restriction in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, V A; Berghman, L R; Vicuña, E A; Latorre, J D; Menconi, A; Wolchok, J D; Wolfenden, A D; Faulkner, O B; Tellez, G I; Hargis, B M; Bielke, L R

    2015-06-01

    Gut inflammation is a cardinal event occurring in various gastrointestinal diseases regardless of etiology. A potential mechanism of action for antibiotic growth promoters and probiotics is alleviation or attenuation of such inflammation. In vivo inflammation models and markers to quantify changes in inflammation, such as paracellular leakage and tight junction function, are necessary tools in the search for methods to reduce enteric inflammation. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and feed restriction (FRS), and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d; 3 to 5 kDa) marker were evaluated for induction and assessment of enteric inflammation in broilers. Three independent experiments were conducted where birds received an inflammation inducer treatment and an oral gavage of FITC-d (2.2 mg/bird) 2.5 h before killing on d 4, followed by measurement of serum FITC-d levels and release of FITC-d from different regions of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to evaluate tight junction function. Experiment 1 tested control (CON) and DSS; Experiments 2 and 3 evaluated CON, DSS, and FRS. In all experiments DSS, as well as FRS in Experiments 2 and 3, showed higher (PPoultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Dilational rheology of oil/water interfaces covered by amphiphilic polysaccharides derived from dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbrières, Jacques; López-Gonzalez, Edeluc; Aguilera-Miguel, Antonio; Sadtler, Véronique; Marchal, Philippe; Castel, Christophe; Choplin, Lionel; Durand, Alain

    2017-12-01

    This work studied the adsorption at dodecane/water interface of amphiphilic polysaccharides derived from dextran (a nonionic bacterial polysaccharide) by random attachment of phenoxy groups along the chains (between 10 and 20 attached phenoxy groups per 100 glucose repeat units). The long-time kinetics of interfacial tension decrease was satisfactorily described assuming diffusion-limited adsorption of hydrophobic units (over 4h). Dilational rheology of dodecane/water interface was studied for the first time with that kind of amphiphilic polysaccharides and evidenced a significant elastic component. For all dextran derivatives, experimental results were conveniently described using Lucassen-van den Tempel model which assumed diffusion-limited of surface active species. The characteristic frequency increased with the number of attached phenoxy groups and its order of magnitude (10 -3 -10 -2 rad.s -1 ) was consistent with estimations based on the previous model. Experimental results were compared to those obtained with commercial stabilizers like Pluronics (L64, P105, F68 and F127) and Tween 80. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fabrication of aptamer decorated dextran coated nano-graphene oxide for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibolandi, Mona; Mohammadi, Marzieh; Taghdisi, Seyed Mohammad; Ramezani, Mohammad; Abnous, Khalil

    2017-01-02

    In the current study, dextran (DEX) was covalently conjugated to the surface of nano-GO sheets, making stable biocompatible dextran coated GO (GO-DEX). The prepared GO-DEX was nontoxic to 4T1 mammary carcinoma cell line at concentrations up to 300μg/mL. AS1411 aptamer, a ssDNA aptamer which can improve the intracellular uptake by nucleolin recognition, also has been introduced to hydroxyl groups of DEX in GO-DEX to produce GO-DEX-Apt. Moreover, curcumin (CUR), a natural polyphenol, found in the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) which shows antineoplastic effects, was loaded onto the GO-DEX and GO-DEX-Apt via π-π stacking interactions with a high loading capacity (∼29wt%). The GO-DEX-Apt-CUR could efficiently enter into 4T1 and MCF-7 nucleolin over-expressed cancer cells confirmed by fluorescence microscope and flowcytometry, and it also showed significantly higher cytotoxicity. These types of targeted nanoscale drug delivery vehicles on the basis of DEX coated GO may find potential application in cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  1. Cardiopulmonary effects of 7.2% saline solution compared with gelatin infusion in the early postoperative period after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhar, R; Samenesco, A; Royston, D; Rees, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a clinical study on the use of 7.2%, 2400 mOsm/L, hypertonic saline solution compared with gelatin in early postoperative period after coronary artery bypass surgery. Two groups (n = 10 each) received 5 ml/kg of either saline solution or gelatin over 1 hour. Cardiac index, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, arterial oxygen tension, plasma osmolarity, electrolytes, and urinary output were recorded before starting the infusion and subsequently at 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 240 and 600 minutes. Plasma creatinine, urea, electrolytes, urinary volume, and sodium excretion were measured at 12 and 24 hours. There were no significant demographic or operative difference between the groups. Patients receiving saline solution had a larger diuresis at 12 (p = 0.0008) and 24 hours (p = 0.002), with less positive balance at 12 hours (p = 0.0008). The group receiving saline solution had better cardiorespiratory recovery with shorter extubation time (p = 0.033), and earlier increase in cardiac index with a positive correlation between plasma sodium content and cardiac index. Maximum increase in cardiac index (+31%) occurred at 60 minutes (p = 0.025) associated with 8% increase in plasma sodium content (r = 0.51, p = 0.01), without a concomitant rise in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. The group receiving gelatin had a linear increase in cardiac index with increasing pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, reaching +16% from baseline by 90 minutes. Compared with the gelatin-treated group, patients receiving saline solution had unchanged systemic vascular resistance index but a significantly lower pulmonary vascular resistance index with a negative correlation to plasma sodium content. There was no difference in levels of urea and creatinine. No side-effect attributable to the use of saline solution was observed.

