WorldWideScience

Sample records for hyperthermia classic commentary

  1. Hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.A.; Emami, B.; Nussbaum, G.; Sapareto, S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect on heat on malignant tumors was first reported by Hippocrates. In 1856 another described the disappearance of a soft tissue sarcoma following high fever in a patient with erysipelas. Later, another induced fever by injecting bacterial toxins, and others used localized hyperthermia to produce tumor regression in patients. There were 32 patients with advanced cancer of various types treated with a combination of heat, induced with pyrogenic substances, and x-ray therapy. Twenty-nine of these patients improved for 1 to 6 months. In the past 10 years interest has been rekindled to the clinical application of this modality because numerous papers have indicated that there may be a significant advantage to the use of heat alone or combined with irradiation and cytotoxic drugs to enhance the killing of tumor cells. The clinical use of heat has been hampered by a lack of adequate equipment to deliver effective heat in deep-seated lesions and of thermometry techniques that provide reliable information on heat distribution in target tissues. However, significant progress has been made. About 30% to 50% of patients with solid tumors have recurrences at the primary site. Many of these patients have regional lymph node recurrences. Both failure patterns could be improved if effective radiation sensitizers are developed

  2. Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Commentary on a case about child abuse discussing the dilemma between recognition of professional discretion and the decire for further democratic development of society.......Commentary on a case about child abuse discussing the dilemma between recognition of professional discretion and the decire for further democratic development of society....

  3. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... 2. Commentary. The dental education came to light for the first time in India in 1920 ... rise in dental colleges has led to a higher number of dental graduates [6]. ... practice is not easy due to already saturated market and competition [4]. .... health in India: need for skill mix in the dental workforce. J. Fam Med ...

  4. Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    This commentary addresses a number of important evidentiary issues that arose during cross-examination of Charles Taylor, the former President of Liberia, who who stood trial and was convicted of crimes against humanity and war crimes committed during Sierra Leone’s brutal civil war before the UN......-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). At the core of cross-examination was the Prosecution’s strategy to challenge Taylor’s self-portrayal as a peacemaker and to demonstrate a pattern of conduct of the accused in Liberia similar to the one pursued by war-mongering leaders of various rebel groups...

  5. Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2015-01-01

    ’s lives. However there has been primarily focus on its life accelerating attributes. Slowing down the process of production may open up possibilities for sustainable ICT development. The commentary combined with Patrignani and Whitehouse's article may provide a resource for those responsible in training...... technology. Connecting resource production, use and disposal and its affect on climate change will require those who are in the position to make changes to come up with solutions that consider also values, beliefs and norms that lead to particular types of behaviour. ICT has had an enormous impact on people...

  6. Malignant hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollock Neil

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle that presents as a hypermetabolic response to potent volatile anesthetic gases such as halothane, sevoflurane, desflurane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine, and rarely, in humans, to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. The incidence of MH reactions ranges from 1:5,000 to 1:50,000–100,000 anesthesias. However, the prevalence of the genetic abnormalities may be as great as one in 3,000 individuals. MH affects humans, certain pig breeds, dogs, horses, and probably other animals. The classic signs of MH include hyperthermia to marked degree, tachycardia, tachypnea, increased carbon dioxide production, increased oxygen consumption, acidosis, muscle rigidity, and rhabdomyolysis, all related to a hypermetabolic response. The syndrome is likely to be fatal if untreated. Early recognition of the signs of MH, specifically elevation of end-expired carbon dioxide, provides the clinical diagnostic clues. In humans the syndrome is inherited in autosomal dominant pattern, while in pigs in autosomal recessive. The pathophysiologic changes of MH are due to uncontrolled rise of myoplasmic calcium, which activates biochemical processes related to muscle activation. Due to ATP depletion, the muscle membrane integrity is compromised leading to hyperkalemia and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, the syndrome is caused by a defect in the ryanodine receptor. Over 90 mutations have been identified in the RYR-1 gene located on chromosome 19q13.1, and at least 25 are causal for MH. Diagnostic testing relies on assessing the in vitro contracture response of biopsied muscle to halothane, caffeine, and other drugs. Elucidation of the genetic changes has led to the introduction, on a limited basis so far, of genetic testing for susceptibility to MH. As the sensitivity of genetic testing increases, molecular genetics will be used for identifying those at risk with

  7. Biological effects of hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Biological effects of hyperthermia and application of hyperthermia to cancer therapy were outlined. As to independent effects of hyperthermia, heat sensitivity of cancer cells, targets of hyperthermia, thermal tolerance of cancer cells, effects of pH on hyperthermic cell survival, effects of hyperthermia on normal tissues, and possibility of clinical application of hyperthermia were described. Combined effect of hyperthermia and x-irradiation to enhance radiosensitivity of cancer cells, its mechanism, effects of oxygen on cancer cells treated with hyperthermia and irradiation, and therapeutic ratio of combined hyperthermia and irradiation were also described. Finally, sensitizers were mentioned. (Tsunoda, M.)

  8. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-11-11

    Nov 11, 2013 ... Polanyi's classic paper, co-authored by Henry Eyring, reproduced in this ... spatial conf guration of the atoms in terms of the energy function of the diatomic .... The present communication deals with the construction of such .... These three contributions are complemented by a fourth term if one takes into.

  9. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitspatrick, C.

    1990-01-01

    Hyperthermia and radiotherapy have for long been used to assist in the control of tumours, either as separate entities, or, in a combined treatment scheme. This paper outlines why hyperthermia works, thermal dose and the considerations required in the timing when hyperthermia is combined with radiotherapy. Previously reported results for hyperthermia and radiotherapy used together are also presented. 8 refs., 8 tabs

  10. COCA Commentary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    COCA Commentary podcasts are designed to be an educational resource for healthcare providers. This podcast series provides current information on emerging health threats, emergency preparedness and response topics, and CDC clinical guidance.

  11. Continuing Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R. M.; von Eye, A.

    1993-01-01

    Rebuts the Burgess and Molenaar commentary in this issue on the authors' paper concerning sociobiology and human development, maintaining that genes (nature) cannot usefully be construed as independent of the coactional developmental system of which they are a part. (BB)

  12. Hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagendijk, J.J.W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia, the treatment of tumours with elevated temperatures in the range of 40-44 deg. C with treatment times over 30 min, greatly benefits from the development of hyperthermia treatment planning. This review briefly describes the state of the art in hyperthermia technology, followed by an overview of the developments in hyperthermia treatment planning. It particularly highlights the significant problems encountered with heating realistic tissue volumes and shows how treatment planning can help in designing better heating technology. Hyperthermia treatment planning will ultimately provide information about the actual temperature distributions obtained and thus the tumour control probabilities to be expected. This will improve our understanding of the present clinical results of thermoradiotherapy and thermochemotherapy, and will greatly help both in optimizing clinical heating technology and in designing optimal clinical trials. (author)

  13. Hyperthermia quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, P.N.; Paliwal, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Hyperthermia Physics Center (HPC) operating under contract with the National Cancer Institute is developing a Quality Assurance program for local and regional hyperthermia. The major clinical problem in hyperthermia treatments is that they are extremely difficult to plan, execute, monitor and reproduce. A scientific basis for treatment planning can be established only after ensuring that the performance of heat generating and temperature monitoring systems are reliable. The HPC is presently concentrating on providing uniform NBS traceable calibration of thermometers and evaluation of reproducibility for power generator operation, applicator performance, phanta compositions, system calibrations and personnel shielding. The organizational plan together with recommended evaluation measurements, procedures and criteria are presented

  14. Hyperthermia: clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicher, H.I.

    1982-01-01

    A large number of patients have now been entered into a phase I/II protocol to examine the effects of fractionated hyperthermia and radiation on tumor response. Included in the study were 11 different histologies with anatomical locations varying between peripheral and superficial metastases to deep-seated, solid tumors. Patients were treated with four fractions of microwave-induced hyperthermia (45.0 +- 0.5 0 C), each separated by intervals of 72 hours. Microwaves at frequencies of 915 MHz or 300 MHz were employed, Patients were given a one week rest following the first four treatments, following which a second series of four fractions were administered, again at 72 hour intervals. Each of these fractions consisted of a 400 rad dose of radiation followed within 20 min by hyperthermia (42.5 +- 5 0 C) for 1.5 hours. To date 121 fields have been treated by 82 patients. Total regression is seen in 65% of all cases, partial regression in 35% and no response is seen in only 5% of treatments. Adverse effects were rare. Site specific trials are currently in progress to study the feasibility of deep-seated heating with intracavitary antennae as well as to assess tumor response. In addition, a randomized trial to examine the clinical relevance of thermotolerance has been started

  15. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, F.

    1979-01-01

    Of decisive importance for superadditive enhancement is the close temporal correlation of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. It is recommended to first irradiate and then use heat treatment in order to ensure that dividable tumour cells are irradiated before hyperthermia. To achieve an optimal enhancing effect, temperatures of appr. 42 0 are sufficient. In order to be able to neglect temperature regulation and convection effects, hyperthermia for clinical use must be carried out in doses high enough to ensure that it can be finished within 3-4 minutes. It is necessary to make efforts to find out which forms of application can be realised in order to reach deeper tissue regions, thus making possible at least a half-depth-therapy. Up to day, only the 2 cm near to the surface can be heated in a sufficiently homogeneous way. In the FRG, there are more than 200 high-volt-therapy systems, including electron accelerators and telegamma systems. This is a dense network of radiation-therapeutical supply. An improved therapy effect of loose ionising rays which, with the help of the hypertherming, would almost be equal to irradiation with high ionisation density, is not only of scientific interest, but also of high interest for public health. (orig./MG) 891 MG/orig.- 892 RDG [de

  16. Hyperthermia and hyperglycemia in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhavrid, Eh.A.; Osinskij, S.P.; Fradkin, S.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Consideration is being given to publication data and results of author's investigations into the effect of hyperthermia and hyperglycemia on physico-chemical characteristics and growth of various experimental tumors. Factors, modifying thermosensitivity, mechanisms of hyperthermia effect, various aspects of thermochimio- and thermoradiotherapy have been analyzed. Effect of artificial hyperglycemia on metabolism and kinetics of tumor and some normal cells is considered in detail. Many data, testifying to sufficient growth of efficiency of oncologic patient treatment under conditions of multimodality therapy including hyperthermia and hyperglycemia are presented

  17. Outcomes after environmental hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVecchio, Frank; Pizon, Anthony F; Berrett, Christopher; Balls, Adam

    2007-05-01

    This study was conducted to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with presumed environmental hyperthermia. A retrospective chart review was performed in 2 institutions with patients who were seen in the ED and had a discharge diagnosis of hyperthermia, heat stroke, heat exhaustion, or heat cramps. Exclusion criteria were an alternative diagnosis potentially explaining the hyperthermia (pneumonia, etc). Research assistants, who were blinded to the purpose of the study, performed a systematic chart review after a structured training session. If necessary, a third reviewer acted as a tiebreaker. Data regarding patient demographics, comorbidities, vital signs, laboratory results, and short-term outcome were collected. Data were analyzed with Excel and STATA software. We enrolled 52 patients with a mean age of 42.6 years (range, 0.4-81 years) from August 1, 2003 to August 31, 2005. The mean high daily temperature was 103.6 degrees F (range, 88-118 degrees F). At presentation, the mean body temperature was 105.1 degrees F (range, 100.2-111.2 degrees F) and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was less than 14 in 36 (69.2%) patients. Laboratory results demonstrated that 21 (40.4%) patients had a creatinine level of more than 1.5 mg/dL, 35 (67.3%) patients had a creatine kinase (CK) of more than 200 U/L, 30 patients (57.7%) had a prothrombin time of more than 13 seconds, 29 (55.8%) patients had an aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of more than 45 U/L, and only 3 patients (5.7%) had a glucose of less than 60 mg/dL. Ethanol or illicit drugs were involved in 18 (34.6%) cases. The mean hospital stay was 4.7 days (range, 1-30 days), and there were 15 deaths (28.8%). A kappa score for interreviewer reliability was 0.69. Major limitations were the retrospective nature and lack of homogeneity in patient evaluation and test ordering. Hyperthermic patients with higher initial temperatures, hypotension, or low Glasgow Coma Scale

  18. Genetics Home Reference: malignant hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1722-30. Review. Citation on PubMed Litman RS, Rosenberg H. Malignant hyperthermia: update on susceptibility testing. JAMA. ... 27(10):977-89. Review. Citation on PubMed Rosenberg H, Davis M, James D, Pollock N, Stowell ...

  19. Hyperthermia and chemotherapy agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Hall, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer dates back to the late 19th century, but the modern era of chemotherapy drugs was ushered in during the 1940's with the development of the polyfunctional alkylating agent. Since then, numerous classes of drugs have evolved and the combined use of antineoplastic agents with other treatment modalities such as radiation or heat, remains a large relatively unexplored area. This approach, combining local hyperthermia with chemotherapy agents affords a measure of targeting and selective toxicity not previously available for drugs. In this paper, the effects of adriamycin, bleomycin and cis-platinum are examined. The adjuvant use of heat may also reverse the resistance of hypoxic cells noted for some chemotherapy agents

  20. Hyperthermia and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present review addresses mechanisms of importance for hyperthermia-induced fatigue during short intense activities and prolonged exercise in the heat. Inferior performance during physical activities with intensities that elicit maximal oxygen uptake is to a large extent related to perturbation...... of the cardiovascular function, which eventually reduces arterial oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles. Accordingly, aerobic energy turnover is impaired and anaerobic metabolism provokes peripheral fatigue. In contrast, metabolic disturbances of muscle homeostasis are less important during prolonged exercise...... in the heat, because increased oxygen extraction compensates for the reduction in systemic blood flow. The decrease in endurance seems to involve changes in the function of the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to fatigue. The CNS fatigue appears to be influenced by neurotransmitter activity...

  1. Ultrasonic system for hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seppi, E.J.; Shapiro, E.G.; Zitelli, L.T.

    1985-01-01

    A system using ultrasound has been developed for hyperthermia application. It consists of a water bed containing a large ultrasound transducer array for heat application, an annular imaging transducer for alignment and treatment monitoring, and a 30-channel monitoring system for invasive temperature measurements. The heat applicator array contains 30 transducers mounted in a hexagonal configuration. Four subsets of transducers in the array can be remotely mechanically driven in such a way as to allow control of the distribution and diameter of ultrasound power at the effective focus of the array. The array can be remotely translated in three dimensions and can be rotated about its axis of symmetry. These motions allow positioning of the focal area of the array at the desired location. Each transducer of the array is powered by an individual amplifier and can be controlled in intensity and phase. The system can operate at variable ultrasound frequencies. An imaging transducer located at the center of the heat applicator array is used to collect data for ultrasound imaging and other purposes. Ultrasound images are displayed along with marks indicating the location of the heat applicator focal region for setup and for monitoring during treatment. The entire system is under computer control. This allows for operator ease in the control of the numerous parameters involved in the operation of the system

  2. Hyperthermia, immunity and metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatin, V.F.

    1983-01-01

    The analysis of literature data concerning local hyperthermia effects shows that temperatures over 41-42 deg C (in the whole tumor volume), causing tumor growth inhibition and cell injury, can change antigenic nature of a malignant tissue. The tumor injured by thermal effect is able probably the full length of time of injured tissue resorption to maintain at a sufficiently high level antitumoral immunity and lay obstacles to emergence of metastases or even cause regression of those tumoral foci which have not been exposed to direct effect of the injuring agent. The facts of tumoral foci regression take place also upon radiation effect which is associated as well with participation of immune mechanisms. In.experiments with animals an essential increase of immunogenic character of malignant cells exposed to ionizing radiation effect has been observed. It follows that radiation injury of tumoral tissue as well as thermal one is able to stimulate antitumoral immunity and reduce the probability of emergence of metastases. But in case of radiotherapy immunosuppression effect of ionizing radiation (at the expense of inhibition of proliferation and death of immunocompetent cells) can essentially overlap immunostimulating effect related to the changes in antigenic character of tumoral cells

  3. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Combined hyperthermia (HT 45 min once or twice per week) and low dose radiotherapy (LDRT 30-34.5 Gy in 2-3 weeks) have been given to 182 locally recurrent or metastatic superficial tumours in 133 patients. Tumour response was analysed in 137 tumours in 100 patients. The overall complete response (CR) was 50% with a median duration (DCR) of 13±3 months. When mammary carcinoma, representing 62% of the treated tumours, were analysed, CR was 62% with a DCR of 14±4 months. In a comparative, non-randomized study, on 34 matched tumour pairs in 24 patients, treatment was given with LDRT+HT to the larger and the same LDRT to the smaller tumour, the patients acting as their own control. A significant difference in CR was obtained in favour of the combined treatment (p=0.0013 all diagnosis and p=0.0027 mammary carcinoma). There was no significant difference in DCR between the two modalities. No significant difference in CR was seen when tumours were randomely treated with HT once (CR 56%) or twice (CR 69%) per week combined with the same LDRT. Predictive factors for CR, multivariately analysed (15 parameters), in mammary carcinoma recurring in earlier irradiated regions, were; the present LDRT absorbed dose (p=0.02) and the average minimum temperature in the best HT session (p=0.03). Significant skin toxicity was seen in 28% of all the 182 heated regions. Prognostic factors for skin damage, multivariately analysed, were; the extension of the heated region (p=0.007) and the highest average maximum temperature in any of the HT sessions (p=0.04). Pain was in some way correlated to severe toxicity but was not considered to be an optimal monitor for HT as many patients with severe and moderate pain were without any serious skin reactions, while slight or no pain sometimes were associated with severe reactions. 401 refs

  4. Regional hyperthermia of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovich, Z.; Langholz, B.; Astrahan, M.; Emami, B.; Oleson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    From 1981 through 1986, 49 patients with metastatic liver tumors received deep regional hyperthermia in phase I protocols in six major medical centers in the United States. Adenocarcinoma was seen in 80% of patients with colon as the primary site in 26%. The remaining patients had the following histological diagnoses: Soft tissue sarcoma in seven, malignant melanoma in two and transitional cell carcinoma in one. Deep regional hyperthermia treatments with a BSD-1000 annular phased array were given once or twice a week with a total of 167 treatment sessions, mean 3.4 (range 1 to 8). In addition to deep regional hyperthermia, 17 patients received radiotherapy, and 14 received chemotherapy. The median survival for all patients was 25 weeks. Complete response was obtained in two patients and partial response in four patients. An additional ten patients had nominal response. There was no complete or partial response among the 14 hyperthermia alone treated patients. Of the 26 patients who presented with severe pain, five had complete pain relief, five had partial relief and the majority had a lesser degree of pain relief or no pain relief. Acute treatment toxicity consisted of pain in ten, systemic temperature increase to 39 0 C in four tachycardia in two, claustrophobia in one. The majority of patients did not experience acute toxicity. No late toxicity was recorded in this group of 49 patients. (orig./MG)

  5. Tarnished Gold: Classical Music in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…

  6. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  7. Commentary: Warring ants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 27; Issue 2. Commentary: Warring ants: Lessons from Lanchester's laws of combat? Renee M Borges. Volume 27 Issue 2 March 2002 pp 75-78. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/027/02/0075-0078 ...

  8. Commentary on the Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christine; Mercer, Neil

    2017-01-01

    This commentary discusses the four papers that comprise the special issue on dialogic teaching and learning, while making general observations that apply across the field as a whole. Similarities and differences are identified over the concepts of "dialogue" and "dialogic pedagogy". The possibility is raised that some aspects…

  9. On the improvement of regional hyperthermia treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, Hugo

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia is an adjuvant treatment modality to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, with the aim of increasing the tumour killing effect of the treatment. It involves the elevation of the tumour temperature to ~ 42oC. Radiofrequent heating is a practical method for hyperthermia: a number of

  10. Flatland an edition with notes and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Edwin A; Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Flatland, Edwin Abbott Abbott's story of a two-dimensional universe, as told by one of its inhabitants who is introduced to the mysteries of three-dimensional space, has enjoyed an enduring popularity from the time of its publication in 1884. This fully annotated edition enables the modern-day reader to understand and appreciate the many "dimensions" of this classic satire. Mathematical notes and illustrations enhance the usefulness of Flatland as an elementary introduction to higher-dimensional geometry. Historical notes show connections to late-Victorian England and to classical Greece. Citations from Abbott's other writings as well as the works of Plato and Aristotle serve to interpret the text. Commentary on language and literary style includes numerous definitions of obscure words. An appendix gives a comprehensive account of the life and work of Flatland's remarkable author.

  11. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-01-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references

  12. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siauve, N; Lormel, C

    2012-01-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  13. Classical antiparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costella, J.P.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Rawlinson, A.A.

    1997-03-01

    We review how antiparticles may be introduced in classical relativistic mechanics, and emphasize that many of their paradoxical properties can be more transparently understood in the classical than in the quantum domain. (authors)

  14. Production of lesions in rabbit spinal cord with microwave hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.H.; Popovic, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of a variety of injury models in different species to produce spinal cord lesions by trauma or ischemia has often given rise to conflicting or inconclusive data. A new model has been developed in rabbits. Spinal cord lesions were produced in selected spinal cord segments of male New Zealand white rabbits by non-invasive irradiation with microwaves in the near field at 915 MHz. Graded injuries of predictable severity can be produced by the non-invasive induction of moderate hyperthermia in the thoracic spinal cord at precise dosage levels of temperature elevation and duration. Histological changes in microwave-induced hyperthermia closely parallel those seen in traumatic lesions of the human spinal cord, as well as those produced in animals with the classical weight-drop method of Allen. In addition to grading the spinal cord lesions with respect to residual neurological function, dose-response observations made with somatosensory evoked responses, blood-spinal cord barrier tracers, and neurohistological and enzyme histochemical preparations, suggest that it will be possible to use this approach to develop a standardized, calibrated model in rabbits to evaluate the efficacy of new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of spinal cord injury

  15. Hyperthermia: Clinical promise and current challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    Local-regional hyperthermia (HT) when used in conjunction with radiation therapy (XRT), has been shown in numerous clinical trials to result in considerable improvement in response rates and local tumor control rates when compared with treatment by XRT alone. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the biological basis for hyperthermia induced cytotoxicity and radiosensitization, additional research remains in establishing the optimal treatment schedules for the clinical utilization of HT-XRT. The number of HT treatments; the sequencing of HT and XRT; the frequency of administration of HT; and the ideal temperature-time parameters all remain to be better defined for the clinical setting. The role of tumor blood flow on the thermal distributions also warrants further investigation. In addition, considerable effort is needed to improve hyperthermia equipment in order to provide more uniform therapeutic temperature distributions (temperatures ≥42.5%C). Better heating equipment is particularly needed for the treatment of deep seeted tumors. Pertinent clinical literature will be presented summarizing the clinical promise of hyperthermia and the above mentioned clinical challenges

  16. ADPRT inhibitors and hyperthermia as radiosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    Hyperthermia given in combination with gamma radiation has given considerable improvement in the therapeutic results for treatment of malignant tumors. The mechanism behind the hyperthermia effect is probably operative at the tissue level as well as at the molecular level. The metabolism of NAD + in relation to the activity of the chromosomal enzyme ADP-ribosyl transferase (ADPRT) has been studied as a possible molecular mechanism for this effect. The ADPRT activity was measured after radiosensitization with both hyperthermia and nicotinamide, which is a potent inhibitor of ADPRT. The results indicate that hyperthermia can improve the effect of radiotherapy by reducing the supply of NAD + , which is a co-substrate for ADPRT, while nicotinamide functions as a radiosensitizing agent by direct inhibition of the enzyme. The hypothesis is discussed in the thesis where inhibition of ADPRT might increase the radiosensitivity because the radiation-induced DNA damage can not be repaired with normal efficiency. The function of nicotinamide as a radiosensitizer was verified by studies on C3H mice with transplanted spontaneous mammary tumors. Because nicotinamide is not toxic, it seems quite attractive to test this vitamin as a radiosensitizing agent against human tumors. (251 refs.) (author)

  17. Classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Benacquista, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to classical mechanics at a level intermediate between the typical undergraduate and advanced graduate level. This text describes the background and tools for use in the fields of modern physics, such as quantum mechanics, astrophysics, particle physics, and relativity. Students who have had basic undergraduate classical mechanics or who have a good understanding of the mathematical methods of physics will benefit from this book.

  18. Defining Functions of Danish Political Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mette

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark political commentary is still a relatively new phenomenon. This paper analyzes the metadiscourse in relation to political commentary to identify the different understandings that have coalesced around political commentary as a genre. I argue that people in different positions (e.......g. citizens, politicians, journalists, political editors, chief editors and political commentators themselves) emphasize different explanations for the rise of the genre and thereby functions of political commentary as part of an argumentative strategy favouring their own interests...

  19. Radiofrequency hyperthermia for advanced malignant liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Y.; Okuno, Y.; Mitsumori, M.; Akuta, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Masunaga, S.; Kanamori, S.; Fujishiro, M.; Hiraoka, M.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate thermometry and the clinical results of radiofrequency (RF) thermotherapy for advanced malignant liver tumors. Materials and Methods One-hundred and seventy-three patients with malignant liver tumors treated between 1983 and 1995 underwent hyperthermia. Surgery were contraindicated in all patients. The 173 tumors consisted of 114 hepatocellular carcinomas(HCCs), and 59 non-HCCs(45 metastatic liver tumors and 12 cholangiocarcinomas). Eight MHz RF capacitive heating equipment was used for hyperthermia. Two opposing 25-cm or 30-cm electrodes were generally used for heating liver tumors. Our standard protocol was to administer hyperthermia 40-50 minutes twice a week to a total of 8 sessions. Temperature of the liver tumor was measured by microthermocouples. In each patient, a single catheter was inserted into the liver tumor through the normal liver. Transcatheter arterial embolization, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy were combined with hyperthermia depending on the patient's liver function and tumor location. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by the change in tumor size assessed by computed tomography (CT) three or four months after the completion of treatment. Results One-hundred and forty (81%) of 173 patients underwent hyperthermia more than 4 times. Thermometry could be performed in 77(55%) of these 140 patients. Neither systolic nor diastolic blood pressure changed significantly after hyperthermia. However, pulse rate significantly increased from 82.8 ± 1.1 to 96.5 ± 1.3 beats/min. Only 21 patients (11%) showed a decrease in pulse rate after hyperthermia. Body temperature increased from 36.3 ±0.1 to 37.4±0.2 after hyperthermia. Sequelae of hyperthermia included focal fat burning in 20 (12%), gastric ulceration in 4 (2%), and liver necrosis in 1(1%). Sequelae of thermometry were severe peritoneal pain in 7 (11%), intraperitoneal hematoma in 1(1%), and pneumothorax in one (1%) patient. The maximal tumor temperature

  20. Commentary: Biochemistry Re-Natured

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.

    2010-01-01

    In his last commentary on "Biochemistry Denatured," this author dealt with his perception that college students today have spent too little of their childhood years playing outside in nature and as a consequence have not learned basic things about the world from personal experience. This "nature-deficit disorder" removes many opportunities for…

  1. Neuronal Rat Brain Damage Caused by Endogenous and Exogenous Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aydın

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperthermia may induce pathologic alterations within body systems and organs including brain. In this study, neuronal effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperthermia (41°C were studied in rats. METHODS: The endogenous hyperthermia (41°C was induced by lipopolysaccharide and the exogenous by an (electric heater. Possible neuronal damage was evaluated by examining healthy, apoptotic and necrotic cells, and heat shock proteins (HSP 27, HSP 70 in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus RESULTS: At cellular level, when all neuronal tissues are taken into account; (i a significant increase in the necrotic cells was observed in the both groups (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The neural tissue of brain can show different degree of response to hyperthermia. But we can conclude that endogenous hyperthermia is more harmful to central nervous system than exogenous hyperthermia

  2. Hyperthermia, a modality in the wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is a heat-treatment. It is widely used in various medical fields and has a well-recognized effect in oncology. Its effect is achieved by overheating of the targeted tissues. It is an ancient treatment and a promising physical approach with lack of acceptance by the serious medical use. To accept the method we need strong proofs and stable, reproducible treatment quality, but we are limited by biological, physical/technical and physiological problems. However, the main point - I believe - is the incorrect characterization and unrealistic expectations from this capable method. The temperature concept of the quality assurance guidelines has to be replaced by the heat-dose sensitive characterization, pointing the essence of the hyperthermia method.

  3. Magnetic hyperthermia with hard-magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashevsky, Bronislav E., E-mail: bekas@itmo.by [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashevsky, Sergey B.; Korenkov, Victor S. [A.V Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Institute, Belarus Academy of Sciences, P. Brovka str. 15, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Istomin, Yuri P. [N. N. Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus, Lesnoy-2, Minsk 223040 (Belarus); Terpinskaya, Tatyana I.; Ulashchik, Vladimir S. [Institute of Physiology, Belarus Academy of Sciences, Akademicheskaya str. 28, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2015-04-15

    Recent clinical trials of magnetic hyperthermia have proved, and even hardened, the Ankinson-Brezovich restriction as upon magnetic field conditions applicable to any site of human body. Subject to this restriction, which is harshly violated in numerous laboratory and small animal studies, magnetic hyperthermia can relay on rather moderate heat source, so that optimization of the whole hyperthermia system remains, after all, the basic problem predetermining its clinical perspectives. We present short account of our complex (theoretical, laboratory and small animal) studies to demonstrate that such perspectives should be related with the hyperthermia system based on hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlfarth type) nanoparticles and strong low-frequency fields rather than with superparamagnetic (Brownian or Neél) nanoparticles and weak high-frequency fields. This conclusion is backed by an analytical evaluation of the maximum absorption rates possible under the field restriction in the ideal hard-magnetic (Stoner–Wohlarth) and the ideal superparamagnetic (single relaxation time) systems, by theoretical and experimental studies of the dynamic magnetic hysteresis in suspensions of movable hard-magnetic particles, by producing nanoparticles with adjusted coercivity and suspensions of such particles capable of effective energy absorption and intratumoral penetration, and finally, by successful treatment of a mice model tumor under field conditions acceptable for whole human body. - Highlights: • Hard-magnetic nanoparticles are shown superior for hyperthetmia to superparamagnetic. • Optimal system parameters are found from magnetic reversal model in movable particle. • Penetrating suspension of HM particles with aggregation-independent SAR is developed. • For the first time, mice with tumors are healed in AC field acceptable for human body.

  4. Interaction of hyperthermia and radiation: radiation quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loshek, D.D.; Orr, J.S.; Solomonidis, E.

    1981-01-01

    Cell-survival data were collected to determine the survival response of asynchronous CHO cells subject to radiation and hyperthermia. The irradiation was at room temperature 100 minutes before exposure to hyperthermia at 42 0 C. The survival response to the combination of these two agents is expressed by means of a survival surface, a three-dimensional concept relating cell survival to heat dose and radiation dose. The survival surface could be approximately described by a survival model comprising three components of cell killing: the unperturbed radiation component, the unperturbed hyperthermia component and the interaction component. The dependence of the radiation component and the interaction component on radiation quality were investigated by irradiating with either 60 Co γ rays, 250 kV X rays or 14.7 MeV neutrons. An analysis suggests that the interaction component and the radiation component exhibit similar dependencies on radiation quality both for the deposition of damage and the repair or accumulation of that damage. (U.K.)

  5. Radiation/hyperthermia in canine hemangiopericytomas: A large animal model for therapeutic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.C.; Anderson, V.L.; Voorhees, W.D. III; Blevins, W.E.; Inskeep, T.K.; Janas, W.; Shupe, R.E.; Babbs, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    X-irradiation followed by microwave induced hyperthermia resulted in a 91% objective response rate in 11 dogs with naturally occurring hemangiopericytomas. The authors used a novel statistical procedure to quantitatively evaluate the clinical behavior of locally invasive, non-metastatic tumors undergoing therapy for control of local disease. Utilizing a small sample size, the procedure demonstrated distribution of the data and classical parametric and non-parametric statistical methods, including setting confidence limits on the population mean and placing tolerance limits on a population percentage. Similarities of canine and human hemangiopericytomas were observed. Application of the statistical methods to human and animal trials were apparent

  6. Classic experiments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Franklin, M

    2001-01-01

    These will be a set of lectures on classic particle physics experiments, with emphasis on how the emasurements are made. I will discuss experiments made to measure the electric charge distribution of particles, to measure the symmetries of the weak decays, to measure the magnetic moment of the muon. As well as experiments performed which discovered new particles or resonances, like the tAU2and the J/Psi. The coverage will be general and should be understandable to someone knowing little particle physics.

  7. Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Locally Advanced Cervix Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Franckena (Martine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstract(English): There is a strong biological rationale for the use of hyperthermia as an oncological treatment modality. Fifteen randomized trials have shown significant improvement in clinical outcome when hyperthermia was added to radiotherapy, chemotherapy or both. At temperatures ≥ 40

  8. Classical tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.

    1984-01-01

    A review of tachyons, with particular attention to their classical theory, is presented. The extension of Special Relativity to tachyons in two dimensional is first presented, an elegant model-theory which allows a better understanding also of ordinary physics. Then, the results are extended to the four-dimensional case (particular on tachyon mechanics) that can be derived without assuming the existence of Super-luminal reference-frames. Localizability and the unexpected apparent shape of tachyonic objects are discussed, and it is shown (on the basis of tachyon kinematics) how to solve the common causal paradoxes. In connection with General Relativity, particularly the problem of the apparent superluminal expansions in astrophysics is reviewed. The problem (still open) of the extension of relativitic theories to tachyons in four dimensions is tackled, and the electromagnetic theory of tachyons, a topic that can be relevant also for the experimental side, is reviewed. (Author) [pt

  9. An FDTD code for hyperthermia treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrocco, G.; Bardati, F. [Rome Univ. Tor Vergata (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica, sistemi e produzione; Tognolatti, P. [L' Aquila Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Elettrica

    1999-08-01

    Radio-frequency hyperthermia is an anticancer modality based on the heating of tumours by radiating sources. A set of antennas is frequently used to enhance power depositions in tissues. Treatments planning needs electromagnetic field computation within realistic body models. Since several simulation may be required the optimize the antenna-body configuration, the electromagnetic solver should be designed in such a way that new configuration of the antenna set-up can be solved without heavy changes of the basic numerical code. In this paper a numerical investigation on the effects of a segmentation technique will be presented, with reference to an FDTD computation and the heating of a paediatric tumour.

  10. Trial of radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegawa, Y; Fujiwara, K; Oe, J; Nagase, M; Akiyama, H [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-08-01

    Nine patients were treated by the combination therapy of external irradiation and hyperthermia, 5 patients with metastatic lesions; two breast cancer, one lung cancer, one malignant melanoma, one vulva cancer, 1 patient with recurrent lesion of skin cancer and 3 patients with bladder cancer. All patients were treated by heating locally (42/sup 0/C, 30 min) followed by external irradiation with 4,000 - 5,000 rad over 4 to 5 weeks. No local recurrence was found in 4 of 9 patients.

  11. Commentary: Toward Convergence in Creativity Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ai-Girl; Wong, Meng-Ee

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is about reflection in the new language of creativity and the meanings of inquiry into creative life. The authors of the commentary adopt the cultural paradigm of psychology of creativity. They praise effortful creativity of the authors who submitted the articles to this special issue. Their studies employed diverse methods of…

  12. Selected papers 1945-1980 - with commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ning Yang.

    1983-01-01

    This volume consists of a collection of papers written by C. N. Yang and commentaries on them. Previously unpublished papers or those that appeared in journals which are not readily available are included. The commentaries are intended to trace his development as a scientist rather than evaluate the work

  13. Membrane defect in procine malignant hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) has been proposed to result from abnormal calcium-homeostasis in skeletal muscle. This study tested the hypothesis that calcium-sequestration or calcium-release by sarcoplasmic reticulum was abnormal in MH-susceptible swine. A heavy sarcoplasmic reticulum fraction (HSR), enriched in terminal cisternae, was isolated from MH and control muscle using differential and density-gradient centrifugation. Calcium transport was studied using 45 Ca radioisotope and Millipore filtration. Enzymatic activities, cholesterol, phospholipid, and protein composition were determined using spectrophotometric techniques and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Properties of calcium-sequestration by MH and control HSR were indistinguishable, although Ca 2+ -ATPase and calsequestrin content were 100% increased in MH HSR. However when muscle homogenate pH was decreased due to MH, calcium-uptake activity was depressed to <5% of control values. Results of this study indicate a model for the etiopathogenesis of MH, and for the inheritance and diagnosis of susceptibility to MH. Malignant hyperthermia is initiated due to a hypersensitive HSR calcium-release mechanism and propagated by a loss of calcium-sequestering function as acidosis develops. Susceptibility is inherited in an autosomal, codominant pattern and may be diagnosed most definitively and sensitively on the basis of calcium-release sensitivity-tests, performed on isolated HSR

  14. Enhancement of immunological activity after mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Takeo; Takahashi, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    At present, hyperthermia is clinically very important as interdisciplinary therapeutic method, and studies are being performed on combined effects with surgical treatment, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and gene therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors. We evaluated the effects of hyperthermia under temperature of 42.5C and demonstrated that the activation of immunological response is increased and anti-tumor effect cabn be obtained in this studies. We used animals were C3H mice (male,7W) bearing SCC-VII tumor on femur skin. Then, the mice were divided to 10 mice in each group, and only femur region was immersed in warm water for thermal treatment. Also we measured the tumor growth, changes of blood cell fraction and NK cell activity. The results of the present study confirmed: (1) Anti-tumor effect can be given by thermal treatment at relatively mild temperature (mild temperature at 39C-42C); (2) The increase of neutrophils is dependent on the quantity of heat added; (3) Immunological response of monocytes and lymphocytes is associated with it; (4) Activity of the immunological potency as a whole such as activation of NK cells was also confirmed

  15. A thermocouple thermometry system for ultrasound hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarka, M.; Gharakhani, A.; Magin, R.; Cain, C.

    1984-01-01

    A thermometry system designed to be used in the treatment of cancer by ultrasound hyperthermia is described. The system monitors tumor temperatures using 16 type T (copper-constantan) thermocouples and is controlled by a 12 MHz Intel 8031 microcomputer. An analog circuit board contains the thermocouple amplifiers, an analog multiplexer, scaling circuitry, and an analog to digital converter. A digital board contains the Intel 8031, program memory, data memory, as well as circuitry for control and data communications. Communication with the hyperthermia system control computer is serially by RS-232 with selectable baud rate. Since the thermocouple amplifiers may have slight differences in gain and offset, a calibrated offset is added to a lookup table value to obtain the proper display temperature to within +- 0.1 0 C. The calibration routine, implemented in software, loads a nonvolatile random access memory chip with the proper offset values based on the outputs of each thermocouple channel at known temperatures which bracket a range of interest

  16. Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E P; Raaphorst, G P

    2004-03-01

    Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia (LDMH) and low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review. Research describing LDMH interaction with pulsed brachytherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy using clinically relevant parameters are compared with LDMH/LDR brachytherapy. The mechanism by which LDMH sensitizes LDR has been established as the inhibition of sublethal damage repair. The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The role of LDMH in modifying tumour blood flow and its possible role in LDR sensitization of tumours is also presented. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; (1) the thermal goals (temperature, time and volume) are achievable with currently available technology, (2) the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, (3) thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, (4) TER of around 2 can be expected, (5) hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and (6) simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized. Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing.

  17. Heating efficiency in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deatsch, Alison E.; Evans, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermic treatment of cancers have gained significant attention in recent years. In magnetic hyperthermia, three independent mechanisms result in thermal energy upon stimulation: Néel relaxation, Brownian relaxation, and hysteresis loss. The relative contribution of each is strongly dependent on size, shape, crystalline anisotropy, and degree of aggregation or agglomeration of the nanoparticles. We review the effects of each of these physical mechanisms in light of recent experimental studies and suggest routes for progress in the field. Particular attention is given to the influence of the collective behaviors of nanoparticles in suspension. A number of recent studies have probed the effect of nanoparticle concentration on heating efficiency and have reported superficially contradictory results. We contextualize these studies and show that they consistently indicate a decrease in magnetic relaxation time with increasing nanoparticle concentration, in both Brownian- and Néel-dominated regimes. This leads to a predictable effect on heating efficiency and alleviates a significant source of confusion within the field. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. • Heating depends on individual properties and collective properties. • We review recent studies with respect to loss mechanisms. • Collective behavior is a key source of confusion in the field. • We contextualize recent studies to elucidate consistencies and alleviate confusion

  18. Morphologic alterations in normal and neoplastic tissues following hyperthermia treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badylak, S.F.; Babbs, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The sequential morphologic alterations in normal skeletal muscle in rats, Walker 256 tumors in rats, and transmissible venereal tumors (TVT) in dogs following microwave-induced hyperthermia (43 0 C and 45 0 for 20 minutes) were studied by light and electron microscopy. Normal muscle and Walker 256 tumors showed vascular damage at 5 minutes post-heating (PH), followed by suppuration and thrombosis at 6 and 48 hours PH, and by regeneration and repair at 7 days PH. Endothelial damage and parenchymal degeneration were present 5 minutes PH. Progressive ischemic injury occurred for at least 48 hours PH. Two hyperthermia treatments, separated by a 30 or 60 minute cooling interval, were applied to rats implanted with Walker 256 tumors. Increased selective heating of tumor tissue versus surrounding normal tissue, and increased intratumoral temperatures were found during the second hyperthermia treatment. Canine TVTs were resistant to hyperthermia damage. These results characterized the sequential morphologic alterations following hyperthermia treatment and showed that: 1) vascular damage contributed to the immediate and latent cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia, 2) selective heating occurred in the neoplastic tissue disrupted by prior heat treatment, and 3) not all neoplasms are responsive to hyperthermia treatment

  19. Photoacoustic-Based-Close-Loop Temperature Control for Nanoparticle Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohua, Feng; Fei, Gao; Yuanjin, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    Hyperthermia therapy requires tight temperature control to achieve selective killing of cancerous tissue with minimal damage on surrounding healthy tissues. To this end, accurate temperature monitoring and subsequent heating control are critical. However, an economic, portable, and real-time temperature control solution is currently lacking. To bridge this gap, we present a novel portable close-loop system for hyperthermia temperature control, in which photoacoustic technique is proposed for noninvasive real-time temperature measurement. Exploiting the high sensitivity of photoacoustics, the temperature is monitored with an accuracy of around 0.18 °C and then fed back to a controller implemented on field programmable gate array (FPGA) for temperature control. Dubbed as portable hyperthermia feedback controller (pHFC), it stabilizes the temperature at preset values by regulating the hyperthermia power with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) algorithm; and to facilitate digital implementation, the pHFC further converts the PID output into switching values (0 and 1) with the pulse width modulation (PWM) algorithm. Proof-of-concept hyperthermia experiments demonstrate that the pHFC system is able to bring the temperature from baseline to predetermined value with an accuracy of 0.3° and a negligible temperature overshoot. The pHFC can potentially be translated to clinical applications with customized hyperthermia system design. This paper can facilitate future efforts in seamless integration of close-loop temperature control solution and various clinical hyperthermia systems.

  20. Feasibility study of local ultrasound hyperthermia in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.G.; Straube, W.; Emami, B.; Perez, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a retrospective analysis of patients treated at Washington University for recurrent or persistent cancer with Ultrasound Hyperthermia between October 1984 and June 1986. Fifteen of 102 lesions were treated during this time period with Ultrasound Hyperthermia instead of microwave hyperthermia due to the size of the lesion needing heat at depths greater than 4 cm. Also, the patients' lesion could not be implanted for interstitial microwave hyperthermia. Fourteen of the treated patients received concomitant radiotherapy, while one received concomitant Bleomycin. There were 79 total hyperthermia treatments delivered, of which 67 achieved a therapeutic temperature of 43 0 C for 60 minutes. During 15/79 treatments, patients experienced pain; of which 11/15 lead to poor heating. Only one treatment of the twelve poor treatments was secondary to technical difficulties. Complete local control was accomplished in seven patients, a partial response in four patients. The results of therapeutic heating and its relationship to the site of treatment and local control are presented, along with phantom studies of Ultrasound microwave hyperthermia reemphasizing the feasibility of using Ultrasound Hyperthermia

  1. The effect of hyperthermia in the preoperative combined treatment of radiation, hyperthermia and chemotherapy for rectal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Fumio; Furuta, Kazuhiro; Saito, Yukio; Kataoka, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Hiroshi; Okada, Masaki; Kanazawa, Kyotaro; Sugahara, Tadashi; Shinohara, Naohiro (Jichi Medical School, Minamikawachi, Tochigi (Japan))

    1994-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hyperthermia in the preoperative combined treatment of radiation, chemotherapy and hyperthermia for rectal carcinoma, two groups were compared. Group A consisted of 18 patients in whom hyperthermia, radiation and chemotherapy were performed. Group B consisted of 18 patients in whom only chemotherapy and radiation were performed. The total dose of radiation in both of the two groups was 40.5 Gy, and a radiation field covering the whole pelvis was used. Hyperthermia was performed using 8 MHz radiofrequency waves (Thermotron RF8, Yamamoto Vinyter, Japan), and tumors were heated at about 42 degrees C for 50 minutes. Hyperthermia was repeated five times during the preoperative treatment. Chemotherapy was performed by giving 5-fluorouracil suppositories to a total dose of 3400 mg. Mean tumor reduction rates on barium enema were 31.8% in group A and 18.2% in group B. The difference was statistically significant. The result of the histological assessment of tumor necrosis showed that there was a significantly higher degree of necrosis in group A than in group B. These results showed that the addition of hyperthermia enhanced tumor necrosis. It was concluded that the addition of hyperthermia would be an effective preoperative treatment of rectal carcinoma. (author).

  2. The effect of hyperthermia in the preoperative combined treatment of radiation, hyperthermia and chemotherapy for rectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Fumio; Furuta, Kazuhiro; Saito, Yukio; Kataoka, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Hiroshi; Okada, Masaki; Kanazawa, Kyotaro; Sugahara, Tadashi; Shinohara, Naohiro

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of hyperthermia in the preoperative combined treatment of radiation, chemotherapy and hyperthermia for rectal carcinoma, two groups were compared. Group A consisted of 18 patients in whom hyperthermia, radiation and chemotherapy were performed. Group B consisted of 18 patients in whom only chemotherapy and radiation were performed. The total dose of radiation in both of the two groups was 40.5 Gy, and a radiation field covering the whole pelvis was used. Hyperthermia was performed using 8 MHz radiofrequency waves (Thermotron RF8, Yamamoto Vinyter, Japan), and tumors were heated at about 42 degrees C for 50 minutes. Hyperthermia was repeated five times during the preoperative treatment. Chemotherapy was performed by giving 5-fluorouracil suppositories to a total dose of 3400 mg. Mean tumor reduction rates on barium enema were 31.8% in group A and 18.2% in group B. The difference was statistically significant. The result of the histological assessment of tumor necrosis showed that there was a significantly higher degree of necrosis in group A than in group B. These results showed that the addition of hyperthermia enhanced tumor necrosis. It was concluded that the addition of hyperthermia would be an effective preoperative treatment of rectal carcinoma. (author)

  3. Recognizing and managing a malignant hyperthermia crisis: guidelines from the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahn, K P E; Ellis, F R; Halsall, P J

    2010-01-01

    Survival from a malignant hyperthermia (MH) crisis is highly dependent on early recognition and prompt action. MH crises are very rare and an increasing use of total i.v. anaesthesia is likely to make it even rarer, leading to the potential risk of reduced awareness of MH. In addition, dantrolene....... The guidelines consist of two textboxes: Box 1 on recognizing MH and Box 2 on the treatment of an MH crisis....

