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  1. [Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

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    Escudero, Eduardo M; Pinilla, Oscar A; Carranza, Verónica B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV) geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W). Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), relative wall thickness (RWT), stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic parameters. Normal LV was defined considering the mean plus 2 SD of LVMI and RWT in W. Patterns of abnormal LV geometry were: LV concentric remodeling, LVMI 0.71; eccentric, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), LVMI > 2.06 mg/g - RWT 2.06 mg/g - RWT > 0.71. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiac output (CO) were used to obtain total peripheral resistance (TPR). twelve % of SHR had normal LV geometry; 18% LV concentric remodeling; 33% concentric LVH and 37% eccentric LVH. LV concentric remodeling showed the smallest CO and highest TPR of any group. Eccentric LVH presented similar SBP as the other SHR groups and high CO with lower TPR. Our findings in SHR exhibit different patterns of LV geometry like in humans. These results strengthen the similarities between SHR and human essential hypertension.

  2. APOPTOSIS OF DIFFERENT MYOCARDIAL CELLS CONTRIBUTES TO LEFT VENTRICULAR REMODELING IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

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    陈卫兵; 殷明; 秦永文

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the change and role of apoptosis in hypertensive left ventricular remodeling. Methods Hearts from 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats(WKY) were investigated. Apoptosis in left ventricle sections was assessed by in situ end-labeling technique(TUNEL), the feature and type of cells undergoing apoptosis were identified uitrastructurally by transmission electron microscope (ECM). Additionally, localization of Fas protein-a mediator of apoptotic cell death was ex-

  3. Moderate exercise training does not worsen left ventricle remodeling and function in untreated severe hypertensive rats.

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    Boissiere, Julien; Eder, Véronique; Machet, Marie-Christine; Courteix, Daniel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2008-02-01

    Exercise training and hypertension induced cardiac hypertrophy but modulate differently left ventricle (LV) function. This study set out to evaluate cardiac adaptations induced by moderate exercise training in normotensive and untreated severe hypertensive rats. Four groups of animals were studied: normotensive (Ctl) and severe hypertensive (HT) Wistar rats were assigned to be sedentary (Sed) or perform a moderate exercise training (Ex) over a 10-wk period. Severe hypertension was induced in rat by a two-kidney, one-clip model. At the end of the training period, hemodynamic parameters and LV morphology and function were assessed using catheterism and conventional pulsed Doppler echocardiography. LV histology was performed to study fibrosis infiltrations. Severe hypertension increased systolic blood pressure to 202 +/- 9 mmHg and induced pathological hypertrophy (LV hypertrophy index was 0.34 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.02 in Ctl-Sed and HT-Sed groups, respectively) with LV relaxation alteration (early-to-atrial wave ratio = 2.02 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.63 +/- 0.12). Blood pressure was not altered by exercise training, but arterial stiffness was reduced in trained hypertensive rats (pulse pressure was 75 +/- 7 vs. 62 +/- 3 mmHg in HT-Sed and HT-Ex groups, respectively). Exercise training induced eccentric hypertrophy in both Ex groups by increasing LV cavity without alteration of LV systolic function. However, LV hypertrophy index was significantly decreased in normotensive rats only (0.34 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.02 in Ctl-Sed and Ctl-Ex groups, respectively). Moreover, exercise training improved LV passive filling in Ctl-Ex rats but not in Ht-Ex rats. In this study, exercise training did not reduce blood pressure and induced an additional physiological hypertrophy in untreated HT rats, which was slightly blunted when compared with Ctl rats. However, cardiac function was not worsened by exercise training.

  4. Effect of Xinjikang on left ventricular hypertrophy remodeling in hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Bo Liu; Chun-Hua Lin; Guang-Yu Zhou; Guo-Zhen Chen; Wei-Yan Cai

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects ofXinjikang on the left ventricular hypertrophy remodeling and myocardial activity in hypertension.Methods:SixtyWistar rats were randomly divided into four groups.The pressure-loaded left ventricular hypertrophy model was established with abdominal aorta ligation method.Rats inA andB groups were intragastrically administered with physiological saline, whileC andD groups were administered withXinjikang and metoprolol, respectively.The changes in blood pressure,E/A ratio, myocardial pathological morphology, myocardial lipoperoxides and superoxide dismustase activity in four groups were observed and compared before and after treatment. Results:There were statistically significant differences inE/A ratio betweenC group after treatment and model group(P0.05); after treatment the myocardial lipoperoxides and superoxide dismustase contents inC andD groups were improved significantly compared with model group(P<0.05).Conclusions:Xinjikang can improve myocardial injury, restore myocardial parenchyma and myocardial interstitial remodeling functions in hypertensive rats with the left ventricular hypertrophy.

  5. The cardiopulmonary reflexes of spontaneously hypertensive rats are normalized after regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension

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    T.A. Uggere

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary reflexes are activated via changes in cardiac filling pressure (volume-sensitive reflex and chemical stimulation (chemosensitive reflex. The sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to these stimuli is impaired in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR and other models of hypertension and is thought to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy. The present study investigated whether the sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary reflexes in SHR is restored when cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension are reduced by enalapril treatment. Untreated SHR and WKY rats were fed a normal diet. Another groups of rats were treated with enalapril (10 mg kg-1 day-1, mixed in the diet; SHRE or WKYE for one month. After treatment, the volume-sensitive reflex was evaluated in each group by determining the decrease in magnitude of the efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA produced by acute isotonic saline volume expansion. Chemoreflex sensitivity was evaluated by examining the bradycardia response elicited by phenyldiguanide administration. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined from the left ventricular/body weight (LV/BW ratio. Volume expansion produced an attenuated renal sympathoinhibitory response in SHR as compared to WKY rats. As compared to the levels observed in normotensive WKY rats, however, enalapril treatment restored the volume expansion-induced decrease in RSNA in SHRE. SHR with established hypertension had a higher LV/BW ratio (45% as compared to normotensive WKY rats. With enalapril treatment, the LV/BW ratio was reduced to 19% in SHRE. Finally, the reflex-induced bradycardia response produced by phenyldiguanide was significantly attenuated in SHR compared to WKY rats. Unlike the effects on the volume reflex, the sensitivity of the cardiac chemosensitive reflex to phenyldiguanide was not restored by enalapril treatment in SHRE. Taken together, these results indicate that the impairment of the volume-sensitive, but not the

  6. The complex regulation of tanshinone IIA in rats with hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

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    Pang, Hui; Han, Bing; Yu, Tao; Peng, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA has definite protective effects on various cardiovascular diseases. However, in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH), the signaling pathways of tanshinone IIA in inhibition of remodeling and cardiac dysfunction remain unclear. Two-kidney, one-clip induced hypertensive rats (n = 32) were randomized to receive tanshinone IIA (5, 10, 15 mg/kg per day) or 5% glucose injection (GS). Sham-operated rats (n = 8) received 5%GS as control. Cardiac function and dimensions were assessed by using an echocardiography system. Histological determination of the fibrosis and apoptosis was performed using hematoxylin eosin, Masson's trichrome and TUNEL staining. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 2 (TIMP2) protein expressions in rat myocardial tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Rat cardiomyocytes were isolated by a Langendorff perfusion method. After 48 h culture, the supernatant and cardiomyocytes were collected to determine the potential related proteins impact on cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis. Compared with the sham rats, the heart tissues of H-LVH (5%GS) group suffered severely from the oxidative damage, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In the H-LVH group, tanshinone IIA treated decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocytes apoptosis as confirmed by the reduction of TUNEL positive cardiomyocytes and the down-regulation of Caspase-3 activity and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Meanwhile, plasma apelin level increased with down-regulation of APJ receptor. Tanshinone IIA suppressed cardiac fibrosis through regulating the paracrine factors released by cardiomyocytes and the TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our in vivo study showed that tanshinone IIA could improve heart function by enhancing myocardial contractility, inhibiting ECM deposition

  7. The complex regulation of tanshinone IIA in rats with hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

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    Hui Pang

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA has definite protective effects on various cardiovascular diseases. However, in hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (H-LVH, the signaling pathways of tanshinone IIA in inhibition of remodeling and cardiac dysfunction remain unclear. Two-kidney, one-clip induced hypertensive rats (n = 32 were randomized to receive tanshinone IIA (5, 10, 15 mg/kg per day or 5% glucose injection (GS. Sham-operated rats (n = 8 received 5%GS as control. Cardiac function and dimensions were assessed by using an echocardiography system. Histological determination of the fibrosis and apoptosis was performed using hematoxylin eosin, Masson's trichrome and TUNEL staining. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases type 2 (TIMP2 protein expressions in rat myocardial tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Rat cardiomyocytes were isolated by a Langendorff perfusion method. After 48 h culture, the supernatant and cardiomyocytes were collected to determine the potential related proteins impact on cardiac fibrosis and apoptosis. Compared with the sham rats, the heart tissues of H-LVH (5%GS group suffered severely from the oxidative damage, apoptosis of cardiomyocytes and extracellular matrix (ECM deposition. In the H-LVH group, tanshinone IIA treated decreased malondialdehyde (MDA content and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity. Tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocytes apoptosis as confirmed by the reduction of TUNEL positive cardiomyocytes and the down-regulation of Caspase-3 activity and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Meanwhile, plasma apelin level increased with down-regulation of APJ receptor. Tanshinone IIA suppressed cardiac fibrosis through regulating the paracrine factors released by cardiomyocytes and the TGF-β/Smads signaling pathway activity. In conclusion, our in vivo study showed that tanshinone IIA could improve heart function by enhancing myocardial contractility, inhibiting ECM

  8. Atorvastatin prevents connexin43 remodeling in hypertrophied left ventricular myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    CHEN Hong-juan; YAO Lei; CHEN Tu-gang; YU Min; WANG Li-hong; CHEN Jun-zhu

    2007-01-01

    Background Connexin43 (Cx43) is the predominant gap junction protein in heart and is involved in the control of cell-to-cell communication to modulate the contractility and the electrical coupling of cardiac myocytes. Left ventricular(LV) hypertrophy is accompanied by changes of Cx43 expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that statins reduced cardiac hypertrophy. However, it is unknown whether statins can affect Cx43 expression in hypertrophied left ventricular myocardium. This study was designed to assess the effects of atorvastatin on LV hypertrophy and Cx43 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods Nine-week old SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. Some received atorvastatin at 30 mg/kg by oral gavage once daily for 8 weeks (SHR-A); others received vehicle. Age-matched Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) received atorvastatin or vehicle for 8 weeks were used as controls. At the end of the experiment, we investigated LV hypertrophy and the expression of Cx43 in LV myocardium in four groups. Cx43 expression was investigated by the methods of Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscope. LV hypertrophy was accessed by pathological analysis and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level.Results LV hypertrophy was prominent in untreated SHR. In SHR, LV myocardium Cx43 level was upregulated, and the distribution of Cx43 was displaced from their usual locations to other sites at various distances away from the intercalated disks. After atorvastatin treatment, myocardium Cx43 level was reduced in SHR-A, and the distribution of Cx43 gap junction became much regular and confined to intercalated disk. Statins also prevented LV hypertrophy in SHR.Conclusions These results provide novel in vivo evidence for the key role of Cx43 gap junctions in LV hypertrophy and the possible mechanism in anti-hypertrophic effect of statins. Atorvastatin treatment may have beneficial effects on LV hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive

  9. Losartan reduced connexin43 expression in left ventricular myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Li-li ZHAO; Hong-juan CHEN; Jun-zhu CHEN; Min YU; Yun-lan NI; Wei-fang ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan on myocardium connexin43 (Cx43) gap junction (GJ) expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigate possible mechanisms. Methods: Sixteen 9-week-old male SHRs and 8 age-matched male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were included in this study. SHRs were randomly divided into two groups to receive losartan at 30mg/(kg·d) by oral gavage once daily for 8 weeks (SHR-L) or vehicle (0.9% saline) to act as controls (SHR-V); WKY rats receiving vehicle for 8 weeks served as normotensive controls. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed and the hearts were removed. Expressions of Cx43 and nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65) proteins in all three groups were observed and further investigations on the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor antagonist losartan (30mg/(kg·d), 8 weeks) on Cx43 expression were conducted with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. NF-κB p65 protein in nuclear extracts was determined by Western blot. Results: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was prominent in SHRs, Cx43 and NF-κB p65 protein expressions were obviously upregulated and Cx43 distribution was dispersed over the cell surface. Treatment with losarton reduced the over-expressions of Cx43 and NF-κB p65 in LV myocardium. The distribution of Cx43 gap junction also became much regular and confined to intercalated disk after losartan treatment. Conclusion: Cx43 level was upregulated in LV myocardium of SHR during early stage of hypertrophy. Angiotensin Ⅱ type l receptor antagonist losartan prevented Cx43 gap junction remodeling in hypertrophied left ventricles, possibly through the NF-κB pathway.

  10. Long-term intake of sesamin improves left ventricular remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Li, Wen-xing; Kong, Xiang; Zhang, Jun-xiu; Yang, Jie-ren

    2013-02-26

    This study was designed to evaluate the in vivo cardioprotective effects of food-derived sesamin in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The study was performed with 17-week-old male normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR which are untreated or treated with orally administered sesamin for 16 weeks before they were sacrificed. Long-term treatment with sesamin obviously improved left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis in SHR, as indicated by the decrease of LV weight/body weight, myocardial cell size, cardiac fibrosis and collagen type I expression as well as the amelioration of the LV ultrastructure. These effects were associated with reduced systolic blood pressure, enhanced cardiac total antioxidant capability and decreased malondialdehyde content, nitrotyrosine level and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression. All these results suggest that chronic treatment with sesamin improves LV remodeling in SHR through alleviation of oxidative and nitrative stress, reduction of blood pressure and downregulation of TGF-β1 expression.

  11. Traditional Chinese medicine suppresses left ventricular hypertrophy by targeting extracellular signal-regulated kinases signaling pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Duan, Lian; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Shengjie; Li, Xiaoke

    2017-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine Bu-Shen-Jiang-Ya decoction (BSJYD) is reported to be beneficial for hypertension. Over expression of extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) pathway plays an important role in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). This study aimed to observe effects of BSJYD on LVH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and explore its possible mechanism on regulation of ERK pathway. Sixty 12-week-old SHRs were randomly allocated into 5 groups: BSJYD high dose group, middle dose group, low dose group, captopril group, and control group. Besides, a control group of Wistar-Kyoto rats was established. All rats were treated for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), pathology, and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were measured. Western blotting and Real-time PCR were used to assess the expressions of BDNF, Ras, ERK1/2, and c-fox levels. SBP and HR were significantly decreased compared with the control group and LVMI was markedly improved by BSJYD treatment in a dose-dependent manner. BSJYD inhibited the expression of BDNF, Ras, ERK1/2, and c-fox mRNA in LVH. In conclusion, BSJYD suppressed hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting the expression of ERK pathway. These changes in gene expression may be a possible mechanism by which BSJYD provides myocardial protection from hypertension. PMID:28225023

  12. Effect of exercise training on Ca{sup 2+} release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular do Exercício, Escola de Educação Física e Esportes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, L.B. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Cruz, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Membranas Excitáveis e Biologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mill, J.G. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca{sup 2+} sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of

  13. Effect of Salvia Miltiorrhiza on Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Cardiac Aldosterone in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    韩少杰; 郑智; 任大宏

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Chronic treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza preventing left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH) and its possible mechanism-inhibiting the action of cardiac aldosterone in spontaneouslyhypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. Normotensive Wistar-kyoto (WKY) rats and SHRswere used. Part of SHRs was treated with Salvia Miltiorrhiza for 12 weeks. Systolic blood pres-sure (SBP) and left ventricular mass index were measured. Sections of heart tissue were stainedwith HE method and VanGieson method. Collagen volume fraction was determined in the left ven-tricle by automatically quantitative morphometry. Cardiac aldosterone concentration was measuredby radioimmunoassay. The results indicated that compared with WKY rats, SHRs exhibited high-er SBP, left ventricular collagen volume fraction, and aldosterone concentration (all P<0. 05).After the treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza, SBP, left ventricular collagen volume fraction, andaldosterone concentration in SHR were decreased as compared with control group (P<0. 05) ex-cept SBP. It was concluded that chronic treatment with Salvia Miltiorrhiza could prevent left ven-tricular hypertrophy in SHR, significantly inhibit collagen compositions in left ventricle. Themechanism was probably related with the inhibition of the cardiac aldosterone action.

  14. Early genes induction in spontaneously hypertensive rats left ventricle with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors but not hydralazine

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    Susic, D.; Aristizabal, D.J.; Prakash, O.; Nunez, E.; Frohlich, E.D. [Hypertension Research Laboratories, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats were given an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (benazepril or quinapril) or hydralazine and were left for up to 6 hr. To examine whether administration of antihypertensive agents affects expression of immediate early genes in left ventricular myocardium, groups of rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, and 6 hr after dosing; total RNA was extracted from left ventricular tissue and analyzed by blot hybridization technique using labeled probes for c-myc, c-fos, and GAPDH mRNA. All three antihypertensive agents reduced pressure similarly, and treatment with the two ACE inhibitors increased c-fos and c-myc mRNA expression in left ventriculum. By contrast, hydralazine did not increase steady-state mRNA expression of either proto-oncogene. Thus, in parallel with the pressure fall, acute administration of the ACE inhibitors induced expression of c-fos and c-myc mRNAs in the left ventricle. Since the equidepressor dose of hyralazine did not affect expression of these proto-oncogenes, this effect of ACE inhibitors is independent of their hemodynamic action. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Effect of naringin on hemodynamic changes and left ventricular function in renal artery occluded renovascular hypertension in rats

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    Asjad Visnagri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renal artery occlusion (RAO induced hypertension is a major health problem associated with structural and functional variations of the renal and cardiac vasculature. Naringin a flavanone glycoside derived possesses metal-chelating, antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive activity of naringin in RAO induced hypertension in rats.Material and Methods: Male Wistar rats (180-200 g were divided into five groups Sham, RAO, naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg. Animals were pretreated with naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg p.o for 4 weeks. On the last day of the experiment, left renal artery was occluded with renal bulldog clamp for 4 h. After assessment of hemodynamic and left ventricular function various biochemical (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione [GSH] and malondialdehyde [MDA] and histological parameters were determined in the kidney. Results: RAO group significantly (P < 0.001 increased hemodynamic parameters at 15, 30 and 45 min of clamp removal. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treated groups showed a significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters at 15 min. after clamp removal that remained sustained for 60 min. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treated groups showed significant improvement in left ventricular function at 15, 30 and 45 min after clamp removal. Alteration in level of SOD, GSH and MDA was significantly restored by naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg treatment. It also reduced histological aberration induced in kidney by RAO. Conclusion: It is concluded that the antihypertensive activity of naringin may result through inhibition of oxidative stress.

  16. Bone marrow mononuclear cells induce beneficial remodeling and reduce diastolic dysfunction in the left ventricle of hypertensive SS/MCWi rats.

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    Parker, Sarah J; Didier, Daniela N; Karcher, Jamie R; Stodola, Timothy J; Endres, Bradley; Greene, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) increase capillary density and reduce fibrosis in rodents after myocardial infarction, resulting in an overall improvement in left ventricular function. Little is known about the effectiveness of BMMNC therapy in hypertensive heart disease. In the current study, we show that delivery of BMMNCs from hypertension protected SS-13(BN)/MCWi donor rats, but not BMMNC from hypertension susceptible SS/MCWi donor rats, resulted in 57.2 and 83.4% reductions in perivascular and interstitial fibrosis, respectively, as well as a 60% increase in capillary-to-myocyte count in the left ventricles (LV) of hypertensive SS/MCWi recipients. These histological changes were associated with improvements in LV compliance and relaxation (103 and 46.4% improvements, respectively). Furthermore, improved diastolic function in hypertensive SS/MCWi rats receiving SS-13(BN)/MCWi derived BMMNCs was associated with lower clinical indicators of heart failure, including reductions in end diastolic pressure (65%) and serum brain natriuretic peptide levels (49.9%) with no improvements observed in rats receiving SS/MCWi BMMNCs. SS/MCWi rats had a lower percentage of endothelial progenitor cells in their bone marrow relative to SS-13(BN)/MCWi rats. These results suggest that administration of BMMNCs can prevent or reverse pathological remodeling in hypertensive heart disease, which contributes to ameliorating diastolic dysfunction and associated symptomology. Furthermore, the health and hypertension susceptibility of the BMMNC donor are important factors influencing therapeutic efficacy, possibly via differences in the cellular composition of bone marrow.

  17. Flax lignan concentrate attenuate hypertension and abnormal left ventricular contractility via modulation of endogenous biomarkers in two-kidney-one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats

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    Sameer Hanmantrao Sawant

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present investigation was designed to study the effect of flax lignan concentrate obtained from Linum usitatissimum L., Linaceae, in two-kidney, one clip (2K1C hypertension model in Wistar rats. 2K1C Goldblatt model rats were divided randomly into six groups: sham, 2K1C control, captopril (30 mg/kg, flax lignan concentrate (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Flax lignan concentrate and captopril were administered daily for eight consecutive weeks. Sham-operated, and 2K1C control rats received the vehicle. Treatment with flax lignan concentrate (400 and 800 mg/kg significantly and dose-dependently restored the hemodynamic parameters systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and left ventricular functions. The flax lignan concentrate significantly restored the elevated hepatic, renal and cardiac marker enzymes in the serum. It also restored the organs weights (kidney and heart, serum electrolyte level and histological abnormalities. Furthermore, flax lignan concentrate significantly elevated the level of biochemical markers that is enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde in the heart and kidney tissues. Meanwhile, we found that plasma nitric oxide and plasma nitric oxide synthase contents were significantly increased in the flax lignan concentrate-treated group, and plasma endothelin-1 and renal angiotensin-II levels were significantly lower than 2K1C hypertensive group. In conclusion, the antihypertensive and antioxidant effect of flax lignan concentrate were dose-dependent and at the highest dose (i.e. 800 mg/kg similar to those of captopril (30 mg/kg. It is suggested that flax lignan concentrate reduced blood pressure by reduction of renal angiotensin-II level, inhibition of plasma endothelin-1 production, induction of the nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase and in vivo antioxidant defense system.

  18. Reduction of prohibitin expression contributes to left ventricular hypertrophy via enhancement of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

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    Zheng, H; Lu, G M

    2015-02-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertension is characterized by thickening of myocardium and decrease in heart chamber volume in response to mechanical or pathological stress, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In this work, we investigate whether mitochondrial prohibitin (PHB) was involved in the progression of LVH in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). First, it was found that mitochondrial dysfunction occurred in left ventricles of SHR. Through analysis using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, it was found that PHB mRNA and mitochondrial PHB levels in left ventricles of SHR were significantly lower than that in Wistar-Kyoto rats. Furthermore, PHB mRNA levels were negatively correlated to left ventricles weight-to-body weight ratio in SHR. Knockdown of PHB led to increased formation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced activities of complex I, mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate generation and mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of PHB contributed to the cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which could be attenuated by treatment with the Tempol. Angiotensin II (AngII) was increased in plasma and left ventricles of SHR. Incubation with AngII reduced mitochondrial PHB expression in cardiomyocytes, which was reversed when pretreated with losartan. In conclusion, reduction of PHB expression in left ventricles in SHR contributed to LVH, at least in part, through promoting mitochondrial ROS formation.

  19. [Pulmonary hypertension caused by left heart disease].

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    Erer, Betül; Eren, Mehmet

    2010-09-01

    Increased resistance to pulmonary venous drainage is the main mechanism in pulmonary hypertension (PH) developing due to left heart disease. This condition may occur as a result of various diseases affecting left ventricle, left atrium, mitral or aortic valves. Pulmonary hypertension is the common and well-recognized complication of left ventricular systolic dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension accompanying chronic heart failure is related to increased mortality. Treatment should be tailored according to the underlying disease.

  20. A novel hydrodynamic approach of drag-reducing polymers to improve left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinlu; Wang, Xu; Hu, Feng; Zhou, Boda; Chen, Hai-Bin; Zha, Daogang; Liu, Yili; Guo, Yansong; Zheng, Lemin; Xiu, Jiancheng

    Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs), when added in minute concentrations, have been shown to decrease peripheral vascular resistance. In this study, the effect of DRPs on the hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Male SHR and age-matched Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received intravenous injection of normal saline (NS) or DRPs. Body weight (BW), heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were measured. Echocardiography was used to evaluate the changes in left ventricle (LV) function and global wall motion. The LV and aorta were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Cell size of cardiomyocytes and aortic medial thickness were evaluated for each section. The expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) of LV and aorta was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in the increase of SBP among SHR + NS, SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups. SHR + NS group had markedly smaller left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter but bigger anterior and posterior systolic wall thicknesses, while there was no significant difference in fractional shortening and ejection fraction. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of cardiomyocytes and the medial thickness of the aorta in SHR + 10 (ppm) DRP and SHR + 20 (ppm) DRP groups were significantly reduced compared with SHR + NS group. The expression of ET-1 in SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups was significantly attenuated. These results suggest that chronic treatment with DRPs can protect against left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling. DRPs may offer a new approach to the treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling caused by hypertension.

  1. A novel hydrodynamic approach of drag-reducing polymers to improve left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang X

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xinlu Zhang,1,* Xu Wang,2,* Feng Hu,1 Boda Zhou,3 Hai-Bin Chen,1 Daogang Zha,1 Yili Liu,1 Yansong Guo,4 Lemin Zheng,2 Jiancheng Xiu1 1Department of Cardiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences and Institute of Systems Biomedicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, Peking University Health Science Center, 3Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Sciences of Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Molecular Biology and Regulatory Peptides of Ministry of Health, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 4Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Drag-reducing polymers (DRPs, when added in minute concentrations, have been shown to decrease peripheral vascular resistance. In this study, the effect of DRPs on the hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic remodeling was evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Male SHR and age-matched Wistar rats were divided into four groups and received intravenous injection of normal saline (NS or DRPs. Body weight (BW, heart rate (HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP were measured. Echocardiography was used to evaluate the changes in left ventricle (LV function and global wall motion. The LV and aorta were stained by hematoxylin and eosin. Cell size of cardiomyocytes and aortic medial thickness were evaluated for each section. The expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1 of LV and aorta was examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. There was no significant difference in the increase of SBP among SHR + NS, SHR + 10DRP and SHR + 20DRP groups. SHR + NS group had markedly smaller left ventricular end

  2. Protective effect of ghrelin on left ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats is associated with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhao; ZHU Xiao-ying; LI Meng; BAI Ying-long; HU Jian

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that exogenous ghrelin administration could prevent eady left ventricular remodeling in rats with myocardial infarction.We investigated herein whether ghrelin attenuated left ventricular remodeling induced by hypertension and whether ghrelin's effect was mediated through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ)-dependent pathway.Methods Spontaneously hypertensive rats (8-week-old males) were randomly divided into three groups with 12 rats in each:ghrelin group (received ghrelin 100 μg/kg subcutaneously (sc) twice daily);ghrelin+GW9662 group (received the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 at 2 mg/kg sc,and then ghrelin as above);saline controls.Normal male Wistar Kyoto rats (n=12) served as normal controls.Four weeks later,the effects of ghrelin on cardiac remodeling were evaluated by echocardiographic,hemodynamic,and histopathological examination,and gene expression analysis (PPAR-γ protein and mRNA expression).The serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)αa were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Results Ghrelin prevented ventricular remodeling,increased PPAR-y expression in the myocardium,suppressed collagen I and collagen III mRNA expression,and also decreased the serum levels of TNF-α,but not CRP.All abovementioned effects of ghrelin were inhibited by GW9662.Conclusion Ghrelin inhibited ventricular remodeling induced by hypertension,and the preventive effects of ghrelin may be mediated by the anti-inflammatory actions of the PPAR-y-dependent pathway.

  3. A STUDY OF CHANGES IN DEFORMATION AND METABOLISM IN LEFT VENTRICLE AS A FUNCTION OF HYPERTROPHY IN SPONTANEOUS HYPERTENSIVE RATS USING MICROPET TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grant, T; Huesman, Ronald, H; Reutter, Bryan, W; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Veress, Alexander, I; Weiss, Jeffrey, A; Yang, Yongfeng

    2017-06-13

    Problem: In the case of hypertrophy caused by pressure overload (hypertension) there is an increase in cardiac mass and modification cardiac metabolism. Aim: This study was designed to study the changes in glucose metabolism, ejection fraction, and deformation in the left ventricle with the progression of hypertrophy in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Dynamic PET data were acquired using the microPET II at UC Davis. Two rats were imaged at 10-week intervals for 18 months. Each time a dose of approximately 1- 1.5 mCi of F-18-FDG was injected into a normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat and the same dose was injected into a SHR rat. Each rat was imaged using a gated dynamic acquisition for 80 minutes acquiring list mode data with cardiac gating of approximately 600-900 million total counts. For the analysis of glucose of metabolism, the list mode data were histogrammed into a dynamic sequence (42 frames over 80 mins). For each time frame, projection data of 1203 140x210 sinograms of 0.582 mm bins were formed by summing the last three gates before and one after the R-wave trigger to correspond to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. Dynamic sequences of 128x128x83 matrices of 0.4x0.4x0.582 mm3 voxels in x, y, and z were reconstructed using an iterative MAP reconstruction which used a prior that penalized the high frequency components of the reconstruction using appropriate weighting between 26 nearest neighboring voxels. Time activity curves were generated from the dynamic reconstructed sequence for the blood and left ventricular tissue regions of interest which were fit to a 2-compartment model to obtain a least squares fit for the kinetic parameters. For the analysis of deformation, the list mode data were histogrammed into 8 gates of the cardiac cycle, each gate was the total sum of the later 60 mins of the 80 min acquisition. Images of 128x128x83 matrices for each gate were reconstructed using the same iterative MAP reconstruction used to

  4. Tong-xin-luo capsule inhibits left ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats by enhancing PPAR-γexpression and suppressing NF-κKB activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Pei-li; ZHAO Xue-qiang; WANG Li-ling; ZHAO Yu-xia; LI Chuan-bao; ZHANG Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background Tong-xin-luo capsule(TXL),used as a traditional Chinese herb,offeres a therapeutic potential for treatment of cardiovascular diseases.It has been shown to exert a variety of pharmacological effects,including antihypertensiVe effects,and is able to improve ventricular remodeling.However,the mechanisms of its action are not completely understood.The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of Tong-xin-luo capsule on left ventricular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods Sixteen eight-week-old SHRs were randomized into an SHR group(n=8)and a TXL group(n=8)that were given Tong-xin-luo capsule(1.5 mg·kg-1·d-1).Eight Wistar Kyoto(WKY)rats fed with 0.9%NaCl served as the control group(WKY group).Systolic blood pressure(BP),body weight and heart rate were monitored once every two weeks.Ventricular remodeling was detected by hjstopathological examination.Nuclear factor kappa B P65(NF-κB P65)and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor γ(PPAR-γ)protein and phosphorylated inhibitor kappa α(IκBα)protein were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot respectively.The physical interaction of the P65-P50 heterodimer with IκBα and NF-κB were measured by co-immunoprecipitation.PPAR-Y mRNA,collagen Ⅰ mRNA and collagenⅢ mHNA were measured by real-time PCR.Results TXL inhibited NF-κKB P65 expression and ventricular remodeling and suppressed the activation of NF-κB compared with the SHR group(P<0.01,P<0.05).TXL reduced IκBα phosphorylation,increased expression of PPAR-Yprotein and enhanced the physical interaction of the P65-P50 heterodimer with IκBα.The mRNA expression of PPAR-γwas enhanced but the mRNA expression of collagen Ⅰ mRNA and collagen Ⅲ mRNA were suppressed by TXL.Conclusions In spontaneously hypertensive rats,TXL could inhibit ventricular remodeling induced by hypertension,and the inhibitory effect might be associated with the process of TXL increasing the expression of PPAR-γ that

  5. MiR-139-3p is related to left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in two-kidney one-clip hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaomin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in many physiological and pathological processes. Previous studies have reported the role of miR-139-3p in cancer. However, its specific roles and functions in the heart undergoing hypertrophy have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, a significant upregulation of miR-139-3p expression was demonstrated in the left ventricular myocardium of two-kidney one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats using microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Based on computational analysis, we observed that miR-139-3p can control the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1 as a target gene, which is essential for the induction of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. This study provides first information that the highly expressed miR-139-3p might be closely involved in MAPK1-mediated cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte apoptotic processes in 2K1C rat.

  6. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiéry, Jean-Luc; Adir, Yochai; Barberà, Joan Albert; Champion, Hunter; Coghlan, John Gerard; Cottin, Vincent; De Marco, Teresa; Galiè, Nazzareno; Ghio, Stefano; Gibbs, J Simon R; Martinez, Fernando; Semigran, Marc; Simonneau, Gerald; Wells, Athol; Seeger, Werner

    2013-12-24

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH), a common complication of left heart diseases (LHD), negatively impacts symptoms, exercise capacity, and outcome. Although the true prevalence of PH-LHD is unknown, a subset of patients might present significant PH that cannot be explained by a passive increase in left-sided filling pressures. The term "out-of-proportion" PH has been used to identify that population without a clear definition, which has been found less than ideal and created confusion. We propose a change in terminology and a new definition of PH due to LHD. We suggest to abandon "out-of-proportion" PH and to distinguish "isolated post-capillary PH" from "post-capillary PH with a pre-capillary component" on the basis of the pressure difference between diastolic pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. Although there is no validated treatment for PH-LHD, we provide insights into management and discuss completed and randomized trials in this condition. Finally, we provide recommendations for future clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy of novel compounds to target this area of unmet medical need. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Left atrial systolic force in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinali, M.; Simone, G. de; Wachtell, K.;

    2008-01-01

    systolic force and left ventricular geometry and function have not been investigated in high-risk hypertrophic hypertensive patients. Participants in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension echocardiography substudy without prevalent cardiovascular disease or atrial fibrillation (n......In hypertensive patients without prevalent cardiovascular disease, enhanced left atrial systolic force is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and increased preload. It also predicts cardiovascular events in a population with high prevalence of obesity. Relations between left atrial...... with larger left ventricular diameter and higher left ventricular mass index (both P ventricular hypertrophy was greater (84 vs. 64%; P

  8. Stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾进胜; 贷如训; 苏镇培

    2000-01-01

    Purpose To summarized the methods for establishment, characteristics of vascular lesions in brain and heart and thc application of stroke-pronc renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP). Background Spontaneously hypcrtensivc rats (STR) and subtypes of SH R, especially stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) are considered as most important animal models at present for the studies of hypertension and its complications in heart and brain, evcn SHRSP arc considered as thc unique animal model in which prcvention of stroke can be studied cxperimentally Howcver, the applications of SHR and SHRSP are limited because of the effects of genetic deficits and thc difficulties with breeding Theretore, most of the researches on experimental stroke have been performed on the animal models with normotcnsion and normal structure of cerebral vessels. In fact, there are great differences in structure of cerebrovesscls, autoregulation of cerebral blood flow and extent of lesions in brain tissue, even the reaction to the medication after ischemia between the animals with extcnsive arteriosclerosis and with normal cerebral blood vessels. Obviously, thc relevancc of experimental stroke on normal animals to the stroke on cerebral arteriosclerotic patients clinically remains dubious. Data sources and methods Most published original articles about RHRSP in our laboratory were reviewed Results After the renal arteries were constricted bilaterally with ring-shape silver clips, the stroke-prone rcnovascular hypertensive rats were established. Hypertension was produced in all RHRSP(100%).The peak of blood pressure in RHRSP reached 29.1 ±3.0kPa. The lesions of cerebral arteries and arterioles and the damage of cerebral capillary structure by hypertension were observed in the RHRSP. The incidence of spontaneous stroke was 56.4% with in 40 weeks after the renal artery constriction. Left ventricular hypertrophy and small coronary arterial lesions in myocardium were discovered in all

  9. Characterization of an animal model of postmenopausal hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortepiani, Lourdes A; Zhang, Huimin; Racusen, Lorraine; Roberts, L Jackson; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2003-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) increases in postmenopausal women. The mechanisms responsible are unknown. The present study was performed to characterize a model of postmenopausal hypertension in the rat and to determine the role that oxidative stress may play in mediating the postmenopausal hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were ovariectomized (ovx) or left intact (PMR) at 8 months and were aged to 18 months. These animals were compared with young females (YF; 4 or 8 months of age) and old males (18 months) for some measurements. Estradiol levels were decreased in PMR rats to levels not different from YF rats in proestrous or from old males. BP increased progressively with age in PMR rats but not in ovx or male rats, such that the gender difference in hypertension disappeared by 18 months. Glomerular filtration rate was lower in ovx and PMR rats than in YF rats. Renal plasma flow and renal vascular resistance were similar between YF and ovx rats, but lower and higher, respectively, in PMR rats. Serum testosterone increased by 60% in ovx rats and 400% in PMR rats compared with YF rats. Plasma renin activity also increased in PMR rats but not in ovx rats. Chronic treatment (for 8 months beginning at 8 months of age) of PMR rats with vitamins E and C, but not tempol, resulted in a significant reduction in BP and excretion of F2-isoprostanes. In contrast, tempol, but not vitamins E and C, reduced BP in old males. These data suggest that the PMR rats, but not ovx rats, may be a suitable model for the study of postmenopausal hypertension, and that oxidative stress plays a role in the increased BP.

  10. Anti-hypertensive effects of a closed-loop chip system in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Min; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Wang, Han-Jun; Zhao, Cong-Kan; Xu, Yao; Gao, Xing-Ya

    2008-08-01

    The authors' previous study showed a closed-loop chip system that was used to control arterial pressure in normal rabbits and rats. In the present study the anti-hypertensive effects of the chip system were investigated in anaesthetized two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats and compared with sham-operated rats. The chip system recorded, sampled, and processed the signals of arterial pressure and instantaneously controlled arterial pressure by stimulating the left aortic depressor nerve. The frequency of stimulation was determined according to the feedback signals of arterial pressure. The chip system, running three different programs, successfully achieved a different degree of depressor effects. It effectively decreased not only mean arterial pressure (MAP), but also renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in both 2K1C rats and sham-operated rats. The chip system significantly increased the baroreflex gain in the 2K1C rats, but not in the sham-operated rats. It normalized the increased left ventricle developing pressure and maximal rise rate of the left ventricle pressure (dP/dtmax) in the 2K1C rats. These results indicate that the depressor effect can be controlled by changing the programs of the chip system. The closed-loop chip system effectively decreased arterial pressure and sympathetic outflow, increased baroreflex gain, and normalized the enhanced cardiac contractility in renovascular hypertensive rats.

  11. Consequences of reversal of hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy by captopril on left ventricular pumping ability and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoça, M A; Cezaretti, M L; Bessa, A M; Casarini, D; Almeida, J B; Amorim, M P; Ramos, O L

    1987-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy can be reversed by treatment of hypertension with captopril but the consequences of this regression are not yet fully described. We studied the maximal capacity of the hypertrophied and hypertrophy-reversed ventricle to generate pressure during transient total occlusion of the aorta, and also the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure required to meet this maximal effort. Two-kidney, one clip Goldblatt (renal hypertensive rats; RHR) hypertension was induced in 17 Wistar rats, eight of which were treated with captopril (RHR-C: 50 mg/kg given orally) from the fourth to the eighth week. Sham-operated controls (SC) remained untreated, or were treated with similar doses of captopril (SC-C). Significantly lower heart weights were found in RHR-C than in RHR (2.88 +/- 0.15 versus 2.38 +/- 0.04; P less than 0.001). During transient total occlusion of the aorta, the maximal intraventricular pressure developed in RHR-C was not significantly different from that in RHR, but left ventricular end-diastolic pressure was significantly less in RHR-C than in RHR (21.4 +/- 2.2 versus 34.3 +/- 3.8; P less than 0.01). The analysis of pressure-volume characteristics of the hypertrophied left ventricles and those in which hypertrophy was reversed revealed similar compliances between these two groups. Our data suggest that there was a mechanical improvement in the heart function after reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  12. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    OpenAIRE

    O. B. Zhukov; A. V. Verzin; P. L. Penkov

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler k...

  13. Arrhythmogenic substrate in hearts of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Benoist, David; Stones, Rachel; Drinkhill, Mark; Bernus, Olivier; White, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms associated with right ventricular (RV) hypertension and arrhythmias are less understood than those in the left ventricle (LV). The aim of our study was to investigate whether and by what mechanisms a proarrhythmic substrate exists in a rat model of RV hypertension and hypertrophy. Rats were injected with monocrotaline (MCT; 60 mg/kg) to induce pulmonary artery hypertension or with saline (CON). Myocardial levels of mRNA for genes expressing ion channels were measured by real-time R...

  14. The left atrium, atrial fibrillation, and the risk of stroke in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Devereux, R.B.; Lyle, P.A.;

    2008-01-01

    The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study provided extensive data on predisposing factors, consequences, and prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Randomized losartan-based treatment...

  15. Enhanced assymetrical noradrenergic transmission in the olfactory bulb of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, Tamara; Guil, María J; Morales, Vanina P; Hope, Sandra I; Soria, Celeste; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Vatta, Marcelo S

    2013-10-01

    The ablation of olfactory bulb induces critical changes in dopamine, and monoamine oxidase activity in the brain stem. Growing evidence supports the participation of this telencephalic region in the regulation blood pressure and cardiovascular activity but little is known about its contribution to hypertension. We have previously reported that in the olfactory bulb of normotensive rats endothelins enhance noradrenergic activity by increasing tyrosine hydroxylase activity and norepinephrine release. In the present study we sought to establish the status of noradrenergic activity in the olfactory bulb of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Different steps in norepinephrine transmission including tyrosine hydroxylase activity, neuronal norepinephrine release and uptake were assessed in the left and right olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and decreased neuronal norepinephrine uptake were observed in the olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and its phosphorylated forms were also augmented. Intriguingly, asymmetrical responses between the right and left olfactory bulb of normotensive and hypertensive rats were observed. Neuronal norepinephrine release was increased in the right but not in the left olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, whereas non asymmetrical differences were observed in normotensive animals. Present findings indicate that the olfactory bulb of hypertensive rats show an asymmetrical increase in norepinephrine activity. The observed changes in noradrenergic transmission may likely contribute to the onset and/or progression of hypertension in this animal model.

  16. Hemodynamic, morphometric and autonomic patterns in hypertensive rats - renin-angiotensin system modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S. Zamo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop left ventricular hypertrophy, increased blood pressure and blood pressure variability, which are important determinants of heart damage, like the activation of renin-angiotensin system. AIMS: To investigate the effects of the time-course of hypertension over 1 hemodynamic and autonomic patterns (blood pressure; blood pressure variability; heart rate; 2 left ventricular hypertrophy; and 3 local and systemic Renin-angiotensin system of the spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Male spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomized into two groups: young (n=13 and adult (n=12. Hemodynamic signals (blood pressure, heart rate, blood pressure variability (BPV and spectral analysis of the autonomic components of blood pressure were analyzed. LEFT ventricular hypertrophy was measured by the ratio of LV mass to body weight (mg/g, by myocyte diameter (μm and by relative fibrosis area (RFA, %. ACE and ACE2 activities were measured by fluorometry (UF/min, and plasma renin activity (PRA was assessed by a radioimmunoassay (ng/mL/h. Cardiac gene expressions of Agt, Ace and Ace2 were quantified by RT-PCR (AU. RESULTS: The time-course of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats increased BPV and reduced the alpha index in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats. Adult rats showed increases in left ventricular hypertrophy and in RFA. Compared to young spontaneously hypertensive rats, adult spontaneously hypertensive rats had lower cardiac ACE and ACE2 activities, and high levels of PRA. No change was observed in gene expression of Renin-angiotensin system components. CONCLUSIONS: The observed autonomic dysfunction and modulation of Renin-angiotensin system activity are contributing factors to end-organ damage in hypertension and could be interacting. Our findings suggest that the management of hypertensive disease must start before blood pressure reaches the highest stable levels and the consequent

  17. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Evaluation in Obese Hypertensive Patients: Effect of Left Ventricular Mass Index Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cantoni Rosa

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate left ventricular mass (LVM index in hypertensive and normotensive obese individuals. METHODS: Using M mode echocardiography, 544 essential hypertensive and 106 normotensive patients were evaluated, and LVM was indexed for body surface area (LVM/BSA and for height² (LVM/h². The 2 indexes were then compared in both populations, in subgroups stratified according to body mass index (BMI: or = 30kg/m². RESULTS: The BSA index does not allow identification of significant differences between BMI subgroups. Indexing by height² provides significantly increased values for high BMI subgroups in normotensive and hypertensive populations. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH has been underestimated in the obese with the use of LVM/BSA because this index considers obesity as a physiological variable. Indexing by height² allows differences between BMI subgroups to become apparent and seems to be more appropriate for detecting LVH in obese populations.

  18. Vasodilators and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Hydralazine versus prazosin in hypertensive humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenen, F H; Smith, D L; Farkas, R M; Reeves, R A; Marquez-Julio, A

    1987-05-01

    Long-term treatment of hypertensive rats with arterial vasodilators may further increase left ventricular hypertrophy. Since left ventricular hypertrophy may be an important determinant of outcome in hypertension, the long-term effects of arterial vasodilation with hydralazine on left ventricular mass and function were compared with those of an alternative third-line drug, the alpha1 blocker prazosin, in patients still hypertensive despite combined diuretic and beta blocker therapy. A single-blind, randomized, two-group parallel design was employed. Both treatments induced a sustained antihypertensive effect, with hydralazine showing more effect on supine blood pressure, and prazosin having more effect on standing pressure. Heart rate, cardiac output, and volume status showed only minor changes. Plasma norepinephrine showed a sustained increase when measured in both the supine and standing positions, but the increases were similar for the two treatments. Supine and standing plasma renin activity increased only during long-term treatment with hydralazine. Prazosin induced a progressive decrease in left ventricular mass over time (-34 +/- 15 g/m2 at 12 months), but hydralazine did not (-9 +/- 10 g/m2 after 12 months). Stepwise regression indicated that a decrease in systolic blood pressure was associated with a decrease in left ventricular mass with both treatments, but an increase in plasma norepinephrine was associated with an increase in left ventricular mass only with hydralazine, suggesting that increased sympathetic activity may affect left ventricular mass via cardiac alpha1 receptors. Thus, if regression of left ventricular hypertrophy is a worthwhile therapeutic goal, hydralazine and analogous arterial vasodilators are not drugs of choice.

  19. Regional renal venous hypertension and left-sided varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent correctable causes of male infertility is a varicocele. The etiology and pathogenesis of varicocele to date is a matter of debate. The aim of our study was to determine the causes and incidence of regional renal hypertension in patients with leftsided varicocele. The study involved 110 patients with left-sided varicocele in age from 18 to 35 years. Algorithm for evaluation of patients with left-sided varicocele included: physical examination, ultrasound with Doppler kidney, basin area left renal vein, aorto-mesenteric portion; the scrotum with a sample Trombetta, phlebography аnd phlebotonometry basin left renal vein and the common iliac vein. Renospermatic reflux was detected in 89 (81 %, ileospermatic 12 (11 % and mixed 9 (8 % patients. Patients with reflux ileospermatic excluded from the study. The 96 patients with left-sided varicocele underwent venography and phlebotonometry in 37 (38.5 % were renal venous hypertension, with 35 of them that it was due to aorto-mesenteric compression, and in 2 cases an anomaly development – annular renal vein. Our data are comparable with the results of other authors. Patients with mesenteric compressed statistically significant reduction in the diameter of renal veins in the aorto-mesenteric portion and increased blood flow in this region, and expand prestenosis left renal vein and reduce flow velocity in this region compared with the group without renal phlebohypertension. Patients with renal phlebohypertension subsequently held shunt types of operations performed in patients with normotension occlusive types of operations. An integrated assessment of patients with left-side allows to make a holistic understanding of the basic mechanisms of disease etiology and select the appropriate type of surgery.

  20. Streptozotocin induced diabetes in lyon hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LeaEMONNOT; JeanSASSARD; MingLO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Lyon hypertensive (LH) rats, compared to their normotensive controls (LL) exhibit an increased blood pressure (BP)associated with a marked proteinuria and a metabolic syndrom including elevated plasma lipids and insulin/glucose ratio. The aim of the present work was to determine wether a type 2 diabetes could be induced in LH rats so as to obtain a model suitable for study of the relationships between diabetes and hypertension.

  1. Análisis ecocardiográfico de la geometría ventricular izquierda en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas Echocardiographic study of left ventricular geometry the in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. Escudero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo fue diseñado para analizar ecocardiográficamente la geometría del ventrículo izquierdo en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR. Se estudiaron 114 ratas macho de 4 meses de edad, 73 SHR y 41 Wistar (W a las que se les registró la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardíaca y se les realizó un ecocardiograma. Con las mediciones de diámetros y espesores de la pared ventricular izquierda se calcularon el espesor parietal relativo (h/r, el índice de masa del ventrículo izquierdo (IMVI, el volumen minuto, y el acortamiento medio ventricular. La geometría ventricular izquierda normal fue definida analizando el grupo de ratas normotensas y fijando los límites de IMVI y h/r a partir de la media más 2 desvíos estándar. Los patrones de geometría anormal se definieron como: remodelado concéntrico (RC: IMVI 0.71; hipertrofia excéntrica (HE: IMVI>2.06 mg/g - h/r 2.06 mg/g - h/r > 0.71. La presión arterial sistólica y el volumen minuto se utilizaron para estimar la resistencia periférica total (RPT. Doce por ciento de SHR presentaron geometría ventricular izquierda normal; 18% RC; 33% HC y 37% HE. El RC mostró el volumen latido más pequeño y la RPT más alta de cualquier grupo. HE presentó presión arterial sistólica similar a la de los otros grupos de SHR, volumen latido más alto y la RPT más baja. Estos hallazgos en SHR exhibiendo diferentes patrones de geometría ventricular izquierda, similares a los referidos en humanos, intensifican las similitudes entre la hipertensión esencial humana y las SHR.The purpose of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram left ventricular (LV geometry in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Echocardiographic study, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were obtained in 114 male, 4-month old rats, 73 SHR and 41 Wistar (W. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI, relative wall thickness (RWT, stroke volume, and mid ventricular shortening were calculated with echocardiographic

  2. The pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension in left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Siegfried; Ravindran, Krishnan; Goldenberg, Neil M; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure leading to right-sided heart failure and can arise from a wide range of etiologies. The most common cause of PH, termed Group 2 PH, is left-sided heart failure and is commonly known as pulmonary hypertension with left heart disease (PH-LHD). Importantly, while sharing many clinical features with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), PH-LHD differs significantly at the cellular and physiological levels. These fundamental pathophysiological differences largely account for the poor response to PAH therapies experienced by PH-LHD patients. The relatively high prevalence of this disease, coupled with its unique features compared with PAH, signal the importance of an in-depth understanding of the mechanistic details of PH-LHD. The present review will focus on the current state of knowledge regarding the pathomechanisms of PH-LHD, highlighting work carried out both in human trials and in preclinical animal models. Adaptive processes at the alveolocapillary barrier and in the pulmonary circulation, including alterations in alveolar fluid transport, endothelial junctional integrity, and vasoactive mediator secretion will be discussed in detail, highlighting the aspects that impact the response to, and development of, novel therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  4. Left main coronary artery compression in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Badri, Kadhem Helo Abbas; Jensen, Jesper Møller; Christiansen, Evald H

    2015-01-01

    In patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), chest pain is most likely due to right ventricular demand ischemia. We report a patient with idiopathic PAH who developed severe angina due to extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) from a dilated pulmonary artery trunk....... The diagnosis was verified by electrocardiogram after exercise, coronary angiography including intravascular ultrasound, and cardiac multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The origin of the LMCA was high in the left coronary sinus, facilitating extrinsic compression. The patient was successfully treated...... by percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation in the LMCA. Extrinsic compression of the LMCA is a severe and potentially fatal complication that should be considered in all patients with PAH and angina. MDCT is the method of choice for first-line diagnosis....

  5. Right and left heart dysfunction predict mortality in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henein, Michael Y; Grönlund, Christer; Tossavainen, Erik; Söderberg, Stefan; Gonzalez, Manuel; Lindqvist, Per

    2017-01-01

    In pulmonary hypertension (PH), the right heart dysfunction is a strong predictor of adverse clinical outcome, while the role of the left heart is not fully determined. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of mortality in precapillary PH including measures of both right and left heart function. We studied 34 patients (mean age 64 ± 13, range 31-82 years, 24 females) with precapillary PH, all of whom underwent detailed Doppler echocardiographic examination of the right and left heart function using conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Patients were followed up for up to 8 years (mean 4·2 ± 1·9 years). At follow-up, 16 patients survived. Left ventricular (LV) filling time (P = 0·007), pulmonary artery acceleration time (P = 0·009), right atrial pressure (RAP) (P0·65) and carried the highest risk for mortality (Pright heart dysfunction including atrial structure and function disturbances. While an interaction pattern is observed, it needs to be confirmed in a larger cohort. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cardiac remodeling and myocardial dysfunction in obese spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linz Dominik

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The additive effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on left ventricular (LV maladaptive remodeling and function in hypertension are not characterized. Methods We compared an obese spontaneously hypertensive rat model (SHR-ob with lean spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-lean and normotensive controls (Ctr. LV-function was investigated by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and invasive LV-pressure measurements. LV-interstitial fibrosis was quantified and protein levels of phospholamban (PLB, Serca2a and glucose transporters (GLUT1 and GLUT4 were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results Systolic blood pressure was similar in SHR-lean and SHR-ob (252 ± 7 vs. 242 ± 7 mmHg, p = 0.398 but was higher when compared to Ctr (155 ± 2 mmHg, p  Conclusion In addition to hypertension alone, metabolic syndrome and obesity adds to the myocardial phenotype by aggravating diastolic dysfunction and a progression towards systolic dysfunction. SHR-ob may be a useful model to develop new interventional and pharmacological treatment strategies for hypertensive heart disease and metabolic disorders.

  7. Left ventricular hypertrophy in obese hypertensives: is it really eccentric? (An echocardiographic study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalcelj, A; Puljević, D; Buljević, B; Brida, V

    2000-06-01

    In order to study left ventricular hypertrophy patterns in obese hypertensives, we examined 132 patients with essential hypertension by 2D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. The patients were classified in four comparable groups, corresponding to the values of Quetelet's body mass index (BMI) and grades of obesity. More obese hypertensives had on average larger left ventricles with thicker walls and larger left atria than less obese, or lean ones. Left ventricular mass increased significantly and progressively with advancing grades of obesity, but relative wall thickness (wall thickness/cavity size ratio) did not diminish. Doppler echocardiography revealed significantly higher prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction among obese than among lean hypertensives. In the second part of our study, we analyzed the subgroups defined by the severity of hypertension and the age of the patients. The correlation of the indices of left ventricular and left atrial hypertrophy with the BMI values was considerably better in the group of moderate than in the group of mild hypertension. The r values were 0.62 vs. 0.22 for left ventricular mass and 0.64 vs. 0.26 for left atrial dimension. The group of patients with severe hypertension was characterized by left ventricular cavity enlargement in correlation with increasing BMI values, but without corresponding left ventricular wall thickening. So called left ventricular "eccentricity index", as the reverse value of relative wall thickness, correlated well (r = 0.76) with the BMI values. The indices of left ventricular hypertrophy correlated with the BMI values slightly better in middle age groups than in the groups of the youngest ( or = 61 years) hypertensives. In conclusion, eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy does not seem to be a distinctive feature of hypertensive heart disease in obesity. There is only some tendency toward the "eccentricity" of left ventricular geometry which becomes more apparent in more severe

  8. Left ventricular filling patterns in patients with systemic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (the LIFE study). Losartan Intervention For Endpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K; Smith, G; Gerdts, E;

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal left ventricular (LV) filling may exist in early stages of hypertension. Whether this finding is related to LV hypertrophy is currently controversial. This study was undertaken to assess relations between abnormal diastolic LV filling and LV geometry in a large series of hypertensive pat...

  9. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos; Souza, Michel Kendy; Passos, Clévia Santos; Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; Simoes, Herbert Gustavo; Prestes, Jonato; Boim, Mirian Aparecida; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Franco, Maria do Carmo Pinho; Moraes, Milton Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance training (RT) has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH). Objective This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing), performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC), on blood pressure (BP) and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with SH. Methods Fifteen male SHR [206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBP)] and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP) were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY) and SHR (SED-SHR); RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC); and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC). Systolic BP and heart rate (HR) were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05), whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p 0.05). Conclusions Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength. PMID:26840054

  10. Comprehensive characterisation of hypertensive heart disease left ventricular phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonathan C L; Amadu, Antonio Matteo; Dastidar, Amardeep Ghosh; Szantho, Gergley V; Lyen, Stephen M; Godsave, Cattleya; Ratcliffe, Laura E K; Burchell, Amy E; Hart, Emma C; Hamilton, Mark C K; Nightingale, Angus K; Paton, Julian F R; Manghat, Nathan E; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Objective Myocardial intracellular/extracellular structure and aortic function were assessed among hypertensive left ventricular (LV) phenotypes using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods An observational study from consecutive tertiary hypertension clinic patients referred for CMR (1.5 T) was performed. Four LV phenotypes were defined: (1) normal with normal indexed LV mass (LVM) and LVM to volume ratio (M/V), (2) concentric remodelling with normal LVM but elevated M/V, (3) concentric LV hypertrophy (LVH) with elevated LVM but normal indexed end-diastolic volume (EDV) or (4) eccentric LVH with elevated LVM and EDV. Extracellular volume fraction was measured using T1-mapping. Circumferential strain was calculated by voxel-tracking. Aortic distensibility was derived from high-resolution aortic cines and contemporaneous blood pressure measurements. Results 88 hypertensive patients (49±14 years, 57% men, systolic blood pressure (SBP): 167±30 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure (DBP): 96±14 mm Hg) were compared with 29 age-matched/sex-matched controls (47±14 years, 59% men, SBP: 128±12 mm Hg, DBP: 79±10 mm Hg). LVH resulted from increased myocardial cell volume (eccentric LVH: 78±19 mL/m2 vs concentric LVH: 73±15 mL/m2 vs concentric remodelling: 55±9 mL/m2, p<0.05, respectively) and interstitial fibrosis (eccentric LVH: 33±10 mL/m2 vs concentric LVH: 30±10 mL/m2 vs concentricremodelling: 19±2 mL/m2, p<0.05, respectively). LVH had worst circumferential impairment (eccentric LVH: −12.8±4.6% vs concentric LVH: −15.5±3.1% vs concentric remodelling: –17.1±3.2%, p<0.05, respectively). Concentric remodelling was associated with reduced aortic distensibility, but not with large intracellular/interstitial expansion or myocardial dysfunction versus controls. Conclusions Myocardial interstitial fibrosis varies across hypertensive LV phenotypes with functional consequences. Eccentric LVH has the most fibrosis and

  11. Metoprolol treatment lowers thrombospondin-4 expression in rats with myocardial infarction and left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Erja; Leskinen, Hanna; Aro, Jani; Luodonpää, Marja; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Rysä, Jaana

    2010-09-01

    Thrombospondins are matrix proteins linked to extracellular matrix remodelling but their precise role in the heart is not known. In this study, we characterised left ventricular thrombospondin-1 and -4 expression in rats treated with a beta-blocker metoprolol during the remodelling process in response to pressure overload and acute myocardial infarction. Left ventricular thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-4 mRNA levels increased 8.4-fold (p infarction, respectively. Metoprolol infusion by osmotic minipumps (1.5 mg/kg/hr) for 2 weeks after myocardial infarction decreased thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-4 mRNA levels (55% and 50%, respectively), improved left ventricular function, and attenuated left ventricular remodelling with reduction of left ventricular atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide gene expression. Thrombospondin-1 and -4 mRNA levels correlated positively with echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular remodelling as well as with atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide gene expression. Moreover, there was a negative correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction and thrombospondin-1 mRNA levels. In 12-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats with left ventricular hypertrophy, metoprolol decreased left ventricular thrombospondin-4 levels and attenuated remodelling while thrombospondin-1, atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA levels as well as left ventricular function remained unchanged. In metoprolol-treated spontaneously hypertensive rats, thrombospondin-4 gene expression correlated with parameters of left ventricular remodelling, while no correlations between thrombospondins and natriuretic peptides were observed. These results indicate that thrombospondin-1 expression is linked exclusively to left ventricular remodelling process post-infarction while thrombospondin-4 associates with myocardial remodelling both after myocardial infarction and in hypertensive heart disease

  12. Evaluation of left ventricular structures in normotensive and hypertensive subjects by two-dimensional echocardiography: Anthropometric correlates in hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Agbo Julius Amaechi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective to establish a nomogram for some left ventricular structures and their alterations in hypertension. Correlations between left ventricular structures and anthropometric variables in hypertension were also established. A sample of 320 normotensive and 80 hypertensive subjects were studied. Echocardiograhic end diastolic diameter, posterior wall thickness and septal wall thickness were obtained. Subject height, weight, age and blood pressures were obtained. Blood pressures were measured in sitting position. The values of left ventricular mass (LVM, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and left relative wall thickness (RWT were computed. Parametric tests were conducted. Tests were two tailed with P < 0.05 indicating statistical significance. Normal values of left ventricular structures were established; LVM: 63.72g – 336.18g, LVMI: 38.16g/m – 222.64g/m, and RWT: 0.25 – 0.52. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were established in LVM, LVMI and RWT between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Positive and significant correlations were noted between these variables and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. A simple linear regression of RWT on Body surface area gives RWT = - 0.058 BSA + 0.475 in normotensive subjects. Normal values of left ventricular structures and a linear regression model have been established which could be used in the assessment of morbidity in hypertension.

  13. [History for animal model of Hansen's disease and characteristics of leprosy in hypertensive nude rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogi, Yasuko; Fujimura, Takao; Suzuki, Koichi

    2008-09-01

    The long search of an animal model for leprosy were carried out as many researchers since the Mycobacterium leprae discovery by Dr. Hansen in 1874. The remarkable results were left after the development of the foot-pad method by Dr. Shepard in 1960. The introduction of the T-R mouse and athymic (nude) mouse for leprosy research, alsospontaneity examples of Hansen's disease was reported to armadillo, chimpanzee and mangabay monkey, and it was confirmed that Hansen's disease was the zoonosis. Although, We have established a congenic hypertensive nude rat, SHR/NCrj-rnu (SHR.F344-Foxn(rnu)), carrying nude (rnu) and hypertension genes. SHR/NCrj-rnu rats obtained showed high susceptibility to M. leprae and showed a characteristic disease with a progressive pattern of leproma formation. Also this hypertensive nude rat strain produce high level of IL-10. Therefore, congenic hypertensive nude rat may be useful for an animal model to leprosy.