  2. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  3. TERRA E SUA ASSOCIAÇÃO COM FERRO DEXTRAN NO DESEMPENHO DE LEITÕES EM ALEITAMENTO LAND AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH IRON DEXTRAN IN THE PERFORMANCE OF PIGLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergito de Souza Cavalcanti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Na central de Suínos de Goiás, no município de Senador Canedo, foi realizada esta pesquisa, onde se utilizou leitegada de quinze porcas Large White com a finalidade de se verificar o efeito da terra e de sua associação com ferro dextran no desempenho de leitões, aos 21 e 36 dias da idade. Os tratamentos utilizados foram os seguintes: T1 - 100 mg do ferro dextran via intramuscular no terceiro dia de vida dos leitões; T2 -50 mg de ferro dextran via intramuscular no terceiro dia de vida dos leitões mais 1,0 Kg de terra/dia do terceiro ao trigésimo quinto dia; T3 - 2,0 kg de terra/dia do terceiro ao trigésimo quinto dia de vida dos leitões. Observadas as condições em que foi realizado o experimento, conclui-se que: 1 a substituição de 50 mg de ferro dextran por 1,0 kg de terra/dia, do terceiro ao trigésimo quinto dia de vida dos leitões é tão eficiente quanto 100 mg de ferro dextran injetável intramuscularmente ao terceiro dia de vida; 2 o uso de 2,0 kg de terra diariamente do terceiro ao trigésimo quinto dia de vida dos leitões teve um desempenho inferior aos demais tratamentos.

    This research was developed in the Central Pig Farm in the county of Senador Canedo in Goiás State. Litters from 15 Large White sows were used to investigate the effect of feeding ground and its association with iron dextran to piglets from the third day of age. The evaluation of the effects of the treatments in the development of the piglets was done at 21 and 35 days of age. The treatments were as follow: T1 - 100 mg of iron dextran, via intramuscular, at the third day of age; T2 - 50 mg of iron dextran, via intramuscular, at the third day of age in association with 1.0 kg of ground, fed daily from the third to the 35th day of age; T3 - 2.0 kg of ground, daily, from the third to the 35th day of age. After observing

  4. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of soil salinity is a quantification of the total salts present in the liquid portion of the soil. Soil salinity is important in agriculture because salinity reduces crop yields by reducing the osmotic potential making it more difficult for the plant to extract water, by causing spe...