  4. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-07-18

    Jul 18, 2006 ... effective viscosity comparable to that of light oil (Edidin 2003). In addition, membranes exhibit a considerable degree of anisotropy along the ... and amide moieties of the peptide backbone, a feature shared with the selectivity filter of the bacterial. KcsA potassium channel (Chattopadhyay and Kelkar 2005).

  5. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    educated public with his vision of the broader significance of his empirical ... groundbreaking, his enduring popular fame remains firmly tied to the highest ... student at Columbia University and the American Museum of Natural History, the.

  6. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Later in the same year he joined The Natural History Museum at ... Germany. He was also offered a full-time, lucrative job at CSIRO in Canberra later in 1983. ..... Bouček Z and Rasplus J-Y 1991 Illustrated key to West-Palaearctic genera of ...

  7. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-07-18

    Jul 18, 2006 ... Importantly, the role of aromatic amino acid residues in maintaining the structure ... the organization, dynamics and function of membrane spanning channels ... L- and D-chirality renders gramicidin sensitive to the environment.

  8. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-05-10

    May 10, 2012 ... use such characterized antibodies as fine probes to study hormone action in great detail. ... Moudgal supervised work of Greep's group at Harvard University, ... over 250 papers and reviews and numerous chapters in books.

  9. Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Konkluderer at Højesteret har accepteret at Cyberspace har sin egen jurisdiktion - men samtidig er en del af dansk efterforskninsgmæssig jurisdiktion: Accept af at politiet ved hjælp af brugernavn og password skaffer sig adgang til Facebook og Messenger-profiler, der fysisk befinder sig på server...

  10. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-12

    Oct 12, 2015 ... Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of pigs [2]. Human transmission occurs by inhalation or ingestion of droplets .... B et al. Human case of swine influenza A (H1N1) triple reassortant virus infection, Wisconsin. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1470-2. PubMed | Google Scholar. 6.

  11. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... When a patient survives a first heart attack, the heart may be so badly damaged that the patient will develop mechanical pump failure. A heart attack may also lead to irregularities in the heart rhythm because of heart muscle damage. Heart attack survivors who develop one or both of these two complications ...

  12. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ... increasing travel and communication between under-developed and developed nations is ... transmitted to a fresh human host during the next blood meal. .... increasing our understanding about parasite development in the mosquito such ...

  13. Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Moore

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alf Hornborg says many useful things in his article, “Ecosystems and World Systems: Accumulation as an Ecological Process.” His effort to “ground the notion of capital accumulation in the physical realities of ecology and thermodynamics” is a much-needed corrective to nature-blind studies of capitalism. At a more paradigmatic level, his dismay at the “analytical disjuncture of ecology and economics” in modern social science is right on target (1998: 169. Yet, despite the article’s laudable intent, Hornborg goes astray by imputing to Marx a focus on labor that excludes the “physical realities” of labor reproduction, world trade, or imperialism. Hornborg is right to urge a synthesis of ecological and economic studies, but wrong in his call to “supplement” the labor theory of value with a “resource-oriented…concept of exploitation” (1998: 173. Even if Marx did not grapple with a global ecological crisis of contemporary standards, he was remarkably sensitive to ecological processes as they shaped, and were shaped by, capital accumulation; indeed, Marx studied intensively the works of the leading soil chemists of his day, foremost among them Justus von Liebig. Particularly in the ?rst and third volumes of Capital, Marx provides a compelling framework for comprehending the nature-society dialectic under capitalism.

  14. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... growth factor betas (TGFβs) are multifunctional peptides thought to be involved in ... (alpha 2M), which scavenges excess TGFβs and limits its local action .... growth factor-beta 3 is required for secondary palate fusion; Nature Genet. 11 409– ...

  15. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mother, I really think the flowers go to school underground.” ... ecotypes to new and distant locales, thereby obfuscating its natural, global patterns of .... In Drosophila, PcG proteins generally act by remodelling chromatin ... tions in genomic DNA methylation and local chromatin structure (Meyer 2000; Habu et al 2001).

  16. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pain (Progress in Pain Research and Management, vol. ... North R A 1993 Opioid actions on membrane ion channels; in Handbook of experimental ... J K and Han J S 1999 Accelerated release and production of Orphanin FQ in the brain of.

  17. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    2007-04-04

    Apr 4, 2007 ... ... shown to undergo phenotypic changes possibly due to cellular de- ... hyperproliferation or abnormal differentiation, such as psoriasis and .... expression precede histological changes in epithelia of vitamin A-deficient rats; ...

  18. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    gene silencing, DNA microarray data and completion of whole genome sequences of ... Evading this mid-gut barrier is one of the big hurdles for the parasite and is a ... studied in such screens, a small set of genes having a drastic effect on the ...

  19. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertsch, James V.

    1993-01-01

    Agrees with the distinction, made by Lawrence and Valsiner in the previous article, between theoretical approaches concerning internalization that view internalization as cultural transmission and internalization as constructive transformation. Concurs with criticisms of these approaches, and questions the need for the notion of internalization in…

  20. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Robert L.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    1995-01-01

    Supports Gottlieb's conclusion that developmental behavior genetics is unsuitable for analyzing developmental coactional processes because it does not concern itself with mechanisms through which genotypes are transformed into phenotypes. But maintains that modern behavior genetics provides an indispensable tool to analyze nonlinear epigenetic…

  1. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-10

    Mar 10, 2015 ... Foreign aid or foreign investments: call for a paradigm shift in mentality and ... supports for health care and health care services have been ongoing for more than 60 years. As long as ... This has gone on for more than 60 years since the first ... through the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.

  2. Commentary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cullen, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Amending the legal characterization of the facts at trial stage in the International Criminal Court and the defendant's right to a fair trial. Judgment on the appeals of Mr Lubanga Dyilo and the Prosecutor against the Decision of Trial Chamber I of 14 July 2009 entitled “Decision giving notice.......Ch., 8 December 2009. Regulation 55 of the Regulations of the International Criminal Court draws on a civil law tradition which allows the legal characterization of the facts to be amended while criminal proceedings are on foot. Great care must be taken in its implementation. Our due process alarm bells...... should start to ring the moment the purpose of putting an end to impunity begins to override fundamental human rights. No matter how commendable the goal of ending impunity, the consequence of ignoring fundamental fair trial guarantees in the process, paradoxically, undermines the validity of that very...

  3. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-08-07

    Aug 7, 2015 ... Abstract. The recent Ebola Virus Outbreak had a devastating effect on West Africa's already feeble national health systems. We suggest that such an impact turned out to be catastrophic because it hit particularly hard human resources for health and the delivery of primary healthcare services, which are.

  4. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhsudhan

    a much larger centre of creation–Darwin was too good a naturalist not to ..... exploration, gardeners' magazines, and numerous other sources of scientific ... The real problem with this doctrine, however, is that numerous straightforward tests have ... Fawcett in 1861: “About thirty years ago there was much talk that geologists ...

  5. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramakantb

    is most likely a tip of iceberg, as several cases of stroke in Africa rarely get to hospital before death. Plausible explanations for this include poor transportation system, limited access to healthcare, limited neurodiagnostic facility, deficient acute interventional therapy, dearth of medical experts, poor recognition of symptoms of ...

  6. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2004-11-29

    Nov 29, 2004 ... Crick's and Wilkins' reactions were not at all unusual at the time – in fact, book reviews of The Double ... As a youngish man in his mid-thirties at the time when Watson met him, Crick was ... moved into the field of biology instead. .... recent realization that the action is in the proteome rather than the genome ...

  7. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    the possible restoration of function across formerly severed spinal nerves. .... biologists, conservation biologists, and public health biologists. ... medicine”, we can expect the market to play a larger role in deciding which areas of science need.

  8. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    all known Neurospora mutants, chromosome rearrangements, wild and .... Robert Metzenberg and colleagues, including David's associate N B Raju, ... tetrasperma was Dodge's favorite species and he tried (without success) to get his visitors interested in ... They are survived by their daughter Susan and her husband John.

  9. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-29

    May 29, 2015 ... As the scientific community enviably awaits an HIV and TB vaccine or cure, safe - guarding effectiveness of available proven treatment options could be more realistic and cost saving. We argue that the emphasis on training and employment of clinical psychologists, counselors and social workers has been ...

  10. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and Natural Selection) now shifted the focus from the individual organism to ... One of the important dividing lines between the two camps in the controversy had to do with ... But these concerns were not addressed in an explicit manner. .... of problem in gaining attention and understanding for alternatives to adaptation.

  11. COMMENTARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a variety of strategies, producers of alcohol target young people and women with aspirational messages and other exhortations in an unprecedented ... Key words: Alcohol marketing, alcohol promotion, Africa, alcohol advertising.

  12. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    will roll along a surface by making incremental changes in its position of contact. ... no causal means for accounting for the macroevolutionary phenomena that ... Gould S J 1999c Dorothy, it's really Oz. A pro-creationist decision in Kansas is ...

  13. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    form of consciousness may have generated in relatively recent times. I suggest that memes may ... Studies of animals in their natural environments and innovative experiments by comparative psychologists in the labora- tory, particularly on ...

  14. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ... Coronary artery disease/Stroke Genetics, diabetes, HBP, obesity, cholesterol, CMV ... association of aspirin with this syndrome during the febrile prodrome led to a marked ... official or reflecting the views of the Food and Drug Administration.

  15. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raoul

    2009-10-20

    Oct 20, 2009 ... Inauguration of the Cameroonian Society of Human Genetics. Ambroise ... opportunity to get together in synergy the entire Cameroonian “DNA/RNA scientists” . ... of the state-of-knowledge of Human Origin and Genetic Diversity. ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative.

  16. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    architects of the Modern Synthesis, who aimed at putting evolutionary .... opposition to the majority of 'planters', traditional scientists who believed that the ... For instance, in an interview in Times Higher Education Supplement June 2000 he.

  17. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    genetic maps with specific segments of polytene chromosomes provided the first evidence of ... tion in Drosophila and other organisms identified the heterochromatin ... such modifications seem to provide a “histone code” in the context of gene ...

  18. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-04-24

    Apr 24, 2006 ... 5,200 meters, we showed that the control of breathing of subjects born .... ent fall in ventilation which has been termed ventilatory roll-off or hypoxic ... from a balance between the inhibition of the arterial chemoreceptors and ...

  19. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2010-04-23

    Apr 23, 2010 ... the simple antibiotic doxycycline rather than far more toxic anti-nematode ... Do Wolbachia have role in the production of these peptides? The ... V and Ranjith Sing A J A 2004 Traditional therapeutic use of animals among.

  20. COMMENTARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A brief review of the draft human resources for health strategic plan, Ethiopia;. 2009-2020 ... also constitute a critical block of health systems as they affect the .... of medical doctors; .... need for the development of a HRH policy to guide all.

  1. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... Abstract. Morocco's health system remains weak in spite of the improvement of other development indicators in the last ten years. Health remains one of the major challenges to lower the social disparities that are the priority for the authorities. Despite the goodwill of all stakeholders, significant.

  2. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    You want to write a check for twenty dollars, but now anyone who wants ... political process to decide about the uses of science, Gould pursued a .... evolutionary biology had been well on its way towards a pluralist conception of evolution.

  3. Commentary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... Ebola virus disease control in West Africa: an ecological, one health approach. Clement .... where wild animals providing opportunity for zoonotic pathogen .... infectious diseases such as water fowl that support avian influenza.

  4. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Emergence of new infectious diseases has been observed and documented in the 20th ... thinking of the possible implications of new theories in this young field to our ... and assumed more control over the growth of foodgrains, they also began to .... therapy; the latter is often seen in hospitals where, via plasmid exchange, ...

  5. Commentary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    community can be structured on the basis of specific belief-systems rooted in ... While this is but a cursory sketch, it is enough to give an idea of recent changes in .... entity existing in time, it especially clearly has the possibility of being harmed ...

  6. Current Status and Perspectives of Hyperthermia in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nagata, Yasushi; Mitsumori, Michihide; Sakamoto, Masashi; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro

    2004-08-01

    Clinical trials of hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy or chemotherapy undertaken over the past decades in Japan have been reviewed. Originally developed heating devices were mostly used for these trials, which include RF (radiofrequency) capacitive heating devices, a microwave heating device with a lens applicator, an RF intracavitary heating device, an RF current interstitial heating device, and ferromagnetic implant heating device. Non-randomized trials for various cancers, demonstrated higher response rate in thermoradiotherapy than in radiotherapy alone. Randomized trials undertaken for esophageal cancers also demonstrated improved local response with the combined use of hyperthermia. Furthermore, the complications associated with treatment were not generally serious. These clinical results indicate the benefit of combined treatment of hyperthermia and radiotherapy for various malignancies. On the other hand, the presently available heating devices are not satisfactory from the clinical viewpoints. With the advancement of heating and thermometry technologies, hyperthermia will be more widely and safely used in the treatment of cancers.

  7. Cellular and tissue effects of hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the idea that hyperthermia is likely to be most effective in poorly perfused regions, which is where radiotherapy and chemotherapy are least effective. The author suggests that a therapeutic gain might, therefore, be obtained by combined treatments

  8. The Meaning of Goodness-of-Fit Tests: Commentary on "Goodness-of-Fit Assessment of Item Response Theory Models"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary, David Thissen states that "Goodness-of-fit assessment for IRT models is maturing; it has come a long way from zero." Thissen then references prior works on "goodness of fit" in the index of Lord and Novick's (1968) classic text; Yen (1984); Drasgow, Levine, Tsien, Williams, and Mead (1995); Chen and…

  9. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    -deficiency may be at risk for developing hyperthermia. To pursue this, we performed a controlled study on sweating and body temperature regulation during exercise in the heat in 16 GH-treated GH-deficient patients with normalized insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor/binding protein-3 serum.......001]. Consequently, the core temperatures of the patients increased significantly after exercise compared with those of the CTs [38.3 C (0.10 C) (MPD) and 38.1 C (0.06 C) (isolated GH deficiency) vs. 37.5 C (0.2 C) (CTs) (P temperature increased significantly during exercise in the patients...... but remained unaltered in the CTs. Sweat secretion rates, as determined by the pilocarpine method, were significantly lower in the MPD patients [77 (SE +/- 10) mg/30 min] than in the CTs [115 (SE +/- 7) mg/30 min] (P

  10. Malignant Hyperthermia and Idiopathic HyperCKemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a rare but life-threatening condition that is more frequently encountered and discussed within the anesthesia literature. Here we through a case specifically discuss the susceptibility of individuals and/or families with asymptomatic unexplained elevations of creatine kinase (CK, also frequently referred to as hyperCKemia or idiopathic hyperCKemia (IHCK in recent reports. The clinical implications would be to underscore the importance of this as a susceptibility to developing MH and highlight the importance of genetic susceptibility testing in such cases. Anesthesiologists and critical care intensivists as well as primary care physicians should keep this in mind when seeing patients with asymptomatic hyperCKemia and potentially inform them about the possibility of developing MH if exposed to triggering agents. Genetic susceptibility testing should be considered if available and family members should also receive nontriggering agents when undergoing anesthesia and wear Medic Alert tags.

  11. Partial body hyperthermia: a potent radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.; Alya, GH.; Taleb, M.; Mohammad, A.

    1995-12-01

    With the aim to investigate the potential role of some radioprotectors, partial body hyperthermia (PBH) was tested as a protector against the lethality induced by γ irradiation. Two groups of Wistar rats [gr.(1): Females and gr.(2): Males] were treated with PBH by 'dipping' the lower parts of the animals in water-bath at 43 C for 1 hr. Animals were, then, irradiated with a lethal dose of γ radiation (9 Gy) 20 hrs post PBH. Our results show that: -PHB has a protecting role against the lethality induced by γ irradiation with a protection factor [Survival in rats treated with PBH and radiation / survival in rats treated with radiation] of 10 in gr.(1) and 7 in gr.(2) - The role of PBH was more enhanced in females As compared with males. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Partial Body Hyperthermia: A Potent radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baydoun, S.A.; Mohammad, A.; Alya, Gh.; Taleb, M.

    1998-01-01

    With the aim to investigate the potential role of some radioprotectors, partial body hyperthermia (PBH) was tested as a protector against the lethality induced by gamma-irradiation. Two groups of Wistar rats [ gr. (1): females and gr. (2): males] were treated with PBH by dipping the lower parts of the animals in water-bath at 43 degree for 1 hr. Animals were, then, irradiated with a lethal dose of gamma-radiation (9 Gy) 20 hr s post PBH. Our results show that: PBH has a protecting role against the lethality induced by gamma-irradiation with a protection factor [survival in rats treated with PBH and radiation/ survival in rats treated with radiation] of 10 in gr.(1) and 7 in gr. (2). The role of PBH was more enhanced in females as compared with males

  13. Destruction of radiation-resistant cell populations by hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettinger, E.M.; Gerweck, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    Animal experiments with local hyperthermia have shown that the radiauion dose necessary for the local control of 50% of the tumours examined was essentially reduced by heating to 42,5 0 C. In-vitro experients indicated selective destruction of relatively radiation-resistent cell populations by the combination of hyperthermie and reduced hydrogen ion concentration. Experiments with glioblastoma cells confirmed these results qualitatively, but showed quantitatively considerably lower sensitivity towards hyperthermia. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 RDG [de

  14. The application of hyperthermia in regional chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, F; Anzà, M; Rossi, C R; Cavaliere, F; Botti, C; Lise, M; Garinei, R; Giannarelli, D; Vasselli, S; Zupi, G; Cavaliere, R

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the role of hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in the loco-regional treatment of tumors, a retrospective analysis was done with 228 limb melanoma patients treated with hyperthermic antiblastic perfusion (HAP). A series of treatment- and tumor-related prognostic factors was analyzed to establish their influence on tumor response, loco-regional control, and survival. Concerning tumor response, the logistic model showed that the number of lesions and the minimal tumor temperature (min T) maintained their individual predictive values (P < 0.000001 and P = 0.04, respectively). For loco-regional control, only the number of lesions had a significant predictive value. No direct correlation was found between the treatment-related variables and loco-regional control. However, the 5-year survival rate was significantly higher for patients who achieved a complete response (CR) (51.5%, P = 0.0033) as compared to those who did not (33.3%), providing indirect evidence of the role of the treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that both disease-free and overall survival are strongly influenced by numerous clinical variables and the min T always maintained its significance. When analyzing the subgroup of 119 patients evaluable for tumor response, the Cox model selected the tumor response as the dominant factor for both disease-free and overall survival. These data seem to demonstrate that the optimization of treatment parameters is crucial in determining the CR rate, which, in turn, positively affects the disease outcome. HAP is the treatment of choice for recurrent limb melanoma, and hyperthermia plays an important role in exploiting the efficacy of this technique.

  15. Commentary on Huron and Trevor (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Müllensiefen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary offers a review of Huron and Trevor's article on the relationship between the likelihood of a composition and performance using stopped strings, and its overall sadness.

  16. Magnetic induction of hyperthermia by a modified self-learning fuzzy temperature controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tai, Cheng-Chi

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study involved developing a temperature controller for magnetic induction hyperthermia (MIH). A closed-loop controller was applied to track a reference model to guarantee a desired temperature response. The MIH system generated an alternating magnetic field to heat a high magnetic permeability material. This wireless induction heating had few side effects when it was extensively applied to cancer treatment. The effects of hyperthermia strongly depend on the precise control of temperature. However, during the treatment process, the control performance is degraded due to severe perturbations and parameter variations. In this study, a modified self-learning fuzzy logic controller (SLFLC) with a gain tuning mechanism was implemented to obtain high control performance in a wide range of treatment situations. This implementation was performed by appropriately altering the output scaling factor of a fuzzy inverse model to adjust the control rules. In this study, the proposed SLFLC was compared to the classical self-tuning fuzzy logic controller and fuzzy model reference learning control. Additionally, the proposed SLFLC was verified by conducting in vitro experiments with porcine liver. The experimental results indicated that the proposed controller showed greater robustness and excellent adaptability with respect to the temperature control of the MIH system.

  17. Gauge theories of gravitation a reader with commentaries

    CERN Document Server

    Blagojevic, Milutin

    2013-01-01

    In the last five decades, the gauge approach to gravity has represented a research area of increasing importance for our understanding of the physics of fundamental interactions. A full clarification of the gauge dynamics of gravity is expected to be the last missing link to the hidden structure of a consistent unification of all the fundamental interactions, based on the gauge principle. The aim of the present reprint volume, with commentaries by Milutin Blagojevi & 263; and Friedrich W Hehl, is to introduce graduate and advanced undergraduate students of theoretical or mathematical physics, or any other interested researcher, to the field of classical gauge theories of gravity. This is not just an ordinary reprint volume; it is a guide to the literature on gauge theories of gravity. The reader is encouraged first to study the introductory commentaries and to become familiar with the basic content of the reprints and related ideas, then he/she can choose to read a specific reprint or reprints, and after ...

  18. Effects of Radiofrequency Induced local Hyperthermia on Normal Canine Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Ok; Loh, John J. K.; Seong, Jin Sil

    1991-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of radiofrequency-induced local hyperthermia on the normal liver, histopathologic findings and biochemical changes after localized hyperthermia in canine liver were studied. Hyperthermia was externally administered using the Thermotron RF-8 (Yamamoto Vinyter Co., Japan; Capacitive type heating machine) with parallel opposed electrodes. Thirteen dogs were used and allocated into one control group (N=3) and two treatment groups according to the treatment temperature. Group I (N=5) was heated with 42.5±0.5.deg.C for 30 minutes, and Group(N=5) was heated with 45±0.5.deg.C for 15-30 minutes. Samples of liver tissue were obtained through a needle biopsy immediately after hyperthermia and 7, 14 and 28 days after treatment and examined for SGOT, SGPT and alkaline phosphatase. Although SGOT and SGPT were elevated after hyperthermia in both groups (three of five in each group), there was no liver cell necrosis or hyperthermia related mortality in Group I. A hydropic swelling of hepatocytes was prominent histologic finding. Hyperthermia with 45.deg.C for 30 minutes was fatal and showed extensive liver cell necrosis. In conclusion, liver damage day heat of 42.5±0.5.deg.C for 30 minutes is reversible, and liver damage by heat of 45±0.5.deg.C for 30 minutes can be fatal or irreversible. However, these results cannot be applied directly to human trial. Therefore, in order to apply hyperthermic treatment on human liver tumor safely, close observation of temperature with proper thermometry is mandatory. Hyperthermic treatment should be confined to the tumor area while sparing a normal liver as much as possible

  19. Covalent DNA-protein crosslinking occurs after hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cress, A.E.; Bowden, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks occur in exponentially growing mouse leukemia cells (L1210) after exposure to ionizing radiation. The amount of DNA-protein crosslinks as measured by a filter binding assay is dose dependent upon X irradiation. Although hyperthermia and radiation in combination are synergistic with respect to cell lethality, the combination does not result in an increase of DNA-protein crosslinks when assayed immediately following treatments. Hyperthermia (43 degrees C/15 min) given prior to radiation does not alter the radiation dose dependency of the amount of initial crosslinking. In addition, the amount of DNA-protein crosslinking produced by heat plus radiation is independent of the length of heating the cells at 43 degrees C. The DNA-protein crosslinks produced by 50-Gy X ray alone are removed after 2 hr at 37 degrees C. However, if hyperthermia (43 degrees C/15 min) is given prior to 100-Gy X ray, the removal of DNA-protein crosslinks is delayed until 4.0 hr after radiation. Phospho-serine and phospho-threonine bonds are not produced with either radiation or the combination of hyperthermia plus radiation as judged by the resistance of the bonds to guanidine hydrochloride. However, hyperthermia plus radiation causes an increase in phosphate to nitrogen type bonding. These results show that radiation alone causes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. Hyperthermia in combination with radiation does not increase the total amount of the crosslinks but delays the removal of the crosslinks and alters the distribution of the types of chemical bonding. These data suggest that the synergistic action on hyperthermia with radiation is more related to the rate of removal and the type of chemical bonding involved in the covalent DNA-protein crosslinks rather than the amount of DNA-protein crosslinks

  20. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoob, Sulafa M; Hassan, Noha S

    2012-08-14

    Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40-45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  1. FDTD analysis of a noninvasive hyperthermia system for brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoob Sulafa M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperthermia is considered one of the new therapeutic modalities for cancer treatment and is based on the difference in thermal sensitivity between healthy tissues and tumors. During hyperthermia treatment, the temperature of the tumor is raised to 40–45°C for a definite period resulting in the destruction of cancer cells. This paper investigates design, modeling and simulation of a new non-invasive hyperthermia applicator system capable of effectively heating deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors using inexpensive, simple, and easy to fabricate components without harming surrounding healthy brain tissues. Methods The proposed hyperthermia applicator system is composed of an air filled partial half ellipsoidal chamber, a patch antenna, and a head model with an embedded tumor at an arbitrary location. The irradiating antenna is placed at one of the foci of the hyperthermia chamber while the center of the brain tumor is placed at the other focus. The finite difference time domain (FDTD method is used to compute both the SAR patterns and the temperature distribution in three different head models due to two different patch antennas at a frequency of 915 MHz. Results The obtained results suggest that by using the proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system it is feasible to achieve sufficient and focused energy deposition and temperature rise to therapeutic values in deep seated as well as superficial brain tumors without harming surrounding healthy tissue. Conclusions The proposed noninvasive hyperthermia system proved suitable for raising the temperature in tumors embedded in the brain to therapeutic values by carefully selecting the systems components. The operator of the system only needs to place the center of the brain tumor at a pre-specified location and excite the antenna at a single frequency of 915 MHz. Our study may provide a basis for a clinical applicator prototype capable of heating brain tumors.

  2. Selected Works Of Hans A Bethe (With Commentary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, Hans A.

    1997-01-01

    Hans A Bethe received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1967 for his work on the production of energy in stars. A living legend among the physics community, he helped to shape classical physics into quantum physics and increased the understanding of the atomic processes responsible for the properties of matter and of the forces governing the structures of atomic nuclei. This collection of papers by Prof Bethe dates from 1928, when he received his PhD, to now. It covers several areas and reflects the many contributions in research and discovery made by one of the most important and eminent physicists of all time. Special commentaries have been written by Prof Bethe to complement the selected papers

  3. Online Adaptive Hyperthermia Treatment Planning During Locoregional Heating to Suppress Treatment-Limiting Hot Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H. Petra; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; Bakker, Akke; de Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne; Geijsen, Elisabeth D.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Crezee, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Adequate tumor temperatures during hyperthermia are essential for good clinical response, but excessive heating of normal tissue should be avoided. This makes locoregional heating using phased array systems technically challenging. Online application of hyperthermia treatment planning could help to

  4. Relating Magnetic Properties and High Hyperthermia Performance of Iron Oxide Nanoflowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Philipp; Fock, Jeppe; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2018-01-01

    We investigated in depth the interrelations among structure, magnetic properties, relaxation dynamics and magnetic hyperthermia performance of magnetic nanoflowers. The nanoflowers are about 39 nm in size, and consist of densely packed iron oxide cores. They display a remanent magnetization, which...... we explain by the exchange coupling between the cores, but we observe indications for internal spin disorder. By polarized small angle neutron scattering we unambiguously confirm that on average the nanoflowers are preferentially magnetized along one direction. The extracted discrete relaxation time...... distribution of the colloidally dispersed particles indicates the presence of three distinct relaxation contributions. We can explain the two slower processes by Brownian and classical Néel relaxation, respectively. The additionally observed very fast relaxation contributions are attributed by us...

  5. Combined effects of hyperthermia and radiation in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hur, E.; Elkind, M.M.; Riklis, E.

    1977-01-01

    Hyperthermia (temperatures of 39 0 C or higher) enhances the killing of mammalian cells by ionizing radiation (fission-spectrum neutrons and x-rays). The nature and the magnitude of the enhanced radiation killing varies with temperature and for a fixed temperature during irradiation, the enhanced lethality varies inversely with dose rate. For temperatures up to 41 0 C, dose fractionation measurements indicate that hyperthermia inhibits the repair of sublethal damage. At higher temperatures, the expression of potentially lethal damage is enhanced. Since the effect of heat is greatest in cells irradiated during DNA synthesis, the radiation age-response pattern is flattened by hyperthermia. In addition to the enhanced cell killing described above, three other features of the effect of hyperthermia are important in connection with the radiation treatment of cancer. The first is that heat selectively sensitizes S-phase cells to radiation. The second is that it takes radiation survivors 10 to 20 hrs after a modest heat treatment to recover their ability to repair sublethal damage. And the third is that hyperthermia reduces the magnitude of the oxygen enhancement ratio. Thus, heat if applied selectively, could significantly increase the margin of damage between tumors and normal tissues

  6. Interaction of hyperthermia and photoradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldow, S.M.; Dougherty, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    Local microwave hyperthermia (2450 MHz) was applied to auxillary implants of the SMT-F mammary carcinoma in mice in combination with photoradiation therapy (PRT) in an attempt to determine if the two modalities interact. When 40.5 0 C was applied for 30 min immediately prior to or immediately following PRT enhancement of tumor response over that of PRT alone was seen as judged by lack of tumor regrowth (35 days or longer after treatment). A temperature of 41.5 0 C applied for 30 min immediately following the 30-min PRT treatment produced a result slightly greater than that seen at 40.5 0 C. When a temperature of 44.5 0 C for 30 min was applied immediately following PRT, a substantial enhancement of tumor control at 35 days post-treatment was found. These results suggest that tumor response to PRT is enhanced by both a sublethal hyperthermic treatment (40.5 0 C, 41.5 0 C) and a moderately lethal heat treatment (44.5 0 C) given for a short duration, when applied immediately before or after photoradiation

  7. Magnetic hyperthermia of laponite based ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamantopoulos, G., E-mail: gior15@ims.demokritos.gr [Institute of Materials Science, National Centre for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Basina, G.; Tzitzios, V.; Karakosta, E.; Fardis, M. [Institute of Materials Science, National Centre for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Jaglicic, Z. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy and Institute of Mathematics, Physics and Mechanics, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lazaridis, N. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Chemistry Department, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papavassiliou, G. [Institute of Materials Science, National Centre for Scientific Research ‘Demokritos’, 153 10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2013-06-15

    Magnetic Hyperthermia experiments have been performed on different concentrations of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles immobilized on nano-clay disks. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was measured in AC field amplitudes H{sub 0} from 7 to 30 kA/m. At low field amplitudes, SAR followed the usual H{sub 0}{sup 2} law whereas for higher field amplitudes a linear dependence was found for the higher concentrations. Measurements at three different field amplitudes were also performed for a wide range of iron oxide concentrations in order to determine the effect of the Brownian relaxation time to SAR. A field dependent maximum was observed and for fields up to 20 kA/m the power dissipation losses were well explained according to theoretical predictions. - Highlights: ► Influence of the AC field to the specific absorption rates (SAR). ► Transition point from the expected square dependence to a linear law between SAR and AC field amplitude. ► A field dependent maximum of the SAR values versus iron oxide concentration is observed. ► Experimental validation of the existing theoretical work.

  8. Effect of hyperthermia on replicating chromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warters, R.L.; Roti Roti, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The extent of heat-induced structural alterations in chromatin containing nascent (pulse-labeled) DNA was assayed using the enzyme micrococcal nuclease. The basic nucleosome structure in nascent and mature chromatin of S-phase cells appeared unaltered for up to 16 hr after exposure to hyperthermic temperatures as high as 48 0 C for 15 min. However, the rate of nuclease digestion of DNA in both nascent and mature chromatin is inhibited following exposure to hyperthermic temperatures. In unheated cells, pulse-labeled nascent DNA matured into mature chromatin structure with a half-time of 2.5 min. The half-time for the maturation of pulse-labeled DNA from nascent into mature chromatin increased in a linear manner as a function of increasing temperature of exposure with constant heating time at temperatures above 43 0 C. Both the reduced nuclease digestibility of nascent DNA and the increased time for chromatin structural changes could be due to the increased protein mass of chromatin following hyperthermia

  9. The influence of hyperthermia and irradiation on some bioelectric parameters of the cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solic, F.; Milotic, B.; Stipcic-Solic, N.

    1986-01-01

    The simultaneously influence of hyperthermia and low intensity gamma irradiation on the biopotential and the resistance of Nitella cells were investigated. The effect induced by irradiation and hyperthermia is manifested as membrane repolarization while hyperthermia alone induced depolarization. The resistance of cells is in positive correlation with membrane potential. (author)

  10. Social factors modulate restraint stress induced hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2015-10-22

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) was examined in three different social conditions in mice by thermographic measurement of the body surface temperature. Placing animals in cylindrical holders induced restraint stress. I examined the effect of the social factors in SIH using the thermograph (body surface temperature). Mice restrained in the holders alone showed SIH. Mice restrained in the holders at the same time as other similarly restrained cage mates (social equality condition) showed less hyperthermia. Interestingly, restrained mice with free moving cage mates (social inequality condition) showed the highest hyperthermia. These results are consistent with a previous experiment measuring the memory-enhancing effects of stress and the stress-induced elevation of corticosterone, and suggest that social inequality enhances stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Magnetic Properties of Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab M. Obaidat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Localized magnetic hyperthermia using magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs under the application of small magnetic fields is a promising tool for treating small or deep-seated tumors. For this method to be applicable, the amount of MNPs used should be minimized. Hence, it is essential to enhance the power dissipation or heating efficiency of MNPs. Several factors influence the heating efficiency of MNPs, such as the amplitude and frequency of the applied magnetic field and the structural and magnetic properties of MNPs. We discuss some of the physics principles for effective heating of MNPs focusing on the role of surface anisotropy, interface exchange anisotropy and dipolar interactions. Basic magnetic properties of MNPs such as their superparamagnetic behavior, are briefly reviewed. The influence of temperature on anisotropy and magnetization of MNPs is discussed. Recent development in self-regulated hyperthermia is briefly discussed. Some physical and practical limitations of using MNPs in magnetic hyperthermia are also briefly discussed.

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia and chemotherapy cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryk, A. A.; Giustini, A. J.; Ryan, P.; Strawbridge, R. R.; Hoopes, P. J.

    2009-02-01

    The benefit of combining hyperthermia and chemotherapy to treat cancer is well established. However, combined therapy has not yet achieved standard of care status. The reasons are numerous and varied, however the lack of significantly greater tumor cell sensitivity to heat (as compared to normal cells) and the inability to deliver heat to the tumor in a precise manner have been major factors. Iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) hyperthermia, alone and combined with other modalities, offers a new direction in hyperthermia cancer therapy via improved tumor targeting and an improved therapeutic ratio. Our preliminary studies have demonstrated tumor cell cytotoxicity (in vitro and in vivo) with IONP heat and cisplatinum (CDDP) doses lower than those necessary when using conventional heating techniques or cisplatinum alone. Ongoing studies suggest such treatment could be further improved through the use of targeted nanoparticles.

  13. Early experience in the combination of regional hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, G.C.W.; Bleehen, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    An annular array of radiative radiofrequency applicators (APA) has been developed by the BSD Corporation, Salt Lake City (USA) which has been shown to be capable of deep heating. The BSD 1000 clinical hyperthermia system has been installed at Cambridge for 18 months and a pilot study has been performed to assess the feasibility of pelvic regional hyperthermia in the treatment of extensive pelvic malignancy. The study confirms published data that the APA is capable of heating at depth within the pelvis. Therapeutic temperatures may be reached in the majority of treatments but are difficult to maintain due to acute toxicity. Steering of the area of maximal energy deposition may improve treatments considerably. A randomised trial is now being designed to assess whether the synergism between radiation and hyperthermia seen in superficial lesions can be demonstrated in tumours occurring in the pelvis. (orig./MG)

  14. Present clinical status of hyperthermia associated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaulerry, C.; Bataini, J.P.; Brunin, F.; Gaboriaud, G.

    1981-01-01

    Improved techniques for inducing heat: ultrasound, microwaves, diathermy with different application modalities, capable of producing localized superficial or deep, regional or total body hyperthermia have been responsible for the multiplication of clinical trials. These studies have confirmed the tumoricidal effect of hyperthermia alone, or more especially when combined with radiotherapy, and the good tolerance of normal tissues to localized temperatures of 42 to 43.5 0 C even in previously irradiated cases. Localized heating does not seem to increase the incidence of metastasis. Enhancement ratios and therapeutic gain with respect to normal tissues are not yet well documented. Many problems, including the heterogenicity of tissues to be heated, difficulties with temperature monitoring, and selection of appropriate sequential scheduling of radiation and hyperthermia remain unsolved and further investigationss are required [fr

  15. J. Genet. classic 101

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 101. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. 102. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. 103. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. 104. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 85, No. 2, August 2006. Page 5. J. Genet. classic.

  16. J. Genet. classic 37

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 37. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 38. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 39. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 84, No. 1, April 2005. 40. Page 5. J. Genet. classic. Journal of ...

  17. Strategies to reduce hyperthermia in ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Cox, Mary Jude; Long, William B; Winters, Kathryne L; Becker, Daniel G

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 400,000 Americans have multiple sclerosis. Worldwide, multiple sclerosis affects 2.5 million individuals. Multiple sclerosis affects two to three times as many women as men. The adverse effects of hyperthermia in patients with multiple sclerosis have been known since 1890. While most patients with multiple sclerosis experience reversible worsening of their neurologic deficits, some patients experience irreversible neurologic deficits. In fact, heat-induced fatalities have been encountered in multiple sclerosis patients subjected to hyperthermia. Hyperthermia can be caused through sun exposure, exercise, and infection. During the last 50 years, numerous strategies have evolved to reduce hyperthermia in individuals with multiple sclerosis, such as photoprotective clothing, sunglasses, sunscreens, hydrotherapy, and prevention of urinary tract infections. Hydrotherapy has become an essential component of rehabilitation for multiple sclerosis patients in hospitals throughout the world. On the basis of this positive hospital experience, hydrotherapy has been expanded through the use of compact aquatic exercise pools at home along with personal cooling devices that promote local and systemic hypothermia in multiple sclerosis patients. The Multiple Sclerosis Association of America and NASA have played leadership roles in developing and recommending technology that will prevent hyperthermia in multiple sclerosis patients and should be consulted for new technological advances that will benefit the multiple sclerosis patient. In addition, products recommended for photoprotection by The Skin Cancer Foundation may also be helpful to the multiple sclerosis patient's defense against hyperthermia. Infections in the urinary tract, especially detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, are initially managed conservatively with intermittent self-catheterization and pharmacologic therapy. In those cases, refractory to conservative therapy, transurethral external

  18. Numerical modeling for an electric-field hyperthermia applicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te-Kao; Chou, C. K.; Chan, K. W.; Mcdougall, J.

    1993-01-01

    Hyperthermia, in conjunction with radiation and chemotherapy for treatment of cancers, is an area of current concern. Experiments have shown that hyperthermia can increase the potency of many chemotherapy drugs and the effectiveness of radiation for treating cancer. A combination of whole body or regional hyperthermia with chemotherapy or radiation should improve treatment results. Conventional methods for inducing whole body hyperthermia, such as exposing a patient in a radiant cabinet or under a hot water blanket, conduct heat very slowly from the skin to the body core. Thus a more efficient system, such as the three-plate electric-field hyperthermia applicator (EHA), is developed. This three-plate EHA has one top plate over and two lower plates beneath the patient. It is driven at 27.12 MHz with 500 Watts through a matching circuit. Using this applicator, a 50 kg pig was successfully heated to 42 C within 45 minutes. However, phantom and animal studies have indicated non-uniform heating near the side of the body. In addition, changes in the size and distance between the electrode plates can affect the heating (or electromagnetic field) pattern. Therefore, numerical models using the method of moments (MOM) or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are developed to optimize the heating pattern of this EHA before it is used for human trials. The accuracy of the numerical modeling has been achieved by the good agreement between the MOM and FDTD results for the three-plate EHA without a biological body. The versatile FDTD technique is then applied to optimize the EHA design with a human body. Both the numerical and measured data in phantom blocks will be presented. The results of this study will be used to design an optimized system for whole body or regional hyperthermia.

  19. Covalent DNA-protein crosslinking occurs after hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cress, A.E.; Bowden, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Covalent DNA-protein crosslinks occur in exponentially growing mouse leukemia cells (L1210) after exposure to ionizing radiation. The amount of DNA-protein crosslinks as measured by a filter binding assay is dose dependent upon x irradiation. Although hyperthermia and radiation in combination are synergistic with respect to cell lethality, the combination does not result in an increase of DNA-protein crosslinks when assayed immediately following treatments. Hyperthermia (43 0 C/15 min) given prior to radiation dose not alter the radiation dose dependency of the amount of initial crosslinking. In addition, the amount of DNA-protein crosslinking produced by heat plus radiation is independent of the length of heating the cells at 43 0 C. The DNA-protein crosslinks produced y 50-Gy x ray alone are removed after 2 hr at 37 0 C. However, if hyperthermia (43 0 C/15 min) is given prior to 100-Gy x ray, the removal of DNA-protein crosslinks is delayed until 4.0 hr after radiation. Phospho-serine and phospho-threonine bonds are not produced with either radiation or the combination of hyperthermia plus radiation as judged by the resistance of the bonds to guanidine hydrochloride. However, hyperthermia plus radiation causes an increase in phosphate to nitrogen type bonding. These results show that radiation alone causes covalent DNA-protein crosslinks. Hyperthermia in combination with radiation does not increase the total amount of the crosslinks but delays the removal of the crosslinks and alters the distribution of the types of chemical bonding

  20. The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence: magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian; Fiering, Steve N; Griswold, Karl E; Hoopes, P Jack; Kekalo, Katerina; Ndong, Christian; Paulsen, Keith; Petryk, Alicea A; Pogue, Brian; Shubitidze, Fridon; Weaver, John

    2015-01-01

    The Dartmouth Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence - one of nine funded by the National Cancer Institute as part of the Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer - focuses on the use of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer diagnostics and hyperthermia therapy. It brings together a diverse team of engineers and biomedical researchers with expertise in nanomaterials, molecular targeting, advanced biomedical imaging and translational in vivo studies. The goal of successfully treating cancer is being approached by developing nanoparticles, conjugating them with Fabs, hyperthermia treatment, immunotherapy and sensing treatment response.

  1. Targeting therapy-resistant cancer stem cells by hyperthermia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oei, A L; Vriend, L E M; Krawczyk, P M

    2017-01-01

    Eradication of all malignant cells is the ultimate but challenging goal of anti-cancer treatment; most traditional clinically-available approaches fail because there are cells in a tumour that either escape therapy or become therapy-resistant. A subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells...... are limited. Here, we argue that hyperthermia - a therapeutic approach based on local heating of a tumour - is potentially beneficial for targeting CSCs in solid tumours. First, hyperthermia has been described to target cells in hypoxic and nutrient-deprived tumour areas where CSCs reside and ionising...

  2. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular strain and hyperthermia are thought to be important factors limiting exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans, however, the contribution of elevations in skin (Tsk) versus whole body temperatures on exercise capacity has not been characterized. To ascertain their relationships...... was associated with a plateau in MCA and two-legged vascular conductance (VC). Mechanistically, the falling MCA VC was coupled to reductions in PaCO2, whereas the plateau in leg vascular conductance was related to markedly elevated plasma [NA] and a plateau in plasma ATP These findings reveal that whole-body...... hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, compromises exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans through the early attenuation of brain and active muscle blood flow....

  3. Migration, Immigration, and Community: A Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Landis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper comments on six papers that deal with aspects of migration in different countries. While each of the papers provides important and interesting facets of the issue of migration and are very welcome, they also use different methodologies, sometimes within the same article, as might be expected in a rather new field. Generally, this commentary focuses on methodological issues since those will lie at the heart of any assessment of the credibility and usefulness of the various findings. After the six articles are described and strengths and concerns outlined, the commentary concludes with some thoughts on implementations.

  4. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    Sweat secretion is often disturbed in patients with GH secretory disorders. Hyperhidrosis is a classic feature of acromegaly, and it has recently been shown that GH-deficient patients exhibit decreased sweating capacity after pilocarpine stimulation of the skin. Thus, patients with GH-deficiency ...

  5. Stress-induced hyperthermia in translational stress research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, C.H.; Penning, R.; Ebbens, M.M.; Helhammer, J.; Verster, J.C.; Kalkman, C.J.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    The stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) response is the transient change in body temperature in response to acute stress. This body temperature response is part of the autonomic stress response which also results in tachycardia and an increased blood pressure. So far, a SIH response has been found in

  6. Delineation of potential hot spots for hyperthermia treatment planning optimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, J.; van Wieringen, N.; Crezee, H.; van Dijk, J. D. P.

    2007-01-01

    The optimal feed parameters of the generators for a complex-phased hyperthermia array system consisting of 4, 8 or even more applicators cannot be found using only the expertise of the treatment staff or using the limited amount of field and temperature data obtained during treatment. A number of

  7. Effects of hyperthermia, radiotherapy and thermoradiotherapy on tumor microvasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kouji

    1987-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of hyperthermia (immersion of tumor-bearing leg in a water bath at 46 deg C for 60 min), radiotherapy (500 rad or 1000 rad) and thermoradiotherapy on VX-2 tumors of the rabbits were studied morphologically. Especially, vascular morphological changes and vascular permeability to ferritin after treatment were investigated by electron microscopy. As assessed by decrease in tumor volume, local hyperthermia potentiated the destructive effect of radiotherapy. The light microscopic pictures invariably suggested prolonged necrotic tendency of tumor cells following thermoradiotherapy. Electron microscopically, 1 day and 3 days after thermoradiotherapy, small blood vessels in the tumors showed swelling and protrusion of endothelial cells in the lumen. Similar morphological changes were obtained only at 3 days after radiotherapy. When vascular permeability to ferritin was examined by electron microscopy, an increase in tumor vascular permeability was occured at 1 day after hyperthermia or thermoradiotherapy, while at 3 days after radiotherapy. These results suggest that the early reaction of tumor microvasculature may be a contributing factor to delayed cell death in tumors after hyperthermia or thermoradiotherapy. (author)

  8. Thermosensitive Nanostructured Media for imaging and Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Hyperthermia has been used for many years to treat a wide variety of tumors in patients. The most commonly applied method of hyperthermia is capacitive heating by using microwave. Magnetic fluids based on iron oxide (Fe3O4), stabilized by biocompatible surfactants are typically used as heating agent. However, significant limitations of using commercial available magnetic particles are non-selectivity and overheating of surrounding normal tissues. To improve the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment we intend to develop Curie temperature (Tc)-tuned nanostructured media having T2 relaxation response on MRI for selective and self-controlled hyperthermia cancer treatment. As an active part of this media we fabricated superparamagnetic, biocompatible and dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles Mg1+xTixFe2(1-x)O4 at 0.3 x connected to a hydrocarbon chain, such as glycine, hydrazine, or urea. Our experiments revealed that ferrite with formula Mg1.35Ti0.35Fe1.3O4 appears with Curie temperature within 46-50rC. NSF, grant # 0933140.

