Flow visualization of a low density hypersonic flow field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masson, B.S.; Jumper, E.J.; Walters, E.; Segalman, T.Y.; Founds, N.D.
1989-01-01
Characteristics of laser induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) in low density hypersonic flows are being investigated for use as a diagnostic technique. At low pressures, doppler broadening dominates the iodine absorption profile producing a fluorescence signal that is primarily temperature and velocity dependent. From this dependency, a low pressure flow field has the potential to be mapped for its velocity and temperature fields. The theory for relating iodine emission to the velocity and temperature fields of a hypersonic flow is discussed in this paper. Experimental observations are made of a fluorescencing free expansion and qualitatively related to the theory. 7 refs
DSMC simulation and experimental validation of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow.
Xiao, Hong; Shang, Yuhe; Wu, Di
2014-01-01
Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) of shock interaction in hypersonic low density flow is developed. Three collision molecular models, including hard sphere (HS), variable hard sphere (VHS), and variable soft sphere (VSS), are employed in the DSMC study. The simulations of double-cone and Edney's type IV hypersonic shock interactions in low density flow are performed. Comparisons between DSMC and experimental data are conducted. Investigation of the double-cone hypersonic flow shows that three collision molecular models can predict the trend of pressure coefficient and the Stanton number. HS model shows the best agreement between DSMC simulation and experiment among three collision molecular models. Also, it shows that the agreement between DSMC and experiment is generally good for HS and VHS models in Edney's type IV shock interaction. However, it fails in the VSS model. Both double-cone and Edney's type IV shock interaction simulations show that the DSMC errors depend on the Knudsen number and the models employed for intermolecular interaction. With the increase in the Knudsen number, the DSMC error is decreased. The error is the smallest in HS compared with those in the VHS and VSS models. When the Knudsen number is in the level of 10(-4), the DSMC errors, for pressure coefficient, the Stanton number, and the scale of interaction region, are controlled within 10%.
Fluid dynamic modeling and numerical simulation of low-density hypersonic flow
Cheng, H. K.; Wong, Eric Y.
1988-01-01
The concept of a viscous shock-layer and several related versions of continuum theories/methods are examined for their adequacy as a viable framework to study flow physics and aerothermodynamics of relevance to sustained hypersonic flights. Considering the flat plate at angle of attack, or the wedge, as a generic example for the major aerodynamic component of a hypersonic vehicle, the relative importance of the molecular-transport effects behind the shock (in the form of the 'shock slip') and the wall-slip effects are studied. In the flow regime where the shock-transition-zone thickness remains small compared to the shock radius of curvature, a quasi-one-dimensional shock structure under the Burnett/thirteen-moment approximation, as well as particulate/collisional models, can be consistently developed. The fully viscous version of the shock-layer model is shown to provide the crucial boundary condition downstream the shock in this case. The gas-kinetic basis of the continuum description for the flow behind the bow shock, and certain features affecting the non-equilibrium flow chemistry, are also discussed.
Measurements of low density, high velocity flow by electron beam fluorescence technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soga, Takeo; Takanishi, Masaya; Yasuhara, Michiru
1981-01-01
A low density chamber with an electron gun system was made for the measurements of low density, high velocity (high Mach number) flow. This apparatus is a continuous running facility. The number density and the rotational temperature in the underexpanding free jet of nitrogen were measured along the axis of the jet by the electron beam fluorescence technique. The measurements were carried out from the vicinity of the exit of the jet to far downstream of the first Mach disk. Rotational nonequilibrium phenomena were observed in the hypersonic flow field as well as in the shock wave (Mach disk). (author)
Low Density Real Gas Flows About Hypersonic Vehicles.
1991-11-01
equations with fully-coupled finite rate air chemistry. The development of the HYLDA code was motivated by the difficulty of current wind tunnel...2ps,,.,, - psj = , (3-30) PN. 2pNwa - pNead u Uadj v Vadj w T Wadj bc 2TLMau - TadJ where PS4 -- PSj if noncatalytic wall = calculated if catalytic wall
Elliptic flow from Coulomb interaction and low density elastic scattering
Sun, Yuliang; Li, Qingfeng; Wang, Fuqiang
2018-04-01
In high energy heavy ion collisions and interacting cold atom systems, large elliptic flow anisotropies have been observed. For the large opacity (ρ σ L ˜103 ) of the latter hydrodynamics is a natural consequence, but for the small opacity (ρ σ L ˜1 ) of the former the hydrodynamic description is questionable. To shed light onto the situation, we simulate the expansion of a low density argon ion (or atom) system, initially trapped in an elliptical region, under the Coulomb interaction (or elastic scattering). Significant elliptic anisotropy is found in both cases, and the anisotropy depends on the initial spatial eccentricity and the density of the system. The results may provide insights into the physics of anisotropic flow in high energy heavy ion collisions and its role in the study of quantum chromodynamics.
Hypersonic Air Flow with Finite Rate Chemistry
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Boyd, Ian
1997-01-01
... describe the effects of non-equilibrium flow chemistry, shock interaction, and turbulent mixing and combustion on the performance of vehicles and air breathing engines designed to fly in the hypersonic flow...
Conjugate Heat Transfer Study in Hypersonic Flows
Sahoo, Niranjan; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Peetala, Ravi Kumar
2018-04-01
Coupled and decoupled conjugate heat transfer (CHT) studies are carried out to imitate experimental studies for heat transfer measurement in hypersonic flow regime. The finite volume based solvers are used for analyzing the heat interaction between fluid and solid domains. Temperature and surface heat flux signals are predicted by both coupled and decoupled CHT analysis techniques for hypersonic Mach numbers. These two methodologies are also used to study the effect of different wall materials on surface parameters. Effectiveness of these CHT solvers has been verified for the inverse problem of wall heat flux recovery using various techniques reported in the literature. Both coupled and decoupled CHT techniques are seen to be equally useful for prediction of local temperature and heat flux signals prior to the experiments in hypersonic flows.
Flow and breakup in extension of low-density polyethylene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik; Fasano, Andrea
2018-01-01
The breakup during the extension of a low-density polyethylene Lupolen 1840D, as observed experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011), was investigated. This was observed during the extension of an circular cylinder with radius R0 = 4 mm and length L0 = 5mm....... The sample was attached to two flat end plates, separated exponentially in time to extend the samples. A numerical method based on a Lagrangian kinematics description in a continuum mechanical framework was used to calculate the extension of an initially cylindrically shaped sample with and without small...... the error bars as reported experimentally by Burghelea et al. (J Non-Newt Fluid Mech 166:1198–1209 2011). At low extensional rates, the measurements were considerably above the calculated ones. A very small relative suppression in the surface (0.1%) was required to achieve an agreement with all measurements...
Efficient multigrid computation of steady hypersonic flows
Koren, B.; Hemker, P.W.; Murthy, T.K.S.
1991-01-01
In steady hypersonic flow computations, Newton iteration as a local relaxation procedure and nonlinear multigrid iteration as an acceleration procedure may both easily fail. In the present chapter, same remedies are presented for overcoming these problems. The equations considered are the steady,
CFD on hypersonic flow geometries with aeroheating
Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Chao, Yan; Hui, Zhang Hui; Ullah, Rizwan
2012-11-01
The hypersonic flowfield around a blunted cone and cone-flare exhibits some of the major features of the flows around space vehicles, e.g. a detached bow shock in the stagnation region and the oblique shock wave/boundary layer interaction at the cone-flare junction. The shock wave/boundary layer interaction can produce a region of separated flow. This phenomenon may occur, for example, at the upstream-facing corner formed by a deflected control surface on a hypersonic entry vehicle, where the length of separation has implications for control effectiveness. Computational fluid-dynamics results are presented to show the flowfield around a blunted cone and cone-flare configurations in hypersonic flow with separation. This problem is of particular interest since it features most of the aspects of the hypersonic flow around planetary entry vehicles. The region between the cone and the flare is particularly critical with respect to the evaluation of the surface pressure and heat flux with aeroheating. Indeed, flow separation is induced by the shock wave boundary layer interaction, with subsequent flow reattachment, that can dramatically enhance the surface heat transfer. The exact determination of the extension of the recirculation zone is a particularly delicate task for numerical codes. Laminar flow and turbulent computations have been carried out using a full Navier-Stokes solver, with freestream conditions provided by the experimental data obtained at Mach 6, 8, and 16.34 wind tunnel. The numerical results are compared with the measured pressure and surface heat flux distributions in the wind tunnel and a good agreement is found, especially on the length of the recirculation region and location of shock waves. The critical physics of entropy layer, boundary layers, boundary layers and shock wave interaction and flow behind shock are properly captured and elaborated.. Hypersonic flows are characterized by high Mach number and high total enthalpy. An elevated
DNS Studies of Transitional Hypersonic Reacting Flows Over 3-D Hypersonic Vehicles
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zhong, Xiaolin
2003-01-01
The objectives of this research project are to develop CFD techniques and to conduct DNS studies of fundamental flow physics leading to boundary-layer instability and transition in hypersonic flows...
Algorithm For Hypersonic Flow In Chemical Equilibrium
Palmer, Grant
1989-01-01
Implicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing algorithm calculates inviscid, hypersonic flows in chemical equilibrium. Implicit formulation chosen because overcomes limitation on mathematical stability encountered in explicit formulations. For dynamical portion of problem, Euler equations written in conservation-law form in Cartesian coordinate system for two-dimensional or axisymmetric flow. For chemical portion of problem, equilibrium state of gas at each point in computational grid determined by minimizing local Gibbs free energy, subject to local conservation of molecules, atoms, ions, and total enthalpy. Major advantage: resulting algorithm naturally stable and captures strong shocks without help of artificial-dissipation terms to damp out spurious numerical oscillations.
Experimental Investigation of Hypersonic Flow and Plasma Aerodynamic Actuation Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Quan; Cheng Bangqin; Li Yinghong; Cui Wei; Yu Yonggui; Jie Junhun
2013-01-01
For hypersonic flow, it was found that the most effective plasma actuator is derived from an electromagnetic perturbation. An experimental study was performed between hypersonic flow and plasma aerodynamic actuation interaction in a hypersonic shock tunnel, in which a Mach number of 7 was reached. The plasma discharging characteristic was acquired in static flows. In a hypersonic flow, the flow field can affect the plasma discharging characteristics. DC discharging without magnetic force is unstable, and the discharge channel cannot be maintained. When there is a magnetic field, the energy consumption of the plasma source is approximately three to four times larger than that without a magnetic field, and at the same time plasma discharge can also affect the hypersonic flow field. Through schlieren pictures and pressure measurement, it was found that plasma discharging could induce shockwaves and change the total pressure and wall pressure of the flow field
Downstream Effects on Orbiter Leeside Flow Separation for Hypersonic Flows
Buck, Gregory M.; Pulsonetti, Maria V.; Weilmuenster, K. James
2005-01-01
Discrepancies between experiment and computation for shuttle leeside flow separation, which came to light in the Columbia accident investigation, are resolved. Tests were run in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Hypersonic CF4 Tunnel with a baseline orbiter model and two extended trailing edge models. The extended trailing edges altered the wing leeside separation lines, moving the lines toward the fuselage, proving that wing trailing edge modeling does affect the orbiter leeside flow. Computations were then made with a wake grid. These calculations more closely matched baseline experiments. Thus, the present findings demonstrate that it is imperative to include the wake flow domain in CFD calculations in order to accurately predict leeside flow separation for hypersonic vehicles at high angles of attack.
Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows.
Ozawa, T; Fujita, K; Suzuki, T
2015-01-01
A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1.
CFD Validation Studies for Hypersonic Flow Prediction
Gnoffo, Peter A.
2001-01-01
A series of experiments to measure pressure and heating for code validation involving hypersonic, laminar, separated flows was conducted at the Calspan-University at Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) in the Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The experimental data serves as a focus for a code validation session but are not available to the authors until the conclusion of this session. The first set of experiments considered here involve Mach 9.5 and Mach 11.3 N2 flow over a hollow cylinder-flare with 30 degree flare angle at several Reynolds numbers sustaining laminar, separated flow. Truncated and extended flare configurations are considered. The second set of experiments, at similar conditions, involves flow over a sharp, double cone with fore-cone angle of 25 degrees and aft-cone angle of 55 degrees. Both sets of experiments involve 30 degree compressions. Location of the separation point in the numerical simulation is extremely sensitive to the level of grid refinement in the numerical predictions. The numerical simulations also show a significant influence of Reynolds number on extent of separation. Flow unsteadiness was easily introduced into the double cone simulations using aggressive relaxation parameters that normally promote convergence.
Drag Reduction by Laser-Plasma Energy Addition in Hypersonic Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.
2008-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the drag reduction by laser-plasma energy addition in a low density Mach 7 hypersonic flow. The experiments were conducted in a shock tunnel and the optical beam of a high power pulsed CO 2 TEA laser operating with 7 J of energy and 30 MW peak power was focused to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The non-intrusive schlieren optical technique was used to visualize the effects of the energy addition to hypersonic flow, from the plasma generation until the mitigation of the shock wave profile over the model surface. Aside the optical technique, a piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to measure the impact pressure at stagnation point of the hemispherical model and the pressure reduction could be observed
Pitot pressure analyses in CO2 condensing rarefied hypersonic flows
Ozawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, K.
2016-11-01
In order to improve the accuracy of rarefied aerodynamic prediction, a hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) was developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. While this wind tunnel has been limited to inert gases, such as nitrogen or argon, we recently extended the capability of HRWT to CO2 hypersonic flows for several Mars missions. Compared to our previous N2 cases, the condensation effect may not be negligible for CO2 rarefied aerodynamic measurements. Thus, in this work, we have utilized both experimental and numerical approaches to investigate the condensation and rarefaction effects in CO2 hypersonic nozzle flows.
Supersonic flow with shock waves. Monte-Carlo calculations for low density plasma. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almenara, E.; Hidalgo, M.; Saviron, J. M.
1980-01-01
This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs
Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow
Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish
2015-01-01
NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.
NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows
1996-01-01
Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...
Hypersonic flow past slender bodies in dispersive hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El, G.A.; Khodorovskii, V.V.; Tyurina, A.V.
2004-01-01
The problem of two-dimensional steady hypersonic flow past a slender body is formulated for dispersive media. It is shown that for the hypersonic flow, the original 2+0 boundary-value problem is asymptotically equivalent to the 1+1 piston problem for the fully nonlinear flow in the same physical system, which allows one to take advantage of the analytic methods developed for one-dimensional systems. This type of equivalence, well known in ideal Euler gas dynamics, has not been established for dispersive hydrodynamics so far. Two examples pertaining to collisionless plasma dynamics are considered
Applications of Low Density Flow Techniques and Catalytic Recombination at the Johnson Space Center
Scott, Carl D.
2000-01-01
The talk presents a brief background on defInitions of catalysis and effects associated with chemically nonequilibrium and low-density flows of aerospace interest. Applications of catalytic recombination on surfaces in dissociated flow are given, including aero heating on reentry spacecraft thermal protection surfaces and reflection of plume flow on pressure distributions associated with the space station. Examples include aero heating predictions for the X-38 test vehicle, the inlet of a proposed gas-sampling probe used in high enthalpy test facilities, and a parabolic body at angle of attack. The effect of accommodation coefficients on thruster induced pressure distributions is also included. Examples of tools used include simple aero heating formulas based on boundary layer solutions, an engineering approximation that uses axisymmetric viscous shock layer flow to simulate full three dimensional flow, full computational fluid dynamics, and direct simulation Monte-Carlo calculations. Methods of determining catalytic recombination rates in arc jet flow are discus ed. An area of catalysis not fully understood is the formation of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with gas phase or nano-size metal particles. The Johnson Space Center is making SWNTs using both a laser ablation technique and an electric arc vaporization technique.
DSMC Simulation of Separated Flows About Flared Bodies at Hypersonic Conditions
Moss, James N.
2000-01-01
This paper describes the results of a numerical study of interacting hypersonic flows at conditions that can be produced in ground-based test facilities. The computations are made with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method of Bird. The focus is on Mach 10 flows about flared axisymmetric configurations, both hollow cylinder flares and double cones. The flow conditions are those for which experiments have been or will be performed in the ONERA R5Ch low-density wind tunnel and the Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) Large Energy National Shock (LENS) tunnel. The range of flow conditions, model configurations, and model sizes provides a significant range of shock/shock and shock/boundary layer interactions at low Reynolds number conditions. Results presented will highlight the sensitivity of the calculations to grid resolution, contrast the differences in flow structure for hypersonic cold flows and those of more energetic but still low enthalpy flows, and compare the present results with experimental measurements for surface heating, pressure, and extent of separation.
Laser reflection method for determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows
Sathian, Sarith P.; Kurian, Job
2006-03-01
The details of laser reflection method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress in low density transitional flows are presented. The method is employed to determine the shear stress due to impingement of a low density supersonic free jet issuing out from a convergent divergent nozzle on a flat plate. The plate is smeared with a thin oil film and kept parallel to the nozzle axis. For a thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer, the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope generated by the shear force is done using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of the oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM. From the oil film slope history, calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. The range of Knudsen numbers investigated is from 0.028 to 0.516. Pressure ratio across the nozzle varied from 3,500 to 8,500 giving highly under expanded free jets. The measured values of shear, in the overlapping region of experimental parameters, show fair agreement with those obtained by force balance method and laser interferometric method.
High speed digital holographic interferometry for hypersonic flow visualization
Hegde, G. M.; Jagdeesh, G.; Reddy, K. P. J.
2013-06-01
Optical imaging techniques have played a major role in understanding the flow dynamics of varieties of fluid flows, particularly in the study of hypersonic flows. Schlieren and shadowgraph techniques have been the flow diagnostic tools for the investigation of compressible flows since more than a century. However these techniques provide only the qualitative information about the flow field. Other optical techniques such as holographic interferometry and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been used extensively for extracting quantitative information about the high speed flows. In this paper we present the application of digital holographic interferometry (DHI) technique integrated with short duration hypersonic shock tunnel facility having 1 ms test time, for quantitative flow visualization. Dynamics of the flow fields in hypersonic/supersonic speeds around different test models is visualized with DHI using a high-speed digital camera (0.2 million fps). These visualization results are compared with schlieren visualization and CFD simulation results. Fringe analysis is carried out to estimate the density of the flow field.
Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of Hypersonic Flows
2000-04-01
UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO10744 TITLE: Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of Hypersonic Flows...following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP010736 thru ADPO10751 UNCLASSIFIED 5-1 Molecular Diagnostics for the Study of
Shock stand off Calculations for Hemisphere in Hypersonic Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanif, M.; Ghaffar, A.; Bilal, S.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.
2004-01-01
The shape and location of shock has been studied by solving the axi symmetric Navier Stokes Equations for a hemisphere in hypersonic flow. The effect of Mach number on shock stand-off distance has been investigated. It is found that the shock location varies with Mach number and the free stream conditions at a given nose radius. (author)
CFD analysis of hypersonic, chemically reacting flow fields
Edwards, T. A.
1993-01-01
Design studies are underway for a variety of hypersonic flight vehicles. The National Aero-Space Plane will provide a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit capability for routine access to low earth orbit. Flight-capable satellites will dip into the atmosphere to maneuver to new orbits, while planetary probes will decelerate at their destination by atmospheric aerobraking. To supplement limited experimental capabilities in the hypersonic regime, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used to analyze the flow about these configurations. The governing equations include fluid dynamic as well as chemical species equations, which are being solved with new, robust numerical algorithms. Examples of CFD applications to hypersonic vehicles suggest an important role this technology will play in the development of future aerospace systems. The computational resources needed to obtain solutions are large, but solution adaptive grids, convergence acceleration, and parallel processing may make run times manageable.
Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D
2016-04-01
The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.
Three-Dimensional Aeroelastic and Aerothermoelastic Behavior in Hypersonic Flow
McNamara, Jack J.; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Powell, Kenneth G.; Thuruthimattam, Biju J.; Bartels, Robert E.
2005-01-01
The aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic behavior of three-dimensional configurations in hypersonic flow regime are studied. The aeroelastic behavior of a low aspect ratio wing, representative of a fin or control surface on a generic hypersonic vehicle, is examined using third order piston theory, Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics. The sensitivity of the aeroelastic behavior generated using Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics to parameters governing temporal accuracy is also examined. Also, a refined aerothermoelastic model, which incorporates the heat transfer between the fluid and structure using CFD generated aerodynamic heating, is used to examine the aerothermoelastic behavior of the low aspect ratio wing in the hypersonic regime. Finally, the hypersonic aeroelastic behavior of a generic hypersonic vehicle with a lifting-body type fuselage and canted fins is studied using piston theory and Euler aerodynamics for the range of 2.5 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 28, at altitudes ranging from 10,000 feet to 80,000 feet. This analysis includes a study on optimal mesh selection for use with Euler aerodynamics. In addition to the aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic results presented, three time domain flutter identification techniques are compared, namely the moving block approach, the least squares curve fitting method, and a system identification technique using an Auto-Regressive model of the aeroelastic system. In general, the three methods agree well. The system identification technique, however, provided quick damping and frequency estimations with minimal response record length, and therefore o ers significant reductions in computational cost. In the present case, the computational cost was reduced by 75%. The aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic results presented illustrate the applicability of the CFL3D code for the hypersonic flight regime.
Portable Fluorescence Imaging System for Hypersonic Flow Facilities
Wilkes, J. A.; Alderfer, D. W.; Jones, S. B.; Danehy, P. M.
2003-01-01
A portable fluorescence imaging system has been developed for use in NASA Langley s hypersonic wind tunnels. The system has been applied to a small-scale free jet flow. Two-dimensional images were taken of the flow out of a nozzle into a low-pressure test section using the portable planar laser-induced fluorescence system. Images were taken from the center of the jet at various test section pressures, showing the formation of a barrel shock at low pressures, transitioning to a turbulent jet at high pressures. A spanwise scan through the jet at constant pressure reveals the three-dimensional structure of the flow. Future capabilities of the system for making measurements in large-scale hypersonic wind tunnel facilities are discussed.
Progress with multigrid schemes for hypersonic flow problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radespiel, R.; Swanson, R.C.
1995-01-01
Several multigrid schemes are considered for the numerical computation of viscous hypersonic flows. For each scheme, the basic solution algorithm employs upwind spatial discretization with explicit multistage time stepping. Two-level versions of the various multigrid algorithms are applied to the two-dimensional advection equation, and Fourier analysis is used to determine their damping properties. The capabilities of the multigrid methods are assessed by solving three different hypersonic flow problems. Some new multigrid schemes based on semicoarsening strategies are shown to be quite effective in relieving the stiffness caused by the high-aspect-ratio cells required to resolve high Reynolds number flows. These schemes exhibit good convergence rates for Reynolds numbers up to 200 X 10 6 and Mach numbers up to 25. 32 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab
Low-density, radiatively inefficient rotating-accretion flow on to a black hole
Inayoshi, Kohei; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Haiman, Zoltán; Kuiper, Rolf
2018-05-01
We study low-density axisymmetric accretion flows on to black holes (BHs) with two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, adopting the α-viscosity prescription. When the gas angular momentum is low enough to form a rotationally supported disc within the Bondi radius (RB), we find a global steady accretion solution. The solution consists of a rotational equilibrium distribution around r ˜ RB, where the density follows ρ ∝ (1 + RB/r)3/2, surrounding a geometrically thick and optically thin accretion disc at the centrifugal radius RC(
Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows
Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew
2015-01-01
This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.
Effect of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators on Non-equilibrium Hypersonic Flows
2014-10-28
results for MIG with the US3D code devel- oped at the University of Minnesota.61 US3D is an unstruc- tured CFD code for hypersonic flow solution used...Effect of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators on non-equilibrium hypersonic flows Ankush Bhatia,1 Subrata Roy,1 and Ryan Gosse2 1Applied...a cylindrical body in Mach 17 hypersonic flow is presented. This application focuses on using sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators
Numerical analysis of a hypersonic turbulent and laminar flow using a commercial CFD solver
Pajčin Miroslav P.; Simonović Aleksandar M.; Ivanov Toni D.; Komarov Dragan M.; Stupar Slobodan N.
2017-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics computations for two hypersonic flow cases using the commercial ANSYS FLUENT 16.2 CFD software were done. In this paper, an internal and external hypersonic flow cases were considered and analysis of the hypersonic flow using different turbulence viscosity models available in ANSYS FLUENT 16.2 as well as the laminar viscosity model were done. The obtained results were after compared and commented upon. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Tec...
On air-chemistry reduction for hypersonic external flow applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, Ashraf; Suman, Sawan; Girimaji, Sharath S.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The existence of the slow manifold for the air-mixture system is shown. • The QSSA estimate of the slow manifold is fairly accurate. • For mid-temperature range the reduction mechanisms could be useful. - Abstract: In external hypersonic flows, viscous and compressibility effects generate very high temperatures leading to significant chemical reactions among air constituents. Therefore, hypersonic flow computations require coupled calculations of flow and chemistry. Accurate and efficient computations of air-chemistry kinetics are of much importance for many practical applications but calculations accounting for detailed chemical kinetics can be prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of applying chemical kinetics reduction schemes for hypersonic air-chemistry. We consider two chemical kinetics sets appropriate for three different temperature ranges: 2500 K to 4500 K; 4500 K to 9000 K; and above 9000 K. By demonstrating the existence of the so-called the slow manifold in each of the chemistry sets, we show that judicious chemical kinetics reduction leading to significant computational savings is possible without much loss in accuracy
High-Fidelity Kinetics and Radiation Transport for NLTE Hypersonic Flows, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The modeling of NLTE hypersonic flows combines several disciplines: chemistry, kinetics, radiation transport, fluid mechanics, and surface science. No single code or...
Simplified Thermo-Chemical Modelling For Hypersonic Flow
Sancho, Jorge; Alvarez, Paula; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel
2011-05-01
Hypersonic flows are connected with high temperatures, generally associated with strong shock waves that appear in such flows. At high temperatures vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecules may become excited, the molecules may dissociate into atoms, the molecules or free atoms may ionize, and molecular or ionic species, unimportant at lower temperatures, may be formed. In order to take into account these effects, a chemical model is needed, but this model should be simplified in order to be handled by a CFD code, but with a sufficient precision to take into account the physics more important. This work is related to a chemical non-equilibrium model validation, implemented into a commercial CFD code, in order to obtain the flow field around bodies in hypersonic flow. The selected non-equilibrium model is composed of seven species and six direct reactions together with their inverse. The commercial CFD code where the non- equilibrium model has been implemented is FLUENT. For the validation, the X38/Sphynx Mach 20 case is rebuilt on a reduced geometry, including the 1/3 Lref forebody. This case has been run in laminar regime, non catalytic wall and with radiative equilibrium wall temperature. The validated non-equilibrium model is applied to the EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) vehicle at a specified trajectory point (Mach number 14). This case has been run also in laminar regime, non catalytic wall and with radiative equilibrium wall temperature.
Flow-Tagging Velocimetry for Hypersonic Flows Using Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide
Danehy, P. M.; OByrne, S.; Houwing, A. F. P.
2001-01-01
We investigate a new type of flow-tagging velocimetry technique for hypersonic flows. The technique involves exciting a thin line of nitric oxide molecules with a laser beam and then, after some delay, acquiring an image of the displaced line. One component of velocity is determined from the time of flight. This method is applied to measure the velocity profile in a Mach 8.5 laminar, hypersonic boundary layer in the Australian National Universities T2 free-piston shock tunnel. The velocity is measured with an uncertainty of approximately 2%. Comparison with a CFD simulation of the flow shows reasonable agreement.
Numerical simulation of air hypersonic flows with equilibrium chemical reactions
Emelyanov, Vladislav; Karpenko, Anton; Volkov, Konstantin
2018-05-01
The finite volume method is applied to solve unsteady three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes. High-temperature gas effects altering the aerodynamics of vehicles are taken into account. Possibilities of the use of graphics processor units (GPUs) for the simulation of hypersonic flows are demonstrated. Solutions of some test cases on GPUs are reported, and a comparison between computational results of equilibrium chemically reacting and perfect air flowfields is performed. Speedup of solution on GPUs with respect to the solution on central processor units (CPUs) is compared. The results obtained provide promising perspective for designing a GPU-based software framework for practical applications.
CFD validation experiments for hypersonic flows
Marvin, Joseph G.
1992-01-01
A roadmap for CFD code validation is introduced. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments could provide new validation data.
A CFD validation roadmap for hypersonic flows
Marvin, Joseph G.
1993-01-01
A roadmap for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation is developed. The elements of the roadmap are consistent with air-breathing vehicle design requirements and related to the important flow path components: forebody, inlet, combustor, and nozzle. Building block and benchmark validation experiments are identified along with their test conditions and measurements. Based on an evaluation criteria, recommendations for an initial CFD validation data base are given and gaps identified where future experiments would provide the needed validation data.
Numerical analysis of hypersonic turbulent film cooling flows
Chen, Y. S.; Chen, C. P.; Wei, H.
1992-01-01
As a building block, numerical capabilities for predicting heat flux and turbulent flowfields of hypersonic vehicles require extensive model validations. Computational procedures for calculating turbulent flows and heat fluxes for supersonic film cooling with parallel slot injections are described in this study. Two injectant mass flow rates with matched and unmatched pressure conditions using the database of Holden et al. (1990) are considered. To avoid uncertainties associated with the boundary conditions in testing turbulence models, detailed three-dimensional flowfields of the injection nozzle were calculated. Two computational fluid dynamics codes, GASP and FDNS, with the algebraic Baldwin-Lomax and k-epsilon models with compressibility corrections were used. It was found that the B-L model which resolves near-wall viscous sublayer is very sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions at the nozzle exit face. The k-epsilon models with improved wall functions are less sensitive to the inlet boundary conditions. The testings show that compressibility corrections are necessary for the k-epsilon model to realistically predict the heat fluxes of the hypersonic film cooling problems.
Blanchard, R. C.; Walberg, G. D.
1980-01-01
Results of an investigation to determine the full scale drag coefficient in the high speed, low density regime of the Viking lander capsule 1 entry vehicle are presented. The principal flight data used in the study were from onboard pressure, mass spectrometer, and accelerometer instrumentation. The hypersonic continuum flow drag coefficient was unambiguously obtained from pressure and accelerometer data; the free molecule flow drag coefficient was indirectly estimated from accelerometer and mass spectrometer data; the slip flow drag coefficient variation was obtained from an appropriate scaling of existing experimental sphere data. Comparison of the flight derived drag hypersonic continuum flow regime except for Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 100,000, for which an unaccountable difference between flight and ground test data of about 8% existed. The flight derived drag coefficients in the free molecule flow regime were considerably larger than those previously calculated with classical theory. The general character of the previously determined temperature profile was not changed appreciably by the results of this investigation; however, a slightly more symmetrical temperature variation at the highest altitudes was obtained.
Numerical analysis of a hypersonic turbulent and laminar flow using a commercial CFD solver
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pajčin Miroslav P.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics computations for two hypersonic flow cases using the commercial ANSYS FLUENT 16.2 CFD software were done. In this paper, an internal and external hypersonic flow cases were considered and analysis of the hypersonic flow using different turbulence viscosity models available in ANSYS FLUENT 16.2 as well as the laminar viscosity model were done. The obtained results were after compared and commented upon. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 35035
Numerical Simulation of Transitional, Hypersonic Flows using a Hybrid Particle-Continuum Method
Verhoff, Ashley Marie
Analysis of hypersonic flows requires consideration of multiscale phenomena due to the range of flight regimes encountered, from rarefied conditions in the upper atmosphere to fully continuum flow at low altitudes. At transitional Knudsen numbers there are likely to be localized regions of strong thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects that invalidate the continuum assumptions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Accurate simulation of these regions, which include shock waves, boundary and shear layers, and low-density wakes, requires a kinetic theory-based approach where no prior assumptions are made regarding the molecular distribution function. Because of the nature of these types of flows, there is much to be gained in terms of both numerical efficiency and physical accuracy by developing hybrid particle-continuum simulation approaches. The focus of the present research effort is the continued development of the Modular Particle-Continuum (MPC) method, where the Navier-Stokes equations are solved numerically using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques in regions of the flow field where continuum assumptions are valid, and the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used where strong thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects are present. Numerical solutions of transitional, hypersonic flows are thus obtained with increased physical accuracy relative to CFD alone, and improved numerical efficiency is achieved in comparison to DSMC alone because this more computationally expensive method is restricted to those regions of the flow field where it is necessary to maintain physical accuracy. In this dissertation, a comprehensive assessment of the physical accuracy of the MPC method is performed, leading to the implementation of a non-vacuum supersonic outflow boundary condition in particle domains, and more consistent initialization of DSMC simulator particles along hybrid interfaces. The relative errors between MPC and full DSMC results are greatly reduced as a
On nitrogen condensation in hypersonic nozzle flows: Numerical method and parametric study
Lin, Longyuan; Cheng, Wan; Luo, Xisheng; Qin, Fenghua
2013-01-01
A numerical method for calculating two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle flows with nitrogen condensation is developed. The classical nucleation theory with an empirical correction function and the modified Gyarmathy model
Stability of hypersonic boundary-layer flows with chemistry
Reed, Helen L.; Stuckert, Gregory K.; Haynes, Timothy S.
1993-01-01
The effects of nonequilibrium chemistry and three dimensionality on the stability characteristics of hypersonic flows are discussed. In two-dimensional (2-D) and axisymmetric flows, the inclusion of chemistry causes a shift of the second mode of Mack to lower frequencies. This is found to be due to the increase in size of the region of relative supersonic flow because of the lower speeds of sound in the relatively cooler boundary layers. Although this shift in frequency is present in both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium air results, the equilibrium approximation predicts modes which are not observed in the nonequilibrium calculations (for the flight conditions considered). These modes are superpositions of incoming and outgoing unstable disturbances which travel supersonically relative to the boundary-layer edge velocity. Such solutions are possible because of the finite shock stand-off distance. Their corresponding wall-normal profiles exhibit an oscillatory behavior in the inviscid region between the boundary-layer edge and the bow shock. For the examination of three-dimensional (3-D) effects, a rotating cone is used as a model of a swept wing. An increase of stagnation temperature is found to be only slightly stabilizing. The correlation of transition location (N = 9) with parameters describing the crossflow profile is discussed. Transition location does not correlate with the traditional crossflow Reynolds number. A new parameter that appears to correlate for boundary-layer flow was found. A verification with experiments on a yawed cone is provided.
Vectorization of a particle simulation method for hypersonic rarefied flow
Mcdonald, Jeffrey D.; Baganoff, Donald
1988-01-01
An efficient particle simulation technique for hypersonic rarefied flows is presented at an algorithmic and implementation level. The implementation is for a vector computer architecture, specifically the Cray-2. The method models an ideal diatomic Maxwell molecule with three translational and two rotational degrees of freedom. Algorithms are designed specifically for compatibility with fine grain parallelism by reducing the number of data dependencies in the computation. By insisting on this compatibility, the method is capable of performing simulation on a much larger scale than previously possible. A two-dimensional simulation of supersonic flow over a wedge is carried out for the near-continuum limit where the gas is in equilibrium and the ideal solution can be used as a check on the accuracy of the gas model employed in the method. Also, a three-dimensional, Mach 8, rarefied flow about a finite-span flat plate at a 45 degree angle of attack was simulated. It utilized over 10 to the 7th particles carried through 400 discrete time steps in less than one hour of Cray-2 CPU time. This problem was chosen to exhibit the capability of the method in handling a large number of particles and a true three-dimensional geometry.
Vectorization of a particle simulation method for hypersonic rarefied flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mcdonald, J.D.; Baganoff, D.
1988-01-01
An efficient particle simulation technique for hypersonic rarefied flows is presented at an algorithmic and implementation level. The implementation is for a vector computer architecture, specifically the Cray-2. The method models an ideal diatomic Maxwell molecule with three translational and two rotational degrees of freedom. Algorithms are designed specifically for compatibility with fine grain parallelism by reducing the number of data dependencies in the computation. By insisting on this compatibility, the method is capable of performing simulation on a much larger scale than previously possible. A two-dimensional simulation of supersonic flow over a wedge is carried out for the near-continuum limit where the gas is in equilibrium and the ideal solution can be used as a check on the accuracy of the gas model employed in the method. Also, a three-dimensional, Mach 8, rarefied flow about a finite-span flat plate at a 45 degree angle of attack was simulated. It utilized over 10 to the 7th particles carried through 400 discrete time steps in less than one hour of Cray-2 CPU time. This problem was chosen to exhibit the capability of the method in handling a large number of particles and a true three-dimensional geometry. 14 references
Numerical analysis of exhaust jet secondary combustion in hypersonic flow field
Yang, Tian-Peng; Wang, Jiang-Feng; Zhao, Fa-Ming; Fan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yu-Han
2018-05-01
The interaction effect between jet and control surface in supersonic and hypersonic flow is one of the key problems for advanced flight control system. The flow properties of exhaust jet secondary combustion in a hypersonic compression ramp flow field were studied numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with multi-species and combustion reaction effects. The analysis was focused on the flow field structure and the force amplification factor under different jet conditions. Numerical results show that a series of different secondary combustion makes the flow field structure change regularly, and the temperature increases rapidly near the jet exit.
On two special values of temperature factor in hypersonic flow stagnation point
Bilchenko, G. G.; Bilchenko, N. G.
2018-03-01
The hypersonic aircraft permeable cylindrical and spherical surfaces laminar boundary layer heat and mass transfer control mathematical model properties are investigated. The nonlinear algebraic equations systems are obtained for two special values of temperature factor in the hypersonic flow stagnation point. The mappings bijectivity between heat and mass transfer local parameters and controls is established. The computation experiments results are presented: the domains of allowed values “heat-friction” are obtained.
Computation of hypersonic flows with finite rate condensation and evaporation of water
Perrell, Eric R.; Candler, Graham V.; Erickson, Wayne D.; Wieting, Alan R.
1993-01-01
A computer program for modelling 2D hypersonic flows of gases containing water vapor and liquid water droplets is presented. The effects of interphase mass, momentum and energy transfer are studied. Computations are compared with existing quasi-1D calculations on the nozzle of the NASA Langley Eight Foot High Temperature Tunnel, a hypersonic wind tunnel driven by combustion of natural gas in oxygen enriched air.
N-S/DSMC hybrid simulation of hypersonic flow over blunt body including wakes
Li, Zhonghua; Li, Zhihui; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Yanguang; Jiang, Xinyu
2014-12-01
A hybrid N-S/DSMC method is presented and applied to solve the three-dimensional hypersonic transitional flows by employing the MPC (modular Particle-Continuum) technique based on the N-S and the DSMC method. A sub-relax technique is adopted to deal with information transfer between the N-S and the DSMC. The hypersonic flows over a 70-deg spherically blunted cone under different Kn numbers are simulated using the CFD, DSMC and hybrid N-S/DSMC method. The present computations are found in good agreement with DSMC and experimental results. The present method provides an efficient way to predict the hypersonic aerodynamics in near-continuum transitional flow regime.
Direct numerical simulation of laminar-turbulent flow over a flat plate at hypersonic flow speeds
Egorov, I. V.; Novikov, A. V.
2016-06-01
A method for direct numerical simulation of a laminar-turbulent flow around bodies at hypersonic flow speeds is proposed. The simulation is performed by solving the full three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. The method of calculation is oriented to application of supercomputers and is based on implicit monotonic approximation schemes and a modified Newton-Raphson method for solving nonlinear difference equations. By this method, the development of three-dimensional perturbations in the boundary layer over a flat plate and in a near-wall flow in a compression corner is studied at the Mach numbers of the free-stream of M = 5.37. In addition to pulsation characteristic, distributions of the mean coefficients of the viscous flow in the transient section of the streamlined surface are obtained, which enables one to determine the beginning of the laminar-turbulent transition and estimate the characteristics of the turbulent flow in the boundary layer.
Quantifying Non-Equilibrium in Hypersonic Flows Using Entropy Generation
2007-03-01
do this, two experimental cases performed at the Calspan- University of Buffalo Research Center ( CUBRC ) were modeled using Navier-Stokes based CFD...data provided by the CUBRC hypersonic wind tunnel facility (Holden and Wadhams, 2004). The wall data in Figure 9 and Figure 10 reveals some difference
A computational study of inviscid hypersonic flows using energy relaxation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagdewe, Suryakant; Kim, H. D.; Shevare, G. R.
2008-01-01
Reasonable analysis of hypersonic flows requires a thermodynamic non-equilibrium model to properly simulate strong shock waves or high pressure and temperature states in the flow field. The energy relaxation method (ERM) has been used to model such a non-equilibrium effect which is generally expressed as a hyperbolic system of equations with a stiff relaxation source term. Relaxation time that is multiplied with source terms is responsible for nonequilibrium in the system. In the present study, a numerical analysis has been carried out with varying values of relaxation time for several hypersonic flows with AUSM (advection upstream splitting method) as a numerical scheme. Vibration modes of thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects are considered. The results obtained showed that, as the relaxation time reduces to zero, the solution marches toward equilibrium, while it shows non-equilibrium effects, as the relaxation time increases. The present computations predicted the experiment results of hypersonic flows with good accuracy. The work carried out suggests that the present energy relaxation method can be robust for analysis of hypersonic flows
Aero-Heating of Shallow Cavities in Hypersonic Freestream Flow
Everhart, Joel L.; Berger, Karen T.; Merski, N. R., Jr.; Woods, William A.; Hollingsworth, Kevin E.; Hyatt, Andrew; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
2010-01-01
The purpose of these experiments and analysis was to augment the heating database and tools used for assessment of impact-induced shallow-cavity damage to the thermal protection system of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The effect of length and depth on the local heating disturbance of rectangular cavities tested at hypersonic freestream conditions has been globally assessed using the two-color phosphor thermography method. These rapid-response experiments were conducted in the Langley 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel and were initiated immediately prior to the launch of STS-114, the initial flight in the Space Shuttle Return-To-Flight Program, and continued during the first week of the mission. Previously-designed and numerically-characterized blunted-nose baseline flat plates were used as the test surfaces. Three-dimensional computational predictions of the entire model geometry were used as a check on the design process and the two-dimensional flow assumptions used for the data analysis. The experimental boundary layer state conditions were inferred using the measured heating distributions on a no-cavity test article. Two test plates were developed, each containing 4 equally-spaced spanwise-distributed cavities. The first test plate contained cavities with a constant length-to-depth ratio of 8 with design point depth-to-boundary-layer-thickness ratios of 0.1, 0.2, 0.35, and 0.5. The second test plate contained cavities with a constant design point depth-to-boundary-layer-thickness ratio of 0.35 with length-to-depth ratios of 8, 12, 16, and 20. Cavity design parameters and the test condition matrix were established using the computational predictions. Preliminary results indicate that the floor-averaged Bump Factor (local heating rate nondimensionalized by upstream reference) at the tested conditions is approximately 0.3 with a standard deviation of 0.04 for laminar-in/laminar-out conditions when the cavity length-to-boundary-layer thickness is between 2.5 and 10 and for
Assessment of predictive capabilities for aerodynamic heating in hypersonic flow
Knight, Doyle; Chazot, Olivier; Austin, Joanna; Badr, Mohammad Ali; Candler, Graham; Celik, Bayram; Rosa, Donato de; Donelli, Raffaele; Komives, Jeffrey; Lani, Andrea; Levin, Deborah; Nompelis, Ioannis; Panesi, Marco; Pezzella, Giuseppe; Reimann, Bodo; Tumuklu, Ozgur; Yuceil, Kemal
2017-04-01
The capability for CFD prediction of hypersonic shock wave laminar boundary layer interaction was assessed for a double wedge model at Mach 7.1 in air and nitrogen at 2.1 MJ/kg and 8 MJ/kg. Simulations were performed by seven research organizations encompassing both Navier-Stokes and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) methods as part of the NATO STO AVT Task Group 205 activity. Comparison of the CFD simulations with experimental heat transfer and schlieren visualization suggest the need for accurate modeling of the tunnel startup process in short-duration hypersonic test facilities, and the importance of fully 3-D simulations of nominally 2-D (i.e., non-axisymmmetric) experimental geometries.
Multi Laser Pulse Investigation of the DEAS Concept in Hypersonic Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Minucci, M.A.S.; Toro, P.G.P.; Oliveira, A.C.; Chanes, J.B. Jr.; Ramos, A.G.; Nagamatsu, H.T.; Myrabo, L.N.
2004-01-01
The present paper presents recent experimental results on the Laser-Supported Directed Energy 'Air Spike' - DEAS in hypersonic flow achieved by the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics - LAH, Brazil. Two CO2 TEA lasers, sharing the same optical cavity, have been used in conjunction with the IEAv 0.3m Hypersonic Shock Tunnel - HST to demonstrate the Laser-Supported DEAS concept. A single and double laser pulse, generated during the tunnel useful test time, were focused through a NaCl lens upstream of a Double Apollo Disc model fitted with seven piezoelectric pressure transducers and six platinum thin film heat transfer gauges. The objective being to corroborate previous results as well as to obtain additional pressure and heat flux distributions information when two laser pulses are used
Bender, Jason D.