  5. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the presence of diethylaminoethyl-dextran hydrochloride polymer and their SERS activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikac, L.; Jurkin, T.; Štefanić, G.; Ivanda, Mile; Gotić, Marijan

    2017-09-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized upon γ-irradiation of AgNO3 precursor suspensions in the presence of diethylaminoethyl-dextran hydrochloride (DEAE-dextran) cationic polymer as a stabilizer. The dose rate of γ-irradiation was 32 kGy h-1, and absorbed doses were 30 and 60 kGy. The γ-irradiation of the precursor suspension at acidic or neutral pH conditions produced predominantly the silver(I) chloride (AgCl) particles, because of the poor solubility of AgCl already present in the precursor suspension. The origin of AgCl in the precursor suspension was due to the presence of chloride ions in DEAE-dextran hydrochloride polymer. The addition of ammonia to the precursor suspension dissolved the AgCl precipitate, and the γ-irradiation of such colourless suspension at alkali pH produced a stable aqueous suspension with rather uniform spherical AgNPs of approximately 30 nm in size. The size of AgNPs was controlled by varying the AgNO3/DEAE-dextran concentration in the suspensions. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities of synthesized AgNPs were examined using organic molecules rhodamine 6G, pyridine and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). The NaBH4 was used as SERS aggregation agent. The SERS results have shown that in the presence of synthesized AgNPs, it was possible to detect low concentration of tested compounds.

  6. Visualizing formation and dynamics of vacuoles in living cells using contrasting dextran-bound indicator: endocytic and nonendocytic vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Svetlana G; Sherwood, Mark W; Gerasimenko, Oleg V; Petersen, Ole H; Tepikin, Alexei V

    2007-12-01

    Here we describe a technique that allows us to visualize in real time the formation and dynamics (fusion, changes of shape, and translocation) of vacuoles in living cells. The technique involves infusion of a dextran-bound fluorescent probe into the cytosol of the cell via a patch pipette, using the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration. Experiments were conducted on pancreatic acinar cells stimulated with supramaximal concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK). The vacuoles, forming in the cytoplasm of the cell, were revealed as dark imprints on a bright fluorescence background, produced by the probe and visualized by confocal microscopy. A combination of two dextran-bound probes, one infused into the cytosol and the second added to the extracellular solution, was used to identify endocytic and nonendocytic vacuoles. The cytosolic dextran-bound probe was also used together with a Golgi indicator to illustrate the possibility of combining the probes and identifying the localization of vacuoles with respect to other cellular organelles in pancreatic acinar cells. Combinations of cytosolic dextran-bound probes with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or mitochondrial probes were also used to simultaneously visualize vacuoles and corresponding organelles. We expect that the new technique will also be applicable and useful for studies of vacuole dynamics in other cell types.

  7. Development of pH-sensitive Dextran Derivatives with Strong Adjuvant Function and Their Application to Antigen Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuba, Eiji; Uesugi, Shinya; Miyazaki, Maiko; Kado, Yuna; Harada, Atsushi; Kono, Kenji

    2017-08-04

    To achieve efficient cancer immunotherapy, the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-based cellular immunity is necessary. In order to induce cellular immunity, antigen carriers that can deliver antigen into cytosol of antigen presenting cells and can activate these cells are required. We previously developed 3-methyl glutarylated dextran (MGlu-Dex) for cytoplasmic delivery of antigen via membrane disruption ability at weakly acidic pH in endosome/lysosomes. MGlu-Dex-modified liposomes delivered model antigens into cytosol of dendritic cells and induced antigen-specific cellular immunity. However, their antitumor effects were not enough to complete the regression of the tumor. In this study, antigen delivery performance of dextran derivatives was improved by the introduction of more hydrophobic spacer groups next to carboxyl groups. 2-Carboxycyclohexane-1-carboxylated dextran (CHex-Dex) was newly synthesized as pH-responsive dextran derivative. CHex-Dex formed stronger hydrophobic domains at extremely weak acidic pH and destabilized lipid membrane more efficiently than MGlu-Dex. CHex-Dex-modified liposomes were taken up by dendritic cells 10 times higher than MGlu-Dex-modified liposomes and delivered model antigen into cytosol. Furthermore, CHex-Dex achieved 600 times higher IL-12 production from dendritic cells than MGlu-Dex. Therefore, CHex-Dex is promising as multifunctional polysaccharide having both cytoplasmic antigen delivery function and strong activation property of dendritic cells for induction of cellular immunity.