  9. Comparative evaluation of combined irradiation and hyperthermia versus irradiation alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawas-Dimopoulou, C.; Iordanou, I.; Uzunoglu, N.; Dardoufas, K.; Kouloulias, V.; Maris, T.; Kotaridis, S.

    1994-01-01

    Controvesy remains as to the treatment schedule producing better results in combined hyperthermia and X-ray therapy. Our experience concerning combined therapy of the solid tumour Walker carcinoma is reported. Male Wistar rats were submitted to treatment on the ninth day after transplantation of the tumour. Two groups of rats received either a therapeutic X-ray dose of 800 cGy by a 6-MeV linear accelerator (Mevatron, Siemens) or treatment by 432 MHz of microwaves with continuous control of tumour tissue temperature to 44±1 C for 45 min. Another group of rats was submitted to a combined treatment, with X-ray therapy preceding hyperthermia by 24 h. The last group of animals constituted the control rats. Greater tumour regression and longer survival times were obtained with the combined treatment. The gain factor for survival time was equal to 1.85 after combined treatment compared with 1.30 after X-ray therapy and 1.05 after hyperthermia. In conclusion, the results suggest that in the above schedule of combined treatment, hyperthermia applied to a solid tumour 24 h after a single dose of X-rays enhances the beneficial effect of therapy. (orig.)

  10. On the temperature control in self-controlling hyperthermia therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Mahyar, E-mail: ebrahimi_m@mehr.sharif.ir

    2016-10-15

    In self-controlling hyperthermia therapy, once the desired temperature is reached, the heat generation ceases and overheating is prevented. In order to design a system that generates sufficient heat without thermal ablation of surrounding healthy tissue, a good understanding of temperature distribution and its change with time is imperative. This study is conducted to extend our understanding about the heat generation and transfer, temperature distribution and temperature rise pattern in the tumor and surrounding tissue during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. A model consisting of two concentric spheres that represents the tumor and its surrounding tissue is considered and temperature change pattern and temperature distribution in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. After describing the model and its governing equations and constants precisely, a typical numerical solution of the model is presented. Then it is showed that how different parameters like Curie temperature of nanoparticles, magnetic field amplitude and nanoparticles concentration can affect the temperature change pattern during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. The model system herein discussed can be useful to gain insight on the self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia while applied to cancer treatment in real scenario and can be useful for treatment strategy determination. - Highlights: • Temperature change pattern in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. • The model system herein can be useful for treatment strategy determination. • In the work described herein, emphasis is on the effect of low Curie temperature. • If the equilibrium temperature can be tuned appropriately, the stay time will be infinite.

  11. Improving efficacy of hyperthermia in oncology by exploiting biological mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Tempel, Nathalie; Horsman, Michael R; Kanaar, Roland

    2016-01-01

    It has long been established that hyperthermia increases the therapeutic benefit of radiation and chemotherapy in cancer treatment. During the last few years there have been substantial technical improvements in the sources used to apply and measure heat, which greatly increases enthusiasm for th...

  12. Effects of hyperthermia on the hamster immune system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangavalli, R.; Cain, C.A.; Tompkins, W.A.F.

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies, the authors have shown that hyperthermia can enhance antibody-complement chytotoxicity of hamster and human tumor cells. Moreover, whole body microwave exposure of hamsters resulted in activation of peritoneal macrophages to a viricidal state and transient suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity. In this study, the authors compare the effects of whole body heating by microwaves or by an environmental chamber (hot air) on the hamster immune system. Microwave exposure (25mW/cm/sup 2/; 1 hr) caused viricidal activation of peritoneal macrophages which resulted in restriction of vaccinia and vesicular stomatitis virs (VSV) growth. However, heating in an environmental chamber (41 0 C; 1 hr) did not activate macrophages to a viricidal state. Both microwave and hot air hyperthermia caused significant augmentation of antibody producing spleen cell response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), using the Jerne hymolytic plaque assay, four days post exposure and immunization with SRBC. Natural killer spleen cell cytotoxicity was suppressed by microwave and hot air hyperthermia showing that NK lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to changes in temperature. These alterations in cellular immune response due to hyperthermia could be of significance in treatment of tumors and viral infections

  13. On the temperature control in self-controlling hyperthermia therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Mahyar

    2016-01-01

    In self-controlling hyperthermia therapy, once the desired temperature is reached, the heat generation ceases and overheating is prevented. In order to design a system that generates sufficient heat without thermal ablation of surrounding healthy tissue, a good understanding of temperature distribution and its change with time is imperative. This study is conducted to extend our understanding about the heat generation and transfer, temperature distribution and temperature rise pattern in the tumor and surrounding tissue during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. A model consisting of two concentric spheres that represents the tumor and its surrounding tissue is considered and temperature change pattern and temperature distribution in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. After describing the model and its governing equations and constants precisely, a typical numerical solution of the model is presented. Then it is showed that how different parameters like Curie temperature of nanoparticles, magnetic field amplitude and nanoparticles concentration can affect the temperature change pattern during self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia. The model system herein discussed can be useful to gain insight on the self-controlling magnetic hyperthermia while applied to cancer treatment in real scenario and can be useful for treatment strategy determination. - Highlights: • Temperature change pattern in tumor and surrounding tissue are studied. • The model system herein can be useful for treatment strategy determination. • In the work described herein, emphasis is on the effect of low Curie temperature. • If the equilibrium temperature can be tuned appropriately, the stay time will be infinite.

  14. The effect of the malignant hyperthermia gene on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) genotype, as expressed by the halo- thane genotype, was determined on a random sample of 100 pigs originating fiom the Western Cape. The pigs were slaughtered to investigate the effect of MH genotype on certain carcass character- istics and meat quality traits. Genotypes were determined ...

  15. Commentary Improving child outcomes through maternal mental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This commentary will provide a general overview of the public health considerations of maternal mental illness, both from a global perspective as well as from the South African context. The paper will outline the consequences of maternal mental illness for mothers as well as their offspring, through the life stages from ...

  16. Commentary: Cultural Adaptation, Collaboration, and Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence Albert

    2010-01-01

    This commentary reviews three articles linked together by two themes (a) the use of cultural adaptation of evidence-based practices to reduce disparities in health and services delivery and (b) the importance of collaboration involving intervention developers, practitioners, and consumers when delivering services. Both themes illustrate a process…

  17. Critical Data and Rhetorical Theory (Commentary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAloon, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that, in terms of demography of attention, broadcast economics, the excitation of wide public commentary, and First and Third World media dependency issues, American Olympic television is a worthwhile object of scrutiny for mass communication researchers. Appraises two studies by Thomas Farrell and Eric Rothenbuhler (same issue). (SR)

  18. A Response to Andrea R. Halpern's Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya Bailes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The author responds to points raised in Andrea Halpern’s commentary, which appeared in Vol. 2, No. 1 of Empirical Musicology Review. Discussion focuses on the apparent contradiction between self-reports of veridical mental imagery of musical timbre, and cognitive constraints on temporal memory for multidimensional sound.

  19. J. Genet. classic 235

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 235. Page 2. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 236. Page 3. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 237. Page 4. J. Genet. classic. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 3, December 2004. 238. Page 5 ...

  20. Nanotechnology in hyperthermia cancer therapy: From fundamental principles to advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beik, Jaber; Abed, Ziaeddin; Ghoreishi, Fatemeh S; Hosseini-Nami, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali; Kamrava, S Kamran

    2016-08-10

    In this work, we present an in-depth review of recent breakthroughs in nanotechnology for hyperthermia cancer therapy. Conventional hyperthermia methods do not thermally discriminate between the target and the surrounding normal tissues, and this non-selective tissue heating can lead to serious side effects. Nanotechnology is expected to have great potential to revolutionize current hyperthermia methods. To find an appropriate place in cancer treatment, all nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods and their risks/benefits must be thoroughly understood. In this review paper, we extensively examine and compare four modern nanotechnology-based hyperthermia methods. For each method, the possible physical mechanisms of heat generation and enhancement due to the presence of nanoparticles are explained, and recent in vitro and in vivo studies are reviewed and discussed. Nano-Photo-Thermal Therapy (NPTT) and Nano-Magnetic Hyperthermia (NMH) are reviewed as the two first exciting approaches for targeted hyperthermia. The third novel hyperthermia method, Nano-Radio-Frequency Ablation (NaRFA) is discussed together with the thermal effects of novel nanoparticles in the presence of radiofrequency waves. Finally, Nano-Ultrasound Hyperthermia (NUH) is described as the fourth modern method for cancer hyperthermia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preferential radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Samuel; Brown, Stephen L.; Kim, Sang-Hie; Khil, Mark S.; Kim, Jae Ho

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Recent cell culture studies by us and others suggest that some human carcinoma cells are more sensitive to heat than are rodent cells following mild hyperthermia. In studying the cellular mechanism of enhanced thermosensitivity of human tumor cells to hyperthermia, prostatic carcinoma cells of human origin were found to be more sensitive to mild hyperthermia than other human cancer cells. The present study was designed to determine the magnitude of radiosensitization of human prostatic carcinoma cells by mild hyperthermia and to examine whether the thermal radiosensitization is related to the intrinsic thermosensitivity of cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Two human prostatic carcinoma cell lines (DU-145 and PC-3) and other carcinoma cells of human origin, in particular, colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7), lung (A-549), and brain (U-251) were exposed to temperatures of 40-41 deg. C. Single acute dose rate radiation and fractionated radiation were combined with mild hyperthermia to determine thermal radiosensitization. The end point of the study was the colony-forming ability of single-plated cells. Results: DU-145 and PC-3 cells were found to be exceedingly thermosensitive to 41 deg. C for 24 h, relative to other cancer cell lines. Ninety percent of the prostatic cancer cells were killed by a 24 h heat exposure. Prostatic carcinoma cells exposed to a short duration of heating at 41 deg. C for 2 h resulted in a substantial enhancement of radiation-induced cytotoxicity. The thermal enhancement ratios (TERs) of single acute dose radiation following heat treatment 41 deg. C for 2 h were 2.0 in DU-145 cells and 1.4 in PC-3 cells. The TERs of fractionated irradiation combined with continuous heating at 40 deg. C were similarly in the range of 2.1 to 1.4 in prostate carcinoma cells. No significant radiosensitization was observed in MCF-7 and HT-29 cells under the same conditions. Conclusion: The present data suggest that a significant radiosensitization of

  2. Investigation properties of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and magnetic field-dependent hyperthermia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatnasab, Z.; Abnisa, F.; Daud, W. M. A. Wan

    2018-03-01

    The application of superparamagnetic nanoparticles as heating agents in hyperthermia therapy has made a therapeutic breakthrough in cancer treatment. The high efficiency of this magnetic hyperthermia therapy has derived from a great capability of superparamagnetic nanoparticles to generate focused heat in inaccessible tumors being effectively inactivated. The main challenges of this therapy are the improvement of the induction heating power of superparamagnetic nanoparticles and the control of the hyperthermia temperature in a secure range of 42 °C to 47 °C, at targeted area. The variation of these hyperthermia properties is principally dependent on the magnetic nanoparticles as well as the magnetic field leading to enhance the efficiency of magnetic hyperthermia therapy at targeted area and also avoid undue heating to healthy cells. The present study evaluates the magnetic hyperthermia therapy through the determination of superparamagnetic nanoparticles properties and magnetic field’ parameters.

  3. Commentary: Pursuing justice in death penalty trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Clarence; Eth, Spencer; Leong, Gregory B

    2012-01-01

    The capital trial, by its nature, is fraught with emotionally disturbing elements that jurors must face when deciding the ultimate fate of a guilty defendant. A confluence of mitigating and aggravating factors influences a capital jury's decision to impose a sentence of death. The presence or absence of defendant remorse in these cases may make all the difference in whether a capital defendant's life is spared. This commentary examines the onerous emotional toll encountered by capital jurors in light of the findings of Corwin and colleagues regarding defendant remorse and juror's need for affect. The commentary also presents practical and ethics-related considerations that should be kept in mind when reflecting on their study.

  4. Acute volume expansion attenuates hyperthermia-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion during simulated hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Seifert, Thomas; Wilson, Thad E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia reduces the capacity to withstand a simulated hemorrhagic challenge, but volume loading preserves this capacity. This study tested the hypotheses that acute volume expansion during hyperthermia increases cerebral perfusion and attenuates reductions in cerebral perfusion during...... infusion while hyperthermic. Primary dependent variables were mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAvmean), serving as an index of cerebral perfusion; mean arterial pressure (MAP); and cardiac output (thermodilution). During baseline, hyperthermia reduced MCAvmean (P = 0.001) by 12 ± 9% relative...

  5. Commentary: a sociologist's view on community genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Raz, Aviad E.

    2010-01-01

    This commentary illustrates and discusses potential research directions for sociologists and anthropologists interested in the field of community genetics and its emerging networks of individuals genetically at risk. Community genetics—the application of medical genetics in community settings for the benefit of individuals—also involves social issues of lay-professional misunderstandings (and more recently also the different perspectives of various expert communities), stigmatization, discrim...

  6. Migration, Immigration, and Community: A Commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Landis

    2011-01-01

    This paper comments on six papers that deal with aspects of migration in different countries. While each of the papers provides important and interesting facets of the issue of migration and are very welcome, they also use different methodologies, sometimes within the same article, as might be expected in a rather new field. Generally, this commentary focuses on methodological issues since those will lie at the heart of any assessment of the credibility and usefulness of the various findings....

  7. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, Olaf

    2007-01-01

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity

  8. Classicality in quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyer, Olaf [Theoretical Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    In this article we propose a solution to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We point out that the measurement problem can be traced to an a priori notion of classicality in the formulation of quantum mechanics. If this notion of classicality is dropped and instead classicality is defined in purely quantum mechanical terms the measurement problem can be avoided. We give such a definition of classicality. It identifies classicality as a property of large quantum system. We show how the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is a result of this notion of classicality. We also comment on what the implications of this view are for the search of a quantum theory of gravity.

  9. Classical, Semi-classical and Quantum Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, H; Scully, Marlan

    2012-01-01

    David Middleton was a towering figure of 20th Century engineering and science and one of the founders of statistical communication theory. During the second World War, the young David Middleton, working with Van Fleck, devised the notion of the matched filter, which is the most basic method used for detecting signals in noise. Over the intervening six decades, the contributions of Middleton have become classics. This collection of essays by leading scientists, engineers and colleagues of David are in his honor and reflect the wide  influence that he has had on many fields. Also included is the introduction by Middleton to his forthcoming book, which gives a wonderful view of the field of communication, its history and his own views on the field that he developed over the past 60 years. Focusing on classical noise modeling and applications, Classical, Semi-Classical and Quantum Noise includes coverage of statistical communication theory, non-stationary noise, molecular footprints, noise suppression, Quantum e...

  10. Radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia in advanced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuma, Akiko; Terashima, Hiromi; Torii, Yoshikuni; Nakata, Hajime; Inatomi, Hisato

    1986-01-01

    Radiation therapy combined with radiofrequency (RF) hyperthermia was performed on 5 advanced cancer patients. Included were one each with urinary bladder cancer, hepatoma with left axillary node metastasis, breast cancer, tongue cancer with left cervical metastasis, and mandibular cancer. All had large tumors, which were judged to be uncontrollable by radiotherapy alone. They were treated with irradiation (Linac: 10 MV X-ray 1.8 - 2.0 Gy/day, 5 days/week), followed within an hour by RF hyperthermia once or twice a week. Partial response was obtained in the urinary bladder cancer patient. Surface overheating around the margin of electrodes occurred in all but no severe complications were observed. (author)

  11. Hypoxic cell radiosensitization by moderate hyperthermia and glucose deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Hahn, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    Cell culture studies were carried out to determine whether moderate hyperthermia reduces the oxygen enhancement ratio of cells under well-defined cultural conditions. Using asynchronously growing HeLa cells, the OER of cells with and without glucose was determined following exposure of cells to moderate hyperthermia, 40.5omicronC for 1 hr, immediately after X irradiation. The OER of cells with 5 mM glucose was 3.2, whereas the OER of glucose-deprived cells was reduced to 2.0. The pH of the cell culture medium was kept at 7.4 throughtout the experiments. The present finding may provide a clue toward further enhancing the radiosensitization of hypoxic cells by heat

  12. Hypoxic cell radiosensitization by moderate hyperthermia and glucose deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, S.H.; Hahn, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    Cell culture studies were carried out to determine whether moderate hyperthermia reduces the oxygen enhancement ratio of cells under well-defined cultural conditions. Using asynchronously growing HeLa cells, the OER of cells with and without glucose was determined following exposure of cells to moderate hyperthermia, 40.5 degrees C for 1 hr, immediately after X irradiation. The OER of cells with 5 mM glucose was 3.2, whereas the OER of glucose-deprived cells was reduced to 2.0. The pH of the cell culture medium was kept at 7.4 throughout the experiments. The present finding may provide a clue toward further enhancing the radiosensitization of hypoxic cells by heat

  13. Hyperthermia generated by Foucault currents for oncological treatments with COMSOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, R. L.; Cordova F, T.; Basurto I, G.; Guzman C, R.; Castro L, J.

    2017-10-01

    The hyperthermia generated by variable magnetic fields is a promising power method for oncological therapy, because apoptosis is induced in tumor cells at temperatures between 42 and 45 degrees Celsius. It is known that an alternating magnetic field on the FeO 4 magnetite particles produces heat through three paths: is generated by parasitic currents, lost in hysteresis cycles and losses by magnetization relaxation; taking advantage of the energy losses through the joule effect and the transformation into heat, a simulation is shown in COMSOL about the temporal distribution of temperature in transformed biological systems, to have an estimate of the properties and behavior of the temperature gradient when magnetic hyperthermia is generated in human transformed tissue. (Author)

  14. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A; Arcos, D; Vallet-Regí, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia. (topical review)

  15. Hyperthermia and Use of Antipyretics in Pediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problem of hyperthermia in pediatric practice. There are given the peculiarities of fever types, recommendations on management by physician who provides care for a child with a fever, recommendations on the definition of the category of patients who should be administered with antipyretic agent. The authors provide evidence-based data on the benefits of ibuprofen (Nurofen® for children as the hypothermic therapy in children with fever.

  16. Thermometric analysis of intra-cavitary hyperthermia for esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, C; Li, D J

    1999-01-01

    Thermometric analysis was carried out in 51 patients with esophageal cancer treated with intra-cavitary hyperthermia combined with radio chemotherapy, to test whether temperature index (T20, T50) and T90) could be used as an indicator for tumour control. Hyperthermia was administered by intra-cavitary microwave applicator. The T20, T50 and T90 were deducted from the temperature sensors T0 and T3 situated at the center of the tumour surface and 3cm from it. Eighteen patients with local control > or =36 months were named long term control patients (LC), 24 patients with local recurrence within 24 months (LR) (there were no events occurring between 24 and 36 months) and nine patients died of metastasis without local recurrence (DM). The overall survival rates were 80.4 +/- 5.6% at 1 year, 38.3 +/- 6.9% at 3 years and 31 +/- 6.7% at 5 years, respectively. Chi-square test showed no influence of the number of hyperthermia sessions on the local control (p > 0.25). The 5-year local control rate was 18.8% for the patients with T90 or = 43 degrees C (p < 0.01). The average T90 was 43.76 +/- 0.74 degrees C for the LC patients and 43.17 +/- 0.57 degrees C for those LR (p = 0.024). The mean T90 was higher than 43 degrees C in 94.4% of LC, whereas in 58.8% of LR. The study suggested that T90 was a good parameter for thermal dose in the intracavitary hyperthermia for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  17. Visual function and retinal vessel diameters during hyperthermia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Bram, Thue; Kappelgaard, Per

    2017-01-01

    .01), a 10.6-mmHg mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure (p vein...... laser ophthalmoscopy was used to measure retinal trunk vessel diameters. Assessment was made at baseline, during hyperthermia and after cooling. RESULTS: The induction of a mean increase in core body temperature of 1.02°C was associated with a 7.15-mmHg mean reduction in systolic blood pressure (p

  18. Computational evaluation of amplitude modulation for enhanced magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Frederik; Dupré, Luc; Ivkov, Robert; Crevecoeur, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can interact with alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) to deposit localized energy for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. Hyperthermia is useful in the context of multimodality treatments with radiation or chemotherapy to enhance disease control without increased toxicity. The unique attributes of heat deposition and transfer with MNPs have generated considerable attention and have been the focus of extensive investigations to elucidate mechanisms and optimize performance. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations are often conducted with the finite element method (FEM) using the Pennes' bioheat equation. In the current study, the Pennes' equation was modified to include a thermal damage-dependent perfusion profile to improve model predictions with respect to known physiological responses to tissue heating. A normal distribution of MNPs in a model liver tumor was combined with empirical nanoparticle heating data to calculate tumor temperature distributions and resulting survival fraction of cancer cells. In addition, calculated spatiotemporal temperature changes were compared among magnetic field amplitude modulations of a base 150-kHz sinusoidal waveform, specifically, no modulation, sinusoidal, rectangular, and triangular modulation. Complex relationships were observed between nanoparticle heating and cancer tissue damage when amplitude modulation and damage-related perfusion profiles were varied. These results are tantalizing and motivate further exploration of amplitude modulation as a means to enhance efficiency of and overcome technical challenges associated with magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (MNH).

  19. Gelatine-assisted synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, André F.; Mendo, Sofia G. [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Ferreira, Liliana P. [Universidade de Lisboa, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Mendonça, Maria Helena [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Ferreira, Paula [University of Aveiro, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Godinho, Margarida; Cruz, Maria Margarida [Universidade de Lisboa, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Deus, E-mail: mdcarvalho@ciencias.ulisboa.pt [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method exploring the use of gelatine and agar as additives. For comparison, magnetite nanoparticles were also prepared by standard co-precipitation, by co-precipitation with the addition of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and by the thermal decomposition method. The structure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Their magnetic properties were studied by SQUID magnetometry and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The nanoparticles potential for applications in magnetic hyperthermia was evaluated through heating efficiency under alternating magnetic field. The results show that all synthesis methods produce Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with similar sizes. The nanoparticles synthesized in the gelatine medium display the narrowest particle size distribution, the lowest oxidation degree, one of the highest saturation magnetization values and the best hyperthermia efficiency, proving that this gelatine-assisted synthesis is an efficient, environmental friendly, and low-cost method to produce magnetite nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract: A new gelatine-assisted method is an efficient and low-cost way to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic hyperthermia.

  20. Classical spins in superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, H [Tokyo Univ.; Maki, K

    1968-08-01

    It is shown that there exists a localized excited state in the energy gap in a superconductor with a classical spin. At finite concentration localized excited states around classical spins form an impurity band. The process of growth of the impurity band and its effects on observable quantities are investigated.

  1. Classic-Ada(TM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Lois

    1989-01-01

    The SPS product, Classic-Ada, is a software tool that supports object-oriented Ada programming with powerful inheritance and dynamic binding. Object Oriented Design (OOD) is an easy, natural development paradigm, but it is not supported by Ada. Following the DOD Ada mandate, SPS developed Classic-Ada to provide a tool which supports OOD and implements code in Ada. It consists of a design language, a code generator and a toolset. As a design language, Classic-Ada supports the object-oriented principles of information hiding, data abstraction, dynamic binding, and inheritance. It also supports natural reuse and incremental development through inheritance, code factoring, and Ada, Classic-Ada, dynamic binding and static binding in the same program. Only nine new constructs were added to Ada to provide object-oriented design capabilities. The Classic-Ada code generator translates user application code into fully compliant, ready-to-run, standard Ada. The Classic-Ada toolset is fully supported by SPS and consists of an object generator, a builder, a dictionary manager, and a reporter. Demonstrations of Classic-Ada and the Classic-Ada Browser were given at the workshop.

  2. Radiation plus local hyperthermia versus radiation plus the combination of local and whole-body hyperthermia in canine sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, Donald E.; Prescott, Deborah M.; Samulski, Thaddeus V.; Rosner, Gary L.; Denman, David L.; Legorreta, Roberto L.; Dodge, Richard K.; Page, Rodney L.; Cline, J. Mark; Lee Jihjong; Case, Beth C.; Evans, Sydney M.; Oleson, James R.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of increasing intratumoral temperatures by the combination of local hyperthermia (LH) and whole body hyperthermia (WBH) on the radiation response of canine sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas and no evidence of metastasis were randomized to be treated with radiation combined with either LH alone or LH + WBH. Dogs were accessioned for treatment at two institutions. The radiation dose was 56.25 Gy, given in 25 2.25 Gy daily fractions. Two hyperthermia treatments were given; one during the first and one during the last week of treatment. Dogs were evaluated after treatment for local recurrence, metastasis, and complications. Results: Sixty-four dogs were treated between 1989 and 1993. The use of LH+WBH resulted in statistically significant increases in the low and middle regions of the temperature distributions. The largest increase was in the low temperatures with median CEM 43 T90 values of 4 vs. 49 min for LH vs. LH + WBH, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in duration of local tumor control between hyperthermia groups (p = 0.59). The time to metastasis was shorter for dogs receiving LH + WBH (p = 0.02); the hazard ratio for metastatic disease for dogs in the LH + WBH group was 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.4) with respect to dogs in the LH group. Complications were greater in larger tumors and in tumors treated with LH + WBH. Conclusion: The combination of LH + WBH with radiation therapy, as described herein, was not associated with an increase in local tumor control in comparison to use of LH with radiation therapy. The combination of LH + WBH also appeared to alter the biology of the metastatic process and was associated with more complications than LH. We identified no rationale for further study of LH + WBH in combination with radiation for treatment of solid tumors

  3. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  4. The role of hyperthermia in the water economy of desert birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B.I.; Williams, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    A number of authors have suggested that hyperthermia, the elevation of body temperature (T-b) 2 degrees-4 degrees C above normal, contributes to a reduction in total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in birds. Information about the role of hyperthermia in the water economy of birds is scattered

  5. Peculiarities of tumor blood supply and their role in radiotherapy, hyperthermia and hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, S.V.; Furmanchuk, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Development regularities and functional peculiarities of tumor microcirculatory channel (MCC) are considered. The role of microcirculation changes under radiotherapy and it's combinations with hyperthermia and hyperglycemia is estimated. The conclusion is drawn, that MCC reactions play a substantial role in realization of hyperthermia and hyperglycemia radiomodifying action

  6. A case of malignant hyperthermia captured by an anesthesia information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Michael D; Patel, Rajesh A; Blum, James M; Tremper, Kevin K

    2011-04-01

    Many cases of malignant hyperthermia triggered by volatile anesthetic agents have been described. However, to our knowledge, there has not been a report describing the precise changes in physiologic data of a human suffering from this process. Here we describe a case of malignant hyperthermia in which monitoring information was frequently and accurately captured by an anesthesia information management system.

  7. Interaction of the effects of hyperthermia and ionizing radiation on cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loshek, D.D.

    1976-09-01

    The literature concerning the effects of hyperthermia and radiation on cellular reproductive integrity is reviewed. The cell line and the physical and biological aspects of the experiments are described. Preliminary experiments revealed that the experimental stability was adequate for inter-experiment comparisons, provided that sufficient control data were obtained. Further experiments provided a cursory examination of several aspects of the interaction between radiation and hyperthermia. A simple sensitization model that would account for the observed results for any single value of the perturbing radiation or hyperthermia dose was developed. Using the concept of the survival surface, this simple model was expanded to describe simultaneously survivals for any combination of the radiation and hyperthermia dose. The interaction component of this model is first order in both hyperthermia exposure and radiation dose. The mechanism by which radiation contributes to the interaction was investigated by altering the radiation quality. The results suggest that high LET events contribute to the interaction. The mechanism by which hyperthermia contributes to the interaction was investigated by altering the hyperthermia temperature. A thermodynamic analysis of the data reveals parallels with the effects of hyperthermia and radiation on protein, suggesting a possible involvement of protein denaturation in cell inactivation. (author)

  8. Study on intraoperative radiotherapy applying hyperthermia together with radiation sensitizers for progressive local carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, M; Takahashi, M; Ono, K; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-08-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy for gastric cancer, colonic cancer, pancreatic cancer, cancer of the biliary tract, prostatic carcinoma, cerebral tumor, tumor of soft tissues, and osteosarcoma and its clinical results were described. Basic and clinical studies on effects of both hyperthermia and radiation sensitizers to elevate radiation sensitivity were also described, because effects of intraoperative radiotherapy were raised by applying hyperthermia and hypoxic cell sensitizers.

  9. A case report of suspected malignant hyperthermia where patient survived the episode

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Asif; Badoo, Shoaib; Naqeeb, Ruqsana

    2017-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is rare inherited disorder in our part of the world; there are only few cases reported in literature in India who were suspected of having this condition. The overall incidence of malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia is estimated to range from 1: 5000 to 1: 50,000–100,000 and mortality rate is estimated to be

  10. Hyperthermia-induced degradation of BRCA2 : from bedside to bench and back again

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van den Tempel (Nathalie)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractLocal hyperthermia, a method during which the temperature of a tumor is elevated, clinically increases the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, without increasing side-effects. One of the reasons that explains why hyperthermia increases effectivity of these therapies is that it

  11. A commentary on the taxation aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    A commentary is given on taxation aspects of the expenditure incurred in the abandonment and reclamation of oil and gas fields. Reference is made to the taxation regime in Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom and the USA. The issues addressed include: specific provisions existing within the tax code covering abandonment; the definition of abandonment costs; the year in which deduction, if available, falls; the setting of deductions against any form of income; the allowance of deductions for costs which, under general principles, are capital costs; 'claw back' from reimbursements; the precision of a deduction for abandonment costs where a country has a secondary petroleum regime. (UK)

  12. A commentary on Adolf Eichmann's Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, R S

    1980-06-01

    A Rorschach was administered to Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem in 1961 at the time of his trial for war crimes. The recent publication of this protocol offers an opportunity to compare his personal world against opinions formed about him by observers at his trial. Various professionals certified Eichmann as a banal, ordinary man, and a societal theory was proposed about Nazism based in part on impressions of Eichmann as an uncomplicated man. This commentary examines Eichmann's protocol and provides an opinion that in several important respects his record includes features uncharacteristic of an ordinary, banal mind.

  13. Commentary: Corporate philanthropy and conflicts of interest in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimsky, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    This commentary discusses how ethicists view the responsibilities of corporations, of their philanthropic spin-offs, and of not-for-profit organizations with regard to use of monies from corporate philanthropies for public health. Article JPHP.2012.60 available at www.palgrave-journals.com/jphp/, relates to this commentary.

  14. In vivo hyperthermia effect induced by high-intensity pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wei-Cheng; Tu Juan; Li Qian; Fan Ting-Bo; Zhang Dong; Chen Wei-Zhong; Joo-Ha Hwang; Chen Jing-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthermia effects (39–44 °C) induced by pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) have been regarded as a promising therapeutic tool for boosting immune responses or enhancing drug delivery into a solid tumor. However, previous studies also reported that the cell death occurs when cells are maintained at 43 °C for more than 20 minutes. The aim of this study is to investigate thermal responses inside in vivo rabbit auricular veins exposed to pulsed HIFU (1.17 MHz, 5300 W/cm 2 , with relatively low-duty ratios (0.2%–4.3%). The results show that: (1) with constant pulse repetition frequency (PRF) (e.g., 1 Hz), the thermal responses inside the vessel will increase with the increasing duty ratio; (2) a temperature elevation to 43 °C can be identified at the duty ratio of 4.3%; (3) with constant duty ratios, the change of PRF will not significantly affect the temperature measurement in the vessel; (4) as the duty ratios lower than 4.3%, the presence of microbubbles will not significantly enhance the thermal responses in the vessel, but will facilitate HIFU-induced inertial cavitation events. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. Supersymmetric classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.N.; Soni, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to construct a supersymmetric Lagrangian within the framework of classical mechanics which would be regarded as a candidate for passage to supersymmetric quantum mechanics. 5 refs. (author)

  16. Mathematical physics classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Knauf, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a limit theory of quantum mechanics, classical dynamics comprises a large variety of phenomena, from computable (integrable) to chaotic (mixing) behavior. This book presents the KAM (Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser) theory and asymptotic completeness in classical scattering. Including a wealth of fascinating examples in physics, it offers not only an excellent selection of basic topics, but also an introduction to a number of current areas of research in the field of classical mechanics. Thanks to the didactic structure and concise appendices, the presentation is self-contained and requires only knowledge of the basic courses in mathematics. The book addresses the needs of graduate and senior undergraduate students in mathematics and physics, and of researchers interested in approaching classical mechanics from a modern point of view.

  17. Radiotherapy and local hyperthermia plus androgen suppression in locally advanced prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluta, S.; Marciai, N.; Gabbani, M.; Palazzi, M.; Dall'Oglio, S.; Grandinetti, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In advanced prostatic cancer, hyperthermia may be useful in order to enhance irradiation efficacy so to avoid delivering of too high dose of radiotherapy which increases acute and late sequelae. A multi-centric phase II study is warranted to give hyperthermia a level 3 evidence in prostate cancer treatment. A randomized phase III study to demonstrate efficacy of hyperthermia is not available because of the optimal results obtained by using radiotherapy combined with androgen suppression. To evaluate hyperthermia gain, LHT should be combined with radiotherapy alone in patients refusing androgen suppression or affected by hormone refractory prostate carcinoma (HRPC). Patients with HRPC have multiple possibilities of treatment improving performance status and median survival, as chemotherapy regimens, and new agents. All these treatments modalities need to be confirmed by phase III trials. Also hyperthermia may be considered among these promising approaches. (author)

  18. Magnetic Hyperthermia and Radiation Therapy: Radiobiological Principles and Current Practice †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridon V. Spirou

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia, though by itself generally non-curative for cancer, can significantly increase the efficacy of radiation therapy, as demonstrated by in vitro, in vivo, and clinical results. Its limited use in the clinic is mainly due to various practical implementation difficulties, the most important being how to adequately heat the tumor, especially deep-seated ones. In this work, we first review the effects of hyperthermia on tissue, the limitations of radiation therapy and the radiobiological rationale for combining the two treatment modalities. Subsequently, we review the theory and evidence for magnetic hyperthermia that is based on magnetic nanoparticles, its advantages compared with other methods of hyperthermia, and how it can be used to overcome the problems associated with traditional techniques of hyperthermia.

  19. Modification of radiation damage in CHO cells by hyperthermia at 40 and 450C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henle, K.J.; Leeper, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    Low hyperthermia at 40 0 C either before or after X irradiation did not alter the slope of the radiation dose-cell survival curve but reduced the D/sub q/ from 145 to 41 or to 0 rad for a pre- or postirradiation incubation period of 2 hr at 40 0 C, respectively. In contrast, hyperthermia at 45 0 C increased the slope of the radiation survival curve by a factor of 1.7 for a radiation pretreatment of 10 min at 45 0 C, but only by 1.3 for the same treatment immediately after irradiation. The corresponding D/sub q/'s were 262 and 138 rad, respectively. A combination of 45 and 40 0 C hyperthermia (10 min at 45 0 C + 2 hr at 40 0 C + X) resulted in a superposition of the individual effects of 45 or 40 0 C hyperthermia on the radiation survival curve. In addition, the radiation survival curve was shifted downward by a factor of three due to the potentiation of 45 0 C hyperthermia damage by postincubation at 40 0 C. Repair of sublethal radiation damage was completely suppressed during incubation at 40 following hyperthermia at 45 0 C. However, when cells were returned to 37 0 C, even after 6 hr at 40 following 45 0 C hyperthermia, the capacity to accumulate and repair sublethal radiation damage was immediately restored. These findings imply that the hyperthermia damage from low or high temperatures interacts differentially with radiation damage. Low hyperthermia at 40 0 C may affect principally the radiation repair system, whereas 45 0 C hyperthermia probably alters the radiation target more severely than the repair system

  20. Multimodal treatment combining chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy for ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Kei

    1992-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the use of heat in the treatment of cancer. Theoretically cells are the most sensitive to ionizing radiation at mitosis, whereas the cycle phase that is the most resistant to ionizing radiation namely late in the DNA. Synthetic phase (late S) is the most sensitive to hyperthermia. Hyperthermia has been reported to enhance the cytocidal effects of several active chemotherapeutic agents. When thermal potentiation of chemotherapeutic agents against malignant cells is contemplated, normal tissues have a relatively high ambient blood flow which increases in response to thermal stress, thereby dissipating heat, compared to tumors. Tumors, with relatively poor blood flow and a responsive neovasculature, are in capable of augmenting flow and acting as a heat reservoir. This is the phenomenon of a heat reservoir which is one factor to enhance the cytocidal effects of several active anticancer agents for enhancing the uptake in tumor. The importance is in the adjuvant chemotherapy treated for post operative, advanced and recurrent ovarian cancer. Heating enhances the effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Thirty patients with ovarian cancer were subjected to the multidisciplinary treatment with combination of hyperthermochemotherapy and radiation. The 30 patients consisted of 18 with endometrioid adenocarcinoma and 7 with serious post operative or recurrent status. Two types of equipments with rediofrequencies of 70 MHz (BSD-1000) or 434 MHZ (TAG MED·HS 434) were used for hyperthermia. Chemotherapeutic agents such as adriamycin, cis DDP, cyclophosphamide and etoposide were injected intravenously. Arterial infusion with reservoir was very effective in advanced stage of ovarian cancer. No severe or fatal side effects were observed. Hyperthermochemotherapy is useful and effective for the postoperative management or the treatment of recurrent cancer of the ovary. (J.P.N.)

  1. Stereotactic technique of RF antenna implantation for brain hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Uzuka, T.; Grinev, I.; Tanaka, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We have tried 13.56 MHz RF interstitial hyperthermia for the patients with malignant brain tumor. The purpose of this report is to assess the complication risk rate and the achievement yield of stereotactic procedure for RF antenna implantation into the deep-seated brain tumor. One hundred and twenty-five patients underwent 144 stereotactic RF antenna implantation procedures for interstitial hyperthermia for malignant brain tumors at Niigata University, Japan. One hundred and eight patients had malignant gliomas (54 primary, 54 recurrent), 24 had metastatic tumors, 5 had malignant lymphomas, 5 had meningiomas and 2 had miscellaneous tumors. Indication of this trial was the tumor with inoperative deep-seated tumor or elderly patients. RF antennas and catheters for thermistor probes were set into the tumor with stereotactic apparatus under local anesthesia. Postoperative CT scan underwent in order to assess the accuracy of antenna setting and to check the complications. The hyperthermic treatment underwent with a single antenna in 85 patients, 2 antennas in 43 patients, 3 in 2, 4 in 12, 5 in 1 and 6 antennas in 1 patient. Appropriate RF antenna positioning was obtained in 138 of 144 procedures (95.8 %). Six patients incurred complications (4.2 %). Three patients suffered intratumoral hemorrhage. RF antennas were set into the inappropriate position in 2 cases, hyperthermia was not achieved. One patient occurred with liquorrhea. However, six patients (4.2 %) incurred complications, stereotactic RF antenna setting was a safe and reliable technique of the hyperthermic treatment for the patients with malignant brain tumors. (author)

  2. Hyperthermia on skin immune system and its application in the treatment of HPV-infected skin diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Xinghua; Chen Hongduo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of hyperthermia on cells and immune system are introduced briefly. The mechanism of action of hyperthermia on human papilloma virus (HPV)-infected skin diseases was elaborated as an example in this paper. Many studies have proved that hyperthermia affects a number of cellular and molecu- lar constitutes in the skin immune system, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses; the efficacy of hyperthermia in treating some infectious and cancerous conditions has been validated and applied in clinics, while molecular mechanisms of hyperthermia affecting the immunereaction is still unclear.

  3. Polymer coated fiber Bragg grating thermometry for microwave hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Indu Fiesler; Hui, Kaleo; Astrahan, Melvin

    2010-09-01

    Measuring tissue temperature distribution during electromagnetically induced hyperthermia (HT) is challenging. High resistance thermistors with nonmetallic leads have been used successfully in commercial HT systems for about three decades. The single 1 mm thick temperature sensing element is mechanically moved to measure tissue temperature distributions. By employing a single thermometry probe containing a fixed linear sensor array temperature, distributions during therapy can be measured with greater ease. While the first attempts to use fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology to obtain multiple temperature points along a single fiber have been reported, improvement in the detection system's stability were needed for clinical applications. The FBG temperature sensing system described here has a very high temporal stability detection system and an order of magnitude faster readout than commercial systems. It is shown to be suitable for multiple point fiber thermometry during microwave hyperthermia when compared to conventional mechanically scanning probe HT thermometry. A polymer coated fiber Bragg grating (PFBG) technology is described that provides a number of FBG thermometry locations along the length of a single optical fiber. The PFBG probe developed is tested under simulated microwave hyperthermia treatment to a tissue equivalent phantom. Two temperature probes, the multiple PFBG sensor and the Bowman probe, placed symmetrically with respect to a microwave antenna in a tissue phantom are subjected to microwave hyperthermia. Measurements are made at start of HT and 85 min later, when a 6 degrees C increase in temperature is registered by both probes, as is typical in clinical HT therapy. The optical fiber multipoint thermometry probe performs highly stable, real-time thermometry updating each multipoint thermometry scan over a 5 cm length every 2 s. Bowman probe measurements are acquired simultaneously for comparison. In addition, the PFBG sensor's detection

  4. Deep RF-hyperthermia: an effective treatment of advanced gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahinbas, H.; Groenemeyer, D.H.W.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Contrary to the enormous efforts, results of conventional treatments of high-grade malignant gliomas are unsatisfactory. The prognosis of that tumor type is poor, its overall median survival time (MST) less than a year. Most of the cases are inoperable or only partially resectable, and their response to the various chemotherapies and/or radiotherapy is poor. The chemo-therapies which are successful for other locations often fail due to the effective brain-blood barrier (BBB). Probably the modification of the BBB by electromagnetic fields together with the direct electromagnetic-field heating are the main factors for the success of electro-hyperthermia. Primary aim of this study was to present the therapy tolerance for patients of electro-hyperthermia (EHY) for advanced malignant gliomas and as main intention to show the increase of the median survival time (MST). Our study was performed between 2000 - 2004; for patients with inoperable, partially resected or recurrent gliomas (WHO grade III and IV) with progression after radio- and/or chemotherapy and a Karnofsky Performance Score ≤30-40 %. 105 pts were involved in this study: 38 astrocytoma pts, 56 glioblastoma pts and 12 pts with other brain malignancies. All patients were heavily and unsatisfactory pretreated. EHY was applied over 4 weeks, 3 times a week over 1 hour in average by 100 Watt, as mono- or combined therapy (chemotherapy, irradiation therapy). The set of patients as well as the frequency of EHY was well documented for future evaluations. The historic reference of the MST from the first diagnosis for gliomas grade III and IV in our institute is 11.42 months (range 1-62), which is in good agreement with the relevant literature. The median survival time (MST) in our institute with EHY increases to 44.2 m, 23.2 m and 61.0 m for astrocytoma, glioblastoma and other brain malignancies, respectively. The therapy results were controlled by MRI images. EHY is a feasible treatment for advanced

  5. An ultrasonic phased array applicator for deep localized hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocheltree, K.B.; Benkeser, P.J.; Foster, S.G.; Frizzell, L.A.; Cain, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    The use of an ultrasonic phased array applicator presents a major advantage over the fixed beam ultrasonic applicators which are typically used for clinical hyperthermia. Such an applicator allows focal region placement in the three dimensional treatment field by electronic steering instead of mechanical movement of the transducer assembly. The design of an array is discussed theoretically, considering that the constraints on grating lobes and power output for hyperthermic applications are quite different from those for imaging. The effects of various design parameters are discussed. Experimental results are presented for several arrays for frequencies under 1 Mhz

  6. Boron-doped nanodiamonds as possible agents for local hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervald, A. M.; Burikov, S. A.; Vlasov, I. I.; Ekimov, E. A.; Shenderova, O. A.; Dolenko, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the effective heating of surrounding water by heavily-boron-doped nanodiamonds (NDs) under laser irradiation of visible wavelength was found. Using Raman scattering spectroscopy of aqueous suspensions of boron-doped NDs, it was found that this abnormally high heating results in the weakening of hydrogen bonds much more so (2-5 times stronger) than for undoped NDs. The property of boron-doped NDs to heat a solvent under the influence of laser radiation (1-5 W cm-2) opens broad prospects for their use to create nanoagents for medical oncology and local hyperthermia.

  7. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  8. Twisted classical Poincare algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Ruegg, H.; Tolstoy, V.N.; Nowicki, A.

    1993-11-01

    We consider the twisting of Hopf structure for classical enveloping algebra U(g), where g is the inhomogeneous rotations algebra, with explicite formulae given for D=4 Poincare algebra (g=P 4 ). The comultiplications of twisted U F (P 4 ) are obtained by conjugating primitive classical coproducts by F element of U(c)xU(c), where c denotes any Abelian subalgebra of P 4 , and the universal R-matrices for U F (P 4 ) are triangular. As an example we show that the quantum deformation of Poincare algebra recently proposed by Chaichian and Demiczev is a twisted classical Poincare algebra. The interpretation of twisted Poincare algebra as describing relativistic symmetries with clustered 2-particle states is proposed. (orig.)

  9. Effects of hyperthermia and radiation on mouse testis stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, B.O.; Mason, K.A.; Withers, H.R.; West, J.