Understanding hypersonic aerodynamics is important for the design of next-generation aerospace vehicles for space exploration, national security, and other applications. Ground-level experimental studies of hypersonic flows are difficult and expensive; thus, computational science plays a crucial role in this field. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of extremely high-speed flows require models of chemical and thermal nonequilibrium processes, such as dissociation of diatomic molecules and vibrational energy relaxation. Current models are outdated and inadequate for advanced applications. We describe a multiscale computational study of gas-phase thermochemical processes in hypersonic flows, starting at the atomic scale and building systematically up to the continuum scale. The project was part of a larger effort centered on collaborations between aerospace scientists and computational chemists. We discuss the construction of potential energy surfaces for the N4, N2O2, and O4 systems, focusing especially on the multi-dimensional fitting problem. A new local fitting method named L-IMLS-G2 is presented and compared with a global fitting method. Then, we describe the theory of the quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) approach for modeling molecular collisions. We explain how we implemented the approach in a new parallel code for high-performance computing platforms. Results from billions of QCT simulations of high-energy N2 + N2, N2 + N, and N2 + O2 collisions are reported and analyzed. Reaction rate constants are calculated and sets of reactive trajectories are characterized at both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. The data shed light on fundamental mechanisms of dissociation and exchange reactions -- and their coupling to internal energy transfer processes -- in thermal environments typical of hypersonic flows. We discuss how the outcomes of this investigation and other related studies lay a rigorous foundation for new macroscopic models for
Parametric Study of Cantilever Plates Exposed to Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows
Sri Harsha, A.; Rizwan, M.; Kuldeep, S.; Giridhara Prasad, A.; Akhil, J.; Nagaraja, S. R.
2017-08-01
Analysis of hypersonic flows associated with re-entry vehicles has gained a lot of significance due to the advancements in Aerospace Engineering. An area that is studied extensively by researchers is the simultaneous reduction aerodynamic drag and aero heating in re-entry vehicles. Out of the many strategies being studied, the use of aerospikes at the stagnation point of the vehicle is found to give favourable results. The structural stability of the aerospike becomes important as it is exposed to very high pressures and temperatures. Keeping this in view, the deflection and vibration of an inclined cantilever plate in hypersonic flow is carried out using ANSYS. Steady state pressure distribution obtained from Fluent is applied as load to the transient structural module for analysis. After due validation of the methods, the effects of parameters like flow Mach number, plate inclination and plate thickness on the deflection and vibration are studied.
LES of hypersonic flow over a 3D single-fin
Fang, J.; Yao, Y.; Lu, L.; Zheng, Y.
2015-01-01
LES of hypersonic flow passing a 3D single-fin at Mach 5 and Re∞=3.7×107/m was conducted using a newly developed 7th-order low-dissipation monotonicity-preserving NS solver with dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid model. The simulation captures salient flow phenome such as shock systems, flow separation structures, and turbulence characteristics. It was found that in the reverse flow region, the streamwise elongated coherent structures are regenerated beneath the main separation vortex, almost immedi...
Real-Gas Correction Factors for Hypersonic Flow Parameters in Helium
Erickson, Wayne D.
1960-01-01
The real-gas hypersonic flow parameters for helium have been calculated for stagnation temperatures from 0 F to 600 F and stagnation pressures up to 6,000 pounds per square inch absolute. The results of these calculations are presented in the form of simple correction factors which must be applied to the tabulated ideal-gas parameters. It has been shown that the deviations from the ideal-gas law which exist at high pressures may cause a corresponding significant error in the hypersonic flow parameters when calculated as an ideal gas. For example the ratio of the free-stream static to stagnation pressure as calculated from the thermodynamic properties of helium for a stagnation temperature of 80 F and pressure of 4,000 pounds per square inch absolute was found to be approximately 13 percent greater than that determined from the ideal-gas tabulation with a specific heat ratio of 5/3.
Modeling study of rarefied gas effects on hypersonic reacting stagnation flows
Wang, Zhihui; Bao, Lin
2014-12-01
Recent development of the near space hypersonic sharp leading vehicles has raised a necessity to fast and accurately predict the aeroheating in hypersonic rarefied flows, which challenges our understanding of the aerothermodynamics and aerothermochemistry. The present flow and heat transfer problem involves complex rarefied gas effects and nonequilibrium real gas effects which are beyond the scope of the traditional prediction theory based on the continuum hypothesis and equilibrium assumption. As a typical example, it has been found that the classical Fay-Riddell equation fails to predict the stagnation point heat flux, when the flow is either rarefied or chemical nonequilibrium. In order to design a more general theory covering the rarefied reacting flow cases, an intuitive model is proposed in this paper to describe the nonequilibrium dissociation-recombination flow along the stagnation streamline towards a slightly blunted nose in hypersonic rarefied flows. Some characteristic flow parameters are introduced, and based on these parameters, an explicitly analytical bridging function is established to correct the traditional theory to accurately predict the actual aeroheating performance. It is shown that for a small size nose in medium density flows, the flow at the outer edge of the stagnation point boundary layer could be highly nonequilibrium, and the aeroheating performance is distinguished from that of the big blunt body reentry flows at high altitudes. As a result, when the rarefied gas effects and the nonequilibrium real gas effects are both significant, the classical similarity law could be questionable, and it is inadequate to directly analogize results from the classical blunt body reentry problems to the present new generation sharp-leading vehicles. In addition, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is also employed to validate the conclusion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzov, V.Yu.; Rybka, I.V.; Yur'ev, A.S.
1995-01-01
Parameters of the axisymmetric flow around bodies with different bluntness are compared in the case of constant energy supply to the main hypersonic flow. Flow structures, drag coefficients, and expenditure of energy on overcoming drag are analyzed with the effect of thermal energy on the flow taken into account for different bodies with equal volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fainardi, E.; Tagliaferri, M.F.; Compagnone, C.; Tanfani, A.; Cocciolo, F.; Targa, L.; Chieregato, A.; Battaglia, R.; Frattarelli, M.; Pascarella, R.
2006-01-01
The aim of this study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow (rCBV) in areas of CT hypoattenuation appearing in the postoperative period in patients treated for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using xenon-enhanced CT scanning (Xe-CT). We analyzed 15 patients (5 male and 10 female; mean age 49.7±12.1 years) with SAH on CT performed on admission to hospital and who showed a low-density area within a well-defined vascular territory on CT scans after clipping or coiling of a saccular aneurysm. All zones of hypoattenuation were larger than 1 cm 2 and showed signs of a mass effect suggesting a subacute phase of evolution. Two aneurysms were detected in two patients. Aneurysms were located in the middle cerebral artery (n=7), in the anterior communicating artery (n=6), in the internal carotid artery (n=3), and in the posterior communicating artery (n=1). Treatments were surgical (n=8), endovascular (n=2) or both (n=1). A total of 36 Xe-CT studies were performed and rCBF values were measured in two different regions of interest (ROI): the low-density area, and an area of normal-appearing brain tissue located symmetrically in the contralateral hemisphere. rCBF levels were significantly lower in the low-density area than in the contralateral normal-appearing area (P 55 ml/100 g per minute) in 2/36 lesions (5.6%). Our study confirmed that rCBF is reduced in new low-density lesions related to specific vascular territories. However, only about one-third of the lesions showed rCBF levels consistent with irreversible ischemia and in a relatively high proportion of lesions, rCBF levels indicated penumbral, oligemic and hyperemic areas. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rakêt, Lars Lau; Søgaard, Jacob; Salmistraro, Matteo
2012-01-01
We consider Distributed Video Coding (DVC) in presence of communication errors. First, we present DVC side information generation based on a new method of optical flow driven frame interpolation, where a highly optimized TV-L1 algorithm is used for the flow calculations and combine three flows....... Thereafter methods for exploiting the error-correcting capabilities of the LDPCA code in DVC are investigated. The proposed frame interpolation includes a symmetric flow constraint to the standard forward-backward frame interpolation scheme, which improves quality and handling of large motion. The three...... flows are combined in one solution. The proposed frame interpolation method consistently outperforms an overlapped block motion compensation scheme and a previous TV-L1 optical flow frame interpolation method with an average PSNR improvement of 1.3 dB and 2.3 dB respectively. For a GOP size of 2...
Computation of hypersonic axisymmetric flows of equilibrium gas over blunt bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hejranfar, K.; Esfahanian, V.; Moghadam, R.K.
2005-01-01
An appropriate combination of the thin-layer Navier-Stokes (TLNS) and parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) solvers is used to accurately and efficiently compute hypersonic flowfields of equilibrium air around blunt-body configurations. The TLNS equations are solved in the nose region to provide the initial data plane needed for the solution of the PNS equations. Then the PNS equations are employed to efficiently compute the flowfield for the afterbody region by using a space marching procedure. Both the TLNS and the PNS equations are numerically solved by using the implicit non-iterative finite-difference algorithm of Beam and Warming. A shock fitting technique is used in both the TLNS and PNS codes to obtain accurate solution in the vicinity of the shock. To validate the results of the developed TLNS code, hypersonic laminar flow over a sphere at Mach number of 11.26 is computed. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of using the present TLNS-PNS methodology, the computations are performed for hypersonic flow over 5 o long slender blunt cone at Mach number of 19.25. The results of these computations are found to be in good agreement with available numerical and experimental data. The effects of real gas on the flowfield characteristics are also studied in both the TLNS and PNS solutions. (author)
Dissociation–recombination models in hypersonic boundary layer O2/O flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armenise, I.; Esposito, F.
2012-01-01
Graphical abstract: In hypersonic boundary layers, in which the temperature strongly decreases from the edge to the body surface, the coupling of transport phenomena and chemical kinetics causes a strong vibrational non-equilibrium, as demonstrated by the vibrational distributions and the pseudo-first-order dissociation constants. In this work a pure O2/O mixture has been investigated to evaluate the role of new multiquanta atom-molecule collision rate coefficients, calculated by means of a quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method. Highlights: ► We evaluate the vibrational non-equilibrium in oxygen hypersonic boundary layer flows. ► We adopt a state-to-state vibrational kinetics model. ► We use updated quasicassical trajectory atom–molecule collision rate coefficients. ► Multiquanta transitions and direct dissociation–recombination are important. ► We calculate the heat flux through the boundary layer. - Abstract: A recent complete set of oxygen atom–molecule collision rate coefficients, calculated by means of a quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) method, has been used to evaluate the vibrational non-equilibrium in hypersonic boundary layer flows. The importance of multiquanta transitions has been demonstrated. Moreover a new ‘direct dissociation–recombination’ (DDR) model has been adopted and the corresponding results differ from the ones obtained with the ladder-climbing (LC) model, characterized by the extrapolation of bound-to-bound transitions to the continuum. The heat flux through the boundary layer and at the surface has been calculated too.
On nitrogen condensation in hypersonic nozzle flows: Numerical method and parametric study
Lin, Longyuan
2013-12-17
A numerical method for calculating two-dimensional planar and axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle flows with nitrogen condensation is developed. The classical nucleation theory with an empirical correction function and the modified Gyarmathy model are used to describe the nucleation rate and the droplet growth, respectively. The conservation of the liquid phase is described by a finite number of moments of the size distribution function. The moment equations are then combined with the Euler equations and are solved by the finite-volume method. The numerical method is first validated by comparing its prediction with experimental results from the literature. The effects of nitrogen condensation on hypersonic nozzle flows are then numerically examined. The parameters at the nozzle exit under the conditions of condensation and no-condensation are evaluated. For the condensation case, the static pressure, the static temperature, and the amount of condensed fluid at the nozzle exit decrease with the increase of the total temperature. Compared with the no-condensation case, both the static pressure and temperature at the nozzle exit increase, and the Mach number decreases due to the nitrogen condensation. It is also indicated that preheating the nitrogen gas is necessary to avoid the nitrogen condensation even for a hypersonic nozzle with a Mach number of 5 operating at room temperatures. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Low Density Supersonic Decelerators
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...
Pressure-sensitive paint on a truncated cone in hypersonic flow at incidences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, L.; Erdem, E.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.; Saravanan, S.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Global pressure map over the truncated cone is obtained at various incidence angles in Mach 5 flow. ► Successful application of AA-PSP in hypersonic flow expands operation area of this technique. ► AA-PSP reveals complex three-dimensional pattern which is difficult for transducer to obtain. ► Quantitative data provides strong correlation with colour Schlieren and oil flow results. ► High spatial resolution pressure mappings identify small scale vortices and flow separation. - Abstract: The flow over a truncated cone is a classical and fundamental problem for aerodynamic research due to its three-dimensional and complicated characteristics. The flow is made more complex when examining high angles of incidence. Recently these types of flows have drawn more attention for the purposes of drag reduction in supersonic/hypersonic flows. In the present study the flow over a truncated cone at various incidences was experimentally investigated in a Mach 5 flow with a unit Reynolds number of 13.5 × 10 6 m −1 . The cone semi-apex angle is 15° and the truncation ratio (truncated length/cone length) is 0.5. The incidence of the model varied from −12° to 12° with 3° intervals relative to the freestream direction. The external flow around the truncated cone was visualised by colour Schlieren photography, while the surface flow pattern was revealed using the oil flow method. The surface pressure distribution was measured using the anodized aluminium pressure-sensitive paint (AA-PSP) technique. Both top and sideviews of the pressure distribution on the model surface were acquired at various incidences. AA-PSP showed high pressure sensitivity and captured the complicated flow structures which correlated well with the colour Schlieren and oil flow visualisation results.
Collision partner selection schemes in DSMC: From micro/nano flows to hypersonic flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roohi, Ehsan, E-mail: e.roohi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir; Stefanov, Stefan
2016-10-25
The motivation of this review paper is to present a detailed summary of different collision models developed in the framework of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The emphasis is put on a newly developed collision model, i.e., the Simplified Bernoulli trial (SBT), which permits efficient low-memory simulation of rarefied gas flows. The paper starts with a brief review of the governing equations of the rarefied gas dynamics including Boltzmann and Kac master equations and reiterates that the linear Kac equation reduces to a non-linear Boltzmann equation under the assumption of molecular chaos. An introduction to the DSMC method is provided, and principles of collision algorithms in the DSMC are discussed. A distinction is made between those collision models that are based on classical kinetic theory (time counter, no time counter (NTC), and nearest neighbor (NN)) and the other class that could be derived mathematically from the Kac master equation (pseudo-Poisson process, ballot box, majorant frequency, null collision, Bernoulli trials scheme and its variants). To provide a deeper insight, the derivation of both collision models, either from the principles of the kinetic theory or the Kac master equation, is provided with sufficient details. Some discussions on the importance of subcells in the DSMC collision procedure are also provided and different types of subcells are presented. The paper then focuses on the simplified version of the Bernoulli trials algorithm (SBT) and presents a detailed summary of validation of the SBT family collision schemes (SBT on transient adaptive subcells: SBT-TAS, and intelligent SBT: ISBT) in a broad spectrum of rarefied gas-flow test cases, ranging from low speed, internal micro and nano flows to external hypersonic flow, emphasizing first the accuracy of these new collision models and second, demonstrating that the SBT family scheme, if compared to other conventional and recent collision models, requires smaller
Collision partner selection schemes in DSMC: From micro/nano flows to hypersonic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roohi, Ehsan; Stefanov, Stefan
2016-01-01
The motivation of this review paper is to present a detailed summary of different collision models developed in the framework of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The emphasis is put on a newly developed collision model, i.e., the Simplified Bernoulli trial (SBT), which permits efficient low-memory simulation of rarefied gas flows. The paper starts with a brief review of the governing equations of the rarefied gas dynamics including Boltzmann and Kac master equations and reiterates that the linear Kac equation reduces to a non-linear Boltzmann equation under the assumption of molecular chaos. An introduction to the DSMC method is provided, and principles of collision algorithms in the DSMC are discussed. A distinction is made between those collision models that are based on classical kinetic theory (time counter, no time counter (NTC), and nearest neighbor (NN)) and the other class that could be derived mathematically from the Kac master equation (pseudo-Poisson process, ballot box, majorant frequency, null collision, Bernoulli trials scheme and its variants). To provide a deeper insight, the derivation of both collision models, either from the principles of the kinetic theory or the Kac master equation, is provided with sufficient details. Some discussions on the importance of subcells in the DSMC collision procedure are also provided and different types of subcells are presented. The paper then focuses on the simplified version of the Bernoulli trials algorithm (SBT) and presents a detailed summary of validation of the SBT family collision schemes (SBT on transient adaptive subcells: SBT-TAS, and intelligent SBT: ISBT) in a broad spectrum of rarefied gas-flow test cases, ranging from low speed, internal micro and nano flows to external hypersonic flow, emphasizing first the accuracy of these new collision models and second, demonstrating that the SBT family scheme, if compared to other conventional and recent collision models, requires smaller
Shahverdi, A; Sharafi, M; Gourabi, H; Yekta, A Amiri; Esmaeili, V; Sharbatoghli, M; Janzamin, E; Hajnasrollahi, M; Mostafayi, F
2015-01-01
Frozen-thawed rooster semen is not reliable for use in artificial insemination in commercial stocks. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been assessed for effectiveness as a cryoprotectant in the extender to improve the quality of frozen-thawed rooster semen. Although LDL has been evaluated in a few studies in other species for semen cryopreservation, so far no study has been conducted to examine this cryoprotectant for cryopreservation of fowl semen. Thus, this study aims to analyze the effects of different concentrations of LDL (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8%) in a Beltsville extender for cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. In experiment 1, motion parameters, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, apoptosis status, and mitochondria activity were assessed after freeze-thawing. The highest quality frozen-thawed semen was selected to be used for evaluation of the fertility rate in experiment 2. Semen was collected from six roosters, twice weekly, then extended in a Beltsville extender that contained different concentrations of LDL as follows: 0% (control), 1% (Beltsville plus 1% LDL [BLDL1]), 2% (BLDL2), 4% (BLDL4), 6% (BLDL6), and 8% (BLDL8). Supplementation of the Beltsville extender with 4% LDL produced the most significant percentage of motility (43.1 ± 1.3), membrane integrity (59.4 ± 2.1),mitochondria activity (49.1 ± 1.19), and viable spermatozoa (45 ± 2.28) compared with the control treatment with the results of 22.7 ± 1.3 (motility), 38.4 ± 2.1 (membrane integrity), 40.25 ± 1.19 (mitochondrial activity), and 37.8 ± 2.28 (viability). In experiment 2, a significantly higher percentage of fertility rate was observed for frozen-thawed semen in the extender supplemented with 4% LDL (49.5 ± 1.6) compared with the control (29.2 ± 2.9). Progressive motility and acrosome integrity were not affected by LDL levels in the extenders. The results revealed that supplementation of the Beltsville extender with 4% LDL resulted in higher quality of frozen-thawed rooster
An unstructured shock-fitting solver for hypersonic plasma flows in chemical non-equilibrium
Pepe, R.; Bonfiglioli, A.; D'Angola, A.; Colonna, G.; Paciorri, R.
2015-11-01
A CFD solver, using Residual Distribution Schemes on unstructured grids, has been extended to deal with inviscid chemical non-equilibrium flows. The conservative equations have been coupled with a kinetic model for argon plasma which includes the argon metastable state as independent species, taking into account electron-atom and atom-atom processes. Results in the case of an hypersonic flow around an infinite cylinder, obtained by using both shock-capturing and shock-fitting approaches, show higher accuracy of the shock-fitting approach.
Hypersonic rarefied-flow aerodynamics inferred from Shuttle Orbiter acceleration measurements
Blanchard, R. C.; Hinson, E. W.
1989-01-01
Data obtained from multiple flights of sensitive accelerometers on the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry have been used to develop an improved aerodynamic model for the Orbiter normal- and axial-force coefficients in hypersonic rarefied flow. The lack of simultaneous atmospheric density measurements was overcome in part by using the ratio of normal-to-axial acceleration, in which density cancels, as a constraint. Differences between the preflight model and the flight-acceleration-derived model in the continuum regime are attributed primarily to real gas effects. New insights are gained into the variation of the force coefficients in the transition between the continuum regime and free molecule flow.
Investigation of turbulence models with compressibility corrections for hypersonic boundary flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Tang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The applications of pressure work, pressure-dilatation, and dilatation-dissipation (Sarkar, Zeman, and Wilcox models to hypersonic boundary flows are investigated. The flat plate boundary layer flows of Mach number 5–11 and shock wave/boundary layer interactions of compression corners are simulated numerically. For the flat plate boundary layer flows, original turbulence models overestimate the heat flux with Mach number high up to 10, and compressibility corrections applied to turbulence models lead to a decrease in friction coefficients and heating rates. The pressure work and pressure-dilatation models yield the better results. Among the three dilatation-dissipation models, Sarkar and Wilcox corrections present larger deviations from the experiment measurement, while Zeman correction can achieve acceptable results. For hypersonic compression corner flows, due to the evident increase of turbulence Mach number in separation zone, compressibility corrections make the separation areas larger, thus cannot improve the accuracy of calculated results. It is unreasonable that compressibility corrections take effect in separation zone. Density-corrected model by Catris and Aupoix is suitable for shock wave/boundary layer interaction flows which can improve the simulation accuracy of the peak heating and have a little influence on separation zone.
CFD for hypersonic airbreathing aircraft
Kumar, Ajay
1989-01-01
A general discussion is given on the use of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in analyzing the hypersonic flow field around an airbreathing aircraft. Unique features of the hypersonic flow physics are presented and an assessment is given of the current algorithms in terms of their capability to model hypersonic flows. Several examples of advanced CFD applications are then presented.
Hypersonic and Unsteady Flow Science Issues for Explosively Formed Penetrators
2006-08-01
under going real- time dynamic deformation. ACCOMPLISHMENTS/RESULTS • Completed initial assessment of flow chemistry • Completed initial stability... flow chemistry during rapid deformation •Cannot use static boundary conditions in CFD codes •Interfaces one approach to coupling with hydrocodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zhihui; Ma, Qiang; Wu, Junlin; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hanxin
2014-01-01
Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body
Boundary layer-shock interaction in hypersonic flows with chemical reaction effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzaei, M.; Shadaram, A.; Jahantigh, N.
2003-01-01
In this paper, viscous interaction phenomenon in hypersonic flows with chemical reactions is numerically simulated. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved to simulate this phenomenon. Inviscid fluxes are approximated using Van Leer flux vector splitting method and to increase the accuracy of this approximation, MUSCL approach with Van albada limiters is applied. Chemical reactions are considered to be in equilibrium conditions. With this assumption there is no closed form for equation of state for the gas (air) and relation between thermodynamic properties are calculated from thermodynamic tables. In addition, transport properties (viscosity and conductivity) are functions of two independent thermodynamic properties. These functions are calculated using kinetic theory. To evaluate the performance of the model used in this research, some test cases are studied. First test case is flow over a ramp with various angles. The results of this test case are compared with the results of other numerical methods and the effect of geometry on separation length is studied. The second case is a hypersonic flow over a 15-degree ramp. The results are in good agreement compared with experimental data. In addition, there results are compared with the results of ideal gas (non-reacting flow) calculations. It can be seen that ideal gas assumption for air introduces considerable deviation form experimental data. (author)
Study of flow control by localized volume heating in hypersonic boundary layers
Keller, M. A.; Kloker, M. J.; Kirilovskiy, S. V.; Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Maslov, A. A.
2014-12-01
Boundary-layer flow control is a prerequisite for a safe and efficient operation of future hypersonic transport systems. Here, the influence of an electric discharge—modeled by a heat-source term in the energy equation—on laminar boundary-layer flows over a flat plate with zero pressure gradient at Mach 3, 5, and 7 is investigated numerically. The aim was to appraise the potential of electro-gasdynamic devices for an application as turbulence generators in the super- and hypersonic flow regime. The results with localized heat-source elements in boundary layers are compared to cases with roughness elements serving as classical passive trips. The numerical simulations are performed using the commercial code ANSYS FLUENT (by ITAM) and the high-order finite-difference DNS code NS3D (by IAG), the latter allowing for the detailed analysis of laminar flow instability. For the investigated setups with steady heating, transition to turbulence is not observed, due to the Reynolds-number lowering effect of heating.
All-Particle Multiscale Computation of Hypersonic Rarefied Flow
Jun, E.; Burt, J. M.; Boyd, I. D.
2011-05-01
This study examines a new hybrid particle scheme used as an alternative means of multiscale flow simulation. The hybrid particle scheme employs the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method in rarefied flow regions and the low diffusion (LD) particle method in continuum flow regions. The numerical procedures of the low diffusion particle method are implemented within an existing DSMC algorithm. The performance of the LD-DSMC approach is assessed by studying Mach 10 nitrogen flow over a sphere with a global Knudsen number of 0.002. The hybrid scheme results show good overall agreement with results from standard DSMC and CFD computation. Subcell procedures are utilized to improve computational efficiency and reduce sensitivity to DSMC cell size in the hybrid scheme. This makes it possible to perform the LD-DSMC simulation on a much coarser mesh that leads to a significant reduction in computation time.
Aerodynamic Modeling of Oscillating Wing in Hypersonic Flow: a Numerical Study
Zhu, Jian; Hou, Ying-Yu; Ji, Chen; Liu, Zi-Qiang
2016-06-01
Various approximations to unsteady aerodynamics are examined for the unsteady aerodynamic force of a pitching thin double wedge airfoil in hypersonic flow. Results of piston theory, Van Dyke’s second-order theory, Newtonian impact theory, and CFD method are compared in the same motion and Mach number effects. The results indicate that, for this thin double wedge airfoil, Newtonian impact theory is not suitable for these Mach number, while piston theory and Van Dyke’s second-order theory are in good agreement with CFD method for Ma<7.
Ching, Eric; Lv, Yu; Ihme, Matthias
2017-11-01
Recent interest in human-scale missions to Mars has sparked active research into high-fidelity simulations of reentry flows. A key feature of the Mars atmosphere is the high levels of suspended dust particles, which can not only enhance erosion of thermal protection systems but also transfer energy and momentum to the shock layer, increasing surface heat fluxes. Second-order finite-volume schemes are typically employed for hypersonic flow simulations, but such schemes suffer from a number of limitations. An attractive alternative is discontinuous Galerkin methods, which benefit from arbitrarily high spatial order of accuracy, geometric flexibility, and other advantages. As such, a Lagrangian particle method is developed in a discontinuous Galerkin framework to enable the computation of particle-laden hypersonic flows. Two-way coupling between the carrier and disperse phases is considered, and an efficient particle search algorithm compatible with unstructured curved meshes is proposed. In addition, variable thermodynamic properties are considered to accommodate high-temperature gases. The performance of the particle method is demonstrated in several test cases, with focus on the accurate prediction of particle trajectories and heating augmentation. Financial support from a Stanford Graduate Fellowship and the NASA Early Career Faculty program are gratefully acknowledged.
Gao, WenZhi; Li, ZhuFei; Yang, JiMing
2015-10-01
A hybrid CFD/characteristic method (CCM) was proposed for fast design and evaluation of hypersonic inlet flow with nose bluntness, which targets the combined advantages of CFD and method of characteristics. Both the accuracy and efficiency of the developed CCM were verified reliably, and it was well demonstrated for the external surfaces design of a hypersonic forebody/inlet with nose bluntness. With the help of CCM method, effects of nose bluntness on forebody shock shapes and the flowfield qualities which dominate inlet performance were examined and analyzed on the two-dimensional and axisymmetric configurations. The results showed that blunt effects of a wedge forebody are more substantial than that of related cone cases. For a conical forebody with a properly blunted nose, a recovery of the shock front back to that of corresponding sharp nose is exhibited, accompanied with a gradually fading out of entropy layer effects. Consequently a simplification is thought to be reasonable for an axisymmetric inlet with a proper compression angle, and a blunt nose of limited radius can be idealized as a sharp nose, as the spillage and flow variations at the entrance are negligible, even though the nose scale increases to 10% cowl lip radius. Whereas for two-dimensional inlets, the blunt effects are substantial since not only the inlet capturing/starting capabilities, but also the flow uniformities are obviously degraded.
Experimental Investigation of Turbulent Flames in Hypersonic Flows
2015-09-01
the flow direction and (b) typical flame length scales seen in the OH-PLIF image with Mach 4.5 freestream (high turbulence) at P0 = 0.65 bar, T0...flame structures (3 mm) are observed at the upstream location of area 1 where the combustion localization first appears. The typical flame length scale
Effects of continuum breakdown on hypersonic aerothermodynamics for reacting flow
Holman, Timothy D.; Boyd, Iain D.
2011-02-01
This study investigates the effects of continuum breakdown on the surface aerothermodynamic properties (pressure, stress, and heat transfer rate) of a sphere in a Mach 25 flow of reacting air in regimes varying from continuum to a rarefied gas. Results are generated using both continuum [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] and particle [direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC)] approaches. The DSMC method utilizes a chemistry model that calculates the backward rates from an equilibrium constant. A preferential dissociation model is modified in the CFD method to better compare with the vibrationally favored dissociation model that is utilized in the DSMC method. Tests of these models are performed to confirm their validity and to compare the chemistry models in both numerical methods. This study examines the effect of reacting air flow on continuum breakdown and the surface properties of the sphere. As the global Knudsen number increases, the amount of continuum breakdown in the flow and on the surface increases. This increase in continuum breakdown significantly affects the surface properties, causing an increase in the differences between CFD and DSMC. Explanations are provided for the trends observed.
Introduction to compressible fluid flow
Oosthuizen, Patrick H
2013-01-01
IntroductionThe Equations of Steady One-Dimensional Compressible FlowSome Fundamental Aspects of Compressible FlowOne-Dimensional Isentropic FlowNormal Shock WavesOblique Shock WavesExpansion Waves - Prandtl-Meyer FlowVariable Area FlowsAdiabatic Flow with FrictionFlow with Heat TransferLinearized Analysis of Two-Dimensional Compressible FlowsHypersonic and High-Temperature FlowsHigh-Temperature Gas EffectsLow-Density FlowsBibliographyAppendices
An assessment of unstructured grid finite volume schemes for cold gas hypersonic flow calculations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João Luiz F. Azevedo
2009-06-01
Full Text Available A comparison of five different spatial discretization schemes is performed considering a typical high speed flow application. Flowfields are simulated using the 2-D Euler equations, discretized in a cell-centered finite volume procedure on unstructured triangular meshes. The algorithms studied include a central difference-type scheme, and 1st- and 2nd-order van Leer and Liou flux-vector splitting schemes. These methods are implemented in an efficient, edge-based, unstructured grid procedure which allows for adaptive mesh refinement based on flow property gradients. Details of the unstructured grid implementation of the methods are presented together with a discussion of the data structure and of the adaptive refinement strategy. The application of interest is the cold gas flow through a typical hypersonic inlet. Results for different entrance Mach numbers and mesh topologies are discussed in order to assess the comparative performance of the various spatial discretization schemes.
Hypersonic Separated Flows About "Tick" Configurations With Sensitivity to Model Design
Moss, J. N.; O'Byrne, S.; Gai, S. L.
2014-01-01
This paper presents computational results obtained by applying the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method for hypersonic nonequilibrium flow about "tick-shaped" model configurations. These test models produces a complex flow where the nonequilibrium and rarefied aspects of the flow are initially enhanced as the flow passes over an expansion surface, and then the flow encounters a compression surface that can induce flow separation. The resulting flow is such that meaningful numerical simulations must have the capability to account for a significant range of rarefaction effects; hence the application of the DSMC method in the current study as the flow spans several flow regimes, including transitional, slip, and continuum. The current focus is to examine the sensitivity of both the model surface response (heating, friction and pressure) and flowfield structure to assumptions regarding surface boundary conditions and more extensively the impact of model design as influenced by leading edge configuration as well as the geometrical features of the expansion and compression surfaces. Numerical results indicate a strong sensitivity to both the extent of the leading edge sharpness and the magnitude of the leading edge bevel angle. Also, the length of the expansion surface for a fixed compression surface has a significant impact on the extent of separated flow.
Schlieren Visualization of the Energy Addition by Multi Laser Pulse in Hypersonic Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.
2008-01-01
The experimental results of the energy addition by multi laser pulse in Mach 7 hypersonic flow are presented. Two high power pulsed CO 2 TEA lasers (TEA1 5.5 J, TEA2 3.9 J) were assembled sharing the same optical cavity to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The lasers can be triggered with a selectable time delay and in the present report the results obtained with delay between 30 μs and 80 μs are shown. The schlieren technique associated with a high speed camera was used to accomplish the influence of the energy addition in the mitigation of the shock wave formed on the model surface by the hypersonic flow. A piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to obtain the time history of the impact pressure at stagnation point of the model and the pressure reduction could be measured. The total recovery of the shock wave between pulses as well as the prolonged effect of the mitigation without recovery was observed by changing the delay
Design, Validation, and Testing of a Hot-Film Anemometer for Hypersonic Flow
Sheplak, Mark
The application of constant-temperature hot-film anemometry to hypersonic flow has been reviewed and extended in this thesis. The objective of this investigation was to develop a measurement tool capable of yielding continuous, high-bandwidth, quantitative, normal mass-flux and total -temperature measurements in moderate-enthalpy environments. This research has produced a probe design that represents a significant advancement over existing designs, offering the following improvements: (1) a five-fold increase in bandwidth; (2) true stagnation-line sensor placement; (3) a two order-of-magnitude decrease in sensor volume; and (4) over a 70% increase in maximum film temperature. These improvements were achieved through substrate design, sensor placement, the use of high-temperature materials, and state -of-the-art microphotolithographic fabrication techniques. The experimental study to characterize the probe was performed in four different hypersonic wind tunnels at NASA-Langley Research Center. The initial test consisted of traversing the hot film through a Mach 6, flat-plate, turbulent boundary layer in air. The detailed static-calibration measurements that followed were performed in two different hypersonic flows: a Mach 11 helium flow and Mach 6 air flow. The final test of this thesis consisted of traversing the probe through the Mach 6 wake of a 70^ circ blunt body. The goal of this test was to determine the state (i.e., laminar or turbulent) of the wake. These studies indicate that substrate conduction effects result in instrumentation characteristics that prevent the hot-film anemometer from being used as a quantitative tool. The extension of this technique to providing quantitative information is dependent upon the development of lower thermal-conductivity substrate materials. However, the probe durability, absence of strain gauging, and high bandwidth represent significant improvements over the hot-wire technique for making qualitative measurements. Potential
An Engineering Aerodynamic Heating Method for Hypersonic Flow
Riley, Christopher J.; DeJarnette, Fred R.
1992-01-01
A capability to calculate surface heating rates has been incorporated in an approximate three-dimensional inviscid technique. Surface streamlines are calculated from the inviscid solution, and the axisymmetric analog is then used along with a set of approximate convective-heating equations to compute the surface heat transfer. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three-dimensional ellipsoidal cones at angle of attack for the laminar flow of a perfect gas. The method is also applicable to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes (NS) and viscous shock-layer (VSL) equations. The new technique represents a significant improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.
Ashby, George C.
1988-01-01
An experimental investigation of the design of pitot probes for flowfield surveys in hypersonic wind tunnels is reported. The results show that a pitot-pressure probe can be miniaturized for minimum interference effects by locating the transducer in the probe support body and water-cooling it so that the pressure-settling time and transducer temperature are compatible with hypersonic tunnel operation and flow conditions. Flowfield surveys around a two-to-one elliptical cone model in a 20-inch Mach 6 wind tunnel using such a probe show that probe interference effects are essentially eliminated.
Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Thompson, Richard A.
2009-01-01
A description of models and boundary conditions required for coupling radiation and ablation physics to a hypersonic flow simulation is provided. Chemical equilibrium routines for varying elemental mass fraction are required in the flow solver to integrate with the equilibrium chemistry assumption employed in the ablation models. The capability also enables an equilibrium catalytic wall boundary condition in the non-ablating case. The paper focuses on numerical implementation issues using FIRE II, Mars return, and Apollo 4 applications to provide context for discussion. Variable relaxation factors applied to the Jacobian elements of partial equilibrium relations required for convergence are defined. Challenges of strong radiation coupling in a shock capturing algorithm are addressed. Results are presented to show how the current suite of models responds to a wide variety of conditions involving coupled radiation and ablation.
An improved flux-split algorithm applied to hypersonic flows in chemical equilibrium
Palmer, Grant
1988-01-01
An explicit, finite-difference, shock-capturing numerical algorithm is presented and applied to hypersonic flows assumed to be in thermochemical equilibrium. Real-gas chemistry is either loosely coupled to the gasdynamics by way of a Gibbs free energy minimization package or fully coupled using species mass conservation equations with finite-rate chemical reactions. A scheme is developed that maintains stability in the explicit, finite-rate formulation while allowing relatively high time steps. The codes use flux vector splitting to difference the inviscid fluxes and employ real-gas corrections to viscosity and thermal conductivity. Numerical results are compared against existing ballistic range and flight data. Flows about complex geometries are also computed.
Concentrated energy addition for active drag reduction in hypersonic flow regime
Ashwin Ganesh, M.; John, Bibin
2018-01-01
Numerical optimization of hypersonic drag reduction technique based on concentrated energy addition is presented in this study. A reduction in wave drag is realized through concentrated energy addition in the hypersonic flowfield upstream of the blunt body. For the exhaustive optimization presented in this study, an in-house high precision inviscid flow solver has been developed. Studies focused on the identification of "optimum energy addition location" have revealed the existence of multiple minimum drag points. The wave drag coefficient is observed to drop from 0.85 to 0.45 when 50 Watts of energy is added to an energy bubble of 1 mm radius located at 74.7 mm upstream of the stagnation point. A direct proportionality has been identified between energy bubble size and wave drag coefficient. Dependence of drag coefficient on the upstream added energy magnitude is also revealed. Of the observed multiple minimum drag points, the energy deposition point (EDP) that offers minimum wave drag just after a sharp drop in drag is proposed as the most optimum energy addition location.
Computational investigations of blunt body drag-reduction spikes in hypersonic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamran, N.; Zahir, S.; Khan, M.A.
2003-01-01
Drag is an important parameter in the designing of high-speed vehicles. Such vehicles include hypervelocity projectiles, reentry modules, and hypersonic aircrafts. Therefore, there exists an active or passive technique to reduce drag due to the high pressures at nosetip region of the vehicle. Drag can be reduced by attaching a forward facing spike on the nose of the vehicle. The present study reviews and deals with the CFD analysis made on a standard blunt body to reduce aerodynamic drag due to the attachment of forward facing spikes for High-Speed vehicles. Different spike lengths have been examined to study the forebody flowfield. The investigation concludes that spikes are an effective way to reduce the aerodynamic drag due to reduced dynamic pressure on the nose caused by the separated flow on the spikes. With the accomplishment of confidence on computational data, study was extended in hypersonic Mach range with a drag prediction accuracy of ± 10%. In the present work, viscous fluid dynamics studies were performed for a complete freestream Mach number range of 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 for different spike lengths and zero degree angle of attack. (author)
Hypersonic Engine Leading Edge Experiments in a High Heat Flux, Supersonic Flow Environment
Gladden, Herbert J.; Melis, Matthew E.
1994-01-01
A major concern in advancing the state-of-the-art technologies for hypersonic vehicles is the development of an aeropropulsion system capable of withstanding the sustained high thermal loads expected during hypersonic flight. Three aerothermal load related concerns are the boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow, articulating panel seals in high temperature environments, and strut (or cowl) leading edges with shock-on-shock interactions. A multidisciplinary approach is required to address these technical concerns. A hydrogen/oxygen rocket engine heat source has been developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center as one element in a series of facilities at national laboratories designed to experimentally evaluate the heat transfer and structural response of the strut (or cowl) leading edge. A recent experimental program conducted in this facility is discussed and related to cooling technology capability. The specific objective of the experiment discussed is to evaluate the erosion and oxidation characteristics of a coating on a cowl leading edge (or strut leading edge) in a supersonic, high heat flux environment. Heat transfer analyses of a similar leading edge concept cooled with gaseous hydrogen is included to demonstrate the complexity of the problem resulting from plastic deformation of the structures. Macro-photographic data from a coated leading edge model show progressive degradation over several thermal cycles at aerothermal conditions representative of high Mach number flight.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raphäel Vallon
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Since the beginning of the Mars planet exploration, the characterization of carbon dioxide hypersonic flows to simulate a spaceship’s Mars atmosphere entry conditions has been an important issue. We have developed a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer with a new room-temperature operating antimony-based distributed feedback laser (DFB diode laser to characterize the velocity, the temperature and the density of such flows. This instrument has been tested during two measurement campaigns in a free piston tunnel cold hypersonic facility and in a high enthalpy arc jet wind tunnel. These tests also demonstrate the feasibility of mid-infrared fiber optics coupling of the spectrometer to a wind tunnel for integrated or local flow characterization with an optical probe placed in the flow.
Dagum, Leonardo
1989-01-01
The data parallel implementation of a particle simulation for hypersonic rarefied flow described by Dagum associates a single parallel data element with each particle in the simulation. The simulated space is divided into discrete regions called cells containing a variable and constantly changing number of particles. The implementation requires a global sort of the parallel data elements so as to arrange them in an order that allows immediate access to the information associated with cells in the simulation. Described here is a very fast algorithm for performing the necessary ranking of the parallel data elements. The performance of the new algorithm is compared with that of the microcoded instruction for ranking on the Connection Machine.
Chen, Y. K.; Henline, W. D.
1993-01-01
The general boundary conditions including mass and energy balances of chemically equilibrated or nonequilibrated gas adjacent to ablating surfaces have been derived. A computer procedure based on these conditions was developed and interfaced with the Navier-Stokes solver for predictions of the flow field, surface temperature, and surface ablation rates over re-entry space vehicles with ablating Thermal Protection Systems (TPS). The Navier-Stokes solver with general surface thermochemistry boundary conditions can predict more realistic solutions and provide useful information for the design of TPS. A test case with a proposed hypersonic test vehicle configuration and associated free stream conditions was developed. Solutions with various surface boundary conditions were obtained, and the effect of nonequilibrium gas as well as surface chemistry on surface heating and ablation rate were examined. The solutions of the GASP code with complete ablating surface conditions were compared with those of the ASC code. The direction of future work is also discussed.
On-design solutions of hypersonic flows past elliptic-cone derived waveriders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Bok Hyun
1992-01-01
The hypersonic flows past a class of elliptic-conederived waverider at the on-design condition are analyzed. A CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) algorithm due to Lawrence is utilized to numerically integrate the steady Euler equations. The singular behavior at the sharp leading-edge of a waverider where a bow shock is to be attached for the ideal situation makes the computation extremely difficult for convergence of numerical solution. Various types of grids are generated and tested for converged solutions. A new formula for more accurate waverider shape is established and by means of this new waverider configuration the reason for the shock stand-off which was detected in previous investigations is clarified in this paper. (Author)
Simulation of hypersonic rarefied flows with the immersed-boundary method
Bruno, D.; De Palma, P.; de Tullio, M. D.
2011-05-01
This paper provides a validation of an immersed boundary method for computing hypersonic rarefied gas flows. The method is based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation and is validated versus numerical results obtained by the DSMC approach. The Navier-Stokes solver employs a flexible local grid refinement technique and is implemented on parallel machines using a domain-decomposition approach. Thanks to the efficient grid generation process, based on the ray-tracing technique, and the use of the METIS software, it is possible to obtain the partitioned grids to be assigned to each processor with a minimal effort by the user. This allows one to by-pass the expensive (in terms of time and human resources) classical generation process of a body fitted grid. First-order slip-velocity boundary conditions are employed and tested for taking into account rarefied gas effects.
Similar solutions for viscous hypersonic flow over a slender three-fourths-power body of revolution
Lin, Chin-Shun
1987-01-01
For hypersonic flow with a shock wave, there is a similar solution consistent throughout the viscous and inviscid layers along a very slender three-fourths-power body of revolution The strong pressure interaction problem can then be treated by the method of similarity. Numerical calculations are performed in the viscous region with the edge pressure distribution known from the inviscid similar solutions. The compressible laminar boundary-layer equations are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations. The resulting two-point boundary value problem is then solved by the Runge-Kutta method with a modified Newton's method for the corresponding boundary conditions. The effects of wall temperature, mass bleeding, and body transverse curvature are investigated. The induced pressure, displacement thickness, skin friction, and heat transfer due to the previously mentioned parameters are estimated and analyzed.
Experimental study on supersonic film cooling on the surface of a blunt body in hypersonic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Jia; Yi Shi-He; Wang Xiao-Hu; He Lin; Ge Yong
2014-01-01
The experimental study focuses on the heat flux on a double cone blunt body in the presence of tangential-slot supersonic injection into hypersonic flow. The tests are conducted in a contoured axisymmetric nozzle with Mach numbers of 7.3 and 8.1, and the total temperature is about 900 K. The injection Mach number is 3.2, and total temperature is 300 K. A constant voltage circuit is developed to supply the temperature detectors instead of the normally used constant current circuit. The schlieren photographs are presented additionally to visualize the flow and help analyze the pressure relationship between the cooling flow and the main flow. The dependence of the film-cooling effectiveness on flow parameters, i.e. the blow ratio, the convective Mach number, and the attack angle, is determined. A semi-empirical formula is tested by the present data, and is improved for a better correlation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
A database of aerothermal measurements in hypersonic flow for CFD validation
Holden, M. S.; Moselle, J. R.
1992-01-01
This paper presents an experimental database selected and compiled from aerothermal measurements obtained on basic model configurations on which fundamental flow phenomena could be most easily examined. The experimental studies were conducted in hypersonic flows in 48-inch, 96-inch, and 6-foot shock tunnels. A special computer program was constructed to provide easy access to the measurements in the database as well as the means to plot the measurements and compare them with imported data. The database contains tabulations of model configurations, freestream conditions, and measurements of heat transfer, pressure, and skin friction for each of the studies selected for inclusion. The first segment contains measurements in laminar flow emphasizing shock-wave boundary-layer interaction. In the second segment, measurements in transitional flows over flat plates and cones are given. The third segment comprises measurements in regions of shock-wave/turbulent-boundary-layer interactions. Studies of the effects of surface roughness of nosetips and conical afterbodies are presented in the fourth segment of the database. Detailed measurements in regions of shock/shock boundary layer interaction are contained in the fifth segment. Measurements in regions of wall jet and transpiration cooling are presented in the final two segments.
Space-marching gridless computation of steady supersonic/hypersonic flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hui, W.H.; Hu, J.J.