  8. The formation of magnetic carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles using precipitation from an aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makovec, Darko [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Sašo, E-mail: saso.gyergyek@ijs.si [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Primc, Darinka [Department for Materials Synthesis, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova ulica 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Plantan, Ivan [Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., Mengeš (Slovenia)

    2015-03-01

    The formation of spinel iron-oxide nanoparticles during the co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ions from an aqueous solution in the presence of carboxymethyldextrane (CMD) was studied. To follow the formation of the nanoparticles, a mixture of the Fe ions, CMD and ammonia was heated to different temperatures, while the samples were taken, quenched in liquid nitrogen, freeze-dried and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and magnetometry. The CMD plays a role in the reactions of the Fe ions' precipitation by partially immobilizing the Fe{sup 3+} ions into a complex. At room temperature, the amorphous material is precipitated. Then, above approximately 30 °C, the spinel nanoparticles form inside the amorphous matrix, and at approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles. The CMD bonded to the nanoparticles' surfaces hinders the mass transport and thus prevents their growth. - Highlights: • The carboxymethyl-dextrane coated iron-oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • The carboxymethyl-dextrane significantly modifies formation of the spinel nanoparticles. • The spinel nanoparticles are formed inside the amorphous matrix. • At approximately 40 °C the matrix decomposes into the suspension of carboxymethyl-dextrane-coated iron-oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Intraoperative corneal thickness monitoring during corneal collagen cross-linking with isotonic riboflavin solution with and without dextran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltulu, Refik; Şatirtav, Günhal; Donbaloğlu, Meryem; Kerimoğlu, Hürkan; Özkağnici, Ahmet; Karaibrahimoğlu, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and compare corneal thickness changes during corneal collagen cross-linking procedures performed with isoosmolar riboflavin solution with 20% dextran and without dextran in corneal ectatic diseases. The patients in this study were analyzed in 2 groups: group 1 receiving riboflavin solution containing 20% dextran and group 2 receiving dextran-free riboflavin solution. Corneal thickness measurements were obtained with ultrasonic pachymetry at 6 different time points: preoperatively and at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after epithelial removal and initiation of ultraviolet A irradiation. Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients with progressive keratoconus were included in the study. In group 1 (n = 13), the mean preoperative thinnest pachymetric readings were 469.3 ± 8.5 μm, which decreased to 423.8 ± 8.9 μm after deepithelization and further decreased to 385.9 ± 10.9 μm at 15 minutes. The corneal thickness assumed a steady course at the 30-, 45-, and 60-minute measurements (378.9 ± 9.8 μm, 384.5 ± 10.5 μm, and 396.7 ± 9.4 μm, respectively). The initial change was statistically significant (P corneas.

  10. Physicochemical stability and in vitro bioaccessibility of ß-carotene nanoemulsions stabilized with whey protein-dextran conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, ß-carotene (BC)-loaded nanoemulsions encapsulated with native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI-dextran (DT, 5 kDa, 20 kDa, and 70 kDa) conjugates were prepared and the effects of glycosylation with various molecular weight DTs on the physicochemical property, lipolysis, and BC bioac...

  11. Structure and Antioxidant Activity of Soy Protein Isolate-Dextran Conjugates Obtained by TiO2 Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the structural characteristics and antioxidant activities of soy protein isolate- (SPI- dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment. Results revealed that the UV-vis absorption and the fluorescence intensity increased as the photocatalytic power increased (P<0.05. Higher photocatalytic power could promote the extent of glycation and the formation of high molecular weight SPI-dextran conjugates, which were evidenced by free amino group content and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra suggested that the amide I, II, and III bands of SPI were altered by the glycation induced by TiO2 photocatalysis. Moreover, significant changes of secondary structure occurred in SPI-dextran conjugates. The α-helix, β-sheet, β-turns, and random coil were changed from approximately 10.6%, 37.9%, 12.9%, and 38.6% to 3.8%, 10.4%, 17.7%, and 68.8%, respectively, after treatment at photocatalytic power of 1000 W. In addition, SPI-dextran conjugates obtained by TiO2 photocatalysis treatment exhibited high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and possessed increased reducing power. All data indicated that TiO2 photocatalysis was an efficient method for promoting protein-polysaccharide copolymerisation.