    1981-01-01

    The response of mouse testis stem cells to hyperthermia and combined hyperthermia-radiation treatments was assayed by spermatogenic colony regrowth, sperm head counts, testis weight loss, and fertility. With the use of spermatogenic colony assay, thermal enhancement ratios at an isosurvival level of 0.1 were 1.27 at 41 degrees, 1.80 at 42 degrees, and 3.97 at 43 degrees for testes exposed to heat for 30 min prior to irradiation. Sperm head counts were reduced by heat alone from a surviving fraction of 0.58 at 41 degrees to 0.003 at 42.5-43.5 degrees. Curves for sperm head survival measured 56 days after the testes had been heated for 30 min prior to irradiation were biphasic and showed a progressive downward displacement to lower survival with increasing temperature. The 41, 42, and 43 degrees curves were displaced downward by factors of 2, 58, and 175, respectively. The proportion of animals remaining sterile after 30 min of heat (41-43 degrees) and the median sterility period in days increased with increasing temperature. The minimum sperm count necessary to regain fertility was 13% of the normal mouse level

  10. Intestinal cell proliferation following hyperthermia-radiation combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burholt, D.R.; Wilkinson, D.A.; Shrivastava, P.N.

    1987-01-01

    The present work is an investigation of the extent to which hyperthermia enhances x-ray induced inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in mice. Hyperthermia was achieved by whole body immersion of anesthetized ice in a temperature controlled water bath (+-0.1 0 C). Post-treatment proliferative activity was monitored by determining the incorporation of /sup 3/H-TdR into intestinal crypt cells and by the counting of epithelial cell mitotic figures. Initial levels of cell kill were assessed by the microcolony crypt survival technique. All heat treatments were 41.5 0 C for 0.5h. Heat alone reduced the /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation to 50% of the control value by 2h post-treatment. This was followed by a return to control value by 10h and a slight hyperplasia at 24h. Heat either immediately before or after 2Gy abdominal field x-irradiation produced a prolonged period of depressed cell proliferation: /sup 3/H-TdR incorporation remained below control value for the first 24h. As the heat and radiation were separated in time from each other (up to 4h) the interaction between the two decreased. The development of thermotolerance was observed following the second and third treatment during either a heat-only or a heat-radiation multifraction treatments schedule with the treatment spaced 24h apart

  11. Immunogenicity of ascites tumor cells following in vitro hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.A.; Jasiewicz, M.L.; Simpson, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The concept that host immunization may be achieved by heat-induced antigenic modifications of cancer cells and/or the release of immunogenic products by dead or dying tumor cells following in vitro heating was examined. Ehrlich ascites cells were used, inasmuch as it was claimed that in vitro hyperthermia increased the immunogenicity of these cells. Tumor cell populations of different viability were obtained by heating Ehrlich cells at 42.5 degrees, 45 degrees, or 60 degrees C. Viable and nonviable cells were separated by Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation; viable nonreplicating cells were obtained by treatment with mitomycin C. Cell populations of different viability after heating were left to die slowly over 3 days at 37 degrees C. Swiss TO mice were then given injections of the treated cells and/or medium. No survival benefit occurred in mice inoculated with any of these different components and then challenged with viable tumor cells. Injection of irradiated cells, however, did produce host immunity. Similarly, D23 rat hepatoma ascites cells produced host immunity after 15,000 rad but not after heating. The claim that in vitro hyperthermia increases the immunogenicity of tumor cells was not confirmed

  12. [Malignant hyperthermia in a black child. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, J M; Ungerer, M J; Erasmus, F R; du Toit, P W; Muller, F O; van Velden, D J

    1978-05-20

    A case of malignant hyperthermia in a Black boy is presented. He developed this condition during repair of a cleft palate, with halothane as the triggering agent. The importance of the high incidence of malignant hyperthermia in patients with certain musculoskeletal abnormalities is stressed. Despite a cool and well air-conditioned theatre, the patient's temperature was 41 degree C when the condition was suspected. At that stage general muscle rigidity was present. The patient was successfully treated with procainamide, sodium bicarbonate and hydrocortisone; surface cooling (with ice packs) was instituted and the stomach was washed out with ice-cold Ringer's solution. Over a period of 14 days serum creatine phosphokinase values decreased from 630 IU (on the day of the incident) to 12 IU. A muscle biopsy showed variation in muscle fibre size. Electron microscopical studies showed myofibrillar disruption and folding of the basement membrane. A modified version of Denborough's technique was used for the in vitro exposure of muscle strips to halothane and suxamethonium. Isometric contraction was measured and recorded. A severe contraction followed the exposure of muscle strips to halothane, which confirmed the diagnosis.

  13. Microwave hyperthermia enhancement of methotrexate absorption in rat brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.C.; Yuen, M.K.; Jung, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The author studied enhanced absorption of methotrexate (MTX) in brains of male Wistar (10 weeks old, 500g) subjected to microwave hyperthermia. The rat was anesthetized using 40 mg/kg of sodium pentobarbital, IP and was placed in a stereotaxic head holder. Microwave energy (2450 MHz, 2.6 W/cm/sup 2/, CW) were applied directly to the left side of the rat's head by a coaxial applicator for 20 min. The body temperature was kept at 37.8 0 C. The brain temperature recorded in a similar group of animals using a Vitek probe was about 45 0 C. Three different MTX dosages, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, were injected intravenously immediately following microwave irradiation into three groups of rats in 1.5, 3 and 6 min., respectively. MTX was allowed to circulate for five min. before brains were removed for analysis. Standard HPLC procedures were applied to samples from anterior and posterior left hemisphere of the cerebrum, and the cerebellum. Samples from the right hemisphere were used for controls. The average absorption at the posterior left hemisphere was found to be 2.4, 9.6 and 12.4μg of MTX/g of brain tissue for 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. These results indicate that MTX absorption is significantly increased in rat brains subjected to microwave hyperthermia treatment

  14. Hyperthermia-induced alteration of yeast susceptibility to mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, R.E.J.; Morrison, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Diploid yeast (s. cerevisiae) were examined for alterations in susceptibility to induced mutation following hyperthermia treatment. In cells grown at 23 0 C, a non-lethal heat exposure (38 0 C, 30 min) markedly suppressed mutation induced by a subsequent non-killing dose of MNNG of MNU. Mutation by ENU, 8-MOP + UVA, or γ-rays was not affected. An intermediate level of mutation suppression was observed for mutation by 254nm UV or MMS. Mutation by MNNG was not suppressed by the same heat treatment delivered after the mutagen exposure. In a split dose experiment (two MNNG treatments separated by a heat exposure) no suppression of mutation was observed. Treatment with cycloheximide mimicked the effect of heat treatment. These data suggest that mutation induction by MNNG or MNU is protein synthesis dependent, i.e. an error-prone repair system is induced by exposure to MNNG or MNU but not by ENU, 8-MOP+UVA or γ-irradiation. We propose that hyperthermia treatment, by inducing stress protein synthesis at the expense of normal protein synthesis, precludes induction of this error-prone system. Therefore, in heat treated cells, DNA lesions produced by MNNG or MNU exposure must be resolved by an essentially constitutive system which is less error-prone than the inducible one

  15. A novel hyperthermia treatment for bone metastases using magnetic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumine, Akihiko; Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsubara, Takao; Nakamura, Tomoki; Uchida, Atsumasa; Sudo, Akihiro; Takegami, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Patients with bone metastases in the extremities sometimes require surgical intervention to prevent deterioration of quality of life due to a pathological fracture. The use of localized radiotherapy combined with surgical reinforcement has been a gold standard for the treatment of bone metastases. However, radiotherapy sometimes induces soft tissue damage, including muscle induration and joint contracture. Moreover, cancer cells are not always radiosensitive. Hyperthermia has been studied since the 1940s using an experimental animal model to treat various types of advanced cancer, and studies have now reached the stage of clinical application, especially in conjunction with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Nevertheless, bone metastases have several special properties which discourage oncologists from developing hyperthermic therapeutic strategies. First, the bone is located deep in the body, and has low thermal conductivity due to the thickness of cortical bone and the highly vascularized medulla. To address these issues, we developed new hyperthermic strategies which generate heat using magnetic materials under an alternating electromagnetic field, and started clinical application of this treatment modality. The purpose of this review is to summarize the latest studies on hyperthermic treatment in the field of musculoskeletal tumors, and to introduce the treatment strategy employing our novel hyperthermia approach. (author)

  16. Infrared fibers for radiometer thermometry in hypothermia and hyperthermia treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzir, A.; Bowman, H.F.; Asfour, Y.; Zur, A.; Valeri, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Hypothermia is a condition which results from prolonged exposure to a cold environment. Rapid and efficient heating is needed to rewarm the patient from 32-35 degrees C to normal body temperature. Hyperthermia in cancer treatment involves heating malignant tumors to 42.5-43.0 degrees C for an extended period (e.g., 30 min) in an attempt to obtain remission. Microwave or radio frequency heating is often used for rewarming in hypothermia or for temperature elevation in hyperthermia treatment. One severe problem with such heating is the accurate measurement and control of temperature in the presence of a strong electromagnetic field. For this purpose, we have developed a fiberoptic radiometer system which is based on a nonmetallic, infrared fiber probe, which can operate either in contact or noncontact mode. In preliminary investigations, the radiometer worked well in a strong microwave or radiofrequency field, with an accuracy of +/- 0.5 degrees C. This fiberoptic thermometer was used to control the surface temperature of objects within +/- 2 degrees C

  17. Ferromagnetic nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia and thermoablation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, Eiji; Kayano, Takeru; Sato, Suguru; Minagawa, Makoto; Yanagihara, Hideto; Kishimoto, Mikio [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Oda, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Shinji; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro [Department of Surgery, Advanced Biomedical Applications, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8575 (Japan); Mitsumata, Chiharu, E-mail: kita@bk.tsukuba.ac.j [Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2010-12-01

    The use of ferromagnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia and thermoablation therapies has shown great promise in the field of nanobiomedicine. Even local hyperthermia offers numerous advantages as a novel cancer therapy; however, it requires a remarkably high heating power of more than 1 kW g{sup -1} for heat agents. As a candidate for high heat generation, we focus on ferromagnetic nanoparticles and compare their physical properties with those of superparamagnetic substances. Numerical simulations for ideal single-domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles with cubic and uniaxial magnetic symmetries were carried out and MH curves together with minor loops were obtained. From the simulation, the efficient use of an alternating magnetic field (AMF) having a limited amplitude was discussed. Co-ferrite nanoparticles with various magnitudes of coercive force were produced by co-precipitation and a hydrothermal process. A maximum specific loss power of 420 W g{sup -1} was obtained using an AMF at 117 kHz with H{sub 0} = 51.4 kA m{sup -1} (640 Oe). The relaxation behaviour in the ferromagnetic state below the superparamagnetic blocking temperature was examined by Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  18. [Anesthesia unrelated triggering of a fatal malignant hyperthermia crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthoff, D; Vonderlind, C

    1997-12-01

    For incidents of malignant hyperthermia (MH) outside the hospital, a high number of unrecorded cases must be reckoned with because of an insufficient knowledge of emergency services and poor identification and documentation that make it impossible to classify acute situations under the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia crisis. As a result, there are no statistical data in this field, and only case reports with a broad spectrum of suspected trigger mechanisms have been published. The case described in this report is a proved example of a non-anesthesia-related triggering of MH in a 21-year-old man who had had an anesthetic-induced MH manifestation in childhood, which was confirmed with an in vitro contracture test. After visiting a restaurant, he became unconscious and convulsive after consuming a high level of alcohol (2.9/1000). The first cardiocirculatory arrest occurred directly before hospitalization. After admission, the patient showed a full-blown MH episode whose subsequent fatality was unavoidable in spite of adapted and optimal therapy. Suspected trigger mechanisms seem to be multifactoral (excessive alcohol consumption, over-heating, mental stress) as a forensic investigation did not point to any particular signs of typical trigger substances. The case demonstrates again that an MH attack might be triggered under certain non-anaesthesia-related situations. For patients with an MH disposition, additional information on their behavior outside the hospital is required.

  19. Porcine malignant hyperthermia susceptibility: hypersensitive calcium-release mechanism of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, P J

    1986-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that calcium-release from sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from malignant hyperthermia swine had abnormal concentration-dependency on release modulators. Halothane stimulated half-maximal calcium-release at similar concentrations for malignant hyperthermia and control sarcoplasmic reticulum (0.10 +/- 0.04 mM). However, concentrations causing half-maximal calcium-release were lower for malignant hyperthermia sarcoplasmic reticulum (P less than 0.001) by an order of magnitude for Ca2+ (28.1 +/- 8.3 versus 1.23 +/- 0.45 nM), adenosine triphosphate (0.33 +/- 0.09 versus 0.023 +/- 0.014 mM) and caffeine (7.79 +/- 1.56 versus 0.80 +/- 0.44 mM). Half-maximal inhibition by Mg2+ occurred at threefold higher concentrations for malignant hyperthermia sarcoplasmic reticulum (0.23 +/- 0.02 versus 0.78 +/- 0.17 mM). The Ca2+-sensitivity curves for calcium-release by sarcoplasmic reticulum isolated from heterozygotes for the malignant hyperthermia-defect were indistinguishable from the averages of the curves for controls and malignant hyperthermia-homozygotes. Results of this study suggest that malignant hyperthermia is initiated due to a hypersensitive calcium-release mechanism which is inherited in an autosomal, codominant pattern and may be diagnosed using calcium-release sensitivity-tests on isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3742367

  20. Clinically Relevant Pharmacological Strategies That Reverse MDMA-Induced Brain Hyperthermia Potentiated by Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Ren, Suelynn; Wakabayashi, Ken T; Baumann, Michael H; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    MDMA-induced hyperthermia is highly variable, unpredictable, and greatly potentiated by the social and environmental conditions of recreational drug use. Current strategies to treat pathological MDMA-induced hyperthermia in humans are palliative and marginally effective, and there are no specific pharmacological treatments to counteract this potentially life-threatening condition. Here, we tested the efficacy of mixed adrenoceptor blockers carvedilol and labetalol, and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine, in reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia. We injected rats with a moderate non-toxic dose of MDMA (9 mg/kg) during social interaction, and we administered potential treatment drugs after the development of robust hyperthermia (>2.5 °C), thus mimicking the clinical situation of acute MDMA intoxication. Brain temperature was our primary focus, but we also simultaneously recorded temperatures from the deep temporal muscle and skin, allowing us to determine the basic physiological mechanisms of the treatment drug action. Carvedilol was modestly effective in attenuating MDMA-induced hyperthermia by moderately inhibiting skin vasoconstriction, and labetalol was ineffective. In contrast, clozapine induced a marked and immediate reversal of MDMA-induced hyperthermia via inhibition of brain metabolic activation and blockade of skin vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that clozapine, and related centrally acting drugs, might be highly effective for reversing MDMA-induced brain and body hyperthermia in emergency clinical situations, with possible life-saving results.

  1. Classical mechanics with Maxima

    CERN Document Server

    Timberlake, Todd Keene

    2016-01-01

    This book guides undergraduate students in the use of Maxima—a computer algebra system—in solving problems in classical mechanics. It functions well as a supplement to a typical classical mechanics textbook. When it comes to problems that are too difficult to solve by hand, computer algebra systems that can perform symbolic mathematical manipulations are a valuable tool. Maxima is particularly attractive in that it is open-source, multiple-platform software that students can download and install free of charge. Lessons learned and capabilities developed using Maxima are easily transferred to other, proprietary software.

  2. The CLASSIC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Iselin, F Christoph

    1996-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Clas Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty.

  3. Learning Classical Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Learning Classical Music Club

    2010-01-01

    There is a new CERN Club called “Learning Classical Music at CERN”. We are aiming to give classical music lessons for different instruments (see link) for students from 5 to 100 years old. We are now ready to start our activities in the CERN barracks. We are now in the enrollment phase and hope to start lessons very soon ! Club info can be found in the list of CERN Club: http://user.web.cern.ch/user/Communication/SocialLifeActivities/Clubs/Clubs.html Salvatore Buontempo Club President

  4. The classical nova outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrfield, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    The classical nova outburst occurs on the white dwarf component in a close binary system. Nova systems are members of the general class of cataclysmic variables and other members of the class are the Dwarf Novae, AM Her variables, Intermediate Polars, Recurrent Novae, and some of the Symbiotic variables. Although multiwavelength observations have already provided important information about all of these systems, in this review I will concentrate on the outbursts of the classical and recurrent novae and refer to other members of the class only when necessary. 140 refs., 1 tab

  5. Elementary classical hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chirgwin, B H; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A; Plumpton, C

    1967-01-01

    Elementary Classical Hydrodynamics deals with the fundamental principles of elementary classical hydrodynamics, with emphasis on the mechanics of inviscid fluids. Topics covered by this book include direct use of the equations of hydrodynamics, potential flows, two-dimensional fluid motion, waves in liquids, and compressible flows. Some general theorems such as Bernoulli's equation are also considered. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental principles of fluid hydrodynamics, with emphasis on ways of studying the motion of a fluid. Basic c

  6. Classic Problems of Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Gorroochurn, Prakash

    2012-01-01

    "A great book, one that I will certainly add to my personal library."—Paul J. Nahin, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering, University of New Hampshire Classic Problems of Probability presents a lively account of the most intriguing aspects of statistics. The book features a large collection of more than thirty classic probability problems which have been carefully selected for their interesting history, the way they have shaped the field, and their counterintuitive nature. From Cardano's 1564 Games of Chance to Jacob Bernoulli's 1713 Golden Theorem to Parrondo's 1996 Perplexin

  7. Commentary on a framework for multicultural education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Karin F

    2014-09-01

    Today's changing demographics require that multicultural factors be considered in the delivery of quality patient-centred health care in chiropractic. Yet minimal training in cultural competency in chiropractic education leaves graduates ill-equipped to treat a diverse population. This commentary examines cultural competency training in current literature, demonstrates frameworks for curriculum integration, and suggests how cultural competency might be included in a chiropractic college curriculum. A database search yielded little evidence that cultural competency is integrated into curricula of chiropractic schools. Some journal articles note that promoting multicultural education and cultural sensitivity is an important goal. However, they provide no mechanisms as to how this can be achieved within training programs. Thus, although an undeniable need exists for all healthcare practitioners to develop cultural competency in the face of an increasingly diverse population, cultural competency education has not kept pace. Chiropractic schools must review their curricula to develop the cultural competencies of their graduates and a basic framework is suggested.

  8. Invited commentary: Physical activity, mortality, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2007-08-01

    The importance of regular physical activity to human health has been recognized for a long time, and a physically active lifestyle is now defined as a major component of public health policies. The independent contribution of regular physical activity to lower morbidity and mortality rates is generally accepted, and the biologic mechanisms mediating these health effects are actively investigated. A few years ago, data from the Finnish Twin Registry suggested that genetic selection may account for some of the physical-activity-related benefits on mortality rates. However, results from the Swedish Twin Registry study reported by Carlsson et al. in the current issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:255-259) do not support the genetic selection hypothesis. In this commentary, the authors review the nature of the associations among physical activity level, fitness, and longevity, with special reference to the role of human genetic variation, and discuss potential reasons for different outcomes of these large twin studies.

  9. Modeling Musical Complexity: Commentary on Eerola (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Albrecht

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, "Expectancy violation and information-theoretic models of melodic complexity," Eerola compares a number of models that correlate musical features of monophonic melodies with participant ratings of perceived melodic complexity. He finds that fairly strong results can be achieved using several different approaches to modeling perceived melodic complexity. The data used in this study are gathered from several previously published studies that use widely different types of melodies, including isochronous folk melodies, isochronous 12-tone rows, and rhythmically complex African folk melodies. This commentary first briefly reviews the article's method and main findings, then suggests a rethinking of the theoretical framework of the study. Finally, some of the methodological issues of the study are discussed.

  10. Commentary on Huovinen's "Varieties of Musical Empiricism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric F. Clarke

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Erkki Huovinen’s “Varieties of Musicological Empiricism” provides a valuable analysis of some of the theoretical predicaments raised by pursuing an empirical musicology. But in this commentary, I argue for a less programmatic, and more pragmatic, approach to the term than he does. Empirical approaches in musicology have been around in one form or another for a long time, and the purpose of the label is less to identify a new ‘brand’ of musicology than to bring together a diversity of approaches that in different ways capitalise on the opportunities that data collection (in the broadest sense of the term may provide. If programme is set aside in favour of pragmatism, and a looser relationship between theory and observation accepted, then empirical musicology can be a productive way to rub ideas up against a stimulatingly resistant world.

  11. Classical Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Judith W.

    2009-01-01

    The article identifies some key findings in pedagogical research over recent decades, placing them within a framework of logical curriculum development and current practice in quality assurance and enhancement. Throughout, the ideas and comments are related to the practice of teaching classics in university. (Contains 1 figure and 3 notes.)

  12. Classical electromagnetic radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Newly corrected, this highly acclaimed text is suitable for advanced physics courses. The author presents a very accessible macroscopic view of classical electromagnetics that emphasizes integrating electromagnetic theory with physical optics. The survey follows the historical development of physics, culminating in the use of four-vector relativity to fully integrate electricity with magnetism.

  13. Classical solutions in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baaklini, N.S.; Ferrara, S.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.

    1977-06-01

    Classical solutions of supergravity are obtained by making finite global supersymmetry rotation on known solutions of the field equations of the bosonic sector. The Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstoem solutions of general relativity are extended to various supergravity systems and the modification to the perihelion precession of planets is discussed

  14. Classicism and Romanticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Gregory H.

    1993-01-01

    Describes one teacher's methods for introducing to secondary English students the concepts of Classicism and Romanticism in relation to pictures of gardens, architecture, music, and literary works. Outlines how the unit leads to a writing assignment based on collected responses over time. (HB)

  15. Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.

    Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

  16. Teaching Tomorrow's Classics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Mary Ann; Avinger, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Describes young adult novels that may prove to be classics of the genre. Discusses "The "Chocolate War" by Robert Cormier, "The Outsiders" by S. E. Hinton, "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" by Elizabeth George Speare, and "On Fortune's Wheel" by Cynthia Voight. (HB)

  17. Why Study Classical Languages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Samuel

    This speech emphasizes the significance of living literatures and living cultures which owe a direct debt to the Romans and the Greeks from whom they can trace their origins. After commenting on typical rejoinders to the question "Why study classical languages?" and poking fun at those who advance jaded, esoteric responses, the author dispels the…

  18. Description and characterization of the novel hyperthermia- and thermoablation-system MFHregistered300F for clinical magnetic fluid hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gneveckow, Uwe; Jordan, Andreas; Scholz, Regina; Bruess, Volker; Waldoefner, Norbert; Ricke, Jens; Feussner, Annelie; Hildebrandt, Bert; Rau, Beate; Wust, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a new approach to deposit heat power in deep tissues by overcoming limitations of conventional heat treatments. After infiltration of the target tissue with nanosized magnetic particles, the power of an alternating magnetic field is transformed into heat. The combination of the 100 kHz magnetic field applicator MFH registered 300F and the magnetofluid (MF), which both are designed for medical use, is investigated with respect to its dosage recommendations and clinical applicability. We found a magnetic field strength of up to 18 kA/m in a cylindrical treatment area of 20 cm diameter and aperture height up to 300 mm. The specific absorption rate (SAR) can be controlled directly by the magnetic field strength during the treatment. The relationship between magnetic field strength and the iron normalized SAR (SAR Fe ) is only slightly depending on the concentration of the MF and can be used for planning the target SAR. The achievable energy absorption rates of the MF distributed in the tissue is sufficient for either hyperthermia or thermoablation. The fluid has a visible contrast in therapeutic concentrations on a CT scanner and can be detected down to 0.01 g/l Fe in the MRI. The system has proved its capability and practicability for heat treatment in deep regions of the human body

  19. Commentary: PhDs in Biochemistry Education--5 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G.; Momsen, Jennifer L.; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research.

  20. Commentary on "Sonata Form in the Nineteenth-Century Symphony"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Duane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This commentary compares observational corpus analysis and hypothesis-driven analytical methods, and discusses the methods used in Cannon's "Sonata Form in the Nineteenth-Century Symphony" article.

  1. Classical field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Classical field theory, which concerns the generation and interaction of fields, is a logical precursor to quantum field theory, and can be used to describe phenomena such as gravity and electromagnetism. Written for advanced undergraduates, and appropriate for graduate level classes, this book provides a comprehensive introduction to field theories, with a focus on their relativistic structural elements. Such structural notions enable a deeper understanding of Maxwell's equations, which lie at the heart of electromagnetism, and can also be applied to modern variants such as Chern–Simons and Born–Infeld. The structure of field theories and their physical predictions are illustrated with compelling examples, making this book perfect as a text in a dedicated field theory course, for self-study, or as a reference for those interested in classical field theory, advanced electromagnetism, or general relativity. Demonstrating a modern approach to model building, this text is also ideal for students of theoretic...

  2. Injuries in classical ballet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Coutinho de Azevedo Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to elucidate what injuries are most likely to occur due to classical ballet practice. The research used national and international bibliography. The bibliography analysis indicated that technical and esthetical demands lead to a practice of non-anatomical movements, causing the ballet dancer to suffer from a number of associated lesions. Most of the injuries are caused by technical mistakes and wrong training. Troubles in children are usually due to trying to force external rotation at hip level and to undue use of point ballet slippers. The commonest lesions are in feet and ankles, followed by knees and hips. The rarest ones are in the upper limbs. These injuries are caused by exercise excess, by repetitions always in the same side and by wrong and early use of point slippers. The study reached the conclusion that incorrect application of classical ballet technique predisposes the dancers to characteristic injuries.

  3. The classic project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iselin, F. Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Exchange of data and algorithms among accelerator physics programs is difficult because of unnecessary differences in input formats and internal data structures. To alleviate these problems a C++ class library called CLASSIC (Class Library for Accelerator System Simulation and Control) is being developed with the goal to provide standard building blocks for computer programs used in accelerator design. It includes modules for building accelerator lattice structures in computer memory using a standard input language, a graphical user interface, or a programmed algorithm. It also provides simulation algorithms. These can easily be replaced by modules which communicate with the control system of the accelerator. Exchange of both data and algorithm between different programs using the CLASSIC library should present no difficulty

  4. Classical Diophantine equations

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The author had initiated a revision and translation of "Classical Diophantine Equations" prior to his death. Given the rapid advances in transcendence theory and diophantine approximation over recent years, one might fear that the present work, originally published in Russian in 1982, is mostly superseded. That is not so. A certain amount of updating had been prepared by the author himself before his untimely death. Some further revision was prepared by close colleagues. The first seven chapters provide a detailed, virtually exhaustive, discussion of the theory of lower bounds for linear forms in the logarithms of algebraic numbers and its applications to obtaining upper bounds for solutions to the eponymous classical diophantine equations. The detail may seem stark--- the author fears that the reader may react much as does the tourist on first seeing the centre Pompidou; notwithstanding that, Sprind zuk maintainsa pleasant and chatty approach, full of wise and interesting remarks. His emphases well warrant, ...

  5. Classical and statistical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Hanna A

    2016-01-01

    This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.

  6. Findings in young pigs following combined treatment by hyperthermia and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorcht, J.; Herrmann, T.; Barke, R.; Johannsen, U.

    1985-01-01

    In a pilot study, 8 store pigs were submitted to a combined treatment with hyperthermia (5 x 60 min; 42 0 C in the thoracic region) followed by telecobalt irradiation of the right lung (5 x 4 Gy). Radiologic checks of the thoracic organs and laboratory diagnostics provided useful data as to the temporal course of the radiogenic pulmonary affections and the tolerability of fractionated whole-body hyperthermia including superimposed local heating on store pigs. Histologic examinations of sections of heated and irradiated (right) as compared to exclusively heated (left) lung lobes of 4 animals suggested that hyperthermia exerted a radiosensitizing effect on the right lungs. Histologically confirmed irreversible lung fibrosis occurred there after exposure to even lower total doses following hyperthermia as compared to sole irradiation. (author)

  7. Differences in the Onset and Severity of Symptoms of Malignant Hyperthermia With Different Inhalational Anesthetics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solberg, Alison

    1999-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to identify if there is a significant difference in the onset and severity of signs and symptoms of malignant hyperthermia in those MH-susceptible patients who received...

  8. Predicting thermal history a-priori for magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia of internal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Purbarun; Sirisha Maganti, Lakshmi

    2017-08-01

    This article proposes a simplistic and realistic method where a direct analytical expression can be derived for the temperature field within a tumour during magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia. The approximated analytical expression for thermal history within the tumour is derived based on the lumped capacitance approach and considers all therapy protocols and parameters. The present method is simplistic and provides an easy framework for estimating hyperthermia protocol parameters promptly. The model has been validated with respect to several experimental reports on animal models such as mice/rabbit/hamster and human clinical trials. It has been observed that the model is able to accurately estimate the thermal history within the carcinoma during the hyperthermia therapy. The present approach may find implications in a-priori estimation of the thermal history in internal tumours for optimizing magnetic hyperthermia treatment protocols with respect to the ablation time, tumour size, magnetic drug concentration, field strength, field frequency, nanoparticle material and size, tumour location, and so on.

  9. Magnetic nanowires and hyperthermia: How geometry and material affect heat production efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, Maria F.; Zaher, A.; Perez, Jose E.; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia, which refers to the production of heat by magnetic nanostructures under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), has been previously investigated with superparamagnetic nanobeads as a cancer therapy method. Magnetic nanowires (NWs

  10. Assessment of immunomodulating action of combined therapy with UHF-hyperthermia in children with osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neprina, G.S.; Panteleeva, E.S.; Vatin, O.E.; Bizer, V.A.; Bojko, I.N.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is concerned with immunological evaluation of different stages of combined therapy with local UHF-hyperthermia in children with osteogenic sarcoma. Combined therapy (polychemo- and raditherapy) was shown to cause a decrease in the number of immunocompetent cells, to enhance dysbalance of immunoregulatory T-lymphocytes, to weaken T-lymphocyte function on PHA; immunosuppressive action of combined therapy did not depend on a tumor site. The incorporation of UHF-hyperthermia in the therapeutic scheme weakened the manifestations of secondary immunodeficiency, got back to normal structure of T-lymphocyte population. A favorable immunomodulating effect of hyperthermia was more frequently observed in patients with crural bone tumors. The effect of hyperthermia was revealed after direct influence of thermotherapy but it was absent in continuation of combined treatment

  11. Invitation to classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differ

  12. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    1958-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  13. Generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leon, M.; Rodrigues, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The geometrical study of Classical Mechanics shows that the Hamiltonian (respectively, Lagrangian) formalism may be characterized by intrinsical structures canonically defined on the cotangent (respectively, tangent) bundle of a differentiable manifold. A generalized formalism for higher order Lagrangians is developed. Then the Hamiltonian form of the theory is developed. Finally, the Poisson brackets are defined and the conditions under which a mapping is a canonical transformation are studied. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this type of mechanics is established. (Auth.)

  14. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  15. Surface functionalized biocompatible magnetic nanospheres for cancer hyperthermia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Novosad, V.; Rozhkova, E. A.; Chen, H.; Yefremenko, V.; Pearson, J.; Torno, M.; Bader, S. D.; Rosengart, A. J.; Univ. Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine

    2007-06-01

    We report a simplified single emulsion (oil-in-water) solvent evaporation protocol to synthesize surface functionalized biocompatible magnetic nanospheres by using highly concentrated hydrophobic magnetite (gel) and a mixture of poly(D,L lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(lactic acid-block-polyethylene glycol-maleimide) (PLA-PEG-maleimide) (10:1 by mass) polymers. The as-synthesized particles are approximately spherical with an average diameter of 360-370 nm with polydispersity index of 0.12-0.18, are surface-functionalized with maleimide groups, and have saturation magnetization values of 25-40 emu/g. The efficiency of the heating induced by 400-kHz oscillating magnetic fields is compared for two samples with different magnetite loadings. Results show that these nanospheres have the potential to provide an efficient cancer-targeted hyperthermia.

  16. Hyperthermia: an effective strategy to induce apoptosis in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kanwal; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Heat has been used as a medicinal and healing modality throughout human history. The combination of hyperthermia (HT) with radiation and anticancer agents has been used clinically and has shown positive results to a certain extent. However, the clinical results of HT treatment alone have been only partially satisfactory. Cell death following HT treatment is a function of both temperature and treatment duration. HT induces cancer cell death through apoptosis; the degree of apoptosis and the apoptotic pathway vary in different cancer cell types. HT-induced reactive oxygen species production are responsible for apoptosis in various cell types. However, the underlying mechanism of signal transduction and the genes related to this process still need to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induced by HT, enhancement of heat-induced apoptosis, and the genetic network involved in HT-induced apoptosis.

  17. Controlled Hyperthermia with MRI-guided Focused Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, Steffen; Salomir, Rares; Pedersen, Michael

    Introduction: Hyperthermia is an appealing oncological treatment since the significant regions of hypoxia contained in most solid tumours are known to be sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of heat. However, due to the seemingly insurmountable technical difficulties associated with delivering thermal......-sensitive promoters and localized drug delivery using thermo-sensitive micro-carriers. Subjects Here we will present some of the recent advances in MRI-FUS, and their technical background. This will include: 1) Real-time MRI-thermometry. 2) FUS-technology. 3) Temporal and Spatial temperature control using MRI...... and penetration depth are governed by the wavelength. Hence for US it is possible to body non-invasively position sub-millimeter focal points in deep seated regions of the. Temperature Control: Most solid tumours cover volumes larger than that of the focal region. This problem may be reduced somewhat...

  18. A multipoint feedback control system for scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.; Kress, R.; Roemer, R.; Hynynen, K.

    1987-01-01

    A multipoint feedback control system has been developed and tested for use with a scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia system. Extensive in-vivo tests (using a perfused organ model) have been made to evaluate the basic performance characteristics of the feedback control scheme for control of temperature in perfused media. The results of these tests are presented and compared with the predictions of a simulation routine. The control scheme was also tested in vivo using dogs' thighs and kidneys. Thigh experiments show the control scheme responds well to the affects of vasodilation and is able to maintain the targeted temperatures. In kidney experiments, where the rate of perfusion was controllable, the power adjusting algorithm successfully maintained uniform temperature distributions across regions of varying rates of perfusion. As a conclusion, the results show that this multipoint feedback controller scheme induces uniform temperature distributions when used with scanned focussed ultrasound systems

  19. Hyperthermia system working in combination with an MR imaging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBihan, D.J.; Delannoy, J.; Levin, R.L.; Hoult, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    The authors propose a hyperthermia device to be used for temperature monitoring. It consists of a modified miniannular phased array (MAPA) radio-frequency applicator designed for limb tumor treatment that works in combination with a whole-body MR imaging unit operating at 21 MHz. Highly accurate (0.5 0 c/0.8 cm 2 ) temperature images are obtained noninvasively throughout the heated volume from MR images of molecular diffusion, the relation of which with temperature is well known. The MAPA, electrically modified to be compatible with MR imagers, can be centered inside the MR head coil. The combined system was tested on a phantom in which the temperature distribution was confirmed by miniature thermocouples

  20. Thermometry of hot spot using NMR for hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, Yoshifumi; Kamimura, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    Lately noticed hyperthermia in cancer therapy requires non-invasive measurement of the temperature at the warmed site in the deep portion of human body. Nuclear magnetic relaxation time of NMR is also usable for cancer diagnosis. For coordination of these two techniques, it was judged suitable to measure temperature by NMR so that cancer diagnosis and treatment and evaluation of therapeutic effect might be incorporated into one system. This report dealt with concrete procedures of measuring the temperature of deep portions by NMR. Computations revealed that the coefficient of temperature of the thermal equilibrium magnetization was useful, that magnetic field focusing was the most effective imaging technique and that temperature rise in areas about 2 cm in radius could be measured without large errors. (Chiba, N.)

  1. Metastatic spreading and growth of rhabdomyosarcoma in exposure to hyperglycemia, hyperthermia and ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanenko, S.E.; Salamatina, N.A.; Dedenkov, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Under the effect of local UHF-hyperthermia, short-term hyperglycemia and ionizing radiation on metastasing strain of rhabdomysarcoma an increase in metastatic spreading or stimulated growth of primary tumor are not noticed. Otherwise, it is stated that hyperglycemia and hyperthermia thrice-used prevent from metastatic spreading of the tumor. Ionizing radiation decelerates both tumor growth and to a least extent its metastatic spreading

  2. Polymodification. Short-term hyperglycemia and local hyperthermia in hypoxiradiotherapy of transplantable solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, S.V.; Krimker, V.M.; Yarmonenko, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Application possibilities of hyperglycemia and local hyperthermia in combination with hypoxiradiotherapy of solid tumors, have been evaluated. The experiments conducted have shown the great possibilities of combined use of radiation, hyperglycemia, hyperthermia, for selective affection of tumours, and application of gaseous hypoxia during irradiation - for simultaneous principal protection of normal tissues. Interaction of all the agents will undoubtedly require a versatile study to develop the optimum regimes of action

  3. Immunohistochemical study on the fetal rat pituitary in hyperthermia-induced exencephaly

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Yuichi G.; 渡辺, 勇一

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  4. Immunohistochemical Study on the Fetal Rat Pituitary in Hyperthermia-lnduced Exencephaly(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi G., Watanabe; Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University

    2002-01-01

    Hyperthermia of fetal rats is known to cause malformations of various organs including brain. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of the hyperthermia-induced brain damages on the development of the adenohypophysis. Mother rats of Day 9.5 of pregnancy were anesthetized and immersed in hot water (43℃) for 15 min. At Day 21.5 of gestation, fetuses were removed by caesarian section and examined for exencephaly. Hyperthermal stress induced varying degrees of exencephaly in ...

  5. Mechanisms of hyperthermia induced radiatiosensitization for treatment of human papillomavirus positive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Arlene; Leeuwen, Caspar van; Stalpers, Lukas; Rodermond, Hans; Kok, Petra; Crezee, Hans; Franken, Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    HPV is associated with cervical cancer, the third most common cancer in women. In over 70% of cervical cancers, the high-risk HPV-types 16 and 18 are found. In these tumors, functionality of p53 is suppressed by the presence of protein E6. Hyperthermia is a clinical application of heat in which tumour temperatures are raised to 40-43°C and combined hyperthermia with radiation is very effective in the treatment of cervical cancer

  6. Quantifying the Combined Effect of Radiation Therapy and Hyperthermia in Terms of Equivalent Dose Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, H. Petra; Crezee, Johannes; Franken, Nicolaas A.P.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Barendsen, Gerrit W.; Bel, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to quantify the therapeutic effect of radiosensitization by hyperthermia; to this end, a numerical method was proposed to convert radiation therapy dose distributions with hyperthermia to equivalent dose distributions without hyperthermia. Methods and Materials: Clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were created for 15 prostate cancer cases. To simulate a clinically relevant heterogeneous temperature distribution, hyperthermia treatment planning was performed for heating with the AMC-8 system. The temperature-dependent parameters α (Gy −1 ) and β (Gy −2 ) of the linear–quadratic model for prostate cancer were estimated from the literature. No thermal enhancement was assumed for normal tissue. The intensity modulated radiation therapy plans and temperature distributions were exported to our in-house-developed radiation therapy treatment planning system, APlan, and equivalent dose distributions without hyperthermia were calculated voxel by voxel using the linear–quadratic model. Results: The planned average tumor temperatures T90, T50, and T10 in the planning target volume were 40.5°C, 41.6°C, and 42.4°C, respectively. The planned minimum, mean, and maximum radiation therapy doses were 62.9 Gy, 76.0 Gy, and 81.0 Gy, respectively. Adding hyperthermia yielded an equivalent dose distribution with an extended 95% isodose level. The equivalent minimum, mean, and maximum doses reflecting the radiosensitization by hyperthermia were 70.3 Gy, 86.3 Gy, and 93.6 Gy, respectively, for a linear increase of α with temperature. This can be considered similar to a dose escalation with a substantial increase in tumor control probability for high-risk prostate carcinoma. Conclusion: A model to quantify the effect of combined radiation therapy and hyperthermia in terms of equivalent dose distributions was presented. This model is particularly instructive to estimate the potential effects of interaction from different treatment

  7. Frequency Of Hyperthermia In Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Visiting A Tertiary Care Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, A. K.; Kumar, P.; Alam, M. T.; Aurangzeb, M.; Imran, K.; Masroor, M.; Parkash, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of hyperthermia in acute ischemic stroke patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in a developing country. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Wards of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to June 2013. Methodology: Patients aged = 18 years of either gender with acute ischemic stroke presenting within 24 hours of onset of symptoms were included. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants as well as approval of ethical review committee of the institute. Axillary temperature by mercury thermometer was monitored at the time of admission and after every 6 hours for 3 days. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). Result: A total of 106 patients of ischemic stroke were included. The mean age of enrolled participants was 60.1 ±9.5 years. Among these, 61 (57.5 percentage) were males and 45 (42.5 percentage) females. Among all patients, 51.9 percentage presented with loss of consciousness, 30.2 percentage with slurred speech, 77.4 percentage with limb weakness, and 9.4 percentage with decrease vision. A total of 17 (16 percentage) patients with ischemic stroke developed hyperthermia. When the prevalence of hyperthermia was stratified according to age, among patients of < 60 years of age, 26 percentage developed hyperthermia compared to 7.1 percentage in patients of = 60 years of age (p=0.008). On gender stratification, among male patients, 14.8 percentage developed hyperthermia compared to 17.8 percentage in female patients (p=0.43). Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that the frequency of hyperthermia in ischemic stroke was 16 percentage and it should be looked for as it has significant impact on the outcome. The hyperthermia was significantly more common in younger adults as compared to older adults. However, gender had no influence on the prevalence rate of hyperthermia. (author)

  8. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Therapeutic Effect of Cationic Thermosensitive Liposomal Doxorubicin Upon Mild Hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Dicheva, Bilyana M.; Seynhaeve, Ann L. B.; Soulie, Thomas; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Koning, Gerben A.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To evaluate pharmacokinetic profile, biodistribution and therapeutic effect of cationic thermosensitive liposomes (CTSL) encapsulating doxorubicin (Dox) upon mild hyperthermia (HT). Methods: Non-targeted thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) and CTSL were developed, loaded with Dox and characterized. Blood kinetics and biodistribution of Dox-TSL and Dox-CTSL were followed in B16BL6 tumor bearing mice upon normothermia (NT) or initial hyperthermia conditions. Efficacy study in B...

  9. Hyperthermia and PARP1-inhibition for sensitization of radiation and cisplatin treatment of cervical carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, Nicolaas; Oei, Arlene; Leeuwen, Caspar van; Stalpers, Lukas; Rodermond, Hans; Bel, Arjan; Kok, Petra; Crezee, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation causes single and double strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs). DSBs are among the most critical DNA lesions and can be repaired via either non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in which PARP1, Ku70 and DNA-PKcs are important, or homologous recombination (HR), where BRCA2 and Rad51 are essential. Hyperthermia disturbs HR by temporary inactivation of BRCA2. Cisplatin disrupts NHEJ and PARP1-inhibitor blocks Poly-(ADP-ribose)polymerase- 1, which is important in SSB repair, NHEJ and backup-NHEJ. Our goal was to investigate the additional effectiveness of hyperthermia and PARP1-inhibition on radiation and/or cisplatin treatment. Cervical carcinoma cells (SiHa) were treated at different temperature levels levels (41.0-43.0℃, PARP1-inhibitor (100 μM; NU1025), gamma-irradiation doses (0-8 Gy) or cisplatin (1'R for 1 h). Clonogenic assays were carried out to measure survival and γH2AX staining was used to visualize DSBs. To elucidate mechanisms of action expression levels of DNA repair proteins BRCA2 and DNA-PKcs were investigated after 42.0℃ (1 h) using western blot. Combined hyperthermia and radiation resulted in an increased number of γH2AX foci as compared to radiation alone. Hyperthermia treatment in combination with cisplatin and PARP1 inhibitor and with radiation and PARP1 inhibitor significantly decreased cell survival. Western blot demonstrated a decreased expression of BRCA2 protein at 30 min after hyperthermia treatment. Adding PARP1-inhibitor significantly improves the effectiveness of combined hyperthermia radiotherapy and combined hyperthermia-cisplatin treatment on cervical carcinoma cells. Hyperthermia affects DNA-DSB repair as is indicated by increased γH2AX foci numbers and decreased BRCA2 expression. (author)

  10. The individual and combined effects of γ rays and hyperthermia on the development of embryonic brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yepeng; Ruan Ming; Liu Jingyuan; Hong Min; Lu Chunlin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the individual and combined effects of exposure to γ rays and hyperthermia on the development of embryonic brains. Methods: the pregnant LACA mice were exposed to 1.0 Gy 60 Co-γ rays, 42 degree C hyperthermia for 10 minutes or the two treatments combined together on day 9 of pregnancy. The females were sacrificed on day 18 of pregnancy and the fetuses were gained by cesarean section. The appearance of fetuses was observed and, then, the weight of fetal brains, the cell number of whole brains, the contents of nucleic acid and protein in brain tissue and the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in brain tissue as a marker for cholinergic neurons were determined. Results: Nervous tube defects did not occur in all groups. Compared with the control group, all the indices determined significantly declined in the radiation group while the cell number of whole brains and the AChE activity in brain tissue significantly decreased in the hyperthermia group. In the group of hyperthermia in advance, 4 hours later, followed by exposure to radiation, the AChE activity in brain tissue was significantly higher than the single radiation group. In the group of prior radiation exposure, 4 hours later, followed by hyperthermia, all the indices did not present significant difference from the single radiation group. Conclusion: The effects of 42 degree C hyperthermia for 10 minutes on the development of mouse embryo's brains are much weaker than 1.0 Gy γ radiation. It seems that the hyperthermia in advance can induce mouse fetuses to produce the cross adaptability to the following exposure to radiation. Exposure to γ radiation followed by hyperthermia does not present and additive action or a synergistic action

  11. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency Field Treatment to Produce Hepatic Hyperthermia: Efficacy and Safety in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,; ,

    2017-01-01

    The Kanzius non-invasive radio-frequency hyperthermia system (KNiRFH) has been investigated as a treatment option for hepatic hyperthermia cancer therapy. The treatment involves exposing the patient to an external high-power RF (13.56 MHz) electric field, whereby the propagating waves penetrate deep into the tumor causing targeted heating based on differential tissue dielectric properties. However, a comprehensive examination of the Kanzius system alongside any associated toxicities and its a...

  12. Polyamines and polyamine biosynthesis in cells exposed to hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerner, E.W.; Stickney, D.G.; Herman, T.S.; Fuller, D.J.