  14. Pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic left-sided cardiac dysfunction in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Rebecca L

    2009-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a description of a physiological finding rather than a diagnosis. Pulmonary arterial pressure is the result of interactions among pulmonary blood flow (right ventricular cardiac output), pulmonary vascular impedance and post-capillary pressure (typically reflecting left atrial pressure). When elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure (systolic/diastolic pulmonary arterial pressure > approximately 30/19 mmHg at rest) are accompanied by increased left atrial pressure, pulmonary arterial hypertension may be considered secondary to left-heart failure. Introduction of Doppler methods to diagnose pulmonary arterial hypertension has increased the awareness of the prevalence and importance of pulmonary arterial hypertension dogs with left-heart failure. Increasing understanding of the mechanism of development of pulmonary venous hypertension and reactive pulmonary arterial hypertension in dogs with left-heart disease has led to the development of successful additive therapies for progressive clinical signs in the setting of chronic therapy for congestive heart failure due to left-sided valvular and myocardial dysfunction. Because effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to chronic left-sided cardiac dysfunction are now available, screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension should be a regular part of the Doppler echocardiographic examination in a clinical setting of chronic therapy for left-sided congestive heart failure due to valvular or myocardial disease.

  15. Left ventricular dysfunction in patients with suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gavilanes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of right heart catheterization in the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. METHODS: We evaluated clinical, functional, and hemodynamic data from all patients who underwent right heart catheterization because of diagnostic suspicion of PAH-in the absence of severe left ventricular dysfunction (LVD, significant changes in pulmonary function tests, and ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy findings consistent with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism-between 2008 and 2013 at our facility. RESULTS: During the study period, 384 patients underwent diagnostic cardiac catheterization at our facility. Pulmonary hypertension (PH was confirmed in 302 patients (78.6%. The mean age of those patients was 48.7 years. The patients without PH showed better hemodynamic profiles and lower levels of B-type natriuretic peptide. Nevertheless, 13.8% of the patients without PH were categorized as New York Heart Association functional class III or IV. Of the 218 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 40 (18.3% and 178 (81.7% were diagnosed with PH associated with LVD (PH-LVD and with PAH, respectively. The patients in the HP-LVD group were significantly older than were those in the PAH group (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: The proportional difference between the PAH and PH-LVD groups was quite significant, considering the absence of echocardiographic signs suggestive of severe LVD during the pre-catheterization investigation. Our results highlight the fundamental role of cardiac catheterization in the diagnosis of PAH, especially in older patients, in whom the prevalence of LVD that has gone undiagnosed by non-invasive tests is particularly relevant.

  16. Novel parameter for assessment of left atrial size in patients with hypertension: ratio of left atrial volume to left ventricular volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue; CHAI Liang; ZHANG Yun; LI Lei

    2009-01-01

    Background Left atrial enlargement has been suggested as a more robust marker of diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesize that the ratio of left atrial volume to left ventricular volume (LAV/LVV) may be more reasonable to reflect left atrial enlargement in the patients with hypertension, because hypertensive patients have a characteristic of concentric remodeling of the left ventricle which is often accompanied with diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine if the LAV/LVV can be used as a new parameter to assess left atrial size in hypertensive patients and the relationship between the LAV/LVV and diastolic dysfunction.Methods Ninety-one patients with hypertension and forty-three normal controls were studied. The hypertensive patients were assigned to the normal wall (NW) and hypertrophic wall (HW) groups. The left atrial diameter (LAD), LAV, left atrial volume index (LAVi), LVV and LAV/LVV were measured and calculated by 2-dimensional echocardiography and real time 3-dimensional echocardiography. All of the above parameters were used to evaluate the size of the left atrium. The ratio of peak E velocity of mitral valve inflow to peak E' velocity of lateral mitral annulus (E/E') was measured by pulse Doppler and tissue Doppler. This parameter was used to evaluate diastolic function. Results The LAD, LAV, LAVi, LAV/LVV and E/E' in hypertensive groups were significantly higher than those in the normal group (P <0.05 or 0.01), and those in the HW group were significantly higher than those in the NW group (P <0.05 or 0.01). The E/E' had a positive correlation with LAV, LAVi and LAV/LVV. The correlation coefficient between E/E' and LAV/LVV was relatively higher than that between E/E' and LAD or LAVi.Conclusion LAV/LVV may be used as a new index to evaluate left atrial size in hypertensive patients with diastolic dysfunction.

  17. Blood pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, and end organ damage in hybrid offspring of spontaneously hypertensive rats and Sprague-Dawley rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He-hui XIE; Fu-ming SHEN; Chao-yu MIAO; Ding-feng SU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the blood pressure (BP), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and organ damage in hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive rats and Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Spontaneously hypertensive rats and Sprague-Dawley rats were crossbred, and the F1 hybrids were inbred randomly to produce an F2 generation.At the age of 52 weeks, the F1 and F2 hybrids were tested to determine BP and BRS in a conscious state. Histopathological examinations were carried out after BP recording and BRS studies. Results: BP and BRS were not different in F1 and F2 hybrids. BRS was inversely related to systolic BP (SBP) in male, female, or whole populations of hybrids. Quantitatively, BRS values were one-third determined by SBP level (the determinant coefficient was 0.326). The indexes for left ventricular hypertrophy, aortic hypertrophy, and renal damage were all positively related to BP, and negatively related to BRS. In multiple-regression analysis, left ventricular and aortic hypertrophy and glomerulosclerosis score were all most significantly associated with lower BRS and higher systolic BP. The contribution of BRS to left ventricular and aortic hypertrophy and glomerulosclerosis was greater than that of SBP. Conclusion: The present work with hybrid rats demonstrated quantitatively that the BRS value was one-third determined by SBP level. Both BP level and BRS value contributed greatly to the hypertensive organ damage. However,the contribution of BRS to the hypertensive organ damage was greater than that of BP level in these rats.

  18. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vanerson Passos Neves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance training (RT has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH. Objective: This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing, performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC, on blood pressure (BP and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with SH. Methods: Fifteen male SHR ENT#091;206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBPENT#093; and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY and SHR (SED-SHR; RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC; and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC. Systolic BP and heart rate (HR were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results: Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05, whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p 0.05. Conclusions: Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength.

  19. Genetic, physiological and comparative genomic studies of hypertension and insulin resistance in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M. Coan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We previously mapped hypertension-related insulin resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs to rat chromosomes 4, 12 and 16 using adipocytes from F2 crosses between spontaneously hypertensive (SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, and subsequently identified Cd36 as the gene underlying the chromosome 4 locus. The identity of the chromosome 12 and 16 genes remains unknown. To identify whole-body phenotypes associated with the chromosome 12 and 16 linkage regions, we generated and characterised new congenic strains, with WKY donor segments introgressed onto an SHR genetic background, for the chromosome 12 and 16 linkage regions. We found a >50% increase in insulin sensitivity in both the chromosome 12 and 16 strains. Blood pressure and left ventricular mass were reduced in the two congenic strains consistent with the congenic segments harbouring SHR genes for insulin resistance, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Integrated genomic analysis, using physiological and whole-genome sequence data across 42 rat strains, identified variants within the congenic regions in Upk3bl, RGD1565131 and AABR06087018.1 that were associated with blood pressure, cardiac mass and insulin sensitivity. Quantitative trait transcript analysis across 29 recombinant inbred strains showed correlation between expression of Hspb1, Zkscan5 and Pdgfrl with adipocyte volume, systolic blood pressure and cardiac mass, respectively. Comparative genome analysis showed a marked enrichment of orthologues for human GWAS-associated genes for insulin resistance within the syntenic regions of both the chromosome 12 and 16 congenic intervals. Our study defines whole-body phenotypes associated with the SHR chromosome 12 and 16 insulin-resistance QTLs, identifies candidate genes for these SHR QTLs and finds human orthologues of rat genes in these regions that associate with related human traits. Further study of these genes in the congenic strains will lead to robust identification of the

  20. Comparison of Arrhythmias among Different Left Ventricular Geometric Patterns in Essential Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The differences of arrhythmias among distinct left ventricular geometric patterns in the patients with essential hypertension were studied. 179 patients with essential hypertension received 24 h dynamic ECG recording, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, echocardiography examination, etc. According to the examinations, left ventricular geometric patterns and arrhythmias were identified. The comparison of morbidity of arrhythmias between the left ventricular remodeling group and the normal geometric pattern group was performed. The multiple stepwise regression analysis was carried out to identify the independent determinants of arrhythmias. After these predictors were controlled or adjusted, the severity of arrhythmias among different left ventricular geometric patterns was compared. It was found that the morbidity of atrial arrhythmia, ventricular arrhythmia and complex ventricular arrhythmias in the left ventricular remodeling group was significantly higher than in the normal geometric pattern group respectively. There were many independent factors influencing on arrhythmias in essential hypertension. Of all these factors, some indices of left ventricular anatomic structure, grade of hypertension, left atrial inner dimension, E/A, diastolic blood pressure load value at night and day average heart rate and so on were very important. After the above-mentioned factors were adjusted, the differences of the orders of arrhythmias between partial geometric patterns were reserved, which resulted from the differences of the geometric patterns. Many factors contributed to arrhythmias of essential hypertension, such as grade of hypertension, LVMI, LA, PWT and so on. The severity of arrhythmias was different in different left ventricular geometric patterns.

  1. Sesame oil therapeutically ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy by regulating hypokalemia in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Teng; Periasamy, Srinivasan; Chang, Chih-Ching; Mo, Fan-E; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-08-01

    Hypokalemia and hypertension are common manifestations of preclinical cardiovascular conditions that have a predictive value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cardiac hypertrophy, an important risk factor in heart failure, is attributed to long-term hypokalemia and hypertension. Sesame oil is rich in nutrients and possesses potent antihypertensive activities. We investigated the therapeutic potential of sesame oil using a hypertensive model created by subcutaneously injecting deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA; 15 mg/mL/kg in mineral oil; twice weekly for 5 weeks) and supplementing with 1% sodium chloride drinking water (DOCA/salt) to uninephrectomized rats. Sesame oil was administered by oral gavage (0.5 or 1 mL/kg/d for 7 days) after 4 weeks of DOCA/salt treatment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), electrocardiography (ECG), and K(+) and Mg(2+) levels were assessed 24 hours after the last dose of sesame oil. Heart tissue was collected for histologic analysis. Sesame oil effectively reduced the SBP/DBP and ECG abnormalities and increased the serum levels of K(+) and Mg(2+) while limiting the urinary excretion of K(+) in DOCA/salt-induced hypertensive rats. In addition, sesame oil decreased the heart mass, the thickness of the left ventricle, and the diameter of cardiomyocytes, indicating the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in the hypertensive rats. We demonstrate that sesame oil therapeutically ameliorates cardiac hypertrophy by regulating hypokalemia in hypertensive rats. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  2. The evaluation of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamer, Ismet; Sargin, Mehmet; Sargin, Haluk; Seker, Mesut; Babalik, Erhan; Tekce, Mustafa; Yayla, Ali

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this prospective cross-sectional study was to investigate the hypertrophic effects of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism on myocardium and early development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in essential hypertensive patients accompanied by endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. A total of 31 consecutive patients with stage I hypertension were included in the study. Sixteen of them also had endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism that they were unaware before. The patients and the controls formed out of ten healthy subjects all underwent an investigation of thyroid functions and cardiologic evaluation. The mean wall thickness of the left ventricle in the stage I hypertensive group with endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (group I) was significantly increased as compared with both hypertensive patients without thyroid disease (group II) and the control subjects. The mean left ventricle mass was also significantly higher in group I than group II. Both of the patients' groups had an increased prevalence of LVH as compared with the controls. In this study, hypertensive patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism presented more increase in left ventricular mass, suggesting that subclinical hyperthyroidism may contribute to left ventricular hypertrophy forming a natural progression to hypertension. The hypertensive population should always be screened for endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism, and should be examined for the criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography in early stages.

  3. Relationship of left ventricular systolic function to persistence or development of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okin, Peter M; Wachtell, Kristian; Gerdts, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    left ventricular systolic function in patients with new or persistent ECG LVH. METHODS: Baseline and year-3 ECG LVH and left ventricular midwall shortening (MWS) were examined in 725 hypertensive patients in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiographic...... or regression of ECG LVH in 427 patients and persistence or development of new LVH in 298 patients. At baseline, although there were no significant differences in the mean values of MWS and scMWS, patients with persistence or development of ECG LVH at year 3 had significantly higher baseline prevalences...

  4. The Effect and Mechanism of Forsinopril on Ventricular Hypertrophy of SHR and Left Ventricular Pressure overloading Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄恺; 戴闺柱

    2002-01-01

    The effects and mechanism of long-term angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)Forsinopril on left ventricular hypertrophy of spontaneous hypertension rat (SHR) and left ventricular pressure overloading rat were studied. The left ventricular index (left ventricle weight/body weight) was used to evaluate left ventricular hypertrophy and the in situ hybridization to investigate the TGF-β1 gene expression in left ventricle. The results showed that Forsinopril significantly decreased the left ventricular index of both SHR and left ventricle pressure overloading rat. Forsinopril reduced the integral photic density of TGF-β1 gene statement from 2. 836± 0. 314 to 1.91 ± 0. 217(P<0.01, n=8 ) of SHR rat and from 3. 071±0. 456 to 2. 37640. 379 (P<0.01, n=8) of left ventricular pressure overloading rat respectively. It was concluded that Forsinopril could prevent the occurrence of left ventricular hypertrophy and reduce the TGF-β1 gene expression in left ventricle of both SHR and left ventricular pressure overloading rat significantly.

  5. Substantia nigra lesions attenuate the development of hypertension and behavioural hyperreactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Buuse, M; Veldhuis, H D; Versteeg, D H; De Jong, W

    1986-01-01

    The possible relation between changes in behaviour and the development of hypertension was investigated. Depletion of striatal dopamine by lesions in the substantia nigra of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) was associated with an inhibition of the development of hypertension. In the open field

  6. Left-sided portal hypertension: Successful management by laparoscopic splenectomy following splenic artery embolization

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    Damiano Patrono

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Splenic artery embolization may be a valuable adjunct in case of left-sided portal hypertension requiring splenectomy, allowing a safe dissection of the splenic vessels even by laparoscopy.

  7. Gene Polymorphism and Left Ventricular Geometry and Function in Hypertensive Subjects

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    Rosario Scaglione

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the T29C TGFβ1 gene polymorphism was analyzed in 198 hypertensives with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and in 235 hypertensives without LVH. Circulating TGFβ1 levels, procollagen type III levels, microalbuminuria, and left ventricular geometry and function were evaluated in all the hypertensives with LVH subgrouped according to T29C TGFβ1 gene polymorphism. Circulating TGFβ1 was evaluated by ELISA technique, procollagen type III by a specific radioimmunoassay, microalbuminuria by radioimmunoassay, and left ventricular geometry and function by echocardiography. All groups were comparable for gender, age, and sex. Regarding T29C TGFβ1 gene polymorphism, prevalence of TC or CC genotypes was significantly (P<.05 higher in hypertensives with LVH than hypertensives without LVH TC and CC LVH hypertensives were characterized by a higher prevalence of subjects with microalbuminuria (P<.05 TC and CC versus TT, by increased levels of TGFβ1, procollagen type III, urinary albumin excretion, LVM, LVM/h2.7, and lower values of left ventricular ejection fraction (P<.05 TC and CC versus TT. Our data suggest that T29C TGFβ1 gene polymorphism was associated with clinical characteristics adequate to recognize a subset of LVH hypertensives with a higher severity of hypertension.

  8. Haemochromatosis genotype and iron overload: association with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, C; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Appleyard, M

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesized that there is an association between haemochromatosis genotype C282Y/C282Y and/or iron overload and risk of hypertension and/or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).......We hypothesized that there is an association between haemochromatosis genotype C282Y/C282Y and/or iron overload and risk of hypertension and/or left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)....

  9. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P;

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatatio...

  10. Regional Myocardial Substrate Uptake in Hypertensive Rats: A Quantitative Autoradiographic Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Bertrand Brill, A.; Som, Prantika; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Srivastava, Suresh C.; Iwai, Junichi; Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli; Strauss, H. William; Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Furn F.

    1985-03-01

    Severe hypertension causes global and regional changes in myocardial perfusion and substrate utilization. Regional perfusion and fatty acid utilization were evaluated by dual-tracer autoradiography in normotensive and hypertensive rats of the Dahl strain. The regional distributions of perfusion and fatty acid utilization were homogeneous in normotensive rats. Severe hypertension was associated with a homogeneous pattern of regional perfusion, but fatty acid utilization was focally decreased in the free wall of the left ventricle. The decrease in fatty acid uptake was associated with a concomitant increase in glucose utilization. These findings suggest that severe hypertension is associated with uniform myocardial perfusion and focal alterations in the substrates used for the performance of myocardial work.

  11. Prognostic significance of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and systemic hypertension (the LIFE Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Palmieri, Vittorio; Gerdts, Eva;

    2010-01-01

    Patients with hypertension and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy commonly have impaired diastolic filling. However, it remains unknown whether changes in LV diastolic filling variables are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, 778 patients with hypertension...... valve flow pattern, this was not associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when adjusting for blood pressure, left atrial diameter, LV mass index, and treatment in time-varying Cox analyses. In contrast, lower in-treatment E/A ratios and shorter mitral valve deceleration times were...... associated with less risk for heart failure. Similarly, normal in-treatment transmitral flow pattern was strongly associated with less risk for heart failure (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.98, p = 0.048), even when taking in-treatment left atrial diameter and blood pressure...

  12. Spatial memory in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR.

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    Thomas-A Sontag

    Full Text Available The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory. However, the data on spatial working memory deficits in SHRs are not consistent. It has been suggested that the reported cognitive deficits of SHRs may be related to the SHRs' locomotor activity. We have used a holeboard (COGITAT to study both cognition and activity in order to evaluate the influence of the activity on the cognitive performance of SHRs. In comparison to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats, SHRs did not have any impairment in spatial working memory and reference memory. When the rats' locomotor activity was taken into account, the SHRs' working memory and reference memory were significantly better than in WKY rats. The locomotor activity appears to be a confounding factor in spatial memory tasks and should therefore be controlled for in future studies. In the SHR model of ADHD, we were unable to demonstrate an impairment of working memory which has been reported in patients with ADHD.

  13. Left ventricular mass and incident hypertension in individuals with initial optimal blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Simone, Giovanni; Devereux, Richard B.; Chinali, Marcello; Roman, Mary J.; Welty, Thomas K.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Metabolic abnormalities have been shown to predict 8-year incident arterial hypertension in individuals with optimal blood pressure. As echocardiographic left ventricular mass has also been reported to predict incident hypertension in individuals with baseline blood pressure of less than 140/90 mmHg, we determined whether left ventricular mass predicts 4-year incident hypertension also in individuals with initial optimal blood pressure (<120/80 mmHg), independent of metabolic factors influencing blood pressure. Methods We studied 777 of 3257 members of the American Indian population-based Strong Heart Study cohort with optimal blood pressure (34% men, 45% obese, and 35% diabetic), aged 57 ± 7 years, and without prevalent cardiovascular disease. Results Over 4 years, 159 individuals (20%, group H) developed hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg). They had a greater baseline BMI, waist girth, and blood pressure (112/69 vs. 109/68 mmHg, all P<0.03) than those remaining normotensive (group N), with similar lipid profile and renal function. At baseline, left ventricular mass was significantly greater in group H than in group N (P<0.004). The difference in left ventricular mass was confirmed after controlling for initial BMI, systolic blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment index, and diabetes. The probability of incident hypertension increased by 36% for each standard deviation of left ventricular mass index (P=0.006), independent of covariates. Participants with left ventricular mass of more than 159 g (75th percentile of distribution) had 2.5-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.4-3.6; P<0.001) higher adjusted risk of incident hypertension than those below this value. Conclusion Left ventricular mass predicts incident arterial hypertension in individuals with initially optimal blood pressure. This association is independent of body build, prevalent diabetes, and initial blood pressure. PMID:18698223

  14. Echocardiographic Partition Values and Prevalence of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Jamaicans

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    Chiranjivi Potu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH detected by either electrocardiography or echo- cardiography has been shown to be an extremely strong predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with essential hypertension and in members of the general population. Alternative to LVH, left ventricular geometrical patterns offer incremental prognostic value beyond that provided by the other cardiovascular risk factors including left ventricular mass (LVM. Combination of LVM and relative wall thickness (RWT can be used to identify different left ventricular geometrical patterns. Various indexation methods normalised for LVM have been shown to offer prognostic significance. There was no prior study on the prevalence of LVH and geometric patterns in hypertensive patients in Jamaica using multiple partition values. Our study was designed to estimate the prevalence of LVH and geometrical patterns in a hypertensive Caribbean population in Jamaica using 10 different published cut-off values.

  15. Effects of salvia miltiorrhiza bge on myocardial fibrosis in hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhong-zhi; DING Shi-fang; TANG Ying

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To study the effects of Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bge (SMB) on myocardial fibrosis in hypertension in rats. Methods: Normal Wistar kyoto rats served as negative control (group A). The rats with hypertension were divided into 2 groups: the hypertension group (group B) which served as the positive control and the SMB-treated hypertension group (group C). The effects of SMB on the systolic pressure, the myocardial content of aldosterone (ALD) and nitric oxide (NO) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the myocardium were detected. Results: The systolic pressure of the rats of group C showed no marked change after the administration of SMB and showed no difference from that of the rats of group B. The content of collagen Ⅰ and Ⅲ of the left ventricle, the collagen Ⅰ/collagen Ⅲ ratio and the content.of ALD were lower in group C than in group B and higher in group C than in group A. The content of NO and the activity of SOD in the myocardium were higher in group C than in group B and lower in group C than in group A. Conclusion: It was concluded that SMB was able to prevent or reverse the progress of myocardial fibrosis resulting from hypertension. The mechanism of this effect of SMB might be due to the fact that SMB can decrease the collagen synthesis and ALD content and increase collagen decomposition, NO content and SOD activity in the myocardium.

  16. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

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    Suely Tomimura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT, or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16 were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8, which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8, which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group, revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group. Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  17. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomimura, Suely, E-mail: suelytomimura@uol.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Silva, Bianca Passos Assumpção [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Sanches, Iris Callado [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Canal, Marina [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Conti, Felipe Fernandes; Angelis, Katia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Chavantes, Maria Cristina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16) were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8), which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8), which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group). Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  18. Effects of Short-term Renovascular Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes on Cardiac Functions in Rats

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    Ali Akbar Nekooeian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cardiac effects simultaneously occurring during experimental hypertension and diabetes have rarely been investigated. This study aimed at examining the effects of short-term renovascular hypertension and type 2 diabetes on cardiac functions. Methods: Five groups (7 each of male Sprague-Dawley rats, including a control group, a diabetes (induced by Streptozocin and Nicotinamide group, a renovascular hypertensive (induced by placing Plexiglas clips on the left renal arteries group, a sham group, and a simultaneously hypertensive-diabetic group, were used. The animals’ hearts were used for isolated heart studies, and the indices of cardiac functions and coronary effluent creatine kinase MB were measured. The results were analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance, followed by the Duncan Multiple Range test. Results: The diabetic group had a significantly lower rate of rise (-29.5% and decrease (-36.18% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (-28.8%, and rate pressure product (-35%, and significantly higher creatine kinase MB (+166% and infarct size (+36.2% than those of the control group. The hypertensive group had a significantly higher rate of rise (+12.17% and decrease (+16.2% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (+16%, and rate pressure product (+24%, and significantly lower creatine kinase MB (-30% and infarct size (-27% than those of the sham group. Simultaneously, the diabetic and hypertensive rats had a significantly higher rate of rise (+32% and decrease (+30.2% in ventricular pressure, left ventricular developed pressure (+17.2%, and rate pressure product (+22.2%, and significantly lower creatine kinase MB (-24% and infarct size (-16.2% than those of the diabetic group. Conclusion: The findings indicated that the simultaneity of hypertension with type 2 diabetes attenuated diabetes-induced cardiac impairment.

  19. Effect of early propranolol administration on portal hypertensive gastropathy in cirrhotic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savas Rafailidis; Charalampos Demertzidis; Konstantinos Ballas; Michail Alatsakis; Nikolaos Symeonidis; Theodoros Pavlidis; Kyriakos Psarras; Valentini Tzioufa-Asimakopoulou; Athanassios Sakadamis

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate any protective effect of early propranolol administration in the development of portal hypertensive gastropathy in cirrhotic rats. METHODS: For the development of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertensive gastropathy, 60 rats underwent ligation of the left adrenal vein and complete devascularization of the left renal vein, followed by phenobarbital and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. After two weeks of CCl4 administration, the rats were randomly separated into two groups. In group A, propranolol was continuously administered intragastrically throughout the study, whereas in group B normal saline (placebo) was administered instead. Hemodynamic studies and vascular morphometric analysis of gastric sections were performed after complete induction of cirrhosis. RESULTS: Vascular morphometric studies showed higher numbers of vessels in all mucosal layers in the control group. Statistical analysis revealed a significantly higher total vascular surface in the control group compared to the propranolol group, but with no statistically significant difference between the mean vascular surfaces between the groups. Our study clearly shows that the increased mucosal blood flow is manifested by a marked increase of vessel count. CONCLUSION: Early propranolol's administration in portal hypertensive cirrhotic rats seems to prevent intense gastric vascular congestion that characterizes portal hypertensive gastropathy.

  20. The Effects and Mechanism of Atorvastatin on Pulmonary Hypertension Due to Left Heart Disease.

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    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease (PH-LHD is one of the most common forms of PH, termed group 2 PH. Atorvastatin exerts beneficial effects on the structural remodeling of the lung in ischemic heart failure. However, few studies have investigated the effects of atorvastatin on PH due to left heart failure induced by overload.Group 2 PH was induced in animals by aortic banding. Rats (n = 20 were randomly divided into four groups: a control group (C, an aortic banding group (AOB63, an atorvastatin prevention group (AOB63/ATOR63 and an atorvastatin reversal group (AOB63/ATOR50-63. Atorvastatin was administered for 63 days after banding to the rats in the AOB63/ATOR63 group and from days 50 to 63 to the rats in the AOB63/ATOR50-63 group.Compared with the controls, significant increases in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary arteriolar medial thickening, biventricular cardiac hypertrophy, wet and dry weights of the right middle lung, percentage of PCNA-positive vascular smooth muscle cells, inflammatory infiltration and expression of RhoA and Rho-kinase II were observed in the AOB63 group, and these changes concomitant with significant decreases in the percentage of TUNEL-positive vascular smooth muscle cells. Treatment of the rats in the AOB63/ATOR63 group with atorvastatin at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day significantly decreased the mean pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary arteriolar medial thickness, inflammatory infiltration, percentage of PCNA-positive cells and pulmonary expression of RhoA and Rho-kinase II and significantly augmented the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells compared with the AOB63 group. However, only a trend of improvement in pulmonary vascular remodeling was detected in the AOB63/ATOR50-63 group.Atorvastatin prevents pulmonary vascular remodeling in the PH-LHD model by down-regulating the expression of RhoA/Rho kinase, by inhibiting the proliferation and increasing the

  1. Acute effect of tetrandrine pulmonary targeting microspheres on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程德云; 陈文彬; 莫晓能

    2002-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of tetrandrine (Tet) pulmonary targeting microspheres on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and evaluate its selective action on pulmonary circulation. Methods Twenty rats were exposed to hypoxic conditions for 3 weeks. Ten rats were used as normoxic controls. We administered Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres to 10 hypoxic rats and Tet aqueous solution to 10 hypoxic rats and the 10 control rats. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) was measured by a right cardiac catheterization, and mean systemic blood pressure (mSBP) was measured by left femoral catheterization. Results Rats exposed to hypoxia developed pulmonary hypertension. The decrease in mPAP in rats treated with Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres was significantly greater than that in rats receiving Tet aqueous solution (P<0.05), and the effects were longer with Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres. Moreover, Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres, unlike Tet aqueous solution, did not decrease mSBP. Conclusion Tet pulmonary targeting microspheres were more effective than Tet aqueous solution in treating hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and acted selectively on the pulmonary circulation.

  2. Dynamic resistance training decreases sympathetic tone in hypertensive ovariectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, G.L.; Palma, R.K.; Brito, J.O.; Sanches, I.C. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Programa de Ciências da Reabilitação, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic control in ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats. Female rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (SC), sedentary hypertensive (SH), sedentary hypertensive ovariectomized (SHO), and resistance-trained hypertensive ovariectomized (RTHO). Resistance exercise training was performed on a vertical ladder (5 days/week, 8 weeks) at 40-60% maximal load. Direct arterial pressure was recorded. Vagal and sympathetic tones were measured by heart rate (HR) responses to methylatropine (3 mg/kg, iv) and propranolol (4 mg/kg, iv). Ovariectomy resulted in additional increases in blood pressure in hypertensive rats and was associated with decreased vagal tone. Resistance exercise trained rats had lower mean arterial pressure than untrained rats (RTHO: 159±2.2 vs SHO: 177±3.4 mmHg), as well as resting bradycardia (RTHO: 332±9.0 vs SHO: 356±5 bpm). Sympathetic tone was also lower in the trained group. Moreover, sympathetic tone was positively correlated with resting HR (r=0.7, P<0.05). The additional arterial pressure increase in hypertensive rats caused by ovarian hormone deprivation was attenuated by moderate-intensity dynamic resistance training. This benefit may be associated with resting bradycardia and reduced cardiac sympathetic tone after training, which suggests potential benefits of resistance exercise for the management of hypertension after ovarian hormone deprivation.

  3. Brain catecholamines in spontaneously hypertensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujino,Kazuyuki

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (alpha-MPT induced disappearance of catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, were measured in selected areas of the brainstem and hypothalamus of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. The catecholamine levels were measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay method combined with microdissection of the rat brain. The adrenaline concentration was higher in the area A1 of young SHR, but not in adult SHR, than in age-matched control rats. Noradrenaline concentrations and the alpha-MPT induced noradrenaline disappearance were less in the rostral part of the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS and the nucleus hypothalamic anterior of young SHR, and in the rostral part of the NTS of adult SHR. On the other hand in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, the concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were the same as in control rats in the examined areas. The alpha-MPT induced noradrenaline disappearance was less in the rostral part of the NTS of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Dopamine concentrations and the alpha-MPT induced dopamine disappearance were the same in the examined areas of SHR and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. The results suggest that SHR have a change in adrenergic neural activity in the brainstem and a decrease in noradrenergic neural activity in the brainstem and hypothalamus while DOCA-salt hypertensive rats have a decrease in noradrenergic neural activity in the brainstem. Such changes in brain catecholaminergic neurons may have played an important role in the development of hypertension in these rats.

  4. Epidemiology of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertension: implications for the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramariuc, Dana; Gerdts, Eva

    2016-08-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a common complication to hypertension, indicating the presence of hypertensive heart disease, which puts the patient at a very high risk for subsequent clinical cardiovascular events like sudden cardiac death, stroke, myocardial infarction and heart failure. The epidemiology of LVH has changed in recent years as a consequence of the development of new diagnostic tools and demographic changes in hypertensive populations. Expert commentary: In individual hypertensive patients, the presence and type of LVH and associated systolic and diastolic myocardial dysfunction is modified by the co-presence of other cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities and as well as activation of the reninangiotensin-aldosterone system and other molecular mechanisms involved in LVH pathophysiology. The purpose of this review is to give a clinical update on LVH in hypertension.

  5. Evaluation of docosahexaenoic acid in a dog model of hypertension induced left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, William C; Cox, James W; Asemu, Girma; O'Connell, Kelly A; Dabkowski, Erinne R; Xu, Wenhong; Ribeiro, Rogerio F; Shekar, Kadambari C; Hoag, Stephen W; Rastogi, Sharad; Sabbah, Hani N; Daneault, Caroline; des Rosiers, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter cardiac phospholipids and prevent cardiac pathology in rodents subjected to pressure overload. This approach has not been evaluated in humans or large animals with hypertension-induced pathological hypertrophy. We evaluated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in old female dogs with hypertension caused by 16 weeks of aldosterone infusion. Aldosterone-induced hypertension resulted in concentric left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and impaired diastolic function in placebo-treated dogs. DHA supplementation increased DHA and depleted arachidonic acid in cardiac phospholipids, but did not improve LV parameters compared to placebo. Surprisingly, DHA significantly increased serum aldosterone concentration and blood pressure compared to placebo. Cardiac mitochondrial yield was decreased in placebo-treated hypertensive dogs compared to normal animals, which was prevented by DHA. Extensive analysis of mitochondrial function found no differences between DHA and placebo groups. In conclusion, DHA did not favorably impact mitochondrial or LV function in aldosterone hypertensive dogs.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of drugs in spontaneously or secondary hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sihyung; Lee, Young Sun; Oh, Euichaul

    2014-01-01

    1. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertensive rats (DOCA-salt rats) have been developed as animal models for human essential (idiopathic or primary) and secondary hypertensions, respectively. 2. In order to identify pharmacokinetic changes (mainly non-renal clearance, CLNR) in 16-week-old SHRs due to hereditary characteristics and/or neither the hypertensive state itself, we reviewed the pharmacokinetics of drugs in 6- (blood pressure within a normotensive range) and 16-week-old SHRs and 16-week-old DOCA-salt rats compared with respective control rats. 3. We reviewed changes in CLNRs of drugs which are primarily metabolized via hepatic microsomal cytochrome P 450 enzymes (CYPs) based mainly on data from hypertensive rats, and present the data in terms of changes in in vitro hepatic intrinsic clearance (CLint), free fraction in plasma (fp) and hepatic blood flow rate (QH) depending on the hepatic excretion ratios of drugs. In general, changes in the CLNRs of drugs in this category were well-explained by the above-described factors. 4. We also reviewed and discussed the mechanism of urinary excretion of drugs (i.e. glomerular filtration and active renal secretion or reabsorption) in hypertensive rats.

  7. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Essential Hypertensive Patients: Influence of Age and Left Ventricular Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Eduardo Cantoni

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE - To evaluate diastolic dysfunction (DD in essential hypertension and the influence of age and cardiac geometry on this parameter. METHODS - Four hundred sixty essential hypertensive patients (HT underwent Doppler echocardiography to obtain E/A wave ratio (E/A, atrial deceleration time (ADT, and isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT. All patients were grouped according to cardiac geometric patterns (NG - normal geometry; CR - concentric remodeling; CH- concentric hypertrophy; EH - eccentric hypertrophy and to age (60 years. One hundred six normotensives (NT persons were also evaluated. RESULTS - A worsening of diastolic function in the HT compared with the NT, including HT with NG (E/A: NT - 1.38±0.03 vs HT - 1.27±0.02, p<0.01, was observed. A higher prevalence of DD occurred parallel to age and cardiac geometry also in the prehypertrophic groups (CR. Multiple regression analysis identified age as the most important predictor of DD (r²=0.30, p<0.01. CONCLUSION - DD was prevalent in this hypertensive population, being highly affected by age and less by heart structural parameters. DD is observed in incipient stages of hypertensive heart disease, and thus its early detection may help in the risk stratification of hypertensive patients.

  8. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a low-salt diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Mai; Tamura, Yuki; Toda, Natsuko; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Terakado, Shouko; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Murota, Itsuki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides (alginate) on the development of spontaneous hypertension in rats. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were treated with alginate for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiovascular and kidney damage were assessed. Systolic blood pressure increased in SHRs and this elevation was attenuated with alginate treatment. The heart weight tended to decline. Alginate did not change plasma cholesterol levels or urinary sodium excretions. The slightly higher urinary protein excretion in SHRs was not changed with the treatment; however, morphologic glomerular damage was significantly attenuated. Sodium alginate oligosaccharide attenuates spontaneous hypertension in SHRs, and may help prevent early-stage kidney injury.

  9. Quantitative Indexes of Leukocytes in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats During Various Periods of Arterial Hypertension Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, O I; Anishchenko, A M; Sidekhmenova, A V; Shamanaev, A Yu; Fedorova, E P; Plotnikov, M B

    2015-10-01

    SHR rats were examined in the period before arterial hypertension development (5th week), during the increase in BP (6th-10th weeks), and under conditions of constantly elevated BP (11th-12th weeks). The total number of leukocytes did not differ in SHR and normotensive WKY rats. However, the relative number of lymphocytes and monocytes was shown to differ in various periods of arterial hypertension development. Our results suggest that white blood cells (primarily lymphocytes) are involved in the development of arterial hypertension.

  10. Electrocardiogram Performance in the Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Paula Freitas Martins; Luna Filho, Bráulio; Costa, Francisco de Assis; Bombig, Maria Teresa Nogueira; de Souza, Dilma; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Oliveira Filho, Japy Angelini; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Póvoa, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events, and its detection usually begins with an electrocardiogram (ECG). Objective To evaluate the impact of complete left bundle branch block (CLBBB) in hypertensive patients in the diagnostic performance of LVH by ECG. Methods A total of 2,240 hypertensive patients were studied. All of them were submitted to an ECG and an echocardiogram (ECHO). We evaluated the most frequently used electrocardiographic criteria for LVH diagnosis: Cornell voltage, Cornell voltage product, Sokolow-Lyon voltage, Sokolow-Lyon product, RaVL, RaVL+SV3, RV6/RV5 ratio, strain pattern, left atrial enlargement, and QT interval. LVH identification pattern was the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) obtained by ECHO in all participants. Results Mean age was 11.3 years ± 58.7 years, 684 (30.5%) were male and 1,556 (69.5%) were female. In patients without CLBBB, ECG sensitivity to the presence of LVH varied between 7.6 and 40.9%, and specificity varied between 70.2% and 99.2%. In participants with CLBBB, sensitivity to LVH varied between 11.9 and 95.2%, and specificity between 6.6 and 96.6%. Among the criteria with the best performance for LVH with CLBBB, Sokolow-Lyon, for a voltage of ≥ 3,0mV, stood out with a sensitivity of 22.2% (CI 95% 15.8 - 30.8) and specificity of 88.3% (CI 95% 77.8 - 94.2). Conclusion In hypertensive patients with CLBBB, the most often used criteria for the detection of LVH with ECG showed significant decrease in performance with regards to sensitivity and specificity. In this scenario, Sokolow-Lyon criteria with voltage ≥3,0mV presented the best performance. PMID:27992034

  11. Altered heart and kidney phospholipid fatty acid composition are associated with cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Jung, Young-Sang; Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Hwang, Geum-Sook; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-01

    We examined the association of cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis with the phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition of heart and kidney in hypertensive rats. Eight-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) (n=8) and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs, n=8) as a normotensive control, were fed ad libitum for 6 weeks with regular AIN-76 diet. Phospholipid FA compositions in the left ventricle and kidney were measured and histological analyses were performed. Compared with WKYs, SHRs had lower proportions of γ-linolenic acid, α-linolenic acid, eicosadienoic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, dihomo-γ-linoleic acid, docosadienoic acid and nervonic acid in heart, and stearic acid (SA), γ-linolenic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in kidney. After adjusting for food intake, SHRs still maintained higher proportions of SA, and total saturated FAs in the heart and a lower proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid in the kidney. Additionally, compared with WKYs, SHRs showed larger cardiomyocyte diameters in the left ventricles, indicating cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Cardiomyocyte diameters also positively correlated with cardiac SA (r=0.550, pcardiac hypertrophy in a hypertensive setting, implicating the pathogenic role of tissue FAs in hypertension and related complications. Copyright © 2013 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Serum cystatin C concentration as an independent marker for hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Li; Hang Zhu; Peng Li; Qian Xin; Jie Liu; Wei Zhang; You-Hong Xing; Hao Xue

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum cystatin C levels can be used to predict morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, the clinical relevance of serum cystatin C levels in patients with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has rarely been investigated. We designed the present study to investigate whether serum cystatin C levels are associated with cardiac structural and functional alterations in hypertensive patients. Methods We enrolled 823 hypertensive patients and classified them into two groups:those with LVH (n=287) and those without LVH (n=536). All patients underwent echocardiography and serum cystatin C testing. We analyzed the relationship be-tween serum cystatin C levels and LVH. Results Serum cystatin C levels were higher in hypertensive patients with LVH than in those without LVH (P<0.05). Using linear correlation analysis, we found a positive correlation between serum cystatin C levels and interven-tricular septal thickness (r=0.247, P<0.01), posterior wall thickness (r=0.216, P<0.01), and left ventricular weight index (r=0.347, P<0.01). When analyzed by multiple linear regression, the positive correlations remained between serum cystatin C and interventricular septal thickness (β=0.167, P<0.05), posterior wall thickness (β=0.187, P<0.05), and left ventricular weight index (β=0.245, P<0.01). Con-clusion Serum cystatin C concentration is an independent marker for hypertensive LVH.

  13. Ivabradine improves left ventricular function during chronic hypertension in conscious pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Mario; Melka, Jonathan; Bizé, Alain; Sambin, Lucien; Jozwiak, Mathieu; Su, Jin Bo; Hittinger, Luc; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    During chronic hypertension, increases in heart rate (HR) or adrenergic stimulation are associated with maladaptive left ventricular responses as isovolumic contraction and relaxation durations failed to reduce, impeding filling. We, therefore, investigated the effects of acute selective HR reduction with ivabradine on left ventricular dysfunction during chronic hypertension. Accordingly, chronically instrumented pigs received angiotensin II infusion during 4 weeks to induce chronic hypertension. Left ventricular function was investigated while angiotensin II infusion was stopped. A single intravenous dose of ivabradine was administered at days 0 and 28. Dobutamine infusion was also performed. HR was increased at day 28 versus day 0. Paradoxically, both isovolumic contraction and relaxation times failed to reduce and remained unchanged (57±3 versus 58±3 ms and 74±3 versus 70±3 at day 28 versus day 0, respectively). At day 28, ivabradine significantly reduced HR by 27%. Concomitantly, abnormal ventricular responses were corrected because both isovolumic contraction and relaxation times were significantly reduced while filling time was improved. Similarly at day 28, maladaptive responses of isovolumic contraction and relaxation to dobutamine were no longer observed during HR reduction with ivabradine. Correction of HR reduction with pacing showed that non-HR-related mechanisms also participated to these beneficial effects. In this model of chronic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, acute HR reduction with ivabradine corrects the maladaptive responses of cardiac cycle phases by restoring a normal profile for isovolumic contraction and relaxation both at rest and under adrenergic stimuli, ultimately favoring filling.

  14. Increased proteoglycan synthesis by the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipke, D.W.; Couchman, J.R. (Hypertension Program, University of Alabama, Birmingham (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats was examined by in vivo and in vitro labeling of glycosaminoglycans with 35SO4 in rats made hypertensive for short (4 days) and longer (14 days) durations. With in vivo labeling, only tissues directly exposed to elevated pressure (left ventricle, LV and aorta above the clip, AOR increases) exhibited elevated PG synthesis after 4 days of hypertension. By 14 days, tissues both exposed to (LV and AOR increases) and protected from elevated pressure (right ventricle and kidney) exhibited elevated PG synthetic rates. Slight elevations in the proportion of galactosaminoglycans were observed with a concurrent proportional decrease in heparan sulfate PGs. Using the in vitro labeling procedure, no significant increases in PG synthesis were observed in any tissue at either 4 days or 14 days of hypertension. These data indicate that: (1) coarctation hypertension stimulates PG production that is dependent initially on increased pressure and later, on additional non-pressure related factors, (2) these other factors are responsible for enhanced PG production in tissues not directly exposed to pressure overload, (3) pressure and/or these other factors are essential for enhanced PG production in coarctation hypertension, and (4) synthesis of all GAG types appears to be affected.

  15. Do diabetes mellitus and systemic hypertension predispose to left ventricular free wall rupture in acute myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, T; Hildebrant, P; Køber, L

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age <65 years and a history of coronary artery disease offers some protection from protection.......Diabetes and systemic hypertension had no influence on left ventricular free wall rupture complicating acute myocardial infarction. Age

  16. 超声评价高血压大鼠左室肥厚时缬沙坦对其结构和功能的影响%Effects of Valsartan on Left Ventricular Structure and Function in 2K1C Hypertensive Rats Evaluated with Echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙花; 夏稻子; 张宇虹; 张文华; 曲鹏; 田小红

    2001-01-01

    目的:应用高频超声心动图观察肾性高血压大鼠左室肥厚(LVH)时结构和功能的改变,并结合心肌癌基因C-FOS,C-MYC表达水平,评价缬沙坦(Valsartan,VAL)对左室构型的影响及可能机制。方法:36只SD大鼠随机分成手术组26只和假手术组10只,手术组鼠制成二肾一夹(2K1C)型肾高血压动物模型后,分为高血压组和VAL组各13只。对三组鼠行经胸超声心动图监测并测定心肌C-FOS,C-MYC表达水平。结果:VAL组室壁厚度、心功能及癌基因表达水平与假手术组无显著性差异;与高血压组有显著性差异。结论:超声能准确评价VAL抑制心肌肥厚和保护心功能的作用,后者可能是抑制心肌癌基因表达的结果。%Objective:To observe the hypertrophic left ventricular structureand function by echocardiography in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats and to connect with the level of expression of cardiac cellular oncogenes C-FOS and C-MYC as well as to evaluate the effects of Valsartan(VAL) on LV and its probable mechanism.Methods:36 SD rats were divided randomly into the sham team (n=10) and the operating team (n=26). The latter were made into 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rat models and then subdivided into hypertension team (n=13) and VAL team (n=13). Three teams who were all studied by echocardiography and expressions of oncogenes C-FOS and C-MYC were detected by immunohistochemical technique.Results:The changes of rat heart structure and function could be revealed clearly by echocardiography. LV mass correlated well with the real mass. There was no statistical significance between VAL team and the sham in ventricular thickness, heart function and expression of C-FOS and C-MYC, while there was significant difference between VAL team and hypertension team.Conclusions:Echocardiography can be used to accurately evaluate the effects of VAL on inhibiting LVH and protecting heart function, which perhaps result

  17. Comparison of cardioprotective effects of mibefradil and ramipril in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-gui XIA; Thomas UNGER; Alexander REINECKE; Marc DORENKAMP; Christain STORZ; Havvo BITTERLING; Susanne PENZ; Jack CLEUTJENS; Mat JAP DAEMEN; Reichiger SIMON

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the cardioprotective effects of T-type calcium channel blocker mibefradil and compare with that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in a stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) model of congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: SHR-SP rats were subjected to permanent ligation of the left anterior decending coronary artery. Treatment with mibefradil (10after induction of MI. Sham-operated rats served as controls. RESULTS: In placebo-treated MI rats, six weeks after MI, left ventricular circumference, inner diameter, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were increased, whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and maximum rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (dp/dtmax) were decreased compared with sham-operated controls (P<0.01). In ramipril-treated MI rats, heart weight,heart weight to body weight ratio and interstitial collagen content were reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01), LVEDP was slightly decreased (P>0.05), and dp/dtmax was improved (P<0.01) compared with placebo-treated MI rats. In contrast, in mibefradil-treated MI rats, heart weight, heart weight to body weight ratio were slightly but not significantly reduced, LVEDP was slightly elevated compared with placebo-treated MI rats, and was elevated (P<0.05)compared with ramipril-treated MI rats, although interstitial collagen content were reduced (P<0.01) compared with placebo-treated MI rats. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment with ramipril diminishes cardiac remodeling of heart failure after MI to a greater extent than mibefradil. Moreover, 6 weeks after MI, mibefradil treatment results in a slight rise in LVEDP compared with placebo-treated rats. Therefore, treatment with mibefradil might be deleterious rather than beneficial compared with ramipril or even placebo treatment in experimental MI.

  18. [Left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. Ultrasonic and physiopathology: therapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpin, D; Raynier, P; Ciber, M; Amiel, A; Boutaud, P; Demange, J

    1988-11-05

    Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy can easily be diagnosed by echocardiography. It occurs in 30-50 per cent of hypertensive patients and has recently been shown to be a potent and independent predictor of morbidity and mortality, increasing the risk of sudden death, arrhythmia and severe coronary events. The condition usually presents as concentric left ventricular hypertrophy with symmetrically or asymmetrically thickened ventricular walls, but it may also be found with a dilated cavity. Its presence is a definite indication for active medical treatment. Guidelines for the choice of a particular antihypertensive drug are not yet available. Regression of the hypertrophy seems to be a rational goal of the treatment, but the beneficial effects of such a regression on left ventricular relaxation need further evaluation.

  19. Effects of valsartan and spironolactone on the expression of c-myc in the left ventricle of renovascular hypertension rats.%缬沙坦与螺内酯对肾血管性高血压大鼠左室c-myc表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王圣; 刘宇飞; 曲鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the roles of the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and mechanical load in the expression of c-myc in hypertrophied myocardium of hypertension. Methods Two-kidney,one-clip (2KlC) renovascular hypertension was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomized into untreated hypertension group (H group), spironolactone group (gorged spironolactone 50 mg/kg·day, S group), valsartan group (gorged valsanan 30 mg/kg·day, V group), and spironolactone plus valsartan group (gorged spironolactone 50 mg/kg·day and valsartan 30m g/kg·day at the same time, S+V group). Sham-operated rats served as controls (C group). The changes of heart structure and function in all groups were observed with echocardiogram. Left ventricle concentration of angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ) and ALD was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Immunohistochemistry was adopted to examine the protein expression of c-myc. Results After 8 weeks treatment, carotid systolic pressure, .MESS (meridian end systolic stress), LVPWd(left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end diastolic), IVSd (interventricular septal thickness at end diastolic) in V group and S-V group were decreased significantly compared with those in H group and S group (P<0.05). The left ventricle concentration of Ang Ⅱ was much lower in S group, V group and S-V group than that in It group (p<0.05). The expression of c-myc was much higher in H group and S group than that in C group, V group and S+V group (P<0.01). The expression of c-myc was positively related to carotid systolic pressure after 8 weeks treatment (r=0.848, P<0.01). Significant correlation was also present between MESS and the expression of c-myc (r=0.580,P<0.01). No correlation was found between Ang Ⅱ and the expression ofc-myc. Conclusion The increasing of mechanical load is an important factor inducing the persistent expression of c-myc in left ventricle cardiomyocytes of renovascular hypertension rats. The persistent

  20. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...... approximately 0.1 to 10 mHz the spectra were 1/f and without distinct peaks. The slopes were not significantly different among the groups and ranged from -1.03 to -1.61. At frequencies > 10 mHz, power continued to decrease but with a lower slope. A peak centered at approximately 100 mHz was present in both...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension....

  1. Left ventricular dysfunction measured by tissue Doppler imaging and strain rate imaging in hypertensive adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Mi Ahn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Left ventricular (LV hypertrophy and impaired diastolic function may occur early in systemic hypertension. Diastolic dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI-derived tissue velocity and strain rate are new parameters for assessing diastolic dysfunction. The aim of this study is to determine whether TDI and strain rate imaging (SRI would improve the ability to recognize early impaired diastolic and systolic functions compared with conventional echocardiography in hypertensive adolescents. Methods : We included 38 hypertensive patients with systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg. Ejection fraction and myocardial performance index (MPI were estimated by conventional echocardiography. Peak systolic myocardial velocity, early diastolic myocardial velocity (Em, and peak late diastolic myocardial velocity (Am were obtained by using TDI and SRI. Results : In the hypertensive group, interventricular septal thickness was significantly increased on M-mode echocardiography. Em/Am was significantly decreased at the mitral valve annulus. Among hypertensive subjects, the E strain rate at basal, mid, and apex was significantly decreased. Systolic strain was significantly decreased at the septum in the hypertensive group. Conclusion : Strain rate might be a useful new parameter for the quantification of both regional and global LV functions and could be used in long-term follow up in hypertensive patients. Early identification by SRI of subjects at risk for hypertensive and ventricular dysfunction may help to stratify risk and guide therapy. Further studies, including serial assessment of LV structure and function in a larger number of adolescents with hypertension, is necessary.

  2. Expression of TGF β1 in the Left Ventricular Tissue and its Relations to Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Myocardial Interstitial Fibrosis in Renovasc ular Hypertensive Rats%转化生长因子β1在肾血管性高血压大鼠左心室的表达及与左室肥厚和心肌纤维化的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘遂心; 孙明; 周宏研

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of T GFβ1 and TGFβ1 typeⅠrecepter(TβRⅠ) in development of myocardial hypert rophy and myo cardial interstitium remodelling in renovascular hypertensive rat.  Methods TGFβ1 and TβRⅠwere evaluated by qualitative and semi -qu antitative immunohistochemical staining to explore their distribution and ex peression in left ventricular tissue. Van Gieson staining were used in the stud y of total collagen in left ventricular interstitial tissue.  Results Compared with sham-operated rat(SOR),the expression of T GFβ1 andTβRⅠ in left ventricular tissue were significantly increased in RHR(P <0.01 all). In RHR the antibody to TGFβ1 reacted primarily with cytoplasma a nd myo cardial interstitium while antibody to TβRⅠreacted mainly with myocyte membran es with weak labeling in myocardial interstitium. In SOR,very mild labeling for TGFβ1 and TβRⅠin myocardiun was found with no labeli ng in myocardial interstitium. Correlative analysis revealed that TGFβ1 or T βRⅠ was positively correlated with left ventricular mass index(LVMI),negativel y correlated with grey level of myocardial total collagen. Conclusions TGFβ1 and TβRⅠmay play important roles in develo pment of left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial interstitial fibrosis.%目的 探讨转化生长因子β1(TGFβ1)及TGFβ1Ⅰ型体受体(TβRⅠ)在高血压左室肥厚及 心肌纤维化方面的作用。方法 以二肾一夹肾血管性高血压大鼠(RHR)为模型,用免疫组化方法对TGFβ1及TGFβ1Ⅰ型受体(TβRⅠ)在左室心肌的分布及表达进行定性及半定量分析;用VG染色方法测定左室心肌总胶原浓度。结果 (1)RHR组左室重量指数(LVMI)明显高于对照组(SOR),心肌总胶原灰度值明显低于SOR组(\\%P\\%均<0.01);(2)TGFβ1及TβRⅠ在RHR组左室心肌中的表达较SOR组明显增强(\\%P\\%均<0.01)。TGFβ1表达主要位于心肌细胞浆和心肌间质,TβRⅠ主要位于心肌细胞

  3. [Treatment of compression of the left main coronary artery in patients with pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talavera, María L; Diez, Mirta; Cáneva, Jorge O; Boughen, Roberto P; Valdivieso, León; Mendiz, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Chest pain is a frequent symptom in patients with pulmonary hypertension of any etiology. Its pathophysiology has not been clearly established, the proposed causes are ischemia due to increased right ventricle wall stress, transient increased pulmonary hypertension resulting in acute pulmonary artery dilatation and external compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) by a dilated pulmonary artery. We report and discuss here three cases where the association between chest pain and compression of the LMCA by a dilated pulmonary artery could be shown, and they were treated with coronary stenting.

  4. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  5. [Left ventricular relaxation and ambulatory blood pressure in mild, untreated arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpin, D; Raynier, P; Ciber, M; Amiel, A; Boutaud, P; Demange, J

    1989-03-01

    Twenty patients with mild, untreated arterial hypertension had ambulatory blood pressure recordings and a digitized echocardiographic study of the left ventricle with measurement of its mass (LVM) and of relaxation parameters. A significant correlation was found between LVM and ambulatory systolic pressure during daytime (r = 0.64; p less than 0.01; n = 20) and during 24 hours (r = 0.79; p less than 0.001; n = 16). One of the relaxation parameters studied, the time taken to reach maximal speed of left ventricular enlargement, was closely related to the diurnal diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.58; p less than 0.01; n = 20), whereas in this population with mild arterial blood pressure none of the parameters was related to the amount of increase of LVM. One may therefore consider the abnormalities of left ventricular relaxation as likely to appear at an early stage of arterial hypertension; their discovery may antedate that of LVM and confirm that the hypertensive disease is real. However, the methodological problems encountered with type of exploration ought to be stressed: left ventricular relaxation is a multifactorial phenomenon, and its echocardiographic approach is subject to many hazards.

  6. Baroreflex deficit blunts exercise training-induced cardiovascular and autonomic adaptations in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Silva, I C; De La Fuente, R N; Mostarda, C; Rosa, K; Flues, K; Damaceno-Rodrigues, N R; Caldini, E G; De Angelis, K; Krieger, E M; Irigoyen, M C

    2010-03-01

    1. Baroreceptors regulate moment-to-moment blood pressure (BP) variations, but their long-term effect on the cardiovascular system remains unclear. Baroreceptor deficit accompanying hypertension contributes to increased BP variability (BPV) and sympathetic activity, whereas exercise training has been associated with an improvement in these baroreflex-mediated changes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the autonomic, haemodynamic and cardiac morphofunctional effects of long-term sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation (SAD) in trained and sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). 2. Rats were subjected to SAD or sham surgery and were then further divided into sedentary and trained groups. Exercise training was performed on a treadmill (five times per week, 50-70% maximal running speed). All groups were studied after 10 weeks. 3. Sinoaortic baroreceptor denervation in SHR had no effect on basal heart rate (HR) or BP, but did augment BPV, impairing the cardiac function associated with increased cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition. Exercise training reduced BP and HR, re-established baroreflex sensitivity and improved both HR variability and BPV. However, SAD in trained SHR blunted all these improvements. Moreover, the systolic and diastolic hypertensive dysfunction, reduced left ventricular chamber diameter and increased cardiac collagen deposition seen in SHR were improved after the training protocol. These benefits were attenuated in trained SAD SHR. 4. In conclusion, the present study has demonstrated that the arterial baroreflex mediates cardiac disturbances associated with hypertension and is crucial for the beneficial cardiovascular morphofunctional and autonomic adaptations induced by chronic exercise in hypertension.

  7. Metalloproteinase inhibition ameliorates hypertension and prevents vascular dysfunction and remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Michele M; Rizzi, Elen; Figueiredo-Lopes, Lívia; Fernandes, Karla; Bendhack, Lusiane M; Pitol, Dimitrius Leonardo; Gerlach, Raquel F; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2008-06-01

    Altered activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is implicated in the vascular remodeling of hypertension. We examined whether increased MMP-2 expression/activity plays a role in the vascular remodeling and dysfunction found in the two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertension. Sham operated or 2K-1C hypertension rats were treated with doxycycline 30mg/(kgday) (or vehicle). Systolic blood pressure was monitored weekly. After 8 weeks of treatment, aortic rings were isolated to assess endothelium-dependent and independent relaxations. Quantitative morphometry of structural changes, collagen, and elastin contents in the aortic wall were studied in hematoxylin/eosin, Sirius Red, and Orceine stained aortic sections, respectively. Aortic MMP-2 levels were determined by gelatin zymography and aortic MMP-2 proteolytic activity was measured using DQ gelatin as the substrate after MMP-2 was captured by a specific antibody and immobilized on a microplate. Aortic MMP-2/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 mRNA levels were determined by real time RT-PCR. Doxycycline attenuated 2K-1C hypertension (215+/-8mmHg versus 167+/-13mmHg in 2K-1C rats and 2K-1C+doxy rats, respectively; Pdoxy rats. Our results suggest that MMP-2 plays a role in 2K-1C hypertension and its structural and functional vascular changes, which were attenuated by doxycycline.

  8. Increased angiogenesis in portal hypertensive rats: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanovski, L T; Battegay, E; Stumm, M; van der Kooij, M; Sieber, C C

    1999-04-01

    Systemic and especially splanchnic arterial vasodilation accompany chronic portal hypertension. Different soluble mediators causing this vasodilation have been proposed, the strongest evidence being for nitric oxide (NO). No data exist if structural vascular changes may partly account for this vasodilatory state. Here, we developed a new in vivo quantitative angiogenesis assay in the abdominal cavity and determined if: 1) portal hypertensive rats show increased angiogenesis; and 2) angiogenesis is altered by inhibiting NO formation. Portal hypertension was induced by partial portal vein ligation (PVL). Sham-operated rats served as controls (CON). During the index operation (day 0), a teflon ring filled with collagen I (Vitrogen 100) was sutured in the mesenteric cavity. After 16 days, rings were explanted, embedded in paraffin, and ingrown vessels counted using a morphometry system. The role of NO was tested by adding an antagonist of NO formation (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine [NNA], 3.3 mg/kg/d) into the drinking water. The mean number of ingrown vessels per implant was significantly higher in PVL rats compared with CON rats, i.e., 1,453 +/- 187 versus 888 +/- 116, respectively (P <.05; N = 5 per group). NNA significantly (P <.01) inhibited angiogenesis in PVL (202 +/- 124; N = 5) and in CON (174 +/- 25; N = 6) rats, respectively. In contrast, the beta-adrenergic blocker, propranolol, did not prevent angiogenesis either in PVL or CON rats in a separate set of experiments (data not shown). The conclusions drawn from this study are that: 1) rats with portal hypertension show increased angiogenesis; and 2) inhibition of NO formation significantly prevents angiogenesis in both PVL and CON rats. Therefore, splanchnic vasodilation in chronic portal hypertension may also be a result of structural changes.

  9. Exaggerated natriuresis and lithium clearance in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Kanters, J K; Leyssac, P P

    1988-01-01

    Since hypertension is associated with changes in the handling of various cations (including sodium and lithium) across the cell membrane, the present study investigated the validity of the lithium clearance method in hypertension by comparing two measures of proximal reabsorption. Thus, fractional...... lithium excretion and transit time (TT)-occlusion time (OT; e-TT/T) were determined successively in the same spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, Okamoto strain). The rats were examined both before and after an acute saline load. The results show that the lithium clearance method can be used...... for the determination of proximal reabsorption in SHR. Utilizing the lithium clearance method, the changes in renal sodium handling underlying the exaggerated natriuresis were investigated in unanaesthetized catheterized rats. It was found that the exaggerated natriuresis was associated with an increased output from...

  10. Combating Combination of Hypertension and Diabetes in Different Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talma Rosenthal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rat experimental models are used extensively for studying physiological mechanisms and treatments of hypertension and diabetes co-existence. Each one of these conditions is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and the combination of the two conditions is a potent enhancer of CVD. Five major animal models that advanced our understanding of the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in humans are discussed in this review: Zucker, Goto-Kakizaki, SHROB, SHR/NDmcr-cp and Cohen Rosenthal diabetic hypertensive (CRDH rats. The use of various drugs, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors (ACEIs, various angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, to combat the effects of concomitant pathologies on the combination of diabetes and hypertension, as well as the non-pharmacological approach are reviewed in detail for each rat model. Results from experiments on these models indicate that classical factors contributing to the pathology of hypertension and diabetes combination—Including hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia—can now be treated, although these treatments do not completely prevent renal complications. Animal studies have focused on several mechanisms involved in hypertension/diabetes that remain to be translated into clinical medicine, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, and advanced glycation. Several target molecules have been identified that need to be incorporated into a treatment modality. The challenge continues to be the identification and interpretation of the clinical evidence from the animal models and their application to human treatment.