2004-01-01
Most CFD work use Eulerian coordinates, which require generating a grid prior to flow filed computation. Despite three decades of research, grid generation is still a bottleneck of CFD, as it is time-consuming, tedious and requires specialized training. It will be shown in this paper that using the Unified Coordinates introduced by Hui et. al., there is no need for grid generation prior to flow computation; the grid is automatically generated while computing the flow. This greatly saves computing time. For steady supersonic/hypersonic flow, the Euler equations of gas dynamics are of hyperbolic type and a space-marching gridless computation along the streamlines - coordinate lines in the unified coordinates - is shown to be a complete success in that: (a) it is most robust, (b) it resolves both slip lines (also called contact lines) and shocks sharply, (c) its computing time is more than three orders of magnitude smaller than Eulerian computation and, (d) it by-passes the tedious and time-consuming grid generation stage which is needed in Eulerian computation. Three examples are given to justify these claims. (author)
Simulating flow around scaled model of a hypersonic vehicle in wind tunnel
Markova, T. V.; Aksenov, A. A.; Zhluktov, S. V.; Savitsky, D. V.; Gavrilov, A. D.; Son, E. E.; Prokhorov, A. N.
2016-11-01
A prospective hypersonic HEXAFLY aircraft is considered in the given paper. In order to obtain the aerodynamic characteristics of a new construction design of the aircraft, experiments with a scaled model have been carried out in a wind tunnel under different conditions. The runs have been performed at different angles of attack with and without hydrogen combustion in the scaled propulsion engine. However, the measured physical quantities do not provide all the information about the flowfield. Numerical simulation can complete the experimental data as well as to reduce the number of wind tunnel experiments. Besides that, reliable CFD software can be used for calculations of the aerodynamic characteristics for any possible design of the full-scale aircraft under different operation conditions. The reliability of the numerical predictions must be confirmed in verification study of the software. The given work is aimed at numerical investigation of the flowfield around and inside the scaled model of the HEXAFLY-CIAM module under wind tunnel conditions. A cold run (without combustion) was selected for this study. The calculations are performed in the FlowVision CFD software. The flow characteristics are compared against the available experimental data. The carried out verification study confirms the capability of the FlowVision CFD software to calculate the flows discussed.
Application of a Modular Particle-Continuum Method to Partially Rarefied, Hypersonic Flow
Deschenes, Timothy R.; Boyd, Iain D.
2011-05-01
The Modular Particle-Continuum (MPC) method is used to simulate partially-rarefied, hypersonic flow over a sting-mounted planetary probe configuration. This hybrid method uses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in regions that are continuum, while using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) in portions of the flow that are rarefied. The MPC method uses state-based coupling to pass information between the two flow solvers and decouples both time-step and mesh densities required by each solver. It is parallelized for distributed memory systems using dynamic domain decomposition and internal energy modes can be consistently modeled to be out of equilibrium with the translational mode in both solvers. The MPC results are compared to both full DSMC and CFD predictions and available experimental measurements. By using DSMC in only regions where the flow is nonequilibrium, the MPC method is able to reproduce full DSMC results down to the level of velocity and rotational energy probability density functions while requiring a fraction of the computational time.
Inner-outer predictive wall model for wall-bounded turbulence in hypersonic flow
Martin, M. Pino; Helm, Clara M.
2017-11-01
The inner-outer predictive wall model of Mathis et al. is modified for hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. The model is based on a modulation of the energized motions in the inner layer by large scale momentum fluctuations in the logarithmic layer. Using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of turbulent boundary layers with free stream Mach number 3 to 10, it is shown that the variation of the fluid properties in the compressible flows leads to large Reynolds number (Re) effects in the outer layer and facilitate the modulation observed in high Re incompressible flows. The modulation effect by the large scale increases with increasing free-stream Mach number. The model is extended to include spanwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations and is generalized through Morkovin scaling. Temperature fluctuations are modeled using an appropriate Reynolds Analogy. Density fluctuations are calculated using an equation of state and a scaling with Mach number. DNS data are used to obtain the universal signal and parameters. The model is tested by using the universal signal to reproduce the flow conditions of Mach 3 and Mach 7 turbulent boundary layer DNS data and comparing turbulence statistics between the modeled flow and the DNS data. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant FA9550-17-1-0104.
Stability and sensitivity analysis of hypersonic flow past a blunt cone
Nichols, Joseph W.; Cook, David; Brock, Joseph M.; Candler, Graham V.
2017-11-01
We investigate the effects of nosetip bluntness and low-level distributed roughness on instabilities leading to transition on a 7 degree half-angle blunt cone at Mach 10. To study the sensitivity of boundary layer instabilities to bluntness and roughness, we numerically extract Jacobian matrices directly from the unstructured hypersonic flow solver US3D. These matrices govern the dynamics of small perturbations about otherwise laminar base flows. We consider the frequency response of the resulting linearized dynamical system between different input and output locations along the cone, including close to the nosetip. Using adjoints, our method faithfully captures effects of complex geometry such as strong curvature and roughness that lead to flow acceleration and localized heating in this region. These effects violate the assumption of a slowly-varying base flow that underpins traditional linear stability analyses. We compare our results, which do not rely upon this assumption, to experimental measurements of a Mach 10 blunt cone taken at the AEDC Hypervelocity Ballistic Range G facility. In particular, we assess whether effects of complex geometry can explain discrepancies previously noted between traditional stability analysis and observations. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research through Grant Number N00014-17-1-2496.
Numerical simulation of hypersonic inlet flows with equilibrium or finite rate chemistry
Yu, Sheng-Tao; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung; Shuen, Jian-Shun; Mcbride, Bonnie J.
1988-01-01
An efficient numerical program incorporated with comprehensive high temperature gas property models has been developed to simulate hypersonic inlet flows. The computer program employs an implicit lower-upper time marching scheme to solve the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with variable thermodynamic and transport properties. Both finite-rate and local-equilibrium approaches are adopted in the chemical reaction model for dissociation and ionization of the inlet air. In the finite rate approach, eleven species equations coupled with fluid dynamic equations are solved simultaneously. In the local-equilibrium approach, instead of solving species equations, an efficient chemical equilibrium package has been developed and incorporated into the flow code to obtain chemical compositions directly. Gas properties for the reaction products species are calculated by methods of statistical mechanics and fit to a polynomial form for C(p). In the present study, since the chemical reaction time is comparable to the flow residence time, the local-equilibrium model underpredicts the temperature in the shock layer. Significant differences of predicted chemical compositions in shock layer between finite rate and local-equilibrium approaches have been observed.
Tumuklu, Ozgur; Levin, Deborah A.; Theofilis, Vassilis
2018-04-01
Shock-dominated hypersonic laminar flows over a double cone are investigated using time accurate direct simulation Monte Carlo combined with the residuals algorithm for unit Reynolds numbers gradually increasing from 9.35 × 104 to 3.74 × 105 m-1 at a Mach number of about 16. The main flow features, such as the strong bow-shock, location of the separation shock, the triple point, and the entire laminar separated region, show a time-dependent behavior. Although the separation shock angle is found to be similar for all Re numbers, the effects of Reynolds number on the structure and extent of the separation region are profound. As the Reynolds number is increased, larger pressure values in the under-expanded jet region due to strong shock interactions form more prominent λ-shocklets in the supersonic region between two contact surfaces. Likewise, the surface parameters, especially on the second cone surface, show a strong dependence on the Reynolds number, with skin friction, pressure, and surface heating rates increasing and velocity slip and temperature jump values decreasing for increasing Re number. A Kelvin-Helmholtz instability arising at the shear layer results in an unsteady flow for the highest Reynolds number. These findings suggest that consideration of experimental measurement times is important when it comes to determining the steady state surface parameters even for a relatively simple double cone geometry at moderately large Reynolds numbers.
An implicit multigrid algorithm for computing hypersonic, chemically reacting viscous flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, J.R.
1996-01-01
An implicit algorithm for computing viscous flows in chemical nonequilibrium is presented. Emphasis is placed on the numerical efficiency of the time integration scheme, both in terms of periteration workload and overall convergence rate. In this context, several techniques are introduced, including a stable, O(m 2 ) approximate factorization of the chemical source Jacobian and implementations of V-cycle and filtered multigrid acceleration methods. A five species-seventeen reaction air model is used to calculate hypersonic viscous flow over a cylinder at conditions corresponding to flight at 5 km/s, 60 km altitude and at 11.36 km/s, 76.42 km altitude. Inviscid calculations using an eleven-species reaction mechanism including ionization are presented for a case involving 11.37 km/s flow at an altitude of 84.6 km. Comparisons among various options for the implicit treatment of the chemical source terms and among different multilevel approaches for convergence acceleration are presented for all simulations
Synchronous Surface Pressure and Velocity Measurements of standard model in hypersonic flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhijun Sun
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Experiments in the Hypersonic Wind tunnel of NUAA(NHW present synchronous measurements of bow shockwave and surface pressure of a standard blunt rotary model (AGARD HB-2, which was carried out in order to measure the Mach-5-flow above a blunt body by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry as well as unsteady pressure around the rotary body. Titanium dioxide (Al2O3 Nano particles were seeded into the flow by a tailor-made container. With meticulous care designed optical path, the laser was guided into the vacuum experimental section. The transient pressure was obtained around model by using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint (PSPsprayed on the model. All the experimental facilities were controlled by Series Pulse Generator to ensure that the data was time related. The PIV measurements of velocities in front of the detached bow shock agreed very well with the calculated value, with less than 3% difference compared to Pitot-pressure recordings. The velocity gradient contour described in accord with the detached bow shock that showed on schlieren. The PSP results presented good agreement with the reference data from previous studies. Our work involving studies of synchronous shock-wave and pressure measurements proved to be encouraging.
Guarendi, Andrew N; Chandy, Abhilash J
2013-01-01
Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) hypersonic flow over a cylinder are presented for axial- and transverse-oriented dipoles with different strengths. ANSYS CFX is used to carry out calculations for steady, laminar flows at a Mach number of 6.1, with a model for electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure. The low magnetic Reynolds number (<1) calculated based on the velocity and length scales in this problem justifies the quasistatic approximation, which assumes negligible effect of velocity on magnetic fields. Therefore, the governing equations employed in the simulations are the compressible Navier-Stokes and the energy equations with MHD-related source terms such as Lorentz force and Joule dissipation. The results demonstrate the ability of the magnetic field to affect the flowfield around the cylinder, which results in an increase in shock stand-off distance and reduction in overall temperature. Also, it is observed that there is a noticeable decrease in drag with the addition of the magnetic field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew N. Guarendi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD hypersonic flow over a cylinder are presented for axial- and transverse-oriented dipoles with different strengths. ANSYS CFX is used to carry out calculations for steady, laminar flows at a Mach number of 6.1, with a model for electrical conductivity as a function of temperature and pressure. The low magnetic Reynolds number (≪1 calculated based on the velocity and length scales in this problem justifies the quasistatic approximation, which assumes negligible effect of velocity on magnetic fields. Therefore, the governing equations employed in the simulations are the compressible Navier-Stokes and the energy equations with MHD-related source terms such as Lorentz force and Joule dissipation. The results demonstrate the ability of the magnetic field to affect the flowfield around the cylinder, which results in an increase in shock stand-off distance and reduction in overall temperature. Also, it is observed that there is a noticeable decrease in drag with the addition of the magnetic field.
Aerodynamic performance investigation on waverider with variable blunt radius in hypersonic flows
Li, Shibin; Wang, Zhenguo; Huang, Wei; Xu, Shenren; Yan, Li
2017-08-01
Waverider is an important candidate for the design of hypersonic vehicles. However, the ideal waverider cannot be manufactured because of its sharp leading edge, so the leading edge should be blunted. In the paper, the HMB solver and laminar flow model have been utilized to obtain the flow field properties around the blunt waverider with the freestream Mach number being 8.0, and several novel strategies have been suggested to improve the aerodynamic performance of blunt waverider. The numerical method has been validated against experimental data, and the Stanton number(St) of the predicted result has been analyzed. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental data. Stmax decreases by 58% and L/D decreases by 8.2% when the blunt radius increases from 0.0002 m to 0.001 m. ;Variable blunt waverider; is a good compromise for aerodynamic performance and thermal insulation. The aero-heating characteristics are very sensitive to Rmax. The position of the smallest blunt radius has a great effect on the aerodynamic performance. In addition, the type of blunt leading edge has a great effect on the aero-heating characteristics when Rmax is fixed. Therefore, out of several designs, Type 4is the best way to achieve the good overall performance. The ;Variable blunt waverider; not only improves the aerodynamic performance, but also makes the aero-heating become evenly-distributed, leading to better aero-heating characteristics.
Computational Tool for Coupled Simulation of Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Flows with Ablation, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR project is to develop a predictive computational tool for the aerothermal environment around ablation-cooled hypersonic atmospheric entry...
Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser-Based Sensors for Hypersonic Flows (7274-050), Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground test facilities are used by NASA to simulate the conditions present during flight at hypersonic velocities, to test thermal protection materials for existing...
Interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock in hypersonic flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Yanji
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Pressure sensing and schlieren imaging with high resolution and sensitivity are applied to the study of the interaction of single-pulse laser energy with bow shock at Mach 5. An Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.06 μm, 100 mJ pulse energy is used to break down the hypersonic flow in a shock tunnel. Three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations are solved with an upwind scheme to simulate the interaction. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body is measured and calculated to examine the pressure variation during the interaction. Schlieren imaging is used in conjunction with the calculated density gradients to examine the process of the interaction. The results show that the experimental pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body and schlieren imaging fit well with the simulation. The pressure at the stagnation point on the blunt body will increase when the transmission shock approaches the blunt body and decrease with the formation of the rarefied wave. Bow shock is deformed during the interaction. Quasi-stationary waves are formed by high rate laser energy deposition to control the bow shock. The pressure and temperature at the stagnation point on the blunt body and the wave drag are reduced to 50%, 75% and 81% respectively according to the simulation. Schlieren imaging has provided important information for the investigation of the mechanism of the interaction.
High Enthalpy Effects on Two Boundary Layer Disturbances in Supersonic and Hypersonic Flow
Wagnild, Ross Martin
The fluid flow phenomenon of boundary layer transition is a complicated and difficult process to model and predict. The importance of the state of the boundary layer with regard to vehicle design cannot be understated. The high enthalpy environment in which high speed vehicles operate in further complicates the transition process by adding several more degrees of freedom. In this environment, the internal properties of the gas can stabilize or destabilize the boundary layer as well as modify the disturbances that cause transition. In the current work, the interaction of two types of disturbances with the high enthalpy flow environment are analyzed. The first is known as a second mode disturbance, which is acoustic in nature. The second type is known as a transient growth disturbance and is associated with flows behind roughness elements. Theoretical analyses, linear stability analyses, and computation fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to determine the ways in which these disturbances interact with the high enthalpy environment as well as the consequences of these interactions. First, acoustic wave are directly studied in order to gain a basic understanding of the response of second mode disturbances in the high enthalpy boundary layer. Next, this understanding is used in interpreting the results of several computations attempting to simulate the flow through a high enthalpy flow facility as well as experiments attempting to take advantage of the acoustic interaction with the high enthalpy environment. Because of the difficulty in modeling these experiments, direct simulations of acoustic waves in a hypersonic flow of a gas with molecular vibration are performed. Lastly, compressible transient growth disturbances are simulated using a linear optimal disturbance solver as well as a CFD solver. The effect of an internal molecular process on this type of disturbance is tested through the use of a vibrational mode. It is the goal of the current work to reinforce the
K-distribution models for gas mixtures in hypersonic nonequilibrium flows
Bansal, Ankit
strong bands of N2. For such cases, a new model is developed for the treatment of gas mixtures containing atomic lines, continuum and molecular bands. Full-spectrum k-distribution (FSK) method provides very accurate results compared to those obtained from the exact line-by-line method. For cases involving more extreme gradients in species concentrations and temperature, full-spectrum k-distribution model is relatively less accurate, and the method is refined by dividing the spectrum into a number of groups or scales, leading to the development of multi-scale models. The detailed methodology of splitting the gas mixture into scales is presented. To utilize the full potential of the k-distribution methods, pre-calculated values of k-distributions are stored in databases, which can later be interpolated at local flow conditions. Accurate and compact part-spectrum k-distribution databases are developed for atomic species and molecular bands. These databases allow users to calculate desired full-spectrum k-distributions through look-up and interpolation. Application of the new spectral models and databases to shock layer plasma radiation is demonstrated by solving the radiative transfer equation along typical one-dimensional flowfields in Earth's, Titan's and Mars' atmospheres. The k-distribution methods are vastly more efficient than the line-by-line method. The efficiency of the method is compared with the line-by-line method by measuring computational times for a number of test problems, showing typical reduction in computational time by a factor of more than 500 for property evaluation and a factor of about 32,000 for the solution of the RTE. A large percentage of radiative energy emitted in the shock-layer is likely to escape the region, resulting in cooling of the shock layer. This may change the flow parameters in the flowfield and, in turn, can affect radiative as well as convective heat loads. A new flow solver is constructed to simulate coupled hypersonic flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Almenara, E; Hidalgo, M; Saviron, J M
1980-07-01
This Report gives preliminary information about a Monte Carlo procedure to simulate supersonic flow past a body of a low density plasma in the transition regime. A computer program has been written for a UNIVAC 1108 machine to account for a plasma composed by neutral molecules and positive and negative ions. Different and rather general body geometries can be analyzed. Special attention is played to tho detached shock waves growth In front of the body. (Author) 30 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamrukov, A.S.; Kozlov, N.P.; Myshelov, E.P.; Protasov, Yu.S.
1981-01-01
Analysis of physical specific features of radiator where plasma heating is performed with tbermalization of directed kinetic energy of dense plasma flows accelerated electrodynamically up to hypersonic velocities during its shock deceleration, is given. It is shown that the plasma heating method considered has a number of principle advantages as compared with methods most disseminated now for generation of dense intensively radiating plasma (current heating exploding method) and suggests new possibilities for construction of selective high brightness radiat.ion sources of ultraviolet and far vacuum ultraviolet ranges of spectrum. Radiation gas dynamic processes of hypersonic plasma flow deceleration formed with magnetoplasma compressors have been experimentally investigated on their interaction with condenced matters in vacuum and basic thermodynamic parameters of shock compressed plasma have been determined. It is shown that the conversion process of kinetic energy of high-velocity plasma flows to radiation is accomplished at very high efficiency-integral luminescence of shock compressed plasma can reach approximately 90% of initial kinetic energy of flow [ru
Vincent Casseau; Rodrigo C. Palharini; Thomas J. Scanlon; Richard E. Brown
2016-01-01
A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrat...
Riley, Zachary Bryce
The use of thin-gauge, light-weight structures in combination with the severe aero-thermodynamic loading makes reusable hypersonic cruise vehicles prone to fluid-thermal-structural interactions. These interactions result in surface perturbations in the form of temperature changes and deformations that alter the stability and eventual transition of the boundary layer. The state of the boundary layer has a significant effect on the aerothermodynamic loads acting on a hypersonic vehicle. The inherent relationship between boundary-layer stability, aerothermodynamic loading, and surface conditions make the interaction between the structural response and boundary-layer transition an important area of study in high-speed flows. The goal of this dissertation is to examine the interaction between boundary layer transition and the response of aerothermally compliant structures. This is carried out by first examining the uncoupled problems of: (1) structural deformation and temperature changes altering boundary-layer stability and (2) the boundary layer state affecting structural response. For the former, the stability of boundary layers developing over geometries that typify the response of surface panels subject to combined aerodynamic and thermal loading is numerically assessed using linear stability theory and the linear parabolized stability equations. Numerous parameters are examined including: deformation direction, deformation location, multiple deformations in series, structural boundary condition, surface temperature, the combined effect of Mach number and altitude, and deformation mode shape. The deformation-induced pressure gradient alters the boundary-layer thickness, which changes the frequency of the most-unstable disturbance. In regions of small boundary-layer growth, the disturbance frequency modulation resulting from a single or multiple panels deformed into the flowfield is found to improve boundary-layer stability and potentially delay transition. For the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.
2012-01-01
This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of H α and the H β lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schweigert, I. V.
2012-01-01
The plasma sheath near the surface of a hypersonic aircraft formed under associative ionization behind the shock front shields the transmission and reception of radio signals. Using two-dimensional kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we consider the change in plasma-sheath parameters near a flat surface in a hypersonic flow under the action of electrical and magnetic fields. The combined action of a high-frequency 2-MHz capacitive discharge, a constant voltage, and a magnetic field on the plasma sheath allows the local electron density to be reduced manyfold.
Sathian, Sarith. P.; Kurian, Job
2005-05-01
This paper presents the results of the Laser Reflection Method (LRM) for the determination of shear stress due to impingement of low-density free jets on flat plate. For thin oil film moving under the action of aerodynamic boundary layer the shear stress at the air-oil interface is equal to the shear stress between the surface and air. A direct and dynamic measurement of the oil film slope is measured using a position sensing detector (PSD). The thinning rate of oil film is directly measured which is the major advantage of the LRM over LISF method. From the oil film slope history, direct calculation of the shear stress is done using a three-point formula. For the full range of experiment conditions Knudsen numbers varied till the continuum limit of the transition regime. The shear stress values for low-density flows in the transition regime are thus obtained using LRM and the measured values of shear show fair agreement with those obtained by other methods. Results of the normal pressure measurements on a flat plate in low-density jets by using thermistors as pressure sensors are also presented in the paper. The normal pressure profiles obtained show the characteristic features of Newtonian impact theory for hypersonic flows.
Gamma irradiation effects in low density polyethylene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ono, Lilian S.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth E.L.; Lugao, Ademar B.
2011-01-01
Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is obtained from ethylene gas polymerization, being one of the most commercialized polymers due to its versatility and low cost. It's a semi-crystalline polymer, usually inactive at room temperature, capable to attain temperatures within a 80 deg C - 100 deg C range, without changing its physical-chemical properties. LDPE has more resistance when compared to its equivalent High Density Polyethylene (HDPE). LDPE most common applications consist in manufacturing of laboratory materials, general containers, pipes, plastic bags, etc. Gamma radiation is used on polymers in order to modify mechanical and physical-chemical features according to utility purposes. This work aims to the study of gamma (γ) radiation interaction with low density polyethylene to evaluate changes in its physical-chemical properties. Polymer samples were exposed to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30kGy doses, at room temperature. Samples characterization employed Thermal Analysis, Melt Flow Index, Infrared Spectroscopy and Swelling tests. (author)
Vallon, Raphäel; Soutadé, Jacques; Vérant, Jean-Luc; Meyers, Jason; Paris, Sébastien; Mohamed, Ajmal
2010-01-01
Since the beginning of the Mars planet exploration, the characterization of carbon dioxide hypersonic flows to simulate a spaceship's Mars atmosphere entry conditions has been an important issue. We have developed a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer with a new room-temperature operating antimony-based distributed feedback laser (DFB) diode laser to characterize the velocity, the temperature and the density of such flows. This instrument has been tested during two measurement campaigns in a free piston tunnel cold hypersonic facility and in a high enthalpy arc jet wind tunnel. These tests also demonstrate the feasibility of mid-infrared fiber optics coupling of the spectrometer to a wind tunnel for integrated or local flow characterization with an optical probe placed in the flow.
Gallis, Michael A; Bond, Ryan B; Torczynski, John R
2009-09-28
Recently proposed molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties (i.e., no macroscopic reaction-rate information) are investigated for chemical reactions occurring in upper-atmosphere hypersonic flows. The new models are in good agreement with the measured Arrhenius rates for near-equilibrium conditions and with both measured rates and other theoretical models for far-from-equilibrium conditions. Additionally, the new models are applied to representative combustion and ionization reactions and are in good agreement with available measurements and theoretical models. Thus, molecular-level chemistry modeling provides an accurate method for predicting equilibrium and nonequilibrium chemical-reaction rates in gases.
Grose, W. L.
1971-01-01
An approximate inverse solution is presented for the nonequilibrium flow in the inviscid shock layer about a vehicle in hypersonic flight. The method is based upon a thin-shock-layer approximation and has the advantage of being applicable to both subsonic and supersonic regions of the shock layer. The relative simplicity of the method makes it ideally suited for programming on a digital computer with a significant reduction in storage capacity and computing time required by other more exact methods. Comparison of nonequilibrium solutions for an air mixture obtained by the present method is made with solutions obtained by two other methods. Additional cases are presented for entry of spherical nose cones into representative Venusian and Martian atmospheres. A digital computer program written in FORTRAN language is presented that permits an arbitrary gas mixture to be employed in the solution. The effects of vibration, dissociation, recombination, electronic excitation, and ionization are included in the program.
Miller, C. G.; Micol, J. R.; Gnoffo, P. A.; Wilder, S.E.
1983-01-01
Laminar heat-transfer rates were measured on spherically blunted, 13 degrees/F degrees on-axis and bent biconics (fore cone bent 7 degrees upward relative to aft cone) at hypersonic-hypervelocity flow conditions in the Langley Expansion Tube. Freestream velocities from 4.5 to 6.9 km/sec and Mach numbers from 6 to 9 were generated using helium, nitrogen, air, and carbon dioxide test gases, resulting in normal shock density ratios from 4 to 19. Angle of attack, referenced to the axis of the aft cone, was varied from zero to 20 degrees in 4 degree increments. The effect of nose bend, angle of attack, and real-gas phenomena on heating distributions are presented along with comparisons of measurement to prediction from a code which solves the three-dimensional 'parabolized Navier-Stokes' equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papin, M.
2005-06-01
This work dedicated to the study of the hypersonic re-entry of vehicles in the atmosphere crossing clouds of particles implies the study of two-fluid flow and it is shown that some developments can be applied to the two-fluid models used to describe the phase transformation occurring in a target irradiated by laser beams. The calculation of wall fluxes on hypersonic re-entry vehicles requires the modeling of the interactions with clouds. Two-fluid flows posing many physical and mathematical problems, one studies an alternative model due to Abgrall and Saurel: the discrete equation method (DEM). Three axis are chosen. The first proposes a finite volume discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on hybrid grids adapted to the context. The second extends the DEM within a multi-fluid not-structured N-D framework. A limit study associates an original continuous model to him: it allows to modify usual two-fluid seven equations models to obtain a phasic entropy principle. In spite of good properties, the continuous description of the particles is unsuited to the problem. The last axis is a study of the follow-up of pointwise particles which does not allow realistic calculation of parietal fluxes. An original model, extending the usual hydro-erosion models, however makes it possible to evaluate rebounds, erosion of the body and wall fluxes. The appendices expose approximate and exact Riemann solvers between pure fluids, discretization of the Baer and Nunziato model, and relations describing the atmosphere, water and heat fluxes
Hemodynamics alter arterial low-density lipoprotein metabolism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warty, V.S.; Calvo, W.J.; Berceli, S.A.; Pham, S.M.; Durham, S.J.; Tanksale, S.K.; Klein, E.C.; Herman, I.M.; Borovetz, H.S.
1989-01-01
We have investigated the role of hemodynamic factors on low-density lipoprotein transport and metabolism in the intact arterial wall. Freshly excised canine carotid blood vessels were exposed to well-defined pulsatile flow in vitro for continuous periods up to 20 hours. We chose to impose the following hemodynamic conditions on our test carotid arteries: normotension, hypertension (at physiologic flow conditions), and hypertension coupled with elevated flow of canine serum perfusate. In several experiments the effect of endothelial denudation was examined in carotid arteries exposed to normotensive pulsatile flow. A trapped ligand method was used for quantitating low-density lipoprotein uptake and metabolism in the arterial wall. The distribution of both intact and degraded low-density lipoprotein fractions was determined from measurements of radiolabelled low-density lipoprotein activity within thin radial sections of perfused arteries. Our results suggest that both hypertensive hemodynamic simulations exacerbate the uptake of low-density lipoprotein within the arterial wall (by a factor of three to nine). The percentage of low-density lipoprotein that undergoes irreversible degradation falls from 41% under normotensive conditions to below 30% when hypertensive conditions are imposed, indicating that degradative processes are not proportionally elevated with the accelerated influx. A similar pattern is observed for deendothelialized vessels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent Casseau
2016-12-01
Full Text Available hy2Foam is a newly-coded open-source two-temperature computational fluid dynamics (CFD solver that has previously been validated for zero-dimensional test cases. It aims at (1 giving open-source access to a state-of-the-art hypersonic CFD solver to students and researchers; and (2 providing a foundation for a future hybrid CFD-DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code within the OpenFOAM framework. This paper focuses on the multi-dimensional verification of hy2Foam and firstly describes the different models implemented. In conjunction with employing the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV chemistry–vibration model, novel use is made of the quantum-kinetic (QK rates in a CFD solver. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with previously published data for a Mach 11 nitrogen flow over a blunted cone and with the dsmcFoam code for a Mach 20 cylinder flow for a binary reacting mixture. This latter case scenario provides a useful basis for other codes to compare against.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincent Casseau
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrational-electronic temperatures. hy2Foam has the capability to model vibrational-translational and vibrational-vibrational energy exchanges in an eleven-species air mixture. It makes use of either the Park TTv model or the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV model to handle chemistry-vibration coupling and it can simulate flows with or without electronic energy. Verification of the code for various zero-dimensional adiabatic heat baths of progressive complexity has been carried out. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with those given by the CFD code LeMANS (The Michigan Aerothermodynamic Navier-Stokes solver and previously published data. A comparison is also performed with the open-source DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code dsmcFoam. It has been demonstrated that the use of the CVDV model and rates derived from Quantum-Kinetic theory promote a satisfactory consistency between the CFD and DSMC chemistry modules.
Density effects on turbulent boundary layer structure: From the atmosphere to hypersonic flow
Williams, Owen J. H.
This dissertation examines the effects of density gradients on turbulent boundary layer statistics and structure using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Two distinct cases were examined: the thermally stable atmospheric surface layer characteristic of nocturnal or polar conditions, and the hypersonic bounder layer characteristic of high speed aircraft and reentering spacecraft. Previous experimental studies examining the effects of stability on turbulent boundary layers identified two regimes, weak and strong stability, separated by a critical bulk stratification with a collapse of near-wall turbulence thought to be intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. To examine the characteristics of these two regimes, PIV measurements were obtained in conjunction with the mean temperature profile in a low Reynolds number facility over smooth and rough surfaces. The turbulent stresses were found to scale with the wall shear stress in the weakly stable regime prior relaminarization at a critical stratification. Changes in profile shape were shown to correlate with the local stratification profile, and as a result, the collapse of near-wall turbulence is not intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. The critical bulk stratification was found to be sensitive to surface roughness and potentially Reynolds number, and not constant as previously thought. Further investigations examined turbulent boundary layer structure and changes to the motions that contribute to turbulent production. To study the characteristics of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer at Mach 8, significant improvements were required to the implementation and error characterization of PIV. Limited resolution or dynamic range effects were minimized and the effects of high shear on cross-correlation routines were examined. Significantly, an examination of particle dynamics, subject to fluid inertia, compressibility and non-continuum effects, revealed that particle frequency responses to turbulence can be up to an
Povinelli, Louis A.
1991-01-01
An overview is given of research activity on the application of computational fluid dynamics (CDF) for hypersonic propulsion systems. After the initial consideration of the highly integrated nature of air-breathing hypersonic engines and airframe, attention is directed toward computations carried out for the components of the engine. A generic inlet configuration is considered in order to demonstrate the highly three dimensional viscous flow behavior occurring within rectangular inlets. Reacting flow computations for simple jet injection as well as for more complex combustion chambers are then discussed in order to show the capability of viscous finite rate chemical reaction computer simulations. Finally, the nozzle flow fields are demonstrated, showing the existence of complex shear layers and shock structure in the exhaust plume. The general issues associated with code validation as well as the specific issue associated with the use of CFD for design are discussed. A prognosis for the success of CFD in the design of future propulsion systems is offered.
Danehy, Paul M.; Alderfer, David W.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Berger, Karen T.; Buck, Gregory M.; Schwartz, Richard J.
2008-01-01
Reentry models for use in hypersonic wind tunnel tests were fabricated using a stereolithography apparatus. These models were produced in one day or less, which is a significant time savings compared to the manufacture of ceramic or metal models. The models were tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel. Only a few of the models survived repeated tests in the tunnel, and several failure modes of the models were identified. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of nitric oxide (NO) was used to visualize the flowfields in the wakes of these models. Pure NO was either seeded through tubes plumbed into the model or via a tube attached to the strut holding the model, which provided localized addition of NO into the model s wake through a porous metal cylinder attached to the end of the tube. Models included several 2- inch diameter Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) models and 5-inch diameter Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) models. Various model configurations and NO seeding methods were used, including a new streamwise visualization method based on PLIF. Virtual Diagnostics Interface (ViDI) technology, developed at NASA Langley Research Center, was used to visualize the data sets in post processing. The use of calibration "dotcards" was investigated to correct for camera perspective and lens distortions in the PLIF images.
On the calculation of dynamic and heat loads on a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow
Bocharov, A. N.; Bityurin, V. A.; Evstigneev, N. M.; Fortov, V. E.; Golovin, N. N.; Petrovskiy, V. P.; Ryabkov, O. I.; Teplyakov, I. O.; Shustov, A. A.; Solomonov, Yu S.
2018-01-01
We consider a three-dimensional body in a hypersonic flow at zero angle of attack. Our aim is to estimate heat and aerodynamic loads on specific body elements. We are considering a previously developed code to solve coupled heat- and mass-transfer problem. The change of the surface shape is taken into account by formation of the iterative process for the wall material ablation. The solution is conducted on the multi-graphics-processing-unit (multi-GPU) cluster. Five Mach number points are considered, namely for M = 20-28. For each point we estimate body shape after surface ablation, heat loads on the surface and aerodynamic loads on the whole body and its elements. The latter is done using Gauss-type quadrature on the surface of the body. The comparison of the results for different Mach numbers is performed. We also estimate the efficiency of the Navier-Stokes code on multi-GPU and central processing unit architecture for the coupled heat and mass transfer problem.
2014-05-01
we however focus on the continuum regime, where we can use the governing equations like Euler equations or Navier Stokes equations. The flow chemistry can...assumption. Instead the flow is considered to be a mixture of ideal gases, and the flow chemistry accounts for production and destruction of all the species. A
On the Goertler instability in hypersonic flows: Sutherland law fluids and real gas effects
Fu, Yibin B.; Hall, Philip; Blackaby, Nicholas D.
1990-01-01
The Goertler vortex instability mechanism in a hypersonic boundary layer on a curved wall is investigated. The precise roles of the effects of boundary layer growth, wall cooling, and gas dissociation is clarified in the determination of stability properties. It is first assumed that the fluid is an ideal gas with viscosity given by Sutherland's law. It is shown that when the free stream Mach number M is large, the boundary layer divides into two sublayers: a wall layer of O(M sup 3/2) thickness over which the basic state temperature is O(M squared) and a temperature adjustment layer of O(1) thickness over which the basic state temperature decreases monotonically to its free stream value. Goertler vortices which have wavelengths comparable with the boundary layer thickness are referred to as wall modes. It is shown that their downstream evolution is governed by a set of parabolic partial differential equations and that they have the usual features of Goertler vortices in incompressible boundary layers. As the local wavenumber increases, the neutral Goertler number decreases and the center of vortex activity moves towards the temperature adjustment layer. Goertler vortices with wavenumbers of order one or larger must necessarily be trapped in the temperature adjustment layer and it is this mode which is most dangerous. For this mode, it was found that the leading order term in the Goertler number expansion is independent of the wavenumber and is due to the curvature of the basic state. This term is also the asymptotic limit of the neutral Goertler numbers of the wall mode. To determine the higher order corrections terms in the Goertler number expansion, two wall curvature cases are distinguished. Real gas effects were investigated by assuming that the fluid is an ideal dissociating gas. It was found that both gas dissociation and wall cooling are destabilizing for the mode trapped in the temperature adjustment layer, but for the wall mode trapped near the wall the
Flow Quality Analysis of Shape Morphing Structures for Hypersonic Ground Testing Applications
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Background: Shape morphing, high temperature, ceramic structural materials are now becoming available and can revolutionize ground testing by providing dynamic flow...
Three dimensional experimental investigation of a hypersonic double-ramp flow
Schrijer, F.F.J.; Caljouw, R.; Scarano, F.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.
The flow over a 15?-45? double compression ramp was studied at Mach 7.5. CFD computations are compared to 2 component PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements. Furthermore stereoscopic PIV was used to measure the three component velocity vector, enabling to perform a 3D flow survey. The overall
Hypersonic Flow over a Cylinder with a Nanosecond Pulse Electrical Discharge
2014-03-01
which found the uncertainty in freestream conditions accounted for a 3% variation in bow shock location, but no other factors, including rarefaction ...The curves were Flow X Y Z dρ/dx 200 100 Ring of Polyimide Tape (approx. 0.15 mm thick) a) Side-view Flow Shock Y X Z d /dx 200 100 b) Top-down view
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
John, Bibin; Surendranath, Srikanth; Natarajan, Ganesh; Kulkarni, Vinayak
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Leading edge bluntness based separation control has been analysed numerically for 2D and axi-symmetric flows. • Differential growth of entropy layer in the streamwise direction in these cases leads to different interaction with respective boundary layers. • Separation control is found possible for planar flows beyond a critical radius called as equivalent radius. • No equivalent radius has been noticed in axi-symmertric flows in the present studies due to thin entropy layer and lack of favourable pressure gradient. - Abstract: Present investigations are centered on passive control of shock wave boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) for double cone and double wedge configurations with leading edge bluntness. This study seeks the differences in the flow physics of SWBLI in case of two dimensional (2D) and axisymmetric flow fields. In-house developed second order accurate finite-volume 2D axisymmetric compressible flow solver is employed for these studies. It is observed that the idea of leading edge bluntness offers reduction in separation bubble for 2D flow fields, whereas it leads to enhanced separation zone in case of axisymmetric flow fields. Relevant flow physics is well explored herein using wall pressure profile and relative thicknesses of boundary layer and entropy layer. Thicker entropy layer and stronger favorable pressure gradient are found responsible for the possibility of separation control in case of 2D flow fields. Thin entropy layer due to three dimensional relieving effect and its swallowing by the boundary layer are attributed for higher separation bubble size in case of cone with range of radii under consideration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiago Cavalcanti Rolim
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a research in the development of the 14-X hypersonic airspace vehicle at Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv from Department of Science and Aerospace Technology (DCTA of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB. The 14-X project objective is to develop a higher efficient satellite launch alternative, using a Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAMJET engine and waverider aerodynamics. For this development, the waverider technology is under investigation in Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Laboratory (LHTN, in IEAv/DCTA. The investigation has been conducted through ground test campaigns in Hypersonic Shock Tunnel T3. The 14-X Waverider Vehicle characteristic was verified in shock tunnel T3 where surface static pressures and pitot pressure for Mach number 10 were measured and, using Schlieren photographs Diagnostic Method, it was possible to identify a leading-edge attached shock wave in 14-X lower surface.
Validation of vibration-dissociation coupling models in hypersonic non-equilibrium separated flows
Shoev, G.; Oblapenko, G.; Kunova, O.; Mekhonoshina, M.; Kustova, E.
2018-03-01
The validation of recently developed models of vibration-dissociation coupling is discussed in application to numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in a two-temperature approximation for a binary N2/N flow. Vibrational-translational relaxation rates are computed using the Landau-Teller formula generalized for strongly non-equilibrium flows obtained in the framework of the Chapman-Enskog method. Dissociation rates are calculated using the modified Treanor-Marrone model taking into account the dependence of the model parameter on the vibrational state. The solutions are compared to those obtained using traditional Landau-Teller and Treanor-Marrone models, and it is shown that for high-enthalpy flows, the traditional and recently developed models can give significantly different results. The computed heat flux and pressure on the surface of a double cone are in a good agreement with experimental data available in the literature on low-enthalpy flow with strong thermal non-equilibrium. The computed heat flux on a double wedge qualitatively agrees with available data for high-enthalpy non-equilibrium flows. Different contributions to the heat flux calculated using rigorous kinetic theory methods are evaluated. Quantitative discrepancy of numerical and experimental data is discussed.
Experimental Investigation of a Hypersonic Inlet with Variable Sidewall for Flow Control
Rolim, T. C.; Lu, F. K.
The main function of a scramjet inlet is to decelerate and compress the air for subsequent reaction with the fuel inside the combustor and, of course, contribute toward meeting the thrust requirement for the entire mission by providing adequate mass flow. It is desirable that the inlet be lightweight and that its geometry be capable of producing a uniform flow in an appropriate state to permit efficient mixing and subsequent combustion. Engine cycle analysis indicates that high contraction ratios CR are desirable for achieving high overall engine efficiency.
Coherence resonance in low-density jets
Zhu, Yuanhang; Gupta, Vikrant; Li, Larry K. B.
2017-11-01
Coherence resonance is a phenomenon in which the response of a stable nonlinear system to noise exhibits a peak in coherence at an intermediate noise amplitude. We report the first experimental evidence of coherence resonance in a purely hydrodynamic system, a low-density jet whose variants can be found in many natural and engineering systems. This evidence comprises four parts: (i) the jet's response amplitude increases as the Reynolds number approaches the instability boundary under a constant noise amplitude; (ii) as the noise amplitude increases, the amplitude distribution of the jet response first becomes unimodal, then bimodal, and finally unimodal again; (iii) a distinct peak emerges in the coherence factor at an intermediate noise amplitude; and (iv) for a subcritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate of the autocorrelation function exhibits a maximum at an intermediate noise amplitude, but for a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, the decay rate decreases monotonically with increasing noise amplitude. It is clear that coherence resonance can provide valuable information about a system's nonlinearity even in the unconditionally stable regime, opening up new possibilities for its use in system identification and flow control. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).
Flow establishment behind blunt bodies at hypersonic speeds in a shock tunnel
Park, G.; Hruschka, R.; Gai, S. L.; Neely, A. J.
2008-11-01
An investigation of flow establishment behind two blunt bodies, a circular cylinder and a 45° half-angle blunted-cone was conducted. Unlike previous studies which relied solely on surface measurements, the present study combines these with unique high-speed visualisation to image the establishment of the flow structure in the base region. Test flows were generated using a free-piston shock tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 10. The freestream unit Reynolds numbers considered were 3.02x105/m and 1.17x106/m at total enthalpies of 13.35MJ/kg and 3.94MJ/kg, respectively. In general, the experiments showed that it takes longer to establish steady heat flux than pressure. The circular cylinder data showed that the near wake had a slight Reynolds number effect, where the size of the near wake was smaller for the high enthalpy flow condition. The blunted-cone data showed that the heat flux and pressures reached steady states in the near wake at similar times for both high and low enthalpy conditions.
The creation of hypersonic flows by a powerful impulse capillary discharge
Pashchina, A. S.; Karmatsky, R. E.; Klimov, A. I.
2017-11-01
The possibility of using a powerful pulsed capillary discharge to produce quasi-stationary highspeed plasma flows with characteristic Mach numbers M = 3-10 and temperatures T = 3000-6000 K has been experimentally substantiated. In a rarefied gas atmosphere ( p ∞ condensed particles in a carbon-containing plasma.
CFD Tools for Design and Simulation of Transient Flows in Hypersonic Facilities
2010-03-24
enthalpy shock tunnel. The Aeronautical Journal, 95(949):324–334, 1991. [6] K. Hannemann , R. Krek, and G. Eitelberg. Latest calibration results of the HEG...K. Hannemann , P. A. Jacobs, J. M. Austin, A. Thomas, and T. J. McIntyre. Transient and steady-state flow in a small shock tube. In A. Paull et al
Second-order small-disturbance solutions for hypersonic flow over power-law bodies
Townsend, J. C.
1975-01-01
Similarity solutions were found which give the adiabatic flow of an ideal gas about two-dimensional and axisymmetric power-law bodies at infinite Mach number to second order in the body slenderness parameter. The flow variables were expressed as a sum of zero-order and perturbation similarity functions for which the axial variations in the flow equations separated out. The resulting similarity equations were integrated numerically. The solutions, which are universal functions, are presented in graphic and tabular form. To avoid a singularity in the calculations, the results are limited to body power-law exponents greater than about 0.85 for the two-dimensional case and 0.75 for the axisymmetric case. Because of the entropy layer induced by the nose bluntness (for power-law bodies other than cones and wedges), only the pressure function is valid at the body surface. The similarity results give excellent agreement with the exact solutions for inviscid flow over wedges and cones having half-angles up to about 20 deg. They give good agreement with experimental shock-wave shapes and surface-pressure distributions for 3/4-power axisymmetric bodies, considering that Mach number and boundary-layer displacement effects are not included in the theory.
Numerical Investigation of PLIF Gas Seeding for Hypersonic Boundary Layer Flows
Johanson, Craig T.; Danehy, Paul M.
2012-01-01
Numerical simulations of gas-seeding strategies required for planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) in a Mach 10 air flow were performed. The work was performed to understand and quantify adverse effects associated with gas seeding and to compare different flow rates and different types of seed gas. The gas was injected through a slot near the leading edge of a flat plate wedge model used in NASA Langley Research Center's 31- Inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel facility. Nitric oxide, krypton, and iodine gases were simulated at various injection rates. Simulation results showing the deflection of the velocity field for each of the cases are presented. Streamwise distributions of velocity and concentration boundary layer thicknesses as well as vertical distributions of velocity, temperature, and mass distributions are presented for each of the cases. Relative merits of the different seeding strategies are discussed.
Three dimensional PNS solutions of hypersonic internal flows with equilibrium chemistry
Liou, May-Fun
1989-01-01
An implicit procedure for solving parabolized Navier-Stokes equations under the assumption of a general equation of state for a gas in chemical equilibrium is given. A general and consistent approach for the evaluation of Jacobian matrices in the implicit operator avoids the use of unnecessary auxiliary quantities and approximations, and leads to a simple expression. Applications to two- and three-dimensional flow problems show efficiency in computer time and economy in storage.