    1983-02-01

    The issue of how polyamines act to sensitize cultured cells to the lethal effects of hyperthermia was investigated using Chinese hamster cells which were induced to express thermotolerance. Intracellular levels of these naturally occurring polycations were manipulated in certain situations by treating whole cells with methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone), an inhibitor of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylases. Exogenous spermine as low as 100 ..mu..M in the culture media dramatically sensitized cells expressing thermotolerance to the lethal effects of subsequent 42/sup 0/C exposures. When thermotolerance was differentially induced in cultures exposed to 42.4/sup 0/C by varying the rate of heating from 37 to 42.4/sup 0/C, the most resistant cells and the highest levels of intracellular spermidine and spermine. This finding was explainable in part by the observation that the putrescine-dependent S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase activity was minimally affected in cells expressng the greatest degree of thermotolerance. When this enzyme activity was inhibited by drug, lowered intracellular polyamine levels did not correspond with subsequent survival responses to heat. Interestingly, cultures treated with methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) 24 hr previous to heat exposure showed a reduced capacity to express rate of heating-induced thermotolerance. Together, these results demonstrate that the polyamines, especially spermidine and spermine, enhance hyperthermia-induced cell killing by some mechanism involving the plasma membrane. Further, our data suggest that methylglyoxal bis-(guanylhydrazone) can act to affect thermal responses by a mechanism(s) other than modification of intracellular polyamine levels.

  13. Eight-MHz RF-hyperthermia for advanced urological malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisazumi, Haruo; Nakajima, Kazuyoshi

    1986-01-01

    Eight-MHz radiofrequency hyperthermia (H) using a Thermotron-RF Model 8, and its combination with irradiation (RH), anticancer drugs (CH) or anticancer drugs plus irradiation (CRH), were carried out for a total of 48 urological malignancies: 10 cases of renal cancer, 1 of renal pelvic cancer, 2 of uretetral cancer, 19 of bladder cancer, 5 of prostatic cancer, 9 of metastatic lesion of urological cancers and 2 of other urological cancers. All had failed in previous treatments, or had not undergone surgery because of their poor general condition. Four cases, including 2 of bladder cancer, 1 of prostatic cancer and 1 of metastatic lesion of bladder cancer, were treated with H. Twenty-five cases, including 3 renal cancer cases, were treated with RH. Seven of the 10 cases of renal cancer were treated with mitomycin C-microcapsule embolization prior to RH (CRH). Twelve of the 23 cases with urothelial cancer or its metastasis, including 1 of renal pelvic cancer, 10 of bladder cancer and 1 of metastatic lesion of bladder cancer, received combined treatment of THP-adriamycin, one of the derivatives of adriamycin, by i.v. and RF-heating (CH). Hyperthermia was given twice a week, totalling 10 sessions in 5 weeks. Intratumoral temperature was kept above 42.5 deg C for 30 to 40 minutes during one-hour heating. Complete tumor disappearance was obtained in the 5 bladder cancer cases. Partial tumor regression, defined as a regression of 50 % or more, was obtained in 11 cases. As side effects, mild skin burns and anorexia were observed in approximately 30 to 40 % of cases. Seven obese cases, who had subcutaneous tissue 15 mm thick or more, developed fat tissue induration after treatment. (author)

  14. Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia as an adjuvant cancer therapy with chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryk, Alicia Ailie

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPH) is an emerging cancer therapy which has shown to be most effective when applied in the adjuvant setting with chemotherapy, radiation or surgery. Although mNPH employs heat as a primary therapeutic modality, conventional heat may not be the only cytotoxic effect. As such, my studies have focused on the mechanism and use of mNPH alone and in conjunction with cisplatinum chemotherapy in murine breast cancer cells and a related in vivo model. MNPH was compared to conventional microwave tumor heating, with results suggesting that mNPH (mNP directly injected into the tumor and immediately activated) and 915 MHz microwave hyperthermia, at the same thermal dose, result in similar tumor regrowth delay kinetics. However, mNPH shows significantly less peri-tumor normal tissue damage. MNPH combined with cisplatinum also demonstrated significant improvements in regrowth delay over either modality applied as a monotherapy. Additional studies demonstrated that a relatively short tumor incubation time prior to AMF exposure (less than 10 minutes) as compared to a 4-hour incubation time, resulted in faster heating rates, but similar regrowth delays when treated to the same thermal dose. The reduction of heating rate correlated well with the observed reduction in mNP concentration in the tumor observed with 4 hour incubation. The ability to effectively deliver cytotoxic mNPs to metastatic tumors is the hope and goal of systemic mNP therapy. However, delivering relevant levels of mNP is proving to be a formidable challenge. To address this issue, I assessed the ability of cisplatinum to simultaneously treat a tumor and improve the uptake of systemically delivered mNPs. Following a cisplatinum pretreatment, systemic mNPs uptake was increased by 3.1 X, in implanted murine breast tumors. Additional in vitro studies showed the necessity of a specific mNP/ Fe architecture and spatial relation for heat-based cytotoxicity in cultured cells.

  15. Thermal dosimetry for bladder hyperthermia treatment. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooneveldt, Gerben; Bakker, Akke; Balidemaj, Edmond; Chopra, Rajiv; Crezee, Johannes; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Hartmann, Josefin; Hulshof, Maarten C C M; Kok, H Petra; Paulides, Margarethus M; Sousa-Escandon, Alejandro; Stauffer, Paul R; Maccarini, Paolo F

    2016-06-01

    The urinary bladder is a fluid-filled organ. This makes, on the one hand, the internal surface of the bladder wall relatively easy to heat and ensures in most cases a relatively homogeneous temperature distribution; on the other hand the variable volume, organ motion, and moving fluid cause artefacts for most non-invasive thermometry methods, and require additional efforts in planning accurate thermal treatment of bladder cancer. We give an overview of the thermometry methods currently used and investigated for hyperthermia treatments of bladder cancer, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages within the context of the specific disease (muscle-invasive or non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer) and the heating technique used. The role of treatment simulation to determine the thermal dose delivered is also discussed. Generally speaking, invasive measurement methods are more accurate than non-invasive methods, but provide more limited spatial information; therefore, a combination of both is desirable, preferably supplemented by simulations. Current efforts at research and clinical centres continue to improve non-invasive thermometry methods and the reliability of treatment planning and control software. Due to the challenges in measuring temperature across the non-stationary bladder wall and surrounding tissues, more research is needed to increase our knowledge about the penetration depth and typical heating pattern of the various hyperthermia devices, in order to further improve treatments. The ability to better determine the delivered thermal dose will enable clinicians to investigate the optimal treatment parameters, and consequentially, to give better controlled, thus even more reliable and effective, thermal treatments.

  16. Biodegradable magnesium nanoparticle-enhanced laser hyperthermia therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Qian Wang,1 Liping Xie,1 Zhizhu He,2 Derui Di,2 Jing Liu1,21Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, 2Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Recently, nanoparticles have been demonstrated to have tremendous merit in terms of improving the treatment specificity and thermal ablation effect on tumors. However, the potential toxicity and long-term side effects caused by the introduced nanoparticles and by expelling them out of the body following surgery remain a significant challenge. Here, we propose for the first time to directly adopt magnesium nanoparticles as the heating enhancer in laser thermal ablation to avoid these problems by making full use of the perfect biodegradable properties of this specific material.Methods: To better understand the new nano “green” hyperthermia modality, we evaluated the effects of magnesium nanoparticles on the temperature transients inside the human body subject to laser interstitial heating. Further, we experimentally investigated the heating enhancement effects of magnesium nanoparticles on a group of biological samples: oil, egg white, egg yolk, in vitro pig tissues, and the in vivo hind leg of rabbit when subjected to laser irradiation.Results: Both the theoretical simulations and experimental measurements demonstrated that the target tissues injected with magnesium nanoparticles reached much higher temperatures than tissues without magnesium nanoparticles. This revealed the enhancing behavior of the new nanohyperthermia method.Conclusion: Given the unique features of magnesium nanoparticles – their complete biological safety and ability to enhance heating – which most other advanced metal nanoparticles do not possess, the use of magnesium nanoparticles in hyperthermia therapy offers an important “green” nanomedicine modality for treating tumors

  17. Altered lipid homeostasis in Sertoli cells stressed by mild hyperthermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S Vallés

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is known to be vulnerable to temperature. Exposures of rat testis to moderate hyperthermia result in loss of germ cells with survival of Sertoli cells (SC. Because SC provide structural and metabolic support to germ cells, our aim was to test the hypothesis that these exposures affect SC functions, thus contributing to germ cell damage. In vivo, regularly repeated exposures (one of 15 min per day, once a day during 5 days of rat testes to 43 °C led to accumulation of neutral lipids. This SC-specific lipid function took 1-2 weeks after the last of these exposures to be maximal. In cultured SC, similar daily exposures for 15 min to 43 °C resulted in significant increase in triacylglycerol levels and accumulation of lipid droplets. After incubations with [3H]arachidonate, the labeling of cardiolipin decreased more than that of other lipid classes. Another specifically mitochondrial lipid metabolic function, fatty acid oxidation, also declined. These lipid changes suggested that temperature affects SC mitochondrial physiology, which was confirmed by significantly increased degrees of membrane depolarization and ROS production. This concurred with reduced expression of two SC-specific proteins, transferrin, and Wilms' Tumor 1 protein, markers of SC secretion and differentiation functions, respectively, and with an intense SC cytoskeletal perturbation, evident by loss of microtubule network (α-tubulin and microfilament (f-actin organization. Albeit temporary and potentially reversible, hyperthermia-induced SC structural and metabolic alterations may be long-lasting and/or extensive enough to respond for the decreased survival of the germ cells they normally foster.

  18. A theoretical study of cylindrical ultrasound transducers for intracavitary hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.-L.; Fan, W.-C.; Yen, J.-Y.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Shieh, M.-J.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine the heating patterns and penetration depth when a cylindrical ultrasound transducer is employed for intracavitary hyperthermia treatments. Methods and Materials: The present study employs a simulation program based on a simplified power deposition model for infinitely long cylindrical ultrasound transducers. The ultrasound power in the tissue is assumed to be exponentially attenuated according to the penetration depth of the ultrasound beam, and a uniform attenuation for the entire treatment region is also assumed. The distribution of specific absorption rate (SAR) ratio (the ratio of SAR for a point within the tissue to that for a specific point on the cavity surface) is used to determine the heating pattern for a set of given parameters. The parameters considered are the ultrasound attenuation in the tissue, the cavity size, and the transducer eccentricity. Results: Simulation results show that the ultrasound attenuation in the tissue, the cavity size, and the transducer eccentricity are the most influential parameters for the distribution of SAR ratio. A low frequency transducer located in a large cavity can produce a much better penetration. The cavity size is the major parameter affecting the penetration depth for a small cavity size, such as interstitial hyperthermia. The heating pattern can also be dramatically changed by the transducer eccentricity and radiating sector. In addition, for a finite length of cylindrical transducer, lower SAR ratio appears in the regions near the applicator's edges. Conclusion: The distribution of SAR ratio indicates the relationship between the treatable region and the parameters if an appropriate threshold of SAR ratio is taken. The findings of the present study comprehend whether or not a tumor is treatable, as well as select the optimal driving frequency, the appropriate cavity size, and the eccentricity of a cylindrical transducer for a specific treatment

  19. Classical algebraic chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    I develop an extension of the usual equations of SU(n) chromodynamics which permits the consistent introduction of classical, noncommuting quark source charges. The extension involves adding a singlet gluon, giving a U(n) -based theory with outer product P/sup a/(u,v) = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc)(u/sup b/v/sup c/ - v/sup b/u/sup c/) which obeys the Jacobi identity, inner product S (u,v) = (1/2)(u/sup a/v/sup a/ + v/sup a/u/sup a/), and with the n 2 gluon fields elevated to algebraic fields over the quark color charge C* algebra. I show that provided the color charge algebra satisfies the condition S (P (u,v),w) = S (u,P (v,w)) for all elements u,v,w of the algebra, all the standard derivations of Lagrangian chromodynamics continue to hold in the algebraic chromodynamics case. I analyze in detail the color charge algebra in the two-particle (qq, qq-bar, q-barq-bar) case and show that the above consistency condition is satisfied for the following unique (and, interestingly, asymmetric) choice of quark and antiquark charges: Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi/sup a/, Q/sup a//sub q/ = xi-bar/sup a/ + delta/sup a/0(n/2)/sup 3/2/1, with xi/sup a/xi/sup b/ = (1/2)(d/sup a/bc + if/sup a/bc) xi/sup c/, xi-bar/sup a/xi-bar/sup b/ = -(1/2)(d/sup a/bc - if/sup a/bc) xi-bar/sup c/. The algebraic structure of the two-particle U(n) force problem, when expressed on an appropriately diagonalized basis, leads for all n to a classical dynamics problem involving an ordinary SU(2) Yang-Mills field with uniquely specified classical source charges which are nonparallel in the color-singlet state. An explicit calculation shows that local algebraic U(n) gauge transformations lead only to a rigid global rotation of axes in the overlying classical SU(2) problem, which implies that the relative orientations of the classical source charges have physical significance

  20. Hyperthermia of locally advanced or recurrent gynecological cancer. The effect of combination with irradiation or chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terashima, Hiromi; Imada, Hajime; Egashira, Kanji; Nakata, Hajime; Kunugita, Naoki; Matsuura, Yuusuke; Kashimura, Masamichi

    1995-01-01

    Between May 1986 and April 1994, 15 patients with advanced or recurrent gynecological cancer were treated with combined therapy of hyperthermia and irradiation or chemotherapy at UOEH Hospital. Initial cases were treated by hyperthermia combined with irradiation in 4 and with chemotherapy in 2. Recurrent 9 cases were treated by hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy or by hyperthermia alone. Radiotherapy was given in a conventional way 5 fractions per week and hyperthermia was performed using RF capacitive heating equipment, Thermotron RF-8, once or twice a week. Intratumoral temperature was measured by thermocouple inserted into the tumor and kept at 42-44degC for 30-40 minutes. Complete response (CR) and partial response (PR), defined as 50% or more regression, was obtained in 8/15 (53%). Response rates (CR+PR/all cases) were good in initially treated cases (5/6, 83%), irradiated cases (7/8, 88%) and cases hearted over 42degC (7/9, 78%). Combined therapy of hyperthermia and radiotherapy seemed to be useful for controlling advanced gynecological cancers. (author)

  1. Desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis in vitro by thymus and spleen cells of the rat after hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, K.; Spath, A.

    1988-03-01

    The inhibition of the semiconservative and restorative DNA synthesis caused by hyperthermia (30 to 60 min, 43/sup 0/C) was significantly higher in spleen cells than in thymus cells. The DNA repair synthesis of thymus cells measured at 37/sup 0/C was increased by about two times the initial value after a pre-incubation of 30 to 90 min and 30 to 60 min, respectively, with 37 and 43/sup 0/C, respectively. Under the same conditions, the /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of spleen cells diminished proportionally to the pre-incubation time after a pre-incubation of 30 and 45 min, respectively, with 43 and 37/sup 0/C, respectively. When hyperthermia and inhibitors of DNA synthesis or DNA repair (hydroxyurea, 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, 3', 5'-didesoxythymidine, and 3-aminobenzamide) were combined, overadditive effects - without cellspecific particularities - were seen only in the case of 3-aminobenzamide. Only in thymus cells, the inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II novobiocin caused an overadditive reinforcement of the inhibition induced by hyperthermia of the semiconservative DNA synthesis. The stimulation of DNA repair synthesis in thymus cells caused by novobiocin with the aid of DNA polymerase ..beta.. could be compensated by hyperthermia. The sedimentation of thymus and spleen cell nucleoids was increased after hyperthermia. The results suggest a special importance of DNA topology and of the DNA polymerase ..beta.. activity for the cellular effect of hyperthermia.

  2. Hormonal, Biochemical and Haematological Changes in Response to Acute Hyperthermia in Rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, N.A.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Today, hyperthermia plays a significant role in the evidence-based on treatment of cancer patients. Such promising endeavor is due to the fact that neoplastic cells are more heat sensitive than normal cells. the prospect of using hyperthermia alone to treat cancer tumours is appealing because hyperthermia is a physical treatment and so would have fewer side effects than chemotherapy or radiotherapy and, it could be used in combination with these therapeutic approaches. much more consistent evidence has been obtained experimentally, and continuing clinical interest has been encouraged by confirmation that, at relatively low temperature (37-41.5 C), heat enhances cell growth and may well enhance also the growth and proliferation of tumours, while above 45 C heat begins to damage both normal and malignant cells in both animal and human. So, the goal is to achieve a selective temperature elevation between 42-45 C at the tumour site while maintaining healthy tissue temperatures in a physiological save range.This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of acute whole body hyperthermia , (WBH) (rectal temperature 43 c) on biochemical , hormonal and haematological changes in normal healthy local strain (baladi) rabbits.The thermal late effects (recovery) at 24 hr-post whole body hyperthermia was also undertaken , in the attempt to evaluate the degree of safety , when hyperthermia is applied in the clinic for treating cancer and other diseases

  3. Effect of hyperthermia in combination with radiation therapy in a rat glioma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaru; Zama, Akira; Kunimine, Hideo; Tamaki, Yoshio; Niibe, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    Rat glioma model was used to evaluate the effect of hyperthermia with and without radiation therapy. The animal model was induced by left frontal burr hole opening and inoculation of a small piece of G-XII glioma tissue to 6- to 8-week-old rats. The therapeutical experiments were given 10 - 14 days after inoculation of the tumor. Interstitial heating at 44 and 45 deg C at the surface of the inserting probe using 2450 MHz microwave was delivered for 30 minutes. Deep X-ray whole head irradiation of 800 R using Stabilipan 2 (Siemens) was given just after the hyperthermia therapy. The survival of treated animals of hyperthermia, radiation, and combination of hyperthermia and radiation was significantly superior to that of non-treated control group. There was no significant difference of survival among the treated groups, though median survival was longest in the group of combination therapy of hyperthermia and radiation. Large tumors developed at the time of death in all the control and the treated animals. Histological examination showed some tendencies of macrophage infiltration in tumor tissue of hyperthermia therapy. (author)

  4. Magnetomotive Optical Coherence Elastography for Magnetic Hyperthermia Dosimetry Based on Dynamic Tissue Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Pin-Chieh; Pande, Paritosh; Ahmad, Adeel; Marjanovic, Marina; Spillman, Darold R.; Odintsov, Boris; Boppart, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used in many diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical applications over the past few decades to enhance imaging contrast, steer drugs to targets, and treat tumors via hyperthermia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical biomedical imaging modality that relies on the detection of backscattered light to generate high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological tissue. MNPs have been utilized as imaging contrast and perturbative mechanical agents in OCT in techniques called magnetomotive OCT (MM-OCT) and magnetomotive elastography (MM-OCE), respectively. MNPs have also been independently used for magnetic hyperthermia treatments, enabling therapeutic functions such as killing tumor cells. It is well known that the localized tissue heating during hyperthermia treatments result in a change in the biomechanical properties of the tissue. Therefore, we propose a novel dosimetric technique for hyperthermia treatment based on the viscoelasticity change detected by MM-OCE, further enabling the theranostic function of MNPs. In this paper, we first review the basic principles and applications of MM-OCT, MM-OCE, and magnetic hyperthermia, and present new preliminary results supporting the concept of MM-OCE-based hyperthermia dosimetry. PMID:28163565

  5. Machiavelli's "Mandragola": Comedic Commentary on Renaissance Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    This paper traces Machiavelli's debt to classical rhetoric while outlining the rhetorical tenor of his comedy, "Mandragola." The paper specifically analyzes Machiavelli's attention to the medieval transmission of Ciceronian rhetoric by Boethius, as interpreted from the setting, characterization, and dialogue of "Mandragola."…

  6. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  7. A Classic Through Eternity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    FIVE years ago, an ancient Chinese air was beamed to outer space as a PR exercise. To humankind, music is a universal language, so the tune seemed an ideal medium for communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. So far there has been no response, but it is believed that the tune will play for a billion years, and eventually be heard and understood. The melody is called High Mountain and Flowing Stream, and it is played on the guqin, a seven-stringed classical musical instrument similar to the zither.

  8. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  9. Classical altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann-Bette, B

    2008-08-01

    For more than 40 years, the effects of classical altitude training on sea-level performance have been the subject of many scientific investigations in individual endurance sports. To our knowledge, no studies have been performed in team sports like football. Two well-controlled studies showed that living and training at an altitude of >or=1800-2700 m for 3-4 weeks is superior to equivalent training at sea level in well-trained athletes. Most of the controlled studies with elite athletes did not reveal such an effect. However, the results of some uncontrolled studies indicate that sea-level performance might be enhanced after altitude training also in elite athletes. Whether hypoxia provides an additional stimulus for muscular adaptation, when training is performed with equal intensity compared with sea-level training is not known. There is some evidence for an augmentation of total hemoglobin mass after classical altitude training with duration >or=3 weeks at an altitude >or=2000 m due to altitude acclimatization. Considerable individual variation is observed in the erythropoietic response to hypoxia and in the hypoxia-induced reduction of aerobic performance capacity during training at altitude, both of which are thought to contribute to inter-individual variation in the improvement of sea-level performance after altitude training.

  10. Classical dynamics on graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barra, F.; Gaspard, P.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the classical evolution of a particle on a graph by using a time-continuous Frobenius-Perron operator that generalizes previous propositions. In this way, the relaxation rates as well as the chaotic properties can be defined for the time-continuous classical dynamics on graphs. These properties are given as the zeros of some periodic-orbit zeta functions. We consider in detail the case of infinite periodic graphs where the particle undergoes a diffusion process. The infinite spatial extension is taken into account by Fourier transforms that decompose the observables and probability densities into sectors corresponding to different values of the wave number. The hydrodynamic modes of diffusion are studied by an eigenvalue problem of a Frobenius-Perron operator corresponding to a given sector. The diffusion coefficient is obtained from the hydrodynamic modes of diffusion and has the Green-Kubo form. Moreover, we study finite but large open graphs that converge to the infinite periodic graph when their size goes to infinity. The lifetime of the particle on the open graph is shown to correspond to the lifetime of a system that undergoes a diffusion process before it escapes

  11. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  12. Reirradiation + hyperthermia for recurrent breast cancer en cuirasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenborg, Sabine; Rasch, Coen R.N.; Os, Rob van; Kusumanto, Yoka H.; Voerde Sive Voerding, Paul J. zum; Crezee, Hans; Tienhoven, Geertjan van [University of Amsterdam (AMC), Department of Radiation Oncology, Z1-215, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oei, Bing S.; Venselaar, Jack L. [Institute Verbeeten (BVI), Department of Radiation Oncology, Tilburg (Netherlands); Heymans, Martijn W. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2018-03-15

    Patients with irresectable locoregional recurrent breast cancer en cuirasse (BCEC) do not have effective curative treatment options. Hyperthermia, the elevation of tumor temperature to 40-45 C, is a well-established radio- and chemotherapy sensitizer. A total of 196 patients were treated with reirradiation and hyperthermia (reRT+HT) at two Dutch institutes from 1982-2005. The palliative effect was evaluated in terms of clinical outcome and toxicity. All patients received previous irradiation to a median dose of 50 Gy. In all, 75% of patients received 1-6 treatment modalities for previous tumor recurrences. ReRT consisted of 8 x 4 Gy given twice a week or 12 x 3 Gy given four times a week. Superficial hyperthermia was added once or twice a week. Tumor area comprised ≥1/2 of the ipsilateral chest wall. Overall clinical response rate was 72% (complete response [CR] 30%, partial response [PR] 42%, stable disease [SD] 22%, progressive disease [PD] 6%). The local progression-free rate at 1 year was 24%. Median survival was 6.9 months. Forty-three percent of our patients with CR, PR, SD after treatment remained infield progression-free until death or last follow-up. Acute ≥grade 3 toxicity occurred in 33% of patients, while late ≥grade 3 toxicity was recorded in 14% of patients. Tumor ulceration prior to treatment had a negative impact on both clinical outcome and toxicity. ReRT+HT provides sustainable palliative tumor control, despite refractory, extensive tumor growth. Compared to currently available systemic treatment options, reRT+HT is more effective with less toxicity. (orig.) [German] Fuer Patienten mit inoperablen lokoregionalen Rueckfaellen von Brustkrebs in Form eines Cancer en cuirasse (BCEC) gibt es keine effektiven kurativen Behandlungsoptionen. Die Hyperthermie, bei der die Tumortemperatur auf 40-45 C erhoeht wird, ist eine etablierte Methode zur Radio- und Chemotherapiesensibilisierung. Insgesamt 161 Patientinnen wurden in zwei niederlaendischen

  13. Comparison of microwave and magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia radiosensitization in murine breast tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, Andrew J.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Hoopes, Paul J.

    2011-03-01

    Hyperthermia has been shown to be an effective radiosensitizer. Its utility as a clinical modality has been limited by a minimally selective tumor sensitivity and the inability to be delivered in a tumor-specific manner. Recent in vivo studies (rodent and human) have shown that cancer cell-specific cytotoxicity can be effectively and safely delivered via iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (mNP) and an appropriately matched noninvasive alternating magnetic field (AMF). To explore the tumor radiosensitization potential of mNP hyperthermia we used a syngeneic mouse breast cancer model, dextran-coated 110 nm hydrodynamic diameter mNP and a 169 kHz / 450 Oe (35.8 kA/m) AMF. Intradermally implanted (flank) tumors (150 +/- 40 mm3) were treated by injection of 0.04 ml mNP (7.5 mg Fe) / cm3 into the tumor and an AMF (35.8 kA/m and 169 kHz) exposure necessary to achieve a CEM (cumulative equivalent minute) thermal dose of 60 (CEM 60). Tumors were treated with mNP hyperthermia (CEM 60), radiation alone (15 Gy, single dose) and in combination. Compared to the radiation and heat alone treatments, the combined treatment resulted in a greater than two-fold increase in tumor regrowth tripling time (tumor treatment efficacy). None of the treatments resulted in significant normal tissue toxicity or morbidity. Studies were also conducted to compare the radiosensitization effect of mNP hyperthermia with that of microwave-induced hyperthermia. The effects of incubation of nanoparticles within tumors (to allow nanoparticles to be endocytosed) before application of AMF and radiation were determined. This preliminary information suggests cancer cell specific hyperthermia (i.e. antibody-directed or anatomically-directed mNP) is capable of providing significantly greater radiosensitization / therapeutic ratio enhancement than other forms of hyperthermia delivery.

  14. Effects of hyperthermia on the normal liver using scintigraphic methods. Functional changes of the rabbit whole-liver by local hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kiyotaka; Shinotsuka, Akira; Takenaka, Hiroki; Hirono, Yoshisada

    1995-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate effect of hyperthermia to the liver in rabbits. The whole liver was heated at 43degC for 30 min by a RF capacitive heating device, and subsequent changes were observed by scintigraphy using 99m Tc-EHIDA and 99m Tc-Sn-colloid. The excretory ratio (Ke value) of 99m Tc-EHIDA and the uptake ratio (K value) of 99m Tc-Sn-colloid were measured to estimate hyperthermia induced hepatic injury for a month. Blood chemistry analysis was also conducted during this period. Also, the uptake of 3 H-methyl-thymidine into the DNA of hepatocyted was assayed 2 and 5 days after heating. Concurrently, histopathological changes were observed. The Ke value showed a transient increase and returned to the level prior to heating after approximately one week. A distinct increase in GPT was observed. The uptake of 3 H-methyl-thymidine showed a marked rise 2 days after hyperthermia, which demonstrated regeneration of the previously damaged hepatocytes. Pathologically, overall liver congestion and hepatocytes necrosis were noted. Also, both enlargement of the nuclei and binuclear hepatocytes were present, pathologically proving hepatocytes regeneration. The K value showed a transient decrease, showing that the reticuloendothelial function and blood flow of the liver were temporarily reduced. These results indicate the whole liver function damaged by hyperthermia is reversible. (author)

  15. Self-regulated magnetic fluid hyperthermia: A potential cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaria, Hitesh Ghanshyam

    An emerging cancer therapy, self-regulated magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), is the motivation for this work. In this therapy, cancer is annihilated by heating the tumor to desired therapeutic temperatures (˜45°C) by using magnetic nanoparticles of controlled Curie temperatures (Tc). This work was aimed at preparing and characterizing FePt, NiPd and NiPt nanoparticles for self-regulated MFH because their Tc could be tuned by changing their composition. Based on the excellent colloidal stability, size tunability and toxicity considerations, FePt was an obvious choice for self-regulated MFH. The 3.2 nm Fe61Pt39 particles displayed a Tc of 151°C, which is well below the Tc of bulk Fe61Pt39 (˜327°C). To reach the desired Tc of 45°C the composition of iron needs to be increased. However, a major obstacle was the formation of iron oxide shells with increase in iron composition of the particles. A recent finding that the composition of individual FePt particles deviated significantly from the average value encouraged us to study the mechanism of formation of FePt particles. Our analysis showed that early in the reaction the particles were Pt-rich and as the reaction proceeded the Fe content increased. It was found that the wide distribution in the composition of individual particles started early in the synthesis, suggesting that the compositional variability may be attributed to the Pt nuclei. The synthesized FePt particles are unsuitable for biological applications because of their hydrophobic surface. Hence, their surface was modified by ligand exchange with mercapto alkanoic acids. After ligand exchange, stable FePt dispersions could be formed in alkaline water. The study revealed that both the carboxylate and thiol groups were required to form stable FePt dispersions. In addition, 15 nm gold particles were successfully conjugated to genetically modified adenoviruses that selectively bind to cancer tumors. We also modeled the thermal transport in tissues during

  16. The study of thermal change by chemoport in radiofrequency hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Sun Young; Gim, Yang Soo; Kwak, Keun Tak; Yang, Myung Sik; Cha, Seok Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluate the thermal changes caused by use of the chemoport for drug administration and blood sampling during radiofrequency hyperthermia. 20 cm size of the electrode radio frequency hyperthermia (EHY-2000, Oncotherm KFT, Hungary) was used. The materials of the chemoport in our hospital from currently being used therapy are plastics, metal-containing epoxy and titanium that were made of the diameter 20 cm, height 20 cm insertion of the self-made cylindrical Agar phantom to measure the temperature. Thermoscope(TM-100, Oncotherm Kft, Hungary) and Sim4Life (Ver2.0, Zurich, Switzerland) was compared to the actual measured temperature. Each of the electrode measurement position is the central axis and the central axis side 1.5 cm, 0 cm(surface), 0.5 cm, 1.8 cm, 2.8 cm in depth was respectively measured. The measured temperature is 24.5 - 25.5℃, humidity is 30% - 32%. In five-minute intervals to measure the output power of 100 W, 60 min. In the electrode central axis 2.8 cm depth, the maximum temperature of the case with the unused of the chemoport, plastic, epoxy and titanium were respectively 39.51℃, 39.11℃, 38.81℃, 40.64℃, simulated experimental data were 42.20 ℃, 41.50℃, 40.70℃, 42.50℃. And in the central axis electrode side 1.5 cm depth 2.8 cm, measured data were 39.37℃, 39.32℃, 39.20℃, 39.46℃, the simulated experimental data were 42.00℃, 41.80℃, 41.20℃, 42.30℃. The thermal variations were caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic field surrounding the chemoport showed lower than in the case of unused in non-conductive plastic material and epoxy material, the titanum chemoport that made of conductor materials showed a slight differences. This is due to the metal contents in the chemoport and the geometry of the chemoport. And because it uses a low radio frequency bandwidth of the used equipment. That is, although use of the chemoport in this study do not significantly affect the surrounding tissue. That is, because the

  17. The study of thermal change by chemoport in radiofrequency hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Sun Young; Gim, Yang Soo; Kwak, Keun Tak; Yang, Myung Sik; Cha, Seok Yong

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluate the thermal changes caused by use of the chemoport for drug administration and blood sampling during radiofrequency hyperthermia. 20 cm size of the electrode radio frequency hyperthermia (EHY-2000, Oncotherm KFT, Hungary) was used. The materials of the chemoport in our hospital from currently being used therapy are plastics, metal-containing epoxy and titanium that were made of the diameter 20 cm, height 20 cm insertion of the self-made cylindrical Agar phantom to measure the temperature. Thermoscope(TM-100, Oncotherm Kft, Hungary) and Sim4Life (Ver2.0, Zurich, Switzerland) was compared to the actual measured temperature. Each of the electrode measurement position is the central axis and the central axis side 1.5 cm, 0 cm(surface), 0.5 cm, 1.8 cm, 2.8 cm in depth was respectively measured. The measured temperature is 24.5 - 25.5℃, humidity is 30% - 32%. In five-minute intervals to measure the output power of 100 W, 60 min. In the electrode central axis 2.8 cm depth, the maximum temperature of the case with the unused of the chemoport, plastic, epoxy and titanium were respectively 39.51℃, 39.11℃, 38.81℃, 40.64℃, simulated experimental data were 42.20 ℃, 41.50℃, 40.70℃, 42.50℃. And in the central axis electrode side 1.5 cm depth 2.8 cm, measured data were 39.37℃, 39.32℃, 39.20℃, 39.46℃, the simulated experimental data were 42.00℃, 41.80℃, 41.20℃, 42.30℃. The thermal variations were caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic field surrounding the chemoport showed lower than in the case of unused in non-conductive plastic material and epoxy material, the titanum chemoport that made of conductor materials showed a slight differences. This is due to the metal contents in the chemoport and the geometry of the chemoport. And because it uses a low radio frequency bandwidth of the used equipment. That is, although use of the chemoport in this study do not significantly affect the surrounding tissue. That is, because the

  18. Classical and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...

  19. Classical and quantum ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbisà, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of these notes is to provide a self-contained review of why it is generically a problem when a solution of a theory possesses ghost fields among the perturbation modes. We define what a ghost field is and we show that its presence is associated with a classical instability whenever the ghost field interacts with standard fields. We then show that the instability is more severe at quantum level, and that perturbative ghosts can exist only in low energy effective theories. However, if we do not consider very ad hoc choices, compatibility with observational constraints implies that low energy effective ghosts can exist only at the price of giving up Lorentz invariance or locality above the cut-off, in which case the cut-off has to be much lower that the energy scales we currently probe in particle colliders. We also comment on the possible role of extra degrees of freedom which break Lorentz invariance spontaneously. (paper)

  20. Classical mechanics with Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This textbook takes a broad yet thorough approach to mechanics, aimed at bridging the gap between classical analytic and modern differential geometric approaches to the subject. Developed by the authors from over 30 years of teaching experience, the presentation is designed to give students an overview of the many different models used through the history of the field—from Newton to Hamilton—while also painting a clear picture of the most modern developments. The text is organized into two parts. The first focuses on developing the mathematical framework of linear algebra and differential geometry necessary for the remainder of the book. Topics covered include tensor algebra, Euclidean and symplectic vector spaces, differential manifolds, and absolute differential calculus. The second part of the book applies these topics to kinematics, rigid body dynamics, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, Hamilton–Jacobi theory, completely integrable systems, statistical mechanics of equilibrium, and impulsive dyna...

  1. Mechanical Systems, Classical Models

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2009-01-01

    This third volume completes the Work Mechanical Systems, Classical Models. The first two volumes dealt with particle dynamics and with discrete and continuous mechanical systems. The present volume studies analytical mechanics. Topics like Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, the Hamilton-Jacobi method, and a study of systems with separate variables are thoroughly discussed. Also included are variational principles and canonical transformations, integral invariants and exterior differential calculus, and particular attention is given to non-holonomic mechanical systems. The author explains in detail all important aspects of the science of mechanics, regarded as a natural science, and shows how they are useful in understanding important natural phenomena and solving problems of interest in applied and engineering sciences. Professor Teodorescu has spent more than fifty years as a Professor of Mechanics at the University of Bucharest and this book relies on the extensive literature on the subject as well as th...

  2. Quantum models of classical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hájíček, P

    2015-01-01

    Quantum statistical methods that are commonly used for the derivation of classical thermodynamic properties are extended to classical mechanical properties. The usual assumption that every real motion of a classical mechanical system is represented by a sharp trajectory is not testable and is replaced by a class of fuzzy models, the so-called maximum entropy (ME) packets. The fuzzier are the compared classical and quantum ME packets, the better seems to be the match between their dynamical trajectories. Classical and quantum models of a stiff rod will be constructed to illustrate the resulting unified quantum theory of thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (paper)

  3. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  4. Effect of hyperthermia on radiation damage and its repair in Tribolium confusum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.K.

    1977-01-01

    A series of temperature tolerance curves from 43.5 0 C to 46.0 0 C in 0.5 0 C increment were determined. Two non-lethal hyperthermia schemes, i.e., 45.0 0 C for 2 hr and 43.0 0 C for 2 hr were chosen to examine the sensitizing effect of heat on lethality produced by radiation in flour beetles. When hyperthermia was applied either immediately before or after irradiation, the sensitizing effect of hyperthermia was indicated by the shifting of the regression line of survival in probits on dose to the left of that of the control. The sensitizing effect as measured by decreased LD 50 did not reveal any definite trend related to the order of application of the two modalities in immediate sequence. The effect of hyperthermia was more dramatic in dose-fractionation experiments. Flour beetles exhibited typical Elkind kinetics of split-dose repair and recovery, and the amount of the sparing effect of dose-fractionation (sdf) was influenced by interfraction temperature. Both interfraction hypothermia (i.e., less than or equal to 10 0 C) and interfraction hyperthermia (i.e., > 42.0 0 C) completely suppress sdf. However, the mechanism involved in the suppression of sdf by hypothermia was different than that by hyperthermia. In the former, the suppression of sdf was reversible immediately upon return to the normal incubation temperature of 30 0 C; in the latter, the suppression of sdf was protracted and the reversibility of sdf depended on the severity of the hyperthermia treatment. Hyperthermia of 43.0 0 C for 2 hr, applied either immediately before or after the first radiation dose, suppressed sdf for 6-10 hr, and then sdf reappeared slowly, so that the final level of survival was slightly less than that of the comparable groups maintained at 30 0 C. With the more severe hyperthermia treatment of 45.0 0 C for 2 hr, sdf was suppressed for almost 36 hr after return to 30 0 C although there were some slight surges in survival

  5. Sustainable business models and the automotive industry: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wells

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary reviews the position articulated in an article published in 2004 that the business model prevalent in the automotive industry was inadequate to meeting the challenge of sustainability, and reviews the key developments since then. The most noticeable developments the commentary traces are the growth in academic interest in business models, a more responsive government policy particularly in respect of new technologies, and the practical application of the concepts and ideas mooted in the original paper, notably with respect to electric vehicles.

  6. Response to Commentaries on Bystander Training as Leadership Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jackson

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the author responds to three commentaries about his article "Bystander Training as Leadership Training: Notes on the Origins, Philosophy, and Pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention Model," published in this volume. Topics covered in the commentaries and response include questions about evaluation and evidence for program effectiveness; the necessity for gender violence prevention education to be gender transformative and part of a comprehensive, multilevel prevention approach, especially for adolescents; and the degree to which Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP), as a "social justice"-oriented program, incorporates intersectional and anti-oppression frameworks and perspectives.

  7. Avoiding mandatory hospital nurse staffing ratios: an economic commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerhaus, Peter I

    2009-01-01

    The imposition of mandatory hospital nurse staffing ratios is among the more visible public policy initiatives affecting the nursing profession. Although the practice is intended to address problems in hospital nurse staffing and quality of patient care, this commentary argues that staffing ratios will lead to negative consequences for nurses involving the equity, efficiency, and costs of producing nursing care in hospitals. Rather than spend time and effort attempting to regulate nurse staffing, this commentary offers alternatives strategies that are directed at fixing the problems that motivate the advocates of staffing ratios.

  8. nNOS inhibitors attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity but not hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Y; Martin, J L; Ail, S F

    2000-09-11

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is associated with hyperthermia. We investigated the effect of several neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors on METH-induced hyperthermia and striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Administration of METH (5 mg/kg; q. 3 h x 3) to Swiss Webster mice produced marked hyperthermia and 50-60% depletion of striatal dopaminergic markers 72 h after METH administration. Pretreatment with the nNOS inhibitors S-methylthiocitrulline (SMTC; 10 mg/kg) or 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3-Br-7-NI; 20 mg/kg) before each METH injection did not affect the persistent hyperthermia produced by METH, but afforded protection against the depletion of dopaminergic markers. A low dose (25 mg/kg) of the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) did not affect METH-induced hyperthermia, but a high dose (50 mg/kg) produced significant hypothermia. These findings indicate that low dose of selective nNOS inhibitors protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity with no effect on body temperature and support the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite have a major role in METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  9. The effect of hypofractionated radiation and magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia on tumor immunogenicity and overall treatment response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. Jack; Wagner, Robert J.; Song, Ailin; Osterberg, Bjorn; Gladstone, David J.; Bursey, Alicea A.; Fiering, Steven N.; Giustini, Andrew J.

    2017-02-01

    It is now known that many tumors develop molecular signals (immune checkpoint modulators) that inhibit an effective tumor immune response. New information also suggest that even well-known cancer treatment modalities such as radiation and hyperthermia generate potentially beneficial immune responses that have been blocked or mitigated by such immune checkpoints, or similar molecules. The cancer therapy challenge is to; a) identify these treatment-based immune signals (proteins, antigens, etc.); b) the treatment doses or regimens that produce them; and c) the mechanisms that block or have the potential to promote them. The goal of this preliminary study, using the B6 mouse - B16 tumor model, clinically relevant radiation doses and fractionation schemes (including those used clinically in hypofractionated radiation therapy), magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia (mNPH) and sophisticated protein, immune and tumor growth analysis techniques and modulators, is to determine the effect of specific radiation or hyperthermia alone and combined on overall treatment efficacy and immunologic response mechanisms. Preliminary analysis suggests that radiation dose (10 Gy vs. 2 Gy) significantly alters the mechanism of cell death (apoptosis vs. mitosis vs. necrosis) and the resulting immunogenicity. Our hypothesis and data suggest this difference is protein/antigen and immune recognition-based. Similarly, our evidence suggest that radiation doses larger than the conventional 2 Gy dose and specific hyperthermia doses and techniques (including mNP hyperthermia treatment) can be immunologically different, and potentially superior to, the radiation and heat therapy regimens that are typically used in research and clinical practice.

  10. Effect of hypothermia on cell kinetics and response to hyperthermia and x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Rijn, J.; van den Berg, J.; Kipp, J.B.A.; Schamhart, D.H.J.; van Wijk, R.

    1985-01-01

    Hyperthermia is a potent radio enhancer. Studies using hypothermia in combination with irradiation have given confusing results due to lack of uniformity in experimental design. This report shows that hypothermia might have potential significance in the treatment of malignant cells with both thermo- and radiotherapy. Reuber H35 hepatoma cells, clone KRC-7 were used to study the effect of hypothermia on cell kinetics and subsequent response to hyperthermia and/or X rays. Cells were incubated at 8.5 0 C or between 25 and 37 0 C for 24 hr prior to hyperthermia or irradiation. Hypothermia caused sensitization to both hyperthermia and X rays. In contrast to the effect of hypothermia on either hyperthermia or X rays alone, thermal radiosensitization was decreased in hypothermically pretreated cells (24 hr at 25 0 C) compared to control cells (37 0 C). The expression of thermotolerance and the rate of development at 37 0 C after an initial heating at 42.5 0 C were not influenced after preincubation at 25 0 C for 24 hr. The expression of thermotolerance for heat or heat plus X rays during incubation at 41 0 C occurred in a significantly smaller number of cells after 24 hr preincubation at 25 0 C. The enhanced thermo- and radiosensitivity in hypothermically treated cells disappeared in approximately 6 hr after return to 37 0 C

  11. Simultaneous hyperthermia and doxorubicin delivery from polymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, G.R., E-mail: iglesias@ugr.es [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Delgado, A.V.; González-Caballero, F. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain); Ramos-Tejada, M.M. [Department of Physics, University of Jaén, Linares 23700 (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the hyperthermia response, (i.e., heating induced by an externally applied alternating magnetic field) and the simultaneous release of an anti-cancer drug (doxorubicin) by polymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles have been investigated. After describing the setup for hyperthermia measurements in suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles, the hyperthermia (represented by the rate of suspension heating and, ultimately, by the specific absorption rate or SAR) of magnetite nanoparticles (both bare and polymer-coated as drug nanocarriers) is discussed. The effect of the applied ac magnetic field on doxorubicin release is also studied, and it is concluded that the field does not interfere with the release process, demonstrating the double functionality of the investigated particles. - Highlights: • Magnetite NPs coated with polymers are used for drug delivery and hyperthermia. • The SAR of polyelectrolyte-coated NPs is larger because of their improved stability. • The antitumor drug doxorubicin is adsorbed on the coated particles. • The release rate of the drug is not affected by the ac magnetic field used in hyperthermia.

  12. Contributions of different modes of TRPV1 activation to TRPV1 antagonist-induced hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garami, Andras; Shimansky, Yury P; Pakai, Eszter; Oliveira, Daniela L; Gavva, Narender R; Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2010-01-27

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) antagonists are widely viewed as next-generation pain therapeutics. However, these compounds cause hyperthermia, a serious side effect. TRPV1 antagonists differentially block three modes of TRPV1 activation: by heat, protons, and chemical ligands (e.g., capsaicin). We asked what combination of potencies in these three modes of TRPV1 activation corresponds to the lowest potency of a TRPV1 antagonist to cause hyperthermia. We studied hyperthermic responses of rats, mice, and guinea pigs to eight TRPV1 antagonists with different pharmacological profiles and used mathematical modeling to find a relative contribution of the blockade of each activation mode to the development of hyperthermia. We found that the hyperthermic effect has the highest sensitivity to the extent of TRPV1 blockade in the proton mode (0.43 to 0.65) with no to moderate sensitivity in the capsaicin mode (-0.01 to 0.34) and no sensitivity in the heat mode (0.00 to 0.01). We conclude that hyperthermia-free TRPV1 antagonists do not block TRPV1 activation by protons, even if they are potent blockers of the heat mode, and that decreasing the potency to block the capsaicin mode may further decrease the potency to cause hyperthermia.

  13. Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics for hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretcanu, O.; Verne, E.; Coeisson, M.; Tiberto, P.; Allia, P.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic materials play a key-role in magnetic induction hyperthermia for the treatment of cancer. In this paper, we analyse the magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics with the composition in the system SiO 2 -Na 2 O-CaO-P 2 O 5 -FeO-Fe 2 O 3 , as a function of the melting temperature. These materials were obtained by melting of commercial reagents in the temperature range of 1400-1550 o C. Room-temperature magnetic measurements were performed by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The power loss was determined from calorimetric measurements, using a magnetic induction furnace. The highest power loss (61 W/g) has been obtained for samples melted at 1500 o C. The heat generation of the ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics prepared by two different synthesis methods (traditional melting and coprecipitation-derived) will be compared. These materials are expected to be useful in the localised treatment of cancer

  14. JSA guideline for the management of malignant hyperthermia crisis 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) can be fatal if the crisis is not appropriately treated. It is an inherited disease usually triggered by the administration of volatile inhalational anesthetics and/or succinylcholine, a muscle relaxant. In a patient with suspected MH, the mechanism of calcium release from storage in the sarcoplasmic reticulum in the skeletal muscle is abnormally accelerated. Unexplained hypercarbia representing >55 mmHg of end-tidal carbon dioxide, tachycardia, and muscle rigidity (including masseter muscle rigidity) are early signs of the initiation of MH, because the metabolism is accelerated. The body temperature can rise by >0.5 °C/15 min and may reach ≥40 °C. Respiratory and metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, cola-colored urine, increased levels of serum potassium, and tented T-waves on electrocardiogram are common and can lead to cardiac arrest. MH should be treated by discontinuation of the triggering agents, administration of intravenous dantrolene (initially 1 mg/kg), and reduction of the body temperature. Early diagnosis and sufficient dantrolene with body temperature reduction are essential to relieve the patient's MH crisis. This guideline in Japanese translation has been posted on the website: http://www.anesth.or.jp/guide/pdf/guideline_akuseikounetsu.pdf .