  11. Left ventricular structure and diastolic function in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Steensgaard-Hansen, F; Rokkedal, J

    2001-01-01

    -parental hypertension and 26 matched controls with normotensive parents. Families with non-insulin-dependent diabetes or morbid obesity were excluded. (i) Echocardiography; (ii) plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin-II, aldosterone, epinephrine and norepinephrine; (iii) euglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp study....... RESULTS (means +/- SD): Hypertension-prone subjects vs controls had (i) higher resting systolic (117.0 +/- 14.0 vs 107.1 +/- 11.9 mmHg), and 24-h diastolic blood pressure (77.9 +/- 7.1 vs 72.9 +/- 7.2 mmHg), (ii) higher relative wall thickness (RWT) (0.39 +/- 0.09 vs 0.34 +/- 0.06). They had similar left...... vetricular mass index, diastolic function parameters, insulin sensitivity and plasma concentrations of cardiomyotrophic hormones. The increased RWT was not attributable to any other factor than the systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: In a carefully selected group of subjects with two hypertensive parents...

  12. Gender differences in left ventricular structure and function during antihypertensive treatment: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, E.; Okin, P.M.; Simone, G. de

    2008-01-01

    In hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, antihypertensive treatment induces changes in left ventricular structure and function. However, less is known about gender differences in this response. Baseline and annual echocardiograms until the end of study or a primary end point...... hypertrophy regression during long-term antihypertensive treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4...... occurred were assessed in 863 hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy aged 55 to 80 years (mean: 66 years) during 4.8 years of randomized losartan- or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Echocardiography substudy...

  13. Assessment of Left Ventricular Global Twist in Essential Hypertensive Heart by Speckle Tracking Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei HAN; Mingxing XIE; Xinfang WANG; Qing LU

    2008-01-01

    The left ventdcular twist was evaluated by 2-dimensional ultrasound speckle-tracking imaging (STI) in 50 patients with hypertension with normal geometric left ventricle (LV) and 45 normal subjects as control group. The mean value of LV rotation was obtained at each plane using STI. LV twist and twist velocity were defined as apical rotation/rotation rate relative to the base re- spectively. To adjust the intersubject differences in heart rates, the time sequence were normalized. The results showed that peak twist developed near the end of systole. Peak LV twist was significantly higher in patients with hypertension than normal controls (P<0.001). The diastolic untwisting mainly occurred in early diastole (≈38%). Compared with normal controls, untwisting rate (Untw R) in pa- tients with hypertension was significantly reduced (P<0.001), and untwisting half-time (UHT) was significantly delayed (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that STI has a potential ability to evaluate the early change of heart function in patients with hypertension by measuring the twist of LV.

  14. Beneficial effect of isradipine on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Haedersdal, C

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term hemodynamic effects of the calcium antagonist isradipine in mild hypertension compared with those of the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol, focusing in particular on the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Ten male patients...... with isradipine (254 +/- 55 g). The results indicate that antihypertensive treatment with isradipine as monotherapy may prevent the development of left ventricular hypertrophy whereas treatment with atenolol as monotherapy does not appear to offer this possibility....

  15. 应用左向右分流建立大鼠慢性肺动脉高压模型及其特征%Establishment and characteristics of chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension rat models subjected to left-to-right shunting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪健春; 钟前进

    2009-01-01

    背景:应用左向右分流大鼠模型可以研究慢性肺血管重构在成人型先天性心脏病中的发病机制.目的:观察慢性左向右分流大鼠模型慢性肺动脉高压形成的特点.设计、时间及地点:随机对照动物实验,于2008-04/2009-04在解放军第三军医大学新桥医院动物实验中心完成.材料:4周龄SPF级纯系健康SD大鼠80只,体质量95-110 g.随机分为对照组、分流组,每组40只.自制改良聚乙烯血管连接套管,近心端内外径分别为0.6 mm和0.8 mm,远心端内外径分别为0.8 mm和1.0mm,长1.6mm.方法:分流组大鼠:行左向右分流术,运用收缩型聚乙烯血管连接器建立右颈总动脉-颈外静脉连接.对照组行假手术.手术后在第4,8,12,16周(每个时相点10只大鼠),通过血流动力学检查、病理标本制作、苏木精-伊红染色、图像分析等一系列步骤对该模型进行评价.主要观察指标:分流组和对照组大鼠右室收缩压、右心肥大比率[右室/(左室+室间隔)],各级肺小动脉相对中膜厚度改变.结果:全部实验动物存活.分流组肺循环血流量明显高于对照组(P<0.01).与对照组相比,分流12,16周右室收缩压明显增高(P<0.01),分流12,16周时右心肥大比率显著增加(P<0.01).与对照组相比,分流12周和16周组肺动脉相对中膜厚度明显增加(P<0.01).结论:左向右的持续低分流,能有效引起慢性肺血管重构,颈总动脉-颈外静脉连接建立慢性肺动脉高压模型操作简便,稳定性好,对实验动物损伤小,是研究低分流引起的慢性肺动脉高压形成的有用工具.%BACKGROUND: A left-to-right shunting animal model is needed to study chronic pulmonary vascular remodeling of congenital heart attachment disease in adult.OBJECTIVE: To observe the characteristics of chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension in rat models subjected to left-to-right shunting.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized controlled animal modeling observation

  16. Inhibition of TNF-α in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting neurohormonal excitation in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xin-Ai; Jia, Lin-Lin [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Meng [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Yuan, Zu-Yi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Guo, Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Li, Hui-Hua [Key Laboratory of Remodeling-related Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Hao, E-mail: haoliu75@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase activities, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusion of a TNF-α blocker (pentoxifylline or etanercept) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats showed higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy compared with WKY rats, as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expressions. Compared with WKY rats, SHR rats had higher PVN levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, PICs, the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NF-κB p65 activity, mRNA expressions of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma norepinephrine. PVN infusion of pentoxifylline or etanercept attenuated all these changes in SHR rats. These findings suggest that SHR rats have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; and chronic inhibition of TNF-α in the PVN delays the progression of hypertension by restoring the balances of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, and attenuating PVN NF-κB p65 activity and oxidative stress, thereby attenuating hypertension-induced sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of

  17. Antihyperlipidemic effect ofMelothria maderaspatana leaf extracts on DOCA-salt induced hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chinnadurai Veeramani; Khalid S Al-Numair; Govindasamy Chandramohan; Mohammed A Alsaif; Kodukkur Viswanathan Pugalendi

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antihyperlipidemic effect of crude ethanolic extract ofMelothria maderaspatana (M. maderaspatana) leaf(CEEM) on deoxycorticosterone acetate(DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats.Methods:A midscapular incision was made on each rat and the left kidney was excised after ligation of the renal artery.The surgical wound was closed using an absorbable suture.After one week recovery period, hypertension was induced by subcutaneous injection ofDOCA-salt solution, twice a week, and the rats received a1% sodium chloride solution as drinking water throughout the experimental period.CEEM or nifedipine was administered orally once a day for6 weeks.Results:InDOCA-salt hypertensive rats, the level of plasma and tissues of total cholesterol(TC), triglycerides(TG), free fatty acids(FFA) and phospholipids (PL) significantly increased and administration ofCEEM significantly reduced these parameters towards normality.Further, the levels of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol(VLDL-C) significantly increased while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol(HDL-C) decreased in hypertensive rats and administration ofCEEM brought these parameters to normality which proved their antihyperlipidemic action.Histopathology of liver, kidney and heart onDOCA-salt induced rats treated withCEEM showed reduced the damages towards normal histology.Conclusions:These findings provided evidence thatCEEM was found to be protecting the liver, kidney and heart againstDOCA-salt administration and the protective effect could attribute to its antihyperlipidemic activities.

  18. Efficacy and safety of calcium channel blockers in hypertensive patients with concomitant left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmley, W W

    1992-04-01

    The use of calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in the treatment of hypertension and concomitant left ventricular dysfunction is reviewed. Some CCBs, particularly second-generation dihydropyridine agents such as felodipine, isradipine, nicardipine, nimodipine, and nitrendipine, have properties that enhance their usefulness in these patients. All CCBs have a similar mechanism of action. Differences in their selective action at various tissue sites determine which are most appropriate for patients with concomitant hypertension and left ventricular dysfunction. Most CCBs do not produce reflex stimulation of the heart or induce intravascular expansion. While all CCBs produce arteriolar dilation, all local beds and regional circulations in target organs are not affected equally. Most CCBs can decrease cardiac mass, and second-generation CCBs tend to have little or no negative inotropic effects at therapeutic dosages. In addition, they increase blood flow and reduce myocardial oxygen requirements. Because of differences in functional and electrophysiologic effects, specific CCBs may not be appropriate for all patients. Since second-generation dihydropyridine CCBs lack clinically relevant negative inotropic effects, and have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and coronary artery perfusion, they are appropriate for hypertensive patients with left ventricular dysfunction, angina, and coronary heart disease. Second-generation CCBs tend to lack cardiodepressant side effects and are less likely to react with digoxin than are first-generation CCBs.

  19. 超声斑点追踪成像技术评价短期药物干预对高血压大鼠左心功能的影响%Evaluating the Effect of Short-term Drug Intervention on Left Ventricular Systolic Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats by Speckle Tracking Imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝青; 余晓梅; 王胜利

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用超声斑点追踪成像技术(STI)观察短期药物干预对自发性高血压大鼠(SHR)左室节段心肌径向(RS)及圆周应变(CS)的变化,探寻较传统超声心动图更早评价左室收缩功能改变的方法.方法 以10只Wistar大鼠为正常对照组,将30只SHR随机分成对照组、硝苯地平组、三子养阴汤组各10只,分别测量左室EF,FS及左室短轴乳头肌水平RS和CS的收缩期峰值.结果 4组大鼠的EF、FS值无明显差异,模型对照组大鼠的PRS和PCS明显降低(P<0.05),与模型对照组比较,硝苯地平组PRS除了下壁与间隔外,其余4个节段明显升高(P<0.05),三子养阴汤组6个节段PCS降低,以前间隔、前壁、侧壁、后壁为著(P<0.05).结论 STI能定量评价左室局部心肌的RS和CS,较传统超声更为敏感.%Objective To investigate the change of left ventricular myocardium radial strain and circumferential strain in spontaneously hypertensive rats ( SHR) with drug intervention for three months by speckle tracking imaging ( STI) and determine a way capable of evaluating the effect of drug intervention on left ventricular function of SHR earlier than conventional echocardiography. Methods Echocardiographic examinations were performed in ten Wistar rats and thirty SHR. The latter were made into normotensive group, nifedipine group and sanziyangying decoction group. Left ventricular fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction ( EF) were measured by trasthoracic echocardiography. Radial strain and circumferential strain were measured in the left ventricular shot-axis views with 2D strain software. Results No significant difference in EF and FS were found between the four groups. However, the peak systolic radial strain ( PRS) and circumferential strain ( PCS) of SHR were significantly decreased( P<0. 05). Compared with the SHR model control, the PRS of all segments were increased in the nifedipine group except for the inferial and septal segments( P<0

  20. Rare Copy Number Variants Identified Suggest the Regulating Pathways in Hypertension-Related Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoh Boon-Peng

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and a powerful predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the hypertensive patients. It has complex multifactorial and polygenic basis for its pathogenesis. We hypothesized that rare copy number variants (CNVs contribute to the LVH pathogenesis in hypertensive patients. Copy number variants (CNV were identified in 258 hypertensive patients, 95 of whom had LVH, after genotyping with a high resolution SNP array. Following stringent filtering criteria, we identified 208 rare, or private CNVs that were only present in our patients with hypertension related LVH. Preliminary findings from Gene Ontology and pathway analysis of this study confirmed the involvement of the genes known to be functionally involved in cardiac development and phenotypes, in line with previously reported transcriptomic studies. Network enrichment analyses suggested that the gene-set was, directly or indirectly, involved in the transcription factors regulating the "foetal cardiac gene programme" which triggered the hypertrophic cascade, confirming previous reports. These findings suggest that multiple, individually rare copy number variants altering genes may contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension-related LVH. In summary, we have provided further supporting evidence that rare CNV could potentially impact this common and complex disease susceptibility with lower heritability.

  1. Ultrastructure and histochemistry of rat myocardial capillary endothelial cells in response to diabetes and hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ludmila OKRUHLICOVA; Narcis TRIBULOVA; Peter WEISMANN; Ruzena SOTNIKOVA

    2005-01-01

    Insufficient growth and rarefaction of capillaries,followed by endothelial dysfunction may represent one of the most critical mechanisms involved in heart damage.In this study we examined histochemical and ultrastructural changes in myocardial capillary endothelium in two models of heart failure streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus (STZ) and NOdeficient hypertension in male Wistar rats.Diabetes was induced by a single i.v.dose of STZ (45 mg/kg) and chronic 9-week stage was analysed.To induce NO-deficient hypertension,animals were treated with inhibitor of NO synthase Lnitroarginine methylester (L-NAME) (40 mg/kg) for 4 weeks.Left ventricular tissue was processed for enzyme catalytic histochemistry of capillary alkaline phosphatase (AlPh),dipeptidyl peptidase Ⅳ (DPP Ⅳ),and endothelial NO synthase/NADPH-diaphorase (NOS) and for ultrastructural analysis.In diabetic and hypertensive rats,lower/absent AlPh and DPP Ⅳ activities were found in focal micro-areas.NOS activity was significantly reduced and persisted only locally.Quantitative evaluation demonstrated reduction of reaction product intensity of AlPh,DPP and NOS by 49.50%,74.36%,20.05% in diabetic and 62.93%,82.71%,37.65% in hypertensive rats.Subcellular alterations of endothelial cells were found in heart of both groups suggesting injury of capillary function as well as compensatory processes.Endothelial injury was more significant in diabetic animals,in contrast the adaptation was more evident in hypertensive ones.Concluding: both STZ-induced diabetes- and NO-deficient hypertension-related cardiomyopathy were accompanied by similar features of structural remodelling of cardiac capillary network manifested as angiogenesis and angiopathy.The latter was however,predominant and may accelerate disappearance of capillary endothelium contributing to myocardial dysfunction.

  2. Effect of low thyroid function on cardiac structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisso, Bassel; Patel, Ankit; Redetzke, Rebecca; Gerdes, A Martin

    2008-03-01

    Although low thyroid function is known to have detrimental effects on the cardiovascular system, including microvascular impairment, little is known about the pathophysiologic consequences of hypothyroidism in the background of hypertension. Hypothyroidism was induced in female spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rats by treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU) for 6 months. Untreated SHHF and normotensive Wistar Furth (WF) rats served as controls. In terminal experiments, heart weight, echocardiographic measurements, hemodynamics, and arteriolar morphometry were performed. Left ventricular internal diameter in systole and diastole were increased and wall thickness, ejection fraction, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and +/-dP/dt were significantly decreased in the treatment group. Surprisingly, there were no observed differences in arteriolar density among the 3 groups. As expected, PTU treatment of SHHF rats led to systolic dysfunction and chamber dilation. However, PTU treatment did not lead to arteriolar loss as previously observed in normotensive rats treated with PTU. These finding suggest that induced hypothyroidism leads to detrimental changes in SHHF rats, but the overall effects were no worse than those previously observed in normotensive rats treated with PTU.

  3. Amlodipine and Atorvastatin Improved Hypertensive Cardiac Remodeling through Regulation of MMPs/TIMPs in SHR Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchao Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: MMPs/TIMPs system is well known to play important roles in pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling, and Amlodipine and Atorvastatin have been showed to exert favourable protective effects on cardiovascular disease, however, it is not clear whether Amlodipine and Atorvastatin can improve hypertensive cardiac remodeling and whether the MMPs/TIMPs system is involved. The present study aims to answer these questions. Methods: 36 weeks old male spontaneous hypertension (SHR rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1. SHR control group, 2. Amlodipine alone (10 mg/kg/d group, 3. Atorvastatin alone (10 mg/kg/d group, 4.Combination of Amlodipine and Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg/d for each group. Same gender, weight and age of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats with normal blood pressure were used as normal control. Drugs were administered by oral gavage over 12 weeks. The blood pressure and left ventricle mass index were measured. Enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was assessed with Gelatin zymography. MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mRNA and protein expression was studied by RT-PCR and Western blot. Single factor ANOVA and LSD-t test were used in statistical analysis. Results: Treatment with Amlodipine alone or combination with atorvastatin significantly decreased blood pressure, left ventricle mass index in SHR rats (P Conclusion: Amlodipine and Atorvastatin could improve ventricular remodeling in SHR rats through intervention with the imbalance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 system.

  4. Amlodipine decreases fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats: persistent effects after withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, María A; Voces, Felipe; Carrón, Rosalía; Guerrero, Estela I; Ardanaz, Noelia; San Román, Luis; Arévalo, Miguel A; Montero, María J

    2004-07-02

    Our objective was to examine the effect of chronic treatment with amlodipine on blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, and fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats and the persistence of such an effect after drug withdrawal. We investigated the effects of treatment with 2, 8 and 20 mg/kg/day of amlodipine given orally for six months and at three months after drug withdrawal. Systolic blood pressure was measured using the tail-cuff method. At the end of the study period, the heart was excised, the left ventricle was isolated, and the left ventricle weight/body weight ratio was calculated as a left ventricular hypertrophy index. Fibrosis, expressed as collagen volume fraction, was evaluated using an automated image-analysis system on sections stained with Sirius red. Age-matched untreated Wistar-Kyoto and SHR were used as normotensive and hypertensive controls, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was reduced in the treated SHR in a dose-dependent way and after amlodipine withdrawal it increased progressively, without reaching the values of the hypertensive controls. Cardiac hypertrophy was reduced by 8 and 20 mg/kg/day amlodipine, but when treatment was withdrawn only the group treated with 8 mg/kg/day maintained significant differences versus the hypertensive controls. All three doses of amlodipine reduced cardiac fibrosis and this regression persisted with the two highest doses after three months without treatment. We concluded that antihypertensive treatment with amlodipine is accompanied by a reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy and regression in collagen deposition. Treatment was more effective in preventing fibrosis than in preventing ventricular hypertrophy after drug withdrawal. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  5. The association between obesity, hypertension and left ventricular mass in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibeklioglu, Saime Ergen; Çevik, Berna Şaylan; Acar, Banu; Özçakar, Zeynep Birsin; Uncu, Nermin; Kara, Nazlı; Çaycı, Şemsa; Çakar, Nilgün

    2017-02-01

    Obesity and hypertension (HT) are well known cardiac risk factors. Our goal was to show that even if arterial blood pressure (BP) measurements of obese adolescents are normal during clinical examination, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be high, may include cardiac involvement and can also detect left ventricular mass indices (LVMI) value for obese adolescents to diagnose left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). This study included 130 children (57 obese hypertensive, 36 obese normotensive, 14 normal weight hypertensive and 23 normal weight normotensive). Adolescents whose BP was measured during clinical examination, after 24-h BP was detected using ABPM, were examined with echocardiography for calculation of LVMI to determine cardiac risk factors for LVH. There was a significant difference between the LVMI of obese-normotensive and obese-hypertensive adolescents, which showed the effect of obesity on LVMI independent of HT. Twenty (35.7%) of 56 obese adolescents with HT detected with ABPM had normal BP measurements during clinical examination. Dipper and nondipper features of obese adolescents were significantly higher in ABPM than those with normal body mass index. When the cutoff LVMI value for LVH was set at ≥38 g/m2.7, 38.9% of obese-normotensive and 50.9% of obese-hypertensive subjects had LVH; however, when the cutoff value was set at ≥51 g/m2.7, the rates were 2.8% and 19.3%, respectively. Obesity is a risk factor for LVH independent of HT. To identify masked HT, 24-h ABPM and cardiac examination should be routinely performed in obese adolescents. Using a limit of LVMI ≥38 g/m2.7 in evaluating LVH secondary to HT in obese individuals may lead to an overestimated diagnosis rate of LVH.

  6. Treatment-associated change in apelin concentration in patients with hypertension and its relationship with left ventricular diastolic function

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Sadettin Sel?uk; Pirat, Bahar; OKYAY, Kaan; Bal, U?ur Abbas; Ulu?am, Melek Zekiye; ?ztuna, Derya; M?derriso?lu, Haldun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined the change in apelin concentration and its relationship with left ventricular diastolic function in patients treated for hypertension. Methods: Ninety treatment-naive patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 33 age- and sex-matched control subjects were prospectively enrolled. Patients with hypertension were randomized to treatment either with telmisartan 80 mg or amlodipine 10 mg. Apelin concentration was measured and echocardiography was performed at baseline an...

  7. Positron emission tomographic evaluation of regulation of myocardial perfusion in physiological (elite athletes) and pathological (systemic hypertension) left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Meyer, Christian; Wachtell, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion (MP) may differ in physiologic and pathologic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We compared MP in LVH in elite athletes and patients with hypertension with healthy, age-matched subjects. We included 12 rowers with LVH, 19 patients with hypertension with LVH, and 2 age-match...

  8. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against hypertension-induced oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Taşar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective effect of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in the heart and kidney tissues of rats with renovascular hypertension (RVH. RVH model was induced by placing a renal artery clip (2-kidney-1-clip, 2K1C in Wistar albino rats (n= 8, while sham rats (n= 8 had no clip placement. Starting on the 3rd week after the operation, rats received Nigella sativa (0.2 ml/kg/day, intraperitoneally or vehicle for the following 6 weeks. Blood pressures (BP were recorded at the beginning of the study and at the end of the 3rd and 9th weeks. Cardiac functions were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography before the rats were decapitated. Plasma samples were obtained to assay asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, nitric oxide (NO, creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels. Production of reactive oxidants was monitored by chemiluminescence (CL assay in the cardiac and renal tissues. Moreover oxidative injury was examined through malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH levels and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in these tissues. 2K1C caused increased BP and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, while plasma ADMA, CK, and LDH levels were increased (p<0.05-0.001. Moreover, hypertension caused significant decreases in plasma NO levels, as well as in tissue Na+,K+-ATPase activities and GSH contents, while MDA levels in both tissues were increased (p<0.05-0.001. On the other hand, Nigella sativa treatment significantly reduced BP, attenuated oxidative injury and improved LV function. Nigella sativa protected against hypertension-induced tissue damage and improved cardiovascular function via its antioxidant and antihypertensive actions, suggesting a therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa in renovascular hypertension.

  9. (−)-Epicatechin Prevents Blood Pressure Increase and Reduces Locomotor Hyperactivity in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenyiova, A.; Drobna, M.; Lukac, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of subchronic (−)-epicatechin (Epi) treatment on locomotor activity and hypertension development in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Epi was administered in drinking water (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Epi significantly prevented the development of hypertension (138 ± 2 versus 169 ± 5 mmHg, p < 0.001) and reduced total distance traveled in the open-field test (22 ± 2 versus 35 ± 4 m, p < 0.01). In blood, Epi significantly enhanced erythrocyte deformability, increased total antioxidant capacity, and decreased nitrotyrosine concentration. In the aorta, Epi significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) activity and elevated the NO-dependent vasorelaxation. In the left heart ventricle, Epi increased NOS activity without altering gene expressions of nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS. Moreover, Epi reduced superoxide production in the left heart ventricle and the aorta. In the brain, Epi increased nNOS gene expression (in the brainstem and cerebellum) and eNOS expression (in the cerebellum) but had no effect on overall NOS activity. In conclusion, Epi prevented the development of hypertension and reduced locomotor hyperactivity in young SHR. These effects resulted from improved cardiovascular NO bioavailability concurrently with increased erythrocyte deformability, without changes in NO production in the brain. PMID:27885334

  10. Impaired right and left ventricular mechanics in adults with pulmonary hypertension and congenital shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Rocio; Cabeza-Letrán, Maria Luisa; Quezada, Maribel; Rodriguez-Puras, Maria Jose; Mangas, Alipio

    2016-03-01

    To assess left ventricle mechanics in Eisenmenger physiology patients with congenital shunts, and their relationship with the right ventricle, and to consider the clinical usefulness of this information. The study involved 28 patients with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) and congenital shunt, matched with 28 healthy participants. Standard echocardiography and pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging were employed to analyze systolic and diastolic ventricular function, the myocardial performance index (MPI) of ventricles, and the strain and strain rate along the left ventricle lateral wall, septum, and right ventricle free wall. The left ventricle ejection fraction was similar in the two groups. However, despite normal standard left ventricle measures, patients presented parameters of defective myocardial mechanics: mitral peak systolic velocity (S') (cm/s) (8.6 (7.6-10.9) vs. 10.7 (8.6-12.5); P = 0.002) was higher, whereas left ventricle-MPI was lower (0.54 ± 01 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07, P < 0.001). Right ventricle-MPI and right ventricle global strain were correlated significantly with left ventricle-MPI and left ventricle global strain (r = 0.74, P < 0.001; r = 0.442, P < 0.001, respectively). Clinically, the six-minute walking test results were correlated negatively with left ventricle-MPI (r = -0.69, P < 0.001), whereas the functional class was positively correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). In conclusion, left ventricle mechanics and geometry are impaired in Eisenmenger syndrome patients, although conventional evaluation is in the normal range. Our results highlight the significance of ventricular interdependence in PAH and provide a useful tool for improving the clinical management of these patients.

  11. Control of glomerular hypertension by insulin administration in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, J W; Meyer, T W

    1989-01-01

    Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In group 2 diabetic rats infusion of insulin to achieve acute blood glucose control normalized the glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient while increasing the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, so that SNGFR remained elevated. Persistent elevation of SNGFR despite normalization of the transcapillary pressure gradient was also observed in group 3 diabetic rats infused with insulin plus sufficient dextrose to maintain hyperglycemia. These studies indicate that glomerular capillary hypertension in diabetes is an acutely reversible consequence of insulin deficiency and not the result of renal hypertrophy. PMID:2649514

  12. Ultrasonic evaluation of the relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular geometry and endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Dong; Pingyang Zhang; Xuehong Feng; Chong Wang; Pei Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or left ventricular geometry (LVG) and endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Methods: Seventy-six patients and 30 normal subjects were first examined by echocardiography. Brachial artery dilatation induced by reactive hyperemia (DIRH) or nitroglycerin (DING) was detected using high-resolution ultrasonography. Results: DIRH was lower in patients with hypertension than in the controls, and the decrease in DIRH was greater in the patients with LVH than that in patients without LVH (4.36±2.54% vs 8.56+1.87 %; P 0.05). While there was no significant difference in DIRH between the patients with normal left ventricular geometry or cardiac remodeling, the patients showing either eccentric or concentric left ventricular hypertrophy had lower DIRH than the patients with normal left ventricular geometry or cardiac remodeling. The DIRH was the lowest in patients with concentric hypertrophy. Although bivariate analysis showed that the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) correlated well with the brachial artery dilatation induced by reactive hyperemia, diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure (r=-0.61, P < 0.0001; r=0.27, P < 0.05; r=0.31, P < 0.05, respectively), a multivariate stepwise regression demonstrated that LVMI correlated only with the brachial artery dilatation induced by reactive hyperemia. Conclusion: Left ventricular hypertrophy was related to endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension. The endothelial dysfunction might be basic and important in the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  13. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular geometric patterns in hypertensive patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Rasaaq A; Bamikole, Olaniyi J; Balogun, Michael O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Adeyeye, Victor O; Bisiriyu, Luqman A; Mene-Afejuku, Tuoyo O; Ajayi, Ebenezer A; Abiodun, Olugbenga O

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients, and its geometric pattern is a useful determinant of severity and prognosis of heart disease. Studies on LV geometric pattern involving large number of Nigerian hypertensive patients are limited. We examined the LV geometric pattern in hypertensive patients seen in our echocardiographic laboratory. A two-dimensional, pulsed, continuous and color flow Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of 1020 consecutive hypertensive patients aged between 18 and 91 years was conducted over an 8-year period. LV geometric patterns were determined using the relationship between the relative wall thickness and LV mass index. Four patterns of LV geometry were found: 237 (23.2%) patients had concentric hypertrophy, 109 (10.7%) had eccentric hypertrophy, 488 (47.8%) had concentric remodeling, and 186 (18.2%) had normal geometry. Patients with concentric hypertrophy were significantly older in age, and had significantly higher systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, and pulse pressure than those with normal geometry. Systolic function index in patients with eccentric hypertrophy was significantly lower than in other geometric patterns. Doppler echocardiographic parameters showed some diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with abnormal LV geometry. Concentric remodeling was the most common LV geometric pattern observed in our hypertensive patients, followed by concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy. Patients with concentric hypertrophy were older than those with other geometric patterns. LV systolic function was significantly lower in patients with eccentric hypertrophy and some degree of diastolic dysfunction were present in patients with abnormal LV geometry.

  14. Intracerebroventricular metformin attenuates salt-induced hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J S; Andersen, D; Muntzel, M S;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of metformin on blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). To accelerate the development of hypertension, SHR were fed a 8% NaCl diet during the 3-week study period....... Metformin was given in the following doses: 0 (isotonic saline; n = 7), 25 (n = 8), 50 (n = 6), 100 (n = 6), and 200 microg/day icv (n = 5). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by radiotelemetry, and as a measure of the contribution of sympathetic nerve activity to BP......, the decrease in MAP in response to ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium, 30 mg/kg iv, was determined once weekly. In vehicle treated rats, MAP increased by 27+/-4 mm Hg, whereas in rats treated with a low dose of metformin (25 microg/day), MAP increased only by 7+/-3 mm Hg (P

  15. Left atrial enlargement in the early stage of hypertensive heart disease: a common but ignored condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Guanhua; Cao, Heng; Xu, Sudan; Lu, Yongxin; Shuai, Xinxin; Sun, Yufei; Liao, Yuhua; Li, Jingdong

    2014-03-01

    How to identify the early signs of hypertensive heart disease is the key to block or reverse the process of heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of left atrial (LA) enlargement in the early stage of hypertensive heart disease and to explore the correlations between LA enlargement and heart failure with normal ejection fraction (HFnEF), as well as the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Baseline clinical characteristics, biochemical indices, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic data were collected from 341 consecutive patients with essential hypertension. Among those patients, LA enlargement was more frequently presented than LV enlargement (57.2% vs 17.9%). Compared with patients without HFnEF, the prevalence of LA enlargement was higher in patients with HFnEF (82.9% vs 49.0%, Page, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, and left ventricular diameter were independent predictors of LA enlargement. The simple measurement for identification of LA enlargement potentially allows early recognition of those patients at risk for heart failure, particularly among patients with MetS.

  16. Parameters of Blood Flow in Great Arteries in Hypertensive ISIAH Rats with Stress-Dependent Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel', A L

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography was used to examine blood flow in great arteries of hypertensive ISIAH and normotensive Wistar rats. In hypertensive ISIAH rats, increased vascular resistance in the basin of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries as well as reduced fraction of total renal blood flow were found. In contrast, blood flow through both carotid arteries in ISIAH rats was enhanced, which in suggests more intensive blood supply to brain regulatory centers providing enhanced stress reactivity of these rats characterized by stress-dependent arterial hypertension.

  17. Hypotensive acute effect of photobiomodulation therapy on hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, J C; De Moraes, T F; Buzinari, T C; Cárnio, E C; Parizotto, N A; Rodrigues, G J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBM) on arterial pressure in hypertensive and normotensive rats with application in an abdominal region. Normotensive (2K) and hypertensive (2K-1C) wistar rats were treated with PBM. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before, during and after PBM application. The nitric oxide (NO) serum concentration was measured before and after PBM application. Vascular reactivity study was performed in isolated thoracic aortas. Aluminum gallium arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser was used, at 660nm wavelength and 100mW optical output. The PBM application induced a decrease of SAP in 2K-1C rats. In 2K rats, the PBM application had no effect on SAP, DAP and MAP. Moreover, the magnitude of hypotensive effect was higher in 2K-1C than in 2K rats. The PBM application induced a decrease of HR in 2K-1C and 2K, with higher effect in 2K-1C rats. In 2K-1C, the hypotensive effect induced by PBM was longer than that obtained in 2K rats. PBM application induced an elevation of NO concentration in serum from 2K-1C and 2K rats, with higher effect in 2K-1C. In isolated aortic rings PBM effect is dependent of NO release, and is not dependent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activation. Our results indicate that the abdominal acute application of PBM at 660nm is able to induce a long lasting hypotensive effect in hypertensive rats and vasodilation by a NO dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebrovascular gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Frederiksen, Simona Denise; Edvinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a hemodynamic disorder and one of the most important and well-established risk factors for vascular diseases such as stroke. Blood vessels exposed to chronic shear stress develop structural changes and remodeling of the vascular wall through many complex mechanisms. However...

  19. Association of pulse pressure with new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larstorp, Anne Cecilie K; Ariansen, Inger; Gjesdal, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study, a double-blind, randomized (losartan versus atenolol), parallel-group study, including 9193 patients with hypertension and electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy. In 8810 patients with neither a history of AF nor AF at baseline, Minnesota......, and mean arterial pressure. When evaluated in the same model, the predictive effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressures together was similar to that of PP. In this population of patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy, PP was the strongest single blood pressure predictor of new...

  20. EFFECTIVE INVERSION OF LEFT HEART REMODELING BY PHENYLALANINE IN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵光胜; 邱慧丽; 范明昌; 张伟忠

    2000-01-01

    Objective The aim is to ascertain whether phenylalanine (Phe) can inverse the left heart "remodeling" in patients with essential hypertension. Methods The changes of echocardiographic variables were compared after 3,6 and 9 months of observation between the Phe intervention group (Phe lg/d + amiloride complex 1 tablet/d, 20 cases) and control group (placebo lg/d+amiloride complex 1 tablet/d, 20 cases) with either interventricular septum and (or) post-wall thickness≥12mm, and were carried on further to compare in cross-over trial. Results (1) Phe improved effectively the left heart and systolic dysfunction; while the improvement, also shown in control group due to the concurrent use of diuretic antihypertensive drug-amiloride complex, was much less evident than that in Phe group. (2) The disturbed left heart structure and systolic function were improved prominently while placebo was crossed over to Phe, and the improvement decreased after Phe was crrossed over to placebo. (3) The changes almost attained to its peak level after 6 months and not improved further at 9 months. (4) The differences seen between above 2 groups could not be explained by their diverse drops of blood pressure. Conclusion Phe does exert an independent inverse effect on cardiac "remodeling", which might implicate an important clinical application upon the prevention and control of essential hypertension and its complications.

  1. Beneficial effect of isradipine on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Haedersdal, C;

    1993-01-01

    with mild essential hypertension were entered into a double-blind crossover study. Examinations were carried out after 2 weeks of placebo run-in, and after 6 and 12 months of active treatment. Mean resting blood pressure was reduced from 115 +/- 12 mm Hg to 106 +/- 12 mm Hg with atenolol, and to 107 +/- 8...... mm Hg with isradipine. The increase in the product of heart rate times blood pressure was significantly greater during isradipine treatment, as was the maximum exercise capacity. Left ventricular mass was increased from 228 +/- 36 g to 305 +/- 68 g with atenolol whereas it remained unchanged......The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term hemodynamic effects of the calcium antagonist isradipine in mild hypertension compared with those of the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol, focusing in particular on the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Ten male patients...

  2. Management of pulmonary hypertension from left heart disease in candidates for orthotopic heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulova, Anna; Gass, Alan L; Patibandla, Saikrishna; Gupta, Chhaya Aggarwal; Aronow, Wilbert S; Lanier, Gregg M

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary hypertension in left heart disease (PH-LHD) commonly complicates prolonged heart failure (HF). When advanced, the PH becomes fixed or out of proportion and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplant (OHT). To date, the only recommended treatment of out of proportion PH is the treatment of the underlying HF by reducing the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) with medications and often along with use of mechanical circulatory support. Medical therapies typically used in the treatment of World Health Organization (WHO) group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have been employed off-label in the setting of PH-LHD with varying efficacy and often negative outcomes. We will discuss the current standard of care including treating HF and use of mechanical circulatory support. In addition, we will review the studies published to date assessing the efficacy and safety of PAH medications in patients with PH-LHD being considered for OHT.

  3. Impact of diabetes on treatment-induced changes in left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. The LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, E; Okin, P M; Omvik, P

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and impaired systolic function in hypertensive patients, but less is known about its impact on LVH regression and functional improvement during antihypertensive treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed annual...... shortening (both pantihypertensive treatment....... echocardiography in 730 non-diabetic and 93 diabetic patients (aged 55-80 years) with hypertension and electrocardiographic LVH during 4.8-year losartan- or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. Baseline mean blood pressure (BP) and LV mass did...

  4. Mechanisms of spontaneous baroreflex impairment in lyon hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantelme, P; Cerutti, C; Lo, M; Paultre, C Z; Ducher, M

    1998-09-01

    This experiment aimed at 1) comparing the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (SBRS) in Lyon genetically hypertensive (LH), normotensive (LN), and low blood pressure (LL) rats and 2) assessing some aspects of the mechanisms of its impairment in LH rats. Baroreflex was studied in control animals after an early chronic converting enzyme inhibition with perindopril and after a 4-wk infusion of ANG II in perindopril-treated rats. The SBRS was determined with a previously validated method, using statistical dependence between blood pressure (BP) and heart rate values recorded in freely moving animals. LH rats exhibited high BP, cardiac hypertrophy, and decreased SBRS (LH, 1.3 +/- 0.2; LN, 2.5 +/- 0.4; LL, 2.2 +/- 0.4 beats . min-1 . mmHg-1). Perindopril prevented the development of hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy and normalized SBRS. BP rose in LH and LL rats after ANG II infusion, but only LH rats, which developed a cardiac hypertrophy, had an impaired SBRS (LH, 1.1 +/- 0.2; LN, 2.5 +/- 0.2; LL, 2.8 +/- 0.3 beats . min-1 . mmHg-1). This impairment was partially reversed by an acute ANG II blockade with losartan. These results demonstrate that high BP does not account for the decreased SBRS in LH rats. SBRS impairment could result either from cardiac hypertrophy or from the direct effect of ANG II on the baroreflex loop.

  5. Sequential activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in the progression of hypertensive nephropathy in Goldblatt rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang Gyun; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Se-Yun; Lee, Arah; Moon, Ju Young; Jeong, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Lim, Sung Jig; Sohn, Il Suk; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo

    2016-07-01

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has an important role in generating and maintaining hypertension in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) rats. This study evaluated how various intrarenal RAS components contributed to hypertension not only in the maintenance period (5w; 5 wk after operation) but also earlier (2w; 2 wk after operation). We inserted a 2.5-mm clip into the left renal artery of Sprague-Dawley rats and euthanized them at 2w and 5w following the operation. Systolic blood pressure increased within 1 wk after the operation, and left ventricular hypertrophy occurred in 2K1C rats. At 2w, juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) and collecting duct (CD) renin increased in clipped kidney (CK) of 2K1C rats. The tubular angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) was not changed, but peritubular ACE2 decreased in nonclipped kidney (NCK) and CK of 2K1C rats. At 5w, ACE and CD renin were enhanced, and ACE2 was still lessened in both kidneys of 2K1C rats. However, plasma renin activity (PRA) was not different from that in sham rats. In proximal tubules of CK, the ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) was not suppressed, but the Mas receptor (MasR) was reduced; thus the AT1R/MasR ratio was elevated. Although hypoxic change in CK could not be excluded, the JGA renin of CK and CD renin in both kidneys was highly expressed independent of time. Peritubular ACE2 changed in the earlier period, and uninhibited AT1R in proximal tubules of CK was presented in the maintenance period. In 2K1C rats, attenuated ACE2 seems to contribute to initiating hypertension while upregulated ACE in combination with unsuppressed AT1R may have a key role in maintaining hypertension.

  6. Greater hypertrophy in right than left ventricles is associated with pulmonary vasculopathy in sinoaortic-denervated Wistar-Kyoto rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao CY; Cai GJ; Tao X; Xie HH; Su DF

    2005-01-01

    1. Biventricular hypertrophy has been described in a high blood pressure variability (BPV) model of sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) rats without systemic hypertension. To explore the possible involvement of the lung in SAD-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), we examined lung morphology, in addition to systemic haemodynamics and ventricle morphology, in Wistar-Kyoto rats 32 weeks after SAD. 2. In Wistar-Kyoto rats 32 weeks after SAD, there existed a substantial elevation in BPV, with no change in the average level of arterial pressure. Biventricular hypertrophy following SAD was characterized by a greater hypertrophy in right than left ventricles; both absolute and normalized right ventricular weights were significantly increased by 22 and 27%, respectively, and only normalized left ventricular weight was significantly increased by 12%. No infarcts were found in any ventricles examined. 3. In the lung, the most prominent change following SAD was pulmonary vasculopathy, including wall thickening, perivascular fibrosis and cell infiltration. In pulmonary arteries with an internal diameter of 70-130 microm, the external diameter, wall thickness and wall thickness to internal diameter ratio were increased in SAD compared with control rats. 4. There was no correlation between right and left ventricular weights. In contrast with BPV-correlated left ventricular weight, right ventricular weight was correlated with the wall thickness of the pulmonary artery, but not with BPV. 5. These findings suggest that greater RVH following SAD is associated with pulmonary vasculopathy, but is not secondary to the left ventricular problems or high BPV.

  7. Structure of zona reticularis of adrenal cortex in hypertensive NISAG rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzueva, I I; Filjushina, E E; Shmerling, M D; Markel, A L; Jakobson, G S

    2008-11-01

    The structure of zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex in hypertensive NISAG rats was studied during the early, middle, and late periods of postnatal ontogeny. The detected morphological signs suggest that hypotrophic changes in zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex in hypertensive rats appeared before the onset of high blood pressure and accompanied the development of arterial hypertension in these animals.

  8. Effects of Fosinopril versus Losartan on Apoptosis,Myocardial Fibrosis, AngiotensinⅡ in the Left Ventricle of Hypertensive Rats%氯沙坦、福辛普利对SHR心肌细胞凋亡、心肌纤维化及AngⅡ影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国龙; 谢秀梅; 杨天伦; 孙明; 梁晓秋

    2002-01-01

    目的评价氯沙坦、福辛普利对自发性高血压大鼠(SHR)心肌细胞凋亡、心肌纤维化及血管紧张素Ⅱ的效应.方法 16周龄SHR随机分为3组:氯沙坦治疗组(SHR-L组)、福辛普利治疗组(SHR-F组)、空白对照组(SHR-C组),每组各10只.分别采用末端脱氧核苷酸转移酶介导dUTP缺口末端标记(TUNEL)、放射免疫及病理检查方法对治疗8周、16周心肌细胞凋亡指数(APOT)、心肌胶原容积分数(CVF)和心肌血管周围胶原面积(PVCA)、血浆和组织血管紧张素Ⅱ检测.结果 (1)与对照组比较,两SHR治疗组8周、16周后收缩压均有明显下降,两组间比较无显著性差异;两治疗组SHR心脏肥厚指标左室重量(LVW)、左室重量指数(LVWI)均有显著性改善,治疗16周后SHR-F组与较SHR-L组LVMI显著性减低;(2)与对照组比较,治疗8周后仅SHR-F组心肌细胞凋亡指数(APOI)显著性下降,治疗16周两治疗组APOI均有显著性下降,尤以SHR-F组下降明显;(3)与对照组比较,治疗8周后SHR-L、SHR-F两组CVF和PVCA有统计学意义下降.治疗16周后与对照组比较,两治疗组CVF和PVCA均显著性下降,其中SHR-F组CVF较SHR-L组下降显著;(4)治疗8周及16周后,SHR-F组心肌组织AngⅡ显著下降, SHR-L组血浆及心肌组织AngⅡ显著增加.结论两药物均能有效逆转心脏肥厚及抗心肌细胞凋亡及心肌纤维化,其中以福辛普利作用显著.两药物上述作用与拮抗心肌组织肾素-血管紧张素-醛固酮系统(RAS)效应有关.%Objective This study was designed to investigate effects of AT1 receptor antagonist (losartan) and ACE inhibitor (fosinopril) on cardiomyocyte apoptosis,myocardial fibrosis,and angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) in the left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods This study was performed in 30 SHRs of 16-week-old. The rats were randomized to three groups:SHR-L(losartan,30 mg*kg-1*d-1),SHR-F(fosinopril,10 mg*kg-1*d-1),and SHR-C (placebo),each group

  9. Resibufogenin corrects hypertension in a rat model of human preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hop; Ianosi-Irimie, Monica; Danchuk, Svitlana; Rabon, Edd; Nogawa, Toshihiko; Kamano, Yoshiaki; Pettit, G Robert; Wiese, Thomas; Puschett, Jules B

    2006-02-01

    The study of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia has been hampered by a relative dearth of animal models. We developed a rat model of preeclampsia in which the excretion of a circulating inhibitor of Na/K ATPase, marinobufagenin (MBG), is elevated. These animals develop hypertension, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. The administration of a congener of MBG, resibufogenin (RBG), reduces blood pressure to normal in these animals, as is the case when given to pregnant animals rendered hypertensive by the administration of MBG. Studies of Na/K ATPase inhibition by MBG and RBG reveal that these agents are equally effective as inhibitors of the enzyme.

  10. Clustered metabolic abnormalities blunt regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Simone, G; Okin, P M; Gerdts, E;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Clusters of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome predicted outcome in the LIFE study, independently of single risk markers, including obesity, diabetes and baseline ECG left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined whether clusters of two...... of metabolic abnormalities resembling phenotypes of metabolic syndrome are related to greater initial ECG LVH in hypertensive patients with value of blood pressure similar to individuals without metabolic abnormalities, and are associated with less reduction of ECG LVH during antihypertensive therapy......, potentially contributing to the reported adverse prognosis of metabolic syndrome....

  11. OSTEOPONTIN, INTERLEUKIN-15 AND DYSFUNCTION OF LEFT VENTRICULAR MYOCARDIUM IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE

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    O. M. Kovalyova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a survey of 108 patients with hypertension complicated by chronic heart failure, studied the connection concentration of osteopontin, interleukin-15 inserum and morpho-functional characteristics of the left ventricle of the heart. In patients with CHF osteopontin levels were significantly higher, it revealed a relationship between adverse LV filling state and knots in serum osteopontin, while the level of IL-15 did not show such a relationship. The results indicate the potential value of osteopontin as a biomarker for the diagnosis of CHF.

  12. Hypoxemia in the setting of right to left shunting through patent foramen ovale without pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan; Khan, Muhammad; Rajpurohit, Naveen; Stys, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Patent foramen ovale is often seen in the population but rarely observed with right to left shunting in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. Our report describes such a case where a patient with progressive shortness of breath had resolution of symptoms upon percutaneous closure. A discussion of the case and relation to similar cases is presented. A literature review along with explanation of possible contributing mechanisms in our patient's situation is explained. We also discuss several implications for practice and suggest that percutaneous closure is effective in our case and in similar situations.

  13. Beneficial effect of isradipine on the development of left ventricular hypertrophy in mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Haedersdal, C

    1993-01-01

    mm Hg with isradipine. The increase in the product of heart rate times blood pressure was significantly greater during isradipine treatment, as was the maximum exercise capacity. Left ventricular mass was increased from 228 +/- 36 g to 305 +/- 68 g with atenolol whereas it remained unchanged...... with mild essential hypertension were entered into a double-blind crossover study. Examinations were carried out after 2 weeks of placebo run-in, and after 6 and 12 months of active treatment. Mean resting blood pressure was reduced from 115 +/- 12 mm Hg to 106 +/- 12 mm Hg with atenolol, and to 107 +/- 8...

  14. Correlation Study of PtfV1 with Heart-Qi Deficiency Syndrome in Patients with Hypertensive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨传华; 陆峰

    2002-01-01

    @@ It is generally believed that the change of p-wave terminal force in lead V1 (PtfV1) is associated with the inner diameter of left atrium, left ventricular compliance,and ventricular diastolic function. The increase of negative value of PtfV1 in essential hypertensive (EH) patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) indicates the cardiac function may be damaged. In order to explore the relationship between Heart-Qi Deficiency Syndrome (HQDS) of TCM and PtfV1 level in hypertensive LVH patients, correlation analysis of scores of Heart-Qi Deficiency Syndrome and negative value of PtfV1 was made by the authors.

  15. Hypertensive Crisis and Left Ventricular Thrombi after an Upper Respiratory Infection during the Long-term Use of Oral Contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Natsuko; Suzuki, Keisuke; Mizuno, Tomofumi; Kato, Yukari; Suga, Norihiro; Yoshino, Masabumi; Miura, Naoto; Banno, Shogo; Imai, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman who had been using oral contraceptives for 10 years developed hypertensive crisis with papilloedema after an upper respiratory infection. Laboratory data showed hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism and elevated levels of fibrinogen, fibrin, and fibrinogen degradation products. Echocardiography demonstrated two masses (18 mm) in the left ventricle. On the fourth hospital day, cerebral infarction, renal infarction, and upper mesenteric artery occlusion suddenly occurred despite the blood pressure being well-controlled using anti-hypertensive drugs. Echocardiography revealed the disappearance of the left ventricular masses, which suggested left ventricular thrombi. Cessation of the contraceptives and administration of heparin, warfarin, and anti-platelets drugs improved her general condition.

  16. Lead, hypertension, and the renin-angiotensin system in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victery, W.; Vander, A.J.; Shulak, J.M.; Schoeps, P.; Julius, S.

    1982-03-01

    Rats were exposed continuously to Pb in utero and after birth by giving their mothers, during pregnancy and lactation, drinking water containing 0, 100, or 500 ppm Pb (as Pb acetate) and then continuing this regimen after weaning. Male rats receiving 100 ppm developed a significant elevation of systolic blood pressure (152 +/- 3.7 mm Hg vs. 135 +/- 5.6 for controls) at 3 1/2 months and remained hypertensive until sacrifice at 6 months; 500 ppm rats remained normotensive. Both 100 ppm and 500 ppm females remained normotensive. At 6 months plasma renin activity (PRA) was significantly reduced in the 100 ppm male group but was normal in the 500 ppm group. There was dose-dependent decreases in the All/PRA ratio and in renal renin. Pulmonary converting enzyme activity was not changed by Pb exposure. Blood (Pb) was 40 and 71 ..mu..g/dl, respectively, and kidney (Pb) was 4.8 and 22.9 ..mu..g/gm. Renal histology was normal in the 100 ppm group. We conclude that doses of Pb which produce blood (Pb) seen in many people are capable of including modest hypertension in male rats; higher doses fail to do so. The hypertension is associated with a reduction in PRA and All and therefore is unlikely to be due to hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS).

  17. Effect of chemokine receptor CXCR4 on hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hales Charles A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CXCR4 is the receptor for chemokine CXCL12 and reportedly plays an important role in systemic vascular repair and remodeling, but the role of CXCR4 in development of pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling has not been fully understood. Methods In this study we investigated the role of CXCR4 in the development of pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling by using a CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 and by electroporation of CXCR4 shRNA into bone marrow cells and then transplantation of the bone marrow cells into rats. Results We found that the CXCR4 inhibitor significantly decreased chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling in rats and, most importantly, we found that the rats that were transplanted with the bone marrow cells electroporated with CXCR4 shRNA had significantly lower mean pulmonary pressure (mPAP, ratio of right ventricular weight to left ventricular plus septal weight (RV/(LV+S and wall thickness of pulmonary artery induced by chronic hypoxia as compared with control rats. Conclusions The hypothesis that CXCR4 is critical in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in rats has been demonstrated. The present study not only has shown an inhibitory effect caused by systemic inhibition of CXCR4 activity on pulmonary hypertension, but more importantly also has revealed that specific inhibition of the CXCR4 in bone marrow cells can reduce pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling via decreasing bone marrow derived cell recruitment to the lung in hypoxia. This study suggests a novel therapeutic approach for pulmonary hypertension by inhibiting bone marrow derived cell recruitment.

  18. Effects of salt-loading hypertension on nociception in rats

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    Afolabi AO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ayobami Oladele Afolabi,1 Saheed Kolade Mudashiru,1 Isiaka Abdullateef Alagbonsi21Department of Physiology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo, Nigeria; 2Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kogi State University, PMB 1008, Anyigba, Kogi, NigeriaBackground: There is on going controversy on the effect of experimentally induced hypertension on nociception. The effect of salt-loading-induced hypertension on pain was studied in male rats.Method: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (160–280 g were divided into two groups. Group A (n = 12 was treated with normal-feed diet (control, while group B (n = 12 was treated with 8% salt-loaded diet for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks of the treatment, six rats each from groups A and B were used for blood pressure measurement, while the remaining six rats were used for both the tail-flick and formalin tests. Thermal and chemical pain test were assessed using tail immersion test (tail flick and formalin test pain paradigms at onset of salt-loading diet and after 10 weeks of salt loading.Results: Chronic administration of salt-loading diet caused significant increases (P < 0.001 in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure. Moreover, salt-loading-induced hypertension was found to significantly reduce pain sensitivity in the tail-immersion test (P < 0.001 and in the early and late phase of the formalin test (P < 0.01. However, the hypoalgesia was higher in the late phase (94.8% than in the early phase (56.8% of the formalin test.Conclusion: The present study suggests that high salt-loading-induced hypertension causes hypoalgesia in rats, which might be due more to reduction in inflammatory response.Keywords: formalin test, tail-flick test

  19. Alpha1A-adrenergic receptor-directed autoimmunity induces left ventricular damage and diastolic dysfunction in rats.

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    Katrin Wenzel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agonistic autoantibodies to the alpha(1-adrenergic receptor occur in nearly half of patients with refractory hypertension; however, their relevance is uncertain. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We immunized Lewis rats with the second extracellular-loop peptides of the human alpha(1A-adrenergic receptor and maintained them for one year. Alpha(1A-adrenergic antibodies (alpha(1A-AR-AB were monitored with a neonatal cardiomyocyte contraction assay by ELISA, and by ERK1/2 phosphorylation in human alpha(1A-adrenergic receptor transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. The rats were followed with radiotelemetric blood pressure measurements and echocardiography. At 12 months, the left ventricles of immunized rats had greater wall thickness than control rats. The fractional shortening and dp/dt(max demonstrated preserved systolic function. A decreased E/A ratio in immunized rats indicated a diastolic dysfunction. Invasive hemodynamics revealed increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressures and decreased dp/dt(min. Mean diameter of cardiomyocytes showed hypertrophy in immunized rats. Long-term blood pressure values and heart rates were not different. Genes encoding sarcomeric proteins, collagens, extracellular matrix proteins, calcium regulating proteins, and proteins of energy metabolism in immunized rat hearts were upregulated, compared to controls. Furthermore, fibrosis was present in immunized hearts, but not in control hearts. A subset of immunized and control rats was infused with angiotensin (Ang II. The stressor raised blood pressure to a greater degree and led to more cardiac fibrosis in immunized, than in control rats. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that alpha(1A-AR-AB cause diastolic dysfunction independent of hypertension, and can increase the sensitivity to Ang II. We suggest that alpha(1A-AR-AB could contribute to cardiovascular endorgan damage.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of left atrial enlargement in essential hypertension: role of ventricular geometry and the metabolic syndrome: the Evaluation of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuspidi, Cesare; Meani, Stefano; Fusi, Veronica; Valerio, Cristiana; Catini, Eleonora; Sala, Carla; Sampieri, Lorena; Magrini, Fabio; Zanchetti, Alberto

    2005-04-01

    The cardiac effects of hypertension include a variety of structural changes such as increases in left ventricular mass (LVM) and left atrium (LA) size. Although data on hypertension-induced left ventricular changes are extensive, relatively little information is available on LA size from large-scale studies. We sought to assess the prevalence of LA enlargement in a large selected hypertensive population and to determine the relations of LA size to several biologic variables including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and metabolic disturbances. A total of 2500 untreated and treated uncomplicated essential hypertensives consecutively attending, for the first time, our hospital out-patient hypertension clinic and included in the Evaluation of Target Organ Damage in Hypertension, an observational ongoing registry of hypertension-related target organ damage (TOD), were considered for this analysis. All patients underwent extensive clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic investigations searching for cardiac (and extracardiac) TOD. The LA was considered enlarged when its anteroposterior diameter exceeded 3.7 cm in women and 4.1 cm in men. LVH was defined according to two different criteria: >/= 125 g/m in men and >/= 110 g/m in women; or >/= 51 g/m in men and >/=47 g/m in women. Enlarged LA diameter was present in 24.5% of women and in 21.5% of men. Compared with 1925 patients with normal LA size, the 575 patients with enlarged LA were older, more frequently overweight, had higher systolic blood pressure and included a greater proportion of subjects under antihypertensive treatment, with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Both LA size and prevalence of LA enlargement differed significantly in relation to left ventricular geometry and LVM, being greater in patients with concentric or eccentric LVH than in those with left ventricular concentric remodeling or normal geometry. The prevalence of LA enlargement was similar in patients with concentric and eccentric LVH

  1. The rat STSL locus: characterization, chromosomal assignment, and genetic variations in sitosterolemic hypertensive rats

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    Klein Richard

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated plant sterol accumulation has been reported in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR, the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP and the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rat. Additionally, a blood pressure quantitative trait locus (QTL has been mapped to rat chromosome 6 in a New Zealand genetically hypertensive rat strain (GH rat. ABCG5 and ABCG8 (encoding sterolin-1 and sterolin-2 respectively have been shown to be responsible for causing sitosterolemia in humans. These genes are organized in a head-to-head configuration at the STSL locus on human chromosome 2p21. Methods To investigate whether mutations in Abcg5 or Abcg8 exist in SHR, SHRSP, WKY and GH rats, we initiated a systematic search for the genetic variation in coding and non-coding region of Abcg5 and Abcg8 genes in these strains. We isolated the rat cDNAs for these genes and characterized the genomic structure and tissue expression patterns, using standard molecular biology techniques and FISH for chromosomal assignments. Results Both rat Abcg5 and Abcg8 genes map to chromosome band 6q12. These genes span ~40 kb and contain 13 exons and 12 introns each, in a pattern identical to that of the STSL loci in mouse and man. Both Abcg5 and Abcg8 were expressed only in liver and intestine. Analyses of DNA from SHR, SHRSP, GH, WKY, Wistar, Wistar King A (WKA and Brown Norway (BN rat strains revealed a homozygous G to T substitution at nucleotide 1754, resulting in the coding change Gly583Cys in sterolin-1 only in rats that are both sitosterolemic and hypertensive (SHR, SHRSP and WKY. Conclusions The rat STSL locus maps to chromosome 6q12. A non-synonymous mutation in Abcg5, Gly583Cys, results in sitosterolemia in rat strains that are also hypertensive (WKY, SHR and SHRSP. Those rat strains that are hypertensive, but not sitosterolemic (e.g. GH rat do not have mutations in Abcg5 or Abcg8. This mutation allows for expression and apparent apical targeting of Abcg5

  2. Cuminum cyminum, a dietary spice, attenuates hypertension via endothelial nitric oxide synthase and NO pathway in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Saranya, Ramesh Babu; Ramakrishnan, Ganapathy; Ranju, Vijayan; Sathiya, Sekar; Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Thiyagarajan, Lakshmi Kantham; Venkhatesh, Jayakothanda Ramaswamy; Babu, Chidambaram Saravana; Thanikachalam, Sadagopan

    2013-01-01

    Cuminum cyminum (CC) is a commonly used spice in South Indian foods. It has been traditionally used for the treatment and management of sleep disorders, indigestion, and hypertension. The present study was carried out to scientifically evaluate the anti-hypertensive potential of standardized aqueous extract of CC seeds and its role in arterial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, inflammation, and oxidative stress in renal hypertensive rats. Renal hypertension was induced by the two-kidney one-clip (2K/1C) method in rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma nitrate/nitrite, carotid-eNOS, renal-TNF-α, IL-6, Bax, Bcl-2, thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRXR1) mRNA expressions were studied to demonstrate the anti-hypertensive action of CC. Cuminum cyminum was administered orally (200 mg/kg b.wt) for a period of 9 weeks; it improved plasma nitric oxide and decreased the systolic blood pressure in hypertensive rats. It also up-regulated the gene expression of eNOS, Bcl-2, TRX1, and TRXR1; and down-regulated Bax, TNF-α, and IL-6. These data reveal that CC seeds augment endothelial functions and ameliorate inflammatory and oxidative stress in hypertensive rats. The present report is the first of its kind to demonstrate the mechanism of anti-hypertensive action of CC seeds in an animal model of renovascular hypertension.

  3. Inhibition of rho kinase attenuates high flow induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-hai; XIA Wei; LI Ai-wu; ZHAO Cui-fen; SUN Ruo-peng

    2007-01-01

    Background The RhoA/Rho kinase pathway may participate in the pathogenesis of hypoxia and monocrotaline induced pulmonary hypertension. This study tested whether RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of high flow induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.Methods Male Wistar rats (4 weeks) were randomly divided into 4 shunt groups, 4 treated groups and 4 control groups.Shunt and treated groups underwent left common carotid artery/external jugular vein shunt operation. Control groups underwent sham operation. Treated groups received fasudil treatment and the others received same dose of saline. At weeks 1, 2, 4 and 8 of the study, right ventricular systolic pressure was measured and blood gases were analysed to calculate Qp/Qs. The weight ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle plus septum and the mean percentage of medial wall thickness in moderate sized pulmonary arteries were obtained. RhoA activity in pulmonary arteries was detected using Rho activity assay reagent. Rho kinase activity was quantified by the extent of MYPT1 phosphorylation with Western blot.Proliferating cells were evaluated using proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistological staining.Results Carotid artery/jugular vein shunt resulted in high pulmonary blood flow, both an acute and a chronic elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure, significant medial wall thickening characterized by smooth muscle cells proliferation,right ventricular hypertrophy and increased activation of RhoA and Rho kinase. Fasudil treatment lowered pulmonary artery systolic pressure, suppressed pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells proliferation, attenuated pulmonary artery medial wall thickening and inhibited right ventricular hypertrophy together with significant suppression of Rho kinase activity but not Rho activity.Conclusions Activated RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is associated with both the acute pulmonary vasoconstriction and the chronic pulmonary artery remodelling of high flow induced

  4. Reduction of cerebral injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats by amlodipine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blezer, ELA; Nicolay, K; Goldschmeding, R; Koomans, HA; Joles, JA

    2002-01-01

    Dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists, initiated together with high salt intake, prevent the development of hypertension and subsequent cerebral damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). We hypothesized that the dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonist amlodipine (approximate

  5. Reduction of cerebral injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats by amlodipine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blezer, ELA; Nicolay, K; Goldschmeding, R; Koomans, HA; Joles, JA

    2002-01-01

    Dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonists, initiated together with high salt intake, prevent the development of hypertension and subsequent cerebral damage in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). We hypothesized that the dihydropyridine Ca2+ channel antagonist amlodipine (approximate

  6. Cardiac and renal effects induced by different exercise workloads in renovascular hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of exercise training (Ex without (Ex 0% or with a 3% workload (Ex 3% on different cardiac and renal parameters in renovascular hypertensive (2K1C male Fisher rats weighing 150-200 g. Ex was performed for 5 weeks, 1 h/day, 5 days/week. Ex 0% or Ex 3% induced similar attenuation of baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP, 119 ± 5 mmHg in 2K1C Ex 0%, N = 6, and 118 ± 5 mmHg in 2K1C Ex 3%, N = 11, vs 99 ± 4 mmHg in sham sedentary (Sham Sed controls, N = 10 and heart rate (HR, bpm (383 ± 13 in 2K1C Ex 0%, N = 6, and 390 ± 14 in 2K1C Ex 3%, N = 11 vs 371 ± 11 in Sham Sed, N = 10,. Ex 0%, but not Ex 3%, improved baroreflex bradycardia (0.26 ± 0.06 ms/mmHg, N = 6, vs 0.09 ± 0.03 ms/mmHg in 2K1C Sed, N = 11. Morphometric evaluation suggested concentric left ventricle hypertrophy in sedentary 2K1C rats. Ex 0% prevented concentric cardiac hypertrophy, increased cardiomyocyte diameter and decreased cardiac vasculature thickness in 2K1C rats. In contrast, in 2K1C, Ex 3% reduced the concentric remodeling and prevented the increase in cardiac vasculature wall thickness, decreased the cardiomyocyte diameter and increased collagen deposition. Renal morphometric analysis showed that Ex 3% induced an increase in vasculature wall thickness and collagen deposition in the left kidney of 2K1C rats. These data suggest that Ex 0% has more beneficial effects than Ex 3% in renovascular hypertensive rats.