2017-07-01
including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations...cells and all particles within them) can be interrogated by direct access to the hdf5 data file format. This avoids the process of loading the entire...grid and solution into memory before post-processing. Rather, a precise region of the flow can be interrogated directly from the hdf5 solution file
Munafò, A; Panesi, M; Magin, T E
2014-02-01
A Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model is proposed to reduce a detailed kinetic mechanism database developed at NASA Ames Research Center for internal energy transfer and dissociation in N(2)-N interactions. The coarse-grained model is constructed by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N(2) molecule into energy bins. The population of the levels within each bin is assumed to follow a Boltzmann distribution at the local translational temperature. Excitation and dissociation rate coefficients for the energy bins are obtained by averaging the elementary rate coefficients. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The proposed coarse-grained model is applied to the study of nonequilibrium flows behind normal shock waves and within converging-diverging nozzles. In both cases, the flow is assumed inviscid and steady. Computational results are compared with those obtained by direct solution of the master equation for the rovibrational collisional model and a more conventional multitemperature model. It is found that the proposed coarse-grained model is able to accurately resolve the nonequilibrium dynamics of internal energy excitation and dissociation-recombination processes with only 20 energy bins. Furthermore, the proposed coarse-grained model provides a superior description of the nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in shock heated and nozzle flows when compared with the conventional multitemperature models.
Vectorization of a particle code used in the simulation of rarefied hypersonic flow
Baganoff, D.
1990-01-01
A limitation of the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is that it does not allow efficient use of vector architectures that predominate in current supercomputers. Consequently, the problems that can be handled are limited to those of one- and two-dimensional flows. This work focuses on a reformulation of the DSMC method with the objective of designing a procedure that is optimized to the vector architectures found on machines such as the Cray-2. In addition, it focuses on finding a better balance between algorithmic complexity and the total number of particles employed in a simulation so that the overall performance of a particle simulation scheme can be greatly improved. Simulations of the flow about a 3D blunt body are performed with 10 to the 7th particles and 4 x 10 to the 5th mesh cells. Good statistics are obtained with time averaging over 800 time steps using 4.5 h of Cray-2 single-processor CPU time.
Whiting, Ellis E.
1990-01-01
Future space vehicles returning from distant missions or high earth orbits may enter the upper regions of the atmosphere and use aerodynamic drag to reduce their velocity before they skip out of the atmosphere and enter low earth orbit. The Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) is designed to explore the special problems encountered in such entries. A computer code was developed to calculate the radiative transport along line-or-sight in the general 3-D flow field about an arbitrary entry vehicle, if the temperatures and species concentrations along the line-of-sight are known. The radiative heating calculation at the stagnation point of the AFE vehicle along the entry trajectory was performed, including a detailed line-by-line accounting of the radiative transport in the vacuum ultraviolet (below 200 nm) by the atomic N and O lines. A method was developed for making measurements of the haze particles in the Titan atmosphere above 200 km altitude. Several other tasks of a continuing nature, to improve the technical ability to calculate the nonequilibrium gas dynamic flow field and radiative heating of entry vehicles, were completed or advanced.
Comparison of Nonequilibrium Solution Algorithms Applied to Chemically Stiff Hypersonic Flows
Palmer, Grant; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1995-01-01
Three solution algorithms, explicit under-relaxation, point implicit, and lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel, are used to compute nonequilibrium flow around the Apollo 4 return capsule at the 62-km altitude point in its descent trajectory. By varying the Mach number, the efficiency and robustness of the solution algorithms were tested for different levels of chemical stiffness.The performance of the solution algorithms degraded as the Mach number and stiffness of the flow increased. At Mach 15 and 30, the lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel method produces an eight order of magnitude drop in the energy residual in one-third to one-half the Cray C-90 computer time as compared to the point implicit and explicit under-relaxation methods. The explicit under-relaxation algorithm experienced convergence difficulties at Mach 30 and above. At Mach 40 the performance of the lower-upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel algorithm deteriorates to the point that it is out performed by the point implicit method. The effects of the viscous terms are investigated. Grid dependency questions are explored.
Viscous flow considerations in the design of the Busemann hypersonic air inlet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walsh, P.C.; Tahir, R.B.; Molder, S.
2002-01-01
A cost effective means of traveling to a low earth orbit is using an aircraft that relies on air-breathing engine technology for most of its trajectory while in the atmosphere. The scramjets that would be used to provide propulsion require inlet air diffusion with minimal total pressure losses to maintain efficiency. The Busemann inlet was designed using inviscid flow assumptions specifically for such purposes. This paper presents an investigation into the effects of viscosity on inlet performance in terms of static pressure rise and internal shockwave configuration. The viscous effects within the inlet can alter the design pressure ratio as much as 50%. It was shown that a correction based on a displacement radius calculation was sufficient to restore the static pressure performance of the inviscid design. An improvement of 16% in total pressure losses was observed with the corrected Busemann profile. Results are compared to experimentally determined surface pressure values. (author)
Retooling CFD for hypersonic aircraft
Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kutler, Paul; Povinelli, Louis A.
1987-01-01
The CFD facility requirements of hypersonic aircraft configuration design development are different from those thus far employed for reentry vehicle design, because (1) the airframe and the propulsion system must be fully integrated to achieve the desired performance; (2) the vehicle must be reusable, with minimum refurbishment requirements between flights; and (3) vehicle performance must be optimized for a wide range of Mach numbers. An evaluation is presently made of flow resolution within shock waves, transition and turbulence phenomenon tractability, chemical reaction modeling, and hypersonic boundary layer transition, with state-of-the-art CFD.
Coupled nonequilibrium flow, energy and radiation transport for hypersonic planetary entry
Frederick, Donald Jerome
An ever increasing demand for energy coupled with a need to mitigate climate change necessitates technology (and lifestyle) changes globally. An aspect of the needed change is a decrease in the amount of anthropogenically generated CO2 emitted to the atmosphere. The decrease needed cannot be expected to be achieved through only one source of change or technology, but rather a portfolio of solutions are needed. One possible technology is Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), which is likely to play some role due to its combination of mature and promising emerging technologies, such as the burning of hydrogen in gas turbines created by pre-combustion CCS separation processes. Thus research on effective methods of burning turbulent hydrogen jet flames (mimicking gas turbine environments) are needed, both in terms of experimental investigation and model development. The challenge in burning (and modeling the burning of) hydrogen lies in its wide range of flammable conditions, its high diffusivity (often requiring a diluent such as nitrogen to produce a lifted turbulent jet flame), and its behavior under a wide range of pressures. In this work, numerical models are used to simulate the environment of a gas turbine combustion chamber. Concurrent experimental investigations are separately conducted using a vitiated coflow burner (which mimics the gas turbine environment) to guide the numerical work in this dissertation. A variety of models are used to simulate, and occasionally guide, the experiment. On the fundamental side, mixing and chemistry interactions motivated by a H2/N2 jet flame in a vitiated coflow are investigated using a 1-D numerical model for laminar flows and the Linear Eddy Model for turbulent flows. A radial profile of the jet in coflow can be modeled as fuel and oxidizer separated by an initial mixing width. The effects of species diffusion model, pressure, coflow composition, and turbulent mixing on the predicted autoignition delay times and mixture
Direct numerical simulation of hypersonic boundary-layer flow on a flared cone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pruett, C.D. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Math. and Comput. Sci.; Chang Chau-Lyan [High Technology Corporation, Hampton, VA 23666 (United States)
1998-03-01
The forced transition of the boundary layer on an axisymmetric flared cone in Mach 6 flow is simulated by the method of spatial direct numerical simulation (DNS). The full effects of the flared afterbody are incorporated into the governing equations and boundary conditions; these effects include nonzero streamwise surface curvature, adverse streamwise pressure gradient, and decreasing boundary-layer edge Mach number. Transition is precipitated by periodic forcing at the computational inflow boundary with perturbations derived from parabolized stability equation (PSE) methodology and based, in part, on frequency spectra available from physical experiments. Significant qualitative differences are shown to exist between the present results and those obtained previously for a cone without afterbody flare. In both cases, the primary instability is of second-mode type; however, frequencies are much higher for the flared cone because of the decrease in boundary-layer thickness in the flared region. Moreover, Goertler modes, which are linearly stable for the straight cone, are unstable in regions of concave body flare. Reynolds stresses, which peak near the critical layer for the straight cone, exhibit peaks close to the wall for the flared cone. The cumulative effect appears to be that transition onset is shifted upstream for the flared cone. However, the length of the transition zone may possibly be greater because of the seemingly more gradual nature of the transition process on the flared cone. (orig.) With 20 figs., 28 refs.
CFD applications in hypersonic flight
Edwards, T. A.
1992-01-01
Design studies are underway for a variety of hypersonic flight vehicles. The National Aero-Space Plane will provide a reusable, single-stage-to-orbit capability for routine access to low earth orbit. Flight-capable satellites will dip into the atmosphere to maneuver to new orbits, while planetary probes will decelerate at their destination by atmospheric aerobraking. To supplement limited experimental capabilities in the hypersonic regime, CFD is being used to analyze the flow about these configurations. The governing equations include fluid dynamic as well as chemical species equations, which are solved with robust upwind differencing schemes. Examples of CFD applications to hypersonic vehicles suggest an important role this technology will play in the development of future aerospace systems. The computational resources needed to obtain solutions are large, but various strategies are being exploited to reduce the time required for complete vehicle simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lima, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Couto, Nilton Castro; Souza, Robson Oliveira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Divisao de Explotacao
1995-01-01
This work describes a new concept of pigging using low density form to prevent/removal of wax in subsea satellite well flowline. The methodology of wax control is world pioneer. The pigs are sent through a 2.5 in lift gas line, and through a wet x-mas tree, not designed to be pigged, and back through the flowline. (author) 2 refs., 1 fig.
Sun, Xi-wan; Guo, Zhen-yun; Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li
2017-02-01
The drag reduction and thermal protection system applied to hypersonic re-entry vehicles have attracted an increasing attention, and several novel concepts have been proposed by researchers. In the current study, the influences of performance parameters on drag and heat reduction efficiency of combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept has been investigated numerically. The Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model have been employed to calculate its surrounding flowfields, and the first-order spatially accurate upwind scheme appears to be more suitable for three-dimensional flowfields after grid independent analysis. Different cases of performance parameters, namely jet operating conditions, freestream angle of attack and physical dimensions, are simulated based on the verification of numerical method, and the effects on shock stand-off distance, drag force coefficient, surface pressure and heat flux distributions have been analyzed. This is the basic study for drag reduction and thermal protection by multi-objective optimization of the combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept in hypersonic flows in the future.
Sampling low-density gypsy moth populations
William E. Wallner; Clive G. Jones; Joseph S. Elkinton; Bruce L. Parker
1991-01-01
The techniques and methodology for sampling gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., at low densities, less than 100 egg masses/ha (EM/ha), are compared. Forest managers have constraints of time and cost, and need a useful, simple predictable means to assist them in sampling gypsy moth populations. A comparison of various techniques coupled with results of...
Analysis of Hypersonic Vehicle Wakes
2015-09-17
Fraction of Cyanide throughout the Flowfield ................................... 131 Figure 122. Mass Fraction of Cyanide at the Nose...hypersonic flow is that as M increases the conservation equations cannot be linearized. The flow properties must be modeled in a complex fashion and can no...ablation present to react with as well. These products of ablation, along with the dissociation and ionization of the gas, gives rise to complex
Progress in modeling hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
Zeman, Otto
1993-01-01
A good knowledge of the turbulence structure, wall heat transfer, and friction in turbulent boundary layers (TBL) at high speeds is required for the design of hypersonic air breathing airplanes and reentry space vehicles. This work reports on recent progress in the modeling of high speed TBL flows. The specific research goal described here is the development of a second order closure model for zero pressure gradient TBL's for the range of Mach numbers up to hypersonic speeds with arbitrary wall cooling requirements.
Vincent Casseau; Daniel E. R. Espinoza; Thomas J. Scanlon; Richard E. Brown
2016-01-01
hy2Foam is a newly-coded open-source two-temperature computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver that has previously been validated for zero-dimensional test cases. It aims at (1) giving open-source access to a state-of-the-art hypersonic CFD solver to students and researchers; and (2) providing a foundation for a future hybrid CFD-DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo) code within the OpenFOAM framework. This paper focuses on the multi-dimensional verification of hy2Foam and firstly describes th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Oliveira, A. C.; Gomes, F. A. A.; Myrabo, L. N.; Nagamatsu, Henry T.
2008-01-01
The new 0.60-m. nozzle exit diameter hypersonic shock tunnel was designed to study advanced air-breathing propulsion system such as supersonic combustion and/or laser technologies. In addition, it may be used for hypersonic flow studies and investigations of the electromagnetic (laser) energy addition for flow control. This new hypersonic shock tunnel was designed and installed at the Laboratory for of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu, IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The design of the tunnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for the experiments performed at the laboratory. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures up to 360 atm. and up to 9,000 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization
Thermophysical aspects of re-entry flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moss, J.N.; Scott, C.D.
1986-01-01
The present conference discusses low density aerothermodynamics, the drag of bodies in rarefied hypersonic flow, transitional hypervelocity aerodynamic simulation and scaling, high temperature kinetics and transport properties, electron-nitrogen molecule collisions in high temperature nonequilibrium air, theoretical studies of dissociative recombination, the transport properties of some atom/ion interactions in air, and the interaction energies, dipole transition moments, and transport cross sections of N(+)-N and O(+)-O. Also discussed are the results of studies of potential fluid mechanisms for enhanced stagnation heating, vortex-induced leeward heating on a biconic at Mach 6 and 10, the effects of surface discontinuities on convective heat transfer in hypersonic flow, computational convergence in chemical reacting flows, and three-dimensional viscous shock layer applications for the Space Shuttle Orbiter
Unstart coupling mechanism analysis of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet.
Hu, Jichao; Chang, Juntao; Wang, Lei; Cao, Shibin; Bao, Wen
2013-01-01
The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted.
Aerothermodynamic shape optimization of hypersonic blunt bodies
Eyi, Sinan; Yumuşak, Mine
2015-07-01
The aim of this study is to develop a reliable and efficient design tool that can be used in hypersonic flows. The flow analysis is based on the axisymmetric Euler/Navier-Stokes and finite-rate chemical reaction equations. The equations are coupled simultaneously and solved implicitly using Newton's method. The Jacobian matrix is evaluated analytically. A gradient-based numerical optimization is used. The adjoint method is utilized for sensitivity calculations. The objective of the design is to generate a hypersonic blunt geometry that produces the minimum drag with low aerodynamic heating. Bezier curves are used for geometry parameterization. The performances of the design optimization method are demonstrated for different hypersonic flow conditions.
Riley, Christopher J.
1992-01-01
An engineering method has been developed that couples an approximate three dimensional inviscid technique with the axisymmetric analog and a set of approximate convective heating equations. The displacement effect on the boundary layer on the outer inviscid flow is calculated and included as a boundary condition in the inviscid technique. This accounts for the viscous interaction present at lower Reynolds numbers. The method is applied to blunted axisymmetric and three dimensional elliptic cones at angle of attack for the laminar hypersonic flow of a perfect gas. The method is applied to turbulent and equilibrium-air conditions. The present technique predicts surface heating rates, pressures, and shock shapes that compare favorably with experimental (ground-test and flight) data and numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes and viscous shock-layer equations. In addition, the inclusion of viscous interaction significantly improves results obtained at lower Reynolds numbers. The new technique represents a major improvement over current engineering aerothermal methods with only a modest increase in computational effort.
Global strike hypersonic weapons
Lewis, Mark J.
2017-11-01
Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.
Low-Density Lipoproteins Oxidation and Endometriosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grzegorz Polak
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The etiopathogenesis of endometriosis still remains unknown. Recent data provide new valuable information concerning the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of the disease. It has been proved that levels of different lipid peroxidation end products are increased in both peritoneal fluid (PF and serum of endometriotic patients. We assessed the concentration of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL in PF of 110 women with different stages of endometriosis and 119 women with serous ( or dermoid ( ovarian cysts, as the reference groups. PF oxLDL levels were evaluated by ELISA. We found that concentrations of oxLDL in PF of endometriotic women were significantly higher compared to women with serous but not dermoid ovarian cysts. Interestingly, by analyzing concentrations of oxLDL in women with different stages of the disease, it was noted that they are significantly higher only in the subgroup of patients with stage IV endometriosis as compared to women with ovarian serous cysts. In case of minimal, mild, and moderate disease, PF oxLDL levels were similar to those noted in reference groups. Our results indicate that disrupted oxidative status in the peritoneal cavity of women with endometriosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of advanced stages of the disease.
Kirk, Benjamin S.; Bova, Stephen W.; Bond, Ryan B.
2011-01-01
Presentation topics include background and motivation; physical modeling including governing equations and thermochemistry; finite element formulation; results of inviscid thermal nonequilibrium chemically reacting flow and viscous thermal equilibrium chemical reacting flow; and near-term effort.
Molded ultra-low density microcellular foams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.
1986-07-01
Ultra-low density (< 0.01 g/cc) microcellular foams were required for the NARYA pulsed-power-driven x-ray laser development program. Because of their extreme fragility, molded pieces would be necessary to successfully field these foams in the pulsed power accelerator. All of the foams evaluated were made by the thermally induced phase separation technique from solutions of water soluble polymers. The process involved rapidly freezing the solution to induce the phase separation, and then freeze drying to remove the water without destroying the foam's structure. More than sixty water soluble polymers were evaluated by attempting to make their solutions into foams. The foams were evaluated for shrinkage, density, and microstructure to determine their suitability for molding and meeting the required density and cell size requirements of 5.0 mg/cc and less than twenty μmeters. Several promising water soluble polymers were identified including the polyactylic acids, guar gums, polyactylamide, and polyethylene oxide. Because of thier purity, structure, and low shrinkage, the polyacrylic acids were chosen to develop molding processes. The initial requirements were for 2.0 cm. long molded rods with diameters of 1.0, 2.0. and 3.0 mm. These rods were made by freezing the solution in thin walled silicon rubber molds, extracting the frozen preform from the mold, and then freeze drying. Requirements for half rods and half annuli necessitated using aluminum molds. Again we successfully molded these shapes. Our best efforts to date involve molding annuli with 3.0 mm outside diameters and 2.0 mm inside diameters
Fomichev, V. P.; Yadrenkin, M. A.
2017-12-01
This Letter presents a systematization of the effects observed in experiments on the magnetogasdynamic interaction near the surface of a plate in a high-speed gas flow. Ranges of the hydromagnetic-interaction parameter determining various levels of influence on the shock-wave structure of the flow are established.
Gorishnyy, T; Ullal, C K; Maldovan, M; Fytas, G; Thomas, E L
2005-03-25
In this Letter we propose the use of hypersonic phononic crystals to control the emission and propagation of high frequency phonons. We report the fabrication of high quality, single crystalline hypersonic crystals using interference lithography and show that direct measurement of their phononic band structure is possible with Brillouin light scattering. Numerical calculations are employed to explain the nature of the observed propagation modes. This work lays the foundation for experimental studies of hypersonic crystals and, more generally, phonon-dependent processes in nanostructures.
Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hypersonic Tunnel Facility (HTF) is a blow-down, non-vitiated (clean air) free-jet wind tunnel capable of testing large-scale, propulsion systems at Mach 5, 6,...
Low density in liver of idiopathic portal hypertension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishito, Hiroyuki
1988-01-01
In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of low density in liver on computed tomography (CT), CT scans of 11 patients with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) were compared with those from 22 cirrhotic patients, two patients with scarred liver and 16 normal subjects. Low densities on plain CT scans in patients with IPH were distinctly different from those observed in normal liver. Some of the low densities had irregular shape with unclear margin and were scattered near the liver surface, and others had vessel-like structures with unclear margin and extended as far as near the liver surface. Ten of the 11 patients with IPH had low densities mentioned above, while none of the 22 cirrhotic patients had such low densities. The present results suggest that the presence of low densities in liver on plain CT scan is clinically beneficial in diagnosis of IPH. (author)
Refractory Coated/Lined Low Density Structures, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project addresses the development of refractory coated or lined low density structures applicable for advanced future propulsion system technologies. The...
Drozda, Tomasz G.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Pisciuneri, Patrick H.; Yilmaz, S. Levent
2012-01-01
Significant progress has been made in the development of subgrid scale (SGS) closures based on a filtered density function (FDF) for large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent reacting flows. The FDF is the counterpart of the probability density function (PDF) method, which has proven effective in Reynolds averaged simulations (RAS). However, while systematic progress is being made advancing the FDF models for relatively simple flows and lab-scale flames, the application of these methods in complex geometries and high speed, wall-bounded flows with shocks remains a challenge. The key difficulties are the significant computational cost associated with solving the FDF transport equation and numerically stiff finite rate chemistry. For LES/FDF methods to make a more significant impact in practical applications a pragmatic approach must be taken that significantly reduces the computational cost while maintaining high modeling fidelity. An example of one such ongoing effort is at the NASA Langley Research Center, where the first generation FDF models, namely the scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) are being implemented into VULCAN, a production-quality RAS and LES solver widely used for design of high speed propulsion flowpaths. This effort leverages internal and external collaborations to reduce the overall computational cost of high fidelity simulations in VULCAN by: implementing high order methods that allow reduction in the total number of computational cells without loss in accuracy; implementing first generation of high fidelity scalar PDF/FDF models applicable to high-speed compressible flows; coupling RAS/PDF and LES/FDF into a hybrid framework to efficiently and accurately model the effects of combustion in the vicinity of the walls; developing efficient Lagrangian particle tracking algorithms to support robust solutions of the FDF equations for high speed flows; and utilizing finite rate chemistry parametrization, such as flamelet models, to reduce
Uncertainty Propagation in Hypersonic Vehicle Aerothermoelastic Analysis
Lamorte, Nicolas Etienne
Hypersonic vehicles face a challenging flight environment. The aerothermoelastic analysis of its components requires numerous simplifying approximations. Identifying and quantifying the effect of uncertainties pushes the limits of the existing deterministic models, and is pursued in this work. An uncertainty quantification framework is used to propagate the effects of identified uncertainties on the stability margins and performance of the different systems considered. First, the aeroelastic stability of a typical section representative of a control surface on a hypersonic vehicle is examined. Variability in the uncoupled natural frequencies of the system is modeled to mimic the effect of aerodynamic heating. Next, the stability of an aerodynamically heated panel representing a component of the skin of a generic hypersonic vehicle is considered. Uncertainty in the location of transition from laminar to turbulent flow and the heat flux prediction is quantified using CFD. In both cases significant reductions of the stability margins are observed. A loosely coupled airframe--integrated scramjet engine is considered next. The elongated body and cowl of the engine flow path are subject to harsh aerothermodynamic loading which causes it to deform. Uncertainty associated with deformation prediction is propagated to the engine performance analysis. The cowl deformation is the main contributor to the sensitivity of the propulsion system performance. Finally, a framework for aerothermoelastic stability boundary calculation for hypersonic vehicles using CFD is developed. The usage of CFD enables one to consider different turbulence conditions, laminar or turbulent, and different models of the air mixture, in particular real gas model which accounts for dissociation of molecules at high temperature. The system is found to be sensitive to turbulence modeling as well as the location of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Real gas effects play a minor role in the
Palmer, Grant; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj
1993-01-01
Three solution algorithms, explicit underrelaxation, point implicit, and lower upper symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LUSGS), are used to compute nonequilibrium flow around the Apollo 4 return capsule at 62 km altitude. By varying the Mach number, the efficiency and robustness of the solution algorithms were tested for different levels of chemical stiffness. The performance of the solution algorithms degraded as the Mach number and stiffness of the flow increased. At Mach 15, 23, and 30, the LUSGS method produces an eight order of magnitude drop in the L2 norm of the energy residual in 1/3 to 1/2 the Cray C-90 computer time as compared to the point implicit and explicit under-relaxation methods. The explicit under-relaxation algorithm experienced convergence difficulties at Mach 23 and above. At Mach 40 the performance of the LUSGS algorithm deteriorates to the point it is out-performed by the point implicit method. The effects of the viscous terms are investigated. Grid dependency questions are explored.
A new look at extensional rheology of low-density polyethylene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huang, Qian; Mangnus, Marc; Alvarez, Nicolas J.
2016-01-01
The nonlinear rheology of three selected commercial low-density polyethylenes (LDPE) is measured in uniaxial extensional flow. The measurements are performed using three different devices including an extensional viscosity fixture (EVF), a homemade filament stretching rheometer (DTU-FSR) and a co...
Pegasus hypersonic flight research
Curry, Robert E.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.; Budd, Gerald D.
1992-01-01
Hypersonic aeronautics research using the Pegasus air-launched space booster is described. Two areas are discussed in the paper: previously obtained results from Pegasus flights 1 and 2, and plans for future programs. Proposed future research includes boundary-layer transition studies on the airplane-like first stage and also use of the complete Pegasus launch system to boost a research vehicle to hypersonic speeds. Pegasus flight 1 and 2 measurements were used to evaluate the results of several analytical aerodynamic design tools applied during the development of the vehicle as well as to develop hypersonic flight-test techniques. These data indicated that the aerodynamic design approach for Pegasus was adequate and showed that acceptable margins were available. Additionally, the correlations provide insight into the capabilities of these analytical tools for more complex vehicles in which design margins may be more stringent. Near-term plans to conduct hypersonic boundary-layer transition studies are discussed. These plans involve the use of a smooth metallic glove at about the mid-span of the wing. Longer-term opportunities are proposed which identify advantages of the Pegasus launch system to boost large-scale research vehicles to the real-gas hypersonic flight regime.
Mcdaniel, James C.; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Hartfield, Roy J.; Hollo, Steven D.
1991-01-01
A spatially-complete data set of the important primitive flow variables is presented for the complex, nonreacting, 3D unit combustor flow field employing transverse injection into a Mach 2 flow behind a rearward-facing step. A unique wind tunnel facility providing the capability for iodine seeding was built specifically for these measurements. Two optical techniques based on laser-induced-iodine fluorescence were developed and utilized for nonintrusive, in situ flow field measurements. LDA provided both mean and fluctuating velocity component measurements. A thermographic phosphor wall temperature measurement technique was developed and employed. Data from the 2D flow over a rearward-facing step and the complex 3D mixing flow with injection are reported.
Rarefaction Effects in Hypersonic Aerodynamics
Riabov, Vladimir V.
2011-05-01
The Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) technique is used for numerical analysis of rarefied-gas hypersonic flows near a blunt plate, wedge, two side-by-side plates, disk, torus, and rotating cylinder. The role of various similarity parameters (Knudsen and Mach numbers, geometrical and temperature factors, specific heat ratios, and others) in aerodynamics of the probes is studied. Important kinetic effects that are specific for the transition flow regime have been found: non-monotonic lift and drag of plates, strong repulsive force between side-by-side plates and cylinders, dependence of drag on torus radii ratio, and the reverse Magnus effect on the lift of a rotating cylinder. The numerical results are in a good agreement with experimental data, which were obtained in a vacuum chamber at low and moderate Knudsen numbers from 0.01 to 10.
Microbial biodegradable potato starch based low density polyethylene
African Journals Online (AJOL)
USER
2010-06-28
Jun 28, 2010 ... Key words: Low density polyethylene, fungi, biodegradable polymer, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ... particle such as CO2 or water by microorganism's activities. ... package and production of bags, composites and agricultural.
Clustering and Symmetry Energy in a Low Density Nuclear Gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kowalski, S.; Natowitz, J.B.; Shlomo, S.; Wada, R.; Hagel, K.; Wang, J.; Materna, T.; Chen, Z.; Ma, Y.G.; Qin, L.; Botvina, A.S.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Rizzi, V.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Prete, G.; Keutgen, T.; El Masri, Y.; Majka, Z.; Ono, A.
2007-01-01
Temperature and density dependent symmetry energy coefficients have been derived from isoscaling analyses of the yields of nuclei with A= 64 Zn projectiles with 92 Mo and 197 Au target nuclei. The symmetry energies at low density are larger than those obtained in mean field calculations, reflecting the clustering of low density nuclear matter. They are in quite good agreement with results of a recently proposed Virial Equation of State calculation
Gao, Wenzhi; Li, Zhufei; Yang, Jiming
Leading edge bluntness is widely used in hypersonic inlet design for thermal protection[1]. Detailed research of leading edge bluntness on hypersonic inlet has been concentrated on shock shape correlation[2], boundary layer flow[3], inlet performance[4], etc. It is well known that blunted noses cause detached bow shocks which generate subsonic regions around the noses and entropy layers in the flowfield.
Metabolism of cholesteryl esters of rat very low density lipoproteins.
Faergeman, O; Havel, R J
1975-06-01
Rat very low density lipoproteins (d smaller than 1.006), biologically labeled in esterified and free cholesterol, were obtained form serum 6 h after intravenous injection of particulate (3-H) cholesterol. When injected into recipient animals, the esterified cholesterol was cleared form plasma with a half-life of 5 min. After 15 min, 71% of the injected esterified (3-H) cholesterol had been taken up by the liver, where it was rapidly hydrolyzed. After 60 min only 3.3% of the amount injected had been transferred, via lipoproteins of intermediate density, to the low density lipoproteins of plasma (d 1.019-1.063). Both uptake in the liver and transfer to low density lipoproteins occurred without change of distribution of 3-H in the various cholesteryl esters. 3-H appearing in esterified cholesterol of high density lipoproteins (d greater than 1.063) was derived from esterification, presumably by lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase, of simultaneously injected free (3-H) cholesterol. Content of free (3-H) cholesterol in the very low density lipoproteins used for injection could be reduced substantially by incubation with erythrocytes. This procedure, however, increased the rate of clearance of the lipoproteins after injection into recipient rats. These studies show that hepatic removal is the major catabolic pathway for cholesteryl esters of rat very low density lipoproteins and that transfer to low density lipoproteins occurs to only a minor extent.
Hypersonic Materials and Structures
Glass, David E.
2016-01-01
Thermal protection systems (TPS) and hot structures are required for a range of hypersonic vehicles ranging from ballistic reentry to hypersonic cruise vehicles, both within Earth's atmosphere and non-Earth atmospheres. The focus of this presentation is on air breathing hypersonic vehicles in the Earth's atmosphere. This includes single-stage to orbit (SSTO), two-stage to orbit (TSTO) accelerators, access to space vehicles, and hypersonic cruise vehicles. This paper will start out with a brief discussion of aerodynamic heating and thermal management techniques to address the high heating, followed by an overview of TPS for rocket-launched and air-breathing vehicles. The argument is presented that as we move from rocket-based vehicles to air-breathing vehicles, we need to move away from the insulated airplane approach used on the Space Shuttle Orbiter to a wide range of TPS and hot structure approaches. The primary portion of the paper will discuss issues and design options for CMC TPS and hot structure components, including leading edges, acreage TPS, and control surfaces. The current state-of-the-art will be briefly discussed for some of the components.
Bilateral anterior thalamic low densities in descending transtentorial herniation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagashima, Chikao; Watanabe, Takao
1985-02-01
Round, well-demarcated, symmetrical low densities in a bilateral thalamus in a case of descending transtentorial herniation due secondarily to acute traumatic left subdural hematoma are reported. An 8-year-old boy, on whom emergency surgery was refused by his parents, showed a marked shift due to the hematoma on admission; this was followed by a low density in the left PCA territory and round, equivocal hypodensities in the anterior thalamus 44 hours post-trauma. The equivocal hypodensities became definite, well-demarcated, round low densities situated symmetrically in the anterior thalamus on the 39th day post-trauma. Akinetic mutism was noted at this time. The symmetrical low densities and the PCA-territory low density persisted as late as the 39th day post-trauma, suggesting infarcts. The downward stretch of the bilateral thalamoperforators, which was effected by a narrowing of the interpeduncular fossa with an approximation of the bilateral perforators, plus a downward shift of the PCA due to descending transtentorial herniation, was assumed to be the mechanism involved. (author).
Unstart Coupling Mechanism Analysis of Multiple-Modules Hypersonic Inlet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jichao Hu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The combination of multiplemodules in parallel manner is an important way to achieve the much higher thrust of scramjet engine. For the multiple-modules scramjet engine, when inlet unstarted oscillatory flow appears in a single-module engine due to high backpressure, how to interact with each module by massflow spillage, and whether inlet unstart occurs in other modules are important issues. The unstarted flowfield and coupling characteristic for a three-module hypersonic inlet caused by center module II and side module III were, conducted respectively. The results indicate that the other two hypersonic inlets are forced into unstarted flow when unstarted phenomenon appears on a single-module hypersonic inlet due to high backpressure, and the reversed flow in the isolator dominates the formation, expansion, shrinkage, and disappearance of the vortexes, and thus, it is the major factor of unstart coupling of multiple-modules hypersonic inlet. The coupling effect among multiple modules makes hypersonic inlet be more likely unstarted.
Clathrates and beyond: Low-density allotropy in crystalline silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beekman, Matt [Department of Physics, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California 93407 (United States); Wei, Kaya; Nolas, George S., E-mail: gnolas@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States)
2016-12-15
In its common, thermodynamically stable state, silicon adopts the same crystal structure as diamond. Although only a few alternative allotropic structures have been discovered and studied over the past six decades, advanced methods for structure prediction have recently suggested a remarkably rich low-density phase space that has only begun to be explored. The electronic properties of these low-density allotropes of silicon, predicted by first-principles calculations, indicate that these materials could offer a pathway to improving performance and reducing cost in a variety of electronic and energy-related applications. In this focus review, we provide an introduction and overview of recent theoretical and experimental results related to low-density allotropes of silicon, highlighting the significant potential these materials may have for technological applications, provided substantial challenges to their experimental preparation can be overcome.
Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the basal ganglia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ugawa, Yoshikazu; Ihara, Yasuo
1984-01-01
We reported a case with dysarthria and gait disturbance, in which CT revealed symmetrical well-demarcated low density areas in the basal ganglia. The patient was a 43-year-old woman. Her family history and past history were not contributory. She had a little difficulty in speaking at the age of 17. Gait disturbance and micrographia appeared later. Although her expressionless face resembles to that seen in Parkinsonism, rigidity, akinesia and small-stepped gait were not present. The unclassified types of dysarthria and gait disturbance, which characterize the present case, were considered to be a kind of extrapyramidal symptoms, which were distinct from those of Parkinsonism. CT showed well demarcated low density areas predominantly in bilateral putamen. Metrizamide CT failed to show any communication between low density areas and subarachnoid spaces. To date, six cases, which presented similar clinical features and almost same CT findings as our case, were reported. (author)
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of gallstone disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Benn, Marianne
2013-01-01
Drugs which reduce plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may protect against gallstone disease. Whether plasma levels of LDL-C per se predict risk of gallstone disease remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that elevated LDL-C is a causal risk factor for symptomatic gallstone...
Importing low-density ideas to high-density revitalisation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arnholtz, Jens; Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Ibsen, Flemming
2016-01-01
Why did union officials from a high-union-density country like Denmark choose to import an organising strategy from low-density countries such as the US and the UK? Drawing on in-depth interviews with key union officials and internal documents, the authors of this article argue two key points. Fi...
Increased oxidizability of low-density lipoproteins in hypothyroidism
Diekman, T.; Demacker, P. N.; Kastelein, J. J.; Stalenhoef, A. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.
1998-01-01
Hypothyroidism leads to an increase of plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Oxidation of LDL particles changes their intrinsic properties, thereby enhancing the development of atherosclerosis. T4 has three specific binding sites on apolipoprotein B; furthermore it inhibits LDL
Role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in renal disease
Heeringa, P; Tervaert, JWC
Accelerated atherosclerosis is often observed in patients with chronic renal failure. In the present review we summarize and discuss the recent literature on the pathogenic role of low-density lipoproteins modified by oxidative processes in atherosclerosis and the possible role in renal diseases.
Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okamoto, Minoru; Maruyama, Toshiki; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Toshitaka
2012-01-01
We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.
Three-dimensional structure of low-density nuclear matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Okamoto, Minoru, E-mail: okamoto@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Maruyama, Toshiki, E-mail: maruyama.toshiki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakata Shirane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Yabana, Kazuhiro, E-mail: yabana@nucl.ph.tsukuba.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Center of Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Tatsumi, Toshitaka, E-mail: tatsumi@ruby.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2012-07-09
We numerically explore the pasta structures and properties of low-density nuclear matter without any assumption on the geometry. We observe conventional pasta structures, while a mixture of the pasta structures appears as a metastable state at some transient densities. We also discuss the lattice structure of droplets.
Thermal Cracking of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Waste into ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Waste low density polyethylene film (table water sachets) was converted into solid, liquid oil and gaseous products by thermal process in a self- designed stainless steel laboratory reactor. The waste polymer was completely pyrolized within the temperature range of 474 – 520°C and 2hours reaction time. The solid residue ...
Plasma probe characteristics in low density hydrogen pulsed plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astakhov, D I; Lee, C J; Bijkerk, F; Goedheer, W J; Ivanov, V V; Krivtsun, V M; Zotovich, A I; Zyryanov, S M; Lopaev, D V
2015-01-01
Probe theories are only applicable in the regime where the probe’s perturbation of the plasma can be neglected. However, it is not always possible to know, a priori, that a particular probe theory can be successfully applied, especially in low density plasmas. This is especially difficult in the case of transient, low density plasmas. Here, we applied probe diagnostics in combination with a 2D particle-in-cell model, to an experiment with a pulsed low density hydrogen plasma. The calculations took into account the full chamber geometry, including the plasma probe as an electrode in the chamber. It was found that the simulations reproduce the time evolution of the probe IV characteristics with good accuracy. The disagreement between the simulated and probe measured plasma density is attributed to the limited applicability of probe theory to measurements of low density pulsed plasmas on a similarly short time scale as investigated here. Indeed, in the case studied here, probe measurements would lead to, either a large overestimate, or underestimate of the plasma density, depending on the chosen probe theory. In contrast, the simulations of the plasma evolution and the probe characteristics do not suffer from such strict applicability limits. These studies show that probe theory cannot be justified through probe measurements. However, limiting cases of probe theories can be used to estimate upper and lower bounds on plasma densities. These theories include and neglect orbital motion, respectively, with different collisional terms leading to intermediate estimates. (paper)
Human Low Density Lipoprotein as a Vehicle of Atherosclerosis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Low-density lipoproteins have been sufficiently established as an important precursor of atherosclerosis. The actual mechanism is still unclear, and the current technique of using radioisotopes has clinical limitation. However, the current study techniques or methods excellently elucidate the functional aspects of ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zhong, Xiaolin
2007-01-01
.... During the three-year period, we have conducted extensive DNS studies on the receptivity of hypersonic boundary layer flows over a sharp wedge, a flat plate, a blunt cone, and the FRESH aeroshell...
Toward a CFD nose-to-tail capability - Hypersonic unsteady Navier-Stokes code validation
Edwards, Thomas A.; Flores, Jolen
1989-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research for hypersonic flows presents new problems in code validation because of the added complexity of the physical models. This paper surveys code validation procedures applicable to hypersonic flow models that include real gas effects. The current status of hypersonic CFD flow analysis is assessed with the Compressible Navier-Stokes (CNS) code as a case study. The methods of code validation discussed to beyond comparison with experimental data to include comparisons with other codes and formulations, component analyses, and estimation of numerical errors. Current results indicate that predicting hypersonic flows of perfect gases and equilibrium air are well in hand. Pressure, shock location, and integrated quantities are relatively easy to predict accurately, while surface quantities such as heat transfer are more sensitive to the solution procedure. Modeling transition to turbulence needs refinement, though preliminary results are promising.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Holden, Michael
2001-01-01
... and double cone configurations in hypersonic flow. In the best Navier-Stokes solutions the structure and density of the flowfield was captured exactly over both the hollow cylinder/flare and double cone models...
A Laser-Based Diagnostic Suite for Hypersonic Test Facilities, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a suite of laser-based diagnostics for the study of reactive and non-reactive hypersonic flows....
Assessment of CFD capability for prediction of hypersonic shock interactions
Knight, Doyle; Longo, José; Drikakis, Dimitris; Gaitonde, Datta; Lani, Andrea; Nompelis, Ioannis; Reimann, Bodo; Walpot, Louis
2012-01-01
The aerothermodynamic loadings associated with shock wave boundary layer interactions (shock interactions) must be carefully considered in the design of hypersonic air vehicles. The capability of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software to accurately predict hypersonic shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions is examined. A series of independent computations performed by researchers in the US and Europe are presented for two generic configurations (double cone and cylinder) and compared with experimental data. The results illustrate the current capabilities and limitations of modern CFD methods for these flows.
On the mechanism of charge transport in low density polyethylene
Upadhyay, Avnish K.; Reddy, C. C.
2017-08-01
Polyethylene based polymeric insulators, are being increasingly used in the power industry for their inherent advantages over conventional insulation materials. Specifically, modern power cables are almost made with these materials, replacing the mass-impregnated oil-paper cable technology. However, for ultra-high dc voltage applications, the use of these polymeric cables is hindered by ununderstood charge transport and accumulation. The conventional conduction mechanisms (Pool-Frenkel, Schottky, etc.) fail to track high-field charge transport in low density polyethylene, which is semi-crystalline in nature. Until now, attention was devoted mainly to the amorphous region of the material. In this paper, authors propose a novel mechanism for conduction in low density polyethylene, which could successfully track experimental results. As an implication, a novel, substantial relationship is established for electrical conductivity that could be effectively used for understanding conduction and breakdown in polyethylene, which is vital for successful development of ultra-high voltage dc cables.
Hypersonic nozzle/afterbody CFD code validation. I - Experimental measurements
Spaid, Frank W.; Keener, Earl R.
1993-01-01
This study was conducted to obtain a detailed experimental description of the flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion-ramp-nozzle flow with a hypersonic external stream. Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel of the NASA Ames Research Center in a cooperative experimental program involving Ames and the McDonnell Douglas Research Laboratories. This paper presents experimental results consisting primarily of surveys obtained with a five-hole total-pressure/flow-direction probe and a total-temperature probe. These surveys were obtained in the flow field created by the interaction between the underexpanded jet plume and the external flow.
On Challenges for Hypersonic Turbulent Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yee, H.C.; Sjogreen, B.
2009-01-01
This short note discusses some of the challenges for design of suitable spatial numerical schemes for hypersonic turbulent flows, including combustion, and thermal and chemical nonequilibrium flows. Often, hypersonic turbulent flows in re-entry space vehicles and space physics involve mixed steady strong shocks and turbulence with unsteady shocklets. Material mixing in combustion poses additional computational challenges. Proper control of numerical dissipation in numerical methods beyond the standard shock-capturing dissipation at discontinuities is an essential element for accurate and stable simulations of the subject physics. On one hand, the physics of strong steady shocks and unsteady turbulence/shocklet interactions under the nonequilibrium environment is not well understood. On the other hand, standard and newly developed high order accurate (fourth-order or higher) schemes were developed for homogeneous hyperbolic conservation laws and mixed hyperbolic and parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) (without source terms). The majority of finite rate chemistry and thermal nonequilibrium simulations employ methods for homogeneous time-dependent PDEs with a pointwise evaluation of the source terms. The pointwise evaluation of the source term might not be the best choice for stability, accuracy and minimization of spurious numerics for the overall scheme
Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an entry and descent technology to enhance and enable robotic and scientific missions to destinations with atmospheres.The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic...
Development of Low Density, Flexible Carbon Phenolic Ablators
Stackpoole, Mairead; Thornton, Jeremy; Fan, Wendy; Covington, Alan; Doxtad, Evan; Beck, Robin; Gasch, Matt; Arnold, Jim
2012-01-01
Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) was the enabling TPS material for the Stardust mission where it was used as a single piece heatshield. PICA has the advantages of low density (approximately 0.27 grams per cubic centimeter) coupled with efficient ablative capability at high heat fluxes. Due to its brittle nature and low strain to failure recent efforts at NASA ARC have focused on alternative architectures to yield flexible and more conformal carbon phenolic materials with comparable densities to PICA. This presentation will discuss flexible alternatives to PICA and include preliminary mechanical and thermal properties as well as recent arc jet and LHMEL screening test results.
Performance of Low-Density Parity-Check Coded Modulation
Hamkins, Jon
2010-01-01
This paper reports the simulated performance of each of the nine accumulate-repeat-4-jagged-accumulate (AR4JA) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes [3] when used in conjunction with binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK), quadrature PSK (QPSK), 8-PSK, 16-ary amplitude PSK (16- APSK), and 32-APSK.We also report the performance under various mappings of bits to modulation symbols, 16-APSK and 32-APSK ring scalings, log-likelihood ratio (LLR) approximations, and decoder variations. One of the simple and well-performing LLR approximations can be expressed in a general equation that applies to all of the modulation types.
Low density lipoprotein sensor based on surface plasmon resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matharu, Zimple; Sumana, G.; Pandey, M.K.; Gupta, Vinay; Malhotra, B.D.
2009-01-01
Biotinylated heparin has been immobilized onto self-assembled monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol using avidin-biotin specific binding. The modified electrodes have been characterized using surface plasmon resonance technique (SPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The interaction of immobilized biotinylated heparin with low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been studied using surface plasmon resonance technique. The biotinylated heparin modified electrode can be used to detect LDL in the range of 20 to 100 mg/dl with the sensitivity of 513.3 m o /μM.
Low density lipoprotein sensor based on surface plasmon resonance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matharu, Zimple [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110007 (India); Sumana, G.; Pandey, M.K. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi-110007 (India); Malhotra, B.D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.co [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)
2009-11-30
Biotinylated heparin has been immobilized onto self-assembled monolayer of 4-aminothiophenol using avidin-biotin specific binding. The modified electrodes have been characterized using surface plasmon resonance technique (SPR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. The interaction of immobilized biotinylated heparin with low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been studied using surface plasmon resonance technique. The biotinylated heparin modified electrode can be used to detect LDL in the range of 20 to 100 mg/dl with the sensitivity of 513.3 m{sup o}/{mu}M.
Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian
2017-01-01
Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from...... proportional to the absolute reduction in LDL-C and the cumulative duration of exposure to lower LDL-C, provided that the achieved reduction in LDL-C is concordant with the reduction in LDL particle number and that there are no competing deleterious off-target effects. Conclusion Consistent evidence from...
Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K.
2013-01-01
Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body’s defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature’s method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL–drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier
Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant, E-mail: prashant_pharmacy04@rediffmail.com; Jain, Narendra K., E-mail: jnarendr@yahoo.co.in [Dr. H. S. Gour University, Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India)
2013-09-15
Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL-drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier.
Low density lipoproteins mediated nanoplatforms for cancer targeting
Jain, Anupriya; Jain, Keerti; Kesharwani, Prashant; Jain, Narendra K.
2013-09-01
Chemotherapy is a foremost remedial approach for the treatment of localized and metastasized tumors. In order to explore new treatment modalities for cancer, it is important to identify qualitative or quantitative differences in metabolic processes between normal and malignant cells. One such difference may be that of increased receptor-mediated cellular uptake of low density lipoproteins (LDLs) by cancer cells. Lipoproteins in general and specifically LDL are ideal candidates for loading and delivering cancer therapeutic and diagnostic agents due to their biocompatibility. By mimicking the endogenous shape and structure of lipoproteins, the reconstituted lipoproteins can remain in circulation for an extended period of time, while largely evading the reticuloendothelial cells in the body's defenses. In this account, we review the field of low density inspired nanoparticles in relation to the delivery of cancer imaging and therapeutic agents. LDL has instinctive cancer targeting potential and has been used to incorporate various lipophillic molecules to transport them to tumors. Nature's method of rerouting LDL provides a strategy to extend the cancer targeting potential of lipoproteins far off its constricted purview. In this review, we have discussed the various aspects of LDL including its role in cancer imaging and chemotherapy in retrospect and prospect and current efforts aimed to further improve the delivery efficacy of LDL-drug complexes with reduced chances of drug resistance leading to optimal drug delivery. This review provides a strong support for the concept of using LDL as a drug carrier.
Experimental Investigation of Brazilian 14-X B Hypersonic Scramjet Aerospace Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
João Felipe de Araujo Martos
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The Brazilian hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle 14-X B is a technological demonstrator of a hypersonic airbreathing propulsion system based on the supersonic combustion (scramjet to be tested in flight into the Earth’s atmosphere at an altitude of 30 km and Mach number 7. The 14-X B has been designed at the Prof. Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics, Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv, Brazil. The IEAv T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is a ground-test facility able to produce high Mach number and high enthalpy flows in the test section close to those encountered during the flight of the 14-X B into the Earth’s atmosphere at hypersonic flight speeds. A 1 m long stainless steel 14-X B model was experimentally investigated at T3 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel, for freestream Mach numbers ranging from 7 to 8. Static pressure measurements along the lower surface of the 14-X B, as well as high-speed Schlieren photographs taken from the 5.5° leading edge and the 14.5° deflection compression ramp, provided experimental data. Experimental data was compared to the analytical theoretical solutions and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations, showing good qualitative agreement and in consequence demonstrating the importance of these methods in the project of the 14-X B hypersonic scramjet aerospace vehicle.
Experimental Evidence of Low Density Liquid Water under Decompression
Shen, G.; Lin, C.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Smith, J.
2017-12-01
Water is not only the most important substance for life, but also plays important roles in liquid science for its anomalous properties. It has been widely accepted that water's anomalies are not a result of simple thermal fluctuation, but are connected to the formation of various structural aggregates in the hydrogen bonding network. Among several proposed scenarios, one model of fluctuations between two different liquids has gradually gained traction. These two liquids are referred to as a low-density liquid (LDL) and a high-density liquid (HDL) with a coexistence line in the deeply supercooled regime at elevated pressure. The LDL-HDL transition ends with decreasing pressure at a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) with its Widom line extending to low pressures. Above the Widom line lies mostly HDL which is favored by entropy, while LDL, mostly lying below the Widom line, is favored by enthalpy in the tetrahedral hydrogen bonding network. The origin of water's anomalies can then be explained by the increase in structural fluctuations, as water is cooled down to deeply supercooled temperatures approaching the Widom line. Because both the LLCP and the LDL-HDL transition line lie in water's "no man's land" between the homogeneous nucleation temperature (TH, 232 K) and the crystallization temperature (TX, 150 K), the success of experiments exploring this region has been limited thus far. Using a rapid decompression technique integrated with in situ x-ray diffraction, we observe that a high-pressure ice phase transforms to a low-density noncrystalline (LDN) form upon rapid release of pressure at temperatures of 140-165K. The LDN subsequently crystallizes into ice-Ic through a diffusion-controlled process. The change in crystallization rate with temperature indicates that the LDN is a LDL with its tetrahedrally-coordinated network fully developed and clearly linked to low-density amorphous ices. The observation of the tetrahedral LDL supports the two-liquid model for
Mechanical Properties of Low Density Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiao, X. D.; Liu, H. J.; Li, L. F.; Yang, K.
2006-01-01
Low-density alloys include aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and magnesium alloys. Aluminum alloys and titanium alloys have been widely investigated and used as structural materials for cryogenic applications because of their light weight and good low-temperature mechanical properties.For aerospace applications, persistent efforts are being devoted to reducing weight and improving performance. Magnesium alloys are the lightest structural alloys among those mentioned above. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to magnesium alloys and to investigate their behaviors at cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, we have investigated the mechanical properties and microstructures of some magnesium alloys at cryogenic temperatures. Experimental results on both titanium and magnesium alloys are taken into account in considering these materials for space application
Low density lipoprotein receptors: preliminary results on 'in vivo' study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lupattelli, G.; Virgolini, I.; Li, S.R.; Sinzinger, H.
1991-01-01
Plasmatic levels of low density lipoproteins (LDL) are regulated by the receptor pathway and most LDL receptor are located in the liver. A receptor defect due to genetic mutations of the LDL receptor gene is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (F.H.), a disease characterized by high cholesterol levels and premature atherosclerosis. Injections of autologous radiolabelled LDL, followed by hepatic scintiscanning, can be used to obtain 'in vivo' quantification of hepatic receptor activity, both in normal and hypercholesterolemic patients. In this study we observe no hepatic increase of radioactivity in patients affected by F.H., confirming the liver receptor defect. Scintigraphy is a non-invasive technique which can be used to diagnose this disease and to monitor the efficiacy of hypolipidemic therapy. (Authors)
Statistical mechanics of low-density parity-check codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kabashima, Yoshiyuki [Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 2268502 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)
2004-02-13
We review recent theoretical progress on the statistical mechanics of error correcting codes, focusing on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in general, and on Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes in particular. By exploiting the relation between LDPC codes and Ising spin systems with multi-spin interactions, one can carry out a statistical mechanics based analysis that determines the practical and theoretical limitations of various code constructions, corresponding to dynamical and thermodynamical transitions, respectively, as well as the behaviour of error-exponents averaged over the corresponding code ensemble as a function of channel noise. We also contrast the results obtained using methods of statistical mechanics with those derived in the information theory literature, and show how these methods can be generalized to include other channel types and related communication problems. (topical review)
Ballistics considerations for small-caliber, low-density projectiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.
1993-01-01
One major application for single- and two-stage light gas guns is for fueling magnetic fusion confinement devices. Powder guns are not a feasible alternative due to possible plasma contamination by residual powder gases and the eventual requirement of steady-state operation at ∼ 1 Hz, which will dictate a closed gas handling system where propellant gases are recovered, processed and recompressed. Interior ballistic calculations for single-stage light gas guns, both analytical and numerical, are compared to an extensive data base for low density hydrogenic projectiles (pellets). Some innovative range diagnostics are described for determining the size and velocity of these small (several mm) size projectiles. A conceptual design of a closed cycle propellant gas system is presented including tradeoffs between different light propellant gases
Physical properties of drawn very low density polyethylene films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, B.S. [Yeungnam University, Kyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.Y. [Korea Institute of Footwear and Leather Technology, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)
1998-05-01
Very low density polyethylene (VLDPE) films were prepared by quenching the pressed melt in ice water. The films were drawn with universal testing machine under constant temperature at four different temperatures, 30, 60, 80, and 110 {sup o} C. Thermal, mechanical properties, grossity, and gas permeability of the drawn VLDPE films as a function of draw ratio were investigated to examine their applicability to packaging. The films showed tow melting peaks, i.e., low temperature endotherm (LTE) and high temperature endotherm (HTE). The melting temperatures were increased with the draw ratio and the drawing temperature. The mechanical properties of the VLDPE film drawn at 80 {sup o} C were superior to those drawn at 110 {sup o} C. The grossity and gas permeability of the VLDPE film drawn at 110 {sup o} C were found to be best among the drawn films.
Statistical mechanics of low-density parity-check codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabashima, Yoshiyuki; Saad, David
2004-01-01
We review recent theoretical progress on the statistical mechanics of error correcting codes, focusing on low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes in general, and on Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes in particular. By exploiting the relation between LDPC codes and Ising spin systems with multi-spin interactions, one can carry out a statistical mechanics based analysis that determines the practical and theoretical limitations of various code constructions, corresponding to dynamical and thermodynamical transitions, respectively, as well as the behaviour of error-exponents averaged over the corresponding code ensemble as a function of channel noise. We also contrast the results obtained using methods of statistical mechanics with those derived in the information theory literature, and show how these methods can be generalized to include other channel types and related communication problems. (topical review)
KEPLER-7b: A TRANSITING PLANET WITH UNUSUALLY LOW DENSITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latham, David W.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Brown, Timothy M.; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Howell, Steve B.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Monet, David G.
2010-01-01
We report on the discovery and confirmation of Kepler-7b, a transiting planet with unusually low density. The mass is less than half that of Jupiter, M P = 0.43 M J , but the radius is 50% larger, R P = 1.48 R J . The resulting density, ρ P = 0.17 g cm -3 , is the second lowest reported so far for an extrasolar planet. The orbital period is fairly long, P = 4.886 days, and the host star is not much hotter than the Sun, T eff = 6000 K. However, it is more massive and considerably larger than the Sun, M * = 1.35 M sun and R * = 1.84 R sun , and must be near the end of its life on the main sequence.
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal women
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jankowski, Vera; Just, Alexander R; Pfeilschifter, Johannes
2014-01-01
BACKGROUND: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) leads to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, the most frequent causes of death worldwide. After menopause, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism changes and women are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease compared to fertile women. The aim.......10-0.43). Although intima-media thickness did not differ, postmenopausal women with serous oxLDL had more often atherosclerotic plaques compared to women without oxLDL (6/66 vs. 0/467; P lipoprotein, impaired glucose intolerance, and DBP were independently associated...... with the occurrence of oxLDL. If oxLDL was present, higher high-density lipoprotein and glucose intolerance were associated with higher concentrations of oxLDL. In contrast, higher blood urea concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of oxLDL. CONCLUSION: This study presents the prevalence...
Thermoluminescence glow curves of irradiated PMMA and low density polyethylene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Koji; Nakase, Yoshiaki; Kumakiri, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Yoshio.
1985-03-01
Light emission from polymers is observed when polymers preirradiated with ionizing radiation at low temperature are heated gradually. The light emission is supposedly resulted from recombination of electrons with active centers produced in polymers or from some other processes involving charge transfer, but no definite explanation has been given at present on the thermoluminescent centers. This report describes our studies on the effects of impurities contained in polymers and pressure of ambient gases on the thermoluminescent glow curve of PMMA and low density polyethylene, which are often used for plastic film dosimeters. In the glow curve of PMMA, only one peak was observed at 110 K in an H 2 or He atmosphere at 760 Torr, but the intensity of the peak decreased with decreasing the H 2 or He gas pressure. At 10 -5 Torr H 2 or He atmosphere the peak disappered, and two sharp peaks appeared in the temperature range from 200 to 250 K. On the other hand, in the glow curve of low density polyethylene, three peaks were observed at 120 K, 180 K and 250 K in the presence of H 2 or He gas at 760 Torr. The effects of pressure of ambient gases and impurities in the polyethylene on these peaks indicate that the peak at 120 K is due to luminescent center produced on the surface or just below the surface of the matrix by collision of excited atoms or molecules of gases with polymer molecules, the peak at 120 K is originated from impurities in the matrix, and the peak at 250 0 K corresponds to luminescent center produced in polyethylene matrix. (author)
An empirical probability model of detecting species at low densities.
Delaney, David G; Leung, Brian
2010-06-01
False negatives, not detecting things that are actually present, are an important but understudied problem. False negatives are the result of our inability to perfectly detect species, especially those at low density such as endangered species or newly arriving introduced species. They reduce our ability to interpret presence-absence survey data and make sound management decisions (e.g., rapid response). To reduce the probability of false negatives, we need to compare the efficacy and sensitivity of different sampling approaches and quantify an unbiased estimate of the probability of detection. We conducted field experiments in the intertidal zone of New England and New York to test the sensitivity of two sampling approaches (quadrat vs. total area search, TAS), given different target characteristics (mobile vs. sessile). Using logistic regression we built detection curves for each sampling approach that related the sampling intensity and the density of targets to the probability of detection. The TAS approach reduced the probability of false negatives and detected targets faster than the quadrat approach. Mobility of targets increased the time to detection but did not affect detection success. Finally, we interpreted two years of presence-absence data on the distribution of the Asian shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus) in New England and New York, using our probability model for false negatives. The type of experimental approach in this paper can help to reduce false negatives and increase our ability to detect species at low densities by refining sampling approaches, which can guide conservation strategies and management decisions in various areas of ecology such as conservation biology and invasion ecology.
Optimization of the Upper Surface of Hypersonic Vehicle Based on CFD Analysis
Gao, T. Y.; Cui, K.; Hu, S. C.; Wang, X. P.; Yang, G. W.
2011-09-01
For the hypersonic vehicle, the aerodynamic performance becomes more intensive. Therefore, it is a significant event to optimize the shape of the hypersonic vehicle to achieve the project demands. It is a key technology to promote the performance of the hypersonic vehicle with the method of shape optimization. Based on the existing vehicle, the optimization to the upper surface of the Simplified hypersonic vehicle was done to obtain a shape which suits the project demand. At the cruising condition, the upper surface was parameterized with the B-Spline curve method. The incremental parametric method and the reconstruction technology of the local mesh were applied here. The whole flow field was been calculated and the aerodynamic performance of the craft were obtained by the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technology. Then the vehicle shape was optimized to achieve the maximum lift-drag ratio at attack angle 3°, 4° and 5°. The results will provide the reference for the practical design.
TBCC Discipline Overview. Hypersonics Project
Thomas, Scott R.
2011-01-01
The "National Aeronautics Research and Development Policy" document, issued by the National Science and Technology Council in December 2006, stated that one (among several) of the guiding objectives of the federal aeronautics research and development endeavors shall be stable and long-term foundational research efforts. Nearly concurrently, the National Academies issued a more technically focused aeronautics blueprint, entitled: the "Decadal Survey of Civil Aeronautics - Foundations for the Future." Taken together these documents outline the principles of an aeronautics maturation plan. Thus, in response to these overarching inputs (and others), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) organized the Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), a program within the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The FAP initiated foundational research and technology development tasks to enable the capability of future vehicles that operate across a broad range of Mach numbers, inclusive of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flight regimes. The FAP Hypersonics Project concentrates on two hypersonic missions: (1) Air-breathing Access to Space (AAS) and (2) the (Planetary Atmospheric) Entry, Decent, and Landing (EDL). The AAS mission focuses on Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) systems using air-breathing combined-cycle-engine propulsion; whereas, the EDL mission focuses on the challenges associated with delivering large payloads to (and from) Mars. So, the FAP Hypersonic Project investments are aligned to achieve mastery and intellectual stewardship of the core competencies in the hypersonic-flight regime, which ultimately will be required for practical systems with highly integrated aerodynamic/vehicle and propulsion/engine technologies. Within the FAP Hypersonics, the technology management is further divided into disciplines including one targeting Turbine-Based Combine-Cycle (TBCC) propulsion. Additionally, to obtain expertise and support from outside
Heat removing under hypersonic conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Semenov Mikhail E.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the heat transfer properties of the axially symmetric body with parabolic shape at hypersonic speeds (with a Mach number M > 5. We use the numerical methods based on the implicit difference scheme (Fedorenko method with direct method based on LU-decomposition and iterative method based on the Gauss-Seigel method. Our numerical results show that the heat removing process should be performed in accordance with the nonlinear law of heat distribution over the surface taking into account the hypersonic conditions of motion.
Application of CFD to a generic hypersonic flight research study
Green, Michael J.; Lawrence, Scott L.; Dilley, Arthur D.; Hawkins, Richard W.; Walker, Mary M.; Oberkampf, William L.
1993-01-01
Computational analyses have been performed for the initial assessment of flight research vehicle concepts that satisfy requirements for potential hypersonic experiments. Results were obtained from independent analyses at NASA Ames, NASA Langley, and Sandia National Labs, using sophisticated time-dependent Navier-Stokes and parabolized Navier-Stokes methods. Careful study of a common problem consisting of hypersonic flow past a slightly blunted conical forebody was undertaken to estimate the level of uncertainty in the computed results, and to assess the capabilities of current computational methods for predicting boundary-layer transition onset. Results of this study in terms of surface pressure and heat transfer comparisons, as well as comparisons of boundary-layer edge quantities and flow-field profiles are presented here. Sensitivities to grid and gas model are discussed. Finally, representative results are presented relating to the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the vehicle design and the integration/support of potential experiments.
Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the striatum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okabe, Ichiro; Shimoizumi, Hideo; Miyao, Masutomo; Kamoshita, Shigehiko
1986-01-01
A 10-year-old boy, who showed low density areas at bilateral striatal portion on brain CT, was reported. Characteristic clinical features were summarized as follows: 1. Onset in childhood (3 years old), 2. gait disturbance, dysarthria, involuntaly movement such as choreoathetosis and dystonia, 3. mild mental retardation (IQ 70), and 4. slowly progressive course over several years. Family history was unremarkable. His parents were not consanguineous. He was well until 3 years old, when he developed gait disturbance. At the age of 4, CT showed hypodensity lesions in the bilateral putamens, and right caudate was involved at 7, followed by bilateral caudate involvements at 10. Laboratory findings including blood lactate, pyruvate, serum copper, ceruloplasmin, aminoacids, urine and CSF catecholamines were within normal limits. TRH and thiamine therapies were ineffective L-dopa was slightly effective in movements, but symptoms were slowly progressive. We reviewed fourteen reported cases which were similar to our case in their onset, symptoms, clinical course and CT findings. Although the etiology was unknown, this case is possibly a new disease entity. (author)
Morphology of Burned Ultra-low Density Fiberboards
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Niu
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The synergistic effect of two fire retardants, a Si-Al compound and chlorinated paraffin, was tested on ultra-low density fiberboards (ULDFs. To further understand the mechanism of fire retardancy, morphologies of unburned and burned ULDFs were studied using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy. It was found that as the volume of the burned ULDFs shrank, some crevices appeared. In addition, less fly ash formed on the top of specimens, and more bottom ashes remained in the original framework, with a clear network of structure built by the fibers. Carbon was almost absent in the fly ash; however, the weight ratio of C in the bottom ashes reached the maximum (> 43% of the composition. Oxygen, Al, and Si appeared to have varying weight ratios for different ashes. Oxygen content increased with increasing Si and Al contents. Furthermore, Cl sharply decreased to less than 1% after combustion. Therefore, upon combustion, it was found that almost all of the substances in ULDFs, except for the Si-Al compound, were pyrolyzed to volatile carbon oxides and Cl compounds, especially the fly ash and lightweight C compounds.
Low-density carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong, F.M.; Buckley, S.R.; Giles, C.L. Jr.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Letts, S.A.; Overturf, G.E. III; Price, C.W.; Cook, R.C.
1991-01-01
This report documents research and development on resorcinol- formaldehyde-based foam materials conducted between 1986 and June 1990, when the effort was discontinued. The foams discussed are resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) foam, carbonized RF (CRF) foam, and two composite foams, a polystyrene/RF (PS/RF) foam and its carbonized derivative (CPR). The RF foams are synthesized by the polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde in a slightly basic solution. Their structure and density depend strongly on the concentration of the sodium carbonate catalyst. The have an interconnected bead structure similar to that of silica aerogels; bead sizes range from 30 to 130 Angstrom, and cell sizes are less than 0.1 μm. We have achieved densities of 16 to 200 mg/cm 3 . The RF foams can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a vitreous carbon foam (CRF), which has a similar microstructure but much higher mechanical strength. The PS/RF foams are obtained by filling the 2- to 3-μm cells of PS foam (a low-density hydrocarbon foam we have developed) with RF. The resultant foams have the outstanding handling and machinability of the PS foam matrix and the small cell size of RF. Pyrolyzing PS/RF foams causes depolymerization and loss of the PS; the resulting CPR foams have a structure similar to the PS foams in which CRF both replicates and fills the PS cells
DAQ system for low density plasma parameters measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshi, Rashmi S.; Gupta, Suryakant B.
2015-01-01
In various cases where low density plasmas (number density ranges from 1E4 to 1E6 cm -3 ) exist for example, basic plasma studies or LEO space environment measurement of plasma parameters becomes very critical. Conventional tip (cylindrical) Langmuir probes often result into unstable measurements in such lower density plasma. Due to larger surface area, a spherical Langmuir probe is used to measure such lower plasma densities. Applying a sweep voltage signal to the probe and measuring current values corresponding to these voltages gives V-I characteristics of plasma which can be plotted on a digital storage oscilloscope. This plot is analyzed for calculating various plasma parameters. The aim of this paper is to measure plasma parameters using a spherical Langmuir probe and indigenously developed DAQ system. DAQ system consists of Keithley source-meter and a host system connected by a GPIB interface. An online plasma parameter diagnostic system is developed for measuring plasma properties for non-thermal plasma in vacuum. An algorithm is developed using LabVIEW platform. V-I characteristics of plasma are plotted with respect to different filament current values and different locations of Langmuir probe with reference to plasma source. V-I characteristics is also plotted for forward and reverse voltage sweep generated programmatically from the source meter. (author)
Microwave characteristics of low density flaky magnetic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wenqiang, Zhang; Deyuan, Zhang; Jun, Cai
2013-01-01
Diatomite coated with thin Fe films were obtained by the Chemical Vapor Deposition process. The resultant Fe-coated flaky diatomite particles had low densities (2.7–4.0 g/cm 3 ) and high saturation magnetization (93–157 emu/g). Annealing treatment led to grain growth and an increased saturation magnetization. The high frequency properties of the composites consisting of Fe-coated flaky diatomite particles and wax were investigated. The permittivity and permeability increased with increasing flaky magnetic particles content in the composite and increasing the Fe weight percentage of the particles. The reflection loss of the composite was found dependent on the absorber material thickness, wax:flaky magnetic particles ratios, the Fe content, as well as the annealing treatment. At a thickness of 1 mm, the composite records a minimum reflection loss of −18 dB at 6 GHz. - Highlights: ► We synthesize the flaky magnetic particles with the diatomite as template. ► The flaky magnetic particles coating layers are constituted by α-Fe. ► The flaky magnetic particles have good static magnetic properties. ► The flaky magnetic particles are a kind light weight high performance microwave absorber
Ultralow energy ion beam surface modification of low density polyethylene.
Shenton, Martyn J; Bradley, James W; van den Berg, Jaap A; Armour, David G; Stevens, Gary C
2005-12-01
Ultralow energy Ar+ and O+ ion beam irradiation of low density polyethylene has been carried out under controlled dose and monoenergetic conditions. XPS of Ar+-treated surfaces exposed to ambient atmosphere show that the bombardment of 50 eV Ar+ ions at a total dose of 10(16) cm(-2) gives rise to very reactive surfaces with oxygen incorporation at about 50% of the species present in the upper surface layer. Using pure O+ beam irradiation, comparatively low O incorporation is achieved without exposure to atmosphere (approximately 13% O in the upper surface). However, if the surface is activated by Ar+ pretreatment, then large oxygen contents can be achieved under subsequent O+ irradiation (up to 48% O). The results show that for very low energy (20 eV) oxygen ions there is a dose threshold of about 5 x 10(15) cm(-2) before surface oxygen incorporation is observed. It appears that, for both Ar+ and O+ ions in this regime, the degree of surface modification is only very weakly dependent on the ion energy. The results suggest that in the nonequilibrium plasma treatment of polymers, where the ion flux is typically 10(18) m(-2) s(-1), low energy ions (<50 eV) may be responsible for surface chemical modification.
Surface determinants of low density lipoprotein uptake by endothelial cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeroeg, P.; Pearson, J.D.
1984-01-01
The surface sialic acid content of aortic endothelial cells in vitro was substantially lower in sparse cultures than at confluence. Binding of LDL to endothelial cells did not change at different culture densities and was unaffected by brief pretreatment with neuraminidase to partially remove surface sialic acid residues. In contrast, internalisation of LDL declined by a factor of 3 between low density cell cultures and confluent monolayers; neuraminidase pretreatment increased LDL uptake and the effect was most marked (>10-fold) at confluence. Pretreatment with cationised ferritin, which removed most of the surface sialic acid residues as well as glycosaminoglycans, increased LDL internalisation by up to 20-fold, again with most effect on confluent monolayers. Thus LDL uptake is inversely correlated with sialic acid content. We conclude that changes in the surface density of sialic acid (and possibly other charged) residues significantly modulate endothelial LDL uptake, and suggest that focal increases in LDL accumulation during atherogenesis may be related to alterations in endothelial endocytic properties at sites of increased cell turnover or damage. (author)
Simulated Tip Rub Testing of Low-Density Metal Foam
Bowman, Cheryl L.; Jones, Michael G.
2009-01-01
Preliminary acoustic studies have indicated that low-density, open-cell, metal foams may be suitable acoustic liner material for noise suppression in high by-pass engines. Metal foam response under simulated tip rub conditions was studied to assess whether its durability would be sufficient for the foam to serve both as a rub strip above the rotor as well as an acoustic treatment. Samples represented four metal alloys, nominal cell dimensions ranging from 60 to 120 cells per inch (cpi), and relative densities ranging from 3.4 to 10 percent. The resulting rubbed surfaces were relatively smooth and the open cell structure of the foam was not adversely affected. Sample relative density appeared to have significant influence on the forces induced by the rub event. Acoustic responses of various surface preparations were measured using a normal incidence tube. The results of this study indicate that the foam s open-cell structure was retained after rubbing and that the acoustic absorption spectra variation was minimal.
Direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric laminar low-density jets
Gomez Lendinez, Daniel; Coenen, Wilfried; Sevilla, Alejandro
2017-11-01
The stability of submerged laminar axisymmetric low-density jets has been investigated experimentally (Kyle & Sreenivasan 1993, Hallberg & Strykowski 2006) and with linear analysis (Jendoubi & Strykowski 1994, Coenen & Sevilla 2012, Coenen et al. 2017). These jets become globally unstable when the Reynolds number is larger than a certain critical value which depends on the density ratio and on the velocity profile at the injector outlet. In this work, Direct Numerical Simulations using FreeFEM + + (Hecht 2012) with P1 elements for pressure and P2 for velocity and density are performed to complement the above mentioned studies. Density and velocity fields are analyzed at long time showing the unforced space-time evolution of nonlinear disturbances propagating along the jet. Using the Stuart-Landau model to fit the numerical results for the self-excited oscillations we have computed a neutral stability curve that shows good agreement with experiments and stability theory. Thanks to Spanish MINECO under projects DPI2014-59292-C3-1-P and DPI2015-71901-REDT for financial support.
Low density molecular cloud in the vicinity of the Pleiades
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Federman, S.R.; Wilson, R.F.
1984-01-01
The central region of a small, low density molecular cloud, which lies to the south of the Pleiades cluster, has been studied through the use of molecular line observations. Column densities for CH, OH, 12 CO, and 13 CO are derived from the radio data. The CH and OH data yield a visual extinction through the center of the cloud of about 3 mag. The ratio of the antenna temperatures for the OH main lines is consistent with optically thin emission; therefore, the OH results are a good indication of the total extinction through the optically thin emission; therefore, the OH results are a good indication of the total extinction through the cloud. The analysis of the carbon monoxide data produces a relatively high kinetic temperature of at least 20 K, a low total gas density of approx.300-500 cm -3 , and a column density of approx.4 x 10 17 cm -2 for 12 CO. Thus this small molecular cloud is not typical of the molecular material generally studied in Taurus
Microwave characteristics of low density flaky magnetic particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wenqiang, Zhang, E-mail: zwqzwqzwqzwq@126.com [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Deyuan, Zhang [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Jun, Cai, E-mail: jun_cai@buaa.edu.cn [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)
2013-04-15
Diatomite coated with thin Fe films were obtained by the Chemical Vapor Deposition process. The resultant Fe-coated flaky diatomite particles had low densities (2.7–4.0 g/cm{sup 3}) and high saturation magnetization (93–157 emu/g). Annealing treatment led to grain growth and an increased saturation magnetization. The high frequency properties of the composites consisting of Fe-coated flaky diatomite particles and wax were investigated. The permittivity and permeability increased with increasing flaky magnetic particles content in the composite and increasing the Fe weight percentage of the particles. The reflection loss of the composite was found dependent on the absorber material thickness, wax:flaky magnetic particles ratios, the Fe content, as well as the annealing treatment. At a thickness of 1 mm, the composite records a minimum reflection loss of −18 dB at 6 GHz. - Highlights: ► We synthesize the flaky magnetic particles with the diatomite as template. ► The flaky magnetic particles coating layers are constituted by α-Fe. ► The flaky magnetic particles have good static magnetic properties. ► The flaky magnetic particles are a kind light weight high performance microwave absorber.
Hypersonic Transition and Turbulence with Non-Equilibrium Thermochemistry
2009-08-31
from the literamre. In summary, this AFOSR MURI project has resulted in the production of new knowledge that should significantly improve the accuracy...behavior. The accumulated knowledge and understanding are expected to help development of better dissipation models for compressible flow fields. 2.23.2...8ffipüC<Pressurt Modieung suggestions from physics study <T acautttc Hypersonic Mach numbers Supersonic Mach numbers * skier * *a Subsonic
Airbreathing Hypersonic Systems Focus at NASA Langley Research Center
Hunt, James L.; Rausch, Vincent L.
1998-01-01
This paper presents the status of the airbreathing hypersonic airplane and space-access vehicle design matrix, reflects on the synergies and issues, and indicates the thrust of the effort to resolve the design matrix and to focus/advance systems technology maturation. Priority is given to the design of the vision operational vehicles followed by flow-down requirements to flight demonstrator vehicles and their design for eventual consideration in the Future-X Program.
2012-07-01
Bakelite Hylem F1361, which is a thermosetting plastic consisting of a medium weave fabric reinforced laminate with Melamine resin binder. This composite...can be used for high-speed flow control. The laser ablation was conducted on the aluminium alloy plate inside a pressure chamber, where the
Aggregation and fusion of modified low density lipoprotein.
Pentikäinen, M O; Lehtonen, E M; Kovanen, P T
1996-12-01
In atherogenesis, low density lipoprotein (LDL, diameter 22 nm) accumulates in the extracellular space of the arterial intima in the form of aggregates of lipid droplets (droplet diameter up to 400 nm). Here we studied the effects of various established in vitro LDL modifications on LDL aggregation and fusion. LDL was subjected to vortexing, oxidation by copper ions, proteolysis by alpha-chymotrypsin, lipolysis by sphingomyelinase, and nonenzymatic glycosylation, and was induced to form adducts with malondialdehyde or complexes with anti-apoB-100 antibodies. To assess the amount of enlarged LDL-derived structures formed (due to aggregation or fusion), we measured the turbidity of solutions containing modified LDL, and quantified the proportion of modified LDL that 1) sedimented at low-speed centrifugation (14,000 g), 2) floated at an increased rate at high-speed centrifugation (rate zonal flotation at 285,000 gmax), 3) were excluded in size-exclusion column chromatography (exclusion limit 40 MDa), or 4) failed to enter into 0.5%. Fast Lane agarose gel during electrophoresis. To detect whether particle fusion had contributed to the formation of the enlarged LDL-derived structures, particle morphology was examined using negative staining and thin-section transmission electron microscopy. We found that 1) aggregation was induced by the formation of LDL-antibody complexes, malondialdehyde treatment, and glycosylation of LDL; 2) fusion of LDL was induced by proteolysis of LDL by alpha-chymotrypsin; and 3) aggregation and fusion of LDL were induced by vortexing, oxidation by copper ions, and lipolysis by sphingomyclinase of LDL. The various modifications of LDL differed in their ability to induce aggregation and fusion.
Characterization of injected linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) irradiated by gamma-ray
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, Ana C.F.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Ferreto, Helio F.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate of gamma irradiation effects on linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) injected. Polymers processed by gamma radiation have new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. The ionizing radiation promotes chain scission and creates free radicals which can recombine, providing their annihilation, for crosslinking or branching. The polymer was irradiated with a source of 60 Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at about 5 kGy s -1 rate, at room temperature. The changes in molecular structure of LLDPE were evaluated using melt flow index, gel fraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The results showed that the properties depend on dose irradiation. (author)
Gamma radiation effects on the rheological properties of high and low density polyethylenes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rangel-Nafaile, C.; Garcia-Rejon, A.; Garcia Leon, A.
1986-01-01
High energy radiation of polymeric materials is a topic of considerable interest from commercial and scientific points of view. Within an inert atmosphere, irradiation of polyethylene yields a crosslinking effect with a consequent improvement in its mechanical properties in comparison to the virgin materials. Additionally, if irradiated specimens are melted and recrystallized, the radiation-induced crosslinking hinders their crystalline growth altering dramatically their flow properties such as the elasticity. This work portrays the effects of the gamma radiation on the rheological properties of high and low density polyethylenes manufactured by PEMEX and analyzes the implications of theoretical results derived from the Acierno's model when it is implemented with the rheological properties of high energy irradiated polyethylenes. (author)
Low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen in uranium dioxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakrishna, Palanki; Murty, B.N.; Anuradha, M.; Nageshwara Rao, P.; Jayaraj, R.N.; Ganguly, C.
2000-01-01
Low sintered density and density variation in sintered UO 2 were found to have been caused by non uniformity in the granule feed characteristics to the compacting press. The nitrogen impurity content of sintered UO 2 was found to be sintering furnace related and associated with low sintered density pellets. The problems of low density, variation in sintered density and high nitrogen could be solved by the replacement of the prevailing four punch precompaction by a single punch process; by the introduction of a vibro-sieve for the separation of fine particles from the press feed granules; by innovation in the powder feed shoe design for simultaneous and uniform dispensing of powder in all the die holes; by increasing the final compaction pressure and by modifying the gas flows and preheat temperature in the sintering furnace. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singhal, Pooja [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
2013-12-01
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a rapidly emerging class of smart materials that can be stored in a deformed temporary shape, and can actively return to their original shape upon application of an external stimulus such as heat, pH or light. This behavior is particularly advantageous for minimally invasive biomedical applications comprising embolic/regenerative scaffolds, as it enables a transcatheter delivery of the device to the target site. The focus of this work was to exploit this shape memory behavior of polyurethanes, and develop an efficient embolic SMP foam device for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms.In summary, this work reports a novel family of ultra low density polymer foams which can be delivered via a minimally invasive surgery to the aneurysm site, actuated in a controlled manner to efficiently embolize the aneurysm while promoting physiological fluid/blood flow through the reticulated/open porous structure, and eventually biodegrade leading to complete healing of the vasculature.
Effect of surface roughness on the heating rates of large-angled hypersonic blunt cones
Irimpan, Kiran Joy; Menezes, Viren
2018-03-01
Surface-roughness caused by the residue of an ablative Thermal Protection System (TPS) can alter the turbulence level and surface heating rates on a hypersonic re-entry capsule. Large-scale surface-roughness that could represent an ablated TPS, was introduced over the forebody of a 120° apex angle blunt cone, in order to test for its influence on surface heating rates in a hypersonic freestream of Mach 8.8. The surface heat transfer rates measured on smooth and roughened models under the same freestream conditions were compared. The hypersonic flow-fields of the smooth and rough-surfaced models were visualized to analyse the flow physics. Qualitative numerical simulations and pressure measurements were carried out to have an insight into the high-speed flow physics. Experimental observations under moderate Reynolds numbers indicated a delayed transition and an overall reduction of 17-46% in surface heating rates on the roughened model.
Second-mode control in hypersonic boundary layers over assigned complex wall impedance
Sousa, Victor; Patel, Danish; Chapelier, Jean-Baptiste; Scalo, Carlo
2017-11-01
The durability and aerodynamic performance of hypersonic vehicles greatly relies on the ability to delay transition to turbulence. Passive aerodynamic flow control devices such as porous acoustic absorbers are a very attractive means to damp ultrasonic second-mode waves, which govern transition in hypersonic boundary layers under idealized flow conditions (smooth walls, slender geometries, small angles of attack). The talk will discuss numerical simulations modeling such absorbers via the time-domain impedance boundary condition (TD-IBC) approach by Scalo et al. in a hypersonic boundary layer flow over a 7-degree wedge at freestream Mach numbers M∞ = 7.3 and Reynolds numbers Rem = 1.46 .106 . A three-parameter impedance model tuned to the second-mode waves is tested first with varying resistance, R, and damping ratio, ζ, revealing complete mode attenuation for R workers at DLR-Göttingen.
Navier-Stokes structure of merged layer flow on the spherical nose of a space vehicle
Jain, A. C.; Woods, G. H.
1988-01-01
Hypersonic merged layer flow on the forepart of a spherical surface of a space vehicle has been investigated on the basis of the full steady-state Navier-Stokes equations using slip and temperature jump boundary conditions at the surface and free-stream conditions far from the surface. The shockwave-like structure was determined as part of the computations. Using an equivalent body concept, computations were carried out under conditions that the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) Vehicle would encounter at 15 and 20 seconds in its flight path. Emphasis was placed on understanding the basic nature of the flow structure under low density conditions. Particular attention was paid to the understanding of the structure of the outer shockwave-like region as the fluid expands around the sphere. Plots were drawn for flow profiles and surface characteristics to understand the role of dissipation processes in the merged layer of the spherical nose of the vehicle.
Combining Ratio Estimation for Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Coding
Mahmoud, Saad; Hi, Jianjun
2012-01-01
The Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Code decoding algorithm make use of a scaled receive signal derived from maximizing the log-likelihood ratio of the received signal. The scaling factor (often called the combining ratio) in an AWGN channel is a ratio between signal amplitude and noise variance. Accurately estimating this ratio has shown as much as 0.6 dB decoding performance gain. This presentation briefly describes three methods for estimating the combining ratio: a Pilot-Guided estimation method, a Blind estimation method, and a Simulation-Based Look-Up table. The Pilot Guided Estimation method has shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of signal amplitude is the mean inner product of the received sequence and the known sequence, the attached synchronization marker (ASM) , and signal variance is the difference of the mean of the squared received sequence and the square of the signal amplitude. This method has the advantage of simplicity at the expense of latency since several frames worth of ASMs. The Blind estimation method s maximum likelihood estimator is the average of the product of the received signal with the hyperbolic tangent of the product combining ratio and the received signal. The root of this equation can be determined by an iterative binary search between 0 and 1 after normalizing the received sequence. This method has the benefit of requiring one frame of data to estimate the combining ratio which is good for faster changing channels compared to the previous method, however it is computationally expensive. The final method uses a look-up table based on prior simulated results to determine signal amplitude and noise variance. In this method the received mean signal strength is controlled to a constant soft decision value. The magnitude of the deviation is averaged over a predetermined number of samples. This value is referenced in a look up table to determine the combining ratio that prior simulation associated with the average magnitude of
Modification of low-density lipoprotein by different radioiodination methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobal, G.; Resch, U.; Sinzinger, H.
2004-01-01
Scintigraphic imaging of radiolabeled low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is an interesting tool for the understanding of its role in pathomechanism of atherosclerosis. Metabolism of native LDL shows quite different pattern and kinetics as compared to that of modified LDL which is not mediated by classical LDL-receptor and accumulates in atherosclerotic lesions to form lipid-laden foam cells. Therefore we were interested whether radiolabelling of LDL induces structural modifications. We performed the iodine labeling of LDL for scintigraphic imaging of atherosclerosis by three different methods: chloramine-T (A), iodine monochloride (B) and iodogen (C). The highest radiolabelling yield of 125 I was obtained by the iodogen method (75.44±13.52%) and the lowest (49.01±12.74%) by iodine monochloride. Chloramine T showed a labeling yield of 62.82±6.17%. The stability of the tracer was very high with all the methods, persisting up to 6 h (98.83±1.2% - 91.38±4.7%, 15 min vs 6 h after labeling). For the first time we not only investigated the influence of radiolabelling on relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), but also various oxidation parameters such as baseline dienes (BD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), endogenous peroxides (POX) and oxidation resistance in the copper-mediated oxidation system (expressed as lag-time) were measured. Furthermore, oxidation- derived fragmentation of the lipoproteins was examined with SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Data are expressed as % change compared to native LDL before radiolabeling. BD were reduced by 32% using the method (A), but increased by 33% and 47% with the monochloride (B) and iodogen method (C), respectively. The effect on lag-time was comparable for all the three methods, ranging from 25 to 36% reduction in lag-time. TBARS were strongly increased 5-7 fold by all the methods. REM was changed by all three methods. While by methods A and C we have found a moderate increase in REM by 1.75 and 2.0 fold
Numerical simulation of hypersonic flight experiment vehicle
Yamamoto, Yukimitsu; Yoshioka, Minako; 山本 行光; 吉岡 美菜子
1994-01-01
Hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics of Hypersonic FLight EXperiment (HYFLEX vehicle were investigated by numerical simulations using Navier-Stokes CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code of NAL. Numerical results were compared with experimental data obtained at Hypersonic Wind Tunnel at NAL. In order to investigate real flight aerodynamic characteristics. numerical calculations corresponding to the flight conditions suffering from maximum aero thermodynamic heating were also made and the d...
Parametric Analysis of a Hypersonic Inlet using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Oliden, Daniel
For CFD validation, hypersonic flow fields are simulated and compared with experimental data specifically designed to recreate conditions found by hypersonic vehicles. Simulated flow fields on a cone-ogive with flare at Mach 7.2 are compared with experimental data from NASA Ames Research Center 3.5" hypersonic wind tunnel. A parametric study of turbulence models is presented and concludes that the k-kl-omega transition and SST transition turbulence model have the best correlation. Downstream of the flare's shockwave, good correlation is found for all boundary layer profiles, with some slight discrepancies of the static temperature near the surface. Simulated flow fields on a blunt cone with flare above Mach 10 are compared with experimental data from CUBRC LENS hypervelocity shock tunnel. Lack of vibrational non-equilibrium calculations causes discrepancies in heat flux near the leading edge. Temperature profiles, where non-equilibrium effects are dominant, are compared with the dissociation of molecules to show the effects of dissociation on static temperature. Following the validation studies is a parametric analysis of a hypersonic inlet from Mach 6 to 20. Compressor performance is investigated for numerous cowl leading edge locations up to speeds of Mach 10. The variable cowl study showed positive trends in compressor performance parameters for a range of Mach numbers that arise from maximizing the intake of compressed flow. An interesting phenomenon due to the change in shock wave formation for different Mach numbers developed inside the cowl that had a negative influence on the total pressure recovery. Investigation of the hypersonic inlet at different altitudes is performed to study the effects of Reynolds number, and consequently, turbulent viscous effects on compressor performance. Turbulent boundary layer separation was noted as the cause for a change in compressor performance parameters due to a change in Reynolds number. This effect would not be
Examination of uniform momentum zones in hypersonic turbulent boundary layers
Williams, Owen; Helm, Clara; Martin, Pino
2017-11-01
The presence of uniform momentum zones (UMZs) separated by regions of high shear is now well-established in incompressible flows, with the mean number of such zones increasing in a log-linear fashion with Reynolds number. While known to be present in supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers, the properties of these UMZs and the appropriate Reynolds number for comparison with incompressible results have not previously been investigated. A large, previously published DNS database of hypersonic boundary layers is used in this investigation, with Mach numbers up to 12 and wall temperatures from cold to adiabatic, resulting in a wide range of outer layer Reynolds numbers. UMZs are examined using a range of parameters in both conventional inner and semi-local scalings, and Reynolds number trends examined.
Optimal Growth in Hypersonic Boundary Layers
Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan
2016-01-01
The linear form of the parabolized linear stability equations is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, nonmodal disturbance growth in boundary-layer flows. This paper investigates the optimal growth characteristics in the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high-enthalpy effects. The influence of wall cooling is studied, with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the spanwise wave number that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary-layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous- inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. Using the full Navier-Stokes mean flow is shown to result in further reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on the self-similar approximation to the base flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishito, Hiroyuki
1988-01-01
In order to evaluate the diagnostic value of low density in liver on computed tomography (CT), CT scans of 11 patients with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH) were compared with those from 22 cirrhotic patients, two patients with scarred liver and 16 normal subjects. Low densities on plain CT scans in patients with IPH were distinctly different from those observed in normal liver. Some of the low densities had irregular shape with unclear margin and were scattered near the liver surface, and others had vessel-like structures with unclear margin and extended as far as near the liver surface. Ten of the 11 patients with IPH had low densities mentioned above, while none of the 22 cirrhotic patients had such low densities. The present results suggest that the presence of low densities in liver on plain CT scan is clinically beneficial in diagnosis of IPH.
Hypersonic modes in nanophononic semiconductors.
Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P
2008-09-05
Frequency gaps and negative group velocities of hypersonic phonon modes in periodically arranged composite semiconductors are presented. Trends and criteria for phononic gaps are discussed using a variety of atomic-level theoretical approaches. From our calculations, the possibility of achieving semiconductor-based one-dimensional phononic structures is established. We present results of the location and size of gaps, as well as negative group velocities of phonon modes in such structures. In addition to reproducing the results of recent measurements of the locations of the band gaps in the nanosized Si/Si{0.4}Ge{0.6} superlattice, we show that such a system is a true one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystal.
Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles
Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain
1997-01-01
This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.
Hypersonic Threats to the Homeland
2017-03-28
ADAM) system . This ground based system protects 7 soldiers against rocket threats and utilizes a 10 kW laser with an effective range out to...early warning systems for response to hypersonic threats . The integration of directed energy defensive systems with Space Based Infrared Sensors (SBIRS...and early warning radars already in operation will save costs. By capitalizing on Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system capabilities
Low-density moderation in the storage of PWR fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcorn, F.M.
1987-01-01
The nuclear criticality safety of PWR fuel storage arrays requires that the potential of low-density moderation within the array be considered. The calculated criticality effect of low-density moderation in a typical PWR fuel assembly array is described in this paper. Calculated reactivity due to low-density moderation can vary significantly between physics codes that have been validated for well moderated systems. The availability of appropriate benchmark experiments for low-density moderation is quite limited; attempts to validate against the one set of suitable experiments at low density have been disappointing. Calculations indicate that a typical array may be unacceptable should the array be subjected to interstitial moderation equivalent to 5 % of full density water. Array parameters (such as spacing and size) will dramatically affect the calculated maximum K-eff at low-density moderation. Administrative and engineered control may be necessary to assure maintenance of safety at low-density moderation. Potential sources for low-density moderation are discussed; in general, accidentally achieving degrees of low-density moderation which might lead to a compromise of safety are not credible. (author)
Cholesterol transfer from normal and atherogenic low density lipoproteins to Mycoplasma membranes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitschelen, J.J.; St Clair, R.W.; Hester, S.H.
1981-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the free cholesterol of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein from cholesterol-fed nonhuman primates has a greater potential for surface transfer to cell membranes than does the free cholesterol of normal low density lipoprotein. The low density lipoproteins were isolated from normal and hypercholesterolemic rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys, incubated with membranes from Acholeplasma laidlawii, a mycoplasma species devoid of cholesterol in its membranes, and the mass transfer of free cholesterol determined by measuring membrane cholesterol content. Since these membranes neither synthesize nor esterify cholesterol, nor degrade the protein or cholesterol ester moieties of low density lipoprotein, they are an ideal model with which to study differences in the cholesterol transfer potential of low density lipoprotein independent of the uptake of the intact low density lipoprotein particle. These studies indicate that, even though there are marked differences in the cholesterol composition of normal and hypercholesterolemic low density lipoproteins, this does not result in a greater chemical potential for surface transfer of free cholesterol. Consequently, if a difference in the surface transfer of free cholesterol is responsible for the enhanced ability of hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein to promote cellular cholesterol accumulation and, perhaps, also atherosclerosis, it must be the result of differences in the interaction to the hypercholesterolemic low density lipoprotein with the more complicated mammalian cell membranes, rather than differences in the chemical potential for cholesterol transfer
Low-density lipoprotein apheresis: an evidence-based analysis.
2007-01-01
To assess the effectiveness and safety of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis performed with the heparin-induced extracorporeal LDL precipitation (HELP) system for the treatment of patients with refractory homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). BACKGROUND ON FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA: Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder that is caused by several mutations in the LDL-receptor gene. The reduced number or absence of functional LDL receptors results in impaired hepatic clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) particles, which results in extremely high levels of LDL-C in the bloodstream. Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by excess LDL-C deposits in tendons and arterial walls, early onset of atherosclerotic disease, and premature cardiac death. Familial hypercholesterolemia occurs in both HTZ and HMZ forms. Heterozygous FH is one of the most common monogenic metabolic disorders in the general population, occurring in approximately 1 in 500 individuals. Nevertheless, HTZ FH is largely undiagnosed and an accurate diagnosis occurs in only about 15% of affected patients in Canada. Thus, it is estimated that there are approximately 3,800 diagnosed and 21,680 undiagnosed cases of HTZ FH in Ontario. In HTZ FH patients, half of the LDL receptors do not work properly or are absent, resulting in plasma LDL-C levels 2- to 3-fold higher than normal (range 7-15mmol/L or 300-500mg/dL). Most HTZ FH patients are not diagnosed until middle age when either they or one of their siblings present with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). Without lipid-lowering treatment, 50% of males die before the age of 50 and 25% of females die before the age of 60, from myocardial infarction or sudden death. In contrast to the HTZ form, HMZ FH is rare (occurring in 1 case per million persons) and more severe, with a 6- to 8-fold elevation in plasma LDL-C levels (range 15-25mmol
Effects of shock on hypersonic boundary layer stability
Pinna, F.; Rambaud, P.
2013-06-01
The design of hypersonic vehicles requires the estimate of the laminar to turbulent transition location for an accurate sizing of the thermal protection system. Linear stability theory is a fast scientific way to study the problem. Recent improvements in computational capabilities allow computing the flow around a full vehicle instead of using only simplified boundary layer equations. In this paper, the effect of the shock is studied on a mean flow provided by steady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computations and simplified boundary layer calculations.
Hypersonic aerodynamics on thin bodies with interaction and upstream influence
Smith, F. T.; Khorrami, A. F.
1994-01-01
In the fundamental configuration studied here, a steady hypersonic free stream flows over a thin sharp aligned airfoil or flat plate with a leading-edge shock wave, and the flow field in the shock layer (containing a viscous and an inviscid layer) is steady laminar and two-dimensional, for a perfect gas without real and high-temperature gas effects. The viscous and inviscid layers are analysed and computed simultaneously in the region from the leading edge to the trailing edge, including the ...
Overview of hypersonic CFD code calibration studies
Miller, Charles G.
1987-01-01
The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: definitions of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code validation; climate in hypersonics and LaRC when first 'designed' CFD code calibration studied was initiated; methodology from the experimentalist's perspective; hypersonic facilities; measurement techniques; and CFD code calibration studies.
Status of Turbulence Modeling for Hypersonic Propulsion Flowpaths
Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Yoder, Dennis A.; Vyas, Manan A.; Engblom, William A.
2012-01-01
This report provides an assessment of current turbulent flow calculation methods for hypersonic propulsion flowpaths, particularly the scramjet engine. Emphasis is placed on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) methods, but some discussion of newer meth- ods such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is also provided. The report is organized by considering technical issues throughout the scramjet-powered vehicle flowpath including laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition, shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions, scalar transport modeling (specifically the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers) and compressible mixing. Unit problems are primarily used to conduct the assessment. In the combustor, results from calculations of a direct connect supersonic combustion experiment are also used to address the effects of turbulence model selection and in particular settings for the turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. It is concluded that RANS turbulence modeling shortfalls are still a major limitation to the accuracy of hypersonic propulsion simulations, whether considering individual components or an overall system. Newer methods such as LES-based techniques may be promising, but are not yet at a maturity to be used routinely by the hypersonic propulsion community. The need for fundamental experiments to provide data for turbulence model development and validation is discussed.
Hypersonic Navier Stokes Comparisons to Orbiter Flight Data
Campbell, Charles H.; Nompelis, Ioannis; Candler, Graham; Barnhart, Michael; Yoon, Seokkwan
2009-01-01
Hypersonic chemical nonequilibrium simulations of low earth orbit entry flow fields are becoming increasingly commonplace as software and computational capabilities become more capable. However, development of robust and accurate software to model these environments will always encounter a significant barrier in developing a suite of high quality calibration cases. The US3D hypersonic nonequilibrium Navier Stokes analysis capability has been favorably compared to a number of wind tunnel test cases. Extension of the calibration basis for this software to Orbiter flight conditions will provide an incremental increase in confidence. As part of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment and the Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements project, NASA is performing entry flight testing on the Orbiter to provide valuable aerothermodynamic heating data. An increase in interest related to orbiter entry environments is resulting from this activity. With the advent of this new data, comparisons of the US3D software to the new flight testing data is warranted. This paper will provide information regarding the framework of analyses that will be applied with the US3D analysis tool. In addition, comparisons will be made to entry flight testing data provided by the Orbiter BLT Flight Experiment and HYTHIRM projects. If data from digital scans of the Orbiter windward surface become available, simulations will also be performed to characterize the difference in surface heating between the CAD reference OML and the digitized surface provided by the surface scans.
Absolute measurement of alkaline atoms in low density jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labbe, J.; Guernigou, J.
1974-01-01
In order to determine the neutral fraction of cesium vapor which is not ionized in the beam issuing from an ion thruster, a particular sensor was developed at ONERA. This probe, the sensibility of which is 6 10 7 atoms sec -1 was used in order to measure the variation of cesium atom flux ejected from a spherical isothermal cavity. Experiments were performed in three flow conditions caracterized by the ratio of the mean free path to the dimension of the orifice or to the diameter of the cavity. Results demonstrate that it is possible in this configuration to obtain an efflux of 5 10 13 atoms sec -1 in accordance to cosine law when the mean free path is about the diameter of the spherical cavity [fr
Do Low-Density Diets Improve Broiler Breeder Welfare During Rearing and Laying.
Jong, de I.C.; Enting, H.; Voorst, van A.; Blokhuis, H.J.
2005-01-01
Low-density diets may improve welfare of restricted fed broiler breeders by increasing feed intake time with less frustration of feed intake behavior as a result. Moreover, low-density diets may promote satiety through a more filled gastrointestinal tract, and thus feelings of hunger may be reduced.
Scat-detection dogs survey low density moose in New York
Heidi Kretser; Michale Glennon; Alice Whitelaw; Aimee Hurt; Kristine Pilgrim; Michael Schwartz
2016-01-01
The difficulty of collecting occurrence and population dynamics data in mammalian populations of low density poses challenges for making informed management decisions. We assessed the use of scat-detection dogs to search for fecal pellets in a low density moose (Alces alces) population in the Adirondack Park in New York State, and the success rate of DNA...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos Rosa, D. dos
1991-01-01
The effects of the gamma radiation (of a 60 Co source), over low density polyethylene, isostatic polypropylene and their blends of low density polyethylene / polypropylene were studied. The structures modifications were attended by infrared spectrometry (IV), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), strain-strain measurement, density measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM). (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S; Jensen, H K
1996-01-01
To characterize disease-causing mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene, COS cells are transfected with the mutant gene in an EBV-based expression vector and characterized by flow cytometry. Using antibodies against the LDL-receptor the amount of receptor protein on the cel...
Preliminary Studies on Aerodynamic Control with Direct Current Discharge at Hypersonic Speed
Watanabe, Yasumasa; Takama, Yoshiki; Imamura, Osamu; Watanuki, Tadaharu; Suzuki, Kojiro
A new idea of an aerodynamic control device for hypersonic vehicles using plasma discharges is presented. The effect of DC plasma discharge on a hypersonic flow is examined with both experiments and CFD analyses. It is revealed that the surface pressure upstream of plasma area significantly increases, which would be preferable in realizing a new aerodynamic control devices. Such pressure rise is also observed in the result of analyses of the Navier-Stokes equations with energy addition that simulates the Joule heating of a plasma discharge. It is revealed that the pressure rise due to the existence of the plasma discharge can be qualitatively explained as an effect of Joule heating.
Benson, Thomas J.
1988-01-01
Supersonic external compression inlets are introduced, and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and tests needed to study flow associated with these inlets are outlined. Normal shock wave turbulent boundary layer interaction is discussed. Boundary layer control is considered. Glancing sidewall shock interaction is treated. The CFD validation of hypersonic inlet configurations is explained. Scramjet inlet modules are shown.
Center for Hypersonic Combined Cycle Flow Physics
2015-03-24
LES/RANS, filtered mass density function, reduced chemical kinetics, ignition delay, RCCS, ISAT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...PaSR. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 18 In-situ adaptive tabulation ( ISAT ) and Rate-Controlled Constrained...tabulation ( ISAT ) in PaSR simulations (Hiremath and Pope, 2011). In the past, the lack of an efficient method of identifying the constraint species in
Thermal Nonequilibrium in Hypersonic Separated Flow
2014-12-22
and rotational temperature of nitric oxide and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) point measurements of rotational and vibrational...temperature T∞ [K] 590 165 freestream density ρ∞ [kg/m3] 0.0020 0.0060 freestream velocity u∞ [m/s] 4550 2500 Figure 7 shows the nozzle reservoir
Micromachined Sensors for Hypersonic Flows, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interdisciplinary Consulting Corporation proposes a sensor that offers the unique capability to make wall shear stress measurement and pressure measurements for time...
X-43 Hypersonic Vehicle Technology Development
Voland, Randall T.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; McClinton, Charles R.
2005-01-01
NASA recently completed two major programs in Hypersonics: Hyper-X, with the record-breaking flights of the X-43A, and the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program. The X-43A flights, the culmination of the Hyper-X Program, were the first-ever examples of a scramjet engine propelling a hypersonic vehicle and provided unique, convincing, detailed flight data required to validate the design tools needed for design and development of future operational hypersonic airbreathing vehicles. Concurrent with Hyper-X, NASA's NGLT Program focused on technologies needed for future revolutionary launch vehicles. The NGLT was "competed" by NASA in response to the President s redirection of the agency to space exploration, after making significant progress towards maturing technologies required to enable airbreathing hypersonic launch vehicles. NGLT quantified the benefits, identified technology needs, developed airframe and propulsion technology, chartered a broad University base, and developed detailed plans to mature and validate hypersonic airbreathing technology for space access. NASA is currently in the process of defining plans for a new Hypersonic Technology Program. Details of that plan are not currently available. This paper highlights results from the successful Mach 7 and 10 flights of the X-43A, and the current state of hypersonic technology.
Supersonic Combustion in Air-Breathing Propulsion Systems for Hypersonic Flight
Urzay, Javier
2018-01-01
Great efforts have been dedicated during the last decades to the research and development of hypersonic aircrafts that can fly at several times the speed of sound. These aerospace vehicles have revolutionary applications in national security as advanced hypersonic weapons, in space exploration as reusable stages for access to low Earth orbit, and in commercial aviation as fast long-range methods for air transportation of passengers around the globe. This review addresses the topic of supersonic combustion, which represents the central physical process that enables scramjet hypersonic propulsion systems to accelerate aircrafts to ultra-high speeds. The description focuses on recent experimental flights and ground-based research programs and highlights associated fundamental flow physics, subgrid-scale model development, and full-system numerical simulations.
Sellers, William L., III; Dwoyer, Douglas L.
1992-01-01
The design of a hypersonic aircraft poses unique challenges to the engineering community. Problems with duplicating flight conditions in ground based facilities have made performance predictions risky. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been proposed as an additional means of providing design data. At the present time, CFD codes are being validated based on sparse experimental data and then used to predict performance at flight conditions with generally unknown levels of uncertainty. This paper will discuss the facility and measurement techniques that are required to support CFD development for the design of hypersonic aircraft. Illustrations are given of recent success in combining experimental and direct numerical simulation in CFD model development and validation for hypersonic perfect gas flows.
Supersonic Combustion of Hydrogen Jets System in Hypersonic Stream
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhapbasbaev, U.K.; Makashev, E.P.
2003-01-01
The data of calculated theoretical investigations of diffusive combustion of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic stream received with Navier-Stokes parabola equations closed by one-para metrical (k-l) model of turbulence and multiply staged mechanism of hydrogen oxidation are given. Combustion mechanisms depending on the operating parameters are discussing. The influences of air stream composition and ways off fuel feed to the length of ignition delay and level quantity of hydrogen bum-out have been defined. The calculated theoretical results of investigations permit to make the next conclusions: 1. The diffusive combustion of the system of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic flow happens in the cellular structures with alternation zones of intensive running of chemical reactions with their inhibition zones. 2. Gas dynamic and heat Mach waves cause a large - scale viscous formation intensifying mixing of fuel with oxidizer. 3. The system ignition of plane supersonic hydrogen jets in hypersonic airy co-flow happens with the formation of normal flame front of hydrogen airy mixture with transition to the diffusive combustion. 4. The presence of active particles in the flow composition initiates the ignition of hydrogen - airy mixture, provides the intensive running of chemical reactions and shortens the length of ignition delay. 5. The supersonic combustion of hydrogel-airy mixture is characterized by two zones: the intensive chemical reactions with an active energy heat release is occurring in the first zone and in the second - a slow hydrogen combustion limited by the mixing of fuel with oxidizer. (author)
Gamma irradiation effects on the grafting of low-density polyethylene with diethyl maleate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Y.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Perera, R.; Silva, P.; Gonzalez, J.
2005-01-01
In this work, a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was grafted with diethyl maleate (DEM) using gamma-rays from a Cobalt-60 source at different absorbed doses and monomer concentrations between 5 and 30 wt.%. This process was carried out in a decalin solution at 10 w/v% to obtain a homogeneous dispersion of the monomer into the polyethylene matrix. It was found that the grafting degree increases with the absorbed doses, as a consequence of the increased amount of energy given to the system, which made the grafting process more favorable. The grafting degree also increases with the concentration of DEM, because a higher concentration makes the insertion easier due to the increased availability of the free monomer. The highest grafting degree was obtained at 200 kGy of absorbed dose and with 30 wt.% of DEM. The melt flow index (MFI) values showed a decreasing trend as the absorbed dose was increased. This fact reveals that crosslinking and grafting are taking place simultaneously, this behavior being remarkable at higher irradiation doses. The results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the initial degradation temperatures remained almost unchanged with the absorbed dose
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Sheng
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the suppression of Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA on the oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and the mRNA and protein expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phospholipase-1 (MAKP-1, VSMCs were treated with HSYA at 10 ?mol/L and/or ox-LDL at 35 mg/L for 48 h. MTT assay was done to measure cell survival rate, flow cytometry to detect cell cycle, reverse transcription PCR and Western blot to detect the expression of ERK1/2 and MAKP-1. When compared to cells treated with ox-LDL alone, the survival rate of cells treated with two reagents was reduced and the proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase significantly increased, with increased MKP-1 expression. The study suggests HSYA can inhibit VSMC proliferation via increasing MKP-1 expression, reducing p-ERK1/2 activity and suppressing cell cycle.
Investigation of the mechanism for penetration of low density lipoprotein into the arterial wall
Glukhova, O. E.; Zyktin, A. A.; Slepchenkov, M. M.
2018-02-01
Currently, the pathology of the cardiovascular system is an extremely urgent problem of fundamental and clinical medicine. These diseases are caused, mainly, by atherosclerotic changes in the wall of blood vessels. The predominant role in the development of atherosclerosis is attributed to the penetration of various kinds of lipoproteins into the arterial intima. In this paper, we in silico investigated the dynamics of the penetration of low density lipoprotein (LDL) through the intercellular gap using molecular modeling methods. The simulation was carried out in the GROMACS software package using a coarse-grained MARTINI model. During investigation we carried out the LDL self-assembly for the first time. The coarse-grained model of LDL was collected from the following molecules: POPC (phosphatidylcholine) - 630 molecules, LPC (lysophosphatidylcholine) - 80 molecules CHOL (cholesterol) - 600 molecules CHYO (cholesteryl oleate) - 1600 molecules TOG (glycerol trioleate) 180 Molecules. The coarse-grained model of the intercellular endothelial gap was based on a model of lipid bilayer consisting of DPPC phospholipids and cholesterol in a percentage ratio of 70% and 30%, respectively. Based on the obtained results, we can predict the mechanism of LDL diffusion. Lipoproteins can be deformed so as to pass through narrow gaps. Our investigations open the way for the research of the behavior dynamics of LDL moving with the blood flow rate when interacting with the intercellular gaps of the endothelial layer of the vessel inner wall.
Study of effects gamma radiation linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) injected
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, Ana Claudia Feitoza de
2014-01-01
The use of package sterilization through gamma radiation aim to reduce the microbiological contamination. The linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) can be obtained by a process in solution, suspension or gaseous phase, depending on the type of the catalyzer used, that can be heterogeneous, or homogeneous, or metallocenes Ziegler-Natta. According to the literature, the gamma radiation presents a high penetration at polymeric materials causing the appearing of scissions, reticulation, and degradation when oxygen presence. This paper were irradiated with 60 Co with 2000 kCi of activity, in presence of air, samples of LLDPE injected. Utilized doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy, and about 5 kGy.h -1 dose rates, at room temperature. After irradiation, the samples were heated for 60 min at 100 deg C to promote recombination and annihilation of residual radicals. For characterization of PEBLD were used methods; Melt flow index, swelling, gel fraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Diffraction (DRX), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), rheological measurements, Scanning Electronic Microscopy and mechanical tests to identify the effects or gamma radiation in polyethylene. (author)
Evaluation of corn husk fibers reinforced recycled low density polyethylene composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Youssef, Ahmed M.; El-Gendy, Ahmed; Kamel, Samir
2015-01-01
Responding to the community demand for disposal of environmental problematic agricultural and polymer waste, composite sheets using recycled low-density polyethylene (R-LDPE) and corn husk fibers were prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. These composites were prepared in different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of powder corn husk with 125 μ particle size based on R-LDPE matrix. Beside the importance of property improvement, an additional incentive was responding to the social demand for the disposal of environmental problematic agricultural waste. The influence of loading rate on R-LDPE crystallization behavior, mechanical, and swilling properties were investigated. Increasing in fiber loading led to increased moduli and tensile strength while hardness was decreased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations indicated that introducing fiber to R-LDPE matrix did not change characteristic peak position. The thermal stability of the prepared composites was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which displayed that the R-LDPE had significantly larger peak heat flow during cooling run than the blank R-LDPE, indicating higher crystallization rates for R-LDPE. The prepared composites materials can be used in packaging applications. - Highlights: • New composite based on recycled LDPE and corn husk fibers has been prepared. • The prepared composite has a benefit of minimizing solid waste problem. • The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR and DSC. • Crystallization behaviors, mechanical and swilling properties of the prepared composites were investigated
Evaluation of corn husk fibers reinforced recycled low density polyethylene composites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Youssef, Ahmed M., E-mail: amyoussef27@yahoo.com [Packing and Packaging Materials Department, National Research Center, Dokki, P.C. 12622, Cairo (Egypt); El-Gendy, Ahmed; Kamel, Samir [Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)
2015-02-15
Responding to the community demand for disposal of environmental problematic agricultural and polymer waste, composite sheets using recycled low-density polyethylene (R-LDPE) and corn husk fibers were prepared by melt compounding and compression molding. These composites were prepared in different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of powder corn husk with 125 μ particle size based on R-LDPE matrix. Beside the importance of property improvement, an additional incentive was responding to the social demand for the disposal of environmental problematic agricultural waste. The influence of loading rate on R-LDPE crystallization behavior, mechanical, and swilling properties were investigated. Increasing in fiber loading led to increased moduli and tensile strength while hardness was decreased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) examinations indicated that introducing fiber to R-LDPE matrix did not change characteristic peak position. The thermal stability of the prepared composites was evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which displayed that the R-LDPE had significantly larger peak heat flow during cooling run than the blank R-LDPE, indicating higher crystallization rates for R-LDPE. The prepared composites materials can be used in packaging applications. - Highlights: • New composite based on recycled LDPE and corn husk fibers has been prepared. • The prepared composite has a benefit of minimizing solid waste problem. • The prepared composites were characterized using XRD, FTIR and DSC. • Crystallization behaviors, mechanical and swilling properties of the prepared composites were investigated.
A local-velocity meter for hypersonic plasma jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nyazev, A.A.; Lerner, N.B.; Svinolupov, K.I.
1985-01-01
This paper describes a system for a resonant laser Doppler meter for the local velocity in a hypersonic plasma flow. Preliminary test results on the prototype are reported for a jet of air containing sodium at 1100 degrees K, air pressure in the working region 20-200 Pa, and jet speed 6-8 km/sec. Measured speeds agree with theoretical predictions. The prototype and the method do not impose constraints on the working conditions but can be extended to wide ranges in temperature and pressure, such as ones in which the line width does not exceed the Doppler shift
Regions of low density in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland: normal and pathologic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chambers, E.F.; Turski, P.A.; LaMasters, D.; Newton, T.H.
1982-01-01
The incidence of low-density regions in the contrast-enhanced pituitary gland and the possible causes of these regions were investigated by a retrospective review of computed tomographic (CT) scans of the head in 50 patients and autopsy specimens of the pituitary in 100 other patients. It was found that focal areas of low density within the contrast enhanced pituitary gland can be caused by various normal and pathologic conditions such as pituitary microadenomas, pars intermedia cysts, foci of metastasis, infarcts, epidermoid cysts, and abscesses. Although most focal low-density regions probably represent pituitary microadenomas, careful clinical correlation is needed to establish a diagnosis
Low-density lipoprotein concentration in the normal left coronary artery tree
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louridas George E
2008-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The blood flow and transportation of molecules in the cardiovascular system plays a crucial role in the genesis and progression of atherosclerosis. This computational study elucidates the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL site concentration in the entire normal human 3D tree of the LCA. Methods A 3D geometry model of the normal human LCA tree is constructed. Angiographic data used for geometry construction correspond to end-diastole. The resulted model includes the LMCA, LAD, LCxA and their main branches. The numerical simulation couples the flow equations with the transport equation applying realistic boundary conditions at the wall. Results High concentration of LDL values appears at bifurcation opposite to the flow dividers in the proximal regions of the Left Coronary Artery (LCA tree, where atherosclerosis frequently occurs. The area-averaged normalized luminal surface LDL concentrations over the entire LCA tree are, 1.0348, 1.054 and 1.23, for the low, median and high water infiltration velocities, respectively. For the high, median and low molecular diffusivities, the peak values of the normalized LDL luminal surface concentration at the LMCA bifurcation reach 1.065, 1.080 and 1.205, respectively. LCA tree walls are exposed to a cholesterolemic environment although the applied mass and flow conditions refer to normal human geometry and normal mass-flow conditions. Conclusion The relationship between WSS and luminal surface concentration of LDL indicates that LDL is elevated at locations where WSS is low. Concave sides of the LCA tree exhibit higher concentration of LDL than the convex sides. Decreased molecular diffusivity increases the LDL concentration. Increased water infiltration velocity increases the LDL concentration. The regional area of high luminal surface concentration is increased with increasing water infiltration velocity. Regions of high LDL luminal surface concentration do not necessarily co-locate to the
Improved-Delayed-Detached-Eddy Simulation of cavity-induced transition in hypersonic boundary layer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Lianghua; Xiao, Zhixiang; Duan, Zhiwei; Fu, Song
2015-01-01
Highlights: • This work is about hypersonic cavity-induced transition with IDDES approach. • The length-to-width-to-depth ratio of the cavity is 19.9:3.57:1 at AoA −10° and −15°. • Flow remains laminar at −10°, transition occurs at −15° and cavity changed from open to close type. • Streamwise vortices, impingement shock, traveling shocks and exit shock are observed. • Breakdown of these vortices triggering rapid flow transition. - Abstract: Hypersonic flow transition from laminar to turbulent due to the surface irregularities, like local cavities, can greatly affect the surface heating and skin friction. In this work, the hypersonic flows over a three-dimensional rectangular cavity with length-to-width-to-depth ratio, L:W:D, of 19.9:3.57:1 at two angles of attack (AoA) were numerically studied with Improved-Delayed-Detached-Eddy Simulation (IDDES) method to highlight the mechanism of transition triggered by the cavity. The present approach was firstly applied to the transonic flow over M219 rectangular cavity. The results, including the fluctuating pressure and frequency, agreed with experiment well. In the hypersonic case at Mach number about 9.6 the cavity is seen as “open” at AoA of −10° but “closed” at AoA of −15° unconventional to the two-dimensional cavity case where the flow always exhibits closed cavity feature when the length-to-depth ratio L/D is larger than 14. For the open cavity flow, the shear layer is basically steady and the flow maintains laminar. For the closed cavity case, the external flow goes into the cavity and impinges on the bottom floor. High intensity streamwise vortices, impingement shock and exit shock are observed causing breakdown of these vortices triggering rapid flow transition
Nonlinear evolution of Mack modes in a hypersonic boundary layer
Chokani, Ndaona
2005-01-01
In hypersonic boundary layer flows the nonlinear disturbance evolution occurs relatively slowly over a very long length scale and has a profound effect on boundary layer transition. In the case of low-level freestream disturbances and negligible surface roughness, the transition is due to the modal growth of exponentially growing Mack modes that are destabilized by wall cooling. Cross-bicoherence measurements, derived from hot-wire data acquired in a quiet hypersonic tunnel, are used to identify and quantify phase-locked, quadratic sum and difference interactions involving the Mack modes. In the early stages of the nonlinear disturbance evolution, cross-bicoherence measurements indicate that the energy exchange between the Mack mode and the mean flow first occurs to broaden the sidebands; this is immediately followed by a sum interaction of the Mack mode to generate the first harmonic. In the next stages of the nonlinear disturbance evolution, there is a difference interaction of the first harmonic, which is also thought to contribute to the mean flow distortion. This difference interaction, in the latter stages, is also accompanied by a difference interaction between Mack mode and first harmonic, and a sum interaction, which forces the second harmonic. Analysis using the digital complex demodulation technique, shows that the low-frequency, phase-locked interaction that is identified in the cross bicoherence when the Mack mode and first harmonic have large amplitudes, arises due to the amplitude modulation of Mack mode and first harmonic.
Fluorocarbon seal replaces metal piston ring in low density gas environment
Morath, W. D.; Morgan, N. E.
1967-01-01
Reinforced fluorocarbon cupseal, which provides an integral lip-type seal, replaces the metal piston rings in piston-cylinder configurations used in the compression of low density gases. The fluorocarbon seal may be used as cryogenic compressor piston seals.
Development of Low Density CaMg-A1-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses (Preprint)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Senkov, O. N; Scott, J. M; Miracle, D. B
2006-01-01
Low density Ca-Mg-Al-based bulk metallic glasses containing additionally Cu and Zn, were produced by a copper mold casting method as wedge-shaped samples with thicknesses varying from 0.5 mm to 10 rom...
Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook Salmon
Joseph R. Benjamin; J. Ryan Bellmore; Grace A. Watson
2016-01-01
Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to salmon runs. We explored whether low densities...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Trilayer low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were prepared by incorporating varying concentrations of thyme oil, as the antifungal active additive for avocado packaging. A comprehensive thermal, structural, mechanical, and functional...
Abbas, L.K.; Rui, X.; Marzocca, P.; Abdalla, M.; De Breuker, R.
2011-01-01
In this paper, the effect of the system parameters on the flutter of a curved skin panel forced by a supersonic/hypersonic unsteady flow is numerically investigated. The aeroelastic model investigated includes the third-order piston theory aerodynamics for modeling the flow-induced forces and the
Obtention of scintillography images by low density lipoproteins labelled with technetium 99
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, S.; Coelho, I.; Zanardo, E.; Pileggi, F.; Meneguethi, C.; Maranhao, R.C.
1992-01-01
The low density lipoproteins carry the most part of the cholesterol in the blood plasma. These lipoproteins are labelled with technetium-99-m and have been used for obtaining images in nuclear medicine. The introduction of this technique is presented, aiming futures clinical uses. Scintillographic images are obtained 25 minutes and 24 hours after the injection of 3 m Ci of low density lipoproteins - technetium-99 m in rabbits. (C.G.C.)
A review of low density porous materials used in laser plasma experiments
Nagai, Keiji; Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Nazarov, Wigen
2018-03-01
This review describes and categorizes the synthesis and properties of low density porous materials, which are commonly referred to as foams and are utilized for laser plasma experiments. By focusing a high-power laser on a small target composed of these materials, high energy and density states can be produced. In the past decade or so, various new target fabrication techniques have been developed by many laboratories that use high energy lasers and consequently, many publications and reviews followed these developments. However, the emphasis so far has been on targets that did not utilize low density porous materials. This review therefore, attempts to redress this balance and endeavors to review low density materials used in laser plasma experiments in recent years. The emphasis of this review will be on aspects of low density materials that are of relevance to high energy laser plasma experiments. Aspects of low density materials such as densities, elemental compositions, macroscopic structures, nanostructures, and characterization of these materials will be covered. Also, there will be a brief mention of how these aspects affect the results in laser plasma experiments and the constrictions that these requirements put on the fabrication of low density materials relevant to this field. This review is written from the chemists' point of view to aid physicists and the new comers to this field.
IMPROVING GLOBALlAND30 ARTIFICIAL TYPE EXTRACTION ACCURACY IN LOW-DENSITY RESIDENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Hou
2016-06-01
Full Text Available GlobalLand 30 is the first 30m resolution land cover product in the world. It covers the area within 80°N and 80°S. There are ten classes including artificial cover, water bodies, woodland, lawn, bare land, cultivated land, wetland, sea area, shrub and snow,. The TM imagery from Landsat is the main data source of GlobalLand 30. In the artificial surface type, one of the omission error happened on low-density residents’ part. In TM images, hash distribution is one of the typical characteristics of the low-density residents, and another one is there are a lot of cultivated lands surrounded the low-density residents. Thus made the low-density residents part being blurred with cultivated land. In order to solve this problem, nighttime light remote sensing image is used as a referenced data, and on the basis of NDBI, we add TM6 to calculate the amount of surface thermal radiation index TR-NDBI (Thermal Radiation Normalized Difference Building Index to achieve the purpose of extracting low-density residents. The result shows that using TR-NDBI and the nighttime light remote sensing image are a feasible and effective method for extracting low-density residents’ areas.
Hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang-yu Zhang
2015-12-01
Full Text Available To improve the tracking accuracy of hypersonic sliding target in near space, the influence of target hypersonic movement on radar detection and tracking is analyzed, and an IMM tracking algorithm is proposed based on radial velocity compensating and cancellation processing of high dynamic biases under the earth centered earth fixed (ECEF coordinate. Based on the analysis of effect of target hypersonic movement, a measurement model is constructed to reduce the filter divergence which is caused by the model mismatch. The high dynamic biases due to the target hypersonic movement are approximately compensated through radial velocity estimation to achieve the hypersonic target tracking at low systematic biases in near space. The high dynamic biases are further eliminated by the cancellation processing of different radars, in which the track association problem can be solved when the dynamic biases are low. An IMM algorithm based on constant acceleration (CA, constant turning (CT and Singer models is used to achieve the hypersonic sliding target tracking in near space. Simulation results show that the target tracking in near space can be achieved more effectively by using the proposed algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jian, Han; Nan, Jiang
2008-01-01
Experimental measurement of hypersonic boundary layer stability and transition on a sharp cone with a half angle of 5° is carried out at free-coming stream Mach number 6 in a hypersonic wind tunnel. Mean and fluctuation surface-thermal-flux characteristics of the hypersonic boundary layer flow are measured by Pt-thin-film thermocouple temperature sensors installed at 28 stations on the cone surface along longitudinal direction. At hypersonic speeds, the dominant flow instabilities demonstrate that the growth rate of the second mode tends to exceed that of the low-frequency mode. Wavelet-based cross-spectrum technique is introduced to obtain the multi-scale cross-spectral characteristics of the fluctuating signals in the frequency range of the second mode. Nonlinear interactions both of the second mode disturbance and the first mode disturbance are demonstrated to be dominant instabilities in the initial stage of laminar-turbulence transition for hypersonic shear flow. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Recombination Catalysts for Hypersonic Fuels
Chinitz, W.
1998-01-01
The goal of commercially-viable access to space will require technologies that reduce propulsion system weight and complexity, while extracting maximum energy from the products of combustion. This work is directed toward developing effective nozzle recombination catalysts for the supersonic and hypersonic aeropropulsion engines used to provide such access to space. Effective nozzle recombination will significantly reduce rk=le length (hence, propulsion system weight) and reduce fuel requirements, further decreasing the vehicle's gross lift-off weight. Two such catalysts have been identified in this work, barium and antimony compounds, by developing chemical kinetic reaction mechanisms for these materials and determining the engine performance enhancement for a typical flight trajectory. Significant performance improvements are indicated, using only 2% (mole or mass) of these compounds in the combustor product gas.
Qiu, Huacheng; Min, Fu; Zhong, Shaolong; Song, Xin; Yang, Yanguang
2018-03-01
Force measurements using wind tunnel balance are necessary for determining a variety of aerodynamic performance parameters, while the harsh environment in hypersonic flows requires that the measurement instrument should be reliable and robust, in against strong electromagnetic interference, high vacuum, or metal (oxide) dusts. In this paper, we demonstrated a three-component internal balance for hypersonic aerodynamic force measurements, using novel optical micromachined Fabry-Perot interferometric (FPI) strain gauges as sensing elements. The FPI gauges were fabricated using Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) surface and bulk fabrication techniques. High-reflectivity coatings are used to form a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity, which benefits a high resolution. Antireflective and passivation coatings are used to reduce unwanted interferences. The FPI strain gauge based balance has been calibrated and evaluated in a Mach 5 hypersonic flow. The results are compared with the traditional technique using the foil resistive strain gauge balance, indicating that the proposed balance based on the MOEMS FPI strain gauge is reliable and robust and is potentially suitable for the hypersonic wind tunnel harsh environment.
Wind-Tunnel Balance Characterization for Hypersonic Research Applications
Lynn, Keith C.; Commo, Sean A.; Parker, Peter A.
2012-01-01
Wind-tunnel research was recently conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center s 31-Inch Mach 10 Hypersonic Facility in support of the Mars Science Laboratory s aerodynamic program. Researchers were interested in understanding the interaction between the freestream flow and the reaction control system onboard the entry vehicle. A five-component balance, designed for hypersonic testing with pressurized flow-through capability, was used. In addition to the aerodynamic forces, the balance was exposed to both thermal gradients and varying internal cavity pressures. Historically, the effect of these environmental conditions on the response of the balance have not been fully characterized due to the limitations in the calibration facilities. Through statistical design of experiments, thermal and pressure effects were strategically and efficiently integrated into the calibration of the balance. As a result of this new approach, researchers were able to use the balance continuously throughout the wide range of temperatures and pressures and obtain real-time results. Although this work focused on a specific application, the methodology shown can be applied more generally to any force measurement system calibration.
Low density lesion in solid mass on CT: Pathologic change and housfield number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Tae Il; Lim, Joo Won; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Ko, Young Tae; Song, Mi Jin; Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie
1994-01-01
We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic changes and housfield unit of the low density lesion in solid mass on CT. Pathologically proved solid mass was evaluated in regard to the shape and margin of the low density in the mass on the CT scans of 23 patient. The CT number of the low density lesion was correlated with the pathologic changes. Pathologic changes of the low density lesions were; necrosis (n=17), hemorrhage (n=13), cyst (n=4), myxoid degeneration (n=2), hyaline degeneration (n=1), fibrosis (n=1), and mixed cellularity (n=1). In 14 cases, more than 2 pathologic changes were seen. In 11 cases, necrosis was associated with hemorrhage. The CT number ranged from 11.5 to 44.9 Housfield unit(HU) (mean, 25.2 HU). The average CT number was 26.9 HU in hemorrhage and necrosis, 17.2 HU in cystic change, 20.9 HU in myxoid degeneration, 35.7 HU in hyaline de generation, 22.3 HU in fibrosis, and 21.4 HU in mixed cellularity. The hemorrhage and necrosis in 17 cases showed irregular margin, amorphous shape, and showed centrifugal distribution. The cystic change in 4 cases showed well defined margin, round shape, and peripheral location in solid mass. The low density lesions in solid mass on CT represented variable pathologic changes; necrosis, hemorrhage, cyst, myxoid degeneration, hyaline degeneration, fibrosis, and mixed cellularity. Pathologic changes would not be differentiated on the basis of CT number
A QMU approach for characterizing the operability limits of air-breathing hypersonic vehicles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iaccarino, Gianluca; Pecnik, Rene; Glimm, James; Sharp, David
2011-01-01
The operability limits of a supersonic combustion engine for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle are characterized using numerical simulations and an uncertainty quantification methodology. The time-dependent compressible flow equations with heat release are solved in a simplified configuration. Verification, calibration and validation are carried out to assess the ability of the model to reproduce the flow/thermal interactions that occur when the engine unstarts due to thermal choking. quantification of margins and uncertainty (QMU) is used to determine the safe operation region for a range of fuel flow rates and combustor geometries. - Highlights: → In this work we introduce a method to study the operability limits of hypersonic scramjet engines. → The method is based on a calibrated heat release model. → It accounts explicitly for uncertainties due to flight conditions and model correlations. → We examine changes due to the combustor geometry and fuel injection.
Weakly Ionized Plasmas in Hypersonics: Fundamental Kinetics and Flight Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macheret, Sergey
2005-01-01
The paper reviews some of the recent studies of applications of weakly ionized plasmas to supersonic/hypersonic flight. Plasmas can be used simply as means of delivering energy (heating) to the flow, and also for electromagnetic flow control and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation. Plasma and MHD control can be especially effective in transient off-design flight regimes. In cold air flow, nonequilibrium plasmas must be created, and the ionization power budget determines design, performance envelope, and the very practicality of plasma/MHD devices. The minimum power budget is provided by electron beams and repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulses, and the paper describes theoretical and computational modeling of plasmas created by the beams and repetitive pulses. The models include coupled equations for non-local and unsteady electron energy distribution function (modeled in forward-back approximation), plasma kinetics, and electric field. Recent experimental studies at Princeton University have successfully demonstrated stable diffuse plasmas sustained by repetitive nanosecond pulses in supersonic air flow, and for the first time have demonstrated the existence of MHD effects in such plasmas. Cold-air hypersonic MHD devices are shown to permit optimization of scramjet inlets at Mach numbers higher than the design value, while operating in self-powered regime. Plasma energy addition upstream of the inlet throat can increase the thrust by capturing more air (Virtual Cowl), or it can reduce the flow Mach number and thus eliminate the need for an isolator duct. In the latter two cases, the power that needs to be supplied to the plasma would be generated by an MHD generator downstream of the combustor, thus forming the 'reverse energy bypass' scheme. MHD power generation on board reentry vehicles is also discussed
Computational Study of Hypersonic Boundary Layer Stability on Cones
Gronvall, Joel Edwin
Due to the complex nature of boundary layer laminar-turbulent transition in hypersonic flows and the resultant effect on the design of re-entry vehicles, there remains considerable interest in developing a deeper understanding of the underlying physics. To that end, the use of experimental observations and computational analysis in a complementary manner will provide the greatest insights. It is the intent of this work to provide such an analysis for two ongoing experimental investigations. The first focuses on the hypersonic boundary layer transition experiments for a slender cone that are being conducted at JAXA's free-piston shock tunnel HIEST facility. Of particular interest are the measurements of disturbance frequencies associated with transition at high enthalpies. The computational analysis provided for these cases included two-dimensional CFD mean flow solutions for use in boundary layer stability analyses. The disturbances in the boundary layer were calculated using the linear parabolized stability equations. Estimates for transition locations, comparisons of measured disturbance frequencies and computed frequencies, and a determination of the type of disturbances present were made. It was found that for the cases where the disturbances were measured at locations where the flow was still laminar but nearly transitional, that the highly amplified disturbances showed reasonable agreement with the computations. Additionally, an investigation of the effects of finite-rate chemistry and vibrational excitation on flows over cones was conducted for a set of theoretical operational conditions at the HIEST facility. The second study focuses on transition in three-dimensional hypersonic boundary layers, and for this the cone at angle of attack experiments being conducted at the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 quiet tunnel at Purdue University were examined. Specifically, the effect of surface roughness on the development of the stationary crossflow instability are investigated
Three cases of acute encephalopathy with low density areas in the occipital lobes on CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Masako; Nakano, Chizuko; Takakura, Hiroki; Otani, Kyoichi.
1985-01-01
Three female infants with acute encephalopathy (aged from 5 months to 1 year and 8 months) are presented in whom peculiar features were obtained on cranial CT. Disturbances of consciousness and spasm were seen in all patients. Although two patients had been in good health until the onset, the other patient had had nodular sclerosis. Laboratory data showed no evidence of inflammation in the spinal fluid, but increased levels of transaminase and LDH. CT around 7 days after the onset revealed diffuse low density areas. This was noted in the temporal and occipital lobes, mainly resulting from edema. Follow-up CT examinations revealed localized low density areas corresponding to the surface area, being probably attributable to disturbances of the arterial and venous circulations. In two patients with severe disturbances of consciousness, low density areas became more marked with time. (Namekawa, K.)
Analysis of compaction shock interactions during DDT of low density HMX
Rao, Pratap T.; Gonthier, Keith A.
2017-01-01
Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition (DDT) in confined, low density granular HMX occurs by a complex mechanism that involves compaction shock interactions within the material. Piston driven DDT experiments indicate that detonation is abruptly triggered by the interaction of a strong combustion-supported secondary shock and a piston-supported primary (input) shock, where the nature of the interaction depends on initial packing density and primary shock strength. These interactions influence transition by affecting dissipative heating within the microstructure during pore collapse. Inert meso-scale simulations of successive shock loading of low density HMX are performed to examine how dissipation and hot-spot formation are affected by the initial density, and the primary and secondary shock strengths. This information is used to formulate an ignition and burn model for low density HMX that accounts for the effect of shock densensitization on burn. Preliminary DDT predictions are presented that illustrate how primary shock strength affects the transition mechanism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scarabottolo, Lia; Trezzi, Ermanno; Roma, Paola; Catapano, A.L.