  15. Multiple whole body hyperthermia treatments on normal beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, B.J.; Gillette, E.L.; Tucker, A.; Robertshaw, D.; Benjamin, S.A.; Macy, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Twelve young adult male castrated beagles were randomized into either a treatment or a control group. The treatment group received 4 consecutive treatments at 1 week intertreatment intervals. A temperature and humidity controlled chamber was used to raise the core temperature to 42 0 C. Time required to raise the core temperature from 38 0 C to 42 0 C was approximately 70 minutes. Dogs were maintained at 42 0 C breathing halothane, 35% O/sub 2/ and 65 0 N/sub 2/ for 2 hours, followed by a 30 minute cool down period during which a shunt determination using 100% O/sub 2/ was done. No significant changes in temperature adjusted blood oxygen tension were noted during hyperthermia. Mean arterial blood pressure dropped an average of 15mm Hg during the 2 hour plateau. Cardiac rhythms remained stable and rates did not exceed 180 beats per minute. Central venous pressure remained stable and within normal range without treatment, 1.0 - 2.5 mm Hg. Dogs regained alertness and ambulation within 3 hours post treatment. No diarrhea was noted. The most significant acute changes appeared to be liver enzyme elevation, total protein decrement and transient changes in platelet and white blood cell counts

  16. Deep local and regional hyperthermia with annular phased array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, S.; Omagari, J.; Hata, K.

    1989-01-01

    33 refractory tumors mainly located in the pelvic cavity after definitive treatment were treated by loco-regional hyperthermia alone (n = 11) or by heat in combination with radiotherapy (n = 22) by annular phased array (APA) manufactured by BSD Corp. Tumors were heated up to more than 42 0 C in 78% of 347 total heat sessions with induction time 22 ± 1 (S.D.) minutes during which those of intra-pelvic organs were elevated up to between 41 and 42 0 C. Tumor response was CR 18%, PR 50% by heat (11.2 ± 1.5 S.D. fractions) combined with radiotherapy (43.8 ± 12.5 S.D. Gy) and by heat alone (8.6 ± 1.3 S.D. fractions) CR 18%, PR 9%. In all heat sessions superficial pain 36%, skin burn (grade 1-2) 12% inside annular array and slight to moderate systemic heat stress 100% were the main adverse reactions we experienced. (orig.)

  17. TU-EF-210-02: MRg Hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, R.

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare

  18. TU-EF-210-02: MRg Hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, R. [UT Southwestern Medical Ctr at Dallas (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  19. Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with a Thermosensitive Polymer with Hyperthermia Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa Reyes-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been widely used to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, largely through passive accumulation provided by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Their incorporation into biopolymer coatings enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive, biocompatible nanoparticles that are well dispersed in aqueous media. Here we describe a synthetic route to prepare functionalized, stable magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs coated with a temperature-responsive polymer, by means of the hydrothermal method combined with an oil/water (o/w emulsion process. The effects of both pH and temperature on the electrophoretic mobility and surface charge of these MNPs are investigated. The magnetite/polymer composition of these systems is detected by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and quantified by thermogravimetric analysis. The therapeutic possibilities of the designed nanostructures as effective heating agents for magnetic hyperthermia are demonstrated, and specific absorption rates as high as 150 W/g, with 20 mT magnetic field and 205 kHz frequency, are obtained. This magnetic heating response could provide a promising nanoparticle system for combined diagnostics and cancer therapy.

  20. Whole body thermal model of man during hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charny, C.K.; Hagmann, M.J.; Levin, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A whole body thermal model of man has been developed to predict the changes in regional temperatures and blood flows during hyperthermia treatments with the miniannular phased array (MAPA) and annular phased array (APA) applicators. A model of the thermoregulatory response to regional heating based on the experimental and numerical studies of others has been incorporated into this study. Experimentally obtained energy deposition patterns within a human leg exposed to the MAPA were input into the model and the results were compared to those based upon a theoretical deposition pattern. Exposure of the abdomen to the APA was modeled with and without the aberrant energy deposition that has been described previously. Results of the model reveal that therapeutic heating (>42 0 C) of extremity soft tissue sarcomas is possible without significant systemic heating. Very high bone temperatures (>50 0 C) were obtained when the experimental absorption pattern was used. Calculations show that systemic heating due to APA exposure is reduced via evaporative spray cooling techniques coupled with high-velocity ambient air flow

  1. Hyperthermia - its actual role in radiation oncology. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.; Molls, M.

    1993-01-01

    This overview summarizes the most important clinical fundamentals to implement combined hyperthermia (HT) and radiotherapy (RT) in clinical trials and reviews clinical HT-RT data obtained in superficial and medium depth tumors treated with external heating devices. In the first part we discuss the following clinical fundamentals: selection of appropriate clinical sites for HT-RT studies, selection of suitable HT-devices, principle design of clinical HT-RT studies, requirements for treatment prescription, relevant treatment endpoints, definition and assessment of a thermal enhancement ratio (TER) and therapeutic gain factor (TGF), impact of prognostic parameters on treatment stratification and statistical evaluation. In the second part we review and discuss clinical results of thermoradiotherapy (HT-RT) for advanced breast carcinoma, recurrent breast cancer, advanced head and neck tumors, cervical neck node metastases, malignant melanomas and residual microscopic disease. In addition, clinical results of pilot studies are reviewed, which have applied a triple modality approach of thermo-radiochemotherapy (HRC) for various tumors. Finally, possible future perspectives of clinical HT-RT research are outlined. (orig.) [de

  2. Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity

  3. Efficiency of lipofection combined with hyperthermia in Lewis lung carcinoma cells and a rodent pleural dissemination model of lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Atsushi; Mushiake, Hiroyuki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Aoe, Motoi; Murakami, Masakazu; Andou, Akio; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2004-06-01

    We have previously reported that hyperthermia at 41 degrees C enhanced lipofection-mediated gene transduction into cultured cells. In this study, we adapted hyperthermia technique to novel cationic liposome (Lipofectamine 2000) mediated gene transfection into Lewis lung carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, transfection efficiencies were 38.9+/-3.3% by lipofection alone and 52.1+/-2.6% by lipofection with hyperthermia for 30 min, and 62.5+/-5.5% and 81.4+/-3.2% for 1 h, respectively. Hyperthermia significantly enhanced gene transfection efficiency 1.2-1.4 times more than that with lipofection only. We also evaluated the effect of hyperthermia with a pleural dissemination model of lung carcinoma of mice. We developed a model which was well-tolerated with hyperthermia with lipofection by the mice. In spite of repeated treatments, transfection efficiencies were very low and we could not show the augmentation of gene transfection by hyperthermia. Though Lipofectamine 2000 showed strong gene transduction effect and hyperthermia augmented its effect in vitro, further evaluation is needed to adapt both techniques in vivo.

  4. Gender differences in hyperthermia and regional 5-HT and 5-HIAA depletion in the brain following MDMA administration in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Alinde E.; Grahlmann, Carolin; Granneman, Ramon A.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Buwalda, Bauke

    2011-01-01

    In the present research the role of gender in MDMA-induced hyperthermia and serotonin depletion is studied by injecting male and female male rats with MDMA or saline 3 times (i.p.) with 3 h interval at dosages of 0.3, 1, 3 or 9 mg/kg at an ambient temperature of 25 degrees C. The acute hyperthermia

  5. Cell biological effects of hyperthermia alone or combined with radiation or drugs : A short introduction to newcomers in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampinga, HH

    Hyperthermia results in protein unfolding that, if not properly chaperoned by Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), can lead to irreversible and toxic protein aggregates. Elevating HSP prior to heating makes cells thermotolerant. Hyperthermia also can enhance the sensitivity of cells to radiation and drugs.

  6. Classical competing risks

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, Martin J

    2001-01-01

    If something can fail, it can often fail in one of several ways and sometimes in more than one way at a time. There is always some cause of failure, and almost always, more than one possible cause. In one sense, then, survival analysis is a lost cause. The methods of Competing Risks have often been neglected in the survival analysis literature. Written by a leading statistician, Classical Competing Risks thoroughly examines the probability framework and statistical analysis of data of Competing Risks. The author explores both the theory of the subject and the practicalities of fitting the models to data. In a coherent, self-contained, and sequential account, the treatment moves from the bare bones of the Competing Risks setup and the associated likelihood functions through survival analysis using hazard functions. It examines discrete failure times and the difficulties of identifiability, and concludes with an introduction to the counting-process approach and the associated martingale theory.With a dearth of ...

  7. Classical Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Grafakos, Loukas

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this text is to present the theoretical foundation of the field of Fourier analysis on Euclidean spaces. It covers classical topics such as interpolation, Fourier series, the Fourier transform, maximal functions, singular integrals, and Littlewood–Paley theory. The primary readership is intended to be graduate students in mathematics with the prerequisite including satisfactory completion of courses in real and complex variables. The coverage of topics and exposition style are designed to leave no gaps in understanding and stimulate further study. This third edition includes new Sections 3.5, 4.4, 4.5 as well as a new chapter on “Weighted Inequalities,” which has been moved from GTM 250, 2nd Edition. Appendices I and B.9 are also new to this edition.  Countless corrections and improvements have been made to the material from the second edition. Additions and improvements include: more examples and applications, new and more relevant hints for the existing exercises, new exercises, and...

  8. Classical tokamak transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Aldo

    1982-01-01

    A qualitative treatment of the classical transport theory of a magnetically confined, toroidal, axisymmetric, two-species plasma is presented. The 'weakly collisional' ('banana' and 'plateau') and 'collision dominated' ('Pfirsch-Schlueter' and 'highly collisional') regimes, as well as the Ware effect are discussed. The method used to evaluate the diffusion coffieicnts of particles and heat in the weakly collisional regime is based on stochastic argument, that requires an analysis of the characteristic collision frequencies and lengths for particles moving in a tokamak-like magnetic field. The same method is used to evaluate the Ware effect. In the collision dominated regime on the other hand, the particle and heat fluxes across the magnetic field lines are dominated by macroscopic effects so that, although it is possible to present them as diffusion (in fact, the fluxes turn out to be proportional to the density and temperature gradients), a macroscopic treatment is more appropriate. Hence, fluid equations are used to inveatigate the collision dominated regime, to which particular attention is devoted, having been shown relatively recently that it is more complicated than the usual Pfirsch-Schlueter regime. The whole analysis presented here is qualitative, aiming to point out the relevant physical mechanisms involved in the various regimes more than to develop a rigorous mathematical derivation of the diffusion coefficients, for which appropriate references are given. (author)

  9. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  10. Effects of hyperthermia on radiation-induced chromosome breakage and loss in excision repair deficient Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittler, S.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperthermia increased radiosensitivity with respect to γ-ray induced chromosome loss and breakage in all stages of spermatogenesis in the wild type Oregon R strain of Drosophila melanogaster, whereas hyperthermia increased radiosensitivity to a lesser extent in cn mus(2) 201sup(D1), an excision repair mutant with 0 per cent excision capacity and in mus(3) 308sup(D1), a strain with 24 per cent excision capacity. The differences in hyperthermia-induced radiation sensitivity between the excision repair mutants and the wild strain may be due to the hyperthermia affecting the excision repair mechanism, suggesting that one of the possible mechanisms involved in hyperthermia-increased radiosensitivity is an effect on excision repair. (author)

  11. Quantum symmetries of classical spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, Jyotishman; Goswami, Debashish; Roy, Subrata Shyam

    2009-01-01

    We give a general scheme for constructing faithful actions of genuine (noncommutative as $C^*$ algebra) compact quantum groups on classical topological spaces. Using this, we show that: (i) a compact connected classical space can have a faithful action by a genuine compact quantum group, and (ii) there exists a spectral triple on a classical connected compact space for which the quantum group of orientation and volume preserving isometries (in the sense of \\cite{qorient}) is a genuine quantum...

  12. Dynamics of unitarization by classicalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Pirtskhalava, David

    2011-01-01

    We study dynamics of the classicalization phenomenon suggested in G. Dvali et al. , according to which a class of non-renormalizable theories self-unitarizes at very high-energies via creation of classical configurations (classicalons). We study this phenomenon in an explicit model of derivatively-self-coupled scalar that serves as a prototype for a Nambu-Goldstone-Stueckelberg field. We prepare the initial state in form of a collapsing wave-packet of a small occupation number but of very high energy, and observe that the classical configuration indeed develops. Our results confirm the previous estimates, showing that because of self-sourcing the wave-packet forms a classicalon configuration with radius that increases with center of mass energy. Thus, classicalization takes place before the waves get any chance of probing short-distances. The self-sourcing by energy is the crucial point, which makes classicalization phenomenon different from the ordinary dispersion of the wave-packets in other interacting theories. Thanks to this, unlike solitons or other non-perturbative objects, the production of classicalons is not only unsuppressed, but in fact dominates the high-energy scattering. In order to make the difference between classicalizing and non-classicalizing theories clear, we use a language in which the scattering cross section in a generic theory can be universally understood as a geometric cross section set by a classical radius down to which waves can propagate freely, before being scattered. We then show, that in non-classicalizing examples this radius shrinks with increasing energy and becomes microscopic, whereas in classicalizing theories expands and becomes macroscopic. We study analogous scattering in a Galileon system and discover that classicalization also takes place there, although somewhat differently. We thus observe, that classicalization is source-sensitive and that Goldstones pass the first test.

  13. Dose concept of oncological hyperthermia: Heat-equation considering the cell destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We shall assume, of course, that the objective of hyperthermia is to destroy the malignant cells. Destruction definitely needs energy. Description and quality assurance of hyperthermia use the Pennes heat equation to describe the processes. However the energy balance of the Pennes-equation does not contain the hyperthermic cell-destruction energy, which is a mandatory factor of the process. We propose a generalization of the Pennes-equation, inducing the entire energy balance. The new paradigm could be a theoretical basis of the till now empirical dose-construction for oncological hyperthermia. The cell destruction is a non-equilibrium thermodynamical process, described by the equations of chemical reactions. The dynamic behavior (time dependence has to be considered in this approach. We are going to define also a dose concept that can be objectively compared with other oncological methods. We show how such empirical dose as CEM43oC could be based theoretically as well.

  14. An induction heating device using planar coil with high amplitude alternating magnetic fields for magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuhe; Zhuo, Zihang; Cai, Dongyang; Wu, Jian'an; Wang, Jie; Tang, Jintian

    2015-01-01

    Induction heating devices using the induction coil and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are the way that the magnetic hyperthermia is heading. To facilitate the induction heating of in vivo magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia experiments on large animals. An induction heating device using a planar coil was designed with a magnetic field frequency of 328 kHz. The coil's magnetic field distribution and the device's induction heating performance on different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were measured. The alternating magnetic field produced in the axis position 165 mm away from the coil center is 40 Gs in amplitude; magnetic nanoparticles with a concentration higher than 80 mg. mL-1 can be heated up rapidly. Our results demonstrate that the device can be applied not only to in vitro and in small animal experiments of magnetic hyperthermia using MNPs, but also in large animal experiments.

  15. A case report of suspected malignant hyperthermia where patient survived the episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif; Badoo, Shoaib; Naqeeb, Ruqsana

    2017-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia is rare inherited disorder in our part of the world; there are only few cases reported in literature in India who were suspected of having this condition. The overall incidence of malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia is estimated to range from 1: 5000 to 1: 50,000-100,000 and mortality rate is estimated to be <5% in the presence of standard care. In India, there is no center where in vitro halothane caffeine contraction test is performed to confirm diagnosis in suspected cases. Second, dantrolene drug of choice for this condition is not freely available in market in India and is stored only in some hospitals in few major cities. Among the cases reported of suspected of malignant hyperthermia in India almost 50% have survived the condition despite nonavailability of dantrolene emphasizing role of early detection and aggressive management in these cases.

  16. A case report of suspected malignant hyperthermia where patient survived the episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia is rare inherited disorder in our part of the world; there are only few cases reported in literature in India who were suspected of having this condition. The overall incidence of malignant hyperthermia during general anesthesia is estimated to range from 1: 5000 to 1: 50,000–100,000 and mortality rate is estimated to be <5% in the presence of standard care. In India, there is no center where in vitro halothane caffeine contraction test is performed to confirm diagnosis in suspected cases. Second, dantrolene drug of choice for this condition is not freely available in market in India and is stored only in some hospitals in few major cities. Among the cases reported of suspected of malignant hyperthermia in India almost 50% have survived the condition despite nonavailability of dantrolene emphasizing role of early detection and aggressive management in these cases.

  17. The classic: Bone morphogenetic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urist, Marshall R; Strates, Basil S

    2009-12-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Marshall R. Urist and Basil S. Strates, Bone Morphogenetic Protein. An accompanying biographical sketch of Marshall R. Urist, MD is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1067-4; a second Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1069-2; and a third Classic Article is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-1070-9. The Classic Article is copyright 1971 by Sage Publications Inc. Journals and is reprinted with permission from Urist MR, Strates BS. Bone morphogenetic protein. J Dent Res. 1971;50:1392-1406.

  18. An experimental study on the alteration of thermal enhancement ratio by combination of split dose hyperthermia irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Ok; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womens University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the alteration of thermal enhancement ratio as a function of time intervals between two split dose hyperthermias followed by irradiation. For the experiments, 330 mice were divided into 3 groups; the first, 72 mice were used to evaluate the heat reaction by single dose hyperthermia and heat resistance by split dose hyperthermia, the second, 36 mice were used to evaluate the radiation reaction by irradiation only, and the third, 222 mice were used for TER observation by combination of single dose hyperthermia and irradiation, and TER alteration by combination of split dose hyperthermia and irradiation. For each group the skin reaction score of mouse tail was used for observation and evaluation of the result of heat and irradiation. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The heating time resulting 50% necrosis (ND{sub 5}0) Was 101 minutes in 43 .deg. C and 24 minutes in 45 .deg. C hyperthermia, which indicated that three is reciprocal proportion between temperature and heating time. 2. Development of heat resistance was observed by split dose hyperthermia. 3. The degree of skin reaction by irradiation only was increased proportionally as a function of radiation dose, and calculated radiation dose corresponding to skin score 1.5 (D{sub 1}.5) was 4,137 rads. 4. Obtained thermal enhancement ratio by combination of single dose hyperthermia and irradiation was increased proportionally as a function of heating time. 5. Thermal enhancement ratio was decreased by combination of split dose hyperthermia and irradiation, which was less intense and lasted longer than development of heat resistance. In summary, these studies indicate that the alteration of thermal enhancement ratio has influence on heat resistance by split dose hyperthermia and irradiation.

  19. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding

  20. A Classic Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    M51, whose name comes from being the 51st entry in Charles Messier's catalog, is considered to be one of the classic examples of a spiral galaxy. At a distance of about 30 million light-years from Earth, it is also one of the brightest spirals in the night sky. A composite image of M51, also known as the Whirlpool Galaxy, shows the majesty of its structure in a dramatic new way through several of NASA's orbiting observatories. X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals point-like sources (purple) that are black holes and neutron stars in binary star systems. Chandra also detects a diffuse glow of hot gas that permeates the space between the stars. Optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope (green) and infrared emission from the Spitzer Space Telescope (red) both highlight long lanes in the spiral arms that consist of stars and gas laced with dust. A view of M51 with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer telescope shows hot, young stars that produce lots of ultraviolet energy (blue). The textbook spiral structure is thought be the result of an interaction M51 is experiencing with its close galactic neighbor, NGC 5195, which is seen just above. Some simulations suggest M51's sharp spiral shape was partially caused when NGC 5195 passed through its main disk about 500 million years ago. This gravitational tug of war may also have triggered an increased level of star formation in M51. The companion galaxy's pull would be inducing extra starbirth by compressing gas, jump-starting the process by which stars form.

  1. Methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia and dopaminergic neurotoxicity in mice: pharmacological profile of protective and nonprotective agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, D S; Sonsalla, P K

    1995-12-01

    Neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine (METH) can cause hyperthermia in experimental animals. Damage sustained to dopaminergic nerve terminals by this stimulant can be reduced by environmental cooling or by pharmacological manipulation which attenuates the hyperthermia. Many pharmacological agents with very diverse actions protect against METH-induced neuropathology. Several of these compounds, as well as drugs which do not protect, were investigated to determine if there was a relationship between protection and METH-induced hyperthermia. Mice received METH with or without concurrent administration of other drugs and core (i.e., colonic) temperature was monitored during treatment. The animals were sacrificed > or = 5 days later and neostriatal tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine were measured. Core temperature was significantly elevated (> or = 2 degrees C) in mice treated with doses of METH which produced > or = 90% losses in striatal dopamine but not in mice less severally affected (only 50% loss of dopamine). Concurrent treatment of mice with METH and pharmacological agents which protected partially or completely from METH-induced toxicity also prevented the hyperthermic response (i.e., dopamine receptor antagonists, fenfluramine, dizocilpine, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, phenytoin, aminooxyacetic acid and propranol). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the hyperthermia produced by METH contributes to its neuropathology. However, studies with reserpine, a compound which dramatically lowers core temperature, demonstrated that hyperthermia per se is not a requirement for METH-induced neurotoxicity. Although core temperature was elevated in reserpinized mice treated with METH as compared with reserpinized control mice, their temperatures remained significantly lower than in nonreserpinized control mice. However, the hypothermic state produced in the reserpinized mice did not provide protection from METH-induced toxicity. These data demonstrate

  2. Commentary--Culture and Attachment during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Culture has an important impact on attachment. This commentary highlights three aspects about culture and attachment in middle childhood: (1) the need to have a more sophisticated consideration of the implication of cultural values, (2) the need to incorporate the role of societal or political ecological contexts, and (3) the need to solve the…

  3. A Commentary on Literacy Narratives as Sponsors of Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This brief commentary first clarifies Brandt's concept of sponsors of literacy in light of the way the concept has been taken up in writing studies. Then it treats Brandt's methods for handling accounts of literacy learning in comparison with other ways of analyzing biographical material. Finally it takes up Lawrence's argument about literacy…

  4. Commentary: Using Potential Outcomes to Understand Causal Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Kosuke; Jo, Booil; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    In this commentary, we demonstrate how the potential outcomes framework can help understand the key identification assumptions underlying causal mediation analysis. We show that this framework can lead to the development of alternative research design and statistical analysis strategies applicable to the longitudinal data settings considered by…

  5. A Vygotskian Commentary on the Reggio Emilia Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jake E.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a commentary on the Reggio Emilia approach from a Vygotskian perspective. In particular, the article considers how Vygotskian rationalism and Vygotsky's theory of concept development cohere with the Reggio Emilia approach. The article argues that these aspects of Vygotskian theory are applicable to, and can strengthen the…

  6. Multiple perspectives on lexical word production [Reply to commentaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.J.M.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Meyer, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    The commentaries provide a multitude of perspectives on the theory of lexical access presented in our target aticle. We respond on the one hand to criticisms that concern the embeddings of our model in the larger theoretical frameworks of human performance and of a speaker's multiword sentence and

  7. Behavioral Theory and Culture Special Issue: Authors' Response to Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the authors' response to commentaries that focus on the "Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening" (3Cs) study. The 3Cs study had an unremarkable beginning, with two colleagues discussing their frustration over the narrow range of behavioral theories and the limited guidance the theories offered for a study…

  8. Commentary: PhDs in biochemistry education-5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Erika G; Momsen, Jennifer L; Osgood, Marcy

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the discussion of PhDs in biochemistry education research is expanded to explore a number of diverse pathways leading to a competitive research program in biochemistry education research. © 2013 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. RTI Confusion in the Case Law and the Legal Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article expresses the position that the current legal commentary and cases do not sufficiently differentiate response to intervention (RTI) from the various forms of general education interventions that preceded it, thus compounding confusion in professional practice as to legally defensible procedures for identifying children as having a…

  10. Praxial Music education: A Critical Analysis of Critical Commentaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Marissa; Davis, Susan A.; Elliott, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Since its publication in 1995, a significant literature has developed around David J. Elliott's praxial philosophy of music education, as explained in "Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education." This literature includes a range of commentaries in journals, books, edited books, and dissertations. Although Elliott has…

  11. Invited commentary … On poverty, politics and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Glenys; McCrone, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Associations between deprivation and mental health have long been known. This commentary discusses recent work examining this in relation to the uptake, delivery and outcomes of psychological therapies in England. These associations are complex but it is clear that implementation of evidence-based interventions should consider area-level characteristics. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Improving the image of student-recruited samples : a commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demerouti, E.; Rispens, S.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary argues that the quality and usefulness of student-recruited data can be evaluated by examining the external validity and generalization issues related to this sampling method. Therefore, we discuss how the sampling methods of student- and non-student-recruited samples can enhance or

  13. Commentary to Adam Oliver's 'Incentivising improvements in health care delivery'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The commentary discusses key issues for assessment of performance management within health care. It supports the ambition to develop more realistic understandings of performance management based on insights from behavioral economics as suggested by Adam Oliver. However, it also points to several ...

  14. Commentary on A General Curriculum in Mathematics for Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee on the Undergraduate Program in Mathematics, Berkeley, CA.

    This document constitutes a complete revision of the report of the same name first published in 1965. A new list of basic courses is described, consisting of Calculus I, Calculus II, Elementary Linear Algebra, Multivariable Calculus I, Linear Algebra, and Introductory Modern Algebra. Commentaries outline the content and spirit of these courses in…

  15. Kant’s Doctrine of Right. A Commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mertens

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p355 Review of: B. Sharon Byrd and Joachim Hruschka, Kant’s Doctrine of Right. A Commentary (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2010 336 p.

  16. [Detection of peranesthetic malignant hyperthermia by muscle contracture tests and NMR spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak-Reiss, G; Gascard, J P; Redouane-Bénichou, K

    1986-01-01

    To diagnose malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS), caffeine and halothane contracture tests were performed on six patients. One of them, who presented a peroperative crisis, was recognized as MHS; the five others were negative (MHN). By means of 31P-NMR spectroscopy, the muscular energetic metabolism of these patients was studied during and after moderate exercise in normal and moderate ischaemic conditions. Metabolic abnormalities appeared in the MHS patient. It must be concluded therefore that malignant hyperthermia is a latent myopathy. 31P-NMR spectroscopy appeared to be a useful non-invasive tool for screening for this affliction.

  17. Local hyperthermia and artificial hyperglycemia in combined treatment of patients with rectum cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezmen, V.A.; Illarionov, A.A.; Novokhrost, V.I.; Shilov, N.I.; Ospishchev, A.A.; Kejs, G.D.

    1990-01-01

    To study prospects of application of local hyperthermia, artificial hyperglycemia and radiotherapy in a preoperative period, 31 patients with rectum cancer were studied. The treatment included 3-hour artificial hyperglycemia first, then local SHF hyperthermia and telegamma irradiation using large-fractioned doses (ROD is 5 Gy, COD is 20 Gy). No serious side-effects were observed during the preoperative treatment period. The immediate and early results of combined treatment promise to improve the effectiveness of treatment of patients with rectum cancer. 3 refs

  18. Magnetic nanowires and hyperthermia: How geometry and material affect heat production efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Contreras, Maria F.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic hyperthermia, which refers to the production of heat by magnetic nanostructures under an alternating magnetic field (AMF), has been previously investigated with superparamagnetic nanobeads as a cancer therapy method. Magnetic nanowires (NWs) used in hyperthermia can be very promising, as it has been shown that they have a larger magnetic moment per unit of volume compared to the nanobeads. Moreover, Fe NWs proved to have a higher heating efficiency compared to Fe nanobeads, when exposed to an AMF at the same concentration [1].

  19. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    hand, lack of good high-quality accident data should not be an excuse to postpone interventions. There are many opportunities for evidence-based transport safety improvements, including measures concerning the 5 key risk factors: speed, drunk driving, not wearing motorcycle helmets, not wearing seat belts, and not using child restraints in cars, as specified in the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020. In this commentary, a number of additional measures are proposed that are not covered in the Decade of Action Plan. These new measures include separate roads or lanes for pedestrians and cyclists; helmet wearing for e-bike riders; special attention to elderly persons in public transportation; introduction of emerging collision avoidance technologies, in particular automatic emergency braking (AEB) and alcohol locks; improved truck safety focusing on the other road user (including blind spot detection technology; underride protection at the front, rear, and side; and energy-absorbing fronts); and improvements in motorcycle safety concerning protective clothing, requirements for advanced braking systems, improved visibility of motorcycles by using daytime running lights, and better guardrails.

  20. The response of human and rodent cells to hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roizin-Towle, L.; Pirro, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Inherent cellular radiosensitivity in vitro has been shown to be a good predictor of human tumor response in vivo. In contrast, the importance of the intrinsic thermosensitivity of normal and neoplastic human cells as a factor in the responsiveness of human tumors to adjuvant hyperthermia has never been analyzed systematically. A comparison of thermal sensitivity and thermo-radiosensitization in four rodent and eight human-derived cell lines was made in vitro. Arrhenius plots indicated that the rodent cells were more sensitive to heat killing than the human, and the break-point was 0.5 degrees C higher for the human than rodent cells. The relationship between thermal sensitivity and the interaction of heat with X rays at low doses was documented by thermal enhancement ratios (TER's). Cells received either a 1 hr exposure to 43 degrees C or a 20 minute treatment at 45 degrees C before exposure to 300 kVp X rays. Thermal enhancement ratios ranged from 1.0 to 2.7 for human cells heated at 43 degrees C and from 2.1 to 5.3 for heat exposures at 45 degrees C. Thermal enhancement ratios for rodent cells were generally 2 to 3 times higher than for human cells, because of the fact that the greater thermosensitivity of rodent cells results in a greater enhancement of radiation damage. Intrinsic thermosensitivity of human cells has relevance to the concept of thermal dose; intrinsic thermo-radiosensitization of a range of different tumor cells is useful in documenting the interactive effects of radiation combined with heat

  1. Quantification of the clinical synergy between hyperthermia and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crezee, Johannes; Kok, Petra; Bel, Arjan; Stalpers, Lukas; Franken, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia (HT) therapy, raising tumor temperature to 41-45℃, enhances the effect of radiotherapy (RT) in tumor tissue. Combined HT-RT treatment is successfully applied for different tumors. The sensitizing effect of HT is maximal when given simultaneously with RT, but HT is more tumor selective when given before or after RT. Our purpose was to integrate existing preclinical and clinical data into an integrated RT-HT treatment planning system (R-HTP) to predict the biological effect of different sequences of RT and HT for clinically realistic temperatures and dose distributions. We developed a prototype R-HTP system and applied this for a retrospective analysis and comparison of RT+HT with RT alone for 15 prostate cancer patients. We used the linear quadratic (LQ) model with temperature dependent parameters alpha and beta obtained from the literature. The original RT plans were used which at 70 Gy on the PTV, in 35 2 Gy fractions. HT was simulated to be given with a phased array loco-regional HT system with realistic temperature distributions optimized to achieve maximal tumor temperature while maintaining normal tissue below 45℃. For the 15 patients an average median tumor temperature of 41.6℃ was achieved. This yielded an average effective radiotherapy dose of 86.1 Gy for the combined RT+HT treatment, compared to an average effective dose of 75.9 Gy when RT was given alone. The resulting increase in local tumor control probability (TCP) varies between 10% for low risk prostate cancer patients to 40% for high risk prostate cancer patients. This form of multi-modality planning is useful to predict the enhancement of RT by HT. (author)

  2. Commentary on Malone: Who Founded Behaviorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hayne W

    2015-05-01

    Malone (The Behavior Analyst, 37, 1-12 2014) argued that the emergence of behaviorism was inevitable with or without Watson's participation, mainly because protobehavioral ideas and dissatisfaction with classical structuralism were already widespread. However, the first premise is questionable because many of the ideas Malone cited were consistent with structuralism rather than behaviorism, and even if both premises were true they would not make the emergence of behaviorism-or anything else-inevitable. Historical evidence for inevitability is always retrospective and therefore always allows the logical fallacy of "after this, therefore because of this." In the relevant real world Watson existed, he was a psychologist, he was the first to publish an article that described a "behaviorism," and he promoted his behaviorism in later works. Stories about what would have happened without Watson's participation are therefore counterfactual and this lack of historicity makes the stories fictional rather than scientific. In the real world, Watson founded behaviorism.

  3. Surrogate MRI markers for hyperthermia-induced release of doxorubicin from thermosensitive liposomes in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Michael; Willerding, Linus; Limmer, Simone; Hossann, Martin; Dietrich, Olaf; Ingrisch, Michael; Sroka, Ronald; Lindner, Lars H

    2016-09-10

    The efficacy of systemically applied, classical anti-cancer drugs is limited by insufficient selectivity to the tumor and the applicable dose is limited by side effects. Efficacy could be further improved by targeting of the drug to the tumor. Using thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) as a drug carrier, targeting is achieved by control of temperature in the target volume. In such an approach, effective local hyperthermia (40-43°C) (HT) of the tumor is considered essential but technically challenging. Thus, visualization of local heating and drug release using TSL is considered an important tool for further improvement. Visualization and feasibility of chemodosimetry by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has previously been demonstrated using TSL encapsulating both, contrast agent (CA) and doxorubicin (DOX) simultaneously in the same TSL. Dosimetry has been facilitated using T1-relaxation time change as a surrogate marker for DOX deposition in the tumor. To allow higher loading of the TSL and to simplify clinical development of new TSL formulations a new approach using a mixture of TSL either loaded with DOX or MRI-CA is suggested. This was successfully tested using phosphatidyldiglycerol-based TSL (DPPG2-TSL) in Brown Norway rats with syngeneic soft tissue sarcomas (BN175) implanted at both hind legs. After intravenous application of DOX-TSL and CA-TSL, heating of one tumor above 40°C for 1h using laser light resulted in highly selective DOX uptake. The DOX-concentration in the heated tumor tissue compared to the non-heated tumor showed an almost 10-fold increase. T1 and additional MRI surrogate parameters such as signal phase change were correlated to intratumoral DOX concentration. Visualization of DOX delivery in the sense of a chemodosimetry was demonstrated. Although phase-based MR-thermometry was affected by CA-TSL, phase information was found suitable for DOX concentration assessment. Local differences of DOX concentration in the tumors indicated the need for

  4. Classic romance in electronic arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizin M.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available this article analyses the transformation of the performing arts of classical romance in the terms of electronic sound and performance via electronic sounds arrangements. The author focuses on the problem of synthesis of electronic sound arrangements and classical romance, offering to acquire the skills of the creative process in constantly changing conditions of live performances.

  5. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired by ...

  6. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  7. Classical models for Regge trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biedenharn, L.C.; Van Dam, H.; Marmo, G.; Morandi, G.; Mukunda, N.; Samuel, J.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two classical models for particles with internal structure and which describe Regge trajectories are developed. The remarkable geometric and other properties of the two internal spaces are highlighted. It is shown that the conditions of positive time-like four-velocity and energy momentum for the classical system imply strong and physically reasonable conditions on the Regge mass-spin relationship

  8. Sum rules in classical scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, D.; Osborn, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper derives sum rules associated with the classical scattering of two particles. These sum rules are the analogs of Levinson's theorem in quantum mechanics which provides a relationship between the number of bound-state wavefunctions and the energy integral of the time delay of the scattering process. The associated classical relation is an identity involving classical time delay and an integral over the classical bound-state density. We show that equalities between the Nth-order energy moment of the classical time delay and the Nth-order energy moment of the classical bound-state density hold in both a local and a global form. Local sum rules involve the time delay defined on a finite but otherwise arbitrary coordinate space volume S and the bound-state density associated with this same region. Global sum rules are those that obtain when S is the whole coordinate space. Both the local and global sum rules are derived for potentials of arbitrary shape and for scattering in any space dimension. Finally the set of classical sum rules, together with the known quantum mechanical analogs, are shown to provide a unified method of obtaining the high-temperature expansion of the classical, respectively the quantum-mechanical, virial coefficients

  9. 'Leonard pairs' in classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhedanov, Alexei; Korovnichenko, Alyona

    2002-01-01

    Leonard pairs (LP) are matrices with the property of mutual tri-diagonality. We introduce and study a classical analogue of LP. We show that corresponding classical 'Leonard' dynamical variables satisfy non-linear relations of the AW-type with respect to Poisson brackets. (author)

  10. Quantum mechanics from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    Quantum mechanics can emerge from classical statistics. A typical quantum system describes an isolated subsystem of a classical statistical ensemble with infinitely many classical states. The state of this subsystem can be characterized by only a few probabilistic observables. Their expectation values define a density matrix if they obey a 'purity constraint'. Then all the usual laws of quantum mechanics follow, including Heisenberg's uncertainty relation, entanglement and a violation of Bell's inequalities. No concepts beyond classical statistics are needed for quantum physics - the differences are only apparent and result from the particularities of those classical statistical systems which admit a quantum mechanical description. Born's rule for quantum mechanical probabilities follows from the probability concept for a classical statistical ensemble. In particular, we show how the non-commuting properties of quantum operators are associated to the use of conditional probabilities within the classical system, and how a unitary time evolution reflects the isolation of the subsystem. As an illustration, we discuss a classical statistical implementation of a quantum computer.

  11. Classicalization of Gravitons and Goldstones

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Kehagias, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We establish a close parallel between classicalization of gravitons and derivatively-coupled Nambu-Goldstone-type scalars. We show, that black hole formation in high energy scattering process represents classicalization with the classicalization radius given by Schwarzschild radius of center of mass energy, and with the precursor of black hole entropy being given by number of soft quanta composing this classical configuration. Such an entropy-equivalent is defined for scalar classicalons also and is responsible for exponential suppression of their decay into small number of final particles. This parallel works in both ways. For optimists that are willing to hypothesize that gravity may indeed self-unitarize at high energies via black hole formation, it illustrates that the Goldstones may not be much different in this respect, and they classicalize essentially by similar dynamics as gravitons. In the other direction, it may serve as an useful de-mystifier of via-black-hole-unitarization process and of the role...

  12. Classical dynamics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarshan, Ennackal Chandy George

    2016-01-01

    Classical dynamics is traditionally treated as an early stage in the development of physics, a stage that has long been superseded by more ambitious theories. Here, in this book, classical dynamics is treated as a subject on its own as well as a research frontier. Incorporating insights gained over the past several decades, the essential principles of classical dynamics are presented, while demonstrating that a number of key results originally considered only in the context of quantum theory and particle physics, have their foundations in classical dynamics.Graduate students in physics and practicing physicists will welcome the present approach to classical dynamics that encompasses systems of particles, free and interacting fields, and coupled systems. Lie groups and Lie algebras are incorporated at a basic level and are used in describing space-time symmetry groups. There is an extensive discussion on constrained systems, Dirac brackets and their geometrical interpretation. The Lie-algebraic description of ...

  13. From phosphorous to arsenic: changing the classic paradigm for the structure of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodle, Ryan; Agarwal, Pratima; Brown, Mark

    2012-05-30

    Biomolecules are composed primarily of the elements carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and phosphorus. The structured assembly of these elements forms the basis for proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. However, the recent discovery of a new bacterium, strain GFAJ-1 of the Halomonadaceae, has shaken the classic paradigms for the architecture of life. Mounting evidence supports the claim that these bacteria substitute arsenic for phosphorus in macromolecules. Herein, we provide a brief commentary and fuel the debate related to what may be a most unusual organism.

  14. Commentary: Thinking outside the box about children's sleep--a commentary on Gregory and Sadeh (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stores, Gregory

    2016-03-01

    This commentary is intended to supplement the accompanying review of sleep problems in childhood psychiatric disorders by Gregory and Sadeh. A number of considerations are outlined because of their relevance to both clinical practice and research concerning assessment and treatment of sleep disturbance in children in general and especially those with psychiatric and/or neurological conditions. These considerations (which illustrate the importance of combined medical and psychological involvement) are as follows: the importance of screening for sleep disturbance which otherwise may well be overlooked; the need to specify sleep disorders rather than simply nonspecific sleep problems as this will guide choice of appropriate advice and treatment; the risk of sleep disorders being misdiagnosed because of clinicians' unfamiliarity with the sleep disorders field; the possibility that a child's sleep disturbance is of multiple aetiology; a wide range of treatments for disturbed sleep is now described from which a choice is possible given an accurate diagnosis; sleep problems may be intensified if a child's condition is complicated by intellectual disability but the same principles of assessment and management apply as in other children in the expectation that treatment can be effective. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Cellular radiation effects and hyperthermia cell cycle kinetics of radiation sensitive mutants of saccharomyces cerevisiae after x-irradiation and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingerhut, R.; Kiefer, J.; Otto, F.

    1983-01-01

    Radiosensitive mutants rad2, rad9, and rad51 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were X-irradiated with 120 Gy or 60 Gy, heated at 50 0 C for 30 min or treated with a combination of both and incubated in nutrient medium at 30 0 C. Cell number, percentage of budding cells, and cell cycle progression were determined in 45-min intervals. Cell cycle kinetics were investigated by flow cytofluorometry. Hyperthermia leads mainly to a lengthening of G1, whereas X-rays arrest cells of the rad2 and rad9 mutant in G2 and the rad51 - mutant additionaly in a state with DNA contents above G2. Cell division dealy is influenced by oxygen in all strains but to a lesser extent in the rad2 mutant. The effect of the combined treatment appears to be merely additive in the rad2 and rad9 mutant while the rad51 mutant is sensitized to X-irradiation by hyperthermia. No selective action of hyperthermia on hypoxic cells was found. (orig.)

  16. Gold nanorod-mediated hyperthermia enhances the efficacy of HPMA copolymer-90Y conjugates in treatment of prostate tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckway, Brandon; Frazier, Nick; Gormley, Adam J.; Ray, Abhijit; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The treatment of prostate cancer using a radiotherapeutic 90 Y labeled N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer can be enhanced with localized tumor hyperthermia. An 111 In labeled HPMA copolymer system for single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) was developed to observe the biodistribution changes associated with hyperthermia. Efficacy studies were conducted in prostate tumor bearing mice using the 90 Y HPMA copolymer with hyperthermia. Methods: HPMA copolymers containing 1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) copolymerization and subsequently labeled with either 111 In for imaging or 90 Y for efficacy studies. Radiolabel stability was characterized in vitro with mouse serum. Imaging and efficacy studies were conducted in DU145 prostate tumor bearing mice. Imaging was performed using single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). Localized mild tumor hyperthermia was achieved by plasmonic photothermal therapy using gold nanorods. Results: HPMA copolymer-DOTA conjugates demonstrated efficient labeling and stability for both radionuclides. Imaging analysis showed a marked increase of radiolabeled copolymer within the hyperthermia treated prostate tumors, with no significant accumulation in non-targeted tissues. The greatest reduction in tumor growth was observed in the hyperthermia treated tumors with 90 Y HPMA copolymer conjugates. Histological analysis confirmed treatment efficacy and safety. Conclusion: HPMA copolymer-DOTA conjugates radiolabeled with both the imaging and treatment radioisotopes, when combined with hyperthermia can serve as an image guided approach for efficacious treatment of prostate tumors

  17. Loire Classics: Reviving Classicism in some Loire Poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Verbaal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The term 'Loire poets' has come to refer to a rather undefinable group of poets that in the second half of the eleventh century distinguishes itself through its refined poetics. They are often characterized as medieval humanists thanks to their renewed interest in the classics. Sometimes their movement is labelled a 'classicist' one. But what does this 'classicism' mean? Is it even permitted to speak of medieval 'classicisms'? This contribution approaches the question of whether we can apply this modern label to pre-modern phenomena. Moreover, it explores the changes in attitude towards the classics that sets the Loire poets off from their predecessors and contemporaries. The article focuses on poems by Hildebert of Lavardin, Baudri of Bourgueil, Marbod of Rennes, and Geoffrey of Reims. They are compared with some contemporary poets, such as Reginald of Canterbury and Sigebert of Gembloux.

  18. Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Van Meter, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classica...

  19. Role of regional radiofrequency hyperthermia after hepatic artery block in the normal pit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jingwei; Xu Guozhen; Xiong Jinghong; Liu Xiaoyun; Wang Weihu; Li Yexiong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the temperature difference, tolerated high temperature, pathological changes between normal and blocked hepatic artery in radiofrequency hyperthermia for pig liver. Methods: Mature pig was used with iodine blocked right hepatic artery. Heat of the whole liver was given for 1 hour by SR-1000 radiofrequency hyperthermia with four thermocouple probes to measure the temperature of the right hepatic artery, right and left normal liver and rectum. Results: Temperature of blocked right liver increased by 10.2 degree C from 39.1 degree C to 49.3 degree C as compared with the left liver of which the temperature rose by 6.8 degree C from 39.7 degree C to 46.5 degree C but the temperature of right hepatic artery and rectum rose only by 3.3 degree C, 3.2 degree C respectively. After sacrificing the pig one week later, on lobe exploration, severe necrosis was observed in the right lobe but the left lobe was normal with a clear demarcation between the two lobes. Conclusions: Hepatic arterial iodine embolization potentiates radiofrequency hyperthermia in the liver. Liver with blocked artery showed conspicuous necrosis but liver with normal un-blocked artery was able to tolerate 46.5 degree C. This provides some evidence for the combination of regional hyperthermia and hepatic artery block in the treatment of advanced liver cancer

  20. Neurological complications after 434 MHz microwave hyperthermia of the rat lumbar region including the spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, N. A.; de Vrind, H. H.; Sminia, P.; Haveman, J.; Troost, D.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.

    1992-01-01

    Hyperthermia was applied in the region of the vertebral column from the second to the fifth lumbar vertebra using a ring-shaped 434 MHz microwave radiator. In all experiments temperatures were measured at a 'reference' thermocouple which was placed against the fourth lumbar vertebra. After 60 min of

  1. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

  2. Intra-operative hyperthermia in a young Angus bull with a fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelding, Alicia; Valverde, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    A healthy, 9-month-old black Angus bull was presented for elective penile-preputial translocation and caudal epididymectomy. After premedication and induction, general anesthesia was maintained with inhalant anesthetic. Over an hour into the anesthetic period the bull developed severe hyperthermia and hypercapnia that resulted in fatality despite treatment efforts.