  7. Blood pressure variability and baroreflex sensitivity are not different in spontaneously hypertensive rats and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-shu ZHAN; Yun-feng GUAN; Ding-feng SU; Chao-yu MIAO

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate and compare hemodynamic phenotypes of blood pressure (BP), blood pressure variability (BPV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in genetic hypertensive rats. Methods: BP was recorded continuously in conscious, freely moving rats using a computerized technique. BPV was expressed as the standard deviation of beat-to-beat BP values during a 1-h period. BRS was determined by measuring the heart period prolongation in response to the elevation in BP produced by an intravenous injection of phenylephrine. Results: Body weight and heart period were not different between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SP) at the age of 15weeks. The BP level was markedly higher in SHR-SP than SHR, whereas there were no significant differences in BPV and BRS. Quantitatively, systolic, diastolic and mean BP were significantly elevated by 36.9%, 42.9% and 39.5%, respectively,in SHR-SP compared with SHR (P<0.01). However, their variabilities were elevated only by 14.0%, 0.4% and 10.1%, respectively, without statistical significance (P>0.05). Conclusion: BPV and BRS were not changed in parallel with the BP alterations in SHR and SHR-SP.

  8. Dietary sodium stimulates ouabainlike activity in adrenalectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenen, F H; Harmsen, E; Yu, H; Yuan, B

    1993-07-01

    Both the adrenal glands and the hypothalamus have been proposed to produce compound(s) with ouabainlike activity (OLA). To evaluate the contribution of the adrenal glands, 4-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were sham operated or adrenalectomized. The adrenalectomized SHR were given daily injections of corticosterone and aldosterone. Subsequently, rats were randomized to control or high (8%) dietary Na+, and after 2.5 wk, blood pressure and OLA in plasma, hypothalamus, and pituitary were evaluated. Hypertension developed somewhat less in adrenalectomized vs. sham-operated SHR. On control Na+ intake, adrenalectomy caused only minor decreases in circulating and central OLA. Adrenalectomy did not prevent the 50-90% increases in plasma, hypothalamus, and pituitary OLA caused by high Na+ intake for 2.5 wk. These findings are consistent with the concept that, at least in SHR, the central nervous system may represent the major source of both central and peripheral OLA.

  9. Psychobiology of experimental hypertension: evaluation of the Dahl rat lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Friedman, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) and salt-resistant (DR) rat lines were selectively bred to show opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion. These animals have provided significant anatomical, physiological, and biochemical data concerning the pathological mechanisms of experimental hypertension. Research is also being conducted to determine the relevance of psychobiological and behavioral variables in these two lines. The rationale for the selection and maintenance of the Dahl model and the physiological, biochemical, and behavioral characteristics which distinguish DS and DR rats are presented. Although originally developed for the study of salt-induced hypertension, special attention is given to the application of this animal model in behavior genetic research, stressing its inherent advantages and limitations. The use of the Dahl model in psychobiological studies and the utility of the model for future behavioral, genetic, and psychophysiological research are also detailed.

  10. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Minamino, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl) diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases.

  11. Aquaporin-2 water channels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Nostro, Lorena; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Cavallaro, Emanuela; Sturiale, Alessio; Floccari, Fulvio; Aloisi, Carmela; Ruello, Antonella; Calapai, Gioacchino; Corica, Francesco; Frisina, Nicola

    2004-12-01

    Vasopressin (AVP), an antidiuretic hormone, is known to induce hypervolemia and to regulate the renal expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels, but it is not yet known whether the latter are involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. The aim of the present study was therefore to make a comparative study of blood pressure (BP), urinary volume (UV), urinary osmolarity (uOsm), urinary AQP2 (uAQP2), and plasma AVP levels (PAVP) in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 30) at 3, 7, and 12 weeks of age and in male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY, n = 30), also after the subcutaneous administration of OPC-31260 (OPC), a human AVP V(2) receptor antagonist. At 3 weeks, SHR had markedly higher uOsm and lower UV levels than WKY. At 7 weeks, SHR were hypertensive, showing increased uAQP2, PAVP, and uOsm levels and a decreased UV. At 12 weeks, no significant changes were observed in this condition. At 7 and 12 weeks of age, OPC-treated WKY rats showed significant reduction in BP and uOsm and increase in UV with respect to untreated animals. From 3 weeks of age, OPC-treated SHR presented significantly lower BP levels, higher UV levels, and lower uOsm than untreated animals. In treated WKY and SHR, uAQP2 levels were lower than in untreated animals. The PAVP appeared to be higher in OPC-treated rats from both strains. These findings suggest that AVP and the AQP2 are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in SHR.

  12. Endothelial and non-endothelial coronary blood flow reserve and left ventricular dysfunction in systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloísio Marchi Rocha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the impairment of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve after administration of intracoronary acetylcholine and adenosine, and its association with hypertensive cardiac disease. INTRODUCTION: Coronary blood flow reserve reduction has been proposed as a mechanism for the progression of compensated left ventricular hypertrophy to ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Eighteen hypertensive patients with normal epicardial coronary arteries on angiography were divided into two groups according to left ventricular fractional shortening (FS. Group 1 (FS >0.25: n=8, FS=0.29 ± 0.03; Group 2 (FS <0.25: n=10, FS= 0.17 ± 0.03. RESULTS: Baseline coronary blood flow was similar in both groups (Group 1: 80.15 ± 26.41 mL/min, Group 2: 100.09 ± 21.51 mL/min, p=NS. In response to adenosine, coronary blood flow increased to 265.1 ± 100.2 mL/min in Group 1 and to 300.8 ± 113.6 mL/min (p <0.05 in Group 2. Endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve was similar in both groups (Group 1: 3.31 ± 0.68 and Group 2: 2.97 ± 0.80, p=NS. In response to acetylcholine, coronary blood flow increased to 156.08 ± 36.79 mL/min in Group 1 and to 177.8 ± 83.6 mL/min in Group 2 (p <0.05. Endothelium-dependent coronary blood flow reserve was similar in the two groups (Group 1: 2.08 ± 0.74 and group Group 2: 1.76 ± 0.61, p=NS. Peak acetylcholine/peak adenosine coronary blood flow response (Group 1: 0.65 ± 0.27 and Group 2: 0.60 ± 0.17 and minimal coronary vascular resistance (Group 1: 0.48 ± 0.21 mmHg/mL/min and Group 2: 0.34 ± 0.12 mmHg/mL/min were similar in both groups (p= NS. Casual diastolic blood pressure and end-systolic left ventricular stress were independently associated with FS. CONCLUSIONS: In our hypertensive patients, endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent coronary blood flow reserve vasodilator administrations had similar effects in patients with either normal or decreased left

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure and echocardiographic left ventricular dimensions in elderly hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, V; Piccirillo, G; Cicconetti, P; Bianchi, A; Capponi, L; Salza, M C; Cacciafesta, M; Marigliano, V

    1996-10-01

    In a consecutive series of 62 hypertensive elderly subjects, the authors studied the relation of blood pressure circadian variations with echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. All the subjects were submitted to an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and to B- and M-mode echocardiography. In the elderly hypertensive group, LV mass index (LVMI) was more strongly related to twenty-four-hour, daytime and nighttime systolic ambulatory blood pressure (r = 0.52, r = 0.37, r = 0.51) than diastolic ambulatory blood pressures were (r = 0.32, r = 0.18, r = 0.33). Casual systolic and diastolic blood pressure (CBP) was found more weakly related to LVMI than ambulatory blood pressures were (r = 0.35, r = 0.26). Elderly hypertensive subjects were divided into two subgroups in relation to the presence (group 1) or absence (group 2) of blood pressure nocturnal decline. No differences were found between these two subgroups in regard to: casual blood pressure values, ambulatory blood pressures in the diurnal period, sex, body surface area, height, weight, and age. LVMIs were computed in all three groups and showed the following results: 89.32 +/- 19.76 in elderly normotensives, 91.21 +/- 31.32 in group 1, and 99.80 +/- 18.21 in group 2. Echocardiographic parameters of LV dimensions and LVMIs were different in group 1 and 2. An inverse correlation, statistically significant, was observed between LVMIs and the nocturnal blood pressure reduction (systolic: r = -0.36, P < 0.05; diastolic: r = -0.29, P < 0.05). These results suggest an association between a smaller LV mass and nocturnal blood pressure decline in elderly hypertensive patients.

  14. Metabolic syndrome is associated with left ventricular dilatation in primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, E; Viazzi, F; Verzola, D; Bonino, B; Gonnella, A; Parodi, E L; Bezante, G P; Leoncini, G; Pontremoli, R

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) has been shown to predict cardiovascular events in hypertension. Recently, a new four-group left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy classification based on both LV dilatation and concentricity was proposed. This classification has been shown to provide a more accurate prediction of cardiovascular events, suggesting that the presence of LV dilatation may add prognostic information. We investigated the relationship between MS and the new classification of LV geometry in patients with primary hypertension. A total of 372 untreated hypertensive patients were studied. Four different patterns of LV hypertrophy (eccentric nondilated, eccentric dilated, concentric nondilated and concentric dilated hypertrophy) were identified by echocardiography. A modified National Cholesterol Education Program definition for MS was used, with body mass index replacing waist circumference. The overall prevalence of MS and LV hypertrophy (LVH) was 29% and 61%, respectively. Patients with MS showed a higher prevalence of LVH (P=0.0281) and dilated LV geometries, namely eccentric dilated and concentric dilated hypertrophy (P=0.0075). Moreover, patients with MS showed higher LV end-diastolic volume (P=0.0005) and prevalence of increased LV end-diastolic volume (P=0.0068). The prevalence of LV chamber dilatation increased progressively with the number of components of MS (P=0.0191). Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MS entails a three times higher risk of having LV chamber dilatation even after adjusting for several potential confounding factors. MS is associated with LV dilatation in hypertension. These findings may, in part, explain the unfavourable prognosis observed in patients with MS.

  15. Effect of ouabain on the pathogenesis of hypertension in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Meiyan; Ren Yanping; Guo Chengjun

    2014-01-01

    Background Ouabain and digoxin are important cardiac glycoside and related to many cardiovascular diseases.The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of sodium pump α-subunit expression in rats and compare the effects of ouabain (OUA) and digoxin (DIG) on the development of hypertension.Methods In situ hybridization was performed.Specific sequence oligonucleotide probe tailing with a Dig-dUTP hybrid to target nucleic acids of the sodium pump α-subunit.According to counting positive particles sodium pump subunit expression was analyzed with statistical methods.Results On day 16 of drug administration,the blood pressure of rats increased significantly in the OUA group.In the DIG group,the blood pressure revealed no significant difference when compared to the control group.In addition,the effects of OUA and DIG on sodium pump α-subunit RNA expression in tissues differed.Conclusions OUA and DIG can not only change the configuration of the sodium pump to depress their activity,but also influence their gene expression which is important in the mechanism of hypertension.This may be a key point in the pathogenesis of hypertension in the manner in which OUA differs from DIG and changes the sodium pump gene expression in the arteries and kidneys of rats.

  16. The flavonoid quercetin reverses pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Morales-Cano

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a dietary flavonoid which exerts vasodilator, antiplatelet and antiproliferative effects and reduces blood pressure, oxidative status and end-organ damage in humans and animal models of systemic hypertension. We hypothesized that oral quercetin treatment might be protective in a rat model of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Three weeks after injection of monocrotaline, quercetin (10 mg/kg/d per os or vehicle was administered for 10 days to adult Wistar rats. Quercetin significantly reduced mortality. In surviving animals, quercetin decreased pulmonary arterial pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy and muscularization of small pulmonary arteries. Classic biomarkers of pulmonary arterial hypertension such as the downregulated expression of lung BMPR2, Kv1.5, Kv2.1, upregulated survivin, endothelial dysfunction and hyperresponsiveness to 5-HT were unaffected by quercetin. Quercetin significantly restored the decrease in Kv currents, the upregulation of 5-HT2A receptors and reduced the Akt and S6 phosphorylation. In vitro, quercetin induced pulmonary artery vasodilator effects, inhibited pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. In conclusion, quercetin is partially protective in this rat model of PAH. It delayed mortality by lowering PAP, RVH and vascular remodeling. Quercetin exerted effective vasodilator effects in isolated PA, inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PASMCs. These effects were associated with decreased 5-HT2A receptor expression and Akt and S6 phosphorylation and partially restored Kv currents. Therefore, quercetin could be useful in the treatment of PAH.

  17. Apoptosis, myocardial fibrosis and angiotensin Ⅱ in the left ventricle of hypertensive rats treated with fosinopril or losartan%氯沙坦、福辛普利对高血压大鼠心肌细胞凋亡及心肌纤维化影响的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余国龙; 梁晓秋; 谢秀梅; 杨天伦; 孙明; 赵水平

    2002-01-01

    目的评价氯沙坦、福辛普利对自发性高血压大鼠(SHR)心肌细胞凋亡、心肌纤维化及左室重构的效应.方法 16周龄SHR随机分为3组:氯沙坦治疗组(SHR-L组)、福辛普利治疗组(SHR-F组)、空白对照组(SHR-C组),每组各10只.分别采用末端脱氧核糖核苷酸转移酶介导dUTP缺口末端标记(TUNEL)、放射免疫及病理检查方法对治疗8周、16周心肌细胞凋亡指数(APOI)、心肌胶原容积分数(CVF)和心肌血管周围胶原面积(PVCA)、血浆和组织血管紧张素Ⅱ检测.结果 (1)与对照组比较,两SHR治疗组治疗8周、16周后收缩压均有明显下降,两组间比较无显著性差异;两治疗组SHR心脏肥厚指标心脏重量(HW)、心脏重量指数(HWI)、左室重量(LVW)、左室重量指数(LVMI)均有显著性改善,治疗16周后SHR-F组与较SHR-L组LVMI显著性减低.(2)与对照组比较,治疗8周后仅SHR-F组心肌细胞凋亡指数(APOI)显著性下降,治疗16周后两治疗组APOI均有显著性下降,尤以SHR-F组下降明显.(3)与对照组比较,治疗8周后SHR-L、SHR-F两组CVF和PVCA有统计学意义下降.治疗16周后与对照组比较,两治疗组CVF和PVCA均显著性下降,其中SHR-F组CVF较SHR-L组下降显著.(4)治疗8周及16周后,SHR-F组心肌组织AngⅡ显著下降,SHR-L组血浆及心肌组织AngⅡ显著增加.结论两药物均能有效逆转心脏肥厚及抗心肌细胞凋亡及心肌纤维化,其中以福辛普利作用显著.两药物上述作用与拮抗心肌组织肾素-血管紧张素-醛固酮系统(RAS)效应有关.%Objective To investigate the different effects of an angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, losartan, and an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, fosinopril, on cardiomyocyte apoptosis, myocardial fibrosis, and angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ) in the left ventricle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).Methods SHRs of 16-week-old were randomly divided into 3 groups: SHR-L (treated with

  18. Hypertension and Cardiovascular Remodelling in Rats Exposed to Continuous Light: Protection by ACE-Inhibition and Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor Simko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of rats to continuous light attenuates melatonin production and results in hypertension development. This study investigated whether hypertension induced by continuous light (24 hours/day exposure induces heart and aorta remodelling and if these alterations are prevented by melatonin or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Four groups of 3-month-old male Wistar rats (10 per group were treated as follows for six weeks: untreated controls, exposed to continuous light, light-exposed, and treated with either captopril (100 mg/kg/day or melatonin (10 mg/kg/day. Exposure to continuous light led to hypertension, left ventricular (LV hypertrophy and fibrosis, and enhancement of the oxidative load in the LV and aorta. Increase in systolic blood pressure by continuous light exposure was prevented completely by captopril and partially by melatonin. Both captopril and melatonin reduced the wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta and reduced the level of oxidative stress. However, only captopril reduced LV hypertrophy development and only melatonin reduced LV hydroxyproline concentration in insoluble and total collagen in rats exposed to continuous light. In conclusion, captopril prevented LV hypertrophy development in the continuous light-induced hypertension model, while only melatonin significantly reduced fibrosis. This antifibrotic action of melatonin may be protective in hypertensive heart disease.

  19. Effects of hypertension on hemodynamic response and serum nitrite concentration during graded hemorrhagic shock in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Barmaki; Ali Nasimi; Majid Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypertensive patients have higher morbidity and mortality from hemorrhage. In this study, we investigated hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentrations during graded hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in hypertensive (HT) and normotensive (NT) rats. Methods: Thirteen male rats were divided into two groups, namely HT (n = 6) and NT (n = 7). Hypertension was induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt method in uninephrectomized rats. After 8 weeks, graded hemor...

  20. Regional brain catecholamine levels and the development of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: the effect of 6-hydroxydopamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Wybren de; Buuse, M. van den; Kloet, E.R. de; Versteeg, D.H.G.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the role of central catecholaminergic pathways in the development of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) were compared with those of local injections near the main ascending n

  1. Inhibition of thromboxane synthesis attenuates insulin hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H L; Brands, M W; Smith, M J; Shek, E W; Hall, J E

    1997-10-01

    Chronic insulin infusion in rats increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but the mechanisms for these actions are not known. This study tested whether thromboxane synthesis inhibition (TSI) would attenuate the renal and blood pressure responses to sustained hyperinsulinemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and MAP was measured 24 h/day. After 4 days of baseline measurements, endogenous synthesis of thromboxane was suppressed in 7 rats by infusing the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, U63557A, intravenously (30 microg/kg/min) for the remainder of the experiment; 7 other rats received vehicle. Baseline MAP was not significantly different between vehicle and TSI rats (96 +/- 1 v 99 +/- 1 mm Hg). After 3 days of U63557A or vehicle, a 5-day control period was started, followed by a 7-day infusion of insulin (1.5 mU/kg/min, intravenously). Glucose (22 mg/kg/min, intravenously) was infused along with insulin to prevent hypoglycemia. In the control period, MAP was not different between vehicle and TSI rats (99 +/- 2 v 100 +/- 1 mm Hg), but MAP increased throughout the 7-day infusion period only in the vehicle rats with an average increase in blood pressure of 7 +/- 2 mm Hg. In the control period, GFR was lower in vehicle rats compared with TSI rats (2.5 +/- 0.1 v 3.1 +/- 0.2 mL/min, P = .06), and the decrease to 81% +/- 4% and 91% +/- 6% of control, respectively, during insulin was significant only in the vehicle rats. All variables returned toward control during a 6-day recovery period. These results suggest that full expression of hypertension and renal vasoconstriction during hyperinsulinemia in rats is dependent on a normal ability to synthesize thromboxane.

  2. Changes in electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of major cardiovascular events in isolated systolic hypertension: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larstorp, A C K; Okin, P M; Devereux, R B;

    2011-01-01

    The predictive value of changes in the severity of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (ECG-LVH) during antihypertensive therapy remains unclear in isolated systolic hypertension (ISH). In a Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension substudy, we included 1320...... patients aged 54–83 years with systolic blood pressure (BP) of 160–200¿mm¿Hg, diastolic BP losartan- or atenolol-based treatment with a mean follow-up of 4.8 years. The composite end point...

  3. Control of oxidative stress in microcirculation of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLano, F A; Balete, R; Schmid-Schönbein, G W

    2005-02-01

    One mechanism for organ damage in individuals with arterial hypertension may be due to oxygen free radical production. This study was designed to localize free radicals in a microvascular network of mature spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Because glucocorticoids play a role in pressure elevation of SHRs, we investigated their role in microvascular free radical formation. Oxygen radical production in mesentery was detected by tetranitroblue tetrazolium reduction to formazan aided by digital light-absorption measurements. Formazan deposits were observed in the endothelial cells and lumens of all microvessels and in lymphatic endothelia but were fewer in tissue parenchyma. The formazan distribution in younger (14-16 wk old) WKY rats and SHRs was heterogeneous with low values in capillaries and small arterioles/venules (formazan density in SHRs to the level of WKY rats, whereas dexamethasone supplementation of the adrenalectomized rats caused elevation in the larger venules of SHRs. In older (40 wk old) SHRs, formazan levels were elevated in all hierarchies of microvessels. After pressure reduction was employed with chronic hydralazine treatment, the formazan deposits were reduced in all locations of the microcirculation in both WKY rats and SHRs. Elevated formazan deposits were also found in lymphatic endothelium. These results suggest that oxygen free radical production is elevated in both high- and low-pressure regions of SHR microcirculation via a process that is controlled by glucocorticoids. Older SHRs have higher formazan levels than younger SHRs in all microvessels. Chronic hydralazine treatment, which serves to reduce arterial blood pressure, attenuates tetranitroblue tetrazolium reduction in WKY rats and SHRs even in venules of the microcirculation, which has no micropressure elevation. Free radical production may be a more global condition in SHRs and may not be limited to arteries and arterioles.

  4. Sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension due to left-to-right shunt after corrective procedure

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    Dyahris Kuntartiwi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a common complication seen in those with a left-to-right shunt congenital heart defect (CHD. Corrective procedures by surgery or catheterization are the therapies of choice for reversible PAH. Since morbidity and mortality due to PAH after correction is high, sildenafil has been used as a selective vasodilator of the pulmonary artery, in order to decrease pulmonary arterial pressure. Objectives To evaluate the effect of sildenafil on pulmonary arterial pressure and clinical outcomes after left-to-right shunt CHD corrective procedures. Methods Left-to-right shunt patients aged < 18 years scheduled for corrective treatment were randomized in a double-blind fashion, to receive either oral sildenafil or placebo, given on days 3 to 30 after the corrective procedure. Clinical and pulmonary arterial pressures were evaluated by echocardiography before, 3 days after, and 30 days after the corrective procedure. Results From July 2013 to June 2014, 36 patients were included in the study: 17 in the placebo and 19 in the sildenafil groups. There were no differences in pulmonary arterial pressure or in clinical outcomes after corrective procedure between the two groups. There were no adverse events during the treatment. Conclusion Sildenafil has little effect on decreasing pulmonary arterial pressure, as most of our subjects seem to have hyperkinetic PAH. As such, pulmonary arterial pressure returns to normal soon after corrective procedures.

  5. Sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension due to left-toright shunt after corrective procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyahris Kuntartiwi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a common complication seen in those with a left-to-right shunt congenital heart defect (CHD. Corrective procedures by surgery or catheterization are the therapies of choice for reversible PAH. Since morbidity and mortality due to PAH after correction is high, sildenafil has been used as a selective vasodilator of the pulmonary artery, in order to decrease pulmonary arterial pressure. Objectives To evaluate the effect of sildenafil on pulmonary arterial pressure and clinical outcomes after left-to-right shunt CHD corrective procedures. Methods Left-to-right shunt patients aged < 18 years scheduled for corrective treatment were randomized in a double-blind fashion, to receive either oral sildenafil or placebo, given on days 3 to 30 after the corrective procedure. Clinical and pulmonary arterial pressures were evaluated by echocardiography before, 3 days after, and 30 days after the corrective procedure. Results From July 2013 to June 2014, 36 patients were included in the study: 17 in the placebo and 19 in the sildenafil groups. There were no differences in pulmonary arterial pressure or in clinical outcomes after corrective procedure between the two groups. There were no adverse events during the treatment. Conclusion Sildenafil has little effect on decreasing pulmonary arterial pressure, as most of our subjects seem to have hyperkinetic PAH. As such, pulmonary arterial pressure returns to normal soon after corrective procedures.

  6. Milan hypertensive rat as a model for studying cation transport abnormality in genetic hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, P.; Barber, B.R.; Torielli, L.; Ferrandi, M.; Salardi, S.; Bianchi, G.

    1987-11-01

    Environmental factors, genetic polymorphisms, and different experimental designs have been the main impediments to evaluating a genetic association between cell membrane cation transport abnormalities and human essential or genetic hypertension. We review the results obtained in the Milan hypertensive strain of rats (MHS) and in its appropriate control normotensive strain (MNS) to illustrate our approach to defining the role of cation transport abnormality in a type of genetic hypertension. Before the development of a difference in blood pressure between the two strains, the comparison of kidney and erythrocyte functions showed that MHS had an increased glomerular filtration rate and urinary output, and lower plasma renin and urine osmolality. Kidney cross-transplantation between the strains showed that hypertension is transplanted with the kidney. Proximal tubular cell volume and sodium content were lower in MHS while sodium transport across the brush border membrane vesicles of MHS was faster. Erythrocytes in MHS were smaller and had lower sodium concentration, and Na+-K+ cotransport and passive permeability were faster. The differences in volume, sodium content, and Na+-K+ cotransport between erythrocytes of the two strains persisted after transplantation of bone marrow to irradiated F1 (MHS X MNS) hybrids. Moreover, in normal segregating F2 hybrid populations there was a positive correlation between blood pressure and Na+-K+ cotransport. These results suggest a genetic and functional link in MHS between cell membrane cation transport abnormalities and hypertension. Thus, erythrocyte cell membrane may be used for approaching the problem of defining the genetically determined molecular mechanism underlying the development of a type of essential hypertension. 35 references.

  7. Catestatin could ameliorate proliferating changes of target organs in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ran; SUN Ning-ling; YANG Song-na; GUO Jian-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Catestatin,a chromogranin A-derived peptide,is a potent antagonist of nicotine-evoked catecholamine release.We know that catecholamine plays an important role in cardiovascular remodeling induced by hypertension,therefore we hypothesized that catestatin would affect target-organ structure during hypertension.Methods Twelve spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were randomized to SHR control group and catestatin group,the normal control group was comprised of six healthy Wistar-Kyoto rats of the same age.Tail-cuff blood pressure and pulse rate were obtained at weeks 1,4 and 8.At the end of the eight-week period,the heart,abdominal aorta and left kidney were excised and weighed,VG staining was done and the intima-media thickness of vessels and the collagen volume fraction were assessed by an image acquisition and analysis system.The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was observed by immunohistochemistry,and real time reverse transcription-poiymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA levels of proliferative genes including cyclin A,ki67 and PCNA in the abdominal aorta.Results All the parameters in SHR observed in the present study increased significantly compared to Wistar Kyoto rats (P <0.01).With intervention with catestatin,the systolic blood pressure decreased slightly but it was not significantly different from the SHR control,the cardiac mass index and left ventricular mass index both decreased significantly,the collagen volume fraction decreased by nearly 30% in the heart,by 25% in vessels and by 10% in the kidney,and the intima-media thickness and expression of proliferative genes,including cyclin A,ki67 and PCNA,in the abdominal aorta also decreased significantly.Conclusions The present study indicated that catestatin could ameliorate proliferating changes of heart,kidney and vessels during hypertension,especially to the deposition of interstitial collagen.Blood pressure was not the main factor to mediate this

  8. Hydrogen sulfide system in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youqin Cheng; Daiqin Wu; Guang Yang; Xiaoying Li; Dayan Huang; Bin Geng; Chaoshu Tang

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) synthases/H2S pathway in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension.Methods Wistar rats were subdivided into 4 groups:(1) 2-kidney,1-clip (2K-1C group,n=7),(2) control (n=7),(3)sham (n=7),and (4) 2K-1C plus sodium hydrosulfide (NariS) (NariS-treated group,n=7).The systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by a tail-cuff method using a pulse transducer once a week.Four weeks later,all rats were killed and the concentration of plasma hydrogen sulfide (H2S),the activity of the H2S syntha.ses in the kidneys on both sides,the plasma angiotensin Ⅱ concentration,and the left-to-whole heart weight ratio were measured.Results The SBP was significantly increased in the 2K-IC group (185.4± 14.0mmHg) comparing with those in the sham group (112.9±6.5mmHg,,or the NariS-treated group(134.8±9.5mmHg) (both P<0.01).At 4 weeks,the angiotensin Ⅱ concentration in the plasma was increased in the 2K-1C and NariS-treated group,comparing with the control and the sham group (306.92±7.03 pg/ml and 240.73±13.22 pg/ml vs 122.6±25.49 pg/ml and 125.95±10.55 pg/ml,respectively,both P<0.05).The plasma H2S concentration and the activity of H2S synthases in the left kidney were decreased in the 2K-1C group comparing with those in the sham and the control groups.There was no difference of the activity of the H2S synthases in the right kidneys among the 4 groups.The left-to-whole heart weight ratio was increased in the 2K-1C and the NariS-treated group camparing with that in the sham and natural control groups.Conclusions Dysfunction of the H2S synthases/H2S pathway was involved in the 2K-1C-induced renovascular hypertension in rat.Exogenous administration of H2S donor can attenuate the development of hypertension.These findings suggest that the H2S synthases/H2S pathway participates in the pathogenesis of renovascular hypertension.

  9. Mechanism of exaggerated diuresis in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, G F; Rios, L L

    1978-11-01

    The mechanism of exaggerated diuresis and natriuresis was studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by renal clearance and micropuncture techniques. Control normotensive rats of the same age and sex [Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY)] were also studied. During the hydropenic control and the volume-expansion experimental periods absolute and fractional water and sodium excretion were greater in SHR than in WKY. Although fractional and absolute water and sodium reabsorption were similar along the proximal convolution in SHR and WKY, fractional and absolute water reabsorption in Henle's loop was less in SHR than in WKY. Hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures in the cortical peritubular microvasculature were similar in WKY and SHR. Acute normalization of renal perfusion pressure by aortic constriction reversed the exaggerated diuresis and natriuresis in SHR by halving the filtered load of water and sodium; whole kidney and single nephron glomerular filtration rates and blood flows decreased by 50%. It is concluded that the exaggerated diuresis and natriuresis of the spontaneously hypertensive rat is caused by a decreased reabsorption in the loop of Henle. The mechanism of this decreased reabsorption in the loop of Henle cannot be explained by alterations in the measured physical forces in the renal cortical microvasculature.

  10. Prognostic value of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada-Delgado, Oscar; Barge-Caballero, Eduardo; Peteiro, Jesús; Bouzas-Mosquera, Alberto; Estévez-Loureiro, Rodrigo; Barge-Caballero, Gonzalo; López-Pérez, Manuel; Vázquez-González, Nicolás; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso

    2015-02-01

    We sought to assess the prognostic value of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with normal resting echocardiography and absence of coronary artery disease. From our database of patients referred for treadmill exercise echocardiography, we identified 93 hypertensive patients with preserved resting left ventricular ejection fraction (≥ 50%), no evidence of structural heart disease, and absence of coronary artery disease on angiography. Overall, 39 patients developed exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction (defined as a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction below 50% at peak exercise) and 54 exhibited a normal left ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise. The mean follow-up was 6.1 (3.7) years. End points were all-cause mortality, cardiac death, heart failure, and the composite event of cardiac death or heart failure. Patients who developed exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction were at higher risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio=3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-10.3), cardiac death (hazard ratio=5.6; 95%CI, 1.1-29.4), heart failure (hazard ratio=8.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-44.2), and the composite end point (hazard ratio=5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-19.0). In the multivariate analysis, exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction remained an independent predictor of both heart failure (hazard ratio=6.9; 95% CI, 1.3-37.4) and the composite event of cardiac death or heart failure (hazard ratio=4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-16.0). In hypertensive patients with preserved resting left ventricular ejection fraction and absence of coronary artery disease, exercise-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction is a strong predictor of cardiac events and may represent early hypertensive heart disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreased immunoreactivity of visfatin in the pancreas and liver of rats with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Ż; Janiuk, I; Lewandowska, A; Kasacka, I

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the major endocrine and metabolic disorders, in which visfatin plays a significant role. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunoreactivity of visfatin in pancreas and liver of “two kidney, one clip” (2K1C) renovascular hypertension model in rats. The studies were carried out on the pancreas and liver of rats. After a 6-week period of the renal artery clipping procedure, 2K1C rats developed a stable hypertension. Paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (for general histological examination) and processed for immunolocalization of visfatin. The intensity of immunohistochemical reaction was measured using Nikon NIS-Elements Advanced Research software. The hypertension significantly weakened the immunohistochemical reaction exhibiting visfatin in the pancreas and liver of hypertensive rats, compared to control animals. The changes induced by hypertension in the visfatin-containing cells in the pancreas and liver of the rats are discussed and needs further study.

  12. Left Ventricular Wall Stress-Mass-Heart Rate Product and Cardiovascular Events in Treated Hypertensive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devereux, Richard B; Bang, Casper N; Roman, Mary J;

    2015-01-01

    In the Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study, 4.8 years' losartan- versus atenolol-based antihypertensive treatment reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiovascular end points, including cardiovascular death and stroke. However, there was no difference...... randomized treatment, the triple product was reduced more by atenolol, with prevalences of elevated triple product of 39% versus 51% on losartan (both P≤0.001). In Cox regression analyses adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and prior stroke, MI, and heart failure, 1 SD lower triple product...... was associated with 23% (95% confidence interval 13%-32%) fewer composite end points, 31% (18%-41%) less cardiovascular mortality, 30% (15%-41%) lower MI, and 22% (11%-33%) lower all-cause mortality (all P≤0.001), without association with stroke (P=0.34). Although losartan-based therapy reduced ventricular mass...

  13. Improved Left Ventricular Diastolic Function with Exercise Training in Hypertension: A Doppler Imaging Study

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    Huan Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the effects of 6 months’ exercise training on ventricular function in hypertensive patients. Methods. Both groups received routine anti-hypertensive pharmacological therapy and one received a 6 months’ exercise program in addition. All patients underwent incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test and echocardiography in baseline and after 6 months. Results. (1 In 6 months’ follow-up, PeakVO2, Powermax (max workload, AT (anaerobic threshold, VO2AT (VO2 at anaerobic threshold, tAT (time from beginning to anaerobic threshold (<.05, were increased in the exercise group. HRrest (Heart rate at rest was decreased (<.05. LAVI (left atrial volume index, peak mitral filling velocities during early (E and late (A diastole E/A ratio, DT(deceleration time of the mitral E wave, IVST(Interventricular septum thickness in diastole, tissue Doppler indice Mean Ea/Aa ratio (<.05 were also improved. (2 Correlation analysis: 4 variates had significant effect on change of PeakVO2 in the exercise group: age (=−0.39, change of HRrest (=0.59, change of E/A (=0.55, change of Mean Ea/Aa (=0.58; Through analyzing 2 groups patients’ baseline values, their age (=−0.32, VO2AT (=0.29, HRrest (=−0.25, LAVI (=−0.24, E/A (=0.41 were found to be independent predictors of MeanEa/Aa. -value under .05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusion. 6 months’ exercise could enhance hypertensive patients’ aerobic exercise level and diastolic function to a certain extent.

  14. Blood pressure circadian rhythm and heart rate turbulence in hypertensive patients: relationship with left ventricular hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Zhu; Mohan Liu; Xinhong Guo; Shiwen Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship of blood pressure circadian rhythm with myocardial hypertrophy and the changes of autonomic nerve function in patients with essential hypertension (EH). Methods Eighty-two female patients with essential hypertension (EH) underwent 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitorings (ABPM), dynamic electrocardiogram (Holter) and echocardiography examination. Patients were classified into non-dipping group (n=40) and dipping group (n=42) according to the result of ABPM. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI), heart rate variability (HRV) in time domain (including SDNN, SDANN, rMSSD, PNN50) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) parameters (including turbulence onset [TO] and turbulence slope [TS]) were measured. Results Compared with those in dipping group, patients in non-dipping group have higher incidence of LVH (19.0% vs 52.5%, P<0.01), greater mean LVMI (112.39±12.79 g/m2 vs 121.98±13.35 g/m2, P<0.01), decreased PNN50 and rMSSD. TS value was decreased while TO was increased in non-dipping group compared with those in dipping group (both P <0.01); patients with LVH showed decreased TS and increased TO, compared with those without LVH. Conclusion In female patients with EH, non-dipping blood pressure circadian is associated with higher incidence of LVH. The HRV and HRT were more remarkably blunted in non-dipping patients, as well as those with LVH.

  15. Dietary supplementation of ginger and turmeric improves reproductive function in hypertensive male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Jacob Akinyemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger [Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae] and turmeric [Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae] rhizomes have been reportedly used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. However, the prevention of its complication such as male infertility remains unexplored. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of ginger and turmeric rhizomes on some biomarkers of male reproductive function in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10: normotensive control rats; induced (L-NAME hypertensive rats; hypertensive rats treated with atenolol (10 mg/kg/day; normotensive and hypertensive rats treated with 4% supplementation of turmeric or ginger, respectively. After 14 days of pre-treatment, the animals were induced with hypertension by oral administration of L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day. The results revealed significant decrease in serum total testosterone and epididymal sperm progressive motility without affecting sperm viability in hypertensive rats. Moreover, increased oxidative stress in the testes and epididymides of hypertensive rats was evidenced by significant decrease in total and non-protein thiol levels, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity with concomitant increase in 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DFCH oxidation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS production. Similarly, decreased testicular and epididymal NO level with concomitant elevation in arginase activity was observed in hypertensive rats. However, dietary supplementation with turmeric or ginger efficiently prevented these alterations in biomarkers of reproductive function in hypertensive rats. The inhibition of arginase activity and increase in NO and testosterone levels by both rhizomes could suggest possible mechanism of action for the prevention of male infertility in hypertension. Therefore, both rhizomes could be harnessed as functional foods to prevent hypertension

  16. Perinatal Resveratrol Supplementation to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Dams Mitigates the Development of Hypertension in Adult Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Care, Alison S; Sung, Miranda M; Panahi, Sareh; Gragasin, Ferrante S; Dyck, Jason R B; Davidge, Sandra T; Bourque, Stephane L

    2016-05-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether perinatal maternal resveratrol (Resv)--a phytoalexin known to confer cardiovascular protection--could prevent the development of hypertension and improve vascular function in adult spontaneously hypertensive rat offspring. Dams were fed either a control or Resv-supplemented diet (4 g/kg diet) from gestational day 0.5 until postnatal day 21. Indwelling catheters were used to assess blood pressure and vascular function in vivo; wire myography was used to assess vascular reactivity ex vivo. Perinatal Resv supplementation in dams had no effect on fetal body weights, albeit continued maternal treatment postnatally resulted in growth restriction in offspring by postnatal day 21; growth restriction was no longer evident after 5 weeks of age. Maternal perinatal Resv supplementation prevented the onset of hypertension in adult offspring (-18 mm Hg; P=0.007), and nitric oxide synthase inhibition (with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester) normalized these blood pressure differences, suggesting improved nitric oxide bioavailability underlies the hemodynamic alterations in the Resv-treated offspring. In vivo and ex vivo, vascular responses to methylcholine were not different between treatment groups, but prior treatment with L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester attenuated the vasodilation in untreated, but not Resv-treated adult offspring, suggesting a shift toward nitric oxide-independent vascular control mechanisms in the treated group. Finally, bioconversion of the inactive precursor big endothelin-1 to active endothelin-1 in isolated mesenteric arteries was reduced in Resv-treated offspring (-28%; Phypertension and causes persistent alterations in vascular responsiveness in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  17. Correlation between serum homocysteine content and carotid atherosclerosis as well as left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Bin Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation between serum homocysteine content and carotid atherosclerosis as well as left ventricular diastolic function in patients with essential hypertension.Methods:A total of 106 patients with essential hypertension and hyperhomocysteinemia were included in H-type hypertension group (group A), 42 patients with primary hypertension and without hyperhomocysteinemia were included in non-H-type hypertension group (group B) and 60 healthy subjects were included in control group. Carotid artery ultrasound and cardiac ultrasound were conducted to determine carotid atherosclerosis indexes and left ventricular diastolic function indexes; serum was collected to determine carotid atherosclerosis and myocardial remodeling indexes.Results:Carotid IMT,β1,β2 and Ep, left ventricular IVSd, LVPW, LVEDd and LVMI as well as ox-LDL, MDA, MCP-1, VE-cadherin, TGFβ1, FGF23, PICP, ICTP and PIIINP content in serum of group A and group B were significantly higher than those of control group while the AC were significantly lower than that of control group; carotid IMT,β1,β2 and Ep, left ventricular IVSd, LVPW, LVEDd and LVMI as well as ox-LDL, MDA, MCP-1, VE-cadherin, TGFβ1, FGF23, PICP, ICTP and PIIINP content in serum of group A were significantly higher than those of group B while the AC was significantly lower than that of group B.Conclusions:The combination of hyperhomocysteinemia will promote the carotid atherosclerosis, oxidative stress and inflammatory response, left ventricular diastolic hypofunction as well as myocardial remodeling and fibrosis process in patients with essential hypertension.

  18. Effects of Transgenic Expression of Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase (Dbh) Gene on Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRAVENEC, M.; LANDA, V.; ZÍDEK, V.; MLEJNEK, P.; ŠILHAVÝ, J.; MIR, S. A.; VAINGANKAR, S. M.; WANG, J.; KURTZ, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is the most widely used animal model of essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. Catecholamines play an important role in the pathogenesis of both essential hypertension in humans and in the SHR. Recently, we obtained evidence that the SHR harbors a variant in the gene for dopamine beta hydroxylase (Dbh) that is associated with reduced adrenal expression of Dbh mRNA and reduced DBH enzymatic activity which correlated negatively with blood pressure. In the current study, we used a transgenic experiment to test the hypothesis that reduced Dbh expression predisposes the SHR to hypertension and that augmentation of Dbh expression would reduce blood pressure. We derived 2 new transgenic SHR-Dbh lines expressing Dbh cDNA under control of the Brown Norway (BN) wild type promoter. We found modestly increased adrenal expression of Dbh in transgenic rats versus SHR non-transgenic controls that was associated with reduced adrenal levels of dopamine and increased plasma levels of norepinephrine and epinephrine. The observed changes in catecholamine metabolism were associated with increased blood pressure and left ventricular mass in both transgenic lines. We did not observe any consistent changes in brainstem levels of catecholamines or of mRNA levels of Dbh in the transgenic strains. Contrary to our initial expections, these findings are consistent with the possibility that genetically determined decreases in adrenal expression and activity of DBH do not represent primary determinants of increased blood pressure in the SHR model. PMID:27959576

  19. Choline ameliorates cardiovascular damage by improving vagal activity and inhibiting the inflammatory response in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longzhu; Lu, Yi; Bi, Xueyuan; Xu, Man; Yu, Xiaojiang; Xue, Runqing; He, Xi; Zang, Weijin

    2017-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction and abnormal immunity lead to systemic inflammatory responses, which result in cardiovascular damage in hypertension. The aim of this report was to investigate the effects of choline on cardiovascular damage in hypertension. Eight-week-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar-Kyoto rats were intraperitoneally injected with choline or vehicle (8 mg/kg/day). After 8 weeks, choline restored the cardiac function of the SHRs, as evidenced by decreased heart rate, systolic blood pressure, left ventricle systolic pressure, and ±dp/dtmax and increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening. Choline also ameliorated the cardiac hypertrophy of the SHRs, as indicated by reduced left ventricle internal dimensions and decreased cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area. Moreover, choline improved mesenteric arterial function and preserved endothelial ultrastructure in the SHRs. Notably, the protective effect of choline may be due to its anti-inflammatory effect. Choline downregulated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α and upregulated IL-10 in the mesenteric arteries of SHRs, possibly because of the inhibition of Toll-like receptor 4. Furthermore, choline restored baroreflex sensitivity and serum acetylcholine level in SHRs, thus indicating that choline improved vagal activity. This study suggests that choline elicits cardiovascular protective effects and may be useful as a potential adjunct therapeutic approach for hypertension. PMID:28225018

  20. Depressor effect of closed-loop chip system in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xing-Ya; Huang, Xing-Lin; Wang, Han-Jun; Zhou, Li-Min; Xu, Yao; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2007-12-30

    We previously reported that a closed-loop chip system was designed to decrease arterial pressure in normal rabbits and rats. In the present study, the depressor effects of the chip system were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The arterial pressure was recorded, sampled, operated and processed in the chip system. The chip system instantaneously controlled arterial pressure by stimulating the left aortic depressor nerve according to the feedback signals of arterial pressure. The closed-loop chip system effectively decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in both SHR and WKY rats. It decreased the duration and the maximal MAP level of the pressor response evoked by either intravenous injection of phenylephrine or cutaneous nociceptive stimulation in SHR, but had no significant effect on the magnitude of the increase in MAP. Furthermore, the chip system significantly increased the baroreflex gain in SHR, but not in normal WKY rats. These results suggest that the closed-loop chip system effectively decreases the arterial pressure and increases baroreflex gain in SHR. The chip system does not abolish the arterial pressure responses to accidental pressor events, but decreases the duration and the maximal MAP level of the pressor responses.

  1. Genetic isolation of a chromosome 1 region affecting susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lezin, E; Griffin, K A; Picken, M; Churchill, M C; Churchill, P C; Kurtz, T W; Liu, W; Wang, N; Kren, V; Zidek, V; Pravenec, M; Bidani, A K

    1999-08-01

    Linkage studies in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat have suggested that genes influencing susceptibility to hypertension-associated renal failure may exist on rat chromosome 1q. To investigate this possibility in a widely used model of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), we compared susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage between an SHR progenitor strain and an SHR congenic strain that is genetically identical except for a defined region of chromosome 1q. Backcross breeding with selection for the markers D1Mit3 and Igf2 on chromosome 1 was used to create the congenic strain (designated SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2) that carries a 22 cM segment of chromosome 1 transferred from the normotensive Brown Norway rat onto the SHR background. Systolic blood pressure (by radiotelemetry) and urine protein excretion were measured in the SHR progenitor and congenic strains before and after the induction of accelerated hypertension by administration of DOCA-salt. At the same level of DOCA-salt hypertension, the SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain showed significantly greater proteinuria and histologically assessed renal vascular and glomerular injury than the SHR progenitor strain. These findings demonstrate that a gene or genes that influence susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage have been trapped in the differential chromosome segment of the SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain. This congenic strain represents an important new model for the fine mapping of gene(s) on chromosome 1 that affect susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat.

  2. Anti-hypertensive property of a nickel-piperazine/NO donor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Martina; Ciccone, Valerio; Pacini, Aurora; Roggeri, Riccardo; Monzani, Enrico; Casella, Luigi; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2016-05-01

    The nickel-piperazine/NO donor compound, Ni(PipNONO)Cl, belonging to the family of compounds labelled as "metal-nonoates", due to its promising vasodilating activity, has been considered as a potential drug candidate in anti-hypertensive therapy. Drug efficacy has been evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in comparison with normotensive animals (C57BL/6 mice and WKY rats). In normotensive animals the metal-nonoate maintained blood pressure at basal level both following acute administration and after 30 days of treatment. In SHR, Ni(PipNONO)Cl reduced blood pressure in the dose range of 3-10mg/kg. When compared with a commercial NONOate, DETA/NO, used at the same doses, Ni(PipNONO)Cl was more active in reducing blood pressure in SHR than DETA/NO in the first two weeks, while the effect of the two molecules was similar in the third and fourth week. The degradation and control compound Ni(Pip)Cl2 had no effect on blood pressure and heart rate in same animal models. Remarkably, the blood pressure reduction induced by the new NO-donor Ni(PipNONO)Cl does not evoke changes in the heart rate and tolerance. Considering the mechanisms of vascular protection, 30 days of administration of Ni(PipNONO)Cl improved endothelial function in SHR by upregulating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) through increased eNOS protein levels and downregulated Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), and by increasing superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) protein level in aortae. In cultured endothelial cells Ni(PipNONO)Cl restored the cell functions (cytoskeletal protein expression, migration and proliferation) altered by the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1β (IL-1β), impairing the endothelial to mesenchimal transition. In conclusion, Ni(PipNONO)Cl maintained unaltered blood pressure in normotensive mice and rats, and it exerted anti-hypertensive effect in SHR through the restoration of vascular endothelial protective functions.

  3. Antihypertensive and Antihypertrophic Effects of Acupuncture at PC6 Acupoints in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Juan Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA at PC6 on the hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Thirty SHRs were randomized into model, SHR + EA, and SHR + Sham EA group with WKY rats as normal control. EA was applied once a day in 8 consecutive weeks. The blood pressure (BP, cardiac function, and hypertrophy as well as the underlying mechanisms were investigated. After EA treatment, the enhanced BP in SHR + EA group was significantly lower compared to both the period before EA and model group. Echocardiographic, morphological studies showed that the enhanced left ventricular anterior and posterior wall end-diastolic (LVAWd and LVPWd thickness, diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA of cardiac myocyte, as well as the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW, were markedly diminished in SHR + EA group, while the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular short axis fraction shortening, and E/A ratio were significantly ameliorated. The levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE and Angiotensin II Type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R in SHRs were also significantly attenuated by EA. The results suggest that EA at bilateral PC6 could arrest the hypertension development and ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and malfunction in SHRs, which might be mediated by the regulation of ACE, AT1R, and AT2R.

  4. Antihypertensive and Antihypertrophic Effects of Acupuncture at PC6 Acupoints in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Gao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Yu-Xue; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Yu, Xiao-Chun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at PC6 on the hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty SHRs were randomized into model, SHR + EA, and SHR + Sham EA group with WKY rats as normal control. EA was applied once a day in 8 consecutive weeks. The blood pressure (BP), cardiac function, and hypertrophy as well as the underlying mechanisms were investigated. After EA treatment, the enhanced BP in SHR + EA group was significantly lower compared to both the period before EA and model group. Echocardiographic, morphological studies showed that the enhanced left ventricular anterior and posterior wall end-diastolic (LVAWd and LVPWd) thickness, diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cardiac myocyte, as well as the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), were markedly diminished in SHR + EA group, while the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular short axis fraction shortening, and E/A ratio were significantly ameliorated. The levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensin II Type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R) in SHRs were also significantly attenuated by EA. The results suggest that EA at bilateral PC6 could arrest the hypertension development and ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and malfunction in SHRs, which might be mediated by the regulation of ACE, AT1R, and AT2R.

  5. Antihypertensive and Antihypertrophic Effects of Acupuncture at PC6 Acupoints in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Underlying Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Juan-Juan; Gao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lu, Feng-Yan; Zhao, Yu-Xue; Jing, Xiang-Hong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at PC6 on the hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty SHRs were randomized into model, SHR + EA, and SHR + Sham EA group with WKY rats as normal control. EA was applied once a day in 8 consecutive weeks. The blood pressure (BP), cardiac function, and hypertrophy as well as the underlying mechanisms were investigated. After EA treatment, the enhanced BP in SHR + EA group was significantly lower compared to both the period before EA and model group. Echocardiographic, morphological studies showed that the enhanced left ventricular anterior and posterior wall end-diastolic (LVAWd and LVPWd) thickness, diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cardiac myocyte, as well as the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), were markedly diminished in SHR + EA group, while the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular short axis fraction shortening, and E/A ratio were significantly ameliorated. The levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensin II Type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R) in SHRs were also significantly attenuated by EA. The results suggest that EA at bilateral PC6 could arrest the hypertension development and ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and malfunction in SHRs, which might be mediated by the regulation of ACE, AT1R, and AT2R. PMID:28293268

  6. Correlation between Diastolic Function and Mass and Geometry of Left Ventricle in Essential Hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU JinLai(刘金来); WANG QingHui(王庆慧); SAID Mohammed Abdalla; ZHANG ChengXi(张成喜); CHEN Lin(陈璘); ZHANG YanYu(张燕玉)

    2001-01-01

    Object Diastolic function' s assessment is vital in order to produce information relevant to patients' functional class, management and prognosis. We sought to investigate diastolic dysfunction in essential hypertension (EH) with or without coronary heart disease (CAD) using color M- mode Doppler echocardiography and to study the relation between diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and geometry of LV, and to demonstrate partly the cause of increased cardiovascular risk of an echocardiographic pattern of LV geometry. Methods 36 normal subjects (Group Ⅰ) and 107 patients with essential hypertension (Group Ⅱ) were studied using color M- mode Doppler echocardiography. Four different LV anatomic adaptation to hypertension were identified by categorizing patients according to values of end-diastolic relative wall thickness (RWT) and LVMI. We measured the rate of propagation of peak early filling flow velocity (Vp), time delay (TD) of the peak early filling flow velocity from mitral tips to the apex and Vp/E. Results The geometry of LV was classified into four types according to the LVMI and RWT. The normal limits of LVMI and RWT were obtained from the upper limits of the 95 % confidence interval from mean of LVMI and RWT in healthy control group respectively, which were 115.2 g/m2 and 0.44. The definition of each type was as follows: Type Ⅰ (normal group): LVMI ≤ 115.2 g/m2 and RWT ≤0.44; Type Ⅱ (concentric remodeling): LVMI ≤115.2 g/m2 and RWT > 0.44; Type Ⅲ (eccentric hypertrophy): LVMI> 115.2 g/m2 and RWT ≤0.44; Type Ⅳ (concentric hypertrophy): LVMI >115.2 g/m2 and RWT > 0.44. Most parameters of diastolic function in each geometry type differed significantly from those in the control group, but the dif ference among each geometry type was not significant.When compared with type Ⅰ, there was a tendency thatTD was longer and Vp/E smaller in Type Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳgroups. The correlation between LVMI and Vp and TD had

  7. Therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells transplantation on pulmonary hypertension model rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-yan ZHAO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs transplantation on monocrotaline (MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Methods MSCs were isolated from Wistar rats and cultivated by bone marrow adherent culture. The third to fifth passages of MSCs were used for cell transplantation. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group, MCT group, MCT/MSCs 5×105 group and MCT/MSCs 1×106 group (10 each. MCT was injected intraperitoneally (60mg/kg, and MSCs were transplanted into rats through external jugular vein. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP of rats was determined, then the animals were sacrificed and the ventricular ratio (i.e. the mass ratio of right to left ventricle plus interventricular septum was calculated. The lung tissue was observed by light microscopy after HE staining, orcein staining and smooth muscle actin immunohistochemical staining. Results Four weeks after MSCs administration, the RVSP and ventricular ratio were 35.6±8.4mmHg and 0.357±0.092 in MCT/MSCs 1×106 group respectively, and significantly lower than those in MCT group (47.2±10.5mmHg and 0.445±0.094, respectively, P0.05. Pathological observation found the intima-media thickness of pulmonary arterioles was 19.2%±3.8% in MCT/MSCs 1×106 group, and significantly thinner than that in MCT group (26.4%±4.9%, P0.05. Conclusion  Intravenous MSCs administration could inhibit the MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension and 1×106 is the optimal number of MSCs for transplantation. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.010

  8. Variants of tumor necrosis factor-induced protein 3 gene are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Hao; WANG Shu-xia; WANG Xiao-jian; XIN Ying; WANG Hu; SONG Xiao-dong; SUN Kai; WANG Yi-bo; HUI Ru-tai

    2011-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) gene has been shown important in cardiac remodeling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the variants of TNFAIP3 gene are associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive patients.Methods Four representatives of all the other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TNFAIP3 gene were tested for association with hypertrophy in two independent hypertensive populations (n=2120 and n=324).Results We found that only the tag SNP (rs5029939) was consistently lower in the hypertensives with cardiac hypertrophy than in those without cardiac hypertrophy in the two study populations, indicating a protective effect on LVH (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))0.58 (0.358-0.863), P=0.035; OR (95% CI)=0.477 (0.225-0.815), P<0.05,respectively). Multiple regression analyses confirmed that the patients with G allele of rs5029939 had less thickness in inter-ventricular septum, left ventricular posterior wall, relative wall thickness and left ventricular mass index than did those with CC allele in the hypertensive patients in both study populations (all P<0.01).Conclusion These findings indicate that the SNP (rs5029939) in the TNFAIP3 gene may serve as a novel protective genetic marker for the development of LVH in patients with hypertension.

  9. Cardiac MRI assessed left ventricular hypertrophy in differentiating hypertensive heart disease from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy attributable to a sarcomeric gene mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipola, Petri [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); University of Eastern Finland, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Kuopio (Finland); Magga, Jarkko; Peuhkurinen, Keijo [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Kuopio (Finland); Husso, Minna [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Jaeaeskelaeinen, Pertti; Kuusisto, Johanna [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital, Heart Center, P.O. Box 1777, Kuopio (Finland)

    2011-07-15

    To evaluate the value of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI)-assessed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in differentiating between hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). 95 unselected subjects with mild-to-moderate hypertension, 24 patients with HCM attributable to the D175N mutation of the {alpha}-tropomyosin gene and 17 control subjects were studied by cine CMRI. Left ventricular (LV) quantitative and qualitative characteristics were evaluated. LV maximal end-diastolic wall thickness, wall thickness-to-LV volume ratio, end-diastolic septum thickness and septum-to-lateral wall thickness ratio were useful measures for differentiating between LVH due to hypertension and HCM. The most accurate measure for identifying patients with HCM was the LV maximal wall thickness {>=}17 mm, with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 90%, 93%, 86%, 95% and 91%, respectively. LV maximal wall thickness in the anterior wall, or regional bulging in left ventricular wall was found only in patients with HCM. LV mass index was not discriminant between patients with HCM and those with LVH due to hypertension. LV maximal thickness measured by CMRI is the best anatomical parameter in differentiating between LVH due to mild-to-moderate hypertension and HCM attributable to a sarcomeric mutation. CMRI assessment of location and quality of LVH is also of value in differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Acute transient coronary sinus hypertension impairs left ventricular function and induces myocardial edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, J W; Schertel, E R; Schaefer, S L; Esham, K E; McClure, D E; Heck, C F; Myerowitz, P D

    1996-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of acute coronary sinus hypertension (CSH) on systolic and diastolic left ventricular (LV) function. Coronary sinus pressure was elevated to 25 mmHg for 3 h in eight pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs and then relieved. LV contractility was assessed by preload recruitable stroke work (PRSW) and end-systolic elastance (Ees). Diastolic function was assessed by the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau) and the end-diastolic pressure volume relationship (EDPVR). PRSW and Ees decreased progressively, and tau and the slope of the EDPVR increased progressively with CSH. These changes persisted after relief of CSH. beta-Adrenergic and cholinergic receptor blockade, performed in six dogs, did not alter the effects of CSH on systolic or diastolic function. The LV wet-to-dry weight ratios of the groups with CSH were significantly greater than those of a control group without CSH. We conclude that CSH results in changes in the left ventricle that depress contractility, prolong active relaxation, and increase diastolic stiffness. The dysfunction was not the direct effect of CSH or autonomic reflex activation, but may have been induced by fluid accumulation within the interstitium.

  11. Psoriasis is associated with subsequent atrial fibrillation in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Okin, Peter M; Køber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of psoriasis as well as atrial fibrillation. The impact of psoriasis and its association with new-onset atrial fibrillation was assessed in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS: The predictive value...... or developed psoriasis and new-onset atrial fibrillation occurred in 506 patients (7.1%) during a mean follow-up of 4.7 ± 1.1 years. At baseline, the psoriasis patients were younger (65 ± 7 vs. 67 ± 7 years) and had less left ventricle hypertrophy by ECG Sokolow-Lyon voltage (27.6 ± 9.7 vs. 30.1 ± 10.4 mm......); higher hemoglobin (6.3 ± 2.2 vs. 6.0 ± 2.7 mmol/l) and prevalence of diabetes (20.6 vs. 12.8%, P ≤ 0.004) than patients without psoriasis. In multivariable Cox analysis, adjusting for age, sex, hemoglobin, diabetes, time-varying SBP, heart rate, study treatment and Sokolow-Lyon hypertrophy, psoriasis...

  12. Effect of intra-abdominal hypertension on left ventricular relaxation: a preliminary animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoub, Y; Lorne, E; Maizel, J; Plantefève, G; Massy, Z A; Dupont, H; Slama, M

    2012-02-01

    In the intensive care unit, intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is a frequently encountered, life-threatening condition. The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the effect of IAH on left ventricular (LV) relaxation (i.e. the active phase of diastole). Seven male rabbits were anaesthetized before mechanical ventilation. A 20 mm Hg increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) was then induced by intraperitoneal infusion of 1.5% glycine solution. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded and the relaxation time constant tau (considered to be the best index of left ventricle relaxation) was calculated. All haemodynamic measurements were recorded at baseline and then after induction of IAH. A 20 mm Hg increase in IAP was not followed by a significant change in arterial pressure, but was associated with increases in central venous pressure (from 2 [-2 to 6] to 7 [-2 to 12] mm Hg, P= 0.03), LV end-diastolic pressure (from 7 [6-8] to 15 [11-19] mm Hg, P= 0.04) and the relaxation time constant tau (from 16 [14-18] to 43 [34-52] ms, P= 0.048). In this animal study, a 20 mm Hg increase in IAP impaired LV relaxation. Further studies are necessary to identify the causes of this impairment.

  13. Multiple opiate receptors in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1986-03-01

    The characteristics of ..mu.., delta and kappa -opiate receptors in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were determined using the receptor binding assays. The ligands used were /sup 3/H-naltrexone (..mu..), /sup 3/H-ethylketocyclazocine (EKC, kappa) and /sup 3/H-Tyr-D-Ser-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr (DSTLE, delta). Since EKC binds to ..mu.. and delta receptors in addition to kappa, the binding was done in the presence of 100 nM each of DAGO and DADLE to suppress ..mu.. and delta sites, respectively. All three ligands bound to brain membranes of WKY rats at a single high affinity site with the following B/sub max/ (fmol/mg protein) and K/sub d/ (nM) values: /sup 3/H-naltrexone (130.5; 0.43) /sup 3/H-EKC (19.8, 1.7) and /sup 3/H-DSTLE (139, 2.5). The binding of /sup 3/H-naltrexone and /sup 3/H-DSTLE in the brain of WKY and SH did not differ. A consistent increase (22%) in B/sub max/ of /sup 3/H-EKC was found in SHR compared to WKY rats. However, the K/sub d/ values did not differ. The increase in B/sub max/ was due to increases in hypothalamus and cortex. It is concluded that SH rats have higher density of kappa-opiate receptors, particularly in hypothalamus and cortex, compared to WKY rats, and that kappa-opiate receptors may be involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension.