  12. Stochastic modeling of soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Daly, E.; van der Zee, S.; Maritan, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-12-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The equations for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equations to a single stochastic differential equation (generalized Langevin equation) driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. Generalized Langevin equations with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual Ito (I) or Stratonovich (S) prescription dilemma. Different interpretations lead to different results and then choosing between the I and S prescriptions is crucial to describe correctly the dynamics of the model systems. We show how this choice can be determined by physical information about the timescales involved in the process. We also show that when the multiplicative noise is at most linear in the random variable one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We then apply these results to the generalized Langevin equation that drives the salt mass dynamics. The stationary analytical solutions for the probability density functions of salt mass and concentration provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in longterm soil salinization trends, with significant consequences, e.g. for climate change impacts on rain fed agriculture.

  13. Effects of intracerebroventricular injection of iron dextran on the iron concentration and divalent metal transporter 1 expression in the caudate putamen and substantia nigra of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Miao, Wei; Wang, Shu-Min; Cui, Rui; Qian, Zhong-Ming; Ke, Ya; Duan, Xiang-Lin

    2009-02-01

    The cellular localization of DMT1 and its functional characterization suggest that DMT1 may play an important role in the physiological brain iron transport. But the regulation of DMT1 expression by iron in the brain is still not clearly understood. In this study, both the contents of ferric and ferrous iron as well as DMT1 expression were evaluated in CPu and SN after ICV of 500 microg iron dextran/rat/day for 3 or 7 days. It was found that the iron levels in CPu and SN were not altered obviously until ICV for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry results indicated that the expression of DMT1 (-IRE) in CPu and SN was not altered significantly after 3 days of ICV. Whereas the expression of DMT1 (-IRE) decreased significantly after 7 days of ICV when ferrous iron was increased significantly. Contrary to that of DMT1 (-IRE) in the same regions, there were no significant alterations in DMT1 (+IRE) expression in CPu and SN in spite of the existence of the altered iron levels, compared with that of control groups. The results demonstrate that DMT1 (-IRE) expression was correlated probably with brain iron levels; especially, its regulation was correlated with ferrous iron (not ferric iron) in CPu and SN in adult rats, compared with those of saline-injected control rats. The effect of ferrous iron on the expression of DMT1 (-IRE) in the brain also suggests that it might play a major physiological role in brain iron uptake and transport, but further studies are needed to clarify these issues. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Anticancer efficacy of a supramolecular complex of a 2-diethylaminoethyl-dextran-MMA graft copolymer and paclitaxel used as an artificial enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yasuhiko; Eshita, Yuki; Ji, Rui-Cheng; Onishi, Masayasu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Mizuno, Masaaki; Yoshida, Jun; Kubota, Naoji

    2014-01-01

    The anticancer efficacy of a supramolecular complex that was used as an artificial enzyme against multi-drug-resistant cancer cells was confirmed. A complex of diethylaminoethyl-dextran-methacrylic acid methylester copolymer (DDMC)/paclitaxel (PTX), obtained with PTX as the guest and DDMC as the host, formed a nanoparticle 50-300 nm in size. This complex is considered to be useful as a drug delivery system (DDS) for anticancer compounds since it formed a stable polymeric micelle in water. The resistance of B16F10 melanoma cells to PTX was shown clearly through a maximum survival curve. Conversely, the DDMC/PTX complex showed a superior anticancer efficacy and cell killing rate, as determined through a Michaelis-Menten-type equation, which may promote an allosteric supramolecular reaction to tubulin, in the same manner as an enzymatic reaction. The DDMC/PTX complex showed significantly higher anticancer activity compared to PTX alone in mouse skin in vivo. The median survival times of the saline, PTX, DDMC/PTX4 (particle size 50 nm), and DDMC/PTX5 (particle size 290 nm) groups were 120 h (treatment (T)/control (C), 1.0), 176 h (T/C, 1.46), 328 h (T/C, 2.73), and 280 h (T/C, 2.33), respectively. The supramolecular DDMC/PTX complex showed twice the effectiveness of PTX alone (p < 0.036). Above all, the DDMC/PTX complex is not degraded in cells and acts as an intact supramolecular assembly, which adds a new species to the range of DDS.