  3. Rib fractures after reirradiation plus hyperthermia for recurrent breast cancer: Predictive factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenborg, Sabine; Valk, Christel; van Os, Rob; Oei, Bing; Venselaar, Jack; Vörding, Paul Zum Vörde Sive; van Randen, Adriënne; Crezee, Hans; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Rasch, Coen

    2016-01-01

    Combining reirradiation (reRT) and hyperthermia (HT) has shown high therapeutic value for patients with locoregional recurrent breast cancer (LR). However, additional toxicity of reirradiation (e.g., rib fractures) may occur. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of potential risk factors

  4. An Acremonium endophyte of Lolium perenne associated with hyperthermia of cattle in Pacific County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Wilson; C.C. Gay; S.C. and Fransen

    1992-01-01

    Clavicipitaceous endophytes are well known for causing maladies of livestock. Recent studies of a new syndrome causing hyperthermia of cattle in Pacific County, Washington, prompted surveys of endophytes in pasture grasses of seven affected paddocks. Cattle removed from affected pastures and fed alfalfa became normothermic within 3 days, suggesting a pyrogenic factor...

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Paula I.P. [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Laia, César A.T. [Laboratório Associado para a Química Verde (LAQV), REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, Alexandra [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Pereira, Laura C.J.; Coutinho, Joana T. [C2TN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, ao km 139,7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Ferreira, Isabel M.M., E-mail: imf@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Novo, Carlos M.M. [Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, IHMT/UNL, 1349-008 Lisboa (Portugal); Borges, João Paulo, E-mail: jpb@fct.unl.pt [i3N/CENIMAT, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were stabilized with oleic acid. • Maximum stabilization was achieved at neutral pH. • Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia applications were tested. • The produced nanoparticles are viable for both biomedical applications. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of −120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  6. Effects of hyperthermia on repair of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, M.D.; Meyn, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested a relationship between the heat-induced changes in nucleoprotein and the hyperthermic enhancement of radiation sensitivity. In an effort to further understand these relationships, we measured the level of initial DNA strand break damage and the DNA strand break rejoining kinetics in Chinese hamster ovary cells following combined hyperthermia and ionizing radiation treatments. The amount of protein associated with DNA measured as the ratio of [ 3 H)leucine to [ 14 C]thymidine was also compared in chromatin isolated from both heated and unheated cells. The results of these experiments show that the initial level of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks is significantly enhanced by a prior hyperthermia treatment of 43 0 C for 30 min. Treatments at higher temperatures and longer treatments at the same temperature magnified this effect. Hyperthermia was also shown to cause a substantial inhibition of the DNA strand break rejoining after irradiation. Both the initial level of DNA damage and the rejoining kinetics recovered to normal levels with incubation at 37 0 C between the hyperthermia and radiation treatments. Recovery of these parameters coincided with the return of the amount of protein associated with DNA to normal values, further suggesting a relationship between the changes in nucleoprotein and the hyperthermic enhancement of radiation sensivivity

  7. Model for hyperthermia with arrays of magnetic nanoparticles: spatial and time temperature distributions in tumor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Lunov, O.; Gómez-Polo, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2010), 690-695 ISSN 1533-4880 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : interstitial hyperthermia * thermometry * magnetic nanoparticles * radiotherapy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.351, year: 2010

  8. Iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a bilayer of oleic acid for magnetic hyperthermia and MRI applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Paula I.P.; Laia, César A.T.; Carvalho, Alexandra; Pereira, Laura C.J.; Coutinho, Joana T.; Ferreira, Isabel M.M.; Novo, Carlos M.M.; Borges, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were stabilized with oleic acid. • Maximum stabilization was achieved at neutral pH. • Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic hyperthermia applications were tested. • The produced nanoparticles are viable for both biomedical applications. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe_3O_4, IONPs) are promising candidates for several biomedical applications such as magnetic hyperthermia and as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, their colloidal stability in physiological conditions hinders their application requiring the use of biocompatible surfactant agents. The present investigation focuses on obtaining highly stable IONPs, stabilized by the presence of an oleic acid bilayer. Critical aspects such as oleic acid concentration and pH were optimized to ensure maximum stability. NPs composed of an iron oxide core with an average diameter of 9 nm measured using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) form agglomerates with an hydrodynamic diameter of around 170 nm when dispersed in water in the presence of an oleic acid bilayer, remaining stable (zeta potential of −120 mV). Magnetic hyperthermia and the relaxivities measurements show high efficiency at neutral pH which enables their use for both magnetic hyperthermia and MRI.

  9. The significance of accurate dielectric tissue data for hyperthermia treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamer, JB; van Wieringen, N; de Leeuw, AAC; Lagendijk, JJW

    2001-01-01

    For hyperthermia treatment planning, dielectric properties of several tissue types are required. Since it is difficult to perform patient specific dielectric imaging, default values based on literature data are used. However, these show a large spread (approximate to 50%). Consequently, it is

  10. The significance of accurate dielectric tissue data for hyperthermia treatment planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamer, J. B.; van Wieringen, N.; de Leeuw, A. A.; Lagendijk, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    For hyperthermia treatment planning, dielectric properties of several tissue types are required. Since it is difficult to perform patient specific dielectric imaging, default values based on literature data are used. However, these show a large spread (approximately 50%). Consequently, it is

  11. Similarities and differences in ablative and non-ablative iron oxide nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryk, Alicia A.; Misra, Adwiteeya; Kastner, Elliot J.; Mazur, Courtney M.; Petryk, James D.; Hoopes, P. Jack

    2015-03-01

    The use of hyperthermia to treat cancer is well studied and has utilized numerous delivery techniques, including microwaves, radio frequency, focused ultrasound, induction heating, infrared radiation, warmed perfusion liquids (combined with chemotherapy), and recently, metallic nanoparticles (NP) activated by near infrared radiation (NIR) and alternating magnetic field (AMF) based platforms. It has been demonstrated by many research groups that ablative temperatures and cytotoxicity can be produced with locally NP-based hyperthermia. Such ablative NP techniques have demonstrated the potential for success. Much attention has also been given to the fact that NP may be administered systemically, resulting in a broader cancer therapy approach, a lower level of tumor NP content and a different type of NP cancer therapy (most likely in the adjuvant setting). To use NP based hyperthermia successfully as a cancer treatment, the technique and its goal must be understood and utilized in the appropriate clinical context. The parameters include, but are not limited to, NP access to the tumor (large vs. small quantity), cancer cell-specific targeting, drug carrying capacity, potential as an ionizing radiation sensitizer, and the material properties (magnetic characteristics, size and charge). In addition to their potential for cytotoxicity, the material properties of the NP must also be optimized for imaging, detection and direction. In this paper we will discuss the differences between, and potential applications for, ablative and non-ablative magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  12. Factors associated with high risk of marginal hyperthermia in elderly patients living in an institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassallo, M.; Gera, K. N.; Allen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The elderly, the very young, and the sick are known to be adversely affected by high environmental temperatures. In a retrospective open case-note review of 872 patients in a large institution during a hot summer we identified characteristics in the elderly that increase the risk of marginal hyperthermia. Women were more likely to be affected than men (25.6% vs 16.9%). We found an age-related increase in marginal hyperthermia, 15.7% of those below 60 years developed a hyperthermia compared to 18.9% in those between 70-79 years (non-significant), 28.3% in those between 80-89 years (p = 0.01) and 50% in those above 90 years (p bedridden group, p < 0.01, and 20.4% of the semi-dependent, p < 0.01, compared to 11.1% of the mobile group). These factors were more significant as predictors of risk than the diagnosis. Identifying high risk patients early and taking appropriate measures to avoid hyperthermia and dehydration is important to try to decrease mortality during heatwaves. PMID:7784280

  13. The case for SAR as the major component of a hyperthermia treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem facing clinical hyperthermia is the lack of a useful unit of treatment. Most attempts at a treatment unit have utilized some function of temperature and time. Having accepted the validity of such a hypothetical units, one is faced with the formidable problem of obtaining a three dimensional temperature profile so that thermal dose can be determined. A corollary is the desirability of obtaining uniform temperature in the treatment volume. Various studies suggest that a uniform SAR is a more desirable goal when radiotherapy is to be used in combination with hyperthermia. The synergy between radiation and hyperthermia is maximized in low pH regions of tumor which are presumably also hypoxic. These regions are poorly perfused, likely to heat readily, and are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of radiation alone. On the other hand, well perfused regions of tumor are likely sensitive to radiation, and benefit less from the combination treatment. Other studies have definitely shown that tissue temperatures in the range normally associated with desirable hyperthermia treatment result in severe vascular damage. This damage could be expected to unnecessarily compromise the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Models in the literature can be combined to verify these observations

  14. Acute whole-body cooling for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Brendon P; Casa, Douglas J; Ganio, Matthew S; Lopez, Rebecca M; Yeargin, Susan W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    To assess existing original research addressing the efficiency of whole-body cooling modalities in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia. During April 2007, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews databases as well as ProQuest for theses and dissertations to identify research studies evaluating whole-body cooling treatments without limits. Key words were cooling, cryotherapy, water immersion, cold-water immersion, ice-water immersion, icing, fanning, bath, baths, cooling modality, heat illness, heat illnesses, exertional heatstroke, exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, hyperthermia, hyperthermic, hyperpyrexia, exercise, exertion, running, football, military, runners, marathoner, physical activity, marathoning, soccer, and tennis. Two independent reviewers graded each study on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Seven of 89 research articles met all inclusion criteria and a minimum score of 4 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. After an extensive and critical review of the available research on whole-body cooling for the treatment of exertional hyperthermia, we concluded that ice-water immersion provides the most efficient cooling. Further research comparing whole-body cooling modalities is needed to identify other acceptable means. When ice-water immersion is not possible, continual dousing with water combined with fanning the patient is an alternative method until more advanced cooling means can be used. Until future investigators identify other acceptable whole-body cooling modalities for exercise-induced hyperthermia, ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion are the methods proven to have the fastest cooling rates.

  15. Use of extremity insulation during whole body hyperthermia to reduce temperature nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, D.E.; Page, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The author previously documented during whole body hyperthermia in dogs using a radiant heating device that temperature at superficial sites, including tibial bone marrow, falls below systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase of heating. This may be due to direct heat loss to the environment. Sites where temperature is lower than systemic arterial temperature during the plateau phase may become sanctuary sites where tumor deposits are spared because they do not receive the prescribed thermal dose. In an attempt to decrease temperature nonuniformity and increase thermal dose delivered to such superficial sites, extremity insulation has been employed during whole body hyperthermia in dogs. The author measured temperature at cutaneous and subcutaneous sites and within tibial bone marrow in insulated and noninsulated extremities of dogs undergoing whole body hyperthermia in the radiant heating device. The author found that extremity insulation is effective in reducing extremity temperature nonuniformity. Specific results are presented. Extremity insulation may be necessary during whole body hyperthermia to assure that extremity tumor deposits receive a thermal dose similar to that prescribed for the entire body

  16. Effects of hyperthermia and X-irradiation on mouse stromal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wondergem, J.; Haveman, J.

    1986-01-01

    The sensitivity of normal stroma to heat, irradiation and heat combined with irradiation, was studied using the tumour bed effect (TBE) assay. Irradiation before implantation led to a TBE, dose dependent below 15 Gy, but remaining relatively constant above. The interval (0-90 days) between irradiation and tumour implantation did not influence the magnitude of the TBE. Hyperthermia with large heat doses (45-60 min at 44 0 C) before implantation may lead to a TBE. The interval between hyperthermia and tumour implantation was very important. Results showed that the recovery from heat-induced stromal damage is very rapid. When the interval between hyperthermia and tumour implantation was 10 days or longer, no TBE could be observed. Irradiation combined with large heat doses (30-60 min at 44 0 C) decreased the radiation-induced TBE. The combination of irradiation with mild heat treatments (15 min at 44 0 C) could lead to a larger TBE then after irradiation alone. When hyperthermia was given prior to irradiation, the interval between heat and irradiation proved to be very important. With large intervals (21 days or longer), TBE values were about the same as with irradiation alone. When heat was given after irradiation, irradiation-induced TBE was always reduced. (UK)

  17. Interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency and stereotaxic brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary study of the interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation (brachytherapy) for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we performed an experiment of interstitial hyperthermia of brain tissue of dogs. Nine afterloading tubes, four for needle electrodes and five for thermisters, were inserted in the brain tissue of dogs. Rise and stability of temperature were ascertained, and clinical safety was confirmed. Thereafter this combined therapy was applied on seven cases, in which three were malignant gliomas and four were metastatic tumors. Through the guide tubes, 192 Ir thin wires were implanted stereotaxically, and interstitial irradiation was carried out. After removal of 192 Ir wires, needle electrodes were inserted through the same tubes, and also a thermister was guided at the center of electrodes. And interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency was carried out. The results of the treatment were evaluated with CT scan based on criteria of the Japan Neurological Society. In cases of malignant gliomas, 2 PRs (partial remission), and 1 NC (no change) were obtained. In cases of metastatic tumors, 1 CR (complete remission), 2 PRs, 1 NC were obtaind. In cases of NCs, progression of tumors have been suppressed for 10 and 17 months, and still alive. As complication, transient worsening of neurological symptoms were observed in four cases (increased paresis: two cases, nausea and vomiting: two cases). The author have had an impression that interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation might become an effective means of treatment of brain tumors. (author)

  18. Late response to whole-lung irradiation alone and with whole-body hyperthermia in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, S.M.; Gillette, E.L.; Dawson, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The late effects of whole-lung irradiation with and without whole-body hyperthermia were studied in beagle dogs. The reference doses ranged from 18 to 49.5 Gy given in 1.5-Gy fractions over 6 weeks. Whole-body hyperthermia was given in three 2-h treatments to a deep rectal temperature of 42.0 degrees C. Radiation was given simultaneously with hyperthermia on those days. Physiological and histopathological responses were evaluated. Physiological changes included decreases in cardiac output, systemic blood pressure, dynamic compliance and serotonin uptake. Early changes included an increase in extravascular water and total protein in the lavage. These changes were considered mild, were compensated for and occurred only in dogs receiving doses of 40.5 Gy or greater given in 1.5-Gy fractions over 6 weeks. Histopathological change were typical of irradiated lung and included pleural fibrosis, interstitial fibrosis, fibrotic foci, and peribronchial and perivascular fibrosis. There was no enhancement of late injury to lung by hyperthermia seen in this study. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Mild hyperthermia can induce adaptation to cytogenetic damage caused by subsequent X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Lu.; Jiang, Jie.

    1995-01-01

    Many low-level environmental agents are able to induce an increased resistance to subsequent mutagenic effects induced by ionizing radiation. In this paper, an induced cytogenetic adaptation to radiation in human lymphocytes was studied with mild hyperthermia as the adaptive treatment and compared with that induced by low-dose radiation. We found that this adaptation could be induced not only in PHA-stimulated human lymphocytes (at 14, 38 and 42 h after addition of PHA), but also in unstimulated G 0 -phase cells (before addition of PHA) by mild hyperthermia (41 degrees C for 1 h) as well as 50 mGy X rays. When the two adaptive treatments were combined, no additive effects on the magnitude of the adaptation induced were observed, suggesting that low-dose radiation and hyperthermia may share one mechanism of induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage. Some mechanisms which may be involved in the induction of adaptation to cytogenetic damage by low-dose radiation are discussed and compared with the effects of mild hyperthermia in inducing thermotolerance and radioresistance. 56 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of experimental tumours in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, W.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of hyperthermia as a single agent and in interaction with ionizing radiation are investigated on tumours in mice. The degree of enhancement of the radiation reaction by heat proved to be similar to that found for mouse skin. (Auth.)

  1. SR-1000 radiofrequency chemo-hyperthermia for recurrent and metastatic peritoneo-pelvic malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Jingwei; Xiong Jinghong; Xu Guozhen; Yu Zihao; Li Yexiong; Yin Weibo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of intraperitoneal chemo-hyperthermia (IPCH) with SR-1000 radiofrequency (RF) for recurrent or metastatic peritoneo-pelvic malignant tumors. Methods: Twenty-one patients with recurrent or metastatic peritoneo-pelvic malignant tumors received chemo-hyperthermia, with 9 having local pain and 14 having ascites. The Karnofsky scores were 40-80. After abdominal cavity aspiration and infusion of hot NS and chemotherapeutic agents, the temperature of abdominal cavity was increased and maintained at 40.5-42.5 degree C for 60-90 minutes with SR-1000 RF. Hyperthermia was given twice per week and chemotherapy once per week, with the whole treatment lasting for 2-4 weeks. The commonly used drugs were DDP, MMC, 5-FU and so on. Results: Local pain was relieved in 8 of 9 patients, complete disappearance of ascites in 10 of 14. The common side-effects were fat necrosis (14.3%) and abdominal pain (24.8%). Conclusions: Intraperitoneal chemo-hyperthermia with SR-1000 RF appears to be a promising new approach for patients with recurrent or metastatic peritoneo-pelvic malignant tumors, especially for those who did not response to systemic chemotherapy or whose tumor recurred after chemotherapy. As to bulky lesions, local supplementary radiotherapy should be given in order to obtain better local control

  2. A randomized clinical trial of hyperthermia and radiation versus radiation alone for superficially located cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Sunao; Tsukiyama, Iwao; Watanabe, Shaw

    1989-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed in order to evaluate the effect of combined hyperthermia and radiation for superficially located tumors. Ten institutions participated in this study and 92 evaluable patients were entered from September 1985 to March 1987 (44 patients for radiation plus hyperthermia and 48 for radiation only). Superficially located tumors, more than 3x3 cm in diameter, regardless of whether they were primary or metastatic, and of their histology, were included in the study. Radiotherapy was performed by the conventional fractionation method (2 Gyx5/week). Hyperthermia was conducted once a week. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding age, sex, the distribution of tumors and treatment parameters. The complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) rate for the hyperthermia plus radiation group was 81.8%, while the rate for the radiation alone group was 62.6% (p<0.05). Six factors were selected for analysis of the above effect by a multiple logistic model. Sex contributed the most (p=0.001), then the site of the tumor (p=0.016) and the method of treatment (p=0.023). Sex and the site influenced the results. Age, irradiation dose and frequency and duration of heating were not significant factors for response to treatment. (author)

  3. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, A.O.

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2π → 0. (author)

  4. The Wigner representation of classical mechanics, quantization and classical limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolivar, A.O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-08-01

    Starting from the Liouvillian formulation of classical physics it is possible by means of a Fourier transform to introduce the Wigner representation and to derive an operator structure to classical mechanisms. The importance of this new representation lies on the fact that it turns out to be suitable route to establish a general method of quantization directly from the equations of motion without alluding to the existence of Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions. Following this approach we quantize only the motion of a Browian particle with non-linear friction in the Markovian approximation - the thermal bath may be quantum or classical -, thus when the bath is classically described we obtain a master equation which reduces to Caldeira-Legget equation for the linear friction case, and when the reservoir is quantum we get an equation reducing to the one found by Caldeira et al. By neglecting the environmental influence we show that the system can be approximately described by equations of motion in terms of wave function, such as the Schrodinger-Langevin equation and equations of the Caldirola-Kanai type. Finally to make the present study self-consistent we evaluate the classical limit of these dynamical equations employing a new classical limiting method h/2{pi} {yields} 0. (author)

  5. Mathematical methods of classical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cortés, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    This short primer, geared towards students with a strong interest in mathematically rigorous approaches, introduces the essentials of classical physics, briefly points out its place in the history of physics and its relation to modern physics, and explains what benefits can be gained from a mathematical perspective. As a starting point, Newtonian mechanics is introduced and its limitations are discussed. This leads to and motivates the study of different formulations of classical mechanics, such as Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which are the subjects of later chapters. In the second part, a chapter on classical field theories introduces more advanced material. Numerous exercises are collected in the appendix.

  6. Classicality of quantum information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, David

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the classicality program is to quantify the amount of quantumness of certain processes. Here, classicality is studied for a restricted type of process: quantum information processing (QIP). Under special conditions, one can force some qubits of a quantum computer into a classical state without affecting the outcome of the computation. The minimal set of conditions is described and its structure is studied. Some implications of this formalism are the increase of noise robustness, a proof of the quantumness of mixed state quantum computing, and a step forward in understanding the very foundation of QIP

  7. Re-irradiation and hyperthermia after surgery for recurrent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linthorst, Marianne; Geel, Albert N. van; Baaijens, Margreet; Ameziane, Ali; Ghidey, Wendim; Rhoon, Gerard C. van; Zee, Jacoba van der

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of efficacy and side effects of combined re-irradiation and hyperthermia electively or for subclinical disease in the management of locoregional recurrent breast cancer. Methods and materials: Records of 198 patients with recurrent breast cancer treated with re-irradiation and hyperthermia from 1993 to 2010 were reviewed. Prior treatments included surgery (100%), radiotherapy (100%), chemotherapy (42%), and hormonal therapy (57%). Ninety-one patients were treated for microscopic residual disease following resection or systemic therapy and 107 patients were treated electively for areas at high risk for local recurrences. All patients were re-irradiated to 28–36 Gy (median 32) and treated with 3–8 hyperthermia treatments (mean 4.36). Forty percent of the patients received concurrent hormonal therapy. Patient and tumor characteristics predictive for actuarial local control (LC) and toxicity were studied in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 42 months. Three and 5 year LC-rates were 83% and 78%. Mean of T90 (tenth percentile of temperature distribution), maximum and average temperatures were 39.8 °C, 43.6 °C, and 41.2 °C, respectively. Mean of the cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43) at T90 was 4.58 min. Number of previous chemotherapy and surgical procedures were most predictive for LC. Cumulative incidence of grade 3 and 4 late toxicity at 5 years was 11.9%. The number of thermometry sensors and depth of treatment volume were associated with acute hyperthermia toxicity. Conclusions: The combination of re-irradiation and hyperthermia results in a high LC-rate with acceptable toxicity

  8. Hysteresis losses and specific absorption rate measurements in magnetic nanoparticles for hyperthermia applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Marco; Barrera, Gabriele; Celegato, Federica; Martino, Luca; Kane, Shashank N; Raghuvanshi, Saroj; Vinai, Franco; Tiberto, Paola

    2017-06-01

    Magnetic hysteresis loops areas and hyperthermia on magnetic nanoparticles have been studied with the aim of providing reliable and reproducible methods of measuring the specific absorption rate (SAR). The SAR of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with two different mean sizes, and Ni 1-x Zn x Fe 2 O 4 ferrites with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 has been measured with three approaches: static hysteresis loops areas, dynamic hysteresis loops areas and hyperthermia of a water solution. For dynamic loops and thermometric measurements, specific experimental setups have been developed, that operate at comparable frequencies (≈ 69kHz and ≈ 100kHz respectively) and rf magnetic field peak values (up to 100mT). The hyperthermia setup has been fully modelled to provide a direct measurement of the SAR of the magnetic nanoparticles by taking into account the heat exchange with the surrounding environment in non-adiabatic conditions and the parasitic heating of the water due to ionic currents. Dynamic hysteresis loops are shown to provide an accurate determination of the SAR except for superparamagnetic samples, where the boundary with a blocked regime could be crossed in dynamic conditions. Static hysteresis loops consistently underestimate the specific absorption rate but can be used to select the most promising samples. A means of reliably measure SAR of magnetic nanoparticles by different approaches for hyperthermia applications is presented and its validity discussed by comparing different methods. This work fits within the general subject of metrological traceability in medicine with a specific focus on magnetic hyperthermia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editor: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Classical Limit and Quantum Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Fortin, Sebastian; Holik, Federico

    2018-02-01

    The analysis of the classical limit of quantum mechanics usually focuses on the state of the system. The general idea is to explain the disappearance of the interference terms of quantum states appealing to the decoherence process induced by the environment. However, in these approaches it is not explained how the structure of quantum properties becomes classical. In this paper, we consider the classical limit from a different perspective. We consider the set of properties of a quantum system and we study the quantum-to-classical transition of its logical structure. The aim is to open the door to a new study based on dynamical logics, that is, logics that change over time. In particular, we appeal to the notion of hybrid logics to describe semiclassical systems. Moreover, we consider systems with many characteristic decoherence times, whose sublattices of properties become distributive at different times.

  10. New perspectives on classical electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Cote, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    The fallacies associated with the gauge concept in electromagnetism are illustrated. A clearer and more valid formulation of the basics of classical electromagnetism is provided by recognizing existing physical constraints as well as the physical reality of the vector potential.

  11. Classical Mechanics and Symplectic Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Nikolaj; Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Content: Classical mechanics: Calculus of variations, Lagrange’s equations, Symmetries and Noether’s theorem, Hamilton’s equations, cannonical transformations, integrable systems, pertubation theory. Symplectic integration: Numerical integrators, symplectic integrators, main theorem on symplectic...

  12. Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: A commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus I. M Craik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by domain-general suppression of distracting information and the domain-specific competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman’s (1964 model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance.

  13. Some notes on writing a commentary: Isaiah 1-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Groenewald

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available I was requested by the editors of the �Historical Commentary on the Old Testament� (HCOT to contribute two volumes on Isaiah in this series. This present article, however, focuses only on volume I: Isaiah 1-12. The aim of this article can be summarised in six points. Some introductory remarks are made with regard to the genre of commentary writing. Secondly, the viewpoint of the HCOT series is outlined; in other words its methodological and epistemological viewpoint. Thirdly, recent developments in the study of the book of Isaiah are discussed. Fourthly, my own objectives and hypothesis with regard to this project are outlined. Fifthly, a short overview of Isaiah 1-12 on a synchronic level is given. Sixthly, my research methodology is defined as a �diachronically reflected synchronic� reading of the Isaianic text. In the last section some concluding remarks are made.

  14. Effects of distraction on memory and cognition: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craik, Fergus I M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary is a review of the findings and ideas reported in the preceding nine articles on the effects of distraction on aspects of cognitive performance. The articles themselves deal with the disruptive effects of distraction on recall of words, objects and events, also on visual processing, category formation and other cognitive tasks. The commentary assesses the part played by "domain-general" suppression of distracting information and the "domain-specific" competition arising when tasks and distraction involve very similar material. Some forms of distraction are meaningfully relevant to the ongoing task, and Treisman's (1964) model of selective attention is invoked to provide an account of findings in this area. Finally, individual differences to vulnerability to distraction are discussed; older adults are particularly affected by distracting stimuli although the failure to repress distraction can sometimes prove beneficial to later cognitive performance.

  15. Commentary: On regulation and medical education: sociology, learning, and accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric

    2009-05-01

    The topic of regulation is commonplace in society, yet it seems to receive little explicit consideration in discussions on undergraduate medical education. The accompanying articles by Hauer and colleagues, White and colleagues, and Bloodgood and colleagues approach the topic of regulation from several different viewpoints. In this commentary, we too approach the topic of regulation from several different viewpoints: sociology, learning (self-regulated learning), and accountability. In this commentary, we present both theoretical and practical issues with the aim of initiating an open, scholarly discussion in the field of medical education. Ultimately, we hope other medical educators will seriously contemplate the questions raised and, more importantly, will consider employing these theoretical perspectives into future research efforts.

  16. Ontology matters: a commentary on contribution to cultural historical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jenny

    2017-10-01

    This commentary promotes discussion on the imaginary provided by Sanaz Farhangi in her article entitled, Contribution to activity: a lens for understanding students' potential and agency in physics education. The commentary is concerned with aligning ontological assumptions in research accounts of learning and development with transformative aims. A broad definition of ontology as the theory of existence is preferred. Sociocultural approaches share relational ontology as a common foundation. I agree with scholars elaborating Vygotsky's Transformative Activist Stance that a relational ontology does not imply activism. However, I argue that relational ontology provides a necessary and sufficient theoretical grounding for intentional transformation. I draw upon positioning theory to elaborate the moral aspects of language use and to illustrate that a theory of being as relational already eliminates the transcendental position. I draw on Farhangi's article to further the discussion on the necessity and sufficiency of relational ontology and associated grammars in accounting for activism.

  17. Classical theory of radiating strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Haws, D.; Hindmarsh, M.

    1990-01-01

    The divergent part of the self force of a radiating string coupled to gravity, an antisymmetric tensor and a dilaton in four dimensions are calculated to first order in classical perturbation theory. While this divergence can be absorbed into a renormalization of the string tension, demanding that both it and the divergence in the energy momentum tensor vanish forces the string to have the couplings of compactified N = 1 D = 10 supergravity. In effect, supersymmetry cures the classical infinities.

  18. Teaching Classical Mechanics using Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Using a personal computer and a smartphone, iMecaProf is a software that provides a complete teaching environment for practicals associated to a Classical Mechanics course. iMecaProf proposes a visual, real time and interactive representation of data transmitted by a smartphone using the formalism of Classical Mechanics. Using smartphones is more than using a set of sensors. iMecaProf shows students that important concepts of physics they here learn, are necessary to control daily life smartp...

  19. Dynamical systems in classical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V V

    1995-01-01

    This book shows that the phenomenon of integrability is related not only to Hamiltonian systems, but also to a wider variety of systems having invariant measures that often arise in nonholonomic mechanics. Each paper presents unique ideas and original approaches to various mathematical problems related to integrability, stability, and chaos in classical dynamics. Topics include… the inverse Lyapunov theorem on stability of equilibria geometrical aspects of Hamiltonian mechanics from a hydrodynamic perspective current unsolved problems in the dynamical systems approach to classical mechanics

  20. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  1. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  2. When four principles are too many: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Raanan

    2012-04-01

    This commentary briefly argues that the four prima facie principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy and justice enable a clinician (and anybody else) to make ethical sense of the author's proposed reliance on professional guidance and rules, on law, on professional integrity and on best interests, and to subject them all to ethical analysis and criticism based on widely acceptable basic prima facie moral obligations; and also to confront new situations in the light of those acceptable principles.

  3. Commentary: Competency restoration research--complicating an already complex process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Merrill; Greenspan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Predicting restorability in individuals found not competent to stand trial is an enduring focus of interest among forensic clinicians and academicians. In our commentary, we suggest that to understand this area even more comprehensively, we must look further. We must build on existing research on fitness to stand trial, move beyond diagnosis and a binary competence variable, and include the complex interplay between symptoms and fitness-related capacities that may be associated with lack of adjudicative competence and challenges to restorability.

  4. Sports metaphors in Polish written commentaries on politics

    OpenAIRE

    Jarosław Wiliński

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate what sports metaphors are used in Polish written commentaries on politics and what special purpose they serve. In particular, the paper examines structural metaphors that come from the lexicon of popular sports, such as boxing, racing, track and field athletics, sailing, etc. The language data, derived from English Internet websites, has been grouped and discussed according to source domains. Applying George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s approach to metaphor, the p...

  5. Commentary on Community Mental Health and the Common Good.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Bruce; Davidson, Larry

    2017-07-01

    This article comments on the core question addressed by this Special Issue: "What's good about public sector mental health?" Theoretical, empirical, and programmatic insights derived from the Issue's six article contributions guide the overall commentary. Several points of thematic overlap are featured in these preliminary observations, and these themes are suggestive for directing future research (e.g., citizenship studies) in the field of community mental health. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Quantum formalism for classical statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterich, C.

    2018-06-01

    In static classical statistical systems the problem of information transport from a boundary to the bulk finds a simple description in terms of wave functions or density matrices. While the transfer matrix formalism is a type of Heisenberg picture for this problem, we develop here the associated Schrödinger picture that keeps track of the local probabilistic information. The transport of the probabilistic information between neighboring hypersurfaces obeys a linear evolution equation, and therefore the superposition principle for the possible solutions. Operators are associated to local observables, with rules for the computation of expectation values similar to quantum mechanics. We discuss how non-commutativity naturally arises in this setting. Also other features characteristic of quantum mechanics, such as complex structure, change of basis or symmetry transformations, can be found in classical statistics once formulated in terms of wave functions or density matrices. We construct for every quantum system an equivalent classical statistical system, such that time in quantum mechanics corresponds to the location of hypersurfaces in the classical probabilistic ensemble. For suitable choices of local observables in the classical statistical system one can, in principle, compute all expectation values and correlations of observables in the quantum system from the local probabilistic information of the associated classical statistical system. Realizing a static memory material as a quantum simulator for a given quantum system is not a matter of principle, but rather of practical simplicity.

  7. Statistical versus Musical Significance: Commentary on Leigh VanHandel's 'National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin London

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In “National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song” Leigh Van Handel gives a sympathetic critique of William Rothstein’s claim that in western classical music of the late 18th and 19th centuries there are discernable differences in the phrasing and metrical practice of German versus French and Italian composers. This commentary (a examines just what Rothstein means in terms of his proposed metrical typology, (b questions Van Handel on how she has applied it to a purely melodic framework, (c amplifies Van Handel’s critique of Rothstein, and then (d concludes with a rumination on the reach of quantitative (i.e., statistically-driven versus qualitative claims regarding such things as “national metrical types.”

  8. The proliferation induced by hyperthermia in NB69 cells is offset by a radar-like signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trillo Ruiz, M. A.; Martinez Pascual, M. A.; Cid Torres, M. A.; Pague de la Vega, J. E.; Chacon Vargas, L.; Ubeda Maeso, A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study describes the proliferative response of the cell line NB69 human neuroblastoma, the simultaneous exposure to two physical agents: mild hyperthermia (+1 degree centigrade) and a pulsed RF signal subtermica.

  9. Clinical thermometry, using the 27 MHz multi-electrode current-source interstitial hyperthermia system in brain tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaatee, R.S.; Nowak, P.C.; Zee, J. van der; Bree, J. de; Kanis, B.P.; Crezee, H.; Levendag, P.C.; Visser, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In interstitial hyperthermia, temperature measurements are mainly performed inside heating applicators, and therefore, give the maximum temperatures of a rather heterogeneous temperature distribution. The problem of how to estimate lesion temperatures using the

  10. Classical and quantum dynamics from classical paths to path integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Dittrich, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Graduate students who wish to become familiar with advanced computational strategies in classical and quantum dynamics will find in this book both the fundamentals of a standard course and a detailed treatment of the time-dependent oscillator, Chern-Simons mechanics, the Maslov anomaly and the Berry phase, to name just a few topics. Well-chosen and detailed examples illustrate perturbation theory, canonical transformations and the action principle, and demonstrate the usage of path integrals. The fifth edition has been revised and enlarged to include chapters on quantum electrodynamics, in particular, Schwinger’s proper time method and the treatment of classical and quantum mechanics with Lie brackets and pseudocanonical transformations. It is shown that operator quantum electrodynamics can be equivalently described with c-numbers, as demonstrated by calculating the propagation function for an electron in a prescribed classical electromagnetic field.

  11. Robust medical image segmentation for hyperthermia treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufeld, E.; Chavannes, N.; Kuster, N.; Samaras, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: This work is part of an ongoing effort to develop a comprehensive hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) tool. The goal is to unify all the steps necessary to perform treatment planning - from image segmentation to optimization of the energy deposition pattern - in a single tool. The bases of the HTP software are the routines and know-how developed in our TRINTY project that resulted the commercial EM platform SEMCAD-X. It incorporates the non-uniform finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, permitting the simulation of highly detailed models. Subsequently, in order to create highly resolved patient models, a powerful and robust segmentation tool is needed. A toolbox has been created that allows the flexible combination of various segmentation methods as well as several pre-and postprocessing functions. It works primarily with CT and MRI images, which it can read in various formats. A wide variety of segmentation methods has been implemented. This includes thresholding techniques (k-means classification, expectation maximization and modal histogram analysis for automatic threshold detection, multi-dimensional if required), region growing methods (with hysteretic behavior and simultaneous competitive growing), an interactive marker based watershed transformation, level-set methods (homogeneity and edge based, fast-marching), a flexible live-wire implementation as well as fuzzy connectedness. Due to the large number of tissues that need to be segmented for HTP, no methods that rely on prior knowledge have been implemented. Various edge extraction routines, distance transforms, smoothing techniques (convolutions, anisotropic diffusion, sigma filter...), connected component analysis, topologically flexible interpolation, image algebra and morphological operations are available. Moreover, contours or surfaces can be extracted, simplified and exported. Using these different techniques on several samples, the following conclusions have been drawn: Due to the

  12. Malignant Hyperthermia in Dental and Facial Plastic surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Maheri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Preoperative evaluation of the patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery is of great importance in regards of both surgery and anesthesia considerations. Malignant Hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic clinical syndrome which mostly arises from volatile anesthesia with halothane and the depolarizing muscle relaxant succinylcholine. Clinical manifestations of MH are acidosis and rhabdomyolysis which occur following uncontrolled increases in skeletal muscle metabolism and rapidly increasing body temperature (by as much as 1°C/5 min (1. Primary cases of MH were reported to be of a 70% mortality rate; however, thanks to the emergence of diagnostic tools such as end-expired carbon dioxide and the administration of dantrolene, this rate has decreased to less than 5%.      MH might occur even in those with no previous or familial history. Even a safe history of the previous surgery under the administration of MH triggering agents cannot guarantee a next safe surgery. A noteworthy point in the preoperative evaluation is the probable association of MH with certain musculoskeletal disorders including Duchenne, Becker, and myotonic muscular dystrophies, strabismus, osteogenesis imperfecta, ptosis, myelomeningocele, kyphoscoliosis, King-Denborough syndrome, periodic paralysis, hernias, marfanoid syndrome, and central core disease (1. These diseases are frequently encountered by dental and facial plastic surgeons and having the knowledge of the probable association between MH and these conditions could aware the dental and facial plastic surgeons and the anesthesiologists to be more vigilant.      Although MH workup leads to the definite diagnosis, no convincing intraoperative diagnostic tool has been introduced so far. Masseter spasm is a condition which might follow administration of depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents due to the slow tonic fibers of masseter and lateral pterygoid muscles (2-4. The severer forms of masseter spasm would

  13. The effects of hyperthermia on the immunomodulatory properties of human umbilical cord vein mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesami, Shilan; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Rezaee, Mohamad Ali; Jalili, Ali; Rahmani, Mohammad Reza

    2017-11-01

    Hyperthermia can modulate inflammation and the immune response. Based on the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to inflamed tissues and the immunomodulatory properties of these cells, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of hyperthermia on the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Passages 4-6 of human umbilical cord vein mesenchymal stem cells were co-cultured in a two-way MLR. Cells in the hyperthermia groups were incubated at 41 °C for 45 min. A colorimetric assay was employed to examine the effects of MSCs on cell proliferation. The levels of IL-4 and TNF-α proteins in the cell culture supernatant were measured, and non-adherent cells were used for RNA extraction, which was then used for cDNA synthesis. RT-PCR was utilised to assess levels of IL-10, IL-17A, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β1, FOX P 3 , IFN-γ, CXCL12 and β-actin mRNA expression. UCV-MSCs co-cultured in an MLR reduced lymphocyte proliferation at 37 °C, whereas hyperthermia attenuated this effect. Hyperthermia increased expression of IL-10, TGF-β1 and FOXP3 mRNAs in co-culture; however, no effects on IL-17A and IFN-γ were observed, and it reduced CXCL12 expression. In co-culture, IL-4 mRNA and protein increased at 37 °C, an effect that was reduced by hyperthermia. No considerable change in TNF-α mRNA expression was found in hyperthermia-treated cells. Hyperthermia increases cell proliferation of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells and modifies the cytokine profile in the presence of UCV-MSCs.

  14. The birth of the electric machines: a commentary on Faraday (1832) 'Experimental researches in electricity'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2015-04-13

    The history of science is filled with examples of key discoveries and breakthroughs that have been published as landmark texts or journal papers, and to which one can trace the origins of whole disciplines. Such paradigm-shifting publications include Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543), Isaac Newton's Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687) and Albert Einstein's papers on relativity (1905 and 1915). Michael Faraday's 1832 paper on electromagnetic induction sits proudly among these works and in a sense can be regarded as having an almost immediate effect in transforming our world in a very real sense more than any of the others listed. Here we review the status of the subject-the relationship between magnetism and electricity both before and after Faraday's paper and delve into the details of the key experiments he carried out at the Royal Institution outlining clearly how he discovered the process of electromagnetic induction, whereby an electric current could be induced to flow through a conductor that experiences a changing magnetic field. His ideas would not only enable Maxwell's later development of his theory of classical electromagnetism, but would directly lead to the development of the electric dynamo and electric motor, two technological advances that are the very foundations of the modern world. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  15. Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science: Commentary from the Nursing Research Special Issue Editorial Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Nalini N; Peden-McAlpine, Cynthia J; Sullivan, Mary C; Vessey, Judith A; Henly, Susan J

    Articles from three landmark symposia on theory for nursing-published in Nursing Research in 1968-1969-served as a key underpinning for the development of nursing as an academic discipline. The current special issue on Theory and Theorizing in Nursing Science celebrates the 50th anniversary of publication of these seminal works in nursing theory. The purpose of this commentary is to consider the future of nursing theory development in light of articles published in the anniversary issue. The Editorial Team for the special issue identified core questions about continued nursing theory development, as related to the nursing metaparadigm, practice theory, big data, and doctoral education. Using a dialogue format, the editors discussed these core questions. The classic nursing metaparadigm (health, person, environment, nursing) was viewed as a continuing unifying element for the discipline but is in need of revision in today's scientific and practice climates. Practice theory and precision healthcare jointly arise from an emphasis on individualization. Big data and the methods of e-science are challenging the assumptions on which nursing theory development was originally based. Doctoral education for nursing scholarship requires changes to ensure that tomorrow's scholars are prepared to steward the discipline by advancing (not reifying) past approaches to nursing theory. Ongoing reexamination of theory is needed to clarify the domain of nursing, guide nursing science and practice, and direct and communicate the unique and essential contributions of nursing science to the broader health research effort and of nursing to healthcare.

  16. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  17. Doing classical theology in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Neven

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about doing classical theology in context. The weight of my argument is that classical text of Karl Barth’s theology is great intellectual text means: being addressed by this text in the context in which one lives. The basic keywords that constitute a rule for reading those texts are “equality”, “event” and “re-contextualisation”. The article contains two sections: The first section elaborates statements about the challenge of the event and the project of rereading classics by way of recontextualisation. The word “event” refers to true and innovating moments in history which one can share, or which one can betray. Classical texts always share in those liberative moments. The question then is in what sense do they present a challenge to the contemporary reader. The second section elaborates the position of man as central and all decisive for doing theology in context now. In this section, the author appeals for a renewal of the classical anthropology as an anthropology of hope. This anthropology contradicts postmodern concepts of otherness.

  18. Classical approach in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    The application of a classical approach to various quantum problems - the secular perturbation approach to quantization of a hydrogen atom in external fields and a helium atom, the adiabatic switching method for calculation of a semiclassical spectrum of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields, a spontaneous decay of excited states of a hydrogen atom, Gutzwiller's approach to Stark problem, long-lived excited states of a helium atom discovered with the help of Poincare section, inelastic transitions in slow and fast electron-atom and ion-atom collisions - is reviewed. Further, a classical representation in quantum theory is discussed. In this representation the quantum states are treated as an ensemble of classical states. This approach opens the way to an accurate description of the initial and final states in classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and a purely classical explanation of tunneling phenomenon. The general aspects of the structure of the semiclassical series such as renormalization group symmetry, criterion of accuracy and so on are reviewed as well. (author)

  19. Combined transperineal radiofrequency (RF) interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer (PC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakami, Shinji; Gonda, Nobuko; Kikuno, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    Hyperthermia has been used effectively as a radiation sensitizer. Interstitial hyperthermoradiotherapy has been therefore utilized as a minimal invasive therapy in attempts to improve local tumor control for various cancers, but not for urological cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of transperineal hyperthermoradiotherapy for localized PC. Based on our basic study of hyperthermoradiotherapy, we devised the procedure of combined transperineal RF interstitial hyperthermia and brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. Two patients with localized PC underwent transperineal RF interstitial hyperthermia combined with brachytherapy operation the 192-Ir remote after-loading system (RALS). Under transrectal ultrasound guidance, a total number of 12-18 stainless steel needles for 192-Ir RALS were implanted into the prostatic gland and seminal vesicles (SV) in an optimized pattern. Eight of the needles were used as electrodes for hyperthermia, and were electrically insultated using the vinyl catheter along the length of the subdermal fatty tissue to protect from overheating. Three other needles were utilized for continuous temperature mapping in the prostate. Rectal temperature was also monitored. Total radiation doses of 70 Gy to the prostate and SV were planned as a combination of brachytherapy (24 Gy/4 fraction) and external irradiation using a four-field box technique (46 Gy/23 fraction). Hyperthermic treatment (goal of 42 to 43 deg C for 60 minutes) was performed twice following the 1st and 4th brachytherapy at an interval of more than 48 hours for the recovery of cancer cells from thermotolerance. Both patients reached the treatment goal of all intraprostatic temperatures >43.0 deg C, which was considered favorable for hyperthermia, and the rectal temperatures of both patients remained <38 deg C during hyperthermia. In serial PSA measurements of both patients, serum PSA was less than 1.0 ng/ml within 3 months and has since

  20. Reduction of hyperthermia in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Marlina E; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Ayad, Onsy; O'Brien, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Severe traumatic brain injury remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. Providers focus on reducing secondary brain injury by avoiding hypoxemia, avoiding hypotension, providing normoventilation, treating intracranial hypertension, and reducing cerebral metabolic demand. Hyperthermia is frequently present in patients with severe traumatic brain injury, contributes to cerebral metabolic demand, and is associated with prolonged hospital admission as well as impaired neurological outcome. The objective of this quality improvement initiative was to reduce the duration of hyperthermia for pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury during the initial 72 hours of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS A retrospective chart review was performed to evaluate the incidence and duration of hyperthermia within a preintervention cohort. The retrospective phase was followed by three 6-month intervention periods (intervention Phase 1, the maintenance phase, and intervention Phase 2). Intervention Phase 1 entailed placement of a cooling blanket on the bed prior to patient arrival and turning it on once the patient's temperature rose above normothermia. The maintenance phase focused on sustaining the results of Phase 1. Intervention Phase 2 focused on total prevention of hyperthermia by initiating cooling blanket use immediately upon patient arrival to the intensive care unit. RESULTS The median hyperthermia duration in the preintervention cohort (n = 47) was 135 minutes. This was reduced in the Phase 1 cohort (n = 9) to 45 minutes, increased in the maintenance phase cohort (n = 6) to 88.5 minutes, and decreased again in the Phase 2 cohort (n = 9) to a median value of 0 minutes. Eight percent of patients in the intervention cohorts required additional sedation to tolerate the cooling blanket. Eight percent of patients in the intervention cohorts became briefly hypothermic while on the cooling blanket. No

  1. Clinical use of the hyperthermia treatment planning system HyperPlan to predict effectiveness and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasa, Geetha; Gellermann, Johanna; Rau, Beate; Nadobny, Jacek; Schlag, Peter; Deuflhard, Peter; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim is to prove the clinical practicability of the hyperthermia treatment planning system HyperPlan on a β-test level. Data and observations obtained from clinical hyperthermia are compared with the numeric methods FE (finite element) and FDTD (finite difference time domain), respectively. Methods and Materials: The planning system HyperPlan is built on top of the modular, object-oriented platform for visualization and model generation AMIRA. This system already contains powerful algorithms for image processing, geometric modeling, and three-dimensional graphics display. A number of hyperthermia-specific modules are provided, enabling the creation of three-dimensional tetrahedral patient models suitable for treatment planning. Two numeric methods, FE and FDTD, are implemented in HyperPlan for solving Maxwell's equations. Both methods base their calculations on segmented (contour based) CT or MR image data. A tetrahedral grid is generated from the segmented tissue boundaries, consisting of approximately 80,000 tetrahedrons per patient. The FE method necessitates, primarily, this tetrahedral grid for the calculation of the E-field. The FDTD method, on the other hand, calculates the E-field on a cubical grid, but also requires a tetrahedral grid for correction at electrical interfaces. In both methods, temperature distributions are calculated on the tetrahedral grid by solving the bioheat transfer equation with the FE method. Segmentation, grid generation, E-field, and temperature calculation can be carried out in clinical practice at an acceptable time expenditure of about 1-2 days. Results: All 30 patients we analyzed with cervical, rectal, and prostate carcinoma exhibit a good correlation between the model calculations and the attained clinical data regarding acute toxicity (hot spots), prediction of easy-to-heat or difficult-to-heat patients, and the dependency on various other individual parameters. We could show sufficient agreement between

  2. 31P-MRS study for the assessment of tumor response after radiotherapy and/or hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hirohiko; Itho, Satoshi; Nakatsugawa, Sigekazu; Maeda, Masayuki; Iwasaki, Toshiko; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Ishii, Yasushi

    1992-01-01

    The metabolic changes of human lung cancer implanted in nude mice were studied by the use of in vivo 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS) after radiotherapy, hyperthermia or the combined therapy of radiation and hyperthermia. 31 P-MRS of the tumors showed increased Pi/β-NTP ratio and acidic pH value on 1 day after hyperthermia, that indicated metabolic decline caused by hyperthermia. On the other hand, lower Pi/β-NTP ratios during 3 to 10 days after irradiation suggested metabolic activation of the tumors. In the tumors treated with the combined therapy, 31 P-MRS revealed increase of Pi/β-NTP ratio within 1 day and its decrease subsequent 6 to 10 days after treatment, that indicated additive bi-phasic changes induced by radiation and hyperthermia, respectively. Since Pi/β-NTP ratio had significant correlation to the tumor blood perfusion measured by hydrogen gas clearance studies, these bi-phasic changes were considered to correspond to two different physiological states, namely, ischemic and reperfused states. 31 P-MRS obtained from tumors could be useful to asses the physiological consequence following radiation, hyperthermia or the combined therapy. (author)

  3. Differential responses to radiation and hyperthermia of cloned cell lines derived from a single human melanoma xenograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofstad, E.K.; Brustad, T.