  14. Renal and endocrine changes in rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstislavsky, Sergej; Welker, Pia; Frühauf, Jan-Henning

    2006-01-01

    Hypertensive inbred rats (ISIAH; inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension) present with baseline hypertension (>170 mmHg in adult rats), but attain substantially higher values upon mild emotional stress. We aimed to characterize key parameters related to hypertension in ISIAH. Kidneys...... channel-alpha; 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2) were increased. These data suggest enhanced volume conservation by the kidney. Our data define ISIAH as an attractive model for the renal components determining salt and water homeostasis in hypertension. The specific condition of a basally...

  15. Long-Term Low Intensity Physical Exercise Attenuates Heart Failure Development in Aging Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana U. Pagan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise is a strategy to control hypertension and attenuate pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling. The influence of exercise on cardiac remodeling during uncontrolled hypertension is not established. We evaluated the effects of a long-term low intensity aerobic exercise protocol on heart failure (HF development and cardiac remodeling in aging spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Methods: Sixteen month old SHR (n=50 and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=35 rats were divided into sedentary (SED and exercised (EX groups. Rats exercised in treadmill at 12 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for four months. The frequency of HF features was evaluated at euthanasia. Statistical analyses: ANOVA and Tukey or Mann-Whitney, and Goodman test. Results: Despite slightly higher systolic blood pressure, SHR-EX had better functional capacity and lower HF frequency than SHR-SED. Echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging showed no differences between SHR groups. In SHR-EX, however, left ventricular (LV systolic diameter, larger in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, and endocardial fractional shortening, lower in SHR-SED than WKY-SED, had values between those in WKY-EX and SHR-SED not differing from either group. Myocardial function, assessed in LV papillary muscles, showed improvement in SHR-EX over SHR-SED and WKY-EX. LV myocardial collagen fraction and type I and III collagen gene expression were increased in SHR groups. Myocardial hydroxyproline concentration was lower in SHR-EX than SHR-SED. Lysyl oxidase gene expression was higher in SHR-SED than WKY-SED. Conclusion: Exercise improves functional capacity and reduces decompensated HF in aging SHR independent of elevated arterial pressure. Improvement in functional status is combined with attenuation of LV and myocardial dysfunction and fibrosis.

  16. Serum uric acid is associated with new-onset diabetes in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiik, Benedicte P; Larstorp, Anne C K; Høieggen, Aud

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with development of new-onset diabetes (NOD) in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The aim of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that SUA predicts development of NOD in these patients....

  17. [An unusual case of transient ST-segment elevation during hypertensive crisis in a patient with left ventricular hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Alberto; Maggio, Silvia; Maranta, Francesco; Mazzavillani, Monica; Margonato, Alberto; Camici, Paolo G

    2012-10-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old patient with severe left ventricular hypertrophy presenting with acute ST-segment elevation mimicking acute myocardial infarction on ECG during a hypertensive crisis. Unexpectedly, emergency coronary angiography showed no evidence of coronary thrombosis or spasm. Electrocardiographic alterations gradually resolved after lowering blood pressure.

  18. Comparative study of renal sodium transport between ouabain-hypertensive rats and ouabain-nonhypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Heng; Lü Zhuo-ren

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare renal sodium transport, using fractional excretions of lithium(FEii)as a marker of proximal tubule sodium reabsorption, between hypertensive and non-hypertensive ouabaintreated rats and further to elucidate the role of ouabain in pathogenesis of hypertension. Methods:Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighting 180-200 g were randomly divided into normal control group and ouabain treated group. Rats were infused with 1 ml/kg · d normal saline or 27.8 μg/kg · d ouabain intraperitoneally once a day respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate and body weight were recorded weekly. Rats were sacrificed 6 weeks after treatment. Blood and 24-hour urine sample were collected to measure the serum and urinary concentration of sodium, trace lithium and creatinine. Endogenous creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), fractional excretions of sodium (FENa), fractional excretions of lithium (FELi) and fractional reabsorption of sodium in the postproximal tubules (FDRNa) were calculated.Ouabain levels of plasma and renal tissue, plasma renin activity, angiotensin Ⅱ and aldosterone concentration were determined. Results: 65% of the ouabain-treated rats achieved significantly higher SBP after 4weeks, compared with that of the saline control groups or self baseline (P<0. 01). But in the other 35%of the ouabain-treated rats, their SBP was similar with control group during the experiment (P>0. 05).The body weight, heart rate and food intake between the 3 groups were no significant differences (P>0.05). FELi and FDRNa were significantly lower in ouabain-hypertensive group compared with ouabain-nonhypertensive group and control group(P<0.01 and P<0.05). The FELi and FDRNa of ouabain-nonhypertensive groups were similar with control group(P>0.05). Ccr and FENa were comparable between the 3 groups (P>0. 05). Plasma and renal tissue ouabain levels, plasma renin activity, angiotensin Ⅱ and aldosterone contents in ouabain-hypertensive rats were

  19. Blood pressure reduction by CCl/sub 4/ in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyke, H.F.

    1988-07-01

    It has been established that the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) presents an experimental model whose pathogenesis resembles that of essential hypertension in man. A great advantage of this model is that the entire life history of this disease is compressed within a time frame of two years. Many antihypertensive agents have been found effective in reducing blood pressure in SHR animals. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl/sub 4/) treatment has resulted in blood pressure reduction and subsequent elevation after discontinuing treatment in Grollman renal hypertensive rats and in endocrine hypertensive rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), could be modified by CCl/sub 4/ treatment and to evaluate its effects on kidney and liver tissue.

  20. Hypotensive action of prolactin in rats with spontaneous hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryszka, F; Ludyga, K; Strokowska, M; Krupej, J; Gaus, I; Zych, F

    1984-01-01

    Rats (SHR) weighing 240 +/- 10 g with spontaneous hypertension were given intraperitoneally porcine prolactin in doses from 0.2 to 2000 micrograms/kg of body weight. The systolic pressure was measured before hormone administration and 2 hours after it. It was found that prolactin in doses of 200 to 2000 micrograms/kg caused a decrease of the systolic pressure by 22%. The dose of 20 micrograms/kg decreased this pressure by 9% and the dose of 0.2 microgram/kg by 7.9%.

  1. NKCC2 is activated in Milan hypertensive rats contributing to the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmosino, Monica; Rizzo, Federica; Ferrari, Patrizia; Torielli, Lucia; Ferrandi, Mara; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2011-08-01

    The Milan hypertensive strain of rats (MHS) develops hypertension as a consequence of the increased tubular Na(+) reabsorption sustained by enhanced expression and activity of the renal tubular Na-K-ATPase. To verify whether the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) is involved in the maintenance of hypertension in MHS rats, we have analysed the phosphorylation state and the activation of NKCC2 in Milan rats. Western blotting and immunofluorescence experiments were performed using specific antibodies against the regulatory phospho-threonines in the NKCC2 N terminus (R5 antibody). The phosphorylation levels of NKCC2 were significantly increased in the kidney of MHS rats. Moreover, the administration of furosemide in vivo decreased the blood pressure and increased the urine output and natriuresis in MHS rats demonstrating the actual involvement of NKCC2 activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension in this strain of rats. The up-regulation of NKCC2 activity is most probably mediated by a STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) phosphorylation at serine-325 since it was significantly increased in MHS rats. Interestingly, aldosterone treatment caused an increase in NKCC2 phosphorylation in NKCC2-expressing MDCK cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated an increase in the activity of NKCC2 along the TAL that significantly contributes to the increase in systemic blood pressure in MHS rats. The elevated plasma levels of aldosterone, found in MHS rats, may influence Na(+) balance through a SPAK-dependent regulation of NKCC2 accounting for the maintenance of the hypertensive state in MHS rats.

  2. The effect of recombinant aminopeptidase A (APA) on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masakazu; Hattori, Akira; Numaguchi, Yasushi; Ma, Xiuyang; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Sigehiko

    2009-09-01

    We have tested the effects of aminopeptidase A (APA), MgSO(4) and various conventional antihypertensive drugs on hypertension in pregnant spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and examined the effects on both fetal heart and kidney. We used recombinant human APA, which has been recently shown to work as an antihypertensive agent in SHRs (n=5). Each drug was administered from gestational day 10 to day 20 and each dose was increased daily up to 10 fold until the end of treatment except for MgSO(4) (n=5 per each group). Blood pressure (BP) was monitored and fetal kidneys and heart were histologically examined. The antihypertensive effects of the drugs were in the following order: hydralazine>aminopeptidase A and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), candesartan>MgSO(4) and methyldopa. Microscopic examination showed that fetal exposure to candesartan is associated with poor proximal tubular differentiation in the kidney and that to MgSO(4) is associated with poor blood vessel formation in the heart, respectively. Our present study showed that APA is one of the candidates for antihypertensive agents in hypertension during pregnancy.

  3. Hypertension-induced peripheral neuropathy and the combined effects of hypertension and diabetes on nerve structure and function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Joshua A; Jolivalt, Corinne G; Goor, Jared; Mizisin, Andrew P; Calcutt, Nigel A

    2012-10-01

    Diabetic neuropathy includes damage to neurons, Schwann cells and blood vessels. Rodent models of diabetes do not adequately replicate all pathological features of diabetic neuropathy, particularly Schwann cell damage. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that combining hypertension, a risk factor for neuropathy in diabetic patients, with insulin-deficient diabetes produces a more pertinent model of peripheral neuropathy. Behavioral, physiological and structural indices of neuropathy were measured for up to 6 months in spontaneously hypertensive and age-matched normotensive rats with or without concurrent streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Hypertensive rats developed nerve ischemia, thermal hyperalgesia, nerve conduction slowing and axonal atrophy. Thinly myelinated fibers with supernumerary Schwann cells indicative of cycles of demyelination and remyelination were also identified along with reduced nerve levels of myelin basic protein. Similar disorders were noted in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, except that thinly myelinated fibers were not observed and expression of myelin basic protein was normal. Superimposing diabetes on hypertension compounded disorders of nerve blood flow, conduction slowing and axonal atrophy and increased the incidence of thinly myelinated fibers. Rats with combined insulinopenia, hyperglycemia and hypertension provide a model for diabetic neuropathy that offers an opportunity to study mechanisms of Schwann cell pathology and suggests that hypertension may contribute to the etiology of diabetic neuropathy.

  4. Effect of irbesartan combined with Xinkeshu capsule on blood pressure and left cardiac function in patients with hypertension merged with left ventricular hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-Qing Cui; Li-Cha Kong; Xin Ling; Min Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of irbesartan combined with Xinkeshu capsule on the blood pressure, and left cardiac structure and function in patients with hypertension merged with left ventricular hypertrophy.Methods:A total of 100 patients with hypertension merged with left ventricular hypertrophy who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2015 to December, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the experiment group and the control group with 50 cases in each group. The patients in the experiment group were given irbesartan combined with Xinkeshu capsule, while the patients in the control group were only given irbesartan. A continuous 6-month treatment was regarded as one course. The blood pressure before and after treatment in the two groups was compared. The color Doppler ultrasound cardiograph was used to detect LVSD, LVDPWT, LVDD, LVMI, LVEF, SV, and CO.Results:The difference of SBP and DBP before operation between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). SBP and DBP after treatment were significantly reduced (P<0.05). SBP and DBP after treatment in the experiment group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). LVDPWT, LVDD, LVM, and LVSD after treatment in the experiment group were significantly lower than those in the control group at the same stage (P<0.05). LVEF, SV, and CO after treatment in the experiment group were significantly higher than those in the control group at the same stage (P<0.05).Conclusions:Irbesartan combined with Xinkeshu capsule can effectively control the blood pressure in patients with hypertension merged with left ventricular hypertrophy, improve the myocardial remodeling, and reverse the left ventricular hypertrophy, with a significant effect.

  5. Cinnamaldehyde Attenuates Cataractogenesis via Restoration of Hypertension and Oxidative Stress in Fructose-Fed Hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have revealed that systemic hypertension is strongly associated with cataractogenesis. However, the pathophysiology and treatment is often unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-cataractogenic effect of cinnamaldehyde (CA, a natural organic compound, in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Methods: The rats were divided into six groups. For six weeks, the normal group received a suspension of 0.5% carboxy methyl cellulose (10 mL/kg/day, p.o. while five other groups received a 10% (w/v fructose solution in their drinking water to induce hypertension. By the end of the third week hypertension had been induced in all the animals receiving fructose. From the beginning of the fourth week to the end of the sixth week, one of those five groups (control continued to receive only 10% (w/v fructose solution, one group (standard received ramipril (1 mg/kg/day, p.o. plus 10% (w/v fructose solution, and three groups (experimental received CA at doses of 20, 30, and 40 mg/kg/day p.o., plus 10% (w/v fructose solution. Blood pressure was measured weekly using a non-invasive blood pressure apparatus. After six weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the anti-cataractogenic effects on the eye lenses were evaluated. Results: Administration of fructose elevated both the systolic and the diastolic blood pressures, which were significantly reduced by CA at all dose levels. In the control group, a significant increase in the malonaldehyde (MDA level and decreases in the total protein, Ca2+adenosine triphosphate (ATPase activity, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels, as compared to the normal group, were observed. Administration of CA at all doses significantly restored the enzymatic, non-enzymatic, antioxidants, total protein, and Ca2+ATPase levels, but decreased the MDA level, as compared to the control group. Conclusion: The present study revealed that CA modulated the antioxidant

  6. Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypertension Triglycerides Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Hypertension March 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Robert ... Additional Resources MedlinePlus (NIH) Mayo Clinic What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, ...

  7. Electroacupuncture Delays Hypertension Development through Enhancing NO/NOS Activity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Suk Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Using spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, this study investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA could reduce early stage hypertension by examining nitric oxide (NO levels in plasma and nitric oxide synthase (NOS levels in the mesenteric resistance artery. EA was applied to the acupuncture point Governor Vessel 20 (GV20 or to a non-acupuncture point in the tail twice weekly for 3 weeks under anesthesia. In conscious SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats, blood pressure was determined the day after EA treatment by the tail-cuff method. We measured plasma NO concentration, and evaluated endothelial NO syntheses (eNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS protein expression in the mesenteric artery. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were lower after 3 weeks of GV20 treatment than EA at non-acupuncture point and no treatment control in SHR. nNOS expression by EA was significantly different between both WKY and no treatment SHR control, and EA at GV20 in SHR. eNOS expression was significantly high in EA at GV 20 compared with no treatment control. In conclusion, EA could attenuate the blood pressure elevation of SHR, along with enhancing NO/NOS activity in the mesenteric artery in SHR.

  8. Proteomic response to acupuncture treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Lai

    Full Text Available Previous animal and clinical studies have shown that acupuncture is an effective alternative treatment in the management of hypertension, but the mechanism is unclear. This study investigated the proteomic response in the nervous system to treatment at the Taichong (LR3 acupoint in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Unanesthetized rats were subject to 5-min daily acupuncture treatment for 7 days. Blood pressure was monitored over 7 days. After euthanasia on the 7(th day, rat medullas were dissected, homogenized, and subject to 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF analysis. The results indicate that blood pressure stabilized after the 5th day of acupuncture, and compared with non-acupoint treatment, Taichong-acupunctured rat's systolic pressure was reduced significantly (P<0.01, though not enough to bring blood pressure down to normal levels. The different treatment groups also showed differential protein expression: the 2D images revealed 571 ± 15 proteins in normal SD rats' medulla, 576 ± 31 proteins in SHR's medulla, 597 ± 44 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing Taichong, and 616 ± 18 proteins in medulla of SHR after acupuncturing non-acupoint. In the medulla of Taichong group, compared with non-acupoint group, seven proteins were down-regulated: heat shock protein-90, synapsin-1, pyruvate kinase isozyme, NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-2, protein kinase C inhibitor protein 1, ubiquitin hydrolase isozyme L1, and myelin basic protein. Six proteins were up-regulated: glutamate dehydrogenase 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione S-transferase M5, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 1, DJ-1 protein and superoxide dismutase. The altered expression of several proteins by acupuncture has been confirmed by ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The results indicate an increase in antioxidant enzymes in the medulla of the SHRs subject to acupuncture, which may provide partial explanation for the antihypertensive effect of acupuncture

  9. Low-Intensity physical activity beneficially alters the ultrastructural renal morphology of spontaneously hypertensive rats

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    Angélica Beatriz Garcia-Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Kidney disorders can cause essential hypertension, which can subsequently cause renal disease. High blood pressure is also common among those with chronic kidney disease; moreover, it is a well-known risk factor for a more rapid progression to kidney failure. Because hypertension and kidney function are closely linked, the present study aimed to observe the beneficial effects of low-intensity physical activity on structural and ultrastructural renal morphology and blood pressure in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHOD: Male Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were randomly allocated into four groups: sedentary or exercised Wistar-Kyoto and sedentary or exercised spontaneously hypertensive rats. The exercise lasted 20 weeks and consisted of treadmill training for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week. RESULTS: The exercised, spontaneously hypertensive rats showed a significant blood pressure reduction of 26%. The body masses of the Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive strains were significantly different. There were improvements in some of the renal structures of the animals treated with physical activity: (i the interdigitations of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; (ii the basal membrane of the proximal and distal convoluted tubules; and (iii in the basal membrane, slit diaphragm and pedicels of the glomerular filtration barrier. The spontaneously hypertensive rats also showed a decreased expression of connexin-43. CONCLUSION: Physical exercise could be a therapeutic tool for improving kidney ultrastructure and, consequently, renal function in hypertensive individuals.

  10. Peptides-Derived from Thai Rice Bran Improves Endothelial Function in 2K-1C Renovascular Hypertensive Rats

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    Orachorn Boonla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have investigated complementary medical approaches to the treatment of hypertension using dietary supplements. Rice bran protein hydrolysates extracted from rice is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to investigate the vasorelaxation and antihypertensive effects of peptides-derived from rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP in a rat model of two kidney-one clip (2K-1C renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by placing a silver clip around the left renal artery, whereas sham-operated rats were served as controls. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were intragastrically administered with RBP (50 mg kg−1 or 100 mg kg−1 or distilled water continuously for six weeks. We observed that RBP augmented endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in all animals. Administration of RBP to 2K-1C rats significantly reduced blood pressure and decreased peripheral vascular resistance compared to the sham operated controls (p < 0.05. Restoration of normal endothelial function and blood pressure was associated with reduced plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, decreased superoxide formation, reduced plasma malondialdehyde and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite (p < 0.05. Up-regulation of eNOS protein and down-regulation of p47phox protein were found in 2K-1C hypertensive rats-treated with RBP. Our results suggest that RBP possesses antihypertensive properties which are mainly due to the inhibition of ACE, and its vasodilatory and antioxidant activity.

  11. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

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    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  12. Degenerative effects in rat eyes after experimental ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scarsella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was used to evaluate the degenerative effects on the retina and eye-cup sections after experimental induction of acute ocular hypertension on animal models. In particular, vascular events were directly focused in this research in order to assess the vascular remodeling after transient ocular hypertension on rat models. After local anaesthesia by administration of eye drops of 0.4% oxibuprocaine, 16 male adult Wistar rats were injected in the anterior chamber of the right eye with 15 µL of methylcellulose (MTC 2% in physiological solution. The morphology and the vessels of the retina and eye-cup sections were examined in animals sacrificed 72 h after induction of ocular hypertension. In retinal fluorescein angiographies (FAGs, by means of fluorescein isothiocyanate-coniugated dextran (FITC, the radial venules showed enlargements and increased branching, while the arterioles appeared focally thickened. The length and size of actually perfused vessels appeared increased in the whole superficial plexus. In eye-cup sections of MTC-injected animals, in deep plexus and connecting layer there was a bigger increase of vessels than in controls. Moreover, the immunolocalization of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP revealed its increased expression in internal limiting membrane and ganglion cell layer, as well as its presence in Müller cells. Finally, the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was found to be especially expressed by neurones of ganglion cell layer, both in control and in MTC-injected eyes. The data obtained in this experimental model on the interactions among glia, vessels and neurons should be useful to evaluate if also in glaucomatous patients the activation of vessel-adjacent glial cells might play key roles in following neuronal dysfunction.

  13. [Cardiohemodynamics and efficiency Frank-Starling mechanism in spontaneously hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorofeieva, N O; Kuz'menko, M O; Shimans'ka, T V; Sagach, V F

    2012-01-01

    We studied cardiohemodynamics and efficiency Frank-Starling mechanism in 6-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched Wistar rats, using pressure-volume (PV) conductance catheter system (Millar Instruments, Houston, TX) to evaluate systolic and diastolic function in vivo. Rats were anesthetized with urethane. Cardiohemodynamics analyzed using PVAN 3.6 (Millar Instruments). We found that systolic and diastolic function of the heart in spontaneously hypertensive rats were lower, than in controls. We have shown, inhibition of the efficiency Frank-Starling mechanism, increasing arterial stiffness in spontaneously hypertensive rats. It's shown, less efficiency heart work, with more energy and more oxygen consumption in spontaneously hypertensive rats, may be associated with increasing arterial stiffness and decrease functional reserve of the heart.

  14. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  15. Pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure in heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: pathophysiology and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Vincent F M; Brutsaert, Dirk L; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2012-05-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure are common findings in patients suffering from heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension related to heart failure. HFpEF is a clinical syndrome with increasing prevalence and a mortality rate similar to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Because the pathophysiology and even the definition of this disease are still controversial, we will first outline the current conceptual framework around heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Next, we will outline our current knowledge on the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension related to left ventricular failure and diastolic dysfunction. Diastolic dysfunction induces pulmonary hypertension through passive transmission of elevated end diastolic pressures, reactive pulmonary vasoconstriction, and vascular remodeling. Eventually, right ventricular failure develops that can further potentiate left ventricular failure because of their close mechanical, cellular, and biochemical integration. Exciting new studies have led to an increased understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and indicate that pulmonary hypertension in heart failure may be treatable.

  16. Assessment value of ECG Cornell voltage for left ventricle hypertrophy in essential hypertension patients and its correlation with cardiovascular events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Qin Hu; Mei Zhang; Qian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the assessment value of ECG Cornell voltage for left ventricle hypertrophy in essential hypertension patients and its correlation with cardiovascular events. Methods:A total of 118 cases of patients with essential hypertension who received inpatients treatment in our hospital from March 2013 to March 2015 were selected as the research subjects. According to ECG baseline, all included patients were divided into Cornell voltage increase group (increase ≥25%) 47 cases, no Cornell voltage change group (change < 25%) 36 cases and Cornell voltage decrease group (decrease ≥25%) 35 cases. Ultrasonic left heart indexes and serum indexes of three groups were compared, and the correlation between Cornell voltage and cardiovascular events was further analyzed.Results: Ultrasonic LVEDD, LVMI, IVSd, PWd and RWT values as well as serum uric acid, IMD, CysC, FGF23 and Hcy values of Cornell voltage decrease group were lower than those of no Cornell voltage change group and Cornell voltage increase group; ECG Cornell voltage levels in patients with essential hypertension were positively correlated with the incidence rate of cardiovascular events such as acute coronary events, sudden cardiac death and acute stroke.Conclusion: ECG Cornell voltage index can better identify the degree of left ventricle hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension, and can be used as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events.

  17. Roles of HDAC2 and HDAC8 in Cardiac Remodeling in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats and the Effects of Valproic Acid Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui-Fang; Cao, Shan-Shan; Fang, Wei-Jin; Song, Ying; Luo, Xue-Ting; Wang, Hong-Yun; Wang, Jian-Gang

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that histone deacetylases (HDACs) activity is associated with the development and progression of cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we investigated the effects of a HDACs inhibitor, valproic acid sodium (VPA), on cardiac remodeling and the differential expression of HDACs in left ventricles (LVs) of renovascular hypertensive rats. Renovascular hypertension was induced in rats by the two-kidney two-clip (2K2C) method. Cardiac remodeling, heart function and the differential expression of HDACs were examined at different weeks after 2K2C operation. The effects of VPA on cardiac remodeling, the expressions of HDACs, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in LV were investigated. The expressions of atrial natriuretic factor, β-myosin heavy chain, HDAC2 and HDAC8 increased in LV of 2K2C rats at 4, 8, 12 weeks after operation. Cardiac dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were markedly attenuated by VPA treatment in 2K2C rats. Further studies revealed that VPA inhibited the expressions of HDAC2, HDAC8, TGF-β1 and CTGF in LV of 2K2C rats. In summary, these data indicate that HDAC2 and HDAC8 play a key role in cardiac remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats and that VPA attenuates hypertension and cardiac remodeling. The effect of VPA is possibly exerted via decreasing HDAC2, HDAC8, TGF-β1 and CTGF expressions in LV of 2K2C rats.

  18. 西地那非抑制高肺血流肺动脉高压大鼠肺血管重构和上调肺血管Kv1.5mRNA表达%Sildenafil inhibits pulmonary vascular remodeling and up-regulates voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.5 mRNA expression in secondary pulmonary hypertension due to left-to-right shunt in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡蕾; 谈林华; 林隆; 何小军; 范佳杰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of sildenafil on pulmonary vascular remodeling and voltage-gated potassium channeI Kv1.5 mRNA expression of pulmonary vasculature in secondary pulmonary hypertension due to left-to-right shunt in rats.Methods Male twenty-seven SD rats were randomly divided into sham group(n=9),shunt group(n=9)and shunt+sildenafil group(n=9).A left-to-right shunt was established on shunt group and shunt+sildenafil group rats by making fistula between abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava.Rats of the shunt+sildenafil group were administered sildenafil by gastric gavage at a dose of 10 mg·kg-1·d-1;whereas the rats of the sham group and the shunt group were fed with the same amount of saline. Eleven weeks later,mean pulmonary artery pressure(mPAP)and systolic pulmonary artery pressure(sPAP)were measured.The ratio of right ventricular mass to left ventricular plus septal mass[Rv/(LV+S)]was alao calculated and taken as a marker of the severity of right ventricular hypertrophy.The pathological changes of pulmonary vasculature were evaluated by calculating the relative medial thickness(RMT) of middle and small pulmonary muscularized arteries.The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.5 mRNA expression of pulmonary vasculature was qnantifieel using real-time PCIL Results Compared with the rats of sham grouD.the rats of shunt group had higher mPAP,sPAP,RV/(LV+S)ratio,and RMT of middie and small pulmonary muscularized(P0.05).Conclusions Sidenafil inhibits pulmonary vascular remodeling and up-regulates Kv1.5 mRNA expression in rats with secondary pulmonary hypertension due to left-to-right shunt.%目的 观察高肺血流肺动脉高压大鼠肺血管结构重建和肺血管电压依从钾通道Kv1.5mRNA表达变化,探讨口服西地那非对高肺血流肺动脉高压大鼠肺血管重构及肺血管电压依从钾通道Kv1.5mRNA表达的影响.方法 将27只雄性SD大鼠随机分为对照组(n=9)、分流组(n=9)、分流+西地那非组(n=9).后两

  19. Hemodynamic effects of dilevalol in patients with systemic hypertension and left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinhal, V; Kulkarni, A; Pozderac, R; Cubbon, J

    1989-06-05

    Hemodynamic and left ventricular function parameters were measured in patients with mild to moderate hypertension and compromised left ventricular function who were given dilevalol, an antihypertensive agent with selective beta 2-agonism and nonselective beta-antagonist activity. After a 2- to 3-week placebo washout period, 9 patients were given dilevalol titrated upward from 100 to 600 mg twice daily over a 7-week period to achieve a supine diastolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg with a decrease of greater than or equal to 10 mm Hg from baseline. Multigated radionuclide ventriculography and systolic and diastolic time intervals were performed after the pretreatment placebo washout, at the end of 2 weeks' maintenance dosing, and after a 7- to 10-day post-treatment discontinuation and placebo washout period. At an average daily dose of dilevalol, 444 mg, heart rate at rest decreased significantly (p less than 0.01) during treatment and increased during post-treatment placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures at rest decreased significantly (p less than 0.01) during treatment and increased during post-treatment placebo. At maximal exercise, changes in blood pressure and heart rate were significantly blunted (p less than 0.05) during treatment. Ejection fraction at rest increased significantly (p less than 0.01) during treatment, with no significant change occurring during exercise, and decreased during post-treatment placebo. Preejection period decreased significantly during treatment (p less than 0.005) and increased during post-treatment placebo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY REGRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Tarlovskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate by modelling the economic benefits of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH regression in patients with arterial hypertension (HT due to therapy with fixed combination of valsartan/amlodipine.  Material and methods. 20 patients (15 females and 5 males, aged 18 to 70 years with essential HT accompanied by metabolic syndrome with a history of previous ineffective antihypertensive therapy were included into the study. All patients were treated with fixed combination of amlodipine/valsartan in doses of 5/160 and 10/160 mg depending on blood pressure (BP level. Treatment duration was 24 weeks. Changes in BP level, LVH regression were assessed. Economic evaluation was performed on the basis of modelling with the specialized software Decision Tree 4.xla. Results. Effect of fixed amlodipine/valsartan combination therapy on LVH was used to estimate treatment effectiveness and to build the model. Patients were distributed according to left ventricular (LV mass (at baseline and after 24 weeks of therapy. Significant decrease in LV mass from 205.8±50.4 to 181.9±45.1 g (p<0.05 was revealed. The model took into account economic and frequency factors for 10 year prognosis: this therapy prevents 36 deaths, 6 strokes, 24 myocardial infarction per 1000 patients. Absence of need in treatment of these prevented events can save 2 516 772.42 RUR for every 1 000 patients. It would reduce the total costs per patient during 10 years. Conclusion. Treatment with amlodipine/valsartan single pill combination has not only clinical advantages, but also pharmacoeconomic benefits. This combination reduces risk of acute myocardial infarction and death more effectively. Treatment with fixed valsartan/amlodipine combination saves maximum years of life with less cost during 10 years. Despite of higher pharmacotherapy costs, fixed valsartan/amlodipine combination reduces total costs due to prevention of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events.

  1. N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide in arterial hypertension--a marker for left ventricular dimensions and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per; Boesen, Mikael; Olsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    and preserved LV function demonstrated that NT-proBNP was a very strong prognostic marker, especially combined with a history of cardiovascular disease. Patients with high NT-proBNP and known cardiovascular disease had a seven-fold increase in CV events compared to patients with low NT-proBNP and no CV disease...... is present in arterial hypertension, risk factor evaluation would be easier. In 36 patients with arterial hypertension, electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy and preserved left ventricular function, NT-proBNP was eight-fold higher than in healthy subjects. The log NT-proBNP correlated with LV mass index (R=0...

  2. Left Ventricular Diastolic Function Assessment of a Heterogeneous Cohort of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F.; Lopez Menendez, Francisco R.; Palm, Denada; Lopez-Candales, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is known to trigger right ventricular (RV) remodeling that might compromise left ventricular (LV) filling due to inter-ventricular interdependence. In this study, we aimed to examine standard echocardiographic measurements of LV diastolic function in PAH patients. Methods In this retrospective study, we identified clinical as well as complete echocardiographic data from 128 chronic PAH patients to fully assess LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) using standard recommended Doppler guidelines. Accordingly, patients were divided into three groups: LVDD 0, LVDD 1 and LVDD 2. Results The mean age of the studied population was 57 ± 14 years with a mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) of 55 ± 21 mm Hg. A total of 36% of the study patients had normal LV diastolic function. However, 64% had LVDD with LVDD stage 1 being the most common (48%). In terms of echocardiographic data, significant differences were found among the three LVDD groups in regards to PASP, LV end systolic and diastolic volumes, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, right ventricular fractional area change as well as many other tissue Doppler imaging parameters. Finally, just age and PASP were predictors of abnormal LV diastolic function (P < 0.05). Conclusions Impaired relaxation is a common abnormality in PAH patients. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether LVDD alters prognosis or is related to changes in the symptomatic profile of this group of patients. PMID:28270896

  3. Effects of PDE type 5 inhibitors on Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Resistant Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cabral de Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistant hypertension (RHTN is a multifactorial disease characterized by blood pressure (BP levels above goal (140/90 mmHg in spite of the concurrent use of three or more antihypertensive drugs of different classes. Moreover, it is well known that RHTN subjects have high prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD, which leads to increased risk of heart failure progression. This review gathers data from studies evaluating the effects of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5 inhibitors (administration of acute sildenafil and short-term tadalafil on diastolic function, biochemical and hemodynamic parameters in patients with RHTN. Acute study with sildenafil treatment found that inhibition of PDE-5 improved hemodynamic parameters and diastolic relaxation. In addition, short-term study with the use of tadalafil demonstrated improvement of LVDD, cGMP and BNP-32 levels, regardless of BP reduction. No endothelial function changes were observed in the studies. The findings of acute and short-term studies revealed potential therapeutic effects of IPDE-5 drugs on LVDD in RHTN patients.

  4. The protective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 against hypertension target-organ damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a number of medicines are available for the management of hypertension, the organ damage induced by hypertension is not resolved. The aim of this study was to investigate the protection of ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1 against vascular remodeling and organ damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Methods Male SHR were treated with 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg Rg1 through intraperitoneal injection per day for 1 month. SHR or Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY receiving vehicle (saline was used as control. Blood pressure detection and pathological stain, transmission electron microscope, immunohistochemical assay were used to elucidate the protection of Rg1. Results Blood pressures were not different between control SHR rats and Rg1 treated SHR rats, but Rg1 improved the aortic outward remodeling by lowering the lumen diameter and reducing the media thickness according the histopathological and ultrastructural detections. Rg1 also protected the retinal vessels against inward remodeling detected by immunohistochemical assay. Furthermore, Rg1 attenuated the target heart and kidney damage with improvement on cardiac and glomerular structure. Conclusions These results suggested that Rg1 held beneficial effects on vascular structure and further protected against the organ-damage induced by hypertension. These findings also paved a novel and promising approach to the treatment of hypertensive complications.

  5. [The somato-sympathetic and somato-somatic reflexes in the spontaneous hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbin, Iu I; Tsyrlin, V A

    2014-01-01

    In anaesthetized normotensive (Wistar) and hypertensive (SHR) rats, sympathetic and somatic reflexes were studied before and after cervical spinal cord transection. Single shock stimulation of a peripheral afferent nerve of brachial plexus produced reflex discharges in the cervical sympathetic trunk and the radial nerve. In rats with intact brain stem, evoked response in the cervical sympathetic trunk was composed of three components, but evoked response in radial nerve consisted of two components. The total somato-sympathetic reflex in hypertensive rats was more on 54 % than the somato-sympathetic reflex in normotensive rats. The total somato-somatic reflex in hypertensive rats was more on 70 % than the somato-somatic reflex in normotensive rats. In rats with transected brain stem, evoked response in the cervical sympathetic trunk was composed of two components, but evoked response in radial nerve consisted of one component. After neuraxis transection the total sympathetic and somatic reflexes in normotensive rats decreased by 85 and 83 %, respectively. The total sympathetic and somatic reflexes in hypertensive rats decreased by 88 and 84 %, respectively. However, the peak value of evoked discharges in sympathetic and somatic nerves were more in hypertensive rats than in normotensive rats. Suprasegmental and spinal mechanisms responsible for the augmentation of both sympathetic and somatic reflexes are discussed.

  6. Independent influence of overweight and obesity on the regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Huang, Feifei; Chen, Jie; Cai, Qingqing; Wang, Tong; Zou, Rong; Zuo, Zhiyi; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the role of overweight and obesity in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) of hypertensive patients is controversial. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to evaluate the influence of overweight and obesity on LVH regression in the hypertensive population.Twenty-eight randomized controlled trials comprising 2403 hypertensive patients (mean age range: 43.8-66.7 years) were identified. Three groups were divided according to body mass index: normal weight, overweight, and obesity groups.Compared with the normal-weight group, LVH regression in the overweight and obesity groups was more obvious with less reduction of systolic blood pressure after antihypertensive therapies (P regressing LVH in overweight and obese hypertensive patients (19.27 g/m, 95% confidence interval [15.25, 23.29], P regression was found in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) group and in relatively young patients (40-60 years' old) group (P Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for LVH in hypertensive patients. Intervention at an early age and monitoring by ABPM may facilitate therapy-induced LVH regression in overweight and obese hypertensive patients.

  7. Location and Quantification of iNOS in Testis of Dahl Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LIU; Rui-li LI; Huan-Ying ZHAO; Xiu-Ling YIN

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of hypertension on inducible isoform of nitrogen oxide syntheses (iNOS) expression and reproductive function in testes of Dahl hypertensive rats Method The iNOS expression in Dahl rat testes was localized and assayed semi-quan titatively by immunohistochemistry.Results iNOS was expressed and localized predominantly in the cytoplasm of Sertoli and Leydig cells in both normal and hypertensive rats. However, in the early stage of hypertension, the expression of iNOS was stronger in testes than that of the normal rats (P<0. 05). With the development, the staining intensity of iNOS decreased gradually in the late stage. Moreover, the level of testosterone decreased with the increase of blood pressure. But in vitro, there was no difference in the expression of iNOS between cultured Sertoli cells from normal rats and hypertensive rats.Conclusion High-salt food induced hypertension in Dahl rats, which was characterized by the high expression of iNOS in rat Sertoli and Leydig cells; excessive NO produced by iNOS reduced the level of testosterone in testicle artery, and may thus affect the reproductive function of rats testis.

  8. Perinatally administered losartan augments renal ACE2 expression but not cardiac or renal Mas receptor in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Jan; Olvedy, Michael; Ochodnicka-Mackovicova, Katarina; Kruzliak, Peter; Cacanyiova, Sona; Kristek, Frantisek; Krenek, Peter; Ochodnicky, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Since the identification of the alternative angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a new complex target for a pharmacological intervention. We investigated the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney during the development of hypertension and its perinatal treatment with losartan in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Expressions of RAS genes were studied by the RT-PCR in the left ventricle and kidney of rats: normotensive Wistar, untreated SHR, SHR treated with losartan since perinatal period until week 9 of age (20 mg/kg/day) and SHR treated with losartan only until week 4 of age and discontinued until week 9. In the hypertrophied left ventricle of SHR, cardiac expressions of Ace and Mas were decreased while those of AT1 receptor (Agtr1a) and Ace2 were unchanged. Continuous losartan administration reduced LV weight (0.43 ± 0.02; P Mas and with an increase in ACE2. Continuous losartan administration lowered blood pressure to control levels (105 ± 3 mmHg; P Mas. Increased renal Ace2, and its further increase by losartan suggests the influence of locally generated Ang-(1-7) in organ response to the developing hypertension in SHRs. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  9. Resveratrol attenuates ovariectomy-induced hypertension and bone loss in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, K; Ikeda, K; Kawai, Y; Yamori, Y

    2000-04-01

    We examined the effect of resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxy stilbene), a phenolic compound found in the skins of most grapes, on blood pressure and bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX), stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Nineteen-week-old female SHRSP were divided into a sham-ovariectomized (sham) group fed a control diet and two OVX groups fed either a control diet (OVX-Cont) or a diet supplemented with resveratrol (5 mg/kg per d; OVX-Resv). Ovariectomy induced significant increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP). Resveratrol lowered the SBP by 15%) by the third week of administration, and this effect was maintained throughout the study. Resveratrol treatment also significantly enhanced endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) in OVX rats. Finally, femur breaking energies measured for the resveratrol-treated (OVX-Resv) group were significantly higher than those of the resveratrol-untreated (OVX-Cont) group. While no significant differences in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus content were found between the femurs of OVX-Cont and OVX-Resv rats, the femur hydroxyproline content in the OVX-Resv group was significantly higher than of the OVX-Cont group. We conclude that, in OVX-SHRSP, resveratrol acts by a similar mechanism to mammalian estrogens, lowering blood pressure by increasing dilatory responses to ACh. The present study also demonstrated that resveratrol was able to prevent ovariectomy-induced decreases in femoral bone strength.

  10. Genetic architecture of Wistar-Kyoto rat and spontaneously hypertensive rat substrains from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang-James, Yanli; Middleton, Frank A; Faraone, Stephen V

    2013-07-02

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been widely used as a model for studies of hypertension and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat, derived from the same ancestral outbred Wistar rat as the SHR, are normotensive and have been used as the closest genetic control for the SHR, although the WKY has also been used as a model for depression. Notably, however, substantial behavioral and genetic differences among the WKY substrains, usually from the different vendors and breeders, have been observed. These differences have often been overlooked in prior studies, leading to inconsistent and even contradictory findings. The complicated breeding history of the SHR and WKY rats and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of the genetic background of different commercial substrains make the selection of control rats a daunting task, even for researchers who are mindful of their genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the genetic relationship of 16 commonly used WKY and SHR rat substrains using genome-wide SNP genotyping data. Our results confirmed a large genetic divergence and complex relationships among the SHR and WKY substrains. This understanding, although incomplete without the genome sequence, provides useful guidance in selecting substrains and helps to interpret previous reports when the source of the animals was known. Moreover, we found two closely related, yet distinct WKY substrains that may provide novel opportunities in modeling psychiatric disorders.

  11. Left ventricular remodeling after experimental myocardial cryoinjury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulla, Michele M; Paliotti, Roberta; Ferrero, Stefano; Braidotti, Paola; Esposito, Arturo; Gianelli, Umberto; Busca, Giuseppe; Cioffi, Ugo; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Magrini, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    The standard coronary ligation, the most studied model of experimental myocardial infarction in rats, is limited by high mortality and produces unpredictable areas of necrosis. To standardize the location and size of the infarct and to elucidate the mechanisms of myocardial remodeling and its progression to heart failure, we studied the functional, structural, and ultrastructural changes of myocardial infarction produced by experimental myocardial cryoinjury. The cryoinjury was successful in 24 (80%) of 30 male adult CD rats. A subepicardial infarct was documented on echocardiograms, with an average size of about 21%. Macroscopic examination reflected closely the stamp of the instrument used, without transition zones to viable myocardium. Histological examination, during the acute setting, revealed an extensive area of coagulation necrosis and hemorrhage in the subepicardium. An inflammatory infiltrate was evident since the 7th hour, whereas the reparative phase started within the first week, with proliferation of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and myocytes. From the 7th day, deposition of collagen fibers was reported with a reparative scar completed at the 30th day. Ultrastructural study revealed vascular capillary damage and irreversible alterations of the myocytes in the acute setting and confirmed the histological findings of the later phases. The damage was associated with a progressive left ventricular (LV) remodeling, including thinning of the infarcted area, hypertrophy of the noninfarcted myocardium, and significant LV dilation. This process started from the 60th day and progressed over the subsequent 120 days period; at 180 days, a significant increase in LV filling pressure, indicative of heart failure, was found. In conclusion, myocardial cryodamage, although different in respect to ischemic damage, causes a standardized injury reproducing the cellular patterns of coagulation necrosis, early microvascular reperfusion, hemorrhage, inflammation

  12. Spontaneously hypertensive rats have more orexin neurons in their medial hypothalamus than normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Liam; Dampney, Bruno W; Carrive, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    What is the central question of this study? Blockade of orexin receptors reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, suggesting that upregulation of orexin signalling underlies the hypertensive phenotype of the SHR. However, it is not known what causes this upregulation. What is the main finding and its importance? Using orexin immunolabelling, we show that SHRs have 20% more orexin neurons than normotensive WKY and Wistar rats in the medial hypothalamus, which is a good match to their blood pressure phenotype. In contrast, there is no such match for the orexin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. Essential hypertension may be linked to an increase in orexin neurons in the medial hypothalamus. The neuropeptide orexin contributes to the regulation of blood pressure as part of its role in the control of arousal during wakefulness and motivated behaviour (including responses to psychological stress). Recent work shows that pharmacological blockade of orexin receptors reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. It is not clear why orexin signalling is upregulated in the SHR, but one possibility is that these animals have more orexin neurons than their normotensive WKY and Wistar relatives. To test this possibility, SHRs, WKY and Wistar male rats (6-16 weeks old) were killed, perfused and their brains sectioned and immunolabelled for orexin A. Labelled neurons were plotted and counted in the six best labelled hemisections (120 μm apart) of each brain. There were significantly more orexin neurons (+20%) in the medial hypothalamus (medial to fornix) of SHRs compared with WKY and Wistar rats (126 ± 4 versus 106 ± 5 and 104 ± 5 per hemisection, respectively, P hypothalamus did not match the blood pressure phenotypes (69 ± 2 versus 50 ± 3 and 76 ± 4, respectively). The results support the idea that orexin signalling is upregulated

  13. Morphological modifications in clitoris and vagina in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, A J; Cao, G; Casabé, A R; Romano, S V; Toblli, J E

    2003-06-01

    We evaluated possible morphological alteration in clitoris and vagina from spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive WKY rats. Clitoris and vagina were processed by Masson's trichrome, anti-alpha-smooth-muscle actin, anticollagen type I (COL I) and type III (COL III), and anti-TGFbeta(1). SHR presented higher amount of clitoral cavernous smooth muscle (CSM), vascular smooth muscle; TGFbeta(1) in clitoral vessel wall; higher wall/lumen ratio in both vaginal and clitoral vessels; and remarkable interstitial fibrosis, expressed by a higher amount in interstitial COL I and III in both clitoris and vagina, compared to WKY rats. Nerve fibers from clitoral and vaginal tissue in SHR showed important fibrosis at perineurium. SHR showed positive correlation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and clitoral CSM; SBP and fibrosis in clitoris; and SBP and COL I and III in clitoris, respectively. Similar findings were observed between SBP and COL I and III in vagina. In conclusion, SHR present morphologic changes in clitoral vessels as well as in clitoral cavernous space, which have a high positive correlation with the high blood pressure level. Moreover, the increase in extracellular matrix affects not only the clitoral and vaginal interstitium but also the nerve structures from both clitoris and vagina.

  14. N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide in arterial hypertension--a marker for left ventricular dimensions and prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Per; Boesen, Mikael; Olsen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In arterial hypertension risk factor evaluation, including LV mass measurements, and risk stratification using risk charts or programs, is generally recommended. In heart failure NT-proBNP has been shown to be a marker of LV dimensions and of prognosis. If the same diagnostic and prognostic value...... is present in arterial hypertension, risk factor evaluation would be easier. In 36 patients with arterial hypertension, electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy and preserved left ventricular function, NT-proBNP was eight-fold higher than in healthy subjects. The log NT-proBNP correlated with LV mass index (R=0...... and preserved LV function demonstrated that NT-proBNP was a very strong prognostic marker, especially combined with a history of cardiovascular disease. Patients with high NT-proBNP and known cardiovascular disease had a seven-fold increase in CV events compared to patients with low NT-proBNP and no CV disease...

  15. Hemodynamic and cardiac effects of chronic eprosartan and moxonidine therapy in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla; Menaouar, Ahmed; Paquette, Pierre-Alexandre; Jankowski, Marek; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Gillis, Marc-Antoine; Shi, Yan-Fen; Calderone, Angelo; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2009-05-01

    The renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems play critical interlinked roles in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and dysfunction. These studies investigated the hemodynamic and cardiac effects of monoblockade and coblockade of renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems. Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (16 weeks old; male; n=12 per group) received the sympatholytic imidazoline compound, moxonidine (2.4 mg/kg per day); the angiotensin-receptor blocker eprosartan (30 mg/kg per day), separately or in combination; or saline vehicle for 8 weeks, SC, via osmotic minipumps. Blood pressure and heart rate were continuously measured by radiotelemetry. After 8 weeks, in vivo cardiac function and structure were measured by transthoracic echocardiography and a Millar conductance catheter, and the rats were then euthanized and blood and heart ventricles collected for various determinations. Compared with vehicle, the subhypotensive dose of moxonidine resulted in lower (P<0.01) heart rate, left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, interleukin 1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and mRNA for natriuretic peptides. Eprosartan reduced pressure (P<0.01), as well as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 44 phosphorylation, Bax/Bcl-2, and collagen I/III, and improved left ventricular diastolic function (P<0.03). Combined treatment resulted in greater reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular hypertrophy, collagen I/III, and inhibited inducible NO synthase and increased endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation, as well as reduced left ventricular anterior wall thickness, without altering the other parameters. Thus, in advanced hypertension complicated with cardiac fibrosis, sympathetic inhibition and angiotensin II blockade resulted in greater reduction in blood pressure and heart rate, inhibition of inflammation, and improved left ventricular pathology but did not add to the benefits of

  16. Phosphorylation of PTEN increase in pathological right ventricular hypertrophy in rats with chronic hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Xin; Shi Yiwei; Yu Wenyan; Xu Jianying; Hu Xiaoyun; Du Yongcheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome ten (PTEN) acts as a convergent nodal signalling point for cardiomyocyte hypertrophy,growth and survival.However,the role of PTEN in cardiac conditions such as right ventricular hypertrophy caused by chronic hypoxic pulmonary,hypertension remains unclear.This study preliminarily discussed the role of PTEN in the cardiac response to increased pulmonary vascular resistance using the hypoxia-induced PH rats.Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 10% oxygen for 1,3,7,14 or 21 days to induce hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy.Right ventricular systolic pressure was measured via catheterization.Hypertrophy index was calculated as the ratio of right ventricular mass to left ventricle plus septum mass.Tissue morphology and fibrosis were measured using hematoxylin,eosin and picrosirius red staining.The expression and phosphorylation levels of PTEN in ventricles were determined by real time PCR and Western blotting.Results Hypoxic exposure of rats resulted in pathological hypertrophy,interstitial fibrosis and remodelling of the right ventricle.The phosphorylation of PTEN increased significantly in the hypertrophic right ventricle compared to the normoxic control group.There were no changes in protein expression in either ventricle.Conclusion Hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension developed pathological right ventricular hypertrophy and remodelling probablv related to an increased phosohorvlation of PTEN.

  17. Protective effect of olmesartan against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Bi, Yan-Wen; Chen, Ke-Biao; Wang, Hong-Yue

    2015-06-01

    Olmesartan, as a new angiotensin II receptor blocker, has shown beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, the effect of olmesartan on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the hypertensive heart has not been investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of olmesartan on I/R injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Experimental groups were designed with a 2×2 factorial design for olmesartan and I/R effects. In the I/R group, the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) was ligated for 40 min followed by a 180-min reperfusion. In the sham group, SHRs underwent the same surgical procedure as the I/R group, with the exception that the suture passed under the LAD without being tightened. In the Olm-I/R group, the SHRs received olmesartan (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks prior to surgery and other procedures were the same as for the I/R group. In the Olm-sham group, the SHRs received olmesartan (5 mg/kg) for 4 weeks prior to surgery and other procedures were the same as for the sham group. Infarct size was measured for the I/R and Olm-I/R groups. Blood pressure (BP), serum creatine kinase (CK), left ventricular mass index (LVMI), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein expression levels and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mRNA expression levels were measured for all four groups. Olmesartan significantly reduced BP and LVMI in the olmesartan-treated SHRs compared with those in the SHRs that were not treated with olmesartan. HMGB1 and HIF-1α expression levels were significantly decreased in the Olm-sham and Olm-I/R groups compared with those in the sham and I/R groups, respectively. The proportional increase in HIF-1α expression due to I/R was greater in the olmesartan-treated rats than in the untreated rats. Serum CK levels were significantly reduced in the Olm-I/R group compared with those in the I/R group. In conclusion, olmesartan ameliorates left ventricular hypotrophy and protects the heart against I

  18. Electrocardiogram and echocardiographic study of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension in a teaching medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Venugopal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is the adaptive mechanism for increased left ventricular (LV stress and is associated with many adverse events. This study was undertaken to study LVH in patients of essential hypertension and to correlate between clinical, electrocardiogram (ECG, and echocardiography (ECHO in the identification of LVH. Materials and Methods: One hundred patients attending the outpatient department and those who were admitted in our teaching institute from January 2013 to June 2014 were the study subjects. All cases of essential hypertension, irrespective of the duration of hypertension and type of treatment received were included in the study. Patients with secondary hypertension, ischemic heart disease/myocardial infarction, ischemic cardiomyopathy, congenital heart disease, and valvular heart disease were excluded. Conclusion: Out of the different ECG criteria, total QRS criteria showed a high sensitivity of 60%. ECG criteria have a high specificity but low sensitivity and hence, have limited use as a screening method. However, in a resource-poor country such as India where ECHO facilities are not available in all rural regions, improved ECG criteria such as total QRS voltage can be recommended as a routine investigation for LVH because of its cost-effectiveness and easy availability despite certain limitations.

  19. Impact of abdominal obesity and ambulatory blood pressure in the diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy in never treated hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José A; Martín, Joaquin; González, Carmen; Pascual, Jose M; Redon, Josep

    2014-03-20

    The principal objective was to assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in hypertensive, never treated patients, depending on adjustment for body surface or height. Secondary objectives were to determine geometric alterations of the left ventricle and to analyze the interdependence of hypertension and obesity to induce LVH. Cross-sectional study that included 750 patients (387 men) aged 47 (13, SD) years who underwent ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) monitoring and echocardiography. The prevalence of LVH was 40.4% (303 patients), adjusted for body surface area (BSA, LVHBSA), and 61.7% (463 patients), adjusted for height(2.7) (LVHheight(2.7)). In a multivariate logistic analysis, systolic BP24h, gender and presence of elevated microalbuminuria were associated with both LVHBSA and LVHheight(2.7). Increased waist circumference was the strongest independent predictor of LVHheight(2.7), but was not associated with LVHBSA. We found a significant interaction between abdominal obesity and systolic BP24h in LVHheight(2.7). Concentric remodelling seems to be the most prevalent alteration of left ventricular geometry in early stages of hypertension (37.5%). The impact of obesity as predictor of LVH in never treated hypertensives is present only when left ventricular mass (LVM) is indexed to height(2.7). Obesity interacts with systolic BP24h in an additive but not merely synergistic manner. Systolic BP24h is the strongest determinant of LVH when indexed for BSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. Barnidipine or Lercanidipine on Echocardiographic Parameters in Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetics with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Derosa; Amedeo Mugellini; Fabrizio Querci; Ivano Franzetti; Rosa Maria Pesce; Angela D’Angelo; Pamela Maffioli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lercanidipine or barnidipine on echocardiographic parameters, in hypertensive, type 2 diabetics with left ventricular hypertrophy. One hundred and forty-four patients were randomized to lercanidipine, 20 mg/day, or barnidipine, 20 mg/day, in addition to losartan, 100 mg/day, for 6 months. We evaluated: blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (...

  1. The changes of serum nitric oxide, angiotensin Ⅱ and superoxide anion in renal artery hypertension rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马向红; 杨万松; 黄体钢; 周丽娟; 倪燕平; 樊振旺

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To study the changes of nitric oxide, angiotensin Ⅱ and superoxide anion in renal artery hypertension pathogenesis. Methods Male Wistar rats weighing 256 -285g were divided into 5 groups randomly, 10 rats of each group. Control group:false operation was made and routine diet was given; Ligature group: left renal artery was ligatured uncompletely and routine diet was given; Ligature + Losartan group:left renal artery was ligatured uncompletely and Losartan ture + L -Arg group: left renal artery was ligatured undrinking water; Ligature + L - Arg + Losartan group: left the drinking water. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and at the end of the experiment. One week after ligature, blood was drawn to determine angiotensin Ⅱ, cGMP, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), O2-, superoxide dismutase (SOD). Results Systolic blood pressure was higher in ligature group than that in control group (p<0.05), systolic blood pressure was much lower in ligature + Losartan group than that in ligature group. Heart rate did not change significantly after experiment (p > 0. 05 ). AngⅡ was higher in ligature group than that in control group, even much higher in ligature + Losartan group (p < 0. 01 ). There was no difference of cGMP in each group (p > 0. 05 ). The concentration of NO was lower in ligature group (p < 0. 05 ), NO was higher in ligature + L - Arg + Losartan group than that in ligature group (p < 0. 05). O2' was higher in ligature group and ligature + L - Arg group than that in control group (p < 0. 05), O2- was lower in ligature + Losartan group than that in ligature group (p <0. 05). The level of SOD was lower in ligature group than that in control group (p < 0.05), higher in ligature + L - Arg group and ligature + L - Arg + Losartan group than that in ligature group (p <0.05). Conclusions AnglⅡ,O2- and NO imbalance play an important role in hypertension pathogenesis, L-Arg and losartan may have protective effect.

  2. Comparative study of the antihypertensive activity of Marrubium vulgare and of the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine in spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bardai, Sanae; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Wibo, Maurice; Morel, Nicole

    2004-08-01

    Water extract of Marrubium vulgare is widely used as antihypertensive treatment in folk medicine. We have compared the effect of 10-week-long treatment with amlodipine or Marrubium water extract on systolic blood pressure (SBP), cardiovascular remodeling and vascular relaxation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both treatments produced similar decrease in SBP. Amlodipine treatment reduced left ventricle, aortic and mesenteric artery weight. Marrubium treatment had a significant antihypertrophic effect in aorta only. Relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) of mesenteric artery was improved by Marrubium but not by amlodipine treatment. These results demonstrate that, in addition to its antihypertensive effect, Marrubium water extract improved the impaired endothelial function in SHR.

  3. Effect of Pinggan-Maitong tables on nitric oxide, endothelin of hypertensive rats of Yin deficiency and Yang excess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simailahong Mayinuer; Jian-Ping Wang; Jing-Wen Sun; Jun Hong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of Pinggan-Maitong tables on nitric oxide, endothelin of hypertensive rats of Yin deficiency and Yang excess.Methods:Hypertensive rats of Yin deficiency and Yang excess were established by adopting the method of two kidney one clip and irrigation clothing monkshood. A total of 75 rats models were established successfully. They were randomly divided into blank control group, captopril group, low dose hepatic vein group, middle dose hepatic vein group, high dose hepatic vein group, with 15 cases in each group. They were only given 2 mL/100 g physiological saline, 10 mg/mL concentration of captopril solution, 10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL concentration of hepatic vein through solution to fill the stomach respectively, for four weeks. Tail arterial blood pressure, serum NO, endothelin 1 (ET-1), angiotensinⅡ (AngⅡ), plasma aldosterone (ALDO) and cardiac function index of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF)%, short axial shortening rate (FS)% were compared between groups before and after treatment.Results:The tail artery blood pressure, ET-1, AngⅡ in blank control group after treatment were significant rise, ALDO, NO significantly reduced, EF%, FS% had no significant change, while the tail artery blood pressure, ET-1, AngⅡ, ALDO in other four groups were significantly reduced, NO, EF%, FS% were significant rise. The tail artery blood pressure, ALDO in middle or high dose hepatic vein group were significantly lower than the captopril control group, NO, EF%, FS% were significantly higher than the captopril control group, the AngⅡ in hepatic vein on high dose group was significantly lower than the captopril control group.Conclusions:Pinggan-Maitong tables can reduce the blood pressure of hypertensive rats of Yin deficiency and Yang excess. It can reverse left ventricular hypertrophy, which may related to adjusting the serum NO, ET-1, AngⅡ, ALDO.

  4. Cytokines profile in hypertensive patients with left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Haddad, Francois; Knez, Judita; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Sung, Janine; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; Thijs, Lutgarde; Karakikes, Ioannis; Maecker, Holden; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Wu, Joseph C; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-12-01

    There is strong evidence that inflammatory mediators play a key role in the progression to heart failure in patients with systemic hypertension (HTN). The present study aimed to identify a set of cytokines that are associated with early left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction as captured by echocardiography in patients with HTN in a cross-sectional case-control study nested within the FLEMish study on ENvironment, Genes and Health Outcome. We identified three groups of participants from the cohort: normotensive subjects (normotension; n = 30), HTN with normal LV structure and function (HTN [LV-]; n = 30), and HTN with evidence of adverse LV remodeling (HTN [LV+]; n = 50). We measured cytokines using a 63-plex Luminex platform. Using partial least squares-discriminant analysis, we constructed three latent variables from the measured cytokines that explained 35%-45% of the variance between groups. We identified five common cytokines (interleukin 18, monokine induced by gamma interferon, hepatocyte growth factor, epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide 78, and vascular endothelial growth factor D) with a stable signal which had a major impact on the construction of the latent variables. Among these cytokines, after adjustment for confounders, interleukin 18 remained significantly different between HTN participants with and without LV involvement (P = .02). Moreover, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and leptin showed a consistent upward trend in all HTN patients compared with normotensive subjects. In conclusion, in HTN patients with LV remodeling or/and dysfunction, we identified a set of cytokines strongly associated with LV maladaptation. We also found a distinct profile of inflammatory biomarkers that characterize HTN.

  5. Antihypertensive properties of Allium sativum (garlic) on normotensive and two kidney one clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokocha, C R; Ozolua, R I; Owu, D U; Nwokocha, M I; Ugwu, A C

    2011-12-20

    Allium sativum (garlic) is reported to act as an antihypertensive amidst an inconsistency of evidence. In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular effects of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) on normotensive and hypertensive rats using the two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) model. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in normotensive and 2K1C rat models anesthetized with thiopentone sodium (50 mg/kg body weight i.p.) through the left common carotid artery connected to a recording apparatus. The jugular vein was cannulated for administration of drugs. Intravenous injection of AGE (5-20 mg/kg) caused a significant (p<0.05) decrease in both MAP and HR in a dose-dependent manner in both the normotensive and 2K1C models, with more effects on normotensive than 2K1C rat model. The dose of 20mg/kg of AGE significantly (p<0.05) reduced systolic (16.7 ± 2.0%), diastolic (26.7 ± 5.2%), MAP (23.1 ± 3.6%) and HR (38.4 ± 4.3%) in normotensive rats. In 2K1C group, it significantly reduced systolic (22.2 ± 2.1 %), diastolic (30.6 ± 3.2%), MAP (28.2 ± 3.1%) and HR (45.2 ± 3.5%) from basal levels. Pulse pressure was significantly elevated (33.3 ±5.1%) in the 2K1C group. Pretreatment of the animals with muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (2 mg/kg, i.v.), did not affect the hypotensive and the negative chronotropic activities of the extract. AGE caused a decrease in blood pressure and bradycardia by direct mechanism not involving the cholinergic pathway in both normotensive and 2K1C rats, suggesting a likely involvement of peripheral mechanism for hypotension.