  15. Medicinal facilities to B16F10 melanoma cells for distant metastasis control with a supramolecular complex by DEAE-dextran-MMA copolymer/paclitaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshita, Yuki; Ji, Rui-Cheng; Onishi, Masayasu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Mizuno, Masaaki; Yoshida, Jun; Kubota, Naoji; Onishi, Yasuhiko

    2015-02-01

    The resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs (MDR) is a major problem to be solved. A supramolecular DEAE-dextran-MMA copolymer (DDMC)/paclitaxel (PTX) complex was obtained by using PTX as the guest and DDMC as the host having 50-300 nm in diameter. The drug resistance of B16F10 melanoma cells to paclitaxel was observed, but there is no drug resistance of melanoma cells to the DDMC/PTX complex in vitro. The cell death rate was determined using Michaelis-Menten kinetics, as the DDMC/PTX complex promoted allosteric supramolecular reaction to tubulin. The DDMC/PTX complex showed a very superior anti-cancer activity to paclitaxel alone in vivo. The median survival time (MST) of the saline, PTX, DDMC/PTX4 (particle size, 50 nm), and DDMC/PTX5 (particle size, 290 nm) groups were 120 h (T/C, 1.0), 176 h (T/C, 1.46), 328 h (T/C, 2.73), and 280 h (T/C, 2.33), respectively. The supramolecular DDMC/PTX complex showed the twofold effectiveness of PTX alone (p < 0.036). Histochemical analysis indicated that the administration of DDMC/PTX complex decreased distant metastasis and increased the survival of mice. A mouse of DDMC/PTX4 group in vivo was almost curing after small dermatorrhagia owing to its anti-angiogenesis, and it will be the hemorrhagic necrotic symptom of tumor by the release of "tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)" cytokine. As the result, the medicinal action of the DDMC/PTX complex will suppress the tumor-associated action of M2 macrophages and will control the metastasis of cancer cells.

  16. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  17. Increased long-latency reflex activity as a sufficient explanation for childhood hypertonic dystonia: a neuromorphic emulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Won J.; Niu, Chuanxin M.; Sanger, Terence D.

    2015-06-01

    Objective. Childhood dystonia is a movement disorder that interferes with daily movements and can have a devastating effect on quality of life for children and their families. Although injury to basal ganglia is associated with dystonia, the neurophysiological mechanisms leading to the clinical manifestations of dystonia are not understood. Previous work suggested that long-latency stretch reflex (LLSR) is hyperactive in children with hypertonia due to secondary dystonia. We hypothesize that abnormal activity in motor cortices may cause an increase in the LLSR leading to hypertonia. Approach. We modeled two possibilities of hyperactive LLSR by either creating a tonic involuntary drive to cortex, or increasing the synaptic gain in cortical neurons. Both models are emulated using programmable very-large-scale-integrated-circuit hardware to test their sufficiency for producing dystonic symptoms. The emulation includes a joint with two Hill-type muscles, realistic muscle spindles, and 2,304 Izhikevich-type spiking neurons. The muscles are regulated by a monosynaptic spinal pathway with 32 ms delay and a long-latency pathway with 64 ms loop-delay representing transcortical/supra-spinal connections. Main results. When the limb is passively stretched, both models produce involuntary resistance with increased antagonist EMG responses similar to human data; also the muscle relaxation is delayed similar to human data. Both models predict reduced range of motion in voluntary movements. Significance. Although our model is a highly simplified and limited representation of reflex pathways, it shows that increased activity of the LLSR is by itself sufficient to cause many of the features of hypertonic dystonia.

  18. Unilateral fluid absorption and effects on peak power after ingestion of commercially available hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Bonetti, Darrell L; Hopkins, Will G