1986-01-01
The effect of exprimental hypothyroidism of the catabolism of plasma lipoproteins and on the expression of low density lipoprotein receptors by the liver was investigated in rats made hypothyroid by surgery. The animals developed mild hypercholesterolemia, mainly due to an increase of plasma low density lipoprotein, while other lipoprotein classes were only marginally affected. Kinetic studies using ( 125 I)LDL indicated that a decreased fractional catabolic rate of the lipoprotein was responsible for this finding in agreement with the in vitro observation of a reduced binding of lipoproteins to liver membranes from hyperthyroid rats and with the demonstrations, by ligand blotting analysis, of a decreasd expression of lipoprotein receptors in liver membranes. These data suggest that hypothyroidism affects lipoprotein distribution also by decreasing the catabolism of low density lipoproteins by the liver (author)
Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice
Perakis, Fivos; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Lehmkühler, Felix; Sprung, Michael; Mariedahl, Daniel; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Pathak, Harshad; Späh, Alexander; Cavalca, Filippo; Schlesinger, Daniel; Ricci, Alessandro; Jain, Avni; Massani, Bernhard; Aubree, Flora; Benmore, Chris J.; Loerting, Thomas; Grübel, Gerhard; Pettersson, Lars G. M.; Nilsson, Anders
2017-08-01
Water exists in high- and low-density amorphous ice forms (HDA and LDA), which could correspond to the glassy states of high- (HDL) and low-density liquid (LDL) in the metastable part of the phase diagram. However, the nature of both the glass transition and the high-to-low-density transition are debated and new experimental evidence is needed. Here we combine wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) with X-ray photon-correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) in the small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) geometry to probe both the structural and dynamical properties during the high-to-low-density transition in amorphous ice at 1 bar. By analyzing the structure factor and the radial distribution function, the coexistence of two structurally distinct domains is observed at T = 125 K. XPCS probes the dynamics in momentum space, which in the SAXS geometry reflects structural relaxation on the nanometer length scale. The dynamics of HDA are characterized by a slow component with a large time constant, arising from viscoelastic relaxation and stress release from nanometer-sized heterogeneities. Above 110 K a faster, strongly temperature-dependent component appears, with momentum transfer dependence pointing toward nanoscale diffusion. This dynamical component slows down after transition into the low-density form at 130 K, but remains diffusive. The diffusive character of both the high- and low-density forms is discussed among different interpretations and the results are most consistent with the hypothesis of a liquid-liquid transition in the ultraviscous regime.
Low Density Symmetry Energy Effects and the Neutron Star Crust Properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubis, S.; Alvarez-Castillo, D.E.; Porebska, J.
2010-01-01
The form of the nuclear symmetry energy E s around saturation point density leads to a different crust-core transition point in the neutron star and affects the crust properties. We show that the knowledge of E s close to the saturation point is not sufficient to determine the position of the transition point and the very low density behaviour is required. We also claim that crust properties are strongly influenced by the very high density behaviour of E s , so in order to conclude about the form of low density part of the symmetry energy from astrophysical data one must isolate properly the high density part. (authors)
Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry
Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.
2014-01-01
Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight
Surface Heat Flux and Pressure Distribution on a Hypersonic Blunt Body With DEAS
Salvador, I. I.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Oliveira, A. C.; Channes, J. B.
2008-04-01
With the currently growing interest for advanced technologies to enable hypersonic flight comes the Direct Energy Air Spike concept, where pulsed beamed laser energy is focused upstream of a blunt flight vehicle to disrupt the flow structure creating a virtual, slender body geometry. This allies in the vehicle both advantages of a blunt body (lower thermal stresses) to that of a slender geometry (lower wave drag). The research conducted at the Henry T. Nagamatsu Laboratory for Aerodynamics and Hypersonics focused on the measurement of the surface pressure and heat transfer rates on a blunt model. The hypersonic flight conditions were simulated at the HTN Laboratory's 0.3 m T2 Hypersonic Shock Tunnel. During the tests, the laser energy was focused upstream the model by an infrared telescope to create the DEAS effect, which was supplied by a TEA CO2 laser. Piezoelectric pressure transducers were used for the pressure measurements and fast response coaxial thermocouples were used for the measurement of surface temperature, which was later used for the estimation of the wall heat transfer using the inverse heat conduction theory.
Improved Dutch Roll Approximation for Hypersonic Vehicle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang-Liang Yin
2014-06-01
Full Text Available An improved dutch roll approximation for hypersonic vehicle is presented. From the new approximations, the dutch roll frequency is shown to be a function of the stability axis yaw stability and the dutch roll damping is mainly effected by the roll damping ratio. In additional, an important parameter called roll-to-yaw ratio is obtained to describe the dutch roll mode. Solution shows that large-roll-to-yaw ratio is the generate character of hypersonic vehicle, which results the large error for the practical approximation. Predictions from the literal approximations derived in this paper are compared with actual numerical values for s example hypersonic vehicle, results show the approximations work well and the error is below 10 %.
Issues Associated with a Hypersonic Maglev Sled
Haney, Joseph W.; Lenzo, J.
1996-01-01
Magnetic levitation has been explored for application from motors to transportation. All of these applications have been at velocities where the physics of the air or operating fluids are fairly well known. Application of Maglev to hypersonic velocities (Mach greater than 5) presents many opportunities, but also issues that require understanding and resolution. Use of Maglev to upgrade the High Speed Test Track at Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo New Mexico is an actual hypersonic application that provides the opportunity to improve test capabilities. However, there are several design issues that require investigation. This paper presents an overview of the application of Maglev to the test track and the issues associated with developing a hypersonic Maglev sled. The focus of this paper is to address the issues with the Maglev sled design, rather than the issues with the development of superconducting magnets of the sled system.
A model for supersonic and hypersonic impactors for nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abouali, Omid; Ahmadi, Goodarz
2005-01-01
In this study the performance of supersonic and hypersonic impactors for collection efficiency of nanoparticles (in the size range of 2-100 nm) under various operating conditions is analyzed. Axisymmetric forms of the compressible Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved and the airflow and thermal condition in the impactor are evaluated. A Lagrangian particle trajectory analysis procedure is used and the deposition rates of different size particles under various operating conditions are studied. For dilute particle concentrations, the assumption of one-way interaction is used and the effect of particles on gas flow field is ignored. The importance of drag, lift and Brownian forces on particle motions in supersonic impactors is discussed. Sensitivity of the simulation results to the use of different assumptions for the Cunningham correction coefficient is studied. It is shown that accurate evaluation of the gas mean free path and the Cunningham correction factor is important for accurate simulation of nano-particle transport and deposition in supersonic/hypersonic impactors. The computer simulation results are compared favorably with the available experimental data
Further analysis of MHD acceleration for a hypersonic wind tunnel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, M.J.; Schmidt, H.J.; Chapman, J.N.
1995-01-01
A previously completed MHD study of the use of an MHD accelerator with seeded air from a state-of-the-art arc heater, was generally hailed as showing that the system studied has some promise of meeting the most critical hypersonic testing requirements. However, some concerns existed about certain aspects of the results. This paper discusses some of these problems and presents analysis of potential solutions. Specifically the problems addressed are; reducing the amount of seed in the flow, reducing test chamber temperatures, and reducing the oxygen dissociation. Modeling techniques are used to study three design variables of the MHD accelerator. The accelerator channel inlet Mach number, the accelerator channel divergence angle, and the magnetic field strength are all studied. These variables are all optimized to meet the goals for seed, temperature, and dissociated oxygen reduction. The results of this paper are encouraging, showing that all three goals can be met. General relationships are observed as to how the design variables affect the performance of the MHD accelerator facility. This paper expands on the results presented in the UTSI report and further supports the feasibility of MHD acceleration as a means to provide hypersonic flight simulation
Shibeshi, Shewaferaw S; Everett, Joseph; Venable, Demetrius D; Collins, William E
2005-01-01
Previous studies indicate that blood flow and transport of macromolecules in the cardiovascular system and tissues are essential to understand the genesis and progression of arterial diseases and for the effective implementation of arterial grafts, as well as to devise efficient drug delivery mechanisms. In the present study, we use computational fluid dynamics to simulate the blood flow and transport of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) in a three-dimensional and permeable T junction. The Navier-Stokes equation, Darcy's Law, and the advective diffusion equations are the mathematical models used to simulate the flow and transport phenomena of the system. In the numeric model to implement the finite volume method, we used the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.1. The simulation shows higher LDL concentration in the luminal surface at the junction under physiologic flow conditions. At 1 mm depth into the artery from the luminal surface, the LDL concentration is approximately 40% of the lumenal concentration, and at 2 mm depth, it reduces to 20%. Ultimately, the concentration drops further and reaches zero at the outer wall boundary.
Study of the coupling between real gas effects and rarefied effects on hypersonic aerodynamics
Chen, Song; Hu, Yuan; Sun, Quanhua
2012-11-01
Hypersonic vehicles travel across the atmosphere at very high speed, and the surrounding gas experiences complicated physical and chemical processes. These processes produce real gas effects at high temperature and rarefied gas effects at high altitude where the two effects are coupled through molecular collisions. In this study, we aim to identify the individual real gas and rarefied gas effects by simulating hypersonic flow over a 2D cylinder, a sphere and a blunted cone using a continuum-based CFD approach and the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. It is found that physical processes such as vibrational excitation and chemical reaction will reduce significantly the shock stand-off distance and flow temperature for flows having small Knudsen number. The calculated skin friction and surface heat flux will decrease when the real gas effects are considered in simulations. The trend, however, gets weakened as the Knudsen number increases. It is concluded that the rarefied gas effects weaken the real gas effects on hypersonic flows.
Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances
Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.
2008-01-01
Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei
2014-01-01
Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...
Effect of methylglyoxal on the physico-chemical and biological properties of low-density lipoprotein
Schalkwijk, C.G.; Vermeer, M.A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Koppele, J. te; Princen, H.M.G.; Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van
1998-01-01
In patients with diabetes, non-enzymatic glycation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been suggested to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. α-Dicarbonyl compounds were identified as intermediates in the non-enzymatic glycation and increased levels were reported in patients with
Genetics, Lifestyle, and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Young and Apparently Healthy Women
Balder, Jan-Willem; Rimbert, Antoine; Zhang, Xiang; Viel, Martijn; Kanninga, Roan; van Dijk, Freerk; Lansberg, Peter; Sinke, Richard; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert
2018-01-01
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis starts in childhood but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), a causal risk factor, is mostly studied and dealt with when clinical events have occurred. Women are usually affected later in life than men and are underdiagnosed, undertreated, and understudied in
Mechanical and electrical properties of low density polyethylene filled with carbon nanotubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabet, Maziyar; Soleimani, Hassan
2014-01-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reveal outstanding electrical and mechanical properties in addition to nanometer scale diameter and high aspect ratio, consequently, making it an ideal reinforcing agent for high strength polymer composites. Low density polyethylene (LDPE)/CNT composites were prepared via melt compounding. Mechanical and electrical properties of (LDPE)/CNT composites with different CNT contents were studied in this research
Identification of the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Scavenger Receptor CD36 in Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Handberg, Aase; Levin, Klaus; Højlund, Kurt
2006-01-01
BACKGROUND: Macrophage CD36 scavenges oxidized low-density lipoprotein, leading to foam cell formation, and appears to be a key proatherogenic molecule. Increased expression of CD36 has been attributed to hyperglycemia and to defective macrophage insulin signaling in insulin resistance. Premature...
THE HI INFRARED LINE SPECTRUM FOR BE STARS WITH LOW-DENSITY DISCS
ZAAL, PA; WATERS, LBFM; MARLBOROUGH, JM
We present theoretical H alpha and HI infrared recombination line calculations for low-density discs around B stars. Such a disc shows no visible emission in H alpha, while the HI IR recombination lines are in emission. This phenomenon has been found in the spectrum of the B0.2V star, tau Sco and
Response of ecosystem metabolism to low densities of spawning Chinook salmon
Benjamin, Joseph R.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Watson, Grace A.
2016-01-01
Marine derived nutrients delivered by large runs of returning salmon are thought to subsidize the in situ food resources that support juvenile salmon. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmon have declined to runs. We explored whether low densities (how recipient ecosystems respond to low levels of marine derived nutrients may inform nutrient augmentation studies aimed at enhancing fish populations.
A note on asymptotic normality in the thermodynamic limit at low densities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J.L.
1991-01-01
We consider a continuous statistical mechanical system with a pair interaction in a region λ tending to infinity. For low densities asymptotic normality of the canonical statistic is proved, both in the grand canonical ensemble and in the canonical ensemble. The results are illustrated through...
Modeling of branching density and branching distribution in low-density polyethylene polymerization
Kim, D.M.; Iedema, P.D.
2008-01-01
Low-density polyethylene (ldPE) is a general purpose polymer with various applications. By this reason, many publications can be found on the ldPE polymerization modeling. However, scission reaction and branching distribution are only recently considered in the modeling studies due to difficulties
Rianasari, I.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter; Huskens, Jurriaan; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard
2013-01-01
We demonstrate the application of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (“click‿ reaction) to couple gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with low densities of functional ligands. The ligand coverage on the citrate-stabilized Au NPs was adjusted by the ligand:Au surface atom ratio, while maintaining
Allijn, Iris E.; Leong, Wei; Tang, Jun; Gianella, Anita; Mieszawska, Aneta J.; Fay, Francois; Ma, Ge; Russell, Stewart; Callo, Catherine B.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Korkmaz, Emine; Post, Jan Andries; Zhao, Yiming; Gerritsen, Hans C.; Thran, Axel; Proksa, Roland; Daerr, Heiner; Storm, Gert; Fuster, Valentin; Fisher, Edward A.; Fayad, Zahi A.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Cormode, David P.
2013-01-01
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a critical role in cholesterol transport and is closely linked to the progression of several diseases. This motivates the development of methods to study LDL behavior from the microscopic to whole-body level. We have developed an approach to efficiently load LDL
Rodenburg, Jessica; Vissers, Maud N.; Wiegman, Albert; Miller, Elizabeth R.; Ridker, Paul M.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Tsimikas, Sotirios
2006-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs) in children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and the effect of pravastatin. BACKGROUND: Oxidized phospholipids are a major component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) and are bound to lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. The
Identifying low density lipoprotein cholesterol associated variants in the Annexin A2 (ANXA2) gene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fairoozy, Roaa Hani; Cooper, Jackie; White, Jon
2017-01-01
Background and aims: Annexin-A2 (AnxA2) is an endogenous inhibitor of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9). The repeat-one (R1) domain of AnxA2 binds to PCSK9, blocking its ability to promote degradation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol-receptors (LDL-R) and thereby regulat...
Determination of charge carrier mobility in doped low density polyethylene using DC transients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khalil, M.Salah; Henk, Peter O; Henriksen, Mogens
1989-01-01
Charge carrier mobility was determined for plain and doped low-density polyethylene (LDPE) using DC transient currents. Barium titanate was used as a strongly polar dopant and titanium dioxide as a semiconductor dopant. The values of the mobility obtained were on the order of 10-10 cm2 v-1 s-1...
Low density lipoprotein : structure, dynamics, and interactions of apoB-100 with lipids
Murtola, T.; Vuorela, T.A.; Hyvönen, M.T.; Marrink, S.J.; Karttunen, M.E.J.; Vattulainen, I.
2011-01-01
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) transports cholesterol in the bloodstream and plays an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases, in particular atherosclerosis. Despite its importance to health, the structure of LDL is not known in detail. This is worrying since the lack of LDL's
Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...
Interaction of laser radiation with a low-density structured absorber
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Rozanov, V. B.; Barishpol’tsev, D.V.; Vergunova, G.A.; Demchenko, N. N.; Ivanov, E.M.; Aristova, E.N.; Zmitrenko, N.V.; Limpouch, I.; Ullschmied, Jiří
2016-01-01
Roč. 122, č. 2 (2016), s. 256-276 ISSN 1063-7761 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser radiation interaction * laser with low-density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.196, year: 2016
Osinski, G. R.; Spray, J. G.
2001-01-01
We present the preliminary results of a detailed investigation of the shock effects in highly shocked, low density sedimentary rocks from the Haughton impact structure. We suggest that some textural features can be explained by carbonate-silicate immiscibility. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.
Human noroviruses cause up to 21 million cases of foodborne disease in the United States annually and are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in industrialized countries. To reduce the burden of foodborne disease associated with viruses, the use of low density DNA microarrays in conjunct...
Detonability of turbulent white dwarf plasma: Hydrodynamical models at low densities
Fenn, Daniel
The origins of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) remain an unsolved problem of contemporary astrophysics. Decades of research indicate that these supernovae arise from thermonuclear runaway in the degenerate material of white dwarf stars; however, the mechanism of these explosions is unknown. Also, it is unclear what are the progenitors of these objects. These missing elements are vital components of the initial conditions of supernova explosions, and are essential to understanding these events. A requirement of any successful SN Ia model is that a sufficient portion of the white dwarf plasma must be brought under conditions conducive to explosive burning. Our aim is to identify the conditions required to trigger detonations in turbulent, carbon-rich degenerate plasma at low densities. We study this problem by modeling the hydrodynamic evolution of a turbulent region filled with a carbon/oxygen mixture at a density, temperature, and Mach number characteristic of conditions found in the 0.8+1.2 solar mass (CO0812) model discussed by Fenn et al. (2016). We probe the ignition conditions for different degrees of compressibility in turbulent driving. We assess the probability of successful detonations based on characteristics of the identified ignition kernels, using Eulerian and Lagrangian statistics of turbulent flow. We found that material with very short ignition times is abundant in the case that turbulence is driven compressively. This material forms contiguous structures that persist over many ignition time scales, and that we identify as prospective detonation kernels. Detailed analysis of the kernels revealed that their central regions are densely filled with material characterized by short ignition times and contain the minimum mass required for self-sustained detonations to form. It is conceivable that ignition kernels will be formed for lower compressibility in the turbulent driving. However, we found no detonation kernels in models driven 87.5 percent
Jiang, Yue-hua; Yang, Chuan-hua; Li, Wei; Wu, Sai; Meng, Xian-qing; Li, Dong-na
2016-03-01
To investigate the role of aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris (TT) against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) dysfunction in vitro. HUVECs were pre-incubated for 60 min with TT (30 and 3 μg/mL respectively) or 10(-5) mol/L valsartan (as positive controls) and then the injured endothelium model was established by applying 100 μg/mL ox-LDL for 24 h. Cell viability of HUVECs was observed by real-time cell electronic sensing assay and apoptosis rate by Annexin V/PI staining. The cell migration assay was performed with a transwell insert system. Cytoskeleton remodeling was observed by immunofluorescence assay. The content of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometer. Key genes associated with the metabolism of ox-LDL were chosen for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to explore the possible mechanism of TT against oxidized LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. TT suppressed ox-LDL-induced HUVEC proliferation and apoptosis rates significantly (41.1% and 43.5% after treatment for 3 and 38 h, respectively; P<0.05). It also prolonged the HUVEC survival time and postponed the cell's decaying stage (from the 69th h to over 100 h). According to the immunofluorescence and transwell insert system assay, TT improved the endothelial cytoskeletal network, and vinculin expression and increased cell migration. Additionally, TT regulated of the synthesis of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (P<0.05). Both 30 and 3 μg/mL TT demonstrated similar efficacy to valsartan. TT normalized the increased mRNA expression of PI3Kα and Socs3. It also decreased mRNA expression of Akt1, AMPKα1, JAK2, LepR and STAT3 induced by ox-LDL. The most notable changes were JAK2, LepR, PI3Kα, Socs3 and STAT3. TT
Maximizing performance in supercritical fluid chromatography using low-density mobile phases.
Gritti, Fabrice; Fogwill, Michael; Gilar, Martin; Jarrell, Joseph A
2016-10-14
The performance of a 3.0mm×150mm column packed with 1.8μm fully porous HSS-SB-C 18 particles was investigated in supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with low-density, highly expansible carbon dioxide. These conditions are selected for the analysis of semi-volatile compounds. Elevated temperatures (>100°C) were then combined with low column back pressures (<100bar). In this work, the inlet temperature of pure carbon dioxide was set at 107°C, the active back pressure regulator (ABPR) pressure was fixed at 100bar, and the flow rate was set at 2.1mL/min at 12°C (liquefied carbon dioxide) and at an inlet column pressure close to 300bar. Nine n-alkylbenzenes (from benzene to octadecylbenzene) were injected under linear (no sample overload) conditions. The severe steepness of the temperature gradients across the column diameter were predicted from a simplified heat transfer model. Such conditions dramatically lower the column performance by affecting the symmetry of the peak shape. In order to cope with this problem, three different approaches were experimentally tested. They include (1) the decoupling and the proper selection of the inlet eluent temperature with respect to the oven temperature, (2) the partial thermal insulation of the column using polyethylene aerogel, and (3) the application of a high vacuum (10 -5 Torr provided by a turbo-molecular pump) in a housing chamber surrounding the whole column body. The results reveal that (1) the column efficiency can be maximized by properly selecting the difference between the eluent and the oven temperatures, (2) the mere wrapping of the column with an excellent insulating material is insufficient to fully eliminate heat exchanges by conduction and the undesirable radial density gradients across the column i.d., and (3) the complete thermal insulation of the SFC column under high vacuum allows to maximize the column efficiency by maintaining the integrity of the peak shape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinath, S; Reddy, K P J
2015-01-01
Different types of Large Carbon Cluster (LCC) layers are synthesized by a single-step pyrolysis technique at various ratios of precursor mixture. The aim is to develop a fast responsive and stable thermal gauge based on a LCC layer which has relatively good electrical conduction in order to use it in the hypersonic flow field. The thermoelectric property of the LCC layer has been studied. It is found that these carbon clusters are sensitive to temperature changes. Therefore suitable thermal gauges were developed for blunt cone bodies and were tested in hypersonic shock tunnels at a flow Mach number of 6.8 to measure aerodynamic heating. The LCC layer of this thermal gauge encounters high shear forces and a hostile environment for test duration in the range of a millisecond. The results are favorable to use large carbon clusters as a better sensor than a conventional platinum thin film gauge in view of fast responsiveness and stability. (paper)
Engineering method for aero-propulsive characteristics at hypersonic Mach numbers
Goradia, Suresh; Torres, Abel O.; Stack, Sharon H.; Everhart, Joel L.
1991-01-01
An engineering method has been developed for the rapid analysis of external aerodynamics and propulsive performance characteristics of airbreathing vehicles at hypersonic Mach numbers. This method, based on the theory of characteristics, has been developed to analyze fuselage-wing body combinations and body flaps with blunt or sharp leading/trailing edges. Arbitrary ratio of specific heat for the flowing medium can be specified in the program. Furthermore, the capability exists in the code to compute the inviscid inlet mass capture and momentum flux. The method is under development for computations of pressure distribution, and flow characteristics in the inlet, along with the effect of viscosity. Correlative studies have been performed for representative hypersonic configurations using the current method. The results of these correlations for various aerodynamics parameters are encouraging.
Efficient Numerical Simulation of Aerothermoelastic Hypersonic Vehicles
Klock, Ryan J.
Hypersonic vehicles operate in a high-energy flight environment characterized by high dynamic pressures, high thermal loads, and non-equilibrium flow dynamics. This environment induces strong fluid, thermal, and structural dynamics interactions that are unique to this flight regime. If these vehicles are to be effectively designed and controlled, then a robust and intuitive understanding of each of these disciplines must be developed not only in isolation, but also when coupled. Limitations on scaling and the availability of adequate test facilities mean that physical investigation is infeasible. Ever growing computational power offers the ability to perform elaborate numerical simulations, but also has its own limitations. The state of the art in numerical simulation is either to create ever more high-fidelity physics models that do not couple well and require too much processing power to consider more than a few seconds of flight, or to use low-fidelity analytical models that can be tightly coupled and processed quickly, but do not represent realistic systems due to their simplifying assumptions. Reduced-order models offer a middle ground by distilling the dominant trends of high-fidelity training solutions into a form that can be quickly processed and more tightly coupled. This thesis presents a variably coupled, variable-fidelity, aerothermoelastic framework for the simulation and analysis of high-speed vehicle systems using analytical, reduced-order, and surrogate modeling techniques. Full launch-to-landing flights of complete vehicles are considered and used to define flight envelopes with aeroelastic, aerothermal, and thermoelastic limits, tune in-the-loop flight controllers, and inform future design considerations. A partitioned approach to vehicle simulation is considered in which regions dominated by particular combinations of processes are made separate from the overall solution and simulated by a specialized set of models to improve overall processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saiki, Iwao; Sakai, Yoshiaki; Oikawa, Tadato; Koide, Kohji; Kanaya, Haruyuki.
1978-01-01
55 out of 62 patients with cerebral infarction were investigated in terms of CT scan findings, angiographic findings, and clinical symptoms. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The low-density areas of the CT scan findings were classified into the following four types: large hemispheric or lobular --Type I; wedge-shaped --Type II; small --Type III; and lacunar low-density area. --Type IV. 2) Almost all patients with angiographically occlusive findings showed low-density areas of Type I; however, one patient with ICA occlusion revealed only a lacunar low-density area. 3) The patients with lacunar low-density areas showed an angiographically delayed filling of the angular artery and posterior parietal artery of the middle cerebral artery. 4) The relationship between the types of low-density areas and the clinical conscious disorders was not clear. On the other hand, the patients with Type I low-density areas almost all had motor disturbances, while patients with other types of low-density areas showed only 60 - 70% motor disturbances. 5) In patients with speech disorders, total aphasia cases were found in patients with large hemispheric low-density areas on the left side. Although, motor aphasia cases were seen in patients with various low-density areas on the left inferior frontal and precentral gyri, dysarthria cases were found in the patients with several low-density areas on both sides. 6) The localization of lacunar low-density areas seemed to be near the caudate nucleus on the right side and in the putaminal regions on the left side. The mean and the standard deviation of CT numbers in the lacunar low-density areas showed higher values on the right side than on the left side. (author)
Assessment of CFD Capability for Hypersonic Shock Wave Laminar Boundary Layer Interactions
Mehrnaz Rouhi Youssefi; Doyle Knight
2017-01-01
The goal of this study is to assess CFD capability for the prediction of shock wave laminar boundary layer interactions at hypersonic velocities. More specifically, the flow field over a double-cone configuration is simulated using both perfect gas and non-equilibrium Navier–Stokes models. Computations are compared with recent experimental data obtained from measurements conducted in the LENS XX (Large Energy National Shock Expansion Tunnel Version 2) at the Calspan University of Buffalo Rese...
Rodkiewicz, C. M.; Gupta, R. N.
1971-01-01
The laminar two-dimensional flow over a stepwise accelerated flat plate moving with hypersonic speed at zero angle of attack is analysed. The governing equations in the self-similar form are linearized and solved numerically for small times. The solutions obtained are the deviations of the velocity and the temperature profiles from those of steady state. The presented results may be used to find the first order boundary layer induced pressure on the plate.
Design, Performance, and Operation of Efficient Ramjet/Scramjet Combined Cycle Hypersonic Propulsion
2009-10-16
simulations, the blending of the RANS and LES portions is handled by the standard DES equations, now referred to as DES97. The one-equation Spalart...think that RANS can capture these dynamics. • Much remains to be learned about how to model chemistry-turbulence interactions in scramjet flows...BILLIG, F. S., R. BAURLE, AND C. TAM 1999 Design and Analysis of Streamline Traced Hypersonic Inlets. AIAA Paper 1999-4974. BILLIG, F.S., AND
Numerical Simulation of 3D Viscous MHD Flows
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Golovachov, Yurii P; Kurakin, Yurii A; Schmidt, Alexander A; Van Wie, David M
2003-01-01
.... Flows in hypersonic intakes are considered. Preliminary results showed that local MHD interaction in the inlet part of the intake model was the most effective for control over plasma flow field...
Zhao, Wei; Dou, Zhiguo; Li, Qian
2012-03-01
The theory of laser-induced plasmas addition to hypersonic airflow off a vehicle to increase air mass capture and improve the performance of hypersonic inlets at Mach numbers below the design value is explored. For hypersonic vehicles, when flying at mach numbers lower than the design one, we can increase the mass capture ratio of inlet through laser-induced plasmas injection to the hypersonic flow upstream of cowl lip to form a virtual cowl. Based on the theory, the model of interaction between laser-induced plasmas and hypersonic flow was established. The influence on the effect of increasing mass capture ratio was studied at different positions of laser-induced plasmas region for the external compression hypersonic inlet at Mach 5 while the design value is 6, the power of plasmas was in the range of 1-8mJ. The main results are as follows: 1. the best location of the plasma addition region is near the intersection of the nose shock of the vehicle with the continuation of the cowl line, and slightly below that line. In that case, the shock generated by the heating is close to the shock that is a reflection of the vehicle nose shock off the imaginary solid surface-extension of the cowl. 2. Plasma addition does increase mass capture, and the effect becomes stronger as more energy is added, the peak value appeared when the power of plasma was about 4mJ, when the plasma energy continues to get stronger, the mass capture will decline slowly.
Paris, S.; Charbonnier, D.; Tran, D.
2011-05-01
The main results of the aerothermodynamic hypersonic characterization of Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), by means of both CFD simulations and wind tunnel measurements, have been reported and analyzed. In the framework of ESA FLPP Program, the VKI (Von Karman Institute) was in charge of an experimental test campaign for the consolidation of the aerothermal database in cold hypersonic regime. The tests campaign has been carried out at VKI Free Piston Longshot wind tunnel at mach 14. The numerical simulations have been performed for VKI wind tunnel conditions by CFSE with the in-house NSMB flow solver (Navier-Stokes Multi-Blocks 3D), the goal being to support the procedure of extrapolation-to-flight of the measurements and the general aerothermal characterization. Laminar, transitional and fully turbulent flows have been computed, with air considered as an ideal gas, for the wind tunnel tests numerical rebuilding. A detailed comparison of all measured and predicted hypersonic relevant phenomena and parameters (surface pressure and heat flux) is reported in the paper, together with a detailed description of configuration, freestream conditions, model attitude effects and flap deflection effect. The detailed analyze of the experimental and numerical data gives information on the nature of the flow on the body and on the flaps for the most critical configuration
Detached Eddy Simulations of Hypersonic Transition
Yoon, S.; Barnhardt, M.; Candler, G.
2010-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the use of Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) of hypersonic transistion. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using CFD in general, DES in particular, for prediction of roughness-induced boundary layer transition to turbulence and the resulting increase in heat transfer.
Hypersonic drone vehicle design: A multidisciplinary experience
1988-01-01
UCLA's Advanced Aeronautic Design group focussed their efforts on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necesary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: (1) to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and (2) to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. The group concentrated on three areas of great concern to NASP design: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed toward design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A 70 deg swept double-delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at the NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based on flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 pounds and an overall length of 85 feet.
Hypersonic drone design: A multidisciplinary experience
1988-01-01
Efforts were focused on design problems of an unmanned hypersonic vehicle. It is felt that a scaled hypersonic drone is necessary to bridge the gap between present theory on hypersonics and the future reality of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) for two reasons: to fulfill a need for experimental data in the hypersonic regime, and to provide a testbed for the scramjet engine which is to be the primary mode of propulsion for the NASP. Three areas of great concern to NASP design were examined: propulsion, thermal management, and flight systems. Problem solving in these areas was directed towards design of the drone with the idea that the same design techniques could be applied to the NASP. A seventy degree swept double delta wing configuration, developed in the 70's at NASA Langley, was chosen as the aerodynamic and geometric model for the drone. This vehicle would be air-launched from a B-1 at Mach 0.8 and 48,000 feet, rocket boosted by two internal engines to Mach 10 and 100,000 feet, and allowed to cruise under power of the scramjet engine until burnout. It would then return to base for an unpowered landing. Preliminary energy calculations based upon the flight requirements give the drone a gross launch weight of 134,000 lb. and an overall length of 85 feet.
Hypersonic - Model Analysis as a Service
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald
2014-01-01
Hypersonic is a Cloud-based tool that proposes a new approach to the deployment of model analysis facilities. It is implemented as a RESTful Web service API o_ering analysis features such as model clone detection. This approach allows the migration of resource intensive analysis algorithms from...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Rode, Katrin; Hultsch, Christina; Pawelke, Beate; Wuest, Frank; Hoff, Joerg van den
2004-01-01
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ( 18 F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[ 18 F]fluorobenzoate ([ 18 F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [ 18 F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [ 18 F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo
Pietzsch, Jens; Bergmann, Ralf; Rode, Katrin; Hultsch, Christina; Pawelke, Beate; Wuest, Frank; van den Hoff, Joerg
2004-11-01
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ((18)F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [(18)F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [(18)F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo.
Hypersonic Control Modeling and Simulation Tool for Lifting Towed Ballutes, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Aerospace Corporation proposes to develop a hypersonic control modeling and simulation tool for hypersonic aeroassist vehicles. Our control and simulation...
Study on intense relativistic electron beam propagation in a low density collisionless plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, S.A.; Rubin, N.B.; Khodataev, K.V.
1982-01-01
The results of investigations into the increase in effectivity of transport of an intensive relativistic electron beam (IREB) in a collisionless plasma of low density are presented. The electron beam with the current of 1.5 kA, energy of 300 keV, radius of 1.5 cm is in ected into a plasma channel 180 cm long which is a metallic cylinder covered with a biniplast layer from inside 0.5 cm thickness on which there is a metallic net from the vacuum side. Plasma production is carried out during the supply of voltage pulse to the net. A condition of the optimum IREB distribution is found. It is sohwn that self-focusing IREB transport in plasma of low density can be effective if equilibrium conditions are carried out in plasma with the concentration of electrons less (or equal) to the concentration of electrons in a beam
Ultra low density biodegradable shape memory polymer foams with tunable physical properties
Singhal, Pooja; Wilson, Thomas S.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth; Maitland, Duncan J.
2017-12-12
Compositions and/or structures of degradable shape memory polymers (SMPs) ranging in form from neat/unfoamed to ultra low density materials of down to 0.005 g/cc density. These materials show controllable degradation rate, actuation temperature and breadth of transitions along with high modulus and excellent shape memory behavior. A method of m ly low density foams (up to 0.005 g/cc) via use of combined chemical and physical aking extreme blowing agents, where the physical blowing agents may be a single compound or mixtures of two or more compounds, and other related methods, including of using multiple co-blowing agents of successively higher boiling points in order to achieve a large range of densities for a fixed net chemical composition. Methods of optimization of the physical properties of the foams such as porosity, cell size and distribution, cell openness etc. of these materials, to further expand their uses and improve their performance.
Competing Quantum Hall Phases in the Second Landau Level in Low Density Limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Wei [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Serafin, A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Xia, J. S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Liang, Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Sullivan, N. S. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Baldwin, K. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); West, K. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Tsui, D. C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
2015-01-01
Up to date, studies of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) states in the second Landau level have mainly been carried out in the high electron density regime, where the electron mobility is the highest. Only recently, with the advance of high quality low density MBE growth, experiments have been pushed to the low density regime [1], where the electron-electron interactions are strong and the Landau level mixing parameter, defined by κ = e^{2}/εI_{B}/ℏω_{e}, is large. Here, l_{B} = (ℏe/B)^{1/2} is the magnetic length and ω_{c} = eB/m the cyclotron frequency. All other parameters have their normal meanings. It has been shown that a large Landau level mixing effect strongly affects the electron physics in the second Landau level [2].
Breakdown of quasiparticle picture in the low-density limit of the 1D Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Shaojin; Qian Tiezheng; Su Zhaobin
1995-03-01
Using the finite-size scaling of results obtained by exact diagonalization, we study the low-density limit of the one-dimensional Hubbard model. Calculating the quasiparticle weight, we demonstrate that for a given particle number N and system size L, there always exists a crossover point U c separating the Fermi-liquid (U c ) and non-Fermi-liquid (U > U c ) regimes (U is the Hubbard repulsion). We find that for a fixed N, U c is inversely proportional to L, keeping U c L/t constant (with t as the hopping integral), as L is large enough. It follows that in the low-density (in fact vanishing density) limit L → ∞, U c → 0, so the system is always in non-Fermi-liquid regime as long as U > 0. We show that our numerical results are consistent with the Bethe ansatz solution. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs
Role of strangeness and isospin in low density expansions of hadronic matter
de Oliveira, Thamirys; Menezes, Débora P.; Pinto, Marcus B.; Gulminelli, Francesca
2018-05-01
We compare relativistic mean-field models with their low density expansion counterparts used to mimic nonrelativistic models by consistently expanding the baryonic scalar density in powers of the baryonic number density up to O (13 /3 ) , which goes two orders beyond the order considered in previous works. We show that, due to the nontrivial density dependence of the Dirac mass, the convergence of the expansion is very slow, and the validity of the nonrelativistic approximation is questionable even at subsaturation densities. In order to analyze the roles played by strangeness and isospin we consider n -Λ and n -p matter separately. Our results indicate that these degrees of freedom play quite different roles in the expansion mechanism and n -Λ matter can be better described by low density expansions than n -p matter in general.
Quasi Cyclic Low Density Parity Check Code for High SNR Data Transfer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. R. Islam
2010-06-01
Full Text Available An improved Quasi Cyclic Low Density Parity Check code (QC-LDPC is proposed to reduce the complexity of the Low Density Parity Check code (LDPC while obtaining the similar performance. The proposed QC-LDPC presents an improved construction at high SNR with circulant sub-matrices. The proposed construction yields a performance gain of about 1 dB at a 0.0003 bit error rate (BER and it is tested on 4 different decoding algorithms. Proposed QC-LDPC is compared with the existing QC-LDPC and the simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms the existing one at high SNR. Simulations are also performed varying the number of horizontal sub matrices and the results show that the parity check matrix with smaller horizontal concatenation shows better performance.
Kinetics of the high- to low-density amorphous water transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koza, M M; Schober, H; Fischer, H E; Hansen, T; Fujara, F
2003-01-01
In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been carried out to study the kinetics of the transformation of high-density amorphous (HDA) water into its low-density amorphous state at temperatures 87 K ≤ T ≤ 110 K. It is found that three different stages are comprised in this transformation, namely an annealing process of the high-density matrix followed by a first-order-like transition into a low-density state, which can be further annealed at higher temperatures T ≤ 127 K. The annealing kinetics of the HDA state follows the logarithm of time as found in other systems showing polyamorphism. According to the theory of transformation by nucleation and growth the apparent first-order transition follows an Avrami-Kolmogorov behaviour. An energy barrier ΔE ∼ 33 k Jmol -1 is estimated from the temperature dependence of this transition
Nonfasting Triglycerides, Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, and Heart Failure Risk
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G
2018-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of heart failure is increasing in the aging population, and heart failure is a disease with large morbidity and mortality. There is, therefore, a need for identifying modifiable risk factors for prevention. We tested the hypothesis that high concentrations of nonfasting...... triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol are associated with higher risk of heart failure in the general population. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We included 103 860 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study and 9694 from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 2 prospective observational...... association studies. Nonfasting triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline. Individuals were followed for ≤23 years, during which time 3593 were diagnosed with heart failure. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. In the Copenhagen...
Growth-interruption-induced low-density InAs quantum dots on GaAs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, L. H.; Alloing, B.; Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.
2008-01-01
We investigate the use of growth interruption to obtain low-density InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs. The process was realized by Ostwald-type ripening of a thin InAs layer. It was found that the optical properties of the QDs as a function of growth interruption strongly depend on InAs growth rate. By using this approach, a low density of QDs (4 dots/μm 2 ) with uniform size distribution was achieved. As compared to QDs grown without growth interruption, a larger energy separation between the QD confined levels was observed, suggesting a situation closer to the ideal zero-dimensional system. Combining with an InGaAs capping layer such as In-rich QDs enable 1.3 μm emission at 4 K
1996-10-01
combustion in the experimental research. Clearly, adding recirculation regions provides problems that can be nonequilibrium flow chemistry and combustion to...the transition can dominate the flow chemistry are all important. Without aerothermal characteristics of hypersonic vehicles experimental verification...current models of turbulent mixing in these flows are seriously in question. 4-3 Again, flow chemistry and viscous/inviscid flow interaction control
Simulasi Low Density Parity Check (Ldpc) dengan Standar Dvb-t2
Kurniawan, Yusuf; Hafizh, Idham
2014-01-01
Artikel ini berisi implementasi simulasi encoding-decoding yang dilakukanpada suatu sampel data biner acak sesuai dengan standar yang digunakanpada Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial 2nd Generation (DVB-T2),dengan menggunakan MATLAB. Low Density Parity Check (LDPC)digunakan dalam proses encoding-decoding sebagai fitur untuk melakukankoreksi kesalahan pada saat pengiriman data. Modulasi yang digunakandalam simulasi adalah BPSK dengan model kanal AWGN. Dalam simulasitersebut, diperbanding...
Stark broadening of the Hα line of hydrogen at low densities: quantal and semiclassical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stehle, C.; Feautrier, N.
1984-01-01
Stark profiles of the Hα lines of hydrogen are computed at low densities in the 'impact' theory. By a comparison with quantal results, it is shown that a simple semiclassical perturbational approach with appropriate cutoffs is sufficient to give accurate profiles in the line centre. Neglecting the natural broadening and the fine-structure effects, the authors prove that the electronic broadening is negligible and that the profile has a Lorentzian shape. An analytical expression of the half width is given. (author)
Dynamics of low density coronal plasma in low current x-pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, D; Bott, S C; Vikhrev, V; Eshaq, Y; Ueda, U; Zhang, T; Baranova, E; Krasheninnikov, S I; Beg, F N
2007-01-01
Experiments were performed on an x-pinch using a pulsed power current generator capable of producing an 80 kA current with a rise time of 50 ns. Molybdenum wires with and without gold coating were employed to study the effect of high z coating on the low-density ( 18 cm -3 ) coronal plasma dynamics. A comparison of images from XUV frames and optical probing shows that the low density coronal plasma from the wires initially converges at the mid-plane immediately above and below the cross-point. A central jet is formed which moves with a velocity of 6 x 10 4 ms -1 towards both electrodes forming a z-pinch column before the current maximum. A marked change in the low density coronal plasma dynamics was observed when molybdenum wires coated with ∼ 0.09 μm of gold were used. The processes forming the jet structure were delayed relative to bare Mo x-pinches, and the time-resolved x-ray emission also showed differences. An m = 0 instability was observed in the coronal plasma along the x-pinch legs, which were consistent with x-ray PIN diode signals in which x-ray pulses were observed before x-ray spot formation. These early time x-ray pulses were not observed with pure molybdenum x-pinches. These observations indicate that a thin layer of gold coating significantly changes the coronal plasma behaviour. Two dimensional MHD simulations were performed and qualitatively agree with experimental observations of low density coronal plasma
Electrons of high perpendicular energy in the low-density regime of Tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bornatici, M.; Engelmann, F.
1978-01-01
Effects due to instabilities excited in the low-density regime of tokamaks by runaway electrons via the cyclotron resonance ω+Ω=kV along with the formation of a positive slope in the runaway distribution are considered. Conditions for the production of electrons of high perpendicular energy and their trapping in toroidal field ripples, leading to liner damage, are discussed and found to be rather stringent. Fairly good agreement with the experiments is found
Effect of low-density polyethylene on smoke emissions from burning of simulated debris piles
Seyedehsan Hosseini; Qi Li; Manish Shrivastava; David R. Weise; David R. Cocker; J. Wayne Miller; Heejung S Jung
2014-01-01
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic is used to keep piled debris from silvicultural activitiesâactivities associated with development and care of forestsâdry to enable efficient disposal by burning. The effects of inclusion of LDPE in this manner on smoke emissions are not well known. In a combustion laboratory experiment, 2-kg mixtures of LDPE and manzanita (
N. Prapaiwan; T. Tharasanit; S. Punjachaipornpol; D. Yamtang; A. Roongsitthichai; W. Moonarmart; K. Kaeoket; S. Manee-in
2016-01-01
Cryopreservation of caudal epididymal spermatozoa is an effective technique to conserve genetic potentials of superior dogs when it is not possible to collect ejaculated spermatozoa. Although hen egg yolk is commonly supplemented into the semen extender, active substances within the egg yolk which protect sperm against cryoinjury remain to be discovered. Among its compositions, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been reported to have a cryoprotective property for sperm cryopreservation. Howeve...
Quantum quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check error-correcting codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Li; Gui-Hua, Zeng; Lee, Moon Ho
2009-01-01
In this paper, we propose the approach of employing circulant permutation matrices to construct quantum quasicyclic (QC) low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Using the proposed approach one may construct some new quantum codes with various lengths and rates of no cycles-length 4 in their Tanner graphs. In addition, these constructed codes have the advantages of simple implementation and low-complexity encoding. Finally, the decoding approach for the proposed quantum QC LDPC is investigated. (general)
Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy
Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M.
2009-01-01
Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible ...
Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1997-04-01
Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.
Convective cell excitation by inertial Alfven waves in a low density plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pokhotelov, O.A.; Onishchenko, O.G.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Srenflo, L.; Balikhin, M.A.
2005-01-01
The parametric interaction of inertial Alfven waves with large-scale convective cells in a low-density plasma is investigated. It is shown that, in plasmas where the Alfven velocity is comparable to or exceeds the speed of light, the parametric interaction is substantially suppressed. A compact expression for the optimal scale and instability growth rate of the fastest growing mode is obtained [ru
Low density lipoprotein uptake by an endothelial-smooth muscle cell bilayer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alexander, J.J.; Miguel, R.; Graham, D.
1991-01-01
To study the interaction of endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and the means by which such interaction may affect lipid permeability of the arterial wall, cell bilayers were established by use of a transwell culture system. After confluent growth of both cell types had been achieved, iodine 125 bound to low-density lipoprotein (10 ng protein/ml) was added to the media of the upper well. After a 3-hour incubation period, the iodine 125-bound low-density lipoprotein content of the upper and lower media demonstrated an impedance to lipoprotein movement across the endothelial cell monolayer as compared to the bare porous polycarbonate filter of the transwell (p less than 10(-6)). The presence of smooth muscle cells in the bottom well significantly enhanced the permeability of the endothelial cell layer (p less than 10(-60)). This effect remained unchanged over a 9-day time course. Membrane binding and cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein by endothelial cells was not altered by smooth muscle cells, indicating that this change in permeability could not be easily attributed to changes in receptor-mediated transport or transcytosis. Membrane binding (p less than 0.02) and cellular uptake (p less than 10(-6)) of low-density lipoprotein by smooth muscle cells in the bilayer, when adjusted for counts available in the smooth muscle cell media, were both reduced in the early incubation period as compared to isolated smooth muscle cells. The disproportionate reduction in uptake as compared to binding would suggest that this was not entirely a receptor-dependent process
Hypersonic Combustor Model Inlet CFD Simulations and Experimental Comparisons
Venkatapathy, E.; TokarcikPolsky, S.; Deiwert, G. S.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Numerous two-and three-dimensional computational simulations were performed for the inlet associated with the combustor model for the hypersonic propulsion experiment in the NASA Ames 16-Inch Shock Tunnel. The inlet was designed to produce a combustor-inlet flow that is nearly two-dimensional and of sufficient mass flow rate for large scale combustor testing. The three-dimensional simulations demonstrated that the inlet design met all the design objectives and that the inlet produced a very nearly two-dimensional combustor inflow profile. Numerous two-dimensional simulations were performed with various levels of approximations such as in the choice of chemical and physical models, as well as numerical approximations. Parametric studies were conducted to better understand and to characterize the inlet flow. Results from the two-and three-dimensional simulations were used to predict the mass flux entering the combustor and a mass flux correlation as a function of facility stagnation pressure was developed. Surface heat flux and pressure measurements were compared with the computed results and good agreement was found. The computational simulations helped determine the inlet low characteristics in the high enthalpy environment, the important parameters that affect the combustor-inlet flow, and the sensitivity of the inlet flow to various modeling assumptions.