  6. Increased rigidity of red blood cell membrane in young spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabanel, A; Schachter, D; Chien, S

    1987-12-01

    The micropipette test was used to study the effects of age on the elasticity of red blood cell (RBC) membrane in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and age-matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), ranging from 3 to 23 weeks of age. The development of hypertension in the SHR started at 3 weeks and was fully established at 7 to 8 weeks. In the developmental phase of hypertension (3-5 weeks), the SHR showed a significant increase in RBC membrane elastic modulus (i.e., a decrease in RBC membrane deformability) when compared with the age-matched normotensive control rats (WKY). After the establishment of hypertension (7-8 weeks), however, the deformability of the RBC membrane of SHR improved and became comparable to that of the WKY. These results indicate that abnormal erythrocyte membrane elasticity is an early event in SHR and that adaptive recovery occurs when hypertension is fully developed.

  7. N-Acetylcysteine Prevents Hypertension via Regulation of the ADMA-DDAH Pathway in Young Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Chia Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA reduces nitric oxide (NO, thus causing hypertension. ADMA is metabolized by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, which can be inhibited by oxidative stress. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant, can facilitate glutathione (GSH synthesis. We aimed to determine whether NAC can prevent hypertension by regulating the ADMA-DDAH pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Rats aged 4 weeks were assigned into 3 groups (n=8/group: control Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY, SHR, and SHR receiving 2% NAC in drinking water. All rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. SHR had higher blood pressure than WKY, whereas NAC-treated animals did not. SHR had elevated plasma ADMA levels, which was prevented by NAC therapy. SHR had lower renal DDAH activity than WKY, whereas NAC-treated animals did not. Renal superoxide production was higher in SHR than in WKY, whereas NAC therapy prevented it. NAC therapy was also associated with higher GSH-to-oxidized GSH ratio in SHR kidneys. Moreover, NAC reduced oxidative stress damage in SHR. The observed antihypertensive effects of NAC in young SHR might be due to restoration of DDAH activity to reduce ADMA, leading to attenuation of oxidative stress. Our findings highlight the impact of NAC on the development of hypertension by regulating ADMA-DDAH pathway.

  8. A blueberry enriched diet attenuates nephropathy in a rat model of hypertension via reduction in oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To assess renoprotective effects of a blueberry-enriched diet in a rat model of hypertension. Background: Oxidative stress (OS) appears to be involved in the development of hypertension and related renal injury. Pharmacological antioxidants can attenuate hypertension and hypertension-indu...

  9. Heart-bound adiponectin, not serum adiponectin, inversely correlates with cardiac hypertrophy in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Takemori, Kumiko; Mizuguchi, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Masatomo; Chikugo, Takaaki; Hagiyama, Man; Yoneshige, Azusa; Mori, Tatsufumi; Maenishi, Osamu; Kometani, Takashi; Itoh, Tatsuki; Satou, Takao; Ito, Akihiko

    2017-08-25

    What is the central question of this study? An inverse correlation between circulating adiponectin and many diseases has been reported, but some studies have found no correlation. To evaluate this controversy, we investigated the relationship between heart-bound adiponectin and hypertension or cardiac hypertrophy, compared with serum adiponectin. What is the main finding and its importance? Using hypertensive and normotensive rats, we found that heart-bound adiponectin was inversely correlated with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that heart-bound adiponectin has a more important function in preventing cardiac hypertrophy than circulating adiponectin. Our study provides new insights regarding the role of adiponectin in diseases. The inverse correlation between circulating adiponectin concentration and hypertension or cardiac hypertrophy is still controversial. In addition to circulating adiponectin, adiponectin is also bound to tissues such as the heart and skeletal muscle. In this study, we investigated the relationship of serum adiponectin and heart-bound adiponectin with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Four types of hypertensive rats presenting different blood pressure levels were used at different ages, as follows: normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs); two sub-strains (strains C and B2, having low and high blood pressure, respectively) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs); and stroke-prone SHRs (SHRSPs). Blood pressure, heart-to-body weight ratio, serum adiponectin and heart-bound adiponectin were determined. Histopathological analysis of the heart was carried out to evaluate the relationship with heart-bound adiponectin. Serum adiponectin concentration was not inversely correlated with blood pressure or heart-to-body weight ratio. In contrast, heart-bound adiponectin levels were significantly lower in SHRSPs than in other strains at respective ages. This resulted from a decrease in T-cadherin expression, which induced adiponectin binding to tissues

  10. Adrenomedullin gene delivery attenuates renal damage and cardiac hypertrophy in Goldblatt hypertensive rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cindy Wang; Eric Dobrzynski; Julie Chao; Lee Chao

    2001-01-01

    .... A single tail vein injection of adenovirus harboring the human AM gene significantly blunted a blood pressure increase that lasted for more than 3 wk in two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats...

  11. Diesel exhaust worsens cardiac conduction instability in dobutamine-challenged spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrated that diesel exhaust worsened arrhythmia and cardiac function during dobutamine (simulated exercise) challenge in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The data presented here are a mathematically-derived indicator of cardiac risk, which can be used for risk ...

  12. SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO MICROVASCULAR THROMBOSIS IN RESPONSE TO PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE.PS Gilmour, MC Schladweiler, AD Ledbetter, and UP Kodavanti. US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PTB, Research Triangle Park, NC USA. Environmental particles (PM...

  13. Effects of atorvastatin on vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛长江; 胡申江; 武垚森; 陈乃云

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the structural changes of aorta, and evaluate the effects of atorvastatin on the remodeling of thoracic aorta in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR). Methods: Twelve eight-week-old SHR were randomized into atorvastatin treated group(ATV group, n=6) and distilled water group(DW group, n=6); Wistar-Kyoto rats(WKY) were used as normal controls. Atorvastatin was administered to ATV group for 10 weeks by gavage in mixture with distilled water(1 ml); the latter two groups were given the same amount of distilled water by gavage for 10 weeks. Systolic blood pressure of caudal artery was examined before and after treatment, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-C were measured. Wall thickness, media thickness, medial cross-sectional area and lumen diameter of thoracic aorta were assessed with computed video processing. Results: Systolic blood pressure in ATV group was markedly lower than that in DW group(P0.05). Conclusion: Vascular structural changes of aorta are due to the alteration of the vessel wall in early stage of SHR. Atorvastatin can markedly improve vascular remodeling.

  14. Effects of atorvastatin on vascular remodeling in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛长江; 胡申江; 武垚森; 陈乃云

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the structural changes of aorta, and evaluate the effects of atorvastatinon the remodeling of thoracic aorta in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR) . Methods : Twelve eight-week-old SHR were randomized into atorvastatin treated group( ATV group, n = 6) and distilled water group( DW group, n = 6) ; Wistar-Kyoto rats(WKY) were used as normal controls. Atorvastatin was administered to ATV group for 10 weeks by gavage in mixture with distilled water( 1ml) ; the latter two groups were given the same amount of distilled water by gavage for 10 weeks. Systolic blood pressure of caudal artery was examined before and after treatment, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-C were measured.Wall thickness, media thickness, medial cross-sectional area and lumen diameter of thoracic aorta were assessed with computed video processing. Results: Systolic blood pressure in ATV group was markedly lower than that in DW group( P 0.05 ). Conclusion : Vascular structural changes of aorta are due to the alteration of the vessel wall in early stage of SHR. Atorvastatin can markedly improve vascular remodeling.

  15. Calcium and vitamin D metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chen Hsing; Yang, Chweishiun; Patel, S.R.; Stevens, M.G. (Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1987-10-01

    The authors have studied the effect of dietary vitamin D restriction on serum levels of vitamin D metabolites, measured by radioreceptor assay and radioimmunoassay in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Both WKY and SHR were fed a vitamin D-deficient or a vitamin D-supplemented diet beginning at 4 wk of age. In vitamin D-supplemented animals, the serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) concentration of WKY was similar to the level of SHR. Plasma calcium concentration was not different between WKY and SHR. In animals fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, the serum concentration of 1,25-(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} of SHR was significantly lower than that of WKY. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol level was markedly decreased in both WKY and SHR. The SHR, but not the WKY, developed hypocalcemia. Despite hypocalcemia, fasting urinary Ca{sup 2+} excretion of SHR exceeded that of WKY. They conclude that the lower 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} level in SHR fed a vitamin D-deficient diet may be due to a defect in the synthesis of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. The low level of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} is associated with renal wasting of calcium and hypocalcemia in SHR.

  16. Platelet serotonin content and uptake in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guicheney, P.; Legros, M.; Marcel, D.; Kamal, L.; Meyer, P.

    1985-02-18

    Platelet serotonin (5-HT) content and uptake were studied in male SHR and WKY at various ages. Blood was withdrawn from the carotid artery under anesthesia and 5-HT levels determined from platelet rich plasma (PRP) using a HPLC technique coupled with an electrochemical detection method. Platelet 5-HT uptake was studied by incubating PRP at 37/sup 0/C for 10 sec with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-5HT. Lineweaver-Burk plots of /sup 3/H-5HT uptake were linear suggesting simple Michaelis-Menten uptake kinetics. The SHR had more platelets than age-matched controls and consequently a higher blood circulating pool of 5-HT. Nevertheless, the 5-HT platelet levels were similar to those of their age-matched rats. The 5 week-old SHR and WKY had greater numbers of platelets and higher 5-HT platelet levels than the older rats of both strains. The affinity constants (Km) and the maximal velocities (Vmax) of platelet 5-HT uptake did not differ significantly between the 12 week- and the 6 month-old SHR and WKY. These data suggest that the SHR do not show the same impairment in platelet 5-HT metabolism as observed in essential hypertension in man.

  17. Changes of imidazoline receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Guang-Yuan; Chou, Ming-Ting; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Chiu, Nien-Hua; Chen, Mei-Fen; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2013-01-01

    The role of imidazoline receptors in the regulation of vascular function remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of agmatine, an imidazoline receptor agonist, on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and investigated the expressions of imidazoline receptors by Western blot. The isometric tension of aortic rings isolated from male SHRs was also estimated. Agmatine decreased SBP in a dose-dependent manner in SHRs but not in the normal group [Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats]. This reduction in SBP in SHRs was abolished by BU224, a selective antagonist of imidazoline I2-receptors. Higher expression of imidazoline receptors in SHR was observed. Moreover, agmatine-induced relaxation in isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine or KCl. This relaxation was also abolished by BU224 but was not modified by efaroxan, an imidazoline I1-receptor antagonist. Agmatine-induced relaxation was also attenuated by PNU 37883, a selective blocker of vascular ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Additionally, vasodilatation by agmatine was reduced by an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA). We suggest that agmatine can lower blood pressure in SHRs through activation of the peripheral imidazoline I2-receptor, which is expressed more highly in SHRs. PMID:23176371

  18. Combined uridine and choline administration improves cognitive deficits in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Kiliaan, A.J.; Wilde, M.C. de; Broersen, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale. Hypertension is considered a risk factor for the development of cognitive disorders, because of its negative effects on cerebral vasculature and blood flow. Genetically induced hypertension in rats has been associated with a range of cognitive impairments. Therefore, spontaneously hyperte

  19. Combined uridine and choline administration improves cognitive deficits in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, N.M.W.J. de; Kiliaan, A.J.; Wilde, M.C. de; Broersen, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    Rationale. Hypertension is considered a risk factor for the development of cognitive disorders, because of its negative effects on cerebral vasculature and blood flow. Genetically induced hypertension in rats has been associated with a range of cognitive impairments. Therefore, spontaneously hyperte

  20. Behavioural factors contribute to the development of spontaneous hypertension in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Buuse, M; Veldhuis, H D; Versteeg, D H; de Jong, Wybren

    1985-01-01

    The relationship was studied between brain catecholamine systems, open-field behaviour and the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both the rise in blood pressure and the increased open-field rearing activity of SHR were inhibited by central dopamine depletion. Anti

  1. Behavioural factors contribute to the development of spontaneous hypertension in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Buuse, M; Veldhuis, H D; Versteeg, D H; de Jong, Wybren

    1985-01-01

    The relationship was studied between brain catecholamine systems, open-field behaviour and the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Both the rise in blood pressure and the increased open-field rearing activity of SHR were inhibited by central dopamine depletion.

  2. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on left ventricular parameters and circulating brain natriuretic peptide in elderly hypertensives with left venticular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, M; Minami, M; Kano, H; Yasunari, K; Maeda, K; Hanehira, T; Yoshikawa, J

    2000-10-01

    In the elderly, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of long-term effective blood pressure control with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor temocapril on left ventricular (LV) mass and function indices and the circulating concentration of the cardiac hormone brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in elderly hypertensives with LVH. Temocapril treatment was administered for 1 year to 11 elderly hypertensives (mean age, 72 years) with LVH. Cardiac dimensions and circulating concentrations of BNP were monitored before initiation of treatment and after 1 year of treatment. At entry, BNP levels were positively correlated with the LV mass index, but were not correlated with the mean blood pressure, LV ejection fraction, or E/A ratio (the ratio of peak transmitral flow velocity in early diastole, peak E, to that in late diastole, peak A). After 1 year, temocapril treatment resulted in effective control of blood pressure. The treatment did not affect the LV ejection fraction, but modestly increased the E/A ratio. Temocapril significantly reduced septal and posterior wall thickness and the LV mass index. BNP significantly declined after 1 year. Changes in BNP were significantly related to changes in the LV mass index, but were not related to changes in the mean blood pressure, LV ejection fraction, or E/A ratio. The results suggest that long-term ACE inhibitor treatment with temocapril can induce the regression of LV mass and reduce elevated plasma BNP in elderly hypertensive patients with LVH. In this study, changes in BNP reflected the magnitude of regression of LVH.

  3. Renin system of the kidney in ISIAH rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseeva, L A; Dymshits, G M; Markel, A L; Jakobson, G S

    2009-02-01

    The renal renin system was studied in ISIAH rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension. The expression of genes for renin (Ren1) and cyclooxygenase (Cox-2) was evaluated in renal tissue of ISIAH and WAG rats (normotensive control). Basal gene expression for Ren1 and Cox-2 in ISIAH rats was much lower than in WAG rats. Water deprivation for 11 h was followed by a 4-fold increase in Cox-2 gene expression in ISIAH rats. The increase in gene expression was insignificant in WAG rats (by 30%). Renin gene expression in renal tissue of ISIAH and WAG rats remained practically unchanged after water deprivation. We conclude that a change in Cox-2 gene expression after short-term water deprivation serves as a reliable criterion for functional strain of the renal renin system in hypertensive ISIAH rats.

  4. The incremental effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on right and left ventricular myocardial performance in newly diagnosed essential hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Hua, Qi; Li, Jing; Wang, Cai-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may predispose patients to congestive heart failure, suggesting a deleterious effect of OSAS on myocardial contractility. We investigated whether essential hypertensive individuals with OSAS are characterized by decreased right and left ventricular myocardial performance. Our study population consisted of 45 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed untreated stage I-II essential hypertension suffering from OSAS (35 men, aged 49+/-8 years) and 48 hypertensives without OSAS, matched for age, sex, level of blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index and smoking status. All subjects underwent polysomnography and echocardiography. Right and left ventricular functions were evaluated using the myocardial performance index (MPI). Right and left ventricular functions were altered in hypertensives with OSAS. The mean right MPI was 0.26+/-0.11 in hypertensives without OSAS and 0.51+/-0.16 in hypertensives with OSAS (PRight and left MPI correlated positively and significantly with apnea-hypopnea index (rho=0.40, P=0.002).OSAS is associated with impaired right and left ventricular function. These phenomena were independent of hypertension.

  5. Development of heart failure assessed by tissue Doppler imaging in hypertensive Dahl rats

    OpenAIRE

    宮田, 聖子||ミヤタ, セイコ||Miyata, Seiko; 山田, 亜紀||ヤマダ, アキ||Yamada, Aki||Iwami Yamada, Aki; 橋本, 克徳||ハシモト, カツノリ||Hashimoto, Katsunori; 黒木, 祥子||クロキ, ショウコ||Kuroki, Shoko; 岩本, 隆司||イワモト, タカシ||Iwamoto, Takashi; 野田, 明子||ノダ, アキコ||Noda, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) has been recognized as a useful tool to assess regional myocardial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the development of heart failure in hypertensive Dahl rats using echocardiography with TDI. Methods: Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet from 7 weeks old. As an age-matched control, DS rats were consistently placed on normal diet. In these rats, echocardiography was performed successively. We evaluated interventric...

  6. Comparative effects of valsartan versus amlodipine on left ventricular mass and reactive oxygen species formation by monocytes in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Maeda, Kensaku; Watanabe, Takanori; Nakamura, Munehiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Asada, Akira

    2004-06-02

    To compare the effects of the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan versus the calcium channel blocker amlodipine, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by monocytes, C-reactive protein (CRP), and left ventricular (LV) mass were studied in 104 hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). There is evidence that ARBs have blood pressure (BP)-independent effects on LV mass. Whether regression of LV mass by ARBs is correlated to ROS formation by monocytes and CRP is not fully understood yet. A cross-sectional and prospective study was performed. Participants were randomly assigned to either the 80-mg valsartan (n = 52) or 5-mg amlodipine (n = 52) group and were treated for eight months. The left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated from two-dimensional M-mode echocardiography. Formation of ROS by monocytes was measured by gated flow cytometry. In addition, CRP, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone, and traditional risk factors were assessed. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation between LVMI and ROS formation by monocytes and between LVMI and CRP. Treatment reduced BP to a similar extent in both groups. Valsartan significantly reduced LVMI after eight months, but amlodipine had less effect (16% vs. 1.2%, n = 50, p < 0.01). Formation of ROS by monocytes was reduced to a greater extent with valsartan than with amlodipine (28% vs. 2%, n = 50, p < 0.01). Valsartan but not amlodipine reduced CRP levels. A significant correlation between changes in ROS formation by monocytes and LVMI or between CRP and LVMI was observed. The ARB valsartan has BP-independent effects on LVH, ROS formation by monocytes, and CRP in hypertensive patients with LVH.

  7. Sesamin exerts renoprotective effects by enhancing NO bioactivity in renovascular hypertensive rats fed with high-fat-sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiang-Qi; Kong, Xiang; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Kai; Yang, Jie-Ren; Li, Xin-Li

    2012-05-15

    In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of sesamin on kidney damage and renal endothelial dysfunction in two-kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertensive rats fed with a high-fat-sucrose diet (2K1C rats on HFS diet). Sesamin was intragastrically administered to 2K1C rats on HFS diet for eight weeks. Then, we measured the levels of serum hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), total antioxidant capability (T-AOC), renal malonaldehyde (MDA), total-erythrocuprein (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P(X)). The expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nitrotyrosine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit p47(phox) in the left and right renal cortexes were detected by Western blotting. Pathological changes in the left and right renal cortexes were observed by periodic acid-schiff staining (PAS) and Masson's staining. Treatment with sesamin (120 and 60mg/kg⁻¹·d⁻¹) in 2K1C rats on HFS diet improved renal function, corrected structural abnormalities, and attenuated renal oxidative stress. Furthermore, sesamin increased eNOS protein expression and reduced nitrotyrosine and p47phox protein expression. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment with sesamin had renoprotective effect and improved renal endothelial dysfunction via upregulation of eNOS expression and reduction of NO oxidative inactivation in both clipped and contralateral kidneys of 2K1C rats on HFS diet, and sesamin may have a favorably therapeutic value in treating chronic kidney disease in patients with hypertension and hyperlipemia.

  8. The Diterpene Sclareol Vascular Effect in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Debora Ribeiro; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite S; Ferreira, Luciana Garros; Monteiro, Ariadne Santana E Neves; Coelho, Eduardo Barbosa; Evora, Paulo Roberto Barbosa

    2017-06-29

    The diterpene Sclareol has antimicrobial action, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects and anti-tumor activities. However, researches on the cardiovascular system are scarce. This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in the Sclareol cardiovascular effect in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The arterial hypertension was promoted using 2-kidneys 1-clip model in rats. The effect of sclareol on blood pressure was performed by using three dose (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg). Cumulative dose-response curves for Sclareol were determined for endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings in presence or absence of L-NAME and ODQ. The NOx levels were measure in the plasma sample. The Sclareol administration in vivo caused a significant reduction in blood pressure in both groups. In vitro the sclareol promoted relaxation in aorta, with endothelium, pre-contracted to Phe. The inhibitors of the nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylate cyclase were as efficient as the removal of endothelium, in inhibiting the Sclareol-induced relaxation. Otherwise, it was no change of NOx. Also, for unknown reasons, the Sclareol is not selective for hypertensive animals. The diterpene Sclareol showed in vivo hypotensive and in-vitro vasodilator effects; The chemiluminescence plasmatic NO analysis showed no significant difference between groups and The Sclareol exhibit better effect on normotensive than hypertensive animals to reduce blood pressure. It is concluded that the diterpenes metabolites would be a promising source prototype for the development of new agents in the cardiovascular therapy. O diterpeno Esclareol tem ação antimicrobiana, efeitos citotóxicos e citostáticos e atividades antitumorais. No entanto, pesquisas sobre o sistema cardiovascular são escassas. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para investigar os mecanismos envolvidos no efeito cardiovascular de Esclareol em ratos normotensos e hipertensos. A hipertensão arterial foi promovida utilizando modelo de

  9. Pentosan polysulfate prevents glomerular hypertension and structural injury despite persisting hypertension in 5/6 nephrectomy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, N A; Tack, I; Tapia, E; Sánchez-Lozada, L G; Santamaría, J; Jiménez, F; Striker, L J; Striker, G E; Herrera-Acosta, J

    2001-10-01

    Five/six nephrectomy induces systemic and glomerular hypertension, glomerulosclerosis, proteinuria, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Polysulfate pentosan (PPS) decreases mesangial proliferation and extracellular matrix accumulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether PPS prevents glomerular hemodynamic changes and renal damage. Micropuncture studies were performed in three groups of eight male Wistar rats. Two groups included rats with 5/6 nephrectomy-one of which was treated with PPS in drinking water (100 mg/kg body wt) and the second of which received normal drinking water-and the third group consisted of normal rats that served as controls. Five/six nephrectomy produced systemic hypertension, a 50% reduction in GFR, and a 67% increase in single-nephron GFR due to elevated glomerular pressure and single-nephron plasma flow as well as proteinuria. Hypertension persisted in PPS-treated animals. Despite a similar reduction in GFR, PPS prevented the rise in single-nephron GFR, glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure, and proteinuria. By morphometry, glomerular volume was increased by 46% and mesangial area by 94%. Fractional glomerular capillary area decreased by 24%. PPS prevented these changes. Tubular dilatation, epithelial cell atrophy, and increased interstitial area were largely prevented by PPS, as was the interstitial inflammatory infiltrate. These results suggest that the renal protection conferred by PPS was mediated both by prevention of glomerular hypertension as well as suppression of the inflammatory response. It was postulated that this was partly due to the preservation of a greater fraction of functional nephrons.

  10. Real role of β-blockers in regression of left ventricular mass in hypertension patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, FuWei; Chen, Jialin; Zhao, BinLiang; Jiang, Jingzhou; Tang, Anli; Chen, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is commonly present in patients with hypertension (HT). According to the expert consensus document from American, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) were recommended as 1st-line therapeutic drugs. However, none noticed the different efficacy between fat-soluble and selective β1-receptor blockers (FS-β-B) and other β-blockers on regression of LVH before. The aim of this analysis was to compare the efficacy of FS-β-B with the other 4 different classes of antihypertensive drugs (ACEI, ARBs, calcium channel blockers [CCBs], and diuretics) on regression of LVH. Methods: Relative trials were identified in the PubMed, Web of Science, OVID EBM Reviews and Cochrane databases, and the relevant papers were examined. We performed both traditional and Bayesian meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the regression of LVH. Sensitivity analysis and regression analysis were performed to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. Inconsistency analysis was performed to check whether the analysis of the trials in the network was indeed consistent. Results: A total of 41 RCTs involving 2566 patients with HT and LVH were included in this analysis. Bayesian network meta-analysis indicated no statistically significant differences between these groups: FS-β-B and ACEI (MD, −7.09; 95% CI, −14.99, 1.27); FS-β-B and ARB (MD, −2.66; 95% Cl, −12.02, 6.31). Although FS-β-B showed greater efficacy when compared with diuretic (MD, 13.04; 95% CI, 3.38, 22.59) or CCB (MD, 10.90; 95% CI, 1.98, 19.49). The probabilities of being among the most efficacious treatments were: FS-β-B (72%), ARB (27%), ACEI (0.01%), CCB (0.00%), and diuretic (0.00%). Conclusion: Evidence from our analysis reveals that FS-β-B have potential to become 1st-line therapeutic drugs in HT and LVH patients. However, the real efficacy of FS-β-B on regression of LVH should be confirmed by

  11. Nitric oxide is less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsihlis, Nick D; Vavra, Ashley K; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R; Kibbe, Melina R

    2013-11-30

    Exogenous administration of nitric oxide (NO) markedly decreases neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury in several animal models. However, the effect of NO on neointimal hyperplasia in hypertension remains unknown. Here, we employ the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain, inbred from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, and the carotid artery balloon injury model to assess the effects of NO on neointimal hyperplasia development. 2weeks after arterial injury, we showed that both rat strains developed similar levels of neointimal hyperplasia, but local administration of NO was less effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia in the SHR compared to WKY rats (58% vs. 79%, Phyperplasia in the SHR than WKY rats. This may be due to increased scavenging of NO in the SHR, leading to diminished bioavailability of NO. These data will help to develop novel NO-based therapies that will be equally effective in both normotensive and hypertensive patient populations.

  12. Synergism of irbesartan and amlodipine on hemodynamic amelioration and organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen SHANG; Ping HAN; Cheng-bing YANG; Xiao-wen GU; Wei ZHANG; Li-ping XU; Shou-ting FU; Ding-feng SU; He-hui XlE

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the synergism of low-doses of amlodipine and irbesartan on reduction of blood pressure variability (BPV),amelioration of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and organ protection in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR).Methods:The rats were administered amlodipine (1 mg-kgl.dl) alone,irbesartan (10 mg·kg-1·d-1) alone,or the combination of the two drugs for 4 months.The drugs were mixed into the rat chow.Blood pressure (BP) was continuously monitored in conscious animals.After the determination of BRS,the rats were killed for morphological evaluation of organ damages.Results:The combination of low-dose irbesartan and amlodipine had statistically significant synergism on reduction of BP and BPV,amelioration of BRS and organ protection in SHR.Multiple regression analysis showed that the decrease in left ventricular hypertrophy was associated with the decrease in systolic BPV (r=0.665,P<0.01); the decrease in aortic hypertrophy was associated with the increase in BRS (r=0.656,P<0.01); and the amelioration in renal lesion was associated with the increase in BRS (r=0.763,P<0.01)and the decrease in systolic BPV (r=0.706,P<0.01).Conclusion:Long-term treatment with a combination of low-doses of amlodipine and irbesartan showed significant synergism on reduction of BP and BPV,restoration of BRS and organ protection in SHR.Besides BP reduction,the enhancement of BRS and reduction of BPV might contribute to the organ protection.

  13. Effects of acute intravenous iloprost on right ventricular hemodynamics in rats with chronic pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Timothy N.; El-Haddad, Hazim; Champion, Hunter C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The inotropic effects of prostacyclins in chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are unclear and may be important in directing patient management in the acute setting. We sought to study the effects of an acute intravenous (IV) infusion of iloprost on right ventricular (RV) contractility in a rat model of chronic PAH. Rats were treated with monocrotaline, 60 mg/kg intraperitoneally, to induce PAH. Six weeks later, baseline hemodynamic assessment was performed with pressure-volume and Doppler flow measurements. In one group of animals, measurements were repeated 10–15 minutes after IV infusion of a fixed dose of iloprost (20 μg/kg). A separate group of rats underwent dose-response assessment. RV contractility and RV–pulmonary artery coupling were assessed by the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) and end-systolic elastance/effective arterial elastance (Ees/Ea). RV cardiomyocytes were isolated, and intracellular cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) concentration was measured with a cAMP-specific enzyme immunoassay kit. Animals had evidence of PAH and RV hypertrophy. Right ventricle/(left ventricle + septum) weight was 0.40 ± 0.03. RV systolic pressure (RVSP) was 39.83 ± 1.62 mmHg. Administration of iloprost demonstrated an increase in the slope of the ESPVR from 0.29 ± 0.02 to 0.42 ± 0.05 (P < .05). Ees/Ea increased from 0.63 ± 0.07 to 0.82 ± 0.06 (P < .05). The RV contractility index (max dP/dt normalized for instantaneous pressure) increased from 94.11 to 114.5/s (P < .05), as did the RV ejection fraction, from 48.0% to 52.5% (P < .05). This study suggests a positive inotropic effect of iloprost on a rat model of chronic PAH. PMID:25610597

  14. Intralipid prevents and rescues fatal pulmonary arterial hypertension and right ventricular failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Soban; Nadadur, Rangarajan D; Li, Jingyuan; Maltese, Federica; Partownavid, Parisa; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by pulmonary vascular remodeling leading to right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and failure. Intralipid (ILP), a source of parenteral nutrition for patients, contains γ-linolenic acid and soy-derived phytoestrogens that are protective for lungs and heart. We, therefore, investigated the therapeutic potential of ILP in preventing and rescuing monocrotaline-induced PAH and RV dysfunction. PAH was induced in male rats with monocrotaline (60 mg/kg). Rats then received daily ILP (1 mL of 20% ILP per day IP) from day 1 to day 30 for prevention protocol or from day 21 to day 30 for rescue protocol. Other monocrotaline-injected rats were left untreated to develop severe PAH by day 21 or RV failure by approximately day 30. Saline or ILP-treated rats served as controls. Significant increase in RV pressure and decrease in RV ejection fraction in the RV failure group resulted in high mortality. Therapy with ILP resulted in 100% survival and prevented PAH-induced RV failure by preserving RV pressure and RV ejection fraction and preventing RV hypertrophy and lung remodeling. In preexisting severe PAH, ILP attenuated most lung and RV abnormalities. The beneficial effects of ILP in PAH seem to result from the interplay of various factors, among which preservation and/or stimulation of angiogenesis, suppression and/or reversal of inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy, in both lung and RV, appear to be major contributors. In conclusion, ILP not only prevents the development of PAH and RV failure but also rescues preexisting severe PAH.

  15. Moringa oleifera-rich diet and T-cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attakpa, E S; Chabi, N W; Bertin, G A; Ategbo, J-M; Seri, B; Khan, N A

    2017-04-12

    Moringa oleifera is a plant whose fruits, roots and leaves have been advocated for traditional medicinal uses. The physico-chemical analysis shows that, Moringa contains more dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) than saturated fatty acids (SFA). The consumption of an experimental diet enriched with Moringa oleifera extracts lowered blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats as compared to rats fed an unsupplemented control diet. Anti-CD3-stimulated T-cell proliferation was diminished in both strains of rats fed the Moringa oleifera. The experimental diet lowered secretion of interleukin-2 in SHR, but not in WKY rats compared with rats fed the control diet. Studies of platelets from patients with primary hypertension and from SHR support the notion that the concentration of intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)]i is modified in both clinical and experimental hypertension. We observed that the basal, [Ca(2+)]i was lower in T cells of SHR than in those of WKY rats fed the control diet. Feeding the diet with Moringa oleifera extracts to WKY rats did not alter basal [Ca(2+)]i in T cells but increased basal [Ca(2+)]i in SHR. Our study clearly demonstrated that Moringa oleifera exerts antihypertensive effects by inhibiting the secretion of IL-2 and modulates T-cell calcium signaling in hypertensive rats.

  16. Diminished contractile responses of isolated conduit arteries in two rat models of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemancíková, Anna; Török, Jozef

    2013-08-31

    Hypertension is accompanied by thickening of arteries, resulting in marked changes in their passive and active mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the large conduit arteries from hypertensive individuals may not exhibit enhanced contractions in vitro, as is often claimed. Mechanical responses to vasoconstrictor stimuli were measured under isometric conditions using ring arterial segments isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-treated Wistar rats, and untreated Wistar rats serving as normotensive control. We found that thoracic aortas from both types of hypertensive rats had a greater sensitivity but diminished maximal developed tension in response to noradrenaline, when compared with that from normotensive rats. In superior mesenteric arteries, the sensitivity to noradrenaline was similar in all examined rat groups but in L-NAME-treated rats, these arteries exhibited decreased active force when stimulated with high noradrenaline concentrations, or with 100 mM KCl. These results indicate that hypertension leads to specific biomechanical alterations in diverse arterial types which are reflected in different modifications in their contractile properties.

  17. Biological response of spontaneously hypertensive rats to the streptozotocin administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Alice Vieira da Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR to the diabetogenic effect of streptozotocin (STZ was studied. The animals were subdivided into three groups: control (citrate buffer, streptozotocin 40 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, and general biologic parameters were analyzed, in addition to systolic blood pressure, blood glucose and insulin levels determinations. Both doses were able to induce hyperglycemia above 300 mg/dl; however, 50 mg/kg provoked a more pronounced physiological alterations in body weight, diuresis, water and food intake. There was no change on systolic blood pressure with either dose. Results suggested that SHRs did not need doses of streptozotocin above 40mg/kg in order to produce diabetes probably because this strain was much more sensible than normotensive rats. In addition, streptozotocin might be a drug choice to induce diabetes without provoking alterations in the blood pressure which allowed the use of this experimental model in the studies of induced hypertension-diabetes.Foi estudada a sensibilidade de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR adultos ao efeito diabetogênico da estreptozotocina (STZ. Os animais foram subdivididos em grupos: controle (tampão citrato, 40 mg/kg ou 50 mg/kg de estreptozotocina, sendo analisados parâmetros biológicos gerais, pressão arterial sistólica, níveis sanguíneos de glicose e insulina. Ambas doses foram capazes de induzir hiperglicemia acima de 300 mg/dl, entretanto a dose de 50 mg/kg provocou efeitos fisiológicos mais pronunciados no peso corpóreo, diurese, ingestão hídrica e de ração. Não houve alteração da pressão arterial sistólica em qualquer dose. Nossos achados sugerem que SHRs não necessitam de doses de estreptozotocina acima de 40 mg/kg com para produzir diabetes, provavelmente porque essa cepa é muito mais sensível do que ratos normotensos. A estreptozotocina pode ser a droga de escolha para induzir diabetes sem provocar alterações na press

  18. Diverse effects of renal denervation on ventricular hypertrophy and blood pressure in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy that accompanies hypertension seems to be a phenomenon of multifactorial origin whose development does not seem to depend on an increased pressure load alone, but also on local growth factors and cardioadrenergic activity. The aim of the present study was to determine if sympathetic renal denervation and its effects on arterial pressure level can prevent cardiac hypertrophy and if it can also delay the onset and attenuate the severity of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt hypertension. DOCA-salt treatment was initiated in rats seven days after uninephrectomy and contralateral renal denervation or sham renal denervation. DOCA (15 mg/kg, sc or vehicle (soybean oil, 0.25 ml per animal was administered twice a week for two weeks. Rats treated with DOCA or vehicle (control were provided drinking water containing 1% NaCl and 0.03% KCl. At the end of the treatment period, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate measurements were made in conscious animals. Under ether anesthesia, the heart was removed and the right and left ventricles (including the septum were separated and weighed. DOCA-salt treatment produced a significant increase in left ventricular weight/body weight (LVW/BW ratio (2.44 ± 0.09 mg/g and right ventricular weight/body weight (RVW/BW ratio (0.53 ± 0.01 mg/g compared to control (1.92 ± 0.04 and 0.48 ± 0.01 mg/g, respectively rats. MAP was significantly higher (39% in DOCA-salt rats. Renal denervation prevented (P>0.05 the development of hypertension in DOCA-salt rats but did not prevent the increase in LVW/BW (2.27 ± 0.03 mg/g and RVW/BW (0.52 ± 0.01 mg/g. We have shown that the increase in arterial pressure level is not responsible for cardiac hypertrophy, which may be more related to other events associated with DOCA-salt hypertension, such as an increase in cardiac sympathetic activity

  19. Effect of fosinopril on progression of the asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

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    Tasić Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The cardiovascular changes (vascular structure changes, hypertrophy of the left ventricle contribute to both the increased cardiovascular morbidity and the mortality of essential hypertension. Therefore, modern treatment strategies should not only target blood pressure (BP reduction but also normalize cardiovascular structure and function. OBJECTIVE Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the ACE inhibitor Fosinopril on the Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery and on the left ventricle mass after 9-month treatment of hypertensive patients. METHOD The study included 40 patients with the arterial hypertension and the left ventricle hypertrophy verified by echocardiography. The patients were randomized on A ACE-inhibitor - Fosinopril and 6 without ACE inhibitor - atenolol, and they were followed up 9 months. The groups were not different by age, sex, and metabolic status. Color Duplex ultrasonography of the carotid arteries was performed by Acuson Sequia C236 with high-frequency linear probe of 8 MHz. The Intima-media thickness of the common carotids on the left and the right was measured in diastole at 1.5. cm from the highest point of bifurcation under maximal magnification. Using the same device, the left ventricle mass and other parameters of the left ventricle were determined in M-mode and by means of 2D image. RESULTS After 9 months, BP In both groups Was reduced In similar range (group A: systolic BP from 158 to 137 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 94 to 85 mmHg, and group B; systolic BP from 164 to 137 mmHg, and diastolic BP from 87 to 84 mmHg. The thickness of the intimomedial complex in patients using Fosinopril was decreased by 0.0278 ± 0.03 mm, while in the group of patients that did not use the ACE-inhibitor, it was increased by 0.078 ±0.13 mm. The left ventricle mass in patients using Fosinopril was decreased by 5 grams (312 ± 72 g vs. 307 ± 77 g, while in group B patients, it was increased by 15

  20. Morphofunctional study of the junction between the left atrium and the pulmonary veins in patient with pulmonary hypertension

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    Cavalcanti Jennecy Sales

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the arrangement of the myocardial fiber bundles at the pulmonary venous left atrial junction in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and to discuss the pathophysiological importance of this element in the etiology of acute pulmonary edema. METHODS: We obtained 12 hearts and their pulmonary vein extremities from postmortem examinations of patients with the anatomicopathological diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema. The specimens, which had no grossly visible morphological cardiac alterations, were fixed in 10% formalin, and the muscular arrangement of the pulmonary venous left atrial junctions was analyzed. This material was then isolated, embedded in paraffin, underwent serial cutting (50 µm of thickness, and was stained with Azam's trichrome. RESULTS: We observed in our specimens that: a the myocardial fiber bundles that originate in the atrial wall and involve the openings of the pulmonary veins were fewer than those observed in healthy material; b the myocardial fiber bundles that extend into the pulmonary veins were shorter than those found in material originating from individuals with no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Anatomical changes that result in a reduction in the amount of myocardial fiber bundles in the pulmonary venous left atrial junction, isolated or associated with other factors, may be the cause of disorders in pulmonary circulation, leading to an increase in pulmonary venous pressure, and, consequently, to acute pulmonary edema.

  1. Oxidative Stress State Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mechanics Changes, Measured by Speckle Tracking in Essential Hypertensive Patients

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    Luis Antonio Moreno-Ruíz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress state is characterized by an increase in oxygen reactive species that overwhelms the antioxidant defense; we do not know if these pathological changes are correlated with alterations in left ventricular mechanics. The aim was correlating the oxidative stress state with the left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS and the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP. Twenty-five patients with essential hypertension and 25 controls paired by age and gender were studied. All of the participants were subjected to echocardiography and biochemical determination of oxidative stress markers. The hypertensive patients, compared with control subjects, had significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of oxidized proteins (5.03±1.05 versus 4.06±0.63 nmol/mg, lower levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD activity (0.045±0.02 versus 0.082±0.02 U/mg, higher LVEDP (16.2±4.5 versus 11.3±1.6 mm Hg, and lower GLS (−12% versus −16%. Both groups had preserved ejection fraction and the results showed a positive correlation of oxidized proteins with GLS (r=0.386, p=0.006 and LVEDP (r=0.389, p=0.005; we also found a negative correlation of EC-SOD activity with GLS (r=-0.404, p=0.004 and LVEDP (r=-0.347, p=0.014.

  2. Oxidative Stress State Is Associated with Left Ventricular Mechanics Changes, Measured by Speckle Tracking in Essential Hypertensive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ruíz, Luis Antonio; Ibarra-Quevedo, David; Rodríguez-Martínez, Erika; Maldonado, Perla D.; Sarabia-Ortega, Benito; Hernández-Martínez, José Gustavo; Espinosa-Caleti, Beda; Mendoza-Pérez, Beatriz; Rivas-Arancibia, Selva

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative stress state is characterized by an increase in oxygen reactive species that overwhelms the antioxidant defense; we do not know if these pathological changes are correlated with alterations in left ventricular mechanics. The aim was correlating the oxidative stress state with the left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS) and the left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Twenty-five patients with essential hypertension and 25 controls paired by age and gender were studied. All of the participants were subjected to echocardiography and biochemical determination of oxidative stress markers. The hypertensive patients, compared with control subjects, had significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of oxidized proteins (5.03 ± 1.05 versus 4.06 ± 0.63 nmol/mg), lower levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) activity (0.045 ± 0.02 versus 0.082 ± 0.02 U/mg), higher LVEDP (16.2 ± 4.5 versus 11.3 ± 1.6 mm Hg), and lower GLS (−12% versus −16%). Both groups had preserved ejection fraction and the results showed a positive correlation of oxidized proteins with GLS (r = 0.386, p = 0.006) and LVEDP (r = 0.389, p = 0.005); we also found a negative correlation of EC-SOD activity with GLS (r = −0.404, p = 0.004) and LVEDP (r = −0.347, p = 0.014). PMID:26504504

  3. Exercise and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients in relation to structure and function of left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, Kurt; Gerdts, Eva; Wachtell, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    (never exercise), intermediate (30 min twice/week). During 4.8-year follow-up, 105 patients suffered the primary composite endpoint of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or cardiovascular death. MI occurred in 39, stroke in 60, and cardiovascular death in 33 patients. RESULTS: Sedentary individuals (n......BACKGROUND: Exercise lowers blood pressure and improves cardiovascular function, but little is known about whether exercise impacts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and LV geometry. DESIGN: Observational analysis of prospectively obtained...... echocardiographic data within the context of a randomized trial of antihypertensive treatment. METHODS: A total of 937 hypertensive patients with ECG LVH were studied by echocardiography in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study. Baseline exercise status was categorized as sedentary...

  4. The effect of bilateral adrenal demedullation on vascular reactivity and blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, K. R.; Quinn, P.

    1983-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal demedullation of juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats attenuated, but did not prevent, the development of hypertension. Neither did it affect the subsequent vascular reactivity to phenylephrine though it significantly reduced the vascular effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation. Demedullation of adult spontaneously hypertensive rats did not alter blood pressure, but did attenuate the pressor responses to both alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and sympathetic nerve stimulation. In acutely demedullated adult rats, vascular reactivity to sympathetic nerve stimulation, but not to exogenous amines, could be restored by slow i.v. infusion of adrenaline in a dose-dependent manner. The results support a possible facilitatory role for adrenaline in sympathetic neurotransmitter release, both during the development of genetic hypertension and in vascular responses to sympathetic nerve stimulation. PMID:6640199

  5. Effect of microalbuminuria-lowering on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in children and adolescents with essential hypertension

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    Assadi F ; Translated by: Akbari Asbagh P

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microalbuminuria (MA is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients, but not many studies have specifically examined the effects of MA-lowering on regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH among pediatric patients with hypertension. Methods: Fifty-five patients with essential hypertension, 11 to 19 years old were prospectively studied. All patients received concomitant therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Five patients also required angiotensin-receptor blocker to achieve the blood pressure goal. Baseline and 12-month follow-up measures of left ventricular mass index (LVMI determined by echocardiography and urine microalbumin/creatinine ratio (MA/Cr were collected. MA was defined as MA/Cr>30. LVH was defined as LVMI>38.6 g/m2. The primary end points were 25% or more reductions in MA and the LVMI. Results: Weight (r=0.83, body surface area (r=0.85, body mass index (BMI (r=0.86, systolic blood pressure (SBP (r=0.57, diastolic blood pressure (DBP (r=0.49, mean arterial pressure (r=0.53 and MA (r=0.87 were all univariate correlates of LVMI. In a multiple regression analysis, MA, BMI and SBP were significant correlates of LVMI. MA alone explained 76% of the variance of LVMI, whereas BMI and SBP explained only 1.6% and 0.4% of the variance, respectively. MA was the most significant correlate of follow-up LVMI after BMI and SBP were included in the overall multiple regression models. Conclusion: MA is a strong predictor of LVH in hypertensive children and adolescents. MA-lowering halts the progression of LVH or induces its regression.

  6. Functional alterations of mesenteric small resistance arteries in Milan hypertensive and normotensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoni, Damiano; Castellano, Maurizio; Porteri, Enzo; Giacchè, Mara; Ferrari, Patrizia; Cusi, Daniele; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Boari, Gianluca E M; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti

    2009-07-01

    The Milan hypertensive rat strain (MHS) is a genetic strain in which cardiovascular phenotypes seem to be dependent, at least in part, on adducin gene polymorphisms. The aim of our study was to evaluate the structure, contractile responses and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in mesenteric small resistance arteries in 12-week-old MHS, (n=7), age-matched Milan normotensive rats (MNS, n=7) and congenic strains in which the DNA segments carrying the alpha-adducin locus from the MHS have been introgressed into the MNS (MNA, n=7). Systolic blood pressure (tail cuff) and left ventricular weight to body weight were measured. Mesenteric small arteries were dissected and mounted on a micromyograph; the media:lumen ratio was then calculated. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine and to norepinephrine (NE) were created. Systolic blood pressure was significantly increased in the MHS and MNA strains compared with the MNS. No significant difference in mesenteric small resistance artery structure was observed among the groups; however, a slightly more elevated media:lumen ratio was observed in MNA compared with the MNS. In contrast, left ventricular weight to body weight was significantly increased and ACH-induced dilatation was significantly impaired in the MHS and in MNA compared with MNS. The concentration-response curve to NE in the MHS showed significantly reduced sensitivity to NE; however, maximum contraction was increased in the MHS vs. the other groups. The MHS presents cardiac (but not vascular) remodeling, endothelial dysfunction and a peculiar contractile response to NE, compared with the other groups. The systolic blood pressure increase and trend to vascular remodeling in MNA support the pathogenic role of alpha-adducin.

  7. Sex differences in the beneficial cardiac effects of chronic treatment with atrial natriuretic Peptide in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

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    Mariana Romero

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate both the effects of chronic treatment with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP on systolic blood pressure (SBP, cardiac nitric oxide (NO system, oxidative stress, hypertrophy, fibrosis and apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and sex-related differences in the response to the treatment. METHODS: 10 week-old male and female SHR were infused with ANP (100 ng/hr/rat or saline (NaCl 0.9% for 14 days (subcutaneous osmotic pumps. SBP was recorded and nitrites and nitrates excretion (NOx were determined. After treatment, NO synthase (NOS activity, eNOS expression, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and glutathione concentration were determined in left ventricle, as well as the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD. Morphological studies in left ventricle were performed in slices stained with hematoxylin-eosin or Sirius red to identify collagen as a fibrosis indicator; immunohistochemistry was employed for identification of transforming growth factor beta; and apoptosis was evaluated by Tunel assay. RESULTS: Female SHR showed lower SBP, higher NO-system activity and less oxidative stress, fibrosis and hypertrophy in left ventricle, as well as higher cardiac NOS activity, eNOS protein content and NOx excretion than male SHR. Although ANP treatment lowered blood pressure and increased NOS activity and eNOS expression in both sexes, cardiac NOS response to ANP was more marked in females. In left ventricle, ANP reduced TBARS and increased glutathione concentration and activity of CAT and SOD enzymes in both sexes, as well as GPx activity in males. ANP decreased fibrosis and apoptosis in hearts from male and female SHR but females showed less end-organ damage in heart. Chronic ANP treatment would ameliorate hypertension and end-organ damage in heart by reducing oxidative stress, increasing NO-system activity, and diminishing fibrosis

  8. Perinatal L-arginine and antioxidant supplements reduce adult blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racasan, S; Braam, B; van der Giezen, DM; Goldschmeding, R; Boer, P; Koomans, HA; Joles, JA

    2004-01-01

    Embryo cross-transplantation and cross-fostering between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive rats (WKY) suggest that perinatal environment modulates the genetically determined phenotype. In SHR the balance between NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is disturbed. We hypothesized

  9. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    ) regulation in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis was induced by partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) in young rats. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high and low salt diets. Renal...

  10. Tubulo-glomerular feedback response: enhancement in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats and effects of anaesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1989-01-01

    Open-loop tubulo-glomerular feedback (TGF) responses were measured in halothane anaesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley rats (SPRD), and in inactin anaesthetized SPRD. Proximal intratubular free flow pressures (FFP) (13.8-14.7 mm Hg...

  11. Rapamycin is neuroprotective in a rat chronic hypertensive glaucoma model.

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    Wenru Su

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Injury of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs accounts for visual impairment of glaucoma. Here, we report rapamycin protects RGCs from death in experimental glaucoma model and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that treatment with rapamycin dramatically promote RGCs survival in a rat chronic ocular hypertension model. This protective action appears to be attributable to inhibition of neurotoxic mediators release and/or direct suppression of RGC apoptosis. In support of this mechanism, in vitro, rapamycin significantly inhibits the production of NO, TNF-α in BV2 microglials by modulating NF-κB signaling. In experimental animals, treatment with rapamycin also dramatically inhibited the activation of microglials. In primary RGCs, rapamycin was capable of direct suppression the apoptosis of primary RGCs induced by glutamate. Mechanistically, rapamycin-mediated suppression of RGCs apoptosis is by sparing phosphorylation of Akt at a site critical for maintenance of its survival-promoting activity in cell and animal model. These results demonstrate that rapamycin is neuroprotective in experimental glaucoma, possibly via decreasing neurotoxic releasing and suppressing directly apoptosis of RGCs.

  12. Prevalence and determinants of left ventricular geometric abnormalities in hypertensive patients: A study based on the updated classification system of left ventricular geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Tao; Huang, Yu-Qing; Cai, An-Ping; Huang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Ji-Yan; Zhou, Ying-Ling; Yu, Xue-Ju; Zhou, Dan; Tang, Song-Tao; Feng, Ying-Qing; Tan, Ning

    This study was to determine whether different risk factors were associated with different type of left ventricular (LV) geometric abnormalities. This retrospective analysis included 2290 hypertensive participants without other cardiovascular disease, valve disease and with ejection fraction ≥50%. The type of LV geometric abnormality was defined on the basis of the new classification system. LV geometric abnormalities were detected in 1479 subjects (64.6%), wherein concentric LV remodeling is the most common LV geometric abnormality (40.3%). Large waist circumference (WC) and neck circumference (NC) were positively associated with concentric LV remodeling, whereas body mass index (BMI) [odds ratio (OR) 0.89, 95% CI 0.85∼0.92, P < 0.001] and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98∼0.99, P = 0.018) were inversely associated with concentric abnormalities. SBP and age were positively associated with eccentric dilated LVH, while male was inversely associated with eccentric dilated left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Age was the strongest risk factor for eccentric dilated LVH (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03∼1.07, P < 0.001). Age, NC, SBP, hyperuricemia, and alcohol use were positively associated with concentric LVH, whereas BMI (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.90∼0.99, P = 0.033) and male (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.07∼0.18, P < 0.001) were negatively associated with concentric LVH. The prevalence of hypertensive LV geometric abnormality in rural area of Southern China was obvious higher. Compared with eccentric LV geometric abnormalities, there were more risk factors, including large WC and NC, age, NC, SBP, hyperuricemia, alcohol use, BMI and gender, which were associated with concentric LV geometric abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Hellenic Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Barnidipine ameliorates the vascular and renal injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp Yildirim, F Ilkay; Eker Kizilay, Deniz; Ergin, Bülent; Balci Ekmekçi, Özlem; Topal, Gökçe; Kucur, Mine; Demirci Tansel, Cihan; Uydeş Doğan, B Sönmez

    2015-10-05

    The present study was aimed to investigate the influence of Barnidipine treatment on early stage hypertension by determining the function and morphology of the mesenteric and renal arteries as well as the kidney in N(ω)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Barnidipine (3 mg/kg/day p.o) was applied to rats after 2 weeks of L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day) administration, and continued for the next 3 weeks concomitantly with L-NAME. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats was determined to decrease significantly in Barnidipine treated hypertensive group when compared to that of rats received L-NAME alone. Myograph studies demonstrated that the contractile reactivity to noradrenaline were significantly reduced in both of the resistance arteries while endothelium-dependent relaxations to acethylcholine were significantly diminished particularly in the mesenteric arteries of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. The impaired contractile and endothelial responses were completely restored by concomitant treatment of Barnidipine with L-NAME. Histopathological examinations verified structural alterations in the arteries as well as the kidney. Moreover, a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was presented both in the arteries and kidney of hypertensive rats which were increased following Barnidipine treatment. Elevated plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also reduced in Barnidipine treated hypertensive rats. In conclusion, besides to its efficacy in reducing the elevated SBP, amelioration of vascular function, modulation of arterial and renal eNOS expressions as well as reduction of the plasma levels of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers are possible supportive mechanisms mediating the favorable implications of Barnidipine in L-NAME-induced hypertension model.

  14. Long-term treatment with nebivolol improves arterial reactivity and reduces ventricular hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Estela; Voces, Felipe; Ardanaz, Noelia; Montero, María José; Arévalo, Miguel; Sevilla, María Angeles

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long-term nebivolol therapy on high blood pressure, impaired endothelial function in aorta, and damage observed in heart and conductance arteries in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). For this purpose, SHR were treated for 9 weeks with nebivolol (8 mg/kg per day). Untreated SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats were used as hypertensive and normotensive controls, respectively. The left ventricle/body weight ratio was used as an index of cardiac hypertrophy, and to evaluate vascular function, responses induced by potassium chloride, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were tested on aortic rings. Aortic morphometry and fibrosis were determined in parallel by a quantitative technique. Systolic blood pressure, measured by the tail-cuff method, was lower in treated SHR than in the untreated group (194 +/- 3 versus 150 +/- 4 mm Hg). The cardiac hypertrophy index was significantly reduced by the treatment. In aortic rings, treatment with nebivolol significantly reduced the maximal response to both KCl and NA in SHR. In vessels precontracted with phenylephrine relaxant, activity due to acetylcholine was higher in normotensive rats than in SHR and the treatment significantly improved this response. The effect of sodium nitroprusside on aortic rings was similar in all groups. Medial thickness and collagen content were significantly reduced in comparison with SHR. In conclusion, the chronic antihypertensive effect of nebivolol in SHR was accompanied by an improvement in vascular structure and function and in the cardiac hypertrophy index.

  15. Effects of Perindopril on Left Ventricular Remodeling and Osteopontin Expression in Rats With Myocardial Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To observe the effects of perindopril on left ventricular remodeling and myocardial osteopontin expression in rats with myocardial infarction. Methods In this study male adult SD rats were randomly divided into 3groups: sham-operation group, MI-saline group and MI-perindopril group. Left anterior descending artery was ligated to generate myocardial infarction. Perindopril (2 mg/kg body weight/day) was administered from the next day of MI.Four weeks later, left ventricular diameter (LVEDD and LVESD) and left ventricular ejection fraction was estimated with echocardiography, LVSP, LVEDP and ± dp/dtmax was detected with hemodynamic measurement, cardiomyocyte diameter and interstitial fibrosis infiltration were evaluated with histological methods, and myocardium osteopontin protein expression level was detected with western blot. Results ①Compared with the sham-operation group, all rats with MI developed significant systolic and diastolic dysfunction, as was indicated by decreased LVEF, LVSP and ± dp/dtmax, as well as increased LVEDP. ②Rats with MI showed significantly dilated left ventricles and higher ventricular weight / body weight ratio, significantly increased cardiomyocyte diameter and marked interstitial fibrosis in the non-infarction area. ③Perindopril treatment partly prevented cardiac dysfunction and left ventricular remodeling as indicated by the parameters mentioned above. ④No osteopontin protein was detected in myocardium of sham-operation rats. In rats with MI, high level osteopontin protein expression was significantly inhibited by perindopril treatment. Conclusions In rats with MI, perindopril treatment significantly prevented left ventricular remodeling and myocardium osteopontin protein expression.

  16. Vitamin D therapy to reduce blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in resistant hypertension: randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Miles D; Ireland, Sheila; Houston, J Graeme; Gandy, Stephen J; Waugh, Shelley; Macdonald, Thomas M; Mackenzie, Isla S; Struthers, Allan D

    2014-04-01

    Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with higher prevalent blood pressure. We tested whether high-dose intermittent oral vitamin D therapy could reduce blood pressure and left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension resistant to conventional treatment. We conducted a parallel-group, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Patients with supine office blood pressure >140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensive agents received 100 000 U oral vitamin D3 or matching placebo every 2 months. Office and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol were measured at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months; left ventricular mass index was measured by cardiac MRI on a subgroup at baseline and 6 months. The primary outcome was mean 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure at 6 months. A total of 68 participants were randomized, 34 in each group. Mean age was 63 (SD 11) years, mean baseline office blood pressure was 154/84 (13/10) mm Hg, and mean baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 42 (16) nmol/L. Treatment with vitamin D did not reduce 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (adjusted treatment effects: systolic, +3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -4 to +11; P=0.33; diastolic, -2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -6 to +2; P=0.29); similar results were seen for office blood pressure. Left ventricular mass index was measured in a subgroup (n=25); no reduction was seen with vitamin D treatment (adjusted treatment effect, +4 g/m(2); 95% confidence interval, 0 to +7; P=0.04). There was no significant change in cholesterol or glucose levels. Thus, 6 months of intermittent, high-dose oral vitamin D3 did not reduce blood pressure or left ventricular mass in patients with resistant hypertension.

  17. β3-ADRENOCEPTORS INHIBIT STIMULATED NOREPINEPHRINE RELEASE IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torill eBerg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, the influence of β3-adrenoceptors on catecholamine release in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats was analysed. Blood pressure was recorded through a femoral artery catheter, and cardiac output by ascending aorta flow. Time from onset of flow to maximum rise in flow indicated inotropy. Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR was calculated. Norepinephrine release was stimulated with tyramine, which allowed presynaptic release-control to be reflected as changes in the plasma norepinephrine concentration. β3-adrenoceptor agonist (BRL37344 reduced baseline vascular resistance, the tyramine-stimulated norepinephrine overflow and the positive inotropic response to tyramine in hypertensive but not normotensive rats. β3-adrenoceptor antagonist (SR59230A reduced tyramine-stimulated norepinephrine release in both strains and the secretion of epinephrine in hypertensive rats. SR59230A reduced tyramine-induced tachycardia in normotensive rats, and prevented down-regulation of the tyramine-induced rise in resistance in hypertensive rats. It was concluded that the contradicting results obtained by agonist versus antagonist, could be explained by their interaction with two different β-adrenoceptors: The BRL37344-dependent inhibition of stimulated norepinephrine release and positive inotropic response to tyramine was compatible with stimulation of β3-adrenoceptor coupling to inhibitory G-protein. This was observed only in hypertensive rats during stimulated, high levels of circulating catecholamines. The effect of BRL37344 on baseline vascular resistance was compatible with activation of β3-adrenoceptor coupling to endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The inhibitory effect of SR59230A on tyramine-stimulated norepinephrine release in both strains, the increased TPR-response to tyramine in hypertensive rats and tachycardia in normotensive rats may result from inhibition of the low-affinity-state β1-adrenoceptor, also known as the

  18. Renal denervation attenuates NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative stress and hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleli, Maria; Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Yang, Ting; Larsson, Erik; Wåhlin, Nils; Jensen, Boye L; G Persson, A Erik; Carlström, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    Hydronephrosis is associated with the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Studies have suggested that increased sympathetic nerve activity and oxidative stress play important roles in hypertension and the modulation of salt sensitivity. The present study primarily aimed to examine the role of renal sympathetic nerve activity in the development of hypertension in rats with hydronephrosis. In addition, we aimed to investigate if NADPH oxidase (NOX) function could be affected by renal denervation. Partial unilateral ureteral obstruction (PUUO) was created in 3-wk-old rats to induce hydronephrosis. Sham surgery or renal denervation was performed at the same time. Blood pressure was measured during normal, high-, and low-salt diets. The renal excretion pattern, NOX activity, and expression as well as components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were characterized after treatment with the normal salt diet. On the normal salt diet, rats in the PUUO group had elevated blood pressure compared with control rats (115 ± 3 vs. 87 ± 1 mmHg, P Renal denervation in PUUO rats attenuated both hypertension (97 ± 3 mmHg) and salt sensitivity (5 ± 1 mmHg, P renal excretion pattern, whereas the degree of renal fibrosis and inflammation was not changed. NOX activity and expression as well as renin and ANG II type 1A receptor expression were increased in the renal cortex from PUUO rats and normalized by denervation. Plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were elevated in PUUO rats and normalized after renal denervation. Finally, denervation in PUUO rats was also associated with reduced NOX expression, superoxide production, and fibrosis in the heart. In conclusion, renal denervation attenuates hypertension and restores the renal excretion pattern, which is associated with reduced renal NOX and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This study emphasizes a link between renal nerves, the development of hypertension, and modulation of NOX function.

  19. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of N{sup G}-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C), hypertensive (H), and exercised hypertensive (EH). Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001) in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001) the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01) smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  20. Long-term physiological T3 supplementation in hypertensive heart disease in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltman, Nathan Y; Pol, Christine J; Zhang, Youhua; Wang, Yibo; Koder, Adrienne; Raza, Sarah; Zucchi, Riccardo; Saba, Alessandro; Colligiani, Daria; Gerdes, A Martin

    2015-09-15

    Animal studies suggest that hypertension leads to cardiac tissue hypothyroidism, a condition that can by itself lead to heart failure. We have previously shown that short-term thyroid hormone treatment in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats near heart failure is beneficial. This study tested the hypothesis that therapeutic, long-term T3 treatment in SHHF rats can prevent or attenuate cardiac dysfunction. Female SHHF rats were treated orally with a physiological T3 dose (0.04 μg/ml) from 12 to 24 mo of age. Age-matched female SHHF and Wistar-Kyoto rats served as hypertensive and normotensive controls, respectively. SHHF rats had reduced serum free thyroid hormone levels and cardiac tissue T3 levels, LV dysfunction, and elevated LV collagen content compared with normotensive controls. Restoration of serum and cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels in T3-treated rats was associated with no change in heart rate, but strong trends for improvement in LV systolic function and collagen levels. For instance, end-systolic diameter, fractional shortening, systolic wall stress, and LV collagen levels were no longer significantly different from controls. In conclusion, longstanding hypertension in rats led to chronic low serum and cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels. Long-term treatment with low-dose T3 was safe. While cardiac dysfunction could not be completely prevented in the absence of antihypertensive treatment, T3 may offer additional benefits as an adjunct therapy with possible improvement in diastolic function. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Spontaneously hypertensive rats: a potential model to identify drugs for treatment of learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Hong, E

    1998-04-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of 3 to 12 months of age learned and retrieved less information than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), although no difference was found with animals from 18 and 24 months of age. The combined influence of hypertension and aging had an additive detrimental effect on cognitive functions. Notwithstanding these deficiencies in learning and memory, SHR have seldom been used as a model in the screening of drugs with therapeutic potential for treatment of disorders of cognitive processes. Moreover, the calcium channel blocker nimodipine has beneficial effects on learning in both aged and hypertensive animals and humans. However, no attempt has been made to investigate whether nimodipine can reverse the additive deleterious effects of aging and hypertension in the same subject. We recently reported that deteriorated animals (middle-aged and/or hypertensive) chronically treated with nimodipine (via osmotic minipumps) exhibit higher learning scores. This information indicates that nimodipine can reverse the impairing effects of either aging or hypertension on learning; the presence of the two conditions, however, produces a severe impairment that can be partially reversed by this drug. Therefore, we propose that mature and middle-aged SHR represent a model for the screening of potentially useful drugs in the treatment of learning disorders, probably associated with hypertension and/or aging. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that the SHR is a genetic model and the appearance of neural disturbances could be a parallel genetic phenomenon and not necessarily or exclusively related to hypertension per se.