    2011-12-01

    Isotonic sports drinks are often consumed to offset the effects of dehydration and improve endurance performance, but hypotonic drinks may be more advantageous. The purpose of the study was to compare absorption and effects on performance of a commercially available hypotonic sports drink (Mizone Rapid: 3.9% carbohydrate [CHO], 218 mOsmol/kg) with those of an isotonic drink (PowerAde: 7.6% CHO, 281 mOsmol/ kg), a hypertonic drink (Gatorade: 6% CHO, 327 mOsmol/kg), and a noncaloric placebo (8 mOsmol/kg). In a crossover, 11 cyclists consumed each drink on separate days at 250 ml/15 min during a 2-hr preload ride at 55% peak power followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Small to moderate increases in deuterium oxide enrichment in the preload were observed with Mizone Rapid relative to PowerAde, Gatorade, and placebo (differences of 88, 45, and 42 parts per million, respectively; 90% confidence limits ±28). Serum osmolality was moderately lower with Mizone Rapid than with PowerAde and Gatorade (-1.9, -2.4; mOsmol/L; ±1.2 mOsmol/L) but not clearly different vs. placebo. Plasma volume reduction was small to moderate with Mizone Rapid, PowerAde, and Gatorade relative to placebo (-1.9%, -2.5%, -2.9%; ± 2.5%). Gut comfort was highest with Mizone Rapid but clearly different (8.4% ± 4.8%) only vs PowerAde. Peak power was highest with Mizone Rapid (380 W) vs. placebo and other drinks (1.2-3.0%; 99% confidence limits ±4.7%), but differences were inconclusive with reference to the smallest important effect (~1.2%). The outcomes are consistent with fastest fluid absorption with the hypotonic sports drink. Further research should determine whether the effect has a meaningful impact on performance.

  19. Determination of iron sucrose (Venofer or iron dextran (DexFerrum removal by hemodialysis: an in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabe Darren W

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravenous iron is typically administered during the hemodialysis (HD procedure. HD patients may be prescribed high-flux (HF or high-efficiency (HE dialysis membranes. The extent of iron sucrose and iron dextran removal by HD using HF or HE membranes and by ultrafiltration rate (UFR is unknown. Methods Two in vitro HD systems were designed and constructed to determine the dialyzabiltiy of iron from a simulated blood system (SBS containing 100 mg iron sucrose or iron dextran (system A or 1000 mg iron sucrose (system B. Both in vitro systems utilized a 6-L closed-loop SBS system that was subject to 4 different HD conditions conducted over 4 hours: HE membrane + 0 ml/hr UFR; HE membrane + 500 ml/hr UFR; HF membrane + 0 ml/hr UFR; HF membrane + 500 ml/hr UFR. Blood flow and dialysate flow rates were 500 ml/min and 800 ml/min, respectively. The dialysate compartment was a 192-L open system for system A and a 6-L closed-loop system for system B. Samples from the SBS and dialysate compartments were taken at various time points and iron elimination rate and HD clearance was determined. Iron removal from the SBS > 15% was considered clinically significant. Results The greatest percentage removal from the SBS was 13.5% and -0.03% utilizing system A and B, respectively. Iron sucrose and iron dextran dialysate concentration was below the lower limits of assay ( Conclusion HF or HE dialysis membranes do not remove clinically significant amounts of iron sucrose or dextran formulations over a 4-hour HD session. This effect remained constant even controlling for UFR up to 500 ml/hour. Therefore, iron sucrose and iron dextran are not dialyzed by HE or HF dialysis membranes irrespective of UFR.

  20. Efficacy and safety of newly developed cross-linked dextran gel injection for glans penis augmentation with a novel technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yul Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no safe and effective standard method for glans penis augmentation. Furthermore, there has been scant research on glans penis augmentation due to a poor understanding of glans anatomy, technical difficulty, and a lack of suitable substances for augmentation. Cross-linked dextran gel is a newly developed filler for soft-tissue augmentation. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of using a novel technique to inject cross-linked dextran gel for glans penis augmentation during a 24-week follow-up study. This prospective, single-arm, multicenter study enrolled twenty healthy adult men who underwent glans penis augmentation between June and August 2013. Cross-linked dextran gel was injected into the glans penis using a simple and easy technique. The sizes of the glans penis and individual satisfaction were assessed. Any adverse event was also reported. A total of 18 individuals were analyzed; two of them were lost to follow-up. The mean procedure time and injected volume were about 30 min and 6.6 ± 0.9 ml, respectively. The mean surface areas of the glans at baseline and 24 weeks were 20.0 ± 3.5 cm2 and 33.6 ± 5.4 cm2 , respectively, representing a mean increase of 68.7% ± 14.0% (P < 0.001. Sixteen individuals (88.9% were satisfied with the outcomes, and none were dissatisfied. There were no serious adverse events during the study. Cross-linked dextran gel injection for glans penis augmentation was easy and showed a significant augmentative effect on the glans penis, good durability, and was well tolerated without serious adverse events. Therefore, cross-linked dextran gel injection may be an effective, new technique for glans penis augmentation.