    1984-01-01

    One uncloned and five cloned cell lines were derived from a single human melanoma xenograft. Cells from passages 7-12 were exposed to either radiation or hyperthermia (42.5 0 C, pH = 7.4) under aerobic conditions and the colony forming ability of the cells was assayed in soft agar. The five cloned lines showed individual and characteristic responses to radiation as well as to hyperthermia. The variation in the response to radiation was mainly reflected in the size of the shoulders of the survival curves rather than in the D 0 -values. The variation in the response to hyperthermia was mainly reflected in the terminal slopes of the survival curves. The survival curve of cells from the uncloned line, both when exposed to radiation and hyperthermia, was positioned in the midst of those of the cloned lines. The response of the cloned lines to radiation did not correlate with the response to hyperthermia, indicating that tumor cell subpopulations which are resistant to radiation may respond well to hyperthermia

  4. The Diversity of Classical Archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , settlement patterns, landscape archaeology, historiography, and urban archaeology. Additionally, essays on topics such as the early Islamic period and portraiture in the Near East serve to broaden the themes encompassed by this work, and demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary knowledge in the field......This book is the first volume in the series Studies in Classical Archaeology, founded and edited by professors of classical archaeology, Achim Lichtenberger and Rubina Raja. This volume sets out the agenda for this series. It achieves this by familiarizing readers with a wide range of themes...... and material groups, and highlighting them as core areas of traditional classical archaeology, despite the fact that some have hitherto been neglected. Themes presented in this volume include Greek and Roman portraiture and sculpture, iconography, epigraphy, archaeology, numismatics, the Mediterranean...

  5. Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Mukhanov, Slava

    2011-01-01

    We observe that probing certain classical field theories by external sources uncovers the underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation, at purely-classical level. We perform this study on an example of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory and unravel asymptotic freedom and triviality for negative and positives signs of $\\lambda$ respectively. We derive exact classical $\\beta$ function equation. Solving this equation we find that an isolated source has an infinite energy and therefore cannot exist as an asymptotic state. On the other hand a dipole, built out of two opposite charges, has finite positive energy. At large separation the interaction potential between these two charges grows indefinitely as a distance in power one third.

  6. Classical and quantum fingerprinting strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.; Walgate, J.; Sanders, B.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Fingerprinting enables two parties to infer whether the messages they hold are the same or different when the cost of communication is high: each message is associated with a smaller fingerprint and comparisons between messages are made in terms of their fingerprints alone. When the two parties are forbidden access to a public coin, it is known that fingerprints composed of quantum information can be made exponentially smaller than those composed of classical information. We present specific constructions of classical fingerprinting strategies through the use of constant-weight codes and provide bounds on the worst-case error probability with the help of extremal set theory. These classical strategies are easily outperformed by quantum strategies constructed from line packings and equiangular tight frames. (author)

  7. Long-Term Improvement in Treatment Outcome After Radiotherapy and Hyperthermia in Locoregionally Advanced Cervix Cancer: An Update of the Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franckena, Martine; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Koper, Peter C.M.; Wiggenraad, Ruud G.J.; Hoogenraad, Wim J.; Dijk, Jan D.P. van; Warlam-Rodenhuis, Carla C.; Jobsen, Jan J.; Rhoon, Gerard C. van; Zee, Jacoba van der

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The local failure rate in patients with locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is 41-72% after radiotherapy (RT) alone, whereas local control is a prerequisite for cure. The Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial showed that combining RT with hyperthermia (HT) improved 3-year local control rates of 41-61%, as we reported earlier. In this study, we evaluate long-term results of the Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial after 12 years of follow-up. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 1996, a total of 114 women with locoregionally advanced cervical carcinoma were randomly assigned to RT or RT + HT. The RT was applied to a median total dose of 68 Gy. The HT was given once weekly. The primary end point was local control. Secondary end points were overall survival and late toxicity. Results: At the 12-year follow-up, local control remained better in the RT + HT group (37% vs. 56%; p = 0.01). Survival was persistently better after 12 years: 20% (RT) and 37% (RT + HT; p = 0.03). World Health Organization (WHO) performance status was a significant prognostic factor for local control. The WHO performance status, International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, and tumor diameter were significant for survival. The benefit of HT remained significant after correction for these factors. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Grade 3 or higher radiation-induced late toxicities were similar in both groups. Conclusions: For locoregionally advanced cervical cancer, the addition of HT to RT resulted in long-term major improvement in local control and survival without increasing late toxicity. This combined treatment should be considered for patients who are unfit to receive chemotherapy. For other patients, the optimal treatment strategy is the subject of ongoing research

  8. Optimum Onager: The Classical Mechanics of a Classical Siege Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The onager is a throwing weapon of classical antiquity, familiar to both the ancient Greeks and Romans. Here we analyze the dynamics of onager operation and derive the optimum angle for launching a projectile to its maximum range. There is plenty of scope for further considerations about increasing onager range, and so by thinking about how this…

  9. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  10. CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kozlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from

  11. Resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuti, Mine; Aikawa, Toshiki

    1981-01-01

    To investigate resonance phenomenon in classical cepheids, the non-linear radial oscillation of stars is studied based on the assumption that the non-adiabatic perturbation is expressed in terms of van der Pol's type damping. Two- and three-wave resonance in this system is applied to classical cepheids to describe their bump and double-mode behavior. The phase of bump and the depression of amplitude are explained for bump cepheids. The double-periodicity is shown by the enhancement of the third overtone in three-wave resonance. Non-linear effect on resonant period is also discussed briefly. (author)

  12. Classical planning and causal implicatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Benotti, Luciana

    In this paper we motivate and describe a dialogue manager (called Frolog) which uses classical planning to infer causal implicatures. A causal implicature is a type of Gricean relation implicature, a highly context dependent form of inference. As we shall see, causal implicatures are important...... to generate clarification requests"; as a result we can model task-oriented dialogue as an interactive process locally structured by negotiation of the underlying task. We give several examples of Frolog-human dialog, discuss the limitations imposed by the classical planning paradigm, and indicate...

  13. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  14. Classical resonances and quantum scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manderfeld, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    We study the correspondence between phase-space localization of quantum (quasi-)energy eigenstates and classical correlation decay, given by Ruelle-Pollicott resonances of the Frobenius-Perron operator. It will be shown that scarred (quasi-)energy eigenstates are correlated: pairs of eigenstates strongly overlap in phase space (scar in same phase-space regions) if the difference of their eigenenergies is close to the phase of a leading classical resonance. Phase-space localization of quantum states will be measured by L 2 norms of their Husimi functions

  15. Classical higher-order processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Classical Processes (CP) is a calculus where the proof theory of classical linear logic types processes à la Π-calculus, building on a Curry-Howard correspondence between session types and linear propositions. We contribute to this research line by extending CP with process mobility, inspired...... by the Higher-Order Π-calculus. The key to our calculus is that sequents are asymmetric: one side types sessions as in CP and the other types process variables, which can be instantiated with process values. The controlled interaction between the two sides ensures that process variables can be used at will......, but always respecting the linear usage of sessions expected by the environment....

  16. Classical solutions and extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alfaro, V.; Fubini, S.; Furlan, G.

    1980-03-01

    The existence and properties of classical solutions for gravity coupled to matter fields have been investigated previously with the limitation to conformally flat solutions. In the search for a guiding criterion to determine the form of the coupling among the fields, one is led to consider supersymmetric theories, and the question arises whether classical solutions persist in these models. It is found that a discrepancy persists between supergravity and standard meron solutions. Owing to the appearance of the scalar field, a new set of meron solutions exists for particular Lagrangian models. In conclusion, the form of solutions in Minkowski space is discussed

  17. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our primary source of information on Prof. Ruchi Ram Sahni is his typed autobiography, copies of which have been available with his descendants. Because of typing errors, illegibility, and other disabilities, their use had so far been limited. Now, his great-granddaughter, Neera Burra (whose article appears elsewhere.

  18. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    gravitational acceleration, the physical properties of air and water, and so forth. ... system, I will consider aspects of the physical world and ask what organisms, ..... speed should have little or no direct effect on water loss by transpiration.

  19. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    words, the origin (0;0) of the (x; y)-plane blows-up into the line x0 = 0 of the (x0 ... This is where I entered the picture. .... Especially I remember the tasty salads made with .... vacation cottage that I must do a better job in my introduction, because.

  20. CLASSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would say various things to make me give up insisting upon my request. But as I was .... I then asked him not to leave the observatory till further orders, ... I have yet to mention another incident when under very strange circumstances, luck.

  1. Cellular radiation effects and hyperthermia: Cytokinetic investigations with stationary phase yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingerhut, R.; Otto, F.; Oldiges, H.; Kiefer, J.

    1980-01-01

    Wild type diploid yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 211, was subjected to 250 kV X-rays or 50 0 C heat treatment for 30 min or to a combination of both. X-ray exposure took place either in air or in nitrogen. Cell number, percentage of budding cells and cell cycle progression was followed for up to 12 h post irradiation. The distribution of cell cycle stages was determined by flow cytofluorometry. All treatments cause a retardation of cell division rate. Hyperthermia leads mainly to a lengthening of G 1 , whereas X-rays arrest the cells reversibly in G 2 . The effect of the combined treatment appears to be merely additive. No selective action of hyperthermia on hypoxic cells was found. (orig.) [de

  2. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency-Induced Targeted Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Raoof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted biological therapies for hepatocellular cancer have shown minimal improvements in median survival. Multiple pathways to oncogenesis leading to rapid development of resistance to such therapies is a concern. Non-invasive radiofrequency field-induced targeted hyperthermia using nanoparticles is a radical departure from conventional modalities. In this paper we underscore the need for innovative strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer, describe the central paradigm of targeted hyperthermia using non-invasive electromagnetic energy, review the process of characterization and modification of nanoparticles for the task, and summarize data from cell-based and animal-based models of hepatocellular cancer treated with non-invasive RF energy. Finally, future strategies and challenges in bringing this modality from bench to clinic are discussed.

  3. Simple and Rapid Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatments via a Mechanochemical Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Nakatsuka, Ryo; Murase, Kenya; Takata, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideya; Watano, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a simple method for the rapid synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composite particles. In this method, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are first synthesized by coprecipitation using ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. Immediately following the synthesis, carbonate-substituted (B-type) hydroxyapatite particles are mechanochemically synthesized by wet milling dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium carbonate in a dispersed suspension of magnetite nanoparticles, during which the magnetite nanoparticles are incorporated into the hydroxyapatite matrix. We observed that the resultant magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites possessed a homogeneous dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles, characterized by an absence of large aggregates. When this material was subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the heat generated increased with increasing magnetite concentration. For a magnetite concentration of 30 mass%, a temperature increase greater than 20 K was achieved in less than 50 s. These results suggest that our composites exhibit good hyperthermia properties and are promising candidates for hyperthermia treatments. PMID:23629669

  4. Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on tumour and skin responses to hyperthermia in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakoshi, J.; Oda, W.; Inagaki, C.; Hiraoka, M.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) on tumour and skin responses to hyperthermia (42degC) were examined in C3H mice. MGBG (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to mice 4 hours before hyperthermic treatment. The tumour (FM3A) growth time was elongated by an amount dependent on the exposure time of treatment at 42degC (60, 90 and 120 min). Pre-treatment of mice with MGBG (50 mg/kg, i.p.) apparently further lengthened the tumour growth time after treatment at 42degC. No significant damage of foot skin was caused by 42degC hyperthermia. Pre-treatment with MGBG did not make the foot skin susceptible to the heating. From these findings, it can be considered that MGBG or related less-toxic compounds may have a clinical advantage for the mild (42degC) hyperthermic treatment in cancer therapy. (author)

  5. Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on tumour and skin responses to hyperthermia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyakoshi, J.; Oda, W.; Inagaki, C. (Kyoto Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan)); Hiraoka, M.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1984-09-01

    Effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG) on tumour and skin responses to hyperthermia (42degC) were examined in C3H mice. MGBG (50 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to mice 4 hours before hyperthermic treatment. The tumour (FM3A) growth time was elongated by an amount dependent on the exposure time of treatment at 42degC (60, 90 and 120 min). Pre-treatment of mice with MGBG (50 mg/kg, i.p.) apparently further lengthened the tumour growth time after treatment at 42degC. No significant damage of foot skin was caused by 42degC hyperthermia. Pre-treatment with MGBG did not make the foot skin susceptible to the heating. From these findings, it can be considered that MGBG or related less-toxic compounds may have a clinical advantage for the mild (42degC) hyperthermic treatment in cancer therapy.

  6. Hyperthermia in low aspect-ratio magnetic nanotubes for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Guzman, D. F.; Lizardi, L. I.; Otálora, J. A.; Landeros, P.

    2017-03-01

    A simple model for the magnetization reversal process of low aspect-ratio ferromagnetic nanotubes (MNTs) is presented. Because of advantages over other geometries, these structures are interesting for biomedical applications, such as magnetic hyperthermia cancer therapy, where the heat released during magnetic reversal is used to destroy tumors. For example, the tubular geometry provides two independent functional surfaces that may be selectively manipulated and also gives a storage cavity. Owing to their large surface to weight ratio and low mass density, MNTs are not decanted by gravity. We calculated magnetic phase diagrams, energy barriers, nucleation fields, and the amount of dissipated heat and specific absorption rate for magnetite nanotubes. The geometrical parameters were varied, and simple formulae were used to optimize the tube response under alternating excitation, as required for magnetic hyperthermia applications.

  7. Effect of SPIO Nanoparticle Concentrations on Temperature Changes for Hyperthermia via MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsayed A. M. Elsherbini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs are being developed for a wide range of biomedical applications. In particular, hyperthermia involves heating the MNPs through exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF. These materials offer the potential for selectively by heating cancer tissue locally and at the cellular level. This may be a successful method if there are enough particles in a tumor possessing sufficiently high specific absorption rate (SAR to deposit heat quickly while minimizing thermal damage to surrounding tissue. The current research aim is to study the influence of super paramagnetic iron oxides Fe3O4 (SPIO NPs concentration on the total heat energy dose and the rate of temperature change in AMF to induce hyperthermia in Ehrlich carcinoma cells implanted in female mice. The results demonstrated a linearly increasing trend between these two factors.

  8. Effects of X-ray irradiation combined with hyperthermia on human bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Huaijiang; Niu Rongjiu; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Huanqin

    1996-01-01

    The authors report on the effects of X-ray irradiation combined with hyperthermia on human bone marrow cells (BMC) in vitro. Observation was made on the morphology of treated cells under optic microscope and ultrastructural changes under electron microscope. The change was not obvious at first after treatment i,e, only the vacuolar degeneration was observed in a few cells under the EM. The survival of BMC alone after irradiation decreased with increase of the irradiation dose. The morphological changes included vacuolar degeneration of cells, swelling of mitochondria, and disintegration of nuclear membranes. The survival rate of BMC after irradiation combined with hyperthermia was significantly lower than that after treatment by either of them alone (P<0.01). The morphological changes were as follows: the cell structure was destroyed, the cell support system and cell organelles were destroyed, the cell membrane and nuclear membranes were destroyed, and the cell plasma and nuclear sap overflowed

  9. Using eye tracking technology to compare the effectiveness of malignant hyperthermia cognitive aid design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roderick; Hanhan, Jaber; Harrison, T Kyle; Kou, Alex; Howard, Steven K; Borg, Lindsay K; Shum, Cynthia; Udani, Ankeet D; Mariano, Edward R

    2018-05-15

    Malignant hyperthermia is a rare but potentially fatal complication of anesthesia, and several different cognitive aids designed to facilitate a timely and accurate response to this crisis currently exist. Eye tracking technology can measure voluntary and involuntary eye movements, gaze fixation within an area of interest, and speed of visual response and has been used to a limited extent in anesthesiology. With eye tracking technology, we compared the accessibility of five malignant hyperthermia cognitive aids by collecting gaze data from twelve volunteer participants. Recordings were reviewed and annotated to measure the time required for participants to locate objects on the cognitive aid to provide an answer; cumulative time to answer was the primary outcome. For the primary outcome, there were differences detected between cumulative time to answer survival curves (P typescript with minimal use of single color blocking.

  10. Depression of DNA synthesis rate following hyperthermia, gamma irradiation, cyclotron neutrons and mixed modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.J.; Muehlensiepen, H.; Porschen, W.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Dietzel, F.

    1978-01-01

    The incorporation of the thymidine analogue I-UdR is proportional to the activity of DNA synthesis. The maximum depression of 125-I-UdR incorporation occurs approximately 4 hours after all kinds of treatment. The increase which follow reflects cell processes like reoxygeneration, recovery, recycling and recruitment (although a direct relation is not yet demonstrable). The degree of depression 4 hours after treatment and the time required needs to reach control level is dependent on dose and radiation quaility but no such dependence could be clearly seen for the times of hyperthermia treatment we used. Neutron irradiation and the combination gamma irradiation + hyperthermia show a higher depression and a slower return to normal than gamma irradiation at the same dose. (orig.) [de

  11. Simple and Rapid Synthesis of Magnetite/Hydroxyapatite Composites for Hyperthermia Treatments via a Mechanochemical Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Iwasaki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple method for the rapid synthesis of magnetite/hydroxyapatite composite particles. In this method, superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are first synthesized by coprecipitation using ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. Immediately following the synthesis, carbonate-substituted (B-type hydroxyapatite particles are mechanochemically synthesized by wet milling dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium carbonate in a dispersed suspension of magnetite nanoparticles, during which the magnetite nanoparticles are incorporated into the hydroxyapatite matrix. We observed that the resultant magnetite/hydroxyapatite composites possessed a homogeneous dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles, characterized by an absence of large aggregates. When this material was subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the heat generated increased with increasing magnetite concentration. For a magnetite concentration of 30 mass%, a temperature increase greater than 20 K was achieved in less than 50 s. These results suggest that our composites exhibit good hyperthermia properties and are promising candidates for hyperthermia treatments.

  12. FDTD verification of deep-set brain tumor hyperthermia using a spherical microwave source distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, D. [20th Intelligence Squadron, Offutt AFB, NE (United States); Rappaport, C.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Center for Electromagnetics Research; Terzuoli, A.J. Jr. [Air Force Inst. of Tech., Dayton, OH (United States). Graduate School of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Although use of noninvasive microwave hyperthermia to treat cancer is problematic in many human body structures, careful selection of the source electric field distribution around the entire surface of the head can generate a tightly focused global power density maximum at the deepest point within the brain. An analytic prediction of the optimum volume field distribution in a layered concentric head model based on summing spherical harmonic modes is derived and presented. This ideal distribution is then verified using a three-dimensional finite difference time domain (TDTD) simulation with a discretized, MRI-based head model excited by the spherical source. The numerical computation gives a very similar dissipated power pattern as the analytic prediction. This study demonstrates that microwave hyperthermia can theoretically be a feasible cancer treatment modality for tumors in the head, providing a well-resolved hot-spot at depth without overheating any other healthy tissue.

  13. Large specific absorption rates in the magnetic hyperthermia properties of metallic iron nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdaoui, B.; Meffre, A.; Lacroix, L.-M. [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets), 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5215, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Carrey, J., E-mail: julian.carrey@insa-toulouse.f [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets), 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5215, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Lachaize, S. [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets), 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5215, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Gougeon, M. [Institut CARNOT-CIRIMAT-UMR 5085, Batiment 2R1, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Respaud, M. [Universite de Toulouse, INSA, UPS, LPCNO (Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-Objets), 135 avenue de Rangueil, F-31077 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5215, LPCNO, F-31077 Toulouse (France); Chaudret, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination-CNRS, 205 rte de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2010-10-15

    We report on the magnetic hyperthermia properties of chemically synthesized ferromagnetic 11 and 16 nm Fe(0) nanoparticles of cubic shape displaying the saturation magnetization of bulk iron. The specific absorption rate measured on 16 nm nanocubes is 1690{+-}160 W/g at 300 kHz and 66 mT. This corresponds to specific losses-per-cycle of 5.6 mJ/g, largely exceeding the ones reported in other systems. A way to quantify the degree of optimization of any system with respect to hyperthermia applications is proposed. Applied here, this method shows that our nanoparticles are not fully optimized, probably due to the strong influence of magnetic interactions on their magnetic response. Once protected from oxidation and further optimized, such nano-objects could constitute efficient magnetic cores for biomedical applications requiring very large heating power.

  14. [Modeling of processes of heat transfer in whole-body hyperthermia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsht, D N

    2006-01-01

    The method of whole-body hyperthermia in which the body temperature for a short time reaches values up to 43-44 degrees C holds currently much promise. However, at body temperatures above 42 degrees C, the risks associated with the hemodynamic instability and the appearance of arrhythmia in the patient increase. A model of heat transfer has been created to increase the efficiency and safety of the immersion-convectional method of whole-body hyperthermia. This model takes into account changes in the skin blood flow and the dynamics of pulse rate depending on body temperature. The model of heat transfer adequately reflects processes of heating of the organism and can form a basis for the calculation of distribution of heat inside the organism.

  15. Nano-magnetite coated with gold: alternative oncological therapy with magnetic hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova F, T.; Jimenez G, O.; Basurto I, G.; Martinez E, J. C.

    2017-10-01

    Localized hyperthermia performed through the use of nanoparticles is one of the most promising procedures for the cancer treatment. In this work, the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles (Fe 2 O 3 ) was carried out using the thermal decomposition method. Subsequently, these nanoparticles were coated with gold and suspended in aqueous phase. As a result, nanoparticles capable of being heated by the application of an alternating magnetic field or through the use of infrared radiation were obtained. As an additional feature, these nanoparticles are biocompatible thanks to their golden coating. The synthesized nanoparticles can be functionalized by the conjugation of a molecule (aptamer, antibody, peptide, etc.) whose target is a cancer cell in order to adhere to it the nanoparticle-marker complex, to subsequently carry out a heating with the objective of induce cell death. In conclusion, the synthesized nanoparticles allow providing an alternative treatment for cancer through the use of localized hyperthermia, either using magnetic or infrared heating. (Author)

  16. Intra-operative placement of catheters for interstitial microwave-induced hyperthermia and iridium brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughlin, C.T.; Wong, T.Z.; Strohbehn, J.W.; Colacchio, T.A.; Belch, R.Z.; Sutton, J.E. Jr.; Douple, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have previously described a system for delivery of microwave-induced hyperthermia utilizing flexible coaxial cables that are modified to serve as microwave antennas. These small (--1.6mm o.d.) antennas ae introduced into 2mm o.d. nylon catheters implanted in the tumor. This system has been further modified for use in the treatment of surgically unresectible abdominal, pelvic, and head and neck tumors. The modifications are described that were used to treat two pelvic, one upper abdominal, and one base of tongue tumor. The nylon catheters are implanted during surgery. After a short recovery period, the microwave antennas are inserted and the tumor region is heated for --1hr. The antennas are removed, iridium-192 seeds are placed in the catheters, 2800 - 5000 rad (CGy) doses are delivered, followed by a 1hr hyperthermia treatment. The temperature distributions and future applications are discussed

  17. A Case of Fatal Malignant Hyperthermia During Pes Equinovarus Surgery in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümüt Altuğ

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a genetic syndrome characterized by hyperthermia, tachycardia, acidosis, and muscle rigidity, often triggered by depolarizing muscle relaxants such as volatile anesthetics and/or succinylcholine. MH usually develops following anesthesia induction, but may occur during and after a surgical intervention. A 4.5-year-old boy was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit considering MH due to persistent fever, tachycardia and end-tidal carbon dioxide elevation which developed during pes equinovarus surgery. In the follow-up, hypercapnia, fever and refractory metabolic acidosis recurred. Despite the administration of dantrolene sodium and supportive treatments, the patient died. This case is presented to remind the possibility of MH which may be fatal in patients receiving general anesthesia and to emphasize the follow-up and treatment of the patients with MH in pediatric intensive care unit.

  18. Matricial theory in classical photoelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, D.

    1980-01-01

    The matrix calculus in classical photoelasticity is used. Transfer functions for different polariscope arrangements are calculated. Linear polariscopes, circular polariscopes, double-exposure method to obtain isochromatics and Tardy and Senarmont method of measuring fractional relative retardations are analysed using coherency matrix formalism. (author)

  19. Agglomeration Economies in Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates agglomeration effects for classical music production in a wide range of cities for a global sample of composers born between 1750 and 1899. Theory suggests a trade-off between agglomeration economies (peer effects) and diseconomies (peer crowding). I test this hypothesis...

  20. Solved problems in classical electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2018-01-01

    This original Dover publication is the companion to a new edition of the author's Classical Electromagnetism: Second Edition. The latter volume will feature only basic answers; this book will contain some problems from the reissue as well as many other new ones. All feature complete, worked-out solutions and form a valuable source of problem-solving material for students.

  1. Doing classical theology in context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    It is a critical concept, because it involves a break with ... question of the sense in which our context and culture have been interrupted by acts of ... challenge of reading a classical text is not only intellectual but also moral or existential. ..... and an opponent of pragmatic and relativistic conceptions8 I want to stress the.

  2. Classical Music as Enforced Utopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech-Wilkinson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In classical music composition, whatever thematic or harmonic conflicts may be engineered along the way, everything always turns out for the best. Similar utopian thinking underlies performance: performers see their job as faithfully carrying out their master's (the composer's) wishes. The more perfectly they represent them, the happier the…

  3. Supersymmetric classical mechanics: free case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza]. E-mail: rafael@cfp.ufpb.br; Almeida, W. Pires de [Paraiba Univ., Cajazeiras, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza; Fonseca Neto, I. [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2001-06-01

    We present a review work on Supersymmetric Classical Mechanics in the context of a Lagrangian formalism, with N = 1-supersymmetry. We show that the N = 1 supersymmetry does not allow the introduction of a potencial energy term depending on a single commuting supercoordinate, {phi}(t;{theta}). (author)

  4. Teaching Classical Mechanics Using Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Joel; Madani, Laya; Ledenmat, Simon; Bsiesy, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    A number of articles published in this column have dealt with topics in classical mechanics. This note describes some additional examples employing a smartphone and the new software iMecaProf. Steve Jobs presented the iPhone as "perfect for gaming." Thanks to its microsensors connected in real time to the numerical world, physics…

  5. Semi-classical signal analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Cré peau, Emmanuelle; Sorine, Michel

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a new signal analysis method, based on a semi-classical approach. The main idea in this method is to interpret a pulse-shaped signal as a potential of a Schrödinger operator and then to use the discrete spectrum

  6. Classical databases and knowledge organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers classical bibliographic databases based on the Boolean retrieval model (such as MEDLINE and PsycInfo). This model is challenged by modern search engines and information retrieval (IR) researchers, who often consider Boolean retrieval a less efficient approach. The paper...

  7. Neo-classical impurity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringer, T.E.

    The neo-classical theory for impurity transport in a toroidal plasma is outlined, and the results discussed. A general account is given of the impurity behaviour and its dependence on collisionality. The underlying physics is described with special attention to the role of the poloidal rotation

  8. ‘Smart’ gold nanoshells for combined cancer chemotherapy and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhongshi; Xie, Yegui; Liu, Shunying; Li, Xingui

    2014-01-01

    Nanomaterials that circulate in the body have great potential in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Here we report that ‘smart’ gold nanoshells can carry a drug payload, and that their intrinsic near-infrared (NIR) plasmon resonance enables the combination of chemotherapeutic and hyperthermia therapies. The ‘smart’ gold nanoshells (named DOX/A54@GNs) consist of (a) gold nanoshells (GNs) with NIR plasmon resonance, which not only act as nanoblocks but also produce local heat to allow hyperthermia; (b) an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), which was conjugated onto the nanoblocks by pH-dependent biodegradable copolymer thiol poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives via carbamate linkage; and (c) the targeting peptide A54 (AGKGTPSLETTP) to facilitate its orientation to liver cancer cells and enhance cellular uptake. The conjugated DOX was released from the DOX/A54@GNs much more rapidly in an acidic environment (pH 5.3) than in a neutral environment (pH 7.4), which is a desirable characteristic for intracellular tumor drug release. DOX-modified GNs showed pH-dependent release behavior, and the in vitro cell uptake experiment using ICP-AES and microscopy showed greater internalization of A54-modified GNs in the human liver cancer cell line BEL-7402 than of those without A54. Flow cytometry and fluoroscopy analysis were conducted to reveal the enhanced cell apoptosis caused by the A54-modified GNs under combined chemotherapeutic and hyperthermia therapies. These results imply that DOX/A54@GNs could be used as a multifunctional nanomaterial system with pH-triggered drug-releasing properties for tumor-targeted chemotherapy and hyperthermia. (paper)

  9. Hyperthermia effects in the presence of gold nanoparticles together with chemotherapy on Saos-2 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazgarnia, A.; Bahreyni Toosi, M. H.; Haji Ghahremani, F.; Rajabi, O.; Aledavood, A.; Esmaily, H.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperthermia created by microwave, infrared, ultrasound and other methods, is often utilized as an adjuvant to sensitize cancer cells to the effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We investigated the efficacy of hyperthermia using microwave in synergy with chemotherapy in the presence and absence and gold nanoparticles. Material and Methods: After culturing and proliferation of the Saos-2 cell line derived from human osteogenic sarcoma, the cells were incubated at two concentrations of gold nanoparticles in two diameters of 20 and 40 nm and in the absence and presence of doxorubicin in different groups. Forty eight hours after irradiating the cells with microwave up to a temperature of 42 d egree C , cell survival rate was determined using the MTT method, in order to study the effectiveness of the therapeutic parameters. Results: Cell survival in the presence of gold nanoparticles was greater than 95%. After chemotherapy by doxorubicin with and without 40 nm gold nanoparticles, cell survival rates were determined as 62.8% and 37.1 %, declining down to 17% and 4.1% respectively following the combined treatment with microwave and chemotherapy in the presence of 20 and 40 nm gold nanoparticles. Discussion and Conclusions: Gold nanoparticles did not induce any cytotoxicity by themselves; their presence along with microwave provided a reduction in survival rate that was comparable in severity with the lethal effects of doxorubicin. microwave hyperthermia with gold nanoparticles produced a higher treatment efficiency in comparison to similar groups in which gold nanoparticles were absent. The synergism observed between hyperthermia and chemotherapy was dependent in gold nanoparticles' size and concentration. This finding could be caused by increased uptake of doxorubicin by the cells in the presence of gold nanoparticles.

  10. Transient mild hyperthermia induces E-selectin mediated localization of mesoporous silicon vectors in solid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickson K Kirui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperthermia treatment has been explored as a strategy to overcome biological barriers that hinder effective drug delivery in solid tumors. Most studies have used mild hyperthermia treatment (MHT to target the delivery of thermo-sensitive liposomes carriers. Others have studied its application to permeabilize tumor vessels and improve tumor interstitial transport. However, the role of MHT in altering tumor vessel interfacial and adhesion properties and its relationship to improved delivery has not been established. In the present study, we evaluated effects of MHT treatment on tumor vessel flow dynamics and expression of adhesion molecules and assessed enhancement in particle localization using mesoporous silicon vectors (MSVs. We also determined the optimal time window at which maximal accumulation occur. RESULTS: In this study, using intravital microscopy analyses, we showed that temporal mild hyperthermia (∼1 W/cm(2 amplified delivery and accumulation of MSVs in orthotopic breast cancer tumors. The number of discoidal MSVs (1000×400 nm adhering to tumor vasculature increased 6-fold for SUM159 tumors and 3-fold for MCF-7 breast cancer tumors. By flow chamber experiments and Western blotting, we established that a temporal increase in E-selectin expression correlated with enhanced particle accumulation. Furthermore, MHT treatment was shown to increase tumor perfusion in a time-dependent fashion. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that well-timed mild hyperthermia treatment can transiently elevate tumor transport and alter vascular adhesion properties and thereby provides a means to enhance tumor localization of non-thermally sensitive particles such as MSVs. Such enhancement in accumulation could be leveraged to increase therapeutic efficacy and reduce drug dosing in cancer therapy.

  11. Modeling of various kinds of applicators used for microwave hyperthermia based on the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camart, J.C.; Despretz, D.; Chive, M.; Pribetich, J. [Domaine Scientifique et Univ. de Villeneuve D`Ascq (France). Dept. Hyperfrequencies et Semiconducteurs

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents the modeling using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method of interstitial and endocavitary applicators which have been designed and developed for microwave hyperthermia treatments controlled by microwave radiometry. For each kind of applicators, the numerical results are given concerning the reflection coefficient S{sub 11}, the power deposition, and the heating patterns. These results are compared with the measurements performed on phantom models of human tissues and show a good agreement. Possibilities of future developments are discussed.

  12. Targeting to carcinoma cells with chitosan- and starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2009-01-01

    The delivery of hyperthermic thermoseeds to a specific target site with minimal side effects is an important challenge in targeted hyperthermia, which employs magnetic method and functional polymers. An external magnetic field is used to control the site-specific targeting of the magnetic nanoparticles. Polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles can confer a higher affinity to the biological cell membranes. In this study, uncoated, chitosan-coated, and starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized for use as a hyperthermic thermoseed. Each sample was examined with respect to their applications to hyperthermia using XRD, VSM, and FTIR. In addition, the temperature changes under an alternating magnetic field were observed. As in vitro tests, the magnetic responsiveness of chitosan- and starch-coated magnetite was determined by a simple blood vessel model under various intensities of magnetic field. L929 normal cells and KB carcinoma cells were used to examine the cytotoxicity and affinity of each sample using the MTT method. The chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles generated a higher DeltaT of 23 degrees C under an AC magnetic field than the starch-coated magnetite, and the capturing rate of the particles was 96% under an external magnetic field of 0.4 T. The highest viability of L929 cells was 93.7%. Comparing the rate of KB cells capture with the rate of L929 cells capture, the rate of KB cells capture relatively increased with 10.8% in chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles. Hence, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles are biocompatible and have a selective affinity to KB cells. The targeting of magnetic nanoparticles in hyperthermia was improved using a controlled magnetic field and a chitosan-coating. Therefore, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles are expected to be promising materials for use in magnetic targeted hyperthermia. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Role of blood flow and blood flow modifiers in clinical hyperthermia therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olch, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the effect of localized magnetic-loop hyperthermia on blood flow was performed on 12 patients (19 tumor studies) using the Xenon-133 clearance method. After it was discovered that blood flow in most of the tumors increased in response to needle injection, a physiologically based, one compartment model was developed that included both a hyperemic (transient) and a steady state component. In the tumors of six patients, increases in blood flow induced by heat were also observed. The same model was used to describe the measured clearance data for both types of hyperemic response. The ability of tumor vessels to respond dynamically to stress and the degree of response may be predictive of tumor heating efficiency and subsequent therapeutic response. Many tumors treated by hyperthermia, therefore, do not reach therapeutic temperatures (42 0 C). One explanation for this may be that some tumors react to thermal stress in a manner similar to normal tissues; i.e., they increase blood flow during hyperthermia in order to dissipate heat. Higher temperatures might be achieved in these heat-resistant tumors by administering vasoconstrictive agents in an effort to reduce blood flow. In the second part of this research study, the extent to which pharmacologic inhibition of local blood flow might allow higher temperatures to develop in normal muscles exposed to localized radiofrequency hyperthermia was determined. It was found that the local muscle temperature rise could be increased by at least 90% in dogs and rabbits with the use of a local vasoconstrictive drug

  14. Preparation and characterization of composite microspheres for brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Di; Huang Wenhai; Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Wang Deping; Gu Yifei

    2012-01-01

    Composite microspheres were prepared by coating yttrium–aluminum–silicate (YAS) glass microspheres (20–30 μm) with a layer of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and evaluated for potential use in brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. After neutron activation to form the β-emitting 90 Y radionuclide, the composite microspheres can be injected into a patient to destroy cancerous tumors; at the same time, the composite microspheres can generate heat upon application of a magnetic field to also destroy the tumors. The results showed that the composite microspheres were chemically durable when immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF), with ∼ 0.25% weight loss and ∼ 3.2% yttrium dissolved into the SBF after 30 days at 37 °C. The composite microspheres also showed ferromagnetic properties as a result of the Fe 3 O 4 coating; when immersed in water at 20 °C (20 mg in 1 mL of water), the application of an alternating magnetic field produced a temperature increase from 20 °C to 38−46 °C depending on the thickness of the Fe 3 O 4 coating. The results indicate that these composite microspheres have promising potential in combined brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancerous tumors. - Highlights: ► Composite microspheres for brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatment of cancer. ► Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles coated on the yttrium–aluminum–silicate glass microspheres. ► Microspheres are chemically stable in SBF. ► Microspheres can generate heat for hyperthermia under an alternating magnetic field. ► Microspheres can emit β-rays for brachytherapy after neutron activation.

  15. Changes in tumor oxygenation during a combined treatment with fractionated irradiation and hyperthermia: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywietz, F; Reeker, W; Kochs, E

    1997-01-01

    To determine the influence of adjuvant hyperthermia on the oxygenation status of fractionated irradiated tumors. Oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in rat rhabdomyosarcomas (R1H) was measured sequentially at weekly intervals during a fractionated irradiation with 60Co-gamma-rays (60 Gy/20f/4 weeks) in combination with local hyperthermia (8 f(HT) at 43 degrees C, 1 h/4 weeks). Tumors were heated twice weekly with a 2450 MHz microwave device at 43 degrees C, 1 h starting 10 min after irradiation. The pO2 measurements (pO2-histograph, Eppendorf, Germany) were performed in anesthetized animals during mechanical ventilation and in hemodynamic steady state. All tumor pO2 measurements were correlated to measurements of the arterial oxygen partial pressure (paO2) determined by a blood gas analyzer. The oxygenation status of R1H tumors decreased continuously from the start of the combined treatment, with increasing radiation dose and number of heat fractions. In untreated controls a median tumor pO2 of 23 +/- 2 mmHg (mean +/- SEM) was measured. Tumor pO2 decreased to 11 +/- 2 mmHg after 30 Gy + 4 HT (2 weeks), and to 6 +/- 2 mmHg after 60 Gy + 8HT (4 weeks). The increase in the frequency of pO2-values below 5 mmHg and the decrease in the range of the pO2 histograms [delta p(10/90)] further indicated that tumor hypoxia increased relatively rapidly from the start of combined treatment. After 60 Gy + 8HT 48 +/- 5% (mean +/- SEM) of the pO2-values recorded were below 5 mmHg. These findings suggest that adjuvant hyperthermia to radiotherapy induces greater changes in tumor oxygenation than radiation alone [cf. (39)]. This might be of importance for the temporary application of hyperthermia in the course of a conventional radiation treatment.

  16. Radiosensitization of hypoxic bacterial cells and animal tumours by membrane active drugs and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.B.; Srinivasan, V.T.; Shenoy, M.A.; George, K.C.; Maniar, H.S.; Rawat, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    The present report deals with the results on phenothiazine derivatives such as promethazine (PMZ), trimeprazine (TMZ), trifluoperazine (TFP) and prochlorperazine (PCP) and their comparison with that of chlorpromazine (CPZ). Their efficiency in combination with hyperthermia, radiation and other anti-cancer drugs in treating murine tumors has also been presented herein. In addition, results on bacterial cells dealing with their mechanistic aspects are also included. (author). 57 refs., 27 figures, 13 tables

  17. Efficacy and limitations of hyperthermia using a 13.56 MHz radiofrequency capacitive heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamori, Jiro; Ito, Hideo; Kato, Ken-ichi; Hayasaka, Kazumasa; Saito, Tsutomu; Urahashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki

    1996-01-01

    Between August 1989 and June 1995, 123 patients were treated with hyperthermia using a 13.56 MHz RF capacitive heating system (HEH 500C/OMRON). Hyperthermia was combined with radiation therapy in 103 patients, with radiochemotherapy in 15 patients, with chemotherapy in 3 patients, and was used in 2 patients. Among the 123 patients, 92 completed hyperthermia and the remaining 31 discontinued it. Of these 31 patients, hyperthermia was discontinued because of local pain during heating in 22 cases and because of the poor general condition the remaining 9 patients. The initial response rate of the 92 patients completing therapy was 54.3%. CR, PR, NC and PD were achieved in 15, 35, 37, and 5 case, respectively. Initial response rates for head/neck, breast, and bone/soft tissue tumors were better than for other primary sites. The initial response rate for superficial tumors was better than that for deep seated tumors. Prognostic factors that significantly influenced the initial response rate were the radiation dose, number of heating sessions, tumor histology, and primary site. Concerning pain during heating, severe pain or discontinuation due to pain occurred were observed in 49 cases (39.8%). The factors having a significant correlation with pain during heating were applicator arrangement, applicator size, heating site, and tumor depth. In 24 patients, erosions or ulcers occurred (27.2%). The factors having a significant correlation with acute skin reactions, were applicator arrangement, applicator size, radiation therapy, tumor depth, and proximity to bone. In 12 cases, fat necrosis was observed (13%). Multiple regression analysis showed that the thickness of the subcutaneous fat, and the applicator arrangement had a significant correlation with the occurrence of fat necrosis. (K.H.)

  18. Hyperthermia-induced disruption of functional connectivity in the human brain network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passive hyperthermia is a potential risk factor to human cognitive performance and work behavior in many extreme work environments. Previous studies have demonstrated significant effects of passive hyperthermia on human cognitive performance and work behavior. However, there is a lack of a clear understanding of the exact affected brain regions and inter-regional connectivities. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We simulated 1 hour environmental heat exposure to thirty-six participants under two environmental temperature conditions (25 °C and 50 °C, and collected resting-state functional brain activity. The functional connectivities with a preselected region of interest (ROI in the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus (PCC/PCu, furthermore, inter-regional connectivities throughout the entire brain using a prior Anatomical Automatic Labeling (AAL atlas were calculated. We identified decreased correlations of a set of regions with the PCC/PCu, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and bilateral medial temporal cortex, as well as increased correlations with the partial orbitofrontal cortex particularly in the bilateral orbital superior frontal gyrus. Compared with the normal control (NC group, the hyperthermia (HT group showed 65 disturbed functional connectivities with 50 of them being decreased and 15 of them being increased. While the decreased correlations mainly involved with the mOFC, temporal lobe and occipital lobe, increased correlations were mainly located within the limbic system. In consideration of physiological system changes, we explored the correlations of the number of significantly altered inter-regional connectivities with differential rectal temperatures and weight loss, but failed to obtain significant correlations. More importantly, during the attention network test (ANT we found that the number of significantly altered functional connectivities was positively correlated with an increase in

  19. Development of a spherically focused phased array transducer for ultrasonic image-guided hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingfei; Foiret, Josquin; Stephens, Douglas N.; Le Baron, Olivier; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2016-01-01

    A 1.5 MHz prolate spheroidal therapeutic array with 128 circular elements was designed to accommodate standard imaging arrays for ultrasonic image-guided hyperthermia. The implementation of this dual-array system integrates real-time therapeutic and imaging functions with a single ultrasound system (Vantage 256, Verasonics). To facilitate applications involving small animal imaging and therapy the array was designed to have a beam depth of field smaller than 3.5 mm and to electronically steer...

  20. On the validation of risk analysis-A commentary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosqvist, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Aven and Heide (2009) [1] provided interesting views on the reliability and validation of risk analysis. The four validation criteria presented are contrasted with modelling features related to the relative frequency-based and Bayesian approaches to risk analysis. In this commentary I would like to bring forth some issues on validation that partly confirm and partly suggest changes in the interpretation of the introduced validation criteria-especially, in the context of low probability-high consequence systems. The mental model of an expert in assessing probabilities is argued to be a key notion in understanding the validation of a risk analysis.