  2. Blood Pressure Interventions Affect Acute and Four-Week Diesel Exhaust Induced Pulmonary Injury in Healthy and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: We recently showed that inhalation exposure of normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats to whole diesel exhaust (DE) elicits changes in cardiac gene expression that broadly mimics expression in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats without DE. We hypothesized that pharmacol...

  3. Evaluation of density and distribution of CART-immunoreactive structures in gastrointestinal tract of hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasacka, Irena; Piotrowska, Zaneta

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) throughout the organism, multiplicity of functions fulfilled by that peptide, and the collected evidence confirming CART contribution to blood pressure regulation prompted us to undertake the research aiming to identify, localize, and assess changes in CART-immunopositive structures of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) of rats with renovascular hypertension. The two-kidney one-clip model of arterial hypertension was used to evaluate the location and density of CART-containing structures in the stomach (cardia, fundus, and pylorus), duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon of hypertensive rats. The study was carried out on the GI tract of 20 rats. Ten rats were subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure and after a 6-week period each of them developed stable hypertension. An immunohistochemical localization of CART was performed on paraffin GI tract sections from all the study animals. CART was detected in the extensive population of neurons, particularly within the myenteric plexuses all along the GI tract, and also in neuroendocrine cells, being especially numerous in the stomach and a few in the small intestine. The hypertension significantly increased the density of CART-positive structures in the rat GI tract. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the density of CART-immunoreactive structures but also the staining intensity. As this study provides novel findings, we are planning further molecular examinations to better understand the impact of hypertension on the functioning and activity of CART in the GI tract.

  4. Time-course effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular and renal parameters in 2K1C renovascular hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.A. Maia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training (Ex has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP, reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150–180 g underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks. Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension.

  5. Characterizing operant hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jade C; Herbst, Katrina; Sanabria, Federico

    2012-01-26

    Operant hyperactivity, the emission of reinforced responses at an inordinately high rate, has been reported in children with ADHD and in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR), the most widely studied animal model of ADHD. The SHR emits behavior at hyperactive levels, relative to a normoactive strain, only when such behavior is seldom reinforced. Because of its dependence on rate of reinforcement, operant hyperactivity appears to be driven primarily by incentive motivation, not motoric capacity. This claim was evaluated in the present study using a novel strategy, based on the organization of behavior in bouts of reinforced responses separated by pauses. Male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar rats (WIS) were exposed each to a multiple variable-interval schedule of sucrose reinforcement (12, 24, 48, 96, and 192 s) between post-natal days (PND) 48 and 93. Responding in each schedule was examined in two epochs, PND 58-62 and 89-93. Parameters of response-reinforcement functions (Herrnstein's hyperbola) and bout-organized behavior were estimated in each epoch. SHR emitted higher response rates than WKY and WIS, but only when rate of reinforcement was low (fewer than 2 reinforcers per minute), and particularly in the second epoch. Estimates of Herrnstein's hyperbola parameters suggested the primacy of motivational over motoric factors driving the response-rate differential. Across epochs and schedules, a more detailed analysis of response bouts by SHR revealed that these were shorter than those by WKY, but more frequent than those by WKY and WIS. Differences in bout length subsided between epochs, but differences in bout-initiation rate were exacerbated. These results were interpreted in light of robust evidence linking changes in bout-organization parameters and experimental manipulations of motivation and response-reinforcement contingency. Operant hyperactivity in SHR was confirmed. Although incentive motivation appears to play an important role in operant

  6. Characterizing operant hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jade C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Operant hyperactivity, the emission of reinforced responses at an inordinately high rate, has been reported in children with ADHD and in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR, the most widely studied animal model of ADHD. The SHR emits behavior at hyperactive levels, relative to a normoactive strain, only when such behavior is seldom reinforced. Because of its dependence on rate of reinforcement, operant hyperactivity appears to be driven primarily by incentive motivation, not motoric capacity. This claim was evaluated in the present study using a novel strategy, based on the organization of behavior in bouts of reinforced responses separated by pauses. Method Male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and Wistar rats (WIS were exposed each to a multiple variable-interval schedule of sucrose reinforcement (12, 24, 48, 96, and 192 s between post-natal days (PND 48 and 93. Responding in each schedule was examined in two epochs, PND 58-62 and 89-93. Parameters of response-reinforcement functions (Herrnstein's hyperbola and bout-organized behavior were estimated in each epoch. Results SHR emitted higher response rates than WKY and WIS, but only when rate of reinforcement was low (fewer than 2 reinforcers per minute, and particularly in the second epoch. Estimates of Herrnstein's hyperbola parameters suggested the primacy of motivational over motoric factors driving the response-rate differential. Across epochs and schedules, a more detailed analysis of response bouts by SHR revealed that these were shorter than those by WKY, but more frequent than those by WKY and WIS. Differences in bout length subsided between epochs, but differences in bout-initiation rate were exacerbated. These results were interpreted in light of robust evidence linking changes in bout-organization parameters and experimental manipulations of motivation and response-reinforcement contingency. Conclusions Operant hyperactivity in SHR was confirmed. Although incentive

  7. Effects on atrial fibrillation in aged hypertensive rats by Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We have shown previously that inhibition of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels is antiarrhythmic in models of acutely induced atrial fibrillation (AF). These models, however, do not take into account that AF derives from a wide range of predisposing factors, the most prevalent ...... the notion that SK channels may offer a promising new therapeutic target in the treatment of AF.......We have shown previously that inhibition of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels is antiarrhythmic in models of acutely induced atrial fibrillation (AF). These models, however, do not take into account that AF derives from a wide range of predisposing factors, the most prevalent...... being hypertension. In this study we assessed the effects of two different SK channel inhibitors, NS8593 and UCL1684, in aging, spontaneously hypertensive rats to examine their antiarrhythmic properties in a setting of hypertension-induced atrial remodeling. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats...

  8. Increased proteoglycan synthesis by the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipke, D W; Couchman, J R

    1991-01-01

    Proteoglycan (PG) synthesis in the cardiovascular system of coarctation hypertensive rats was examined by in vivo and in vitro labeling of glycosaminoglycans with 35SO4 in rats made hypertensive for short (4 days) and longer (14 days) durations. With in vivo labeling, only tissues directly exposed...... indicate that: 1) coarctation hypertension stimulates PG production that is dependent initially on increased pressure and later, on additional non-pressure related factors, 2) these other factors are responsible for enhanced PG production in tissues not directly exposed to pressure overload, 3) pressure...... and/or these other factors are essential for enhanced PG production in coarctation hypertension, and 4) synthesis of all GAG types appears to be affected....

  9. Rosuvastatin, Sildenafil and Their Combination in Monocrotaline-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasińska-Stroschein Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the pleiotropic effects of statins and their potential role in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. Previous experimental findings indicate that a combination of lipophilic statins with phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, can offer preventive effects on rat monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. The present study is aimed to assess whether therapeutic regimen provides any benefits. Seven days after pulmonary hypertension induction, hydrophilic rosuvastatin and sildenafil were given for 14 days to male Wistar outbred rats. Right ventricular pressure, right ventricle mass and three biomarkers were evaluated after 21 days: brain natriuretic peptide, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and vascular endothelial growth factor. The present study demonstrates that administration of hydrophilic statin with sildenafil results in reduction of pulmonary vascular remodeling and right ventricular pressure. The results of biochemical measurements may suggest that statins play a positive role in right ventricle function or the process of angiogenesis in pulmonary hypertension development.

  10. Diminished A-type potassium current and altered firing properties in presympathetic PVN neurones in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonner, Patrick M; Filosa, Jessica A; Stern, Javier E

    2008-03-15

    Accumulating evidence supports a contribution of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) to sympathoexcitation and elevated blood pressure in renovascular hypertension. However, the underlying mechanisms resulting in altered neuronal function in hypertensive rats remain largely unknown. Here, we aimed to address whether the transient outward potassium current (I(A)) in identified rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM)-projecting PVN neurones is altered in hypertensive rats, and whether such changes affected single and repetitive action potential properties and associated changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Patch-clamp recordings obtained from PVN-RVLM neurons showed a reduction in I(A) current magnitude and single channel conductance, and an enhanced steady-state current inactivation in hypertensive rats. Morphometric reconstructions of intracellularly labelled PVN-RVLM neurons showed a diminished dendritic surface area in hypertensive rats. Consistent with a diminished I(A) availability, action potentials in PVN-RVLM neurons in hypertensive rats were broader, decayed more slowly, and were less sensitive to the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. Simultaneous patch clamp recordings and confocal Ca(2+) imaging demonstrated enhanced action potential-evoked intracellular Ca(2+) transients in hypertensive rats. Finally, spike broadening during repetitive firing discharge was enhanced in PVN-RVLM neurons from hypertensive rats. Altogether, our results indicate that diminished I(A) availability constitutes a contributing mechanism underlying aberrant central neuronal function in renovascular hypertension.

  11. Vasopressin and oxytocin gene expression in the supraoptic and paraventricular nucleus of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) during development of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, H.H.M. van; Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1988-01-01

    To study the regulation of hypothalamic vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) gene expression in relation to the development of hypertension, levels of VP mRNA and OT mRNA were determined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Differences in VP and OT mRNA content of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and

  12. Right-but not left-paw use in female rats provides advantage in forced swim tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyman, Efe; Tunckol, Elcin; Lacin, Emre; Canbeyli, Resit

    2015-10-15

    Left- and right-pawed adult female Wistar rats were subjected to forced swimming on two consecutive days. Compared to the right-pawed group, left- pawed rats displayed significantly increased immobility from the first to the second swim test and remained significantly more immobile in the second swim test. Both groups performed similarly in spatial learning in the Morris water maze suggesting that left- pawed rats are differentially and specifically susceptible to depressogenic treatment.

  13. CyPA-CD147-ERK1/2-cyclin D2 signaling pathway is upregulated during rat left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fu-Cai; Wang, Hong-Yan; Ma, Ming-Ming; Guan, Tian-Wang; Pan, Long; Yao, Dun-Chen; Chen, Ya-Lan; Chen, Wei-Bei; Tu, Yong-Sheng; Fu, Xiao-Dong

    2015-08-25

    The changes of serum cyclophilin A (CyPA), its receptor CD147 and the downstream signaling pathway during the process of cardiac hypertrophy remain unknown. The present study aims to investigate the relationships between CyPA-CD147-ERK1/2-cyclin D2 signaling pathway and the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Left ventricular hypertrophy was prepared by 2-kidney, 2-clip in Sprague-Dawley rats and observed for 1 week, 4 and 8 weeks. Left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated by ratio of left ventricular heart weight to body weight (LVW/BW) and cardiomyocyte cross sectional area (CSA). CyPA levels in serum were determined with a rat CyPA ELISA kit. Expressions of CyPA, CD147, phospho-ERK1/2 and cyclin D2 in left ventricular myocytes were determined by Western blot and immunostaining. Compared with sham groups, systolic blood pressure reached hypertensive levels at 4 weeks in 2K2C groups. LVW/BW and CSA in 2K2C groups were significantly increased at 4 and 8 weeks after clipping. ELISA results indicated a prominent increase in serum CyPA level associated with the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. Western blot revealed that the expressions of CyPA, CD147, phospho-ERK1/2 and cyclin D2 in left ventricular tissues were also remarkably increased as the cardiac hypertrophy developed. The results of the present study demonstrates that serum CyPA and CyPA-CD147-ERK1/2-cyclin D2 signaling pathway in ventricular tissues are time-dependently upregulated and activated with the process of left ventricular hypertrophy. These data suggest that CyPA-CD147 signaling cascade might play a role in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy, and CyPA might be a prognosticator of the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy.

  14. Insulin mediated hemodynamic responses in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs): effect of chromosome 4 gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Sumangala P; McRae, Crystal; Lapanowski, Karen; Churchill, Monique; Kurtz, Theodore W; Dunbar, Joseph C

    2003-02-01

    The spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely studied model of essential hypertension and has been reported to exhibit alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Genetic linkage studies implicated that SHR carries deletion variant of Cd36 gene of chromosome 4, the gene that encodes fatty acid transporter. Thus it could be possible that primary genetic defect in SHR is compromised tissue utilization of fatty acid that would form the basis for the pathogenesis of hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and insulin-mediated responses. We measured both the hemodynamic and metabolic responses to insulin in SHR in comparison with the chromosome congenic spontaneous hypertensive rats (cSHRs) (rats in which piece of chromosome 4 containing wild type Cd36 was integrated into the SHR genome). A bolus infusion of insulin increased iliac conductance and decreased blood pressure in Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. However, in SHR insulin did not reduce blood pressure as in WKY but after about 15 min it significantly enhanced blood pressure and reduced iliac conductance. Whereas in cSHR insulin did not reduce blood pressure as in WKY rats. However, pressor responses to insulin were eliminated by chromosome 4 gene transfer. Glucose clearance was significantly slower in both SHR and cSHR. Glucose tolerance test revealed that SHR are hyperinsulinemic and insulin resistant. These findings indicate that transfer of segment of chromosome 4 from Brown Norway rats onto spontaneous hypertensive background eliminates hyperinsulinemia and pressor effects of insulin.

  15. Genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, reverses severe pulmonary hypertension and prevents right heart failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matori, Humann; Umar, Soban; Nadadur, Rangarajan D; Sharma, Salil; Partow-Navid, Rod; Afkhami, Michelle; Amjedi, Marjan; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2012-08-01

    Pretreatment with a phytoestrogen genistein has been shown to attenuate the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Because PH is not always diagnosed early, we examined whether genistein could also reverse preexisting established PH and prevent associated right heart failure (RHF). PH was induced in male rats by 60 mg/kg of monocrotaline. After 21 days, when PH was well established, rats received daily injection of genistein (1 mg/kg per day) for 10 days or were left untreated to develop RHF by day 30. Effects of genistein on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation and neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy were assessed in vitro. Severe PH was evident 21 days after monocrotaline, as peak systolic right ventricular pressure increased to 66.35±1.03 mm Hg and right ventricular ejection fraction reduced to 41.99±1.27%. PH progressed to RHF by day 30 (right ventricular pressure, 72.41±1.87 mm Hg; RV ejection fraction, 29.25±0.88%), and mortality was ≈75% in RHF rats. Genistein therapy resulted in significant improvement in lung and heart function as right ventricular pressure was significantly reduced to 43.34±4.08 mm Hg and right ventricular ejection fraction was fully restored to 65.67±1.08% similar to control. Genistein reversed PH-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling in vivo and inhibited human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by ≈50% in vitro likely through estrogen receptor-β. Genistein also reversed right ventricular hypertrophy (right ventricular hypertrophy index, 0.35±0.029 versus 0.70±0.080 in RHF), inhibited neonatal rat ventricular myocyte hypertrophy, and restored PH-induced loss of capillaries in the right ventricle. These improvements in cardiopulmonary function and structure resulted in 100% survival by day 30. Genistein restored PH-induced downregulation of estrogen receptor-β expression in the right ventricle and lung. In conclusion, genistein therapy not only rescues

  16. Pregnancy-induced hypertension in a rat heterogeneity model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. Hutten

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis presents an approach to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) in animals by means of an immunologic model. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders in man may be considered a clinical expression of maladaptation in pregnancy. Maladaptation disease develops early in

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging left ventricular mass reduction with fixed-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-based regimens in patients with high-risk hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichek, Nathaniel; Devereux, Richard B; Rocha, Ricardo A; Hilkert, Robert; Hall, Donna; Purkayastha, Das; Pitt, Bertram

    2009-10-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy, a major cardiovascular risk factor for morbidity and mortality, is commonly caused by arterial hypertension. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may contribute to the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy. The Assessment of Lotrel in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Hypertension Study compared a single-pill combination of amlodipine/benazepril at doses 5.0/20.0 mg, 5.0/40.0 mg, and 10.0/40.0 mg with hydrochlorothiazide/benazepril at doses 12.5/20.0 mg, 12.5/40.0 mg, and 25.0/40.0 mg on the reduction of left ventricular mass index measured by cardiac MRI in stage 2 hypertensive patients over 52 weeks of treatment in a randomized clinical trial. A total of 125 male and female patients, > or =55 years of age, with echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and high-risk hypertension defined as blood pressure > or =160/100 mm Hg or current antihypertensive treatment were enrolled. After 52 weeks of treatment, left ventricular mass index was significantly reduced from baseline with amlodipine/benazepril (mean: 10.16 g/m(2)) or hydrochlorothiazide/benazepril (mean: 6.74 g/m(2); both Pamlodipine/benazepril (P=0.02). Both treatments were well tolerated.

  18. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, I; Kasacka, I

    2015-04-13

    Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB) of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip) to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings, the question

  19. Quantitative Evaluation of CART-Containing Cells in Urinary Bladder of Rats with Renovascular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, I.; Kasacka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB) of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip) to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings, the question

  20. Quantitative evaluation of CART-containing cells in urinary bladder of rats with renovascular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Janiuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent biological advances make it possible to discover new peptides associated with hypertension. The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART is a known factor in appetite and feeding behaviour. Various lines of evidence suggest that this peptide participates not only in control of feeding behaviour but also in the regulation of the cardiovascular and sympathetic systems and blood pressure. The role of CART in blood pressure regulation led us to undertake a study aimed at analysing quantitative changes in CART-containing cells in urinary bladders (UB of rats with renovascular hypertension. We used the Goldblatt model of arterial hypertension (two-kidney, one clip to evaluate quantitative changes. This model provides researchers with a commonly used tool to analyse the renin-angiotensin system of blood pressure control and, eventually, to develop drugs for the treatment of chronic hypertension. The study was performed on sections of urinary bladders of rats after 3-, 14-, 28-, 42 and 91 days from hypertension induction. Immunohistochemical identification of CART cells was performed on paraffin for the UBs of all the study animals. CART was detected in the endocrine cells, especially numerous in the submucosa and muscularis layers, with a few found in the transitional epithelium and only occasionally in serosa. Hypertension significantly increased the number of CART-positive cells in the rat UBs. After 3 and 42 days following the procedure, statistically significantly higher numbers of CART-positive cells were identified in comparison with the control animals. The differences between the hypertensive rats and the control animals concerned not only the number density of CART-immunoreactive cells but also their localization. After a 6-week period, each of the rats subjected to the renal artery clipping procedure developed stable hypertension. CART appeared in numerous transitional epithelium cells. As this study provides novel findings

  1. Protective effect of telmisartan on neurovascular unit and inflammasome in stroke-resistant spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wentao; Yamashita, Toru; Kurata, Tomoko; Kono, Syoichiro; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Deguchi, Kentaro; Zhai, Yun; Abe, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is a crucial risk factor for both stroke and dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). We inspected the effect of telmisartan on the neurovascular unit (NVU) and related inflammatory responses in spontaneously hypertensive rat stroke resistant (SHR-SR) by observing the components of NVU such as N-acetyl glucosamine oligomer (NAGO), collagen IV, astrocytes, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), as well as inflammasome NOD-like receptors family protein 3 (NLRP3). In the present study, we examined the effect of a highly selective angiotensin type 1 (AT-1) antagonist of angiotensin 2 receptor with high lipid solubility, telmisartan, on NVU and related inflammatory responses in SHR-SR with a low dose (0.3 mg/kg/day) only for improving metabolic syndrome, and a high dose (3 mg/kg/day) for improving both metabolic syndrome and SHR-SR hypertension. Compared to normotensive Wistar rats, long-lasting hypertension in SHR-SR disrupted NVU by changing immunohistological components such as NAGO, collagen IV, astrocytes, and MMP-9. SHR-SR also strongly induced AD-related inflammasome NLRP3 in neuronal cells with age. However, such NVU disruption and inflammasome activation were greatly improved with dose-dependent telmisartan treatments. These results suggest that telmisartan comprehensively protected the NVU components by reducing inflammatory reactions relative to AD in hypertensive rats, which could also preclude the risk of AD under hypertension.

  2. Exercise training and detraining modify the morphological and mechanical properties of single cardiac myocytes obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M A; Pelúzio, M C G; Silva, C H O; Amorim, P R S; Silva, K A; Souza, M O; Castro, C A; Roman-Campos, D; Prímola-Gomes, T N; Natali, A J

    2010-11-01

    We determined the effects of exercise training and detraining on the morphological and mechanical properties of left ventricular myocytes in 4-month-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) randomly divided into the following groups: sedentary for 8 weeks (SED-8), sedentary for 12 weeks (SED-12), treadmill-running trained for 8 weeks (TRA, 16 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week), and treadmill-running trained for 8 weeks followed by 4 weeks of detraining (DET). At sacrifice, left ventricular myocytes were isolated enzymatically, and resting cell length, width, and cell shortening after stimulation at a frequency of 1 Hz (~25°C) were measured. Cell length was greater in TRA than in SED-8 (161.30 ± 1.01 vs 156.10 ± 1.02 μm, P exercise training or detraining. Cell length to width ratio was higher in TRA than in SED-8 (8.50 ± 0.08 vs 8.22 ± 0.10, P Exercise training did not affect cell shortening, which was unchanged with detraining. TRA cells exhibited higher maximum velocity of shortening than SED-8 (102.01 ± 4.50 vs 82.01 ± 5.30 μm/s, P exercise training affected left ventricle remodeling in SHR towards eccentric hypertrophy, which remained after detraining. It also improved single left ventricular myocyte contractile function, which was reversed by detraining.

  3. TGF-mediated oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure: differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1986-01-01

    A highly sensitive oscillatory tubulo-glomerular feedback (TGF) response has previously been demonstrated in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether such as oscillating TGF-response could be elicited in Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and genetically...... hypertensive rats (SHR) and furthermore if any differences in the TGF-response characteristics between SHR and WKY rats could be detected. The closed loop function of the TGF-system was studied. In 12-18-week-old WKY rats regular oscillations in the intratubular pressure occurred spontaneously. The median...... fluid (ATF). When furosemide was added to the ATF in a concentration of 0.1 mM, the oscillations were abolished in both strains of rats. It is concluded that, in both strains of rats the oscillatory phenomena depend upon TGF activity. It is suggested that the irregular pattern of the oscillations...

  4. Acute Superoxide Radical Scavenging Reduces Blood Pressure but Does Not Influence Kidney Function in Hypertensive Rats with Postischemic Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Miloradović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hypertensive surroundings. We investigated superoxide radical molecules influence on systemic haemodynamic and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with induced postischemic AKI. Experiment was performed in anesthetized adult male SHR. The right kidney was removed, and left renal artery was subjected to ischemia by clamping for 40 minutes. The treated group received synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL in the femoral vein 5 minutes before, during, and 175 minutes after the period of reperfusion, while the control AKI group received the vehicle via the same route. All parameters were measured 24 h after renal reperfusion. TEMPOL treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance P<0.05 compared to AKI control. It also increased cardiac output and catalase activity P<0.05. Lipid peroxidation and renal vascular resistance were decreased in TEMPOL P<0.05. Plasma creatinine and kidney morphological parameters were unchanged among TEMPOL treated and control groups. Our study shows that superoxide radicals participate in haemodynamic control, but acute superoxide scavenging is ineffective in glomerular and tubular improvement, probably due to hypertension-induced strong endothelial dysfunction which neutralizes beneficial effects of O2− scavenging.

  5. Improvement of Acetylcholine-Induced Vasodilation by Acute Exercise in Ovariectomized Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Lin, Yi-Yuan; Su, Chia-Ting; Hu, Chun-Che; Yang, Ai-Lun

    2016-06-30

    Postmenopause is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. However, limited information is available regarding effects of exercise on cardiovascular responses and its underlying mechanisms in the simultaneous postmenopausal and hypertensive status. We aimed to investigate whether acute exercise could enhance vasodilation mediated by acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. The fifteen-week-old female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were bilaterally ovariectomized, at the age of twenty-four weeks, and randomly divided into sedentary (SHR-O) and acute exercise (SHR-OE) groups. Age-matched WKY rats were used as the normotensive control group. The SHR-OE group ran on a motor-driven treadmill at a speed of 24 m/min for one hour in a moderate-intensity program. Following a single bout of exercise, rat aortas were isolated for the evaluation of the endothelium-dependent (ACh-induced) and endothelium-independent (SNP-induced) vasodilation by the organ bath system. Also, the serum levels of oxidative stress and antioxidant activities, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase, were measured after acute exercise among the three groups. We found that acute exercise significantly enhanced the ACh-induced vasodilation, but not the SNP-induced vasodilation, in ovariectomized hypertensive rats. This increased vasodilation was eliminated after the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Also, the activities of SOD and catalase were significantly increased after acute exercise, whereas the level of MDA was comparable among the three groups. These results indicated that acute exercise improved the endothelium-dependent vasodilating response to ACh through the NOS-related pathway in ovariectomized hypertensive rats, which might be associated with increased serum antioxidant activities.

  6. Attenuated renal response to moxonidine and rilmenidine in one kidney-one clip hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Penner, S. B.; Smyth, D. D.

    1994-01-01

    1. I1 non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptor agonists, such as moxonidine, increase urine flow rate and sodium excretion following infusion into the renal artery. The functions of these agonists in genetic and acquired models of hypertension have not been determined. 2. We therefore studied the renal effects of two known non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptor agonists, rilmenidine and moxonidine, in 1K-1C hypertensive and 1K-sham normotensive rats. Rilmenidine (0, 3, 10, 30 nmol kg-1 min-1) or moxonidine (0, 1, 3, 10 nmol kg-1 min-1) was infused directly into the renal artery (30 gauge needle) of 1K-sham normotensive and 1K-1C hypertensive rats. 3. In 1K-sham normotensive rats, rilmenidine and moxonidine produced dose related increases in urine flow rate, sodium excretion and osmolar clearance. Both rilmenidine and moxonidine failed to increase urine flow rate, sodium excretion and osmolar clearance in 1K-1C hypertensive rats to the same extent as in 1K-sham animals. At comparable doses, rilmenidine had no effect, while moxonidine (3 and 10 nmol kg-1 min-1) did result in a small increase in urine volume and osmolar clearance which was less than that observed in the 1K sham control animals. 4. These studies indicate that the renal effects of non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptor stimulation are diminished in 1K-1C hypertensive rats compared with 1K-sham normotensive rats. Whether this decrease in activity of the natriuretic non-adrenoceptor, imidazoline receptors contributes to the increase in blood pressure in the 1K-1C acquired model of hypertension remains to be determined. PMID:8032642

  7. Immunosuppression preserves renal autoregulatory function and microvascular P2X1 receptor reactivity in ANG II-hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Autoregulation is critical for protecting the kidney against arterial pressure elevation and is compromised in some forms of hypertension. Evidence indicates that activated lymphocytes contribute importantly to cardiovascular injury in hypertension. We hypothesized that activated lymphocytes contribute to renal vascular dysfunction by impairing autoregulation and P2X1 receptor signaling in ANG II-infused hypertensive rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving ANG II infusion were treated with a...

  8. Protective Role of Selective Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor for Treatment of Decompensated Hemorrhagic Shock in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Khazaei; Babak Barmaki; Ali Nasimi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Different vasoactive factors can modulate cardiovascular adaptation to hemorrhagic shock including Nitric Oxide (NO). In this study we investigated the effect of the NO synthase inhibitor for treatment of decompensated hemorrhagic shock in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: The normotensive and hypertensive groups. Hypertension was induced by the DOCA-Salt method for eight weeks. Then, the animals were give...

  9. [Hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Mitsuru

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is well known to one of the risk factors to reduce cognitive function, however, it is still unclear whether anti-hypertensive therapy is effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Epidemiological studies suggested antihypertensive therapy from the middle-age could reduce risk of dementia. The meta-analysis including HYVET also suggested blood pressure lowering from the elderly might be also effective to prevent development of dementia. The network meta-analysis and the cohort study using mega-data bank suggested ARB might be effective to prevent development of dementia or Alzheimer's disease compared to administration with other anti-hypertensive drugs. Although the further major clinical investigation is required, anti-hypertensive treatment might be useful to manage hypertensive patients with dementia.

  10. Barnidipine or Lercanidipine on Echocardiographic Parameters in Hypertensive, Type 2 Diabetics with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Mugellini, Amedeo; Querci, Fabrizio; Franzetti, Ivano; Pesce, Rosa Maria; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2015-08-05

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lercanidipine or barnidipine on echocardiographic parameters, in hypertensive, type 2 diabetics with left ventricular hypertrophy. One hundred and forty-four patients were randomized to lercanidipine, 20 mg/day, or barnidipine, 20 mg/day, in addition to losartan, 100 mg/day, for 6 months. We evaluated: blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), lipid profile, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), sodium, potassium, and acid uric. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and after 6 months. Both lercanidipine and barnidipine decreased blood pressure. Left ventricular mass index was reduced to a greater extent with barnidipine + losartan. Interventricular septal thickness in diastole was reduced by barnidipine + losartan. Posterior wall thickness in diastole was decreased by both treatments, even if barnidipine + losartan were more effective. Ratio of peak early diastolic filling velocity to peak filling velocity at atrial contraction was increased by barnidipine + losartan, but not by lercanidipine + losartan. Finally, isovolumetric relaxation and time and left atrial volume index were reduced by barnidipine + losartan, while lercanidipine + losartan did not affect them. In conclusion, barnidipine + losartan provided a greater improvement of echocardiographic parameters compared to lercanidipine + losartan.

  11. Pulmonary hypertension is not a risk factor for RVAD use and death after left ventricular assist system support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedira, N G; Massad, M G; Navia, J; Vargo, R L; Patel, A N; Cook, D J; McCarthy, P M

    1996-01-01

    Unlike transplantation candidates, patients with pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) and a high transpulmonary gradient do not appear to be at increased risk for right ventricular dysfunction after left ventricular assist system implant. To verify this observation, we reviewed 63 patients supported with the HeartMate (Thermo Cardiosystems, Inc, Woburn, MA) left ventricular assist system. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with PHTN (47 patients) had mean pulmonary artery pressure > 30 mm Hg and/or pulmonary vascular resistance > 4 Wood units, and the remainder of patients did not have PHTN (16 patients). Both groups were similar in age (mean, 51 years), gender distribution (% men, 83% vs 94%, not significant), and number of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (72% vs 69%, not significant). More patients in the group without PHTN required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (38% vs 12%, p = .06). Right ventricular assist device support was instituted in five (11%) patients with PHTN and four (25%) patients without PHTN. A significantly larger number of patients without PHTN died while on support (14% vs 44%, p = .01). Survival after transplantation in both groups was > 90%. Patients with PHTN have higher transpulmonary gradient, show a significant decrease in pulmonary pressure after left ventricular assist system implantation, and have a higher transplantation rate compared to patients without PHTN. A larger patient cohort is needed to determine if the absence of PHTN is a risk factor for RVAD need and poor outcome after LVAS support.

  12. Influence of Stress on the Expression of bcl-2/bax Protein in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘巍; 李为民; 孙宁玲; 陈源源; 任哲; 虞有智

    2002-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of stress-induced increased sympathetic nerve activity on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and on the development of congestive heart failure. Methods 45male, 16-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were studied, in which 6 as controls. After the 6 controlled SHRs were examined by echocardiography, they were anesthetized and killed by decapitation.The other 39 were divided into the stress group ( n =20) and the control group ( n = 19), and both groups were observed from 16-week-old to 36-week-old. In the stress group, binding- stress model was used. Till 36week, all animals were echocardiographied, weighed and killed as described above. Cardiac bcl-2 and bax protein were quantified by western blot. Circulating catecholamine and angiotensin II (Ang II) were detected by radioimmunoasssy. Results Left ventricular volume ( P < 0.05), left ventricular mass ( P<0.05) and the ratio of ventricular mass to body weight were higher in 36 week than those of the 16 week SHRs, whereas the volumes of eject fraction (EF)manifested the trend of decline, P< 0.05, bindingstress for 20 weeks made this trend significantly, P<0.05. With the increase of age, the serum nore pinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and Ang Ⅱ in creased, suggesting that the binding- stress triggered the activity of central sympathetic nerve system. The cardiac bcl-2 protein was higher in 36 week than 16week, P >0.05, whereas the bax protein increased significantly with the increase of age, P < 0.05, and so was the ratio of bax to bcl-2, P < 0.05. Conclusions The model of binding-stress can effectivelyactivate central sympathetic system, thus and mimic the neuroendocrine states. From 16 to 36 week, the process of cardiac apoptosis aggravated and the increased sympathetic activity would exacerbate rather than relieve this trend.

  13. The susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia to aconitine in conscious Lyon hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min LI; Jin WANG; He-hui XIE; Fu-ming SHEN; Ding-feng SU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The present work was designed to investigate the relationship between hemodynamic parameters and the susceptibility of ventricular arrhythmia to aconitine in conscious Lyon hypertensive rats (LH). Methods: Male LH and Lyon low blood pressure rats (LL) were used. After the determination of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), ventricular arrhythmia was induced by aconitine infusion inconscious rats. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded during the period of infusion. Results: Compared with the LL rats, the LH rats possessed significantly higher BP, blood pressure variability and lower BRS. The threshold of aconitine required for ventricular fibrillation and cardiac arrest in the LH rats were significantly lower than those in the LL rats. It was found that all the hemodynamic parameters studied were not correlated with the tl~eshold of aconitine required for arrhythmia, with the exception of BRS, which was positively related to the threshold of aconitine required for ventricular premature beat. Conclusion: The LH rats possessed greater susceptibility to aconitine-induced ventricular arrhythmias when compared to the LL rats. This greater susceptibility could not be attributed to anyone of the hemodynamic parameters alone studied in the LH rats. It is proposed that various hypertension-associated abnormalities, including the abnormal hemodynamics, may co-contribute to this vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmias.

  14. Tuberoinfundibular transport of intrahypothalamic-administered dopamine in normo- and hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    The dopamine transport system in the tuberoinfundibular tract of the spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated. The results show that the rate of dopamine transport in this tract is strain-specific. SD rats transported twice as much dopamine (in 30 minutes) as WKY and SHR. The dopamine transport system in the SHR, being at par with that of the WKY, remained intact. These findings suggest that hypertension and the alleged reduced central dopaminergic activity in the SHR is not related to the transport of dopamine in the tuberoinfundibular tract.

  15. N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline attenuates renal injury and dysfunction in hypertensive rats with reduced renal mass: council for high blood pressure research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tang-Dong; Yang, Xiao-Ping; D'Ambrosio, Martin; Zhang, Yanlu; Rhaleb, Nour-Eddine; Carretero, Oscar A

    2010-02-01

    N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) is a naturally occurring peptide of which the plasma concentration is increased 4- to 5-fold by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. We reported previously that, in models of both hypertension and postmyocardial infarction, Ac-SDKP reduces cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. However, it is unknown whether Ac-SDKP can prevent or reverse renal injury and dysfunction in hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that, in rats with 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx)-induced hypertension, Ac-SDKP reduces renal damage, albuminuria, and dysfunction by decreasing inflammatory cell infiltration and renal fibrosis and by increasing nephrin protein. Ac-SDKP (800 microg/kg per day, SC via osmotic minipump) or vehicle was either started 7 days before 5/6Nx (prevention) and continued for 3 weeks or started 3 weeks after 5/6Nx (reversal) and continued for another 3 weeks. Rats with 5/6Nx developed high blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, albuminuria, decreased glomerular filtration rate, and increased macrophage infiltration (inflammation) and renal collagen content (fibrosis). Ac-SDKP did not affect blood pressure or left ventricular hypertrophy in either group; however, it significantly reduced albuminuria, renal inflammation, and fibrosis and improved glomerular filtration rate in both prevention and reversal groups. Moreover, slit diaphragm nephrin protein expression in the glomerular filtration barrier was significantly decreased in hypertensive rats. This effect was partially prevented or reversed by Ac-SDKP. We concluded that Ac-SDKP greatly attenuates albuminuria and renal fibrosis and improves renal function in rats with 5/6Nx. These effects may be related to decreased inflammation (macrophages) and increased nephrin protein.

  16. Nitrogen Oxide, Endothelin-1, and Serotonin in the Blood of Immature Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibireva, M D; Aflyatumova, G N; Matveeva, V L; Bilalova, D F; Kuz'mina, O I; Sadykova, D I; Nigmatullina, R R

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial function is an early and sensitive marker of subclinical increase of BP in children and adolescents. It is associated with an imbalance of the key vasoactive factors (NO, endothelin-1, and serotonin). Immature spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR line) are characterized by increased plasma concentrations of NO and endothelin-1 (by 14.7% and 2.9 times, respectively) and increased serotonin content in the plasma and platelets (by 2.7 and 2.3 times, respectively) in comparison with Wistar-Kyoto rats. Platelet count in the blood of SHR rats is by 50% higher than in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

  17. Endurance training in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: conversion of pathological into physiological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciarena, Carolina D; Pinilla, Oscar A; Nolly, Mariela B; Laguens, Ruben P; Escudero, Eduardo M; Cingolani, Horacio E; Ennis, Irene L

    2009-04-01

    The effect of endurance training (swimming 90 min/d for 5 days a week for 60 days) on cardiac hypertrophy was investigated in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Sedentary SHRs (SHR-Cs) and normotensive Wistar rats were used as controls. Exercise training enhanced myocardial hypertrophy assessed by left ventricular weight/tibial length (228+/-7 versus 251+/-5 mg/cm in SHR-Cs and exercised SHRs [SHR-Es], respectively). Myocyte cross-sectional area increased approximately 40%, collagen volume fraction decreased approximately 50%, and capillary density increased approximately 45% in SHR-Es compared with SHR-Cs. The mRNA abundance of atrial natriuretic factor and myosin light chain 2 was decreased by the swimming routine (100+/-19% versus 41+/-10% and 100+/-8% versus 61+/-9% for atrial natriuretic factor and myosin light chain 2 in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively). The expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump was significantly augmented, whereas that of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was unchanged (93+/-7% versus 167+/-8% and 158+/-13% versus 157+/-7%, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; Peccentric model of cardiac hypertrophy (0.59+/-0.02 versus 0.53+/-0.01 in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; Phypertrophy improving cardiac performance. The reduction of myocardial fibrosis and calcineurin activity plus the increase in capillary density represent factors to be considered in determining this beneficial effect.

  18. Effects and mechanism of oridonin on pulmonary hypertension induced by chronic hypoxia-hypercapnia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang-Xing; Sun, Yu; Chen, Chan; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Quan; Qian, Guo-Qing; Dong, Wei; Chen, Yan-Fan

    2009-06-20

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by suppressing apoptosis and enhancing cell proliferation in the vascular wall. Inducing pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) apoptosis had been regarded as a therapeutic approach for PAH. Oridonin can cause apoptosis in many cell lines, while little has been done to evaluate its effect on PASMC. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: normal control (NC); hypoxia-hypercapnia (HH); Hypoxia-hypercapnia + oridonin (HHO). Rats were exposed to hypoxia-hypercapnia for four weeks. Cultured human PASMC (HPASMC) were assigned to three groups: normoxia (NO); hypoxia (HY); hypoxia + oridonin (HO). The mean pulmonary artery pressure, mass ratio of right ventricle over left ventricle plus septum (RV/(LV + S)), the ratio of thickness of the pulmonary arteriole wall to vascular external diameter (WT%) and the ratio of the vessel wall area to the total area (WA%) were measured. Morphologic changes of pulmonary arteries were observed under light and electron microscopes. The apoptotic characteristics in vitro and in vivo were detected. The mPAP, RV/(LV + S), WT%, and WA% in the HH group were significantly greater than those in the NC (P HHO groups (P HHO groups; and the expression of Bcl-2 in group HH was greater than that in the NC and HHO groups. HPASMC mitochondrial membrane potentials in group HO was lower than in group HY (P < 0.01), and cyt-C in the cytoplasm, AI, and caspase-9 in the HO group were greater than that in the HY group (P < 0.01), but the expression of Bcl-2 in the HO group was less than that in the HY group (P < 0.05). The results suggest that oridonin can lower pulmonary artery pressure effectively, and inhibit pulmonary artery structural remodeling by inducing smooth cell apoptosis via a mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  19. Usefulness of latent left ventricular dysfunction assessed by Bowditch Treppe to predict stress-induced pulmonary hypertension in minimally symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation secondary to mitral valve prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricola, Eustachio; Bombardini, Tonino; Oppizzi, Michele; Margonato, Alberto; Pisani, Matteo; Melisurgo, Giulio; Picano, Eugenio

    2005-02-01

    We assessed whether the presence of latent myocardial dysfunction, evaluated by echocardiographic derived force-frequency relationship (FFR) during exercise, predicts the appearance of stress-induced pulmonary hypertension in minimally symptomatic patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Two groups of patients were identified: group I with normal (40 mm Hg) peak stress systemic pulmonary artery pressure. Group I had normal and upsloping FFR and group II had abnormal flat or biphasic FFR. Therefore, in patients with severe MR and apparently normal left ventricular function, the stress-induced pulmonary hypertension seems to be related to the presence of latent left ventricular dysfunction.

  20. Dynamic monitoring of total plasma homocysteine in spontaneously hypertensive rats by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lu-Feng; Li, Jun-Wei; Wang, Xian-Qin; Xu, Ren-Ai; Xu, Xue-Gu; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Hua

    2010-10-01

    Hypertension has been recognized to be closely related to plasma homocysteine levels (tHcy). Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are used widely for hypertension research, but it is unclear whether hypertension is related to high levels of tHcy in rat plasma. To test whether hyperhomocysteinemia occurs in SHR we dynamically measured plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) in SHR by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This analytical method has good linearity within the range of 1-100 micromol/L for tHcy in rat plasma with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9975. After dynamic monitoring (12 weeks) on the plasma tHcy in SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats, we found that there was no significant difference in tHcy level between SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats, which was 6.98 +/- 1.82 micromol/L and 8.04 +/- 1.64 micromol/L, respectively. And there was no significantly high level of plasma tHcy in SHR.

  1. Functional β2-adrenoceptors in rat left atria: effect of foot-shock stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, André Luiz de; Hyslop, Stephen; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora M; Spadari, Regina C

    2017-09-01

    Altered sensitivity to the chronotropic effect of catecholamines and a reduction in the β1/β2-adrenoceptor ratio have previously been reported in right atria of stressed rats, human failing heart, and aging. In this report, we investigated whether left atrial inotropism was affected by foot-shock stress. Male rats were submitted to 3 foot-shock sessions and the left atrial inotropic response, adenylyl cyclase activity, and β-adrenoceptor expression were investigated. Left atria of stressed rats were supersensitive to isoprenaline when compared with control rats and this effect was abolished by ICI118,551, a selective β2-receptor antagonist. Schild plot slopes for the antagonism between CGP20712A (a selective β1-receptor antagonist) and isoprenaline differed from unity in atria of stressed but not control rats. Atrial sensitivity to norepinephrine, as well as basal and forskolin- or isoprenaline-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were not altered by stress. The effect of isoprenaline on adenylyl cyclase stimulation was partially blocked by ICI118,551 in atrial membranes of stressed rats. These findings indicate that foot-shock stress equally affects inotropism and chronotropism and that β2-adrenoceptor upregulation contributes to the enhanced inotropic response to isoprenaline.

  2. Prediction of the left ventricular mass from the electrocardiogram in systemic hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, SO; Heesen, WF; Beltman, FW; Kroese, AH; May, JF; Smit, AJ; Lie, KI

    1996-01-01

    Although echocardiography provides a reliable method to determine left ventricular (LV) mass, it may not be available in all settings. Numerous electrocardiographic (EGG) criteria for the detection of LV hypertrophy have been developed, but few attempts have been made to predict the LV mass itself f

  3. Prediction of the left ventricular mass from the electrocardiogram in systemic hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deVries, SO; Heesen, WF; Beltman, FW; Kroese, AH; May, JF; Smit, AJ; Lie, KI

    1996-01-01

    Although echocardiography provides a reliable method to determine left ventricular (LV) mass, it may not be available in all settings. Numerous electrocardiographic (EGG) criteria for the detection of LV hypertrophy have been developed, but few attempts have been made to predict the LV mass itself

  4. Análisis ecocardiográfico del efecto de diferentes inhibidores del intercambiador Na+/H+ sobre la estructura y función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas Echocardiographic analysis of the effect of different Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitors on left ventricular structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. Escudero

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio fue proyectado para analizar mediante ecocardiograma los efectos del HOE 642 (cariporide (HOE y del BIIB 723 (BIIB sobre la estructura y función sistólica del ventrículo izquierdo en ratas espontáneamente hipertensas (SHR- 8 con 30 mg/kg/día de HOE, 8 con 30 mg/kg/día de BIIB durante 30 días y 4 sin tratamiento (grupo control durante esos 30 días. Los distintos parámetros analizados no mostraron cambios durante ese período en las ratas controles. Si bien el HOE determinó un leve descenso de la presión arterial (C: 184 ± 1.75 mm Hg; 30d:176.20 ± 2.60 mm Hg, p The aim of this study was to analyze by echocardiogram, the action of two Na+/H+ exchange, inhibitors, HOE 642 (HOE and BIIB 723 (BIIB on left ventricular (LV mass and LV systolic function. We studied 16 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, 8 treated with HOE 30 mg/kg/day, 8 with 30 mg/kg/day of BIIB during 30 days and 4 SHR as controls during those 30 days. Results are expressed as mean values ± SEM. The systolic blood pressure and the echocardiograpic parameters examined did not evidence changes during that period in the controls rats. Even though HOE determined a slight decrease in blood pressure (HOE C: 184 ± 1.75 mm Hg; HOE 30d: 176.20 ± 2.60 mm Hg - p <0.01 which was not detected with BIIB, both drugs provoked an increase of peak systolic stress (HOE C: 166 ± 29 kdynes/cm²; HOE 30d: 204 ± 34 kdynes/cm², p <0.04; BIIB C: 164 ± 25.90 kdynes/cm²; BIIB 30d: 234 ± 29.30 kdynes/cm², p <0.02. HOE and BIIB reduced LV mass after 30 days of administration (HOE C: 612.50 ± 50 mg; 30d: 452 ± 37 mg, p <0.01. BIIB C: 544 ± 16mg; 30d: 374 ± 25 mg, p <0.01. LV endocardial shortening was similar independently of the NHE inhibitors used (HOE C: 62.30 ± 2.75%; 30d: 65.50 ± 2.40%, ns. BIIB C: 63.20 ± 2,39%; 30d 67,20 ± 1.62%, ns. These data demonstrate that long-treatment with HOE or BIIB produced similar LV mass regression without changes in

  5. Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is responsible for roughly one-in-six adult deaths annually in the United States and is associated with five of the top nine causes of death. 1 Ten trillion dollars is the estimated annual cost worldwide of the direct and indirect effects of hypertension. 2,3 In the U.S. alone, costs estimated at almost $74 billion in 2009 placed a huge economic burden on the health care system. 4 The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age to the point where more than half of peo...

  6. Left Ventricular Myocardial Fibrosis, Atrophy, and Impaired Contractility in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and a Preserved Left Ventricular Function: A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, Rami; Luetkens, Julian A; Skowasch, Dirk; Pizarro, Carmen; Sprinkart, Alois M; Gieseke, Juergen; Meyer Zur Heide Gen Meyer-Arend, Julia; Schild, Hans H; Naehle, Claas P

    2017-01-01

    Using a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) approach we investigated left ventricular (LV) myocardial changes associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by strain analysis and mapping techniques. Seventeen patients with PAH (9 men; mean age, 64.2±13.6 y) and 20 controls (10 men, 63.2±10.5 y) were examined using CMR at 1.5 T. Native LV T1-relaxation times (T1) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) were assessed using a MOLLI sequence, T2-relaxation times (T2) by means of a gradient spin-echo sequence, and LV longitudinal strain (LVS) and right ventricular (RV) longitudinal strain (RVS) by means of CMR feature tracking. The hematocrit and serum levels of pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide were determined on the day of the CMR examination. Pulmonary arterial pressure and 6-minute walking distance were assessed as part of the clinical evaluation. T1 and ECV were higher (1048.5±46.6 vs. 968.3±22.9 ms and 32.4%±5.7% vs. 28.4%±3.8%; Patrophy with a consecutively impaired contractility despite a preserved LV function, possibly due to longstanding PAH-associated LV underfilling.

  7. Telomere length is associated with ACE I/D polymorphism in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhrquist, Frej; Eriksson, Anders; Saijonmaa, Outi

    2013-01-01

    and association of telomere length with cardiovascular risk is affected by ACE (I/D) genotype. METHODS: We measured leucocyte telomere length (LTL) by Southern blot and analysed ACE I/D genotypes in 1249 subjects with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We examined interactions of ACE I......INTRODUCTION: Short telomeres are often associated with cardiovascular risk factors and age-related diseases, while the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion polymorphism (DD, ID, II) has shown such associations less consistently. We hypothesized that telomere length....../D genotype with LTL and cardiovascular risk. RESULTS: Mean LTL in DD or ID genotype was shorter (8.15 and 8.14 kb, respectively), than in II genotype (8.27 kb, p=0.0005). This difference was significant in the younger subjects (55-64 years, p=0.02) but not in the older group (65-80 years, p=0.56 ). In DD...

  8. The Effect of Magnesium on Visual Evoked Potentials in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Ozlem; Aras, Sinem; Ulker Karadamar, Pinar; Nasircilar Ulker, Seher; Kocer, Gunnur; Senturk, Umit Kemal; Basrali, Filiz; Yargicoglu, Piraye; Ozyurt, Dilek; Agar, Aysel

    2016-08-01

    In the literature, although there are many studies regarding complications of hypertension, information concerning its influence on visual evoked potentials (VEPs) is limited. This study aims to clarify the possible therapeutic effects of the preferential magnesium (Mg) treatment on VEPs in an experimental hypertension model. Rats were divided into four groups as follows: control, Mg treated (Mg), N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) hypertension, and L-NAME hypertension + Mg treated (L-NAME + Mg). Hypertension was induced by L-NAME which was given to rats orally over 6 weeks (25 mg/kg/day in drinking water). A magnesium-enriched diet (0.8 g/kg) was given to treatment groups for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was determined by using the tail-cuff method. Flash VEPs were recorded. Our results revealed that the SBP was significantly increased in the L-NAME group compared to control. Magnesium treatment significantly attenuated SBP in the hypertensive rats compared to the L-NAME group. The mean latencies of P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 components were significantly prolonged in hypertensive rats compared to control. Treatment with Mg provided a significant decrease in the latencies of P1, N1, P2, N2, and P3 potentials in the L-NAME + Mg group compared to the L-NAME group. Plasma Mg levels were increased in the L-NAME + Mg group compared to the L-NAME group. No change was detected in the Mg levels of the brains in all experimental groups. Magnesium treatment had no effect on the brain nitrate/nitrite and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) levels in hypertensive rats compared to non-treated rats. There was a positive correlation between the brain TBARS levels and SBP of the rats. The present study suggests that Mg supplementation has the potential to prevent VEP changes in the L-NAME-induced hypertension model.

  9. Chaos in blood flow control in genetic and renovascular hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yip, K P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Marsh, D J

    1991-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure and flow in renal proximal tubules oscillate at 30-40 mHz in normotensive rats anesthetized with halothane. The oscillations originate in tubuloglomerular feedback, a mechanism that provides local blood flow regulation. Instead of oscillations, spontaneously hypertensive rats...... with time after the application of the renal artery clip. Statistical measures of deterministic chaos were applied to tubular pressure data. The correlation dimension, a measure of the dimension of the phase space attractor generating the time series, indicated the presence of a low-dimension strange...... (SHR) have aperiodic tubular pressure fluctuations; the pattern is suggestive of deterministic chaos. Normal rats made hypertensive by clipping one renal artery had similar aperiodic tubular pressure fluctuations in the unclipped kidney, and the fraction of rats with irregular fluctuations increased...

  10. Novel Rat Model of Repetitive Portal Venous Embolization Mimicking Human Non-Cirrhotic Idiopathic Portal Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Sabine; Hinüber, Christian; Hittatiya, Kanishka

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-cirrhotic idiopathic portal hypertension (NCIPH) is characterized by splenomegaly, anemia and portal hypertension, while liver function is preserved. However, no animal models have been established yet. This study assessed a rat model of NCIPH and characterized the hemodynamics......, and compared it to human NCIPH. METHODS: Portal pressure (PP) was measured invasively and coloured microspheres were injected in the ileocecal vein in rats. This procedure was performed weekly for 3 weeks (weekly embolization). Rats without and with single embolization served as controls. After four weeks (one...... in the weekly embolization group. Fibrotic markers αSMA and Desmin were upregulated in weekly embolized rats. DISCUSSION: This study establishes a model using repetitive embolization via portal veins, comparable with human NCIPH and may serve to test new therapies....

  11. Metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to voluntary wheel running exercise in hypertensive heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rat mimics the human progression of hypertension from hypertrophy to heart failure. However, it is unknown whether SHHF animals can exercise at sufficient levels to observe beneficial biochemical adaptations in skeletal muscle. Thirty-seven female...... SHHF and Wistar-Furth (WF) rats were randomized to sedentary (SHHFsed and WFsed) and exercise groups (SHHFex and WFex). The exercise groups had access to running wheels from 6-22 months of age. Hindlimb muscles were obtained for metabolic measures that included mitochondrial enzyme function...... and expression, and glycogen utilization. The SHHFex rats ran a greater distance and duration as compared to the WFex rats (Pmuscle citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase enzyme activity was not altered in the SHHFex group...

  12. Mechanisms of K(+) induced renal vasodilation in normo- and hypertensive rats in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, Linda Helena Margaretha; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Braunstein, T H;

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the mechanisms behind K(+) -induced renal vasodilation in vivo in normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured utilizing an ultrasonic Doppler flow probe. Renal vascular resistance (RVR) was calc......Aim: We investigated the mechanisms behind K(+) -induced renal vasodilation in vivo in normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods: Renal blood flow (RBF) was measured utilizing an ultrasonic Doppler flow probe. Renal vascular resistance (RVR......) was calculated as the ratio of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and RBF (RVR = MAP/RBF). Test drugs were introduced directly into the renal artery. Inward rectifier K(+) (K(ir) ) channels and Na(+) ,K(+) -ATPase were blocked by Ba(2+) and ouabain (estimated plasma concentrations ~20 and ~7 µm) respectively. Results...

  13. Flow- and acetylcholine-induced dilation in small arteries from rats with renovascular hypertension - effect of tempol treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frank Holden; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Hansen, Thomas;

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether renovascular hypertension alters vasodilatation mediated by nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) and the influence of the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol on vasodilatation. One-kidney one-clip hypertensive Sprague–Dawley rats, treated...... with either vehicle or tempol (from weeks 5 to 10 after placement of the clip), and uninephrectomized control rats were investigated. In renal hypertensive rats systolic blood pressure increased to 171±6 mmHg (n=10), while in tempol-treated rats systolic blood pressure remained normal (139±7 mmHg, n=5......). In isolated pressurized mesenteric small arteries NO-mediated dilatation was obtained by increasing flow rate and EDHF-mediated dilatation by acetylcholine. In arteries from hypertensive rats, flow-induced dilatation was blunted, as compared to normotensive and tempol-treated rats, while acetylcholine...

  14. The association of metabolic syndrome with left ventricular mass and geometry in community-based hypertensive patients among Han Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association of metabolic syndrome (MS with left ventricular (LV hypertrophy is controversial. The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of MS on LV mass and geometry in community-based hypertensive patients among Han Chinese. Materials and Methods: This study included 1733 metabolic syndrome patients according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition and 2373 non-MS hypertension patients. LV hypertrophy was diagnosed by the criteria of LV mass ≥49.2 g/m 2.7 for men and 46.7 g/m 2.7 for women. LV geometric patterns (normal, concentric remodeling, concentric or eccentric hypertrophy were calculated according to LV hypertrophy and relative wall thickness. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI of MS for LV hypertrophy and LV geometry abnormality. Results: The LV mass and LV mass index were higher in the MS group than in the non-MS group. In multiple adjusted models. LV mass index, LV mass, interventricular septum, and post wall were raised with the increased number of MS disorders. MS was associated with increased LV hypertrophy risk (unadjusted OR 1.38; 95% CI 1.21-1.57; age, sex, and blood pressure (BP; adjusted OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.22-1.59. MS was also associated with increased risk of eccentric hypertrophy in male and female patients. MS was only associated with increased risk of concentric hypertrophy in female patients; and MS was not associated with concentric remodeling. Conclusion: LV mass and LV mass index were associated with the increased number of MS disorders in the Chinese community-based hypertensive population. MS was not only associated with increased LV hypertrophy risk, but also associated with concentric and eccentric LV geometry abnormality, especially in females.

  15. Effects of nifedipine and enalapril on glomerular injury in rats with deoxycorticosterone-salt hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, L D; Levin, R I; Benstein, J A; Parker, M; Ullian, M E; Kim, Y; Feiner, H D

    1990-10-01

    Male Munich-Wistar rats underwent right nephrectomy and were given weekly injections of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and 1% saline (salt) to drink. Two studies were performed. In the first, rats given enalapril (ENP) were compared with controls. In the second, rats ingested either standard chow or chow to which the calcium-entry blocker nifedipine (NIF) had been added. Six to eight weeks after nephrectomy, both control DOCA-salt rats and those given ENP had severe hypertension and significant proteinuria. Rats given NIF excreted less protein, and glomerular lesions were not observed in this group. The effects of NIF on several parameters that have been associated with glomerular injury were examined. Micropuncture studies revealed that glomerular capillary pressure was increased in DOCA-salt rats and was not reduced by NIF. Platelet aggregation was also similar in NIF-treated and control rats. Morphometric studies revealed a tendency toward lower glomerular volume of NIF-treated rats; however, kidney weight and glomerular capillary radius were unaffected by therapy. Thus NIF, but not ENP, prevents DOCA-salt rats from developing hypertension and glomerular injury. This effect does not depend on reduction in glomerular pressure or inhibition of platelet aggregation.

  16. Correlation of pulse wave velocity with left ventricular mass in patients with hypertension once blood pressure has been normalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu H. Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vascular stiffness has been proposed as a simple method to assess arterial loading conditions of the heart which induce left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH. There is some controversy as to whether the relationship of vascular stiffness to LVH is independent of blood pressure, and which measurement of arterial stiffness, augmentation index (AI or pulse wave velocity (PWV is best. Carotid pulse wave contor and pulse wave velocity of patients (n=20 with hypertension whose blood pressure (BP was under control (<140/90 mmHg with antihypertensive drug treatment medications, and without valvular heart disease, were measured. Left ventricular mass, calculated from 2D echocardiogram, was adjusted for body size using two different methods: body surface area and height. There was a significant (P<0.05 linear correlation between LV mass index and pulse wave velocity. This was not explained by BP level or lower LV mass in women, as there was no significant difference in PWV according to gender (1140.1+67.8 vs 1110.6+57.7 cm/s. In contrast to PWV, there was no significant correlation between LV mass and AI. In summary, these data suggest that aortic vascular stiffness is an indicator of LV mass even when blood pressure is controlled to less than 140/90 mmHg in hypertensive patients. The data further suggest that PWV is a better proxy or surrogate marker for LV mass than AI and the measurement of PWV may be useful as a rapid and less expensive assessment of the presence of LVH in this patient population.

  17. Rats with Chronic, Stable Pulmonary Hypertension Tolerate Low Dose Sevoflurane Inhalation as Well as Normal Rats Do.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Yin

    Full Text Available The effects of low concentration of sevoflurane on right ventricular (RV function and intracellular calcium in the setting of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH have not been investigated clearly. We aim to study these effects and associated signaling pathways in rats with PAH.Hemodynamics were assessed with or without sevoflurane inhalation in established PAH rats. We analysis the classic RV function parameters and RV-PA coupling efficiency using steady-state PV loop recordings. The protein levels of SERCA2, PLB and p-PLB expression was analyzed by western blot to assess their relevance in PAH.Rats with PAH presented with RV hypertrophy and increased pulmonary arterial pressure. The values of Ea, R/L ratio, ESP, SW, PRSW, +dP/dtmax and the slope of the dP/dtmax-EDV relationship increased significantly in PAH rats (P<0.05. Sevoflurane induced a concentration-dependent decrease of systemic and pulmonary blood pressure, HR, RV contractility, and increased the R/L ratio in both groups. Sevoflurane reduced the expression of SERCA2 and increased the expression of PLB in both groups. Interestingly, sevoflurane only reduced the p-PLB/PLB ratio in PAH rats, not in normal rats.Rats with chronic, stable pulmonary hypertension tolerate low concentrations of sevoflurane inhalation as well as normal rats do. It may be related to the modulation of the SERCA2-PLB signaling pathway.

  18. Hypertension

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for hypertension hyperlipidemia. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County...

  19. Nitric oxide-mediated changes in vascular reactivity in pregnancy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Z. M.; Beilin, L J

    1993-01-01

    1. To examine the mechanisms which may account for pregnancy-induced vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), we have investigated the changes in vascular reactivity and the effects of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) inhibition in the in situ blood-perfused, mesenteric resistance vessels of 18-20 day pregnant SHR. The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) were compared in pregnant and nonpregnant SHR and gestation matched normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. 2. Intra-arteria...

  20. Control of glomerular hypertension by insulin administration in diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Scholey, J.W.; Meyer, T W

    1989-01-01

    Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In gro...

  1. Effect of hypertonic saline solution on the left ventricular functions of isolated hearts from burned rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 刘大维; 王正国; 朱佩芳

    2002-01-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic saline solution on the left ventricular functions of isolated hearts from burned rats. Methods: Thirty-six Wistar rats were used and divided into 4 groups: (1) normal hearts perfused with isotonic Krebs-Henseleit solution; (2) normal hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution which contained 215 mmol/L Na+; (3) hearts of rats suffered from 25% TBSA third degree burn and perfused with isotonic Krebs-Henseleit solution; (4) hearts of the burned rats perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution which contained 215 mmol/L Na+. The systolic and diastolic functions of the left ventricle were observed. Results: During perfusion, there were very short periods of decrease in heart systolic and diastolic functions at first, but they recovered very soon and even became stronger than normal both in the normal and burned rats. The systolic and diastolic functions of the hearts increased very significantly when the perfusion solution was changed to isotonic solution from the hypertonic solutions. The effect of the hypertonic saline solution on the ventricular systolic and diastolic improvements was stronger in the hearts of the burned rats than that in the normal hearts. Conclusions: Hypertonic saline solution can directly affect myocardium and significantly improve the ventricular systolic and diastolic functions, especially in the hearts of the burned rats.

  2. Dr. Lewis Kitchener Dahl, the Dahl Rats and the ‘Inconvenient truth’ abou the Genetics of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Bina

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Lewis K. Dahl is regarded as an iconic figure in the field of hypertension research. During the 1960s and 1970s he published several seminal articles in the field that shed light on the relationship between salt and hypertension. Further, the Dahl rat models of hypertension that he developed by a selective breeding strategy are among the most widely used models for hypertension research. To this day, genetic studies using this model are ongoing in our laboratory. While Dr. Dahl is known for his contributions to the field of hypertension, very little, if any, of his personal history is documented. This article details a short biography of Dr. Lewis Dahl, the history behind the development of the Dahl rats and presents an overview of the results obtained through the genetic analysis of the Dahl rat as an experimental model to study the inheritance of hypertension. PMID:25646295

  3. Study on effect of Baisha Green tea extract on blood pressure in treating spontaneous hypertension rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dao-rui Yu; Li-ping Ji; Yi-hong He; Jing Zhou; Chang-yan Wu; Qi-bing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect and Mechanisms of Baisha Greentea extract on blood pressure in treating spontaneous hypertension rats.Methods:The 60 primary hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into hypertension of control group, amlodipine besylate group and the high, medium and low dose group of green tea extract of five groups, with twelve rats in each group. All treatments were given through oral, and the control group with distilled water. Each measurement of rat blood pressure was detected in the morning every week. After 7 weeks treatment, blood was collected from the rat abdominal aorta for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and level of plasma angiotensin II. At the same time, heart tissue was embedded in 10% neutral buffered formaldehyde fixation, paraffin and sectioned, And then observe the changes of histopathological after HE staining. Results: Compared with the SHR control group, Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of essential hypertension in high dose group and middle dose group and Amlodipine group had significantly reduced. At the same time, the NO and SOD contents of Baisha Greentea extract in high dose group (200 mg•kg-1•d-1) and middle dose group (100 mg•kg-1•d-1) and Amlodipine group (0.5 mg•kg-1•d-1) had significantly increased.Conclusion:Long-term ingestion of Baisha Greentea extract could significantly elevated serum NO and SOD levels of SHR, reduce the level of plasma angiotensinⅡ to common level, while reversed the hypertensive rat myocardial remodeling effectively.

  4. The use of Piper sarmentosum leaves aqueous extract (Kadukmy™) as antihypertensive agent in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zainudin, Maizura; Zakaria, Zaiton; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita

    2015-03-10

    The National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2011 estimated that 35.1% (5.7 million) of Malaysian adults aged 18 and older suffer from hypertension. Hypertension is still treated by conventional medicine despite its exact aetiology being unknown. Studies showed that oxidative stress and low availability of nitric oxide (NO) causes an increase in vascular wall tension and increase blood pressure. Piper sarmentosum (PS) a traditional Malay herbal plant is well known for its high antioxidant content. Antioxidant is useful in improving cardiovascular diseases particularly hypertension. Thus, it is beneficial to determine the effect of PS leaves aqueous extract (Kadukmy™) on the blood pressure, NO level, oxidative stress markers and serum cholesterol level of the Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats (SHR). Rats were devided into five groups consisting of three treatment groups and two control groups. Baseline blood investigations were done before and following commencement of treatment. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were treated for 28 consecutive days and the blood pressure was measured weekly. Kadukmy™ administration showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (P < 0.05), increased serum NO level (P < 0.05), reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level (P < 0.05) and reduction of serum total cholesterol level in groups treated with Kadukmy-1™. The result of the present study revealed that Kadukmy™ exerts its antioxidant activity to reduce oxidative stress damage, increase NO production and able to reduce blood pressure and cholesterol level.

  5. Effect of morin, a flavonoid against DOCA-salt hypertensive rats:a dose dependent study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prahalathan P; Kumar S; Raja B

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the protective effect of morin, a flavonoid against deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertension in male Wistar rats. Methods: Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized rats by weekly twice subcutaneous injection of DOCA (25 mg/kg bw) and 1% NaCl in the drinking water for six consecutive weeks. Effect of morin against DOCA-salt induced hypertension was evaluated by measuring blood pressure and performing biochemical estimations and histopathological examination of renal tissues. Results: DOCA-salt hypertensive rats showed considerably increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum hepatic marker enzyme activities such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and renal function markers (urea, uric acid and creatinine) in plasma. Oral administration of morin (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg bw) brought back all the above parameters to near normal level. Histopathology of kidney also confirmed the biochemical findings of this study. The effect at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw of morin was more pronounced than that of the other two doses (25 and 75 mg/kg bw). Conclusions:These findings indicate that morin exhibits strong antihypertensive effect against DOCA-salt induced hypertension.

  6. Effect of Antioxidant Mineral Elements Supplementation in the Treatment of Hypertension in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension.

  7. Evaluation of the asynchronization and function of the left ventricle in patients with chronic pulmonary hypertension by velocity vector imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chao-hong; WANG Yue-heng; NIU Ning-ning; XIE Ying-xin; WANG Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a set of pathophysiological syndromes characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance,resulting in increased right ventricular afterload.The left and right ventricles interact through hemodynamics.What impact will PH have on synchronization and function of the left ventricle (LV)? The aim of this study was to evaluate the synchronization of the left ventricular wall motion and left ventricular function in patients with varying degrees of PH using velocity vector imaging (Wl) technology.Methods Sixty patients with chronic PH served as the experimental group,and 20 healthy volunteers served as the control group.According to the different degrees of pulmonary artery systolic pressure,the experimental group was divided into three groups:mild,moderate,and severe PH groups.The time to peak systolic longitudinal velocity (Tvl),the peak systolic longitudinal velocity (Vsl),the peak diastolic longitudinal velocity (Vel),the peak systolic longitudinal strain (SI),and strain rate (SRI) in 18 segments were measured in each group.Results TvI in the control group and each group with PH was reduced from basal to apical segment,and in control group Tvl in various segments of the same wall and in different walls showed no significant difference (P >0.05).With increase in pulmonary artery pressure,Tvl values measured showed an increasing trend in groups with PH.In groups with PH,Vsl and Vel of each wall were reduced sequentially from basal to apical segments,showing gradient change; Vsl and Vel values measured showed a decreasing trend with increase in pulmonary artery pressure,in which the differences of Vel values measured in the control group and the mild PH group were statistically significant (P <0.01),and the differences between other groups were statistically significant (P <0.01).In groups with PH,SI and SRI in basal segment and the middle segment of each wall were decreased; the

  8. Antihypertensive effect of Gynura Procumbens Water Extract in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kaur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Present study was designed to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of Gynura procumbens water extract (GPWE in spontaneously hypertensive (SH rats. Short term fall of mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR occur in Sprague Dawley (SD and SH rats treated with GPWE 1 g kg-1 (single dose. Treatment of SH rats with repeated dose of 300 and 600 mg kg-1 of GPWE and water (control through gastric gavage for 4 weeks shows long lasting effects on MAP and HR along with increased urine flow rate (UFR. Pressor responses induced by different agonist’s acetylcholine (ACh, phenylephrine (PE, methoxamine (Mtx, angiotensin II (AngII, and isoprenaline (IsoP were significantly inhibited, with more stability to chronotropic effects of agonists, in GPWE repeatedly treated anaesthetized SH rats compared to control rats. These data indicate, GPWE lower blood pressure through non selective pathway mediated via stimulation of vasodilation, heart stabilization and diuretic effect.Industrial relevance. Healing powers of plants are known since ancient times, in this respect herbs have been used for medical treatment since the beginning of human civilization. The present study provides sound pharmacological basis for use of flavonoid rich Gynura procumbens in hypertension and palpitation.Keywords. Diuretic; Gynura procumbens Merr.; heart rate; mean arterial pressure; spontaneously hypertensive rats

  9. The Effects of New Alibernet Red Wine Extract on Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, Alexey; Vranková, Stanislava; Dovinová, Ima; Ševčík, Rudolf; Parohová, Jana; Barta, Andrej; Pecháňová, Olga; Kovacsová, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE) and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR. PMID:22720118

  10. Adenosine A2A receptor agonist prevents cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive male rats after myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jaqueline S; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Sudo, Roberto T; Wang, Hao; Groban, Leanne; Ferraz, Emanuele B; Nascimento, José Hamilton M; Fraga, Carlos Alberto M; Barreiro, Eliezer J; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele

    2017-01-01

    Background This work evaluated the hypothesis that 3,4-methylenedioxybenzoyl-2-thienylhydrazone (LASSBio-294), an agonist of adenosine A2A receptor, could be beneficial for preventing cardiac dysfunction due to hypertension associated with myocardial infarction (MI). Methods Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were randomly divided into four groups (six animals per group): sham-operation (SHR-Sham), and myocardial infarction rats (SHR-MI) were treated orally either with vehicle or LASSBio-294 (10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1) for 4 weeks. Echocardiography and in vivo hemodynamic parameters measured left ventricle (LV) structure and function. Exercise tolerance was evaluated using a treadmill test. Cardiac remodeling was accessed by LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Results Early mitral inflow velocity was significantly reduced in the SHR-MI group, and there was significant recovery in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Exercise intolerance observed in the SHR-MI group was prevented by 10 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASS-Bio-294, and exercise tolerance exceeded that of the SHR-Sham group at 20 mg.kg−1.d−1. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI, and this was prevented by 10 and 20 mg.kg−1.d−1 of LASSBio-294. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase levels were restored in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with LASSBio-294. Fibrosis and inflammatory processes were also counteracted by LASSBio-294, with reductions in LV collagen deposition and tumor necrosis factor α expression. Conclusion In summary, oral administration of LASSBio-294 after MI in a dose-dependent manner prevented the development of cardiac dysfunction, demonstrating this compound’s potential as an alternative treatment for heart failure in the setting of ischemic heart disease with superimposed chronic hypertension.

  11. Effect of active immunization against angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor on hypertension & arterial remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu-Dong Li; Miao Tian; Yu-Hua Liao; Zi-Hua Zhou; Fen Wei; Feng Zhu; Min Wang; Bin Wang; Yu-Miao Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: a0 ngiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. t0 his study was undertaken to explore the effect of active immunization against AT1 receptor on blood pressure and small artery remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Methods: Male SHR and Wistar rats aged two months were actively immunized with different peptides (ATR12185ͱͲATR10014 and ATR12181) corresponding to particular sequences of rat AT1 recep...

  12. Effects of aging and hypertension on learning, memory, and activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, A; Castillo, C; Ibarra, M; Hong, E

    1996-08-01

    A comparison between behavioral alterations induced by hypertension and aging was made in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) of different ages (3-24 months old), trained to perform autoshaping learning and activity tasks. Food-deprived rats received autoshaping training sessions during 6 days; the animals were retrained 1 month later. Two weeks after autoshaping training, the animals were evaluated in the spontaneous activity task during 2 consecutive days. The results show an age-related decrease in learning, memory, and spontaneous activity. Independently of the age group compared, WKY, though showing lower activity, learned and retrieved more than SHR. Accordingly, the reductions in learning and memory were correlated with both aging and hypertension. The combined influence of these two factors had synergistic detrimental effects on cognitive functions.

  13. One-Week Antihypertensive Effect of Ile-Gln-Pro in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Jun; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Xue, You-Lin; Cai, Mu-Yi; Egashira, Yukari; Ren, Di-Feng; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide lie-Gin-Pro (IQP), whose sequence was derived from Spirulina platensis, was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for 1 week. The weighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood

  14. Effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of foxtail millet protein hydrolysates on lowering blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The protein of foxtail millet after extruding or fermenting and the raw foxtail millet was extracted and hydrolyzed by digestive protea...

  15. Lupeol Supplementation Improves Blood Pressure and Lipid Metabolism Parameters in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ARDIANSYAH; YAMAGUCHI, Eri; SHIRAKAWA, Hitoshi; HATA, Keishi; HIWATASHI, Kazuyuki; OHINATA, Kousaku; GOTO, Tomoko; KOMAI, Michio

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation with lupeol (0.67 g·kg −1 ) of the AIN-93M-based diet fed for 7 weeks to stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats caused significantly decreased blood pressure as compared with a control group...

  16. Renal vascular dysfunction precedes the development of renal damage in the hypertensive Fawn-Hooded rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Buikema, Hendrik J.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Provoost, Abraham P.; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2010-01-01

    Ochodnicky P, Henning RH, Buikema HJ, de Zeeuw D, Provoost AP, van Dokkum RP. Renal vascular dysfunction precedes the development of renal damage in the hypertensive Fawn-Hooded rat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 298: F625-F633, 2010. First published December 9, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00289.2009.-I

  17. PULMONARY AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION FOLLOWING ACUTE ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE INHALATION IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles (ufCP) causes cardiac physiological changes without marked pulmonary injury or inflammation. We hypothesized that acute ufCP exposure of 13 months old Spontaneously Hypertensive (SH) rats will cause differential effects on the lung and hea...

  18. One-Week Antihypertensive Effect of Ile-Gln-Pro in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Jun; Sawano, Yoriko; Miyakawa, Takuya; Xue, You-Lin; Cai, Mu-Yi; Egashira, Yukari; Ren, Di-Feng; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    The antihypertensive effect of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide lie-Gin-Pro (IQP), whose sequence was derived from Spirulina platensis, was investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) for 1 week. The weighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pre

  19. Effects of hypertension on hemodynamic response and serum nitrite concentration during graded hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmaki, Babak; Nasimi, Ali; Khazaei, Majid

    2011-09-01

    Hypertensive patients have higher morbidity and mortality from hemorrhage. In this study, we investigated hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentrations during graded hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in hypertensive (HT) and normotensive (NT) rats. Thirteen male rats were divided into two groups, namely HT (n = 6) and NT (n = 7). Hypertension was induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt method in uninephrectomized rats. After 8 weeks, graded hemorrhagic shock was induced during 34 minutes in four steps separated by 8-minute intervals (totally 16 ml/kg). The animals were kept in this condition for 120 minutes (shock period). Then, they were resuscitated with blood withdrawal. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the experiment. Blood samples were taken before and after shock induction and at the end of the shock period. HT rats experienced more MAP and HR reduction during the shock period and less improvement of hemodynamic response after resuscitation compared with the NT group (p 0.05). More reduction of MAP after hemorrhagic shock, less improvement of MAP and HR after resuscitation and low survival rate in HT animals suggested the impairment of cardiovascular system adaptation of HT animals during blood loss and it should be considered in management of hypertensive subjects.

  20. Human heme oxygenase-1 gene transfer lowers blood pressure and promotes growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaawy, H E; Zhang, F; Nguyen, X; ElHosseiny, A; Nasjletti, A; Schwartzman, M; Dennery, P; Kappas, A; Abraham, N G

    2001-08-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the conversion of heme to biliverdin, with release of free iron and carbon monoxide. Both heme and carbon monoxide have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone. A retroviral vector containing human HO-1 cDNA (LSN-HHO-1) was constructed and subjected to purification and concentration of the viral particles to achieve 5x10(9) to 1x10(10) colony-forming units per milliliter. The ability of concentrated infectious viral particles to express human HO-1 (HHO-1) in vivo was tested. A single intracardiac injection of the concentrated infectious viral particles (expressing HHO-1) to 5-day-old spontaneously hypertensive rats resulted in functional expression of the HHO-1 gene and attenuation of the development of hypertension. Rats expressing HHO-1 showed a significant decrease in urinary excretion of a vasoconstrictor arachidonic acid metabolite and a reduction in myogenic responses to increased intraluminal pressure in isolated arterioles. Unexpectedly, HHO-1 chimeric rats showed a simultaneous significant proportionate increase in somatic growth. Thus, delivery of HHO-1 gene by retroviral vector attenuates the development of hypertension and promotes body growth in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  1. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeners, Maarten P.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Ulu, Arzu; Lopez Sepulveda, Rocio; Morisseau, Christophe; Braam, Branko; Hammock, Bruce D.; Joles, Jaap A.

    2011-01-01

    Koeners MP, Wesseling S, Ulu A, Sepulveda RL, Morisseau C, Braam B, Hammock BD, Joles JA. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300: E691-E698, 2011. First published January 25, 2011; doi:

  2. INFLUENCE OF COMBINED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AND ANTIDEPRESSANT THERAPY ON LEFT VENTRICULAR REMODELING IN PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Vasyuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess influence of combined antihypertensive (captopril or metoprolol and antidepressant (thianeptin or sertralin therapy on clinical status, blood pressure (BP and myocardial function in patients with arterial hypertension (HT and affective disorders (AD.Material and methods. 106 patients with HT were involved in the study. 64 patients (60,4% had concomitant AD. All patients were divided into 3 groups. 46 patients with HT and AD were included in the 1-st group. They received metoprolol or captopril in combination with tianeptine or sertaline. The 2-nd group included 18 patients with HT and AD who received only antihypertensive therapy. The 3-rd group consisted of 42 patients with HT without AD. They also received only antihypertensive therapy.Results. After 6 month therapy patients of the 1-st and the 3-rd groups had more significant clinical improvement and BP reduction (according to 24- hour BP monitoring as well as more farourable structural and functional changes of left ventricular in comparison with patients of the 2-nd group.Conclusion. In patients with HT and concomitant AD combined antihypertensive and antidepressant therapy result in favourable clinical changes, effectively reduce BP, improve left ventricular structure and function.

  3. Perspectives on novel therapeutic strategies for right heart failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension: lessons from the left heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Handoko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Right heart function is the main determinant of prognosis in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. At present, no treatments are currently available that directly target the right ventricle, as we will demonstrate in this article. Meta-analysis of clinical trials in PAH revealed that current PAH medication seems to have limited cardiac-specific effects when analysed by the pump-function graph. Driven by the hypothesis that "left" and right heart failure might share important underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, we evaluated the clinical potential of left heart failure (LHF therapies for PAH, based on currently available literature. As in LHF, the sympathetic nervous system and the renin–angiotension–aldosterone system are highly activated in PAH. From LHF we know that intervening in this process, e.g. by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition or β-blockade, is beneficial in the long run. Therefore, these medications could be also beneficial in PAH. Furthermore, the incidence of sudden cardiac death in PAH could be reduced by implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Finally, pilot studies have demonstrated that interventricular dyssynchrony, present at end-stage PAH, responded favourably to cardiac resynchronisation therapy as well. In conclusion, therapies for LHF might be relevant for PAH. However, before they can be implemented in PAH management, safety and efficacy should be evaluated first in well-designed clinical trials.

  4. Contribution of renal innervation to hypertension in rat autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattone, Vincent H; Siqueira, Tibério M; Powell, Charles R; Trambaugh, Chad M; Lingeman, James E; Shalhav, Arieh L

    2008-08-01

    The kidney has both afferent (sensory) and efferent (sympathetic) nerves that can influence renal function. Renal innervation has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of many forms of hypertension. Hypertension and flank pain are common clinical manifestations of autosomal dominant (AD) polycystic kidney disease (PKD). We hypothesize that renal innervation contributes to the hypertension and progression of cystic change in rodent PKD. In the present study, the contribution of renal innervation to hypertension and progression of renal histopathology and dysfunction was assessed in male Han:SPRD-Cy/+ rats with ADPKD. At 4 weeks of age, male offspring from crosses of heterozygotes (Cy/+) were randomized into either 1) bilateral surgical renal denervation, 2) surgical sham denervation control, or 3) nonoperated control groups. A midline laparotomy was performed to allow the renal denervation (i.e., physical stripping of the nerves and painting the artery with phenol/alcohol). Blood pressure (tail cuff method), renal function (BUN) and histology were assessed at 8 weeks of age. Bilateral renal denervation reduced the cystic kidney size, cyst volume density, systolic blood pressure, and improved renal function (BUN) as compared with nonoperated controls. Operated control cystic rats had kidney weights, cyst volume densities, systolic blood pressures, and plasma BUN levels that were intermediate between those in the denervated animals and the nonoperated controls. The denervated group had a reduced systolic blood pressure compared with the operated control animals, indicating that the renal innervations was a major contributor to the hypertension in this model of ADPKD. Renal denervation was efficacious in reducing some pathology, including hypertension, renal enlargement, and cystic pathology. However, sham operation also affected the cystic disease but to a lesser extent. We hypothesize that the amelioration of hypertension in Cy/+ rats was due to the effects

  5. Effect of the PAPP-A on left ventricular hypertrophy and the intervention of γ-interferon in the spontaneously hypertensive rat%妊娠相关蛋白-A对自发性高血压大鼠左室肥厚的影响及γ-干扰素的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范剑峰; 郑春华; 汤圣兴; 高招波; 万明勇; 张春花; 张雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of pregnancy-associated plasma protcin-A (PAPP-A) on lcft ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and the intervention of γ-interferon (INFy) in the spontaneously hypertcnsive rat (SHR). Method: Twenty-eight SHR were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 7) : high-dose group (SHR-H) ,middle dose group (SHR-M) , low-dose group (SHR-L) and the SHR control group (SHR-C). SHRL, SHR-M and SHR-H wcre injected INF-γ respectively for 8 wecks. SHR-C group and WKY group [7 Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were selccted as WKY control group (WKY, n=7)] were injected normal saline for 8 weeks. The tail arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the rats and the level of PPAPA wcre measurcd at the time of pretherapy, 4 week of the treatment and 8 week. At the eighth week, they were sacrificed. We weighed the left ventricular of the hearts and calculated the left ventricular wcight index. We observed the morphological changes in myocardial tissue with HF staining. The expression of PAPPA protein was analysed by Western blot. Result: ①At the time of pre-therapy, the different of SBP and PAPP-A was significantly higher in all SHR group than WKY group (P<0. 05). After 4 weeks, SBP and PAPP-A in SHR-H group and after 8 weeks, SBP and PAPP-A in SHR-M was significantly lower than SHR-C group of the same time (P<0. 05) : but significantly higher than WKY group (P<0. 05).②LVW and LVMI in all SHR group was significantly highcr than WKY group (P<0.05). LVW and LVMI was dccrcascd significantly after using high doses of INF- γ.③To observe HE staincd sections by optical microscope: the normal myocardial cells, non-mesenchymal cells hyperplasia in WKY group. My ocardial cells and fibers was disorder in SHR group. This change of histology was inhibited in all group by using INF-γ with the most effective in high-dose group. ④The correlation analysis of PAPP-A and LVMI showed that they had a significant positive correlation (R =0. 911, P<0. 05).⑤Comparison with

  6. Effects of One Resistance Exercise Session on Vascular Smooth Muscle of Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Hypertension is a public health problem and increases the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Objective: To evaluate the effects of a resistance exercise session on the contractile and relaxing mechanisms of vascular smooth muscle in mesenteric arteries of NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (C, hypertensive (H, and exercised hypertensive (EH. Hypertension was induced by administration of 20 mg/kg of L-NAME for 7 days prior to experimental protocols. The resistance exercise protocol consisted of 10 sets of 10 repetitions and intensity of 40% of one repetition maximum. The reactivity of vascular smooth muscle was evaluated by concentration‑response curves to phenylephrine (PHEN, potassium chloride (KCl and sodium nitroprusside (SNP. Results: Rats treated with L-NAME showed an increase (p < 0.001 in systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and mean arterial pressure (MAP compared to the initial period of induction. No difference in PHEN sensitivity was observed between groups H and EH. Acute resistance exercise reduced (p < 0.001 the contractile response induced by KCl at concentrations of 40 and 60 mM in group EH. Greater (p < 0.01 smooth muscle sensitivity to NPS was observed in group EH as compared to group H. Conclusion: One resistance exercise session reduces the contractile response induced by KCl in addition to increasing the sensitivity of smooth muscle to NO in mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats.

  7. Immediate effect of chandra nadi pranayama (left unilateral forced nostril breathing on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Recent studies have reported differential physiological and psychological effects produced by exclusive right and left nostril breathing and clinical research is required to prove immediate and sustained efficacy of these techniques in various psychosomatic conditions such as hypertension (HT. The present study was designed to determine immediate effects of 27 rounds of exclusive left nostril breathing, a yogic pranayama technique known as chandra nadi pranayama (CNP on cardiovascular parameters in patients of essential HT. Materials and Methods : Twenty two patients of essential HT under regular standard medical management were individually taught to perform CNP by a qualified yoga instructor with a regularity of 6 breaths/min throughout a performance of 27 rounds of CNP. Pre and post intervention heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measurements were recorded using non-invasive semi-automatic BP monitor and Students t test for paired data used to determine significant differences. Results : Twenty seven rounds of CNP produced an immediate decrease in all the measured cardiovascular parameters with the decrease in HR, systolic pressure (SP, pulse pressure, rate-pressure product and double product being statistically significant. Further, gender-based sub-analysis of our data revealed that our male participants evidenced significant reductions in HR and SP with an insignificant decrease in diastolic pressure, while in female participants only HR decreased significantly with an insignificant decrease in SP. Discussion and Conclusion : It is concluded that CNP is effective in reducing HR and SP in hypertensive patients on regular standard medical management. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously published reports on immediate effects of left UFNB in patients of HT and ours is the first to report on this beneficial clinical effect. This may be due to a normalization of autonomic cardiovascular rhythms with increased

  8. Age-associated disruption of molecular clock expression in skeletal muscle of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Miyazaki

    Full Text Available It is well known that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR develop muscle pathologies with hypertension and heart failure, though the mechanism remains poorly understood. Woon et al. (2007 linked the circadian clock gene Bmal1 to hypertension and metabolic dysfunction in the SHR. Building on these findings, we compared the expression pattern of several core-clock genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged SHR (80 weeks; overt heart failure compared to aged-matched control WKY strain. Heart failure was associated with marked effects on the expression of Bmal1, Clock and Rora in addition to several non-circadian genes important in regulating skeletal muscle phenotype including Mck, Ttn and Mef2c. We next performed circadian time-course collections at a young age (8 weeks; pre-hypertensive and adult age (22 weeks; hypertensive to determine if clock gene expression was disrupted in gastrocnemius, heart and liver tissues prior to or after the rats became hypertensive. We found that hypertensive/hypertrophic SHR showed a dampening of peak Bmal1 and Rev-erb expression in the liver, and the clock-controlled gene Pgc1α in the gastrocnemius. In addition, the core-clock gene Clock and the muscle-specific, clock-controlled gene Myod1, no longer maintained a circadian pattern of expression in gastrocnemius from the hypertensive SHR. These findings provide a framework to suggest a mechanism whereby chronic heart failure leads to skeletal muscle pathologies; prolonged dysregulation of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle results in altered Clock, Pgc1α and Myod1 expression which in turn leads to the mis-regulation of target genes important for mechanical and metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  9. Age-associated disruption of molecular clock expression in skeletal muscle of the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Mitsunori; Schroder, Elizabeth; Edelmann, Stephanie E; Hughes, Michael E; Kornacker, Karl; Balke, C William; Esser, Karyn A

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) develop muscle pathologies with hypertension and heart failure, though the mechanism remains poorly understood. Woon et al. (2007) linked the circadian clock gene Bmal1 to hypertension and metabolic dysfunction in the SHR. Building on these findings, we compared the expression pattern of several core-clock genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged SHR (80 weeks; overt heart failure) compared to aged-matched control WKY strain. Heart failure was associated with marked effects on the expression of Bmal1, Clock and Rora in addition to several non-circadian genes important in regulating skeletal muscle phenotype including Mck, Ttn and Mef2c. We next performed circadian time-course collections at a young age (8 weeks; pre-hypertensive) and adult age (22 weeks; hypertensive) to determine if clock gene expression was disrupted in gastrocnemius, heart and liver tissues prior to or after the rats became hypertensive. We found that hypertensive/hypertrophic SHR showed a dampening of peak Bmal1 and Rev-erb expression in the liver, and the clock-controlled gene Pgc1α in the gastrocnemius. In addition, the core-clock gene Clock and the muscle-specific, clock-controlled gene Myod1, no longer maintained a circadian pattern of expression in gastrocnemius from the hypertensive SHR. These findings provide a framework to suggest a mechanism whereby chronic heart failure leads to skeletal muscle pathologies; prolonged dysregulation of the molecular clock in skeletal muscle results in altered Clock, Pgc1α and Myod1 expression which in turn leads to the mis-regulation of target genes important for mechanical and metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  10. Are left ventricular mass, geometry and function related to vascular changes and/or insulin resistance in long-standing hypertension? ICARUS: a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hjerkinn, E; Wachtell, K;

    2003-01-01

    Vascular hypertrophy and insulin resistance have been associated with abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry in population studies. We wanted to investigate the influence of vascular hypertrophy and insulin resistance on LV hypertrophy and its function in patients with hypertension. In 89 patients...

  11. Are left ventricular mass, geometry and function related to vascular changes and/or insulin resistance in long-standing hypertension? ICARUS: a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hjerkinn, E; Wachtell, K;

    2003-01-01

    Vascular hypertrophy and insulin resistance have been associated with abnormal left ventricular (LV) geometry in population studies. We wanted to investigate the influence of vascular hypertrophy and insulin resistance on LV hypertrophy and its function in patients with hypertension. In 89 patien...

  12. Mechanisms responsible for postmenopausal hypertension in a rat model: Roles of the renal sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranon, Rodrigo O; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2016-02-01

    Hypertension in postmenopausal women is less well controlled than in age-matched men. The aging female SHR is a model of postmenopausal hypertension that is mediated in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and by the renal sympathetic nervous system. In this study, the hypothesis was tested that renal denervation would lower the blood pressure in old female SHR and would attenuate the antihypertensive effects of AT1 receptor antagonism. Retired breeder female SHR were subjected to right uninephrectomy (UNX) and left renal denervation (RD) or UNX and sham, and 2 weeks later, baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP; radiotelemetry) was measured for 4 days, and then rats were treated with angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonist, losartan (40 mg/kg/day po) for 6 days. Renal denervation reduced MAP in old females compared to sham (172 ± 6 vs. 193 ± 6 mm Hg; P system and the RAS have independent effects to control the blood pressure in old female SHR. Since the denervated rats treated with losartan remained hypertensive, the data also suggest that other mechanisms than the RAS and renal sympathetic nervous system contribute to the hypertension in old female SHR. The data also suggest that multiple mechanisms may mediate the elevated blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  13. Effects of dietary sodium and magnesium on cyclosporin A-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervaala, E M; Pere, A K; Lindgren, L; Laakso, J; Teräväinen, T L; Karjala, K; Vapaatalo, H; Ahonen, J; Karppanen, H

    1997-03-01

    Arterial hypertension, nephrotoxicity, and magnesium loss are common side effects of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA). In the present study, the effects of dietary sodium and magnesium on CsA toxicity were examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats. A 6-week treatment with CsA during a moderately low-sodium diet (Na 0.3%, Mg 0.2% of the dry weight of the chow) raised blood pressure only slightly, without evidence of nephrotoxicity. By contrast, CsA during a high-sodium diet (Na 2.6%) produced a pronounced rise in blood pressure as well as marked nephrotoxicity, comprising decreased creatinine clearance, increased levels of serum creatinine and urea, and increased urinary protein excretion. During the high-sodium diet, CsA decreased myocardial and bone magnesium concentration and increased myocardial and renal calcium concentration. Magnesium supplementation (Mg 0.6%) protected against the CsA-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity during the high-sodium diet. Magnesium supplementation also completely prevented the CsA-induced myocardial magnesium depletion and calcium accumulation in the heart and kidney during the high-sodium diet. Our findings indicate a detrimental interaction between increased sodium intake and CsA treatment and a marked protection by concomitant oral magnesium supplementation.

  14. Structural and functional changes in the heart and clinical features of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in patients after myocardial infarction, comorbided with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Syvolap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, much attention was paid to left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its role in the occurrence of chronic heart failure. In patients after myocardial infarction, diastolic dysfunction often precedes systolic dysfunction and predicts prognosis. In patients after myocardial infarction, diastolic dysfunction is caused by a violation of early diastolic relaxation in the area of increasing stiffness. Diastolic dysfunction is formed by hypertrophy, fibrosis, myocardial ischemia and arterial hypertension. Given the important role of diastolic dysfunction in the formation of heart failure in postinfarction patients with concomitant arterial hypertension, the mechanisms of its impact on clinical features and structural-functional changes of the heart is an actual problem. Objective: To determine the structural and functional changes in the heart and clinical features of heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in patients after myocardial infarction with concomitant arterial hypertension. Materials and methods: In 91 patients with post-infarction cardiosclerosis and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (EF > 45 % with arterial hypertension were investigated structural and functional changes in the heart and clinical features of heart failure by assessing clinical status and ultrasound of the heart. Prescription myocardial infarction ranged from 2 months to 3 years. Patients were divided into 3 groups. The first group included 50 patients with diastolic dysfunction and symptoms of heart failure (mean age 64,1 ± 1,2 years. In the second group were 31 patients with diastolic dysfunction without heart failure symptoms (mean age 59,5 ± 1,6 years. The third group consisted of 10 patients without diastolic dysfunction and manifestations of heart failure (mean age 57 ± 2,8 years. Results and discussion: 10% patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis and concomitant hypertension with diastolic heart failure had NYHA

  15. Performance of two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of infarct size and left ventricular function in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa E.; Kanashiro R.M.; Murad N.; Carvalho A.C.C.; Cravo S.L.D.; Campos O.; Tucci P.J.F.; Moises V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although echocardiography has been used in rats, few studies have determined its efficacy for estimating myocardial infarct size. Our objective was to estimate the myocardial infarct size, and to evaluate anatomic and functional variables of the left ventricle. Myocardial infarction was produced in 43 female Wistar rats by ligature of the left coronary artery. Echocardiography was performed 5 weeks later to measure left ventricular diameter and transverse area (mean of 3 transverse planes), i...

  16. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  17. Mitral balloon valvotomy, long-term results, its impact on severe pulmonary hypertension, severe tricuspid regurgitation, atrial fibrillation, left atrial size, left ventricular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Eid Fawzy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous mitral balloon valvotomy (MBV was introduced in 1984 by Inoue who developed the procedure as a logical extension of surgical closed commissurotomy. Since then, MBV has emerged as the treatment of choice for severe pliable rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS. With increasing experience and better selection of patient, the immediate results of the procedure have improved and the rate of complications declined. When the reported complications of MBV are viewed in aggregate, complications occur at approximately the following rates: mortality (0–0.5%, cerebral accident (1–2%, mitral regurgitation (MR requiring surgery (0.9–2%. These complication rates compare favorably to those reported after surgical commissurotomy. Several randomized trials reported similar hemodynamic results with MBV and surgical commissurotomy. Restenosis after MBV ranges from 4% to 70% depending on the patient selection, valve morphology, and duration of follow-up. Restenosis was encountered in 31% of the author’s series at mean follow-up of 9 ± 5.2 years (range 1.5–19 years and the 10, 15, and 19 years restenosis-free survival rates were (78 ± 2% (52 ± 3% and (26 ± 4%, respectively, and were significantly higher for patients with favorable mitral morphology (MES ⩽ 8 at 88 ± 2%, 67 ± 4% and 40 ± 6%, respectively (P < 0.0001. The 10, 15, and 19 years event-free survival rates were 88 ± 2%, 60 ± 4% and 28 ± 7%, respectively, and were significantly higher for patients with favorable mitral morphology 92 ± 2%, 70 ± 4% and 42 ± 7%, respectively (P < 0.0001. The effect of MBV on severe pulmonary hypertension, concomitant severe tricuspid regurgitation, left ventricular function, left atrial size, and atrial fibrillation is addressed in this review.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment for experimental intraocular hypertension in rats: An electroretinogram detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhui Yi; Zhengrong Peng; Qiuli Liu; Zhongqi Wu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is used for treating glaucoma, and affirmative curative effect has been obtained. HBO can sensitively reflect the obviously heightened b wave of electroretinogram (ERG)of injured tissue.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of HBO treatment on retinal function of rats with acute experimental intraocular hypertension with ERG.DESIGN: Randomized controlled experiment.SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University; Department of Hyperbaric Oxygen, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University; Department of Anatomy, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University.MATERIALS: Eighteen adult healthy Wistar rats, of either gender, weighing from 150 to 250 g, were provided by the Animal Room of Central South University. Type YLCO. 5/Ⅰ A baby hyperbaric oxygen chamber, type LMS-2A two-channel physiological recorder, type BG-1 retina exposure system, Jiangwan type Ⅰ stereotaxis instrument.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Central South University between March and September 2006. Eighteen healthy Wistar rats were made into models of acute experimental intraocular hypertension. Then, they were divided into two groups: model group and HBO treatment group, with 9 in each group. Following 7 days of HBO treatment, the rats in HBO treatment group were placed in Type YLCO. 5/Ⅰ A baby hyperbaric oxygen chamber, which was pressurized with pure oxygen( volume fraction 0.825 ± 0.025).The treatment pressure was 0.2 MPa. The rats in HBO treatment group daily inhaled HBO for 80 minutes within 7 days; Rats in the model group were untouched. The performance of eyes was observed under the status of intraocular hypertension. ERG was recorded before, during and 7 days after modeling,meanwhile, the recovery rate of b wave from ERG was calculated. Recovery rate of b wave from ERG=(amplitude of b wave 7 days after modeling/amplitude of b wave before modeling)× 100%.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Performance of eyes

  19. Effects of hepatotrophic factors on the liver after portacaval shunt in rats with portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhong-tao; JIANG Peng; WANG Yu; LI Jian-she; XUE Jian-guo; ZHOU Yan-zhong; YUAN Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Background Portacaval shunt (PCS) prevent hepatotrophic factors from flowing into the liver, but they enter directly the systemic circulation and worsen liver injury. This study was designed to investigate the effects of hepatotrophic factors through the portal vein on the liver in rats with portal hypertension after portacaval shunt.Methods Intrahepatic portal hypertension (IHPH) was induced by intragastric administration of carbon tetrachloride, and end-to-side PCS was performed. Eight normal rats served as controls, and eight rats with IHPH served as IHPH model (IHPH group). Another 32 rats with IHPH-PCS were randomly subdivided into 4 groups:normal saline (NS) given to 8 rats, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) 8, insulin (INS) 8, hepatocyte growth factor and insulin (HGF+INS) 8. Hepatotrophic factors were infused into the portal vein through an intravenous catheter.Portal venous pressure (PVP) was measured. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were tested biochemically and those of hyaluronic acid (HA) and laminin (LN) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed histologically and the expression of collagens type Ⅰ and Ⅲ were detected immunohistochemically. Ultrastructural change of hepatocytes and the number of mitochondria were observed under an electron microscope. The data were compared between groups and subgroups by Student-Newman-Keuls procedure with SPSS 10.0.Results PVP was significantly higher in the IHPH rats than in the control rats (P<0.05). The levels of serum ALT, AST, HA, and LN, hepatic fibrosis score, the amount of collagen deposition, collagens type Ⅰ and Ⅲ increased more significantly in the IHPH group than in the control rats (P<0.05). The number of mitochondria decreased more significantly in the IHPH rats than in the control rats (P<0.05). The levels of serum ALT, AST,HA and LN as well as hepatic fibrosis score, the amount of collagen deposition, and the

  20. Differences in tubuloglomerular feedback--oscillatory activity between spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1985-01-01

    In 12 to 18-week-old Wistar-Kyoto rats, regular oscillations in the proximal intratubular pressure occurred spontaneously. The median frequency was 29.7 mHz (range 20-46.7 mHz). In spontaneously hypertensive rats, spontaneous oscillations also occurred, but these were highly irregular. In both st......, the oscillatory phenomena depend upon tubuloglomerular feedback activity, and that the differences in the oscillatory patterns between the two strain of rats represent a difference in the parameter setting of the tubuloglomerular feedback system....

  1. Arterial hypoxemia and intrapulmonary vasodilatation in rat models of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuta, Yasumi; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Ohsuga, Masaru; Akimoto, Toshio; Komeichi, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Shuji; Kato, Yoshihito; Miyamoto, Akiko; Satomura, Katsuaki; Takano, Teruo

    2005-08-01

    Rats with chronic bile duct ligation (CBDL) and portal vein ligation (PVL) are used as models of portal hypertension. CBDL rats show hypoxemia with intrapulmonary vasodilatation (IPVD), and are recognized as a model of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), while PVL rats are normoxemic. We investigated the differences in arterial oxygenation between these models, and the key factors leading to HPS. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were prepared as CBDL or PVL models, or as Sham rats. Arterial oxygenation, hemodynamics (reference sample method), and IPVD were simultaneously evaluated in conscious and unrestrained animals, using (141)Ce- or (113)Sn-labeled microspheres (15 microm in diameter), respectively. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitrate/nitrite (end products of nitric oxide; NOx) production by the lung tissue (increment across the lungs) was also determined. The extent of IPVD was similar in both models, but hypoxemia was only observed in CBDL rats. The ET-1 level and the increment in NOx were significantly increased in CBDL rats, and the increment was directly correlated with impairment of oxygenation. Blood flow through the bronchial arteries (anatomical shunting) was increased in CBDL rats, reaching more than three times the level in PVL rats or Sham rats. These results support the hypothesis that NO derived from the lung tissues contributes to hypoxemia, and IPVD appears to be a prerequisite for impaired oxygenation. The considerable increase of anatomical shunting may potentially contribute to impaired oxygenation in CBDL rats.

  2. Olmesartan attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and improves cardiac diastolic function in spontaneously hypertensive rats through inhibition of calcineurin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingqiang; Zhou, Jingmin; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Hongmin; Liao, Jianquan; Cui, Xiaotong; Sun, Aijun; Fu, Michael; Zou, Yunzeng; Hu, Kai; Ge, Junbo

    2014-03-01

    To test whether olmesartan ameliorates cardiac diastolic dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) through calcineurin pathway. Twenty-four male SHRs of 6 months were divided into saline- (n = 12) and olmesartan-treated (n = 12) groups. Age-matched WKY (n = 12) rats served as controls. Saline (10 mL·kg·d) or the same volume of olmesartan liquor (2.5 mg·kg·d) was administered by gavage for 3 months. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cardiac structure, and function and histological studies were determined. Expression of calcineurin and downstream NFAT3 were also detected. Compared with age-matched Wistar Kyoto rats, SHRs of 6 months exhibited evident cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction as demonstrated by elevated systolic blood pressure and E/E', decreased E/A and E'/A', while F, left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening remained unimpaired. Treatment with olmesartan significantly decreased systolic blood pressure and ventricular hypertrophy, attenuated fibrosis, and improved diastolic function (all P olmesartan group compared with the other 2 groups (both P olmesartan on cardiac structure and diastolic dysfunction, and it may be mediated through calcineurin pathway. This indicates a new therapeutic target for diastolic dysfunction.

  3. Ovariectomy aggravated sodium induced hypertension associated with altered platelet intracellular Ca2+ in Dahl rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, K; Ohno, Y; Sasaki, T; Yamakawa, H; Hayashida, T; Suzawa, T; Suzuki, H; Saruta, T

    1997-12-01

    Our purpose was to determine the effect of ovariectomy on intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and platelet aggregation in sodium induced hypertension. At the age of 12 weeks ovariectomy or sham operation was performed in female Dahl-Iwai salt sensitive rats on a 0.3% NaCl diet. Four weeks later we assessed the effects of ovariectomy and an 8% NaCl diet on agonist induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in fura-2 loaded platelets and platelet aggregation. Ovariectomy enhanced the increase of systolic blood pressure and heart to body weight ratio on an 8% NaCl diet. However, thrombin evoked intracellular Ca2+ was not correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = -0.338, P = .17), and was lowered by sodium loading and ovariectomy (360+/-23 to 285+/-9, 296+/-10 nmol/L, P calcium fraction in the absence of external Ca2+ that reflected internal Ca2+ discharge capacity was reduced in ovariectomized rats compared with sham operated rats on an 8% NaCl diet (648+/-15 v 768+/-35 nmol/L, P hypertensive rats. We concluded that ovariectomy enhanced sodium induced hypertension associated with the decreased internal Ca2+ discharge capacity and increased platelet aggregation in Dahl-Iwai salt-sensitive rats.

  4. Pathological observation of brain arteries and spontaneous aneurysms in hypertensive rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of hypertension in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysms in rats.Methods Twenty spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and 10 Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were included in this observational study. Animals were fed with normal diet and drinking water. No experimental modifications were undertaken in either group. They were sacrificed at one year of age, the bifurcations of the circle of Willis were dissected and longitudinal serial sections were prepared for light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic study.Results In the SHR group, 2 of the 20 rats formed an aneurysm respectively at the bifurcations of the basilar artery. As revealed by electron microscopy, injury at the bifurcation of the artery first occurred on the steeper side of the intimal pad. Furthermore, loss of endothelial cells, small depressions on the intima, disruptive internal elastic lamina and lymphocytes or red blood cells infiltration were noted at the steeper side of the intimal pad. No significant changes were observed in WKY group.Conclusions Cerebral aneurysms can form spontaneously in SHR without ligation of the common carotid artery and without a diet containing β-aminoproprionitrile. Long-standing systemic arterial hypertension is one of the etiological factors that contributes to aneurysm formation in SHR rats.

  5. Hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentration during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Majid; Barmaki, Babak; Nasimi, Ali

    2012-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of hypertension on hemodynamic responses and serum nitrite concentrations in normotensive (NT) and deoxycorticosteron acetate (DOCA)-Salt hypertensive (HT) rats. Uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock was induced in NT and HT rats (n=7 each) by preliminary bleed of 25 ml/kg followed by a 75% tail amputation. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and serum nitrite were measured pre-hemorrhage and during hemorrhage. Changes in time-averaged MAP after hemorrhage were significantly greater in HT group than NT. After resuscitation, the HT rats failed to restore MAP to baseline level. Serum nitrite level in both groups was significantly increased during shock period. Survival rate of HT animals was lower than NT group, although it was not statistically significant. Marked reduction of MAP and less improvement after resuscitation suggested the less adaptation of cardiovascular system in HT animals which may interfere with management of these subjects during uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock.

  6. Beta-adrenoceptors in kidney tubules of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struyker-Boudier, H.A.J.; Vervoort-Peters, L.H.T.M.; Rousch, M.J.M.; Smits, J.F.M.; Thijssen, H.H.W.

    1986-01-13

    Beta-adrenoceptor binding characteristics were determined in different fractions of rat kidney tubules using a (/sup 125/Iodo)-(-)-cyanopindolol (ICYP) binding assay. The highest amount of binding sites was found in a fraction containing predominantly distal tubular fragments. In a separate series of experiments the ICYP binding characteristics were compared in whole tubular fractions from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) of different ages. The maximum number of binding sites was significantly higher both in young (3 weeks) and adult (14 weeks) SHR when compared to age-matched WKY. These studies showed the presence of beta-adrenoceptor binding sites in rat kidney tubules and support the potential importance of tubular beta-adrenoceptors in the development of spontaneous hypertension and in the mechanism of antihypertensive action of beta-blockers. 35 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  7. Loss of NHERF-1 expression prevents dopamine-mediated Na-K-ATPase regulation in renal proximal tubule cells from rat models of hypertension: aged F344 rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Michelle T; Ketchem, Corey J; Merchant, Michael L; Kusiak, Walter B; Jose, Pedro A; Weinman, Edward J; LeBlanc, Amanda J; Lederer, Eleanor D; Khundmiri, Syed J

    2017-08-01

    Dopamine decreases Na-K-ATPase (NKA) activity by PKC-dependent phosphorylation and endocytosis of the NKA α1. Dopamine-mediated regulation of NKA is impaired in aging and some forms of hypertension. Using opossum (OK) proximal tubule cells (PTCs), we demonstrated that sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) associates with NKA α1 and dopamine-1 receptor (D1R). This association is required for the dopamine-mediated regulation of NKA. In OK cells, dopamine decreases NHERF-1 association with NKA α1 but increases its association with D1R. However, it is not known whether NHERF-1 plays a role in dopamine-mediated NKA regulation in animal models of hypertension. We hypothesized that defective dopamine-mediated regulation of NKA results from the decrease in NHERF-1 expression in rat renal PTCs isolated from animal models of hypertension [spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and aged F344 rats]. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and cultured renal PTCs from 22-mo-old F344 rats and their controls, normotensive 4-mo-old F344 rats, and SHRs and their controls, normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. The results demonstrate that in both hypertensive models (SHR and aged F344), NHERF-1 expression, dopamine-mediated phosphorylation of NKA, and ouabain-inhibitable K(+) transport are reduced. Transfection of NHERF-1 into PTCs from aged F344 and SHRs restored dopamine-mediated inhibition of NKA. These results suggest that decreased renal NHERF-1 expression contributes to the impaired dopamine-mediated inhibition of NKA in PTCs from animal models of hypertension.

  8. CD147/MMP-9通路上调改善自发性高血压大鼠早期心室重构%Upregulation of CD147/MMP-9 pathway attenuates early left ventricular remodeling in rats with spontaneous hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周万兴; 李博维; 杨小蓉; 周玉良; 谭永锦; 袁丛聪; 宋玉兰; 陈骁; 张卫

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨CD147/MMP-9通路对自发性高血压大鼠(SHR)早期心室重构的影响。方法:8周龄雄性 SHR 随机分成 SHR、CD147和 CD147+ DOX 组(n =10/组),8周龄雄性 WKY 大鼠为对照组(WKY组,n =10)。 CD147及CD147+ DOX 组予人重组CD147(600 ng/kg 1.5 mL)、SHR 及WKY 组予等量生理盐水,静注,每周1次。 CD147+ DOX组加多西环素(DOX,30 mg/kg,1.5 mL),其他组加生理盐水灌胃每天1次。第56天超声心动图检查、测左心室重量指数(LVWI)、切片(HE、VG染色)观察心肌细胞和胶原增殖、western blot 测心肌 MMP-9、TIMP-1、CD147、Ⅰ和Ⅲ型胶原水平。结果:与 WKY 组比,SHR 组心肌 CD147、MMP-9、MMP-9/TIMP-1明显低(P <0.05);心肌细胞肥大、部分纤维断裂、胞浆溶解坏死,胶原容积分数(CVF)Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原显著增高(P <0.05)。而与SHR 组比,CD147组CD147、MMP-9、MMP-9/TIMP-1明显增高,心肌细胞形态和排列改善,LVWI、CVF、Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原明显降低。但CD147+DOX 组尽管CD147、MMP-9、MMP-9/TIMP-1比CD147组无明显降低,CVF与Ⅰ、Ⅲ型胶原却明显增高,心肌细胞肥大及纤维断裂现象再次出现。结论:SHR早期心室重构可能与CD147/MMP-9通路受抑制有关,输入CD147上调该通路可以改善该心室重构。%Objective To investigate the effects of CD147/MMP-9 pathway on early left ventricular remodeling Methods 30 healthy eight-week male SHR were divided into 3 groups (n = 10 for each group). SHR group received tail vein injections of normal saline weekly; CD147 group received CD147 of 600 ng·kg-1 weekly; and CD147+DOX group received CD147 of 600 ng/kg weekly and intragastric administration of DOX ( doxycycline ) of 30 mg/kg daily . 10 healthy eight-week male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY group) were treated as SHR group. Echocardiography, myocardial sections microscopy examination (HE and VG

  9. Benazepril combined with either amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide is more effective than monotherapy for blood pressure control and prevention of end-organ injury in hypertensive Dahl rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming-Sheng; Jaimes, Edgar A; Raij, Leopoldo

    2006-07-01

    We studied the effect of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril, the calcium channel blocker amlodipine, or a combination of benazepril/amlodipine or benazepril/HCTZ on systolic blood pressure (BP) and end-organ injury (left ventricular hypertrophy, proteinuria, and endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine) in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed either a normal-salt (0.5% NaCl) or high-salt (4% NaCl) diet for 6 weeks. Rats fed a high-salt diet developed hypertension and significant end-organ injury. Monotherapy with HCTZ (75 mg/L in drinking water) or amlodipine (10 mg/kg/day by gavage) reduced systolic BP and proteinuria; benazepril (40 mg/kg/day by gavage) decreased proteinuria without significantly lowering systolic BP. In rats receiving a high-salt diet, only HCTZ reduced left ventricular hypertrophy, whereas endothelium-dependent relaxation was improved by amlodipine and benazepril but not by HCTZ. Combining benazepril with either amlodipine or HCTZ dramatically reduced systolic BP and end-organ injury. These data clearly support clinical studies suggesting that combination therapy is more effective than monotherapy for systolic BP control and prevention of end-organ injury. Complementary mechanisms of action of agents from different antihypertensive classes appear to facilitate the greater benefit on BP and end-organ injury.

  10. The Relation Between Hypertrophied Myocardium and Ventricular Fibrillation Threshold in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Zhibin; Wu Wei; Deng Yijun; Fang Chang; Wei Yulin; Zhou Shuxian; Wang Jingfeng

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relation between hypertrophied myocardium and ventricular fibrillation threshold in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods 20 male SHR were randomly divided into two groups: 10 week group (n=10) and 18 week group (n=10). 10week male Wistar rats were controlled group (n=10). The systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart mass index (HMI), ventricular effective refractory period (VERP) and ventricular fibrillation threshold(VFT) were measured respectively.Results ① The SBP and HMI of SHR were significantly higher than those of Wistar rats(P<0.001).The VFT of SHR were significantly lower than that of Wistar rats (P < 0.001). ②In SHR, the SBP and HMI of 18 week SHR were significantly higher than those of 10 week SHR (P < 0.001). The VFT of 18 week SHR were significantly lower than that of 10 week SHR (P<0.001). ③There were no significant difference of VERP among 10 week SHR, 18 week SHR and Wistar rats(P > 0.05). ④There was no relationship between HMI and VFT or SBP in Wistar rats. There was significant relationship between HMI and VFT or SBP in different age spontaneously hypertensive rats. ⑤HMI, age and species of animal were the major influent factors of VFT. Conclusions The VFT of hypertrophied myocardium decreased. The higher the degree of hypertrophy of myocardium and the higher the systolic blood pressure were, the lower the ventricular fibrillation threshold was.

  11. Submaximal Exercise Pulmonary Gas Exchange in Left Heart Disease Patients With Different Forms of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan J; Smetana, Michael R; Frantz, Robert P; Johnson, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    We determined whether pulmonary gas exchange indices during submaximal exercise are different in heart failure (HF) patients with combined post- and pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension (PPC-PH) versus HF patients with isolated post-capillary PH (IPC-PH) or no PH. Pulmonary hemodynamics and pulmonary gas exchange were assessed during rest and submaximal exercise in 39 HF patients undergoing right heart catheterization. After hemodynamic evaluation, patients were classified as having no PH (n = 11), IPC-PH (n = 12), or PPC-PH (n = 16). At an equivalent oxygen consumption, end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were greater in no-PH and IPC-PH versus PPC-PH patients (36.1 ± 3.2 vs. 31.7 ± 4.5 vs. 26.2 ± 4.7 mm Hg and 97 ± 2 vs. 96 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 1%, respectively). Conversely, dead-space ventilation (VD/VT) and the ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (V˙(E)/V˙CO2 ratio) were lower in no-PH and IPC-PH versus PPC-PH patients (0.37 ± 0.05 vs. 0.38 ± 0.04 vs. 0.47 ± 0.03 and 38 ± 5 vs. 42 ± 8 vs. 51 ± 8, respectively). The exercise-induced change in V(D)/V(T), V˙(E)/V˙CO2 ratio, and PETCO2 correlated significantly with the change in mean pulmonary arterial pressure, diastolic pressure difference, and transpulmonary pressure gradient in PPC-PH patients only. Noninvasive pulmonary gas exchange indices during submaximal exercise are different in HF patients with combined post- and pre-capillary PH compared with patients with isolated post-capillary PH or no PH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. All-TRANS RETINOIC ACID INTERFERES DEVELOPMENT OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION INDUCED BY MONOCROTALINE IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉明; 周爱卿; 贲晓明; 沈捷; 梁瑛; 李奋

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine whether all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) affects the metabolism of collagen in main pulmonary artery and exerts an inhibitory effect in rats with pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline . Methods All rats (n=72) were divided into 3 groups as control, model, and atRA . In model and atRA groups, rats (n=48) were assigned at random to be given a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60mgg/kg) and administrated with either atRA (30rng·kg-1·d-1) for atRA group or saline through oral-gastro intubation for model group. In control group, rats (n=24) received a single subcutaneous injection of an equal volume of 0. 9% saline. On day 7, 14,21 and 28 after monocrotaline or saline injection, cardiovascular catheters were inserted into the pulmonary artery of rats in each group to examine their mean pulmonary artery pressure, in addition with their hydroxyproline content determined by chromometry. Results In comparison with the control rats, the mean pulmonary artery pressure of rats in model group increased significantly on day 21 and up to the peak on day 28 (P<0.01), while their hydroxyproline contents decreased significantly on day 14 ( P < 0.05) and increased significantly on day 21 and 28. The atRA group when compared with the model group show reduction in the content of hydroxyproline and the mean pulmonary artery pressure ( P < 0.01 ). Conclusion The atRA inhibits the accumulation of collagen in main pulmonary artery and interferes the development of pulmonary hypertension which might elicit favorable geometric remodeling of rat pulmonary hypertension induced by monocrotaline.

  13. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum) on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Abel Felipe; Cardia, Gabriel Fernando Esteves; da Rocha, Bruno Ambrósio; Aguiar, Rafael Pazzinatto; Silva-Comar, Francielli Maria de Souza; Spironello, Ricardo Alexandre; Grespan, Renata; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM) on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Animals normotensive (N) or hypertensive (SHR) were treated or not with APAP (3 g/kg, oral) or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glucose (GLU), gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, γ-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, γ-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon) restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals.

  14. Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Hepatotoxicity Induced by Acetaminophen in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Felipe Freitag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Silymarin (SLM on the hypertension state and the liver function changes induced by acetaminophen (APAP in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR. Animals normotensive (N or hypertensive (SHR were treated or not with APAP (3 g/kg, oral or previously treated with SLM. Twelve hours after APAP administration, plasmatic levels of liver function markers: alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, glucose (GLU, gamma glutamyl transferase (γ-GT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP of all groups, were determined. Liver injury was assessed using histological studies. Samples of their livers were then used to determine the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO production and were also sectioned for histological analysis. No differences were observed for ALT, γ-GT, and GLU levels between SHR and normotensive rats groups. However, AST and ALP levels were increased in hypertensive animals. APAP treatment promoted an increase in ALT and AST in both SHR and N. However, only for SHR, γ-GT levels were increased. The inflammatory response evaluated by MPO activity and NO production showed that SHR was more susceptible to APAP effect, by increasing leucocyte infiltration. Silymarin treatment (Legalon restored the hepatocyte functional and histopathological alterations induced by APAP in normotensive and hypertensive animals.

  15. Effect of cytisine on some brain and hepatic biochemical parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Rumyana; Vitcheva, Vessela; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for variety of cardio-vascular diseases, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke and many others. It is of great importance for hypertensive patients to stop smoking. One of the medicines widely used for smoking cessation in Bulgaria is the original Bulgarian product Tabex®, which is developed on the basis of natural plant alkaloid cytisine. The aim of the following study was to ivestigate the effects of cytisine on some brain and hepatic biochemical parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), an widely used rodent model for human essential hypertension, and to compare the obtained results with their age-matched normotensive controls Wistar Kyoto (WKY). Multiple cytisine administration did not affect the activity of ethylmorphine-N-demethylase (EMND) and anylinehydroxylase (AH), as well as the quantity of cytochrome P 450, nor in WKY neither in SHR In the liver cytisine increased the MDA quantity both in SHR and in WKY, by 25% (p<0.05) and by 29% (p<0.05) respectively, while the GSH level was not significantly changed by the compound in both strains. In contrast, on the brain level, cytisine administration to SHR caused more prominent toxicity, resulted in GSH depletion and increased MDA quantity, while in WKY strain did not exert any toxicity. Cytisine did not significantly affect ALAT and ASAT activity in both strains. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest higher brain toxicity of cytisine in spontaneously hypertensive rats, that might be due to their pathophysiological characteristics.

  16. Light and scanning electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies on permeability of hypertensive rat mesenteric arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Kawaharada, U; Takatama, M; Ooneda, G

    1985-09-01

    Experimental hypertensive rats were intravenously injected with carbon and iron as tracers, and their mesenteric arteries exhibiting hypertensive arterial lesions were observed by light and scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Early arterial lesions showing intense medial damages, deposition of fibrinoid substance consisting of fibrin in the intima and/or media, and granulation tissue in the adventitia were characterized by marked insudation of intravenously injected tracers. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated numerous leukocytes and platelets adhering to endothelial surface, opened endothelial cell junctions, and desquamation of these cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed laminin and low stainability of fibronectin in the subendothelium. Advanced lesions showed deposition of a large amount of fibrinoid substance and no insudation of tracers in the intima, but scanning electron microscopy manifested opening of endothelial cell junctions, desquamation of endothelial cells, and adherence of leukocytes and platelets. Immunohistochemistry revealed fibronectin in the intima and laminin just beneath the endothelium. In the healed lesions disclosing fibrocellular intimal thickening, there was no insudation of tracers. Scanning electron microscopy showed opened endothelial cell junctions, endothelial cell defects, and adherence of leukocytes and platelets. There were fibronectin in the intima and laminin beneath the endothelium. It was suggested that the opening of endothelial cells junctions and desquamation of endothelial cells would be necessary for the arterial increased permeability in hypertensive rats, and that fibrin-fibronectin complex, fibronectin-acid mucopolysaccharide complex, and basement membrane would together inhibit the increased permeability in the mesenteric arteries of hypertensive rats in spite of endothelial cell injuries and their defects.

  17. Urine albumin/creatinine ratio and echocardiographic left ventricular structure and function in hypertensive patients with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Palmieri, V.; Olsen, M.H.;

    2002-01-01

    in a large hypertensive population. Methods The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) and echocardiographic measures of LV structure and function were obtained in 833 patients with stage I to III hypertension and LV hypertrophy determined by electrocardiogram (EC