Optimum hypersonic airfoil with power law shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, B.A.
1990-01-01
In the present paper the flow field over a class of two-dimensional lifting surfaces is examined from the viewpoint of inviscid, hypersonic small-disturbance theory (HSDT). It is well known that a flow field in which the shock shape S(x) is similar to the body shape F(x) is only possible for F(x) = x k and the freestream Mach number M ∞ = ∞. This self-similar flow has been studied for several decades as it represents one of the few existing exact solutions of the equations of HSDT. Detailed discussions are found for example in papers by Cole, Mirels, Chernyi and Gersten and Nicolai but they are limited to convex body shapes, that is, k ≤ 1. The only study of concave body shapes was attempted by Sullivan where only special cases were considered. The method used here shows that similarity also exists for concave shapes and a complete solution of the flow field for any k > 2/3 is given. The effect of varying k on C L 3/2 /C D is then determined and an optimum shape is found. Furthermore, a wider class of lifting surfaces is constructed using the streamlines of the basic flow field and analysed with respect to the effect on C L 3/2 /C D . 9 refs., 3 figs
INHIBITION OF HUMAN LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS OXIDATION BY Hibiscus radiatus CUV. CALYCES EXTRACT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hernawan Hernawan
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control. Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol
Nishida, T
1968-09-01
The effect of phospholipase A on the interaction of low density lipoproteins of the S(f) 0-10 class with dextran sulfate was studied in phosphate buffer of pH 7.4, ionic strength 0.1, by chemical, spectrophotometric, and centrifugal methods. When low density lipoproteins that had been treated with phospholipase A were substituted for untreated lipoproteins, the amount of insoluble dextran sulfate-lipoprotein complex formed was greatly reduced. Hydrolysis of over 20% of the lecithin and phosphatidyl ethanolamine constituents of the lipoproteins prevented the formation of insoluble complex. However, even the lipoproteins in which almost all the phosphoglycerides were hydrolyzed produced soluble complex, which was converted to insoluble complex upon addition of magnesium sulfate. It is apparent that the lipoproteins altered extensively by treatment with phospholipase A retain many characteristic properties of native low density lipoproteins. Fatty acids, but not lysolecithin, released by the action of phospholipase A interfered with the formation of insoluble complex; this interference was due to association of the fatty acids with the lipoproteins. With increases in the concentration of the associated fatty acids, the amounts of magnesium ion required for the conversion of soluble complex to insoluble complex increased progressively. Charge interaction is evidently of paramount importance in the formation of sulfated polysaccharide-lipoprotein complexes.
Reversed preparation of low-density poly(divinylbenzene/styrene) foam columns coated with gold films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, Yinhai; Wang, Ni; Li, Yaling; Yao, Mengqi; Gan, Haibo; Hu, Wencheng, E-mail: huwc@uestc.edu.cn
2016-06-15
Highlights: • A reversed fabrication of low density foam columns coated with gold films was proposed. • The uniformity in thickness and purity of gold film are easy to be controlled. • A compact layer is prepared through an electrophoretic deposition method. • A low density (12 mg/cc) foam column coated with gold film is obtained. - Abstract: This work aims to fabricate low-density, porous, non-conductive, structural poly(divinylbenzene/styrene) foam columns by high-internal-phase emulsion templating. We prepare these non-conductive foam columns coated with a thin gold layer by electrochemical deposition and the reversed preparation technique. As expected, the density of the foam obtained through this novel method was about 12 mg cm{sup −3}, and the thickness of the gold coating was about 3 μm. We performed field emission scanning electron microscopy to morphologically and microstructurally characterize the products and X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy to determine the composition of the gold coating.
Membrane receptors for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) inhibitor of lymphocyte proliferation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, P.I.; Beck, G.; Zucker, S.
1981-01-01
Physiologic concentrations of human plasma very low density lipoproteins inhibit the DNA synthesis of lymphocytes stimulated by allogeneic cells or lectins. In this report reachers have compared the effects of isolated lipoproteins [very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL)] and lipoprotein-depleted plasma (LDP) on DNA synthesis by phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes. The relative potency for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation was VLDL greater than LDL greater than HDL greater than LDP. Fifty percent inhibition of DNA synthesis was observed at a VLDL protein concentration of 1.5--2.0 microgram/ml. Researchers have further demonstrated the presence of specific receptors for VLDL on human lymphocytes. Native VLDL was more effective than LDL in competing for 125I-VLDL binding sites. Subsequent to binding to lymphocytes, 125I-VLDL was internalized and degraded to acid-soluble products. Based on a Scatchard analysis of VLDL binding at 4 degrees C, the number of VLDL receptors per lymphocyte was estimated at 28,000 +/- 1300. Based on an estimated mean binding affinity for the VLDL receptor complex at half saturation of approximately 8.8 X 10(7) liter/mole, it is estimated that 91% of lymphocyte VLDL receptors are occupied at physiologic VLDL concentrations in blood. Although the immune regulatory role of plasma lipoproteins is uncertain, researchers suggest tha VLDL and LDL-In may maintain circulating blood lymphocytes in a nonproliferative state via their respective cell receptor mechanisms
Hypersonic wind-tunnel free-flying experiments with onboard instrumentation
Mudford, Neil R.; O'Byrne, Sean B.; Neely, Andrew J.; Buttsworth, David R.; Balage, Sudantha
2015-01-01
Hypersonic wind-tunnel testing with "free-flight" models unconnected to a sting ensures that sting/wake flow interactions do not compromise aerodynamic coefficient measurements. The development of miniaturized electronics has allowed the demonstration of a variant of a new method for the acquisition of hypersonic model motion data using onboard accelerometers, gyroscopes, and a microcontroller. This method is demonstrated in a Mach 6 wind-tunnel flow, whose duration and pitot pressure are sufficient for the model to move a body length or more and turn through a significant angle. The results are compared with those obtained from video analysis of the model motion, the existing method favored for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients in similar hypersonic wind-tunnel facilities. The results from the two methods are in good agreement. The new method shows considerable promise for reliable measurement of aerodynamic coefficients, particularly because the data obtained are in more directly applicable forms of accelerations and rates of turn, rather than the model position and attitude obtained from the earlier visualization method. The ideal may be to have both methods operating together.
Hypersonic wave drag reduction performance of cylinders with repetitive laser energy depositions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang, J; Hong, Y J; Li, Q; Huang, H
2011-01-01
It has been widely research that wave drag reduction on hypersonic vehicle by laser energy depositions. Using laser energy to reduce wave drag can improve vehicle performance. A second order accurate scheme based on finite-difference method and domain decomposition of structural grid is used to compute the drag performance of cylinders in a hypersonic flow of Mach number 2 at altitude of 15km with repetitive energy depositions. The effects of frequency on drag reduction are studied. The calculated results show: the recirculation zone is generated due to the interaction between bow shock over the cylinder and blast wave produced by energy deposition, and a virtual spike which is supported by an axis-symmetric recirculation, is formed in front of the cylinder. By increasing the repetitive frequency, the drag is reduced and the oscillation of the drag is decreased; however, the energy efficiency decreases by increasing the frequency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pietzsch, Jens [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Bergmann, Ralf [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Rode, Katrin [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hultsch, Christina [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Pawelke, Beate [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Wuest, Frank [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Hoff, Joerg van den [PET-Center, Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Research Center Rossendorf Dresden, P.O. Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)
2004-11-01
Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is regarded as a crucial event in atherogenesis. Assessing the metabolic fate of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in vivo with radiotracer techniques is hindered by the lack of suitable sensitive and specific radiolabeling methods. We evaluated an improved methodology based on the radiolabeling of native LDL (nLDL) and oxLDL with the positron emitter fluorine-18 ({sup 18}F) by conjugation with N-succinimidyl-4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzoate ([{sup 18}F]SFB). We investigated whether radiolabeling of LDL induces adverse structural modifications. Results suggest that radiolabeling of both nLDL and oxLDL using [{sup 18}F]SFB causes neither additional oxidative structural modifications of LDL lipids and proteins nor alteration of their biological activity and functionality, respectively. Thus, radiolabeling of LDL using [{sup 18}F]SFB could prove to be a promising approach for studying the kinetics of oxLDL in vivo.
Dubé, Joseph B; Wang, Jian; Cao, Henian; McIntyre, Adam D; Johansen, Christopher T; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Stringer, Randa; Hosseinzadeh, Siyavash; Kennedy, Brooke A; Ban, Matthew R; Young, T Kue; Connelly, Philip W; Dewailly, Eric; Bjerregaard, Peter; Boyer, Bert B; Hegele, Robert A
2015-02-01
Inuit are considered to be vulnerable to cardiovascular disease because their lifestyles are becoming more Westernized. During sequence analysis of Inuit individuals at extremes of lipid traits, we identified 2 nonsynonymous variants in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), namely p.G116S and p.R730W. Genotyping these variants in 3324 Inuit from Alaska, Canada, and Greenland showed they were common, with allele frequencies 10% to 15%. Only p.G116S was associated with dyslipidemia: the increase in LDL cholesterol was 0.54 mmol/L (20.9 mg/dL) per allele (P=5.6×10(-49)), which was >3× larger than the largest effect sizes seen with other common variants in other populations. Carriers of p.G116S had a 3.02-fold increased risk of hypercholesterolemia (95% confidence interval, 2.34-3.90; P=1.7×10(-17)), but did not have classical familial hypercholesterolemia. In vitro, p.G116S showed 60% reduced ligand-binding activity compared with wild-type receptor. In contrast, p.R730W was associated with neither LDL cholesterol level nor altered in vitro activity. LDLR p.G116S is thus unique: a common dysfunctional variant in Inuit whose large effect on LDL cholesterol may have public health implications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Improved Hypersonic Inlet Performance Using Validated Strut Compression Designs
Bulman, M. J.; Stout, P. W.; Fernandez, R.
1997-01-01
Aerojet is currently executing two Strutjet propulsion contracts: one a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine for a NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Reusable Transportation Technology (ARTT) program, the second a Dual Mode Ram/Scramjet engine for a USAF Wright Laboratories Storable Fuel Scramjet Flow Path Concepts program. The engines employed in both programs operate at supersonic and low hypersonic speeds and use inlets employing forebody external and sidewall compression. Aerojet has developed and validated a successful design methodology applicable to these inlet types. Design features include an integrated vehicle forebody, external side compression struts, strut sidewall and throat bleed, a throat shock trap, and variable geometry internal contraction. Computation Fluid Dynamic (CFD) predictions and test data show these inlets allow substantially increased flow turning angles over other designs. These increased flow turning angles allow shorter and lighter engines than current designs, which in turn enables higher performing vehicles with broad operating characteristics. This paper describes the designs of two different inlets evaluated by the NASA-MSFC and USAF programs, discusses the results of wind tunnel tests performed by NASA-Lewis Research Center, and provides correlations of test data with CFD predictions. Parameters of interest include low Mach number starting capability, start sensitivity as a function of back pressure at various contraction ratios, flow turning angles, strut and throat bleed effects, and pressure recovery at various Mach numbers.
Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development
Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter
2007-01-01
This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katagiri, Kunihiko; Takaki, Tadahiro; Fukushima, Takeo; Tomonaga, Masamichi
1984-01-01
This report presents a case of traumatic interhemispheric subdural hematoma extending above the right tentorium, which showed a low-density mass in the CT scan and which brought up a problem of differential diagnosis from subdural empyema because the patient had a long history of bilateral chronic otitis media. The 47-year-old man fell downstairs while drunk; this accident was followed by an increasing member of incidents of headache and vomiting, and he was admitted on the 15th day after the episode. Upon admission, his mental state was slightly dull; a neurologic examination revealed a mild choked disc and increased DTRs on the left. There was otorrhea and hearing difficulty on the left side, and his blood pressure was slightly elevated (170/110 mmHg). The laboratory data were negative except for an increased blood-sedimentation ratio (50/80 mm) and 1 + CRP. The precontrast CT scan demonstrated a lentiform low-density mass in the posterior part of the interhemispheric fissure extending above the right tentorium, with an unusual mass effect for the volume and a location of this mass. The postcontrast CT scan showed a marked enhancement of the falx and the tentorium around the mass. Furthermore, the pneumatization of the mastoid cells was markedly decreased. An operation was performed following the day of admission; when subdural hematoma was confirmed, it was evacuated and irrigated. The postoperative course was excellent, and the low-density mass had disappeared by the time of a follow-up CT scan 19 days after the operation. (J.P.N.)
Synthetic Nano-Low Density Lipoprotein as Targeted Drug DeliveryVehicle for Glioblastoma Multiforme
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikanjam, Mina; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Bjornstad, Kathleen A.; Shu,Xiao; Budinger, Thomas F.; Forte, Trudy M.
2006-06-14
This paper discribes a synthetic low density lipoprotein(LDL) made by complexing a 29 amino acid that consists of a lipid bindingdomain and the LDL receptor binding domain with a lipid microemulsion.The nano-LDL particles were intermdiate in size between LDL and HDL andbound to LDL receptors on GBM brain tumor cells. Synthetic nano-LDLuptake by GBM cells was LDL receptor specific and dependent on cellreceptor number. It is suggested that these synthetic particles can serveas a delivery vehicle for hydophobic anti-tumor drugs by targeting theLDL receptor.
Crosstalk eliminating and low-density parity-check codes for photochromic dual-wavelength storage
Wang, Meicong; Xiong, Jianping; Jian, Jiqi; Jia, Huibo
2005-01-01
Multi-wavelength storage is an approach to increase the memory density with the problem of crosstalk to be deal with. We apply Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes as error-correcting codes in photochromic dual-wavelength optical storage based on the investigation of LDPC codes in optical data storage. A proper method is applied to reduce the crosstalk and simulation results show that this operation is useful to improve Bit Error Rate (BER) performance. At the same time we can conclude that LDPC codes outperform RS codes in crosstalk channel.
Degradation of low-density polyethylene in the presence of water and deuterium oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedgwick, R.D.; Al-Sultan, Y.Y.; Abushihada, A.M.
1981-01-01
The degradation of low-density polyethylene in the presence of water as the degradative agent was studied at a temperature of 450 0 C and a pressure greater than 160 atm. The experimental work was conducted in an autoclave of 333-mL capacity. The results indicate the presence of paraffins, olefines, dienes, and aromatics in the degradation products. The occurrence of aromatics in the products demonstrates the importance of this degradation procedure for obtaining these valuable materials. The present work (Part 1) is believed to be the first publication to discuss the production of aromatics from polyethylenes degradation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Domingos, Luanda G.; Rego, Jose K.M.A. do; Ito, Edson N.; Acchar, Wilson
2011-01-01
The aim of this study was a preliminary study of the physical, thermal and rheological properties of the materials to be used in the development of nano composite low density polyethylene (LDPE) with Brazilian attapulgite clay (ATP), with and without the use of a compatibilizing agent interfacial, polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MAH). The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG) and torque rheometry. The materials were characterized and potentially could be developed polymeric nano composites with technological applications using attapulgite fibers in the nanometer scale. (author)
Transvascular low-density lipoprotein transport in patients with diabetes mellitus (type 2)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kornerup, Karen; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo
2002-01-01
accumulation and, thus, atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an in vivo method for measurement of transvascular transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and applied it in 16 patients with maturity-onset diabetes (type 2) and 29 healthy control subjects. Autologous 131I-labeled LDL...... plasma insulin levels in diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS: Transvascular LDL transport may be increased in patients with type 2 diabetes. This suggests that lipoprotein flux into the arterial wall is increased in people with diabetes, possibly explaining the accelerated development of atherosclerosis....... in patients with diabetes and control subjects, respectively (P2.5%/h and 5.3+/-1.6%/h (P
Low-density silicon thin films for lithium-ion battery anodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demirkan, M.T., E-mail: tmdemirkan@ualr.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Trahey, L. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)
2016-02-01
Density of sputter deposited silicon (Si) thin films was changed by a simple working gas pressure control process, and its effects on the cycling performance of Si films in Li-ion batteries as anodes was investigated. Higher gas pressure results in reduced film densities due to a shadowing effect originating from lower mean free path of sputter atoms, which leads to a wider angular distribution of the incoming flux and formation of a porous film microstructure. Si thin film anodes of different densities ranging from 2.27 g/cm{sup 3} (film porosity ~ 3%) down to 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 30% porosity) were fabricated by magnetron sputtering at argon pressures varying from 0.2 Pa to 2.6 Pa, respectively. High density Si thin film anodes of 2.27 g/cm{sup 3} suffered from an unstable cycling behavior during charging/discharging depicted by a continuous reduction in specific down to ~ 830 mAh/g at the 100th cycle. Electrochemical properties of lower density films with 1.99 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 15% porosity) and 1.77 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 24% porosity) got worse resulting in only ~ 100 mAh/g capacity at 100th cycle. On the other hand, as the density of anode was further reduced down to about 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} (~ 30% porosity), cycling stability and capacity retention significantly improved resulting in specific capacity values ~ 650 mAh/g at 100th cycle with coulombic efficiencies of > 98%. Enhancement in our low density Si film anodes are believed to mainly originate from the availability of voids for volumetric expansion during lithiation and resulting compliant behavior that provides superior mechanical and electrochemical stability. - Highlights: • Low density Si thin films were studied as Li-ion battery anodes. • Low density Si films were fabricated by magnetron sputter deposition. • Density of Si films reduced down to as low as ~ 1.64 g/cm{sup 3} with a porosity of ~ 30% • Low density Si films presented superior mechanical properties during cycling.
Labeque, Regine; Mullon, Claudy J. P.; Ferreira, Joao Paulo M.; Lees, Robert S.; Langer, Robert
1993-04-01
Phospholipase A_2 (EC 3.1.1.4) hydrolyzes certain phospholipids of low density lipoprotein (LDL). Plasma clearance of phospholipase A_2-modified human LDL is up to 17 times faster than that of native human LDL in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Modification of blood lipoproteins of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was performed by using an extracorporeal circuit containing immobilized phospholipase A_2. After 90-min treatments, nearly 30% decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations were observed. Erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet counts showed no net change after treatment. This technique does not require any fluid replacement or sorbent regeneration and offers a potential approach for lowering serum cholesterol and LDL levels.
Structured Low-Density Parity-Check Codes with Bandwidth Efficient Modulation
Cheng, Michael K.; Divsalar, Dariush; Duy, Stephanie
2009-01-01
In this work, we study the performance of structured Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Codes together with bandwidth efficient modulations. We consider protograph-based LDPC codes that facilitate high-speed hardware implementations and have minimum distances that grow linearly with block sizes. We cover various higher- order modulations such as 8-PSK, 16-APSK, and 16-QAM. During demodulation, a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples into reliability information that feeds the binary LDPC decoder. We will compare various low-complexity demappers and provide simulation results for assorted coded-modulation combinations on the additive white Gaussian noise and independent Rayleigh fading channels.
Photonic entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check encoders and decoders.
Djordjevic, Ivan B
2010-05-01
I propose encoder and decoder architectures for entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes suitable for all-optical implementation. I show that two basic gates needed for EA quantum error correction, namely, controlled-NOT (CNOT) and Hadamard gates can be implemented based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In addition, I show that EA quantum LDPC codes from balanced incomplete block designs of unitary index require only one entanglement qubit to be shared between source and destination.
Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyaniline for low density lipoprotein detection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matharu, Zimple [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Sumana, G. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007 (India); Malhotra, B.D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.co [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, National Physical Laboratory (CSIR), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India)
2010-11-30
Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) were utilized for the fabrication of impedimetric immunosensor for detection of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) by immobilizing anti-apolipoprotein B (AAB) via EDC-NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy. AAB/PANI-SA LB immunoelectrodes studied by EIS spectroscopy revealed detection of LDL in the wide range of 0.018 {mu}M (6 mg/dl) to 0.39 {mu}M (130 mg/dl), covering the physiological range in blood, with a sensitivity of 11.25 k{Omega} {mu}M{sup -1}.
Langmuir-Blodgett films of polyaniline for low density lipoprotein detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matharu, Zimple; Sumana, G.; Gupta, Vinay; Malhotra, B.D.
2010-01-01
Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of polyaniline (PANI) were utilized for the fabrication of impedimetric immunosensor for detection of human plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) by immobilizing anti-apolipoprotein B (AAB) via EDC-NHS coupling. The modified electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy. AAB/PANI-SA LB immunoelectrodes studied by EIS spectroscopy revealed detection of LDL in the wide range of 0.018 μM (6 mg/dl) to 0.39 μM (130 mg/dl), covering the physiological range in blood, with a sensitivity of 11.25 kΩ μM -1 .
Zinc layered hydroxide salts: intercalation and incorporation into low-density polyethylene
Jaerger,Silvia; Zimmermann,Ademir; Zawadzki,Sonia Faria; Wypych,Fernando; Amico,Sandro Campos
2014-01-01
In this study, polymer composites using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and layered hydroxide salts (LHS) were synthesized. The following compositions of LHS were obtained Zn5(OH)8(An-)2/n.yH2O, where A was varied in order to obtain hydrophilic (A = NO3 -) or hydrophobic (A = DDS- – dodecyl sulfate or DBS- – dodecyl benzene sulfonate). Synthesis was carried out by co-precipitation in alkaline medium and drying, being followed by characterization via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, th...
Study of the effect of gamma irradiation on carbon black loaded low-density polyethylene films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salem, M.A.; Hussein, A.; El-Ahdal, M.A.
2003-01-01
The effect of gamma irradiation on the tensile and physico-chemical properties of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films loaded with different concentrations of carbon black (C.B) has been studied. The results showed that the behavior of the samples during gamma irradiation is complicated and this may be due to scission and the interaction between oxidation and crosslinking processes. The tensile properties are modified by the presence of carbon black. Film sample containing 7% C.B was found to exhibit a nearly stabilized tensile behavior with radiation dose, which allows to use this formulation in packaging for food sterilization and in preservation of weak cobalt-gamma sources. (author)
Optimized Min-Sum Decoding Algorithm for Low Density Parity Check Codes
Mohammad Rakibul Islam; Dewan Siam Shafiullah; Muhammad Mostafa Amir Faisal; Imran Rahman
2011-01-01
Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) code approaches Shannon–limit performance for binary field and long code lengths. However, performance of binary LDPC code is degraded when the code word length is small. An optimized min-sum algorithm for LDPC code is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm unlike other decoding methods, an optimization factor has been introduced in both check node and bit node of the Min-sum algorithm. The optimization factor is obtained before decoding program, and the sam...
Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.
Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A
2017-08-01
Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karolina Głogowska
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The study reports the results of investigation of basic processing and thermal properties of low-density polyethylene modified with two types of natural filler: wheat bran and pumpkin seed hulls, their content ranging from 5% to 15% relative to the matrix. In addition, the physical properties of the produced granulates are determined, i.e. the relationship between their density and the applied contents of the tested fillers. Furthermore, the study reports the results concerning the longitudinal shrinkage, abrasion resistance and cold water absorption of injection molded tensile specimens.
Mechanical properties of low-density polyethylene filled by graphite nanoplatelets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carotenuto, G.; De Nicola, S.; Palomba, M.
2012-01-01
The mechanical properties of GNP/LDPE nanocomposites (graphite nanoplatelets/low density polyethylene) have been investigated, in order to establish the effect of nanoscale reinforcement within the polymer matrix. Results show that the presence of the filler does not involve a change...... in the microscopic structure of the polymer. However, on a macroscopic scale, GNPs limit the mobility of the polymer chains, resulting in an increase in stiffness for the final composite. Orientation of GNPs within the LDPE matrix is also an important issue that affects mechanical properties and it has been...
Ion cyclotron modes in a low density plasma cavity. Part I: Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawley, M.L.
1990-12-01
Ion cyclotron modes excited in a low density, cylindrical plasma cavity using an external inductive antenna are investigated theoretically. These modes, which have a long parallel wavelength, exhibit a strong electrostatic character and are only weakly coupled to the antenna fields. It is shown that, despite the low frequency considered, electron dynamics play a dominant role via the effects of both Landau damping and electron inertia. The characteristics of the wavefields associated with these modes, relevant to an experimental investigation, are described. (author) 8 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs
A study on bifrontal extracerebral low density areas of CT in infancy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagaura, Tomoaki; Sumi, Kiyoomi
1983-01-01
Bifrontal extracerebral low density area (BELD) was observed in 38 (39.6 %) of 96 infants aged 1 to 22 months (a mean of 6.2 months) at a particulary high rate in 2- -- 6-mos.-olds. They consisted of 15/19 cases of infantile spasm/epilepsy, 0/5 of simple febrile convulsion, 7/9 of psychomotor retardation and 0/5 simple premature babies. BELD disappeared by a mean age of 14 months in cases without psychomotor retardation, but its disappearance tended to be delayed in retarded infants. BELD seemed to indicate a type of brain injury, rather than a simple physiologic phenomenon. (Chiba, N)
Stabilization of the hypersonic boundary layer by finite-amplitude streaks
Ren, Jie; Fu, Song; Hanifi, Ardeshir
2016-02-01
Stabilization of two-dimensional disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer flows by finite-amplitude streaks is investigated using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. The boundary-layer flows at Mach numbers 4.5 and 6.0 are studied in which both first and second modes are supported. The streaks considered here are driven either by the so-called optimal perturbations (Klebanoff-type) or the centrifugal instability (Görtler-type). When the streak amplitude is in an appropriate range, i.e., large enough to modulate the laminar boundary layer but low enough to not trigger secondary instability, both first and second modes can effectively be suppressed.
The NASA Ames Hypersonic Combustor-Model Inlet CFD Simulations and Experimental Comparisons
Venkatapathy, E.; Tokarcik-Polsky, S.; Deiwert, G. S.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
1995-01-01
Computations have been performed on a three-dimensional inlet associated with the NASA Ames combustor model for the hypersonic propulsion experiment in the 16-inch shock tunnel. The 3-dimensional inlet was designed to have the combustor inlet flow nearly two-dimensional and of sufficient mass flow necessary for combustion. The 16-inch shock tunnel experiment is a short duration test with test time of the order of milliseconds. The flow through the inlet is in chemical non-equilibrium. Two test entries have been completed and limited experimental results for the inlet region of the combustor-model are available. A number of CFD simulations, with various levels of simplifications such as 2-D simulations, 3-D simulations with and without chemical reactions, simulations with and without turbulent conditions, etc., have been performed. These simulations have helped determine the model inlet flow characteristics and the important factors that affect the combustor inlet flow and the sensitivity of the flow field to these simplifications. In the proposed paper, CFD modeling of the hypersonic inlet, results from the simulations and comparison with available experimental results will be presented.
PIV measurements in two hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions
Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Williams, Owen; Smits, Alexander J.
2017-11-01
Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to study two compression corner interactions in hypersonic flow. The experiments, carried out at Mach 7.2 and at a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of 3500, included mean flow surveys as well as turbulence measurements in the near-field of the interaction. For the 8° compression corner, the flow remained attached, and for the 33° compression corner a large separation bubble formed. For the attached case, the influence of the shock wave on the streamwise turbulence intensities is weak, but the wall-normal component and the Reynolds shear stress show considerable amplification. In the fully separated case, both the streamwise and wall normal velocity fluctuations, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show strong amplification across the interaction. In contrast with the behavior in the attached case, equilibrium flow is approached much more rapidly in the separated case. Turbulence measurements in such complex hypersonic flows are far from trivial, with particle frequency response limitations often significantly reducing the measured wall-normal turbulence. We will therefore discuss these influences on overall data quality as well as the interpretation of flow physics based on these results.
Analytical solutions of hypersonic type IV shock - shock interactions
Frame, Michael John
An analytical model has been developed to predict the effects of a type IV shock interaction at high Mach numbers. This interaction occurs when an impinging oblique shock wave intersects the most normal portion of a detached bow shock. The flowfield which develops is complicated and contains an embedded jet of supersonic flow, which may be unsteady. The jet impinges on the blunt body surface causing very high pressure and heating loads. Understanding this type of interaction is vital to the designers of cowl lips and leading edges on air- breathing hypersonic vehicles. This analytical model represents the first known attempt at predicting the geometry of the interaction explicitly, without knowing beforehand the jet dimensions, including the length of the transmitted shock where the jet originates. The model uses a hyperbolic equation for the bow shock and by matching mass continuity, flow directions and pressure throughout the flowfield, a prediction of the interaction geometry can be derived. The model has been shown to agree well with the flowfield patterns and properties of experiments and CFD, but the prediction for where the peak pressure is located, and its value, can be significantly in error due to a lack of sophistication in the model of the jet fluid stagnation region. Therefore it is recommended that this region of the flowfield be modeled in more detail and more accurate experimental and CFD measurements be used for validation. However, the analytical model has been shown to be a fast and economic prediction tool, suitable for preliminary design, or for understanding the interactions effects, including the basic physics of the interaction, such as the jet unsteadiness. The model has been used to examine a wide parametric space of possible interactions, including different Mach number, impinging shock strength and location, and cylinder radius. It has also been used to examine the interaction on power-law shaped blunt bodies, a possible candidate for
Dose response evaluation of a low-density normoxic polymer gel dosimeter using MRI
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haraldsson, P [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Department of Radiation Physics, Finsen Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Karlsson, A [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Wieslander, E [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Gustavsson, H [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Baeck, S A J [Medical Radiation Physics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden)
2006-02-21
A low-density ({approx}0.6 g cm{sup -3}) normoxic polymer gel, containing the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosponium (THP), has been investigated with respect to basic absorbed dose response characteristics. The low density was obtained by mixing the gel with expanded polystyrene spheres. The depth dose data for 6 and 18 MV photons were compared with Monte Carlo calculations. A large volume phantom was irradiated in order to study the 3D dose distribution from a 6 MV field. Evaluation of the gel was carried out using magnetic resonance imaging. An approximately linear response was obtained for 1/T2 versus dose in the dose range of 2 to 8 Gy. A small decrease in the dose response was observed for increasing concentrations of THP. A good agreement between measured and Monte Carlo calculated data was obained, both for test tubes and the larger 3D phantom. It was shown that a normoxic polymer gel with a reduced density could be obtained by adding expanded polystyrene spheres. In order to get reliable results, it is very important to have a uniform distribution of the gel and expanded polystyrene spheres in the phantom volume.
Dose response evaluation of a low-density normoxic polymer gel dosimeter using MRI
Haraldsson, P.; Karlsson, A.; Wieslander, E.; Gustavsson, H.; Bäck, S. Å. J.
2006-02-01
A low-density (~0.6 g cm-3) normoxic polymer gel, containing the antioxidant tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosponium (THP), has been investigated with respect to basic absorbed dose response characteristics. The low density was obtained by mixing the gel with expanded polystyrene spheres. The depth dose data for 6 and 18 MV photons were compared with Monte Carlo calculations. A large volume phantom was irradiated in order to study the 3D dose distribution from a 6 MV field. Evaluation of the gel was carried out using magnetic resonance imaging. An approximately linear response was obtained for 1/T2 versus dose in the dose range of 2 to 8 Gy. A small decrease in the dose response was observed for increasing concentrations of THP. A good agreement between measured and Monte Carlo calculated data was obained, both for test tubes and the larger 3D phantom. It was shown that a normoxic polymer gel with a reduced density could be obtained by adding expanded polystyrene spheres. In order to get reliable results, it is very important to have a uniform distribution of the gel and expanded polystyrene spheres in the phantom volume.
Uniform electron gases. III. Low-density gases on three-dimensional spheres
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agboola, Davids; Knol, Anneke L.; Gill, Peter M. W., E-mail: peter.gill@anu.edu.au; Loos, Pierre-François, E-mail: pf.loos@anu.edu.au [Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia)
2015-08-28
By combining variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and complete-basis-set limit Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations, we have obtained near-exact correlation energies for low-density same-spin electrons on a three-dimensional sphere (3-sphere), i.e., the surface of a four-dimensional ball. In the VMC calculations, we compare the efficacies of two types of one-electron basis functions for these strongly correlated systems and analyze the energy convergence with respect to the quality of the Jastrow factor. The HF calculations employ spherical Gaussian functions (SGFs) which are the curved-space analogs of Cartesian Gaussian functions. At low densities, the electrons become relatively localized into Wigner crystals, and the natural SGF centers are found by solving the Thomson problem (i.e., the minimum-energy arrangement of n point charges) on the 3-sphere for various values of n. We have found 11 special values of n whose Thomson sites are equivalent. Three of these are the vertices of four-dimensional Platonic solids — the hyper-tetrahedron (n = 5), the hyper-octahedron (n = 8), and the 24-cell (n = 24) — and a fourth is a highly symmetric structure (n = 13) which has not previously been reported. By calculating the harmonic frequencies of the electrons around their equilibrium positions, we also find the first-order vibrational corrections to the Thomson energy.
Effects of low-density feeding on elk–fetus contact rates on Wyoming feedgrounds
Creech, Tyler G.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Maichak, Eric J.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Henningsen, John C.; Creel, Scott
2012-01-01
High seroprevalance for Brucella abortus among elk on Wyoming feedgrounds suggests that supplemental feeding may influence parasite transmission and disease dynamics by altering the rate at which elk contact infectious materials in their environment. We used proximity loggers and video cameras to estimate rates of elk-to-fetus contact (the primary source of brucellosis transmission) during winter supplemental feeding. We compared contact rates during high-density and low-density (LD) feeding treatments that provided the same total amount of food distributed over different areas. Low-density feeding led to >70% reductions in total number of contacts and number of individuals contacting a fetus. Proximity loggers and video cameras provided similar estimates of elk–fetus contact rates. Elk contacted fetuses and random control points equally, suggesting that elk were not attracted to fetuses but encountered them incidentally while feeding. The modeled relationship between contact rate and disease prevalence is nonlinear and LD feeding may result in large reductions in brucellosis prevalence, but this depends on the amount of transmission that occurs on and off feedgrounds.
An intermittency route to global instability in low-density jets
Murugesan, Meenatchidevi; Zhu, Yuanhang; Li, Larry K. B.
2017-11-01
Above a critical Reynolds number (Re), a low-density jet can become globally unstable, transitioning from a steady state (i.e. a fixed point) to a self-excited oscillatory state (i.e. a limit cycle) via a Hopf bifurcation. In this experimental study, we show that this transition can sometimes involve intermittency. When Re is just slightly above the critical point, intermittent bursts of high-amplitude periodic oscillations emerge amidst a background of low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. As Re increases further, these intermittent bursts persist longer in time until they dominate the overall dynamics, causing the jet to transition fully to a periodic limit cycle. We identify this as Type-II Pomeau-Manneville intermittency by quantifying the statistical distribution of the duration of the aperiodic fluctuations at the onset of intermittency. This study shows that the transition to global instability in low-density jets is not always abrupt but can involve an intermediate state with characteristics of both the initial fixed point and the final limit cycle. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong (Project No. 16235716 and 26202815).
Electron beam cross-linking of natural rubber/linear-low density polyethylene blends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, A.; Mohd, D. H.; Abdullah, I.
2005-01-01
Effects of electron beam irradiation on the mechanical properties and morphological structure of natural rubber/linear-low density polyethylene blend was investigated The natural rubber/linear-low density polyethylene blend was prepared by melt blending in a Haake internal mixer at 140 d ig C , rotor speed of 50 rpm, and in 15 min Liquid natural rubber was incorporated into the blend as a compatibilizer Samples in the form of 1 mm sheets were exposed to 50-300 kGy of electron beam irradiation and analyzed for swelling index and gel content, tensile strength, and surface morphology. The result Indicated that gel content and mechanical properties of the samples increased with radiation dosage. The honey-comb structure of the surface morphology in low dosage irradiated samples slowly transformed into a continuous matrix on increasing radiation dose The variation of mechanical and physical properties was due to Increase in cross-linking density in the rubber and plastic phases and rubber-plastic Interaction on irradiation
Yang, Qian; Ke, Yini; Luo, Jianhong; Tang, Yang
2017-02-01
primary hippocampal neuron cultures allow for subcellular morphological dissection, easy access to drug treatment and electrophysiology analysis of individual neurons, and is therefore an ideal model for the study of neuron physiology. While neuron and glia mixed cultures are relatively easy to prepare, pure neurons are particular hard to culture at low densities which are suitable for morphology studies. This may be due to a lack of neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT3) and Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In this study we used a two step protocol in which neuron-glia mixed cultures were initially prepared for maturation to support the growth of young neurons plated at very low densities. Our protocol showed that neurotrophic support resulted in physiologically functional hippocampal neurons with larger cell body, increased neurite length and decreased branching and complexity compared to cultures prepared using a conventional method. Our protocol provides a novel way to culture highly uniformed hippocampal neurons for acquiring high quality, neuron based data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenberg, S.
1985-01-01
The effect of lipid transfer proteins on the exchange and transfer of cholesteryl esters from rat plasma HDL2 to human very low (VLDL) and low density (LDL) lipoprotein populations was studied. The use of a combination of radiochemical and chemical methods allowed separate assessment of [ 3 H]cholesteryl ester exchange and of cholesteryl ester transfer. VLDL-I was the preferred acceptor for transferred cholesteryl esters, followed by VLDL-II and VLDL-III. LDL did not acquire cholesteryl esters. The contribution of exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters to total transfer was highest for LDL and decreased in reverse order along the VLDL density range. Inactivation of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and heating the HDL2 for 60 min at 56 degrees C accelerated transfer and exchange of [ 3 H]cholesteryl esters. Addition of lipid transfer proteins increased cholesterol esterification in all systems. The data demonstrate that large-sized, triglyceride-rich VLDL particles are preferred acceptors for transferred cholesteryl esters. It is suggested that enrichment of very low density lipoproteins with cholesteryl esters reflects the triglyceride content of the particles
Hydrophobic and low density silica aerogels dried at ambient pressure using TEOS precursor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurav, Jyoti L.; Rao, A. Venkateswara; Bangi, Uzma K.H.
2009-01-01
In the conventional ambient pressure drying of silica aerogels, tedious repetitive gel washing and solvent exchange steps (∼6 days) are involved. Therefore, in the present studies, we intended to reduce the processing time of TEOS based ambient pressure dried silica aerogels. Solvents such as methanol, hexane and Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ) as surface chemical modification agents have been used. To get good quality aerogels in terms of low density, high porosity, high contact angle and low volume shrinkage in less processing time, we varied MeOH/TEOS, HMDZ/TEOS molar ratios, oxalic acid (A) and NH 4 OH (B) concentrations and stirring time from 1 to 27.7, 0.34 to 2.1, 0 to 0.1 M, 0 to 2 M and 15 to 90 min respectively. The transparent and low-density aerogels were obtained for TEOS:MeOH:acidic H 2 O:basic H 2 O:HMDZ molar ratio of 1:16.5:0.81:0.50:0.681 respectively. The thermal stability and hydrophobicity have been confirmed with Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal (TG-DT) analyses and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Microstructural study was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossam A. Gabbar
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The exponential increase of plastic production produces 100 million tonnes of waste plastics annually which could be converted into hydrocarbon fuels in a thermal cracking process called pyrolysis. In this research work, a direct current (DC thermal plasma circuit is designed and used for conversion of low density polyethylene (LDPE into diesel oil in a laboratory scale pyrolysis reactor. The experimental setup uses a 270 W DC thermal plasma at operating temperatures in the range of 625 °C to 860 °C for a low density polyethylene (LDPE pyrolysis reaction at pressure = −0.95, temperature = 550 °C with τ = 30 min at a constant heating rate of 7.8 °C/min. The experimental setup consists of a vacuum pump, closed system vessel, direct current (DC plasma circuit, and a k-type thermocouple placed a few millimeters from the reactant sample. The hydrocarbon products are condensed to diesel oil and analyzed using flame ionization detector (FID gas chromatography. The analysis shows 87.5% diesel oil, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (Surr, benzene, ethylbenzene and traces of toluene and xylene. The direct current (DC thermal plasma achieves 56.9 wt. % of diesel range oil (DRO, 37.8 wt. % gaseous products and minimal tar production. The direct current (DC thermal plasma shows reliability, better temperature control, and high thermal performance as well as the ability to work for long operation periods.
Power-Production Diagnostic Tools for Low-Density Wind Farms with Applications to Wake Steering
Takle, E. S.; Herzmann, D.; Rajewski, D. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Rhodes, M. E.
2016-12-01
Hansen (2011) provided guidelines for wind farm wake analysis with applications to "high density" wind farms (where average distance between turbines is less than ten times rotor diameter). For "low-density" (average distance greater than fifteen times rotor diameter) wind farms, or sections of wind farms we demonstrate simpler sorting and visualization tools that reveal wake interactions and opportunities for wind farm power prediction and wake steering. SCADA data from a segment of a large mid-continent wind farm, together with surface flux measurements and lidar data are subjected to analysis and visualization of wake interactions. A time-history animated visualization of a plan view of power level of individual turbines provides a quick analysis of wake interaction dynamics. Yaw-based sectoral histograms of enhancement/decline of wind speed and power from wind farm reference levels reveals angular width of wake interactions and identifies the turbine(s) responsible for the power reduction. Concurrent surface flux measurements within the wind farm allowed us to evaluate stability influence on wake loss. A one-season climatology is used to identify high-priority candidates for wake steering based on estimated power recovery. Typical clearing prices on the day-ahead market are used to estimate the added value of wake steering. Current research is exploring options for identifying candidate locations for wind farm "build-in" in existing low-density wind farms.
Acetaldehyde binding increases the catabolism of rat serum low-density lipoproteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savolainen, M.J.; Baraona, E.; Lieber, C.S.
1987-01-01
Acetaldehyde was found to form adducts with rat serum lipoproteins. The binding of [ 14 C]acetaldehyde to lipoproteins was studied at low concentrations which are known to exist during ethanol oxidation. The amount of lipoprotein adducts was a linear function of acetaldehyde concentration up to 250 μM. Incubation of rat plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL) with 200 μM acetaldehyde increased the disappearance rate of the 3 H-label from the cholesterol ester moiety of LDL injected into normal rats. The data show that even low concentrations of acetaldehyde are capable of affecting LDL metabolism. These findings may provide an explanation for the low concentrations of serum LDL in alcoholics. The alcohol-induced hyperlipidemia includes either a lack of increase or a decrease in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentration, but the underlying mechanism is not known. It has been shown previously, that the acetylation of lysine residues of LDL apoprotein (apoB) by acetanhydride leads to rapid uptake of LDL particles by macrophages through a non-LDL receptor pathway. Since acetaldehyde, the first toxic metabolite of ethanol, is a chemically reactive compound capable of binding to proteins, they tested whether acetaldehyde forms adducts with serum lipoproteins and subsequently alters the catabolism of LDL. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S Pauliina Turunen
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Increased risk for atherosclerosis is associated with infectious diseases including periodontitis. Natural IgM antibodies recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns on bacteria, and oxidized lipid and protein epitopes on low-density lipoprotein (LDL and apoptotic cells. We aimed to identify epitopes on periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis recognized by natural IgM binding to malondialdehyde (MDA modified LDL. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mouse monoclonal IgM (MDmAb specific for MDA-LDL recognized epitopes on P. gingivalis on flow cytometry and chemiluminescence immunoassays. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with P. gingivalis induced IgM, but not IgG, immune response to MDA-LDL and apoptotic cells. Immunization of LDLR(-/- mice with P. gingivalis induced IgM, but not IgG, immune response to MDA-LDL and diminished aortic lipid deposition. On Western blot MDmAb bound to P. gingivalis fragments identified as arginine-specific gingipain (Rgp by mass spectrometry. Recombinant domains of Rgp produced in E. coli were devoid of phosphocholine epitopes but contained epitopes recognized by MDmAb and human serum IgM. Serum IgM levels to P. gingivalis were associated with anti-MDA-LDL levels in humans. CONCLUSION: Gingipain of P. gingivalis is recognized by natural IgM and shares molecular identity with epitopes on MDA-LDL. These findings suggest a role for natural antibodies in the pathogenesis of two related inflammatory diseases, atherosclerosis and periodontitis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kevin D. Ballard
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate vascular endothelial function (VEF responses to a single low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis session in hypercholesterolemic patients undergoing chronic treatment. Methods. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD, plasma lipids, vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol, markers of oxidative/nitrative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA and nitro-γ-tocopherol (NGT, and regulators of NO metabolism (arginine (ARG and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA prior to (Pre and immediately following (Post LDL apheresis and at 1, 3, 7, and 14 d Post in 5 hypercholesterolemic patients (52 ± 11 y. Results. Relative to Pre, total cholesterol (7.8±1.5 mmol/L and LDL-cholesterol (6.2±1.2 mmol/L were 61% and 70% lower (P<0.01, respectively, at Post and returned to Pre levels at 14 d. Brachial FMD responses (6.9 ± 3.6% and plasma MDA, ARG, and ADMA concentrations were unaffected by LDL apheresis. Plasma α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and NGT concentrations were 52–69% lower at Post (P<0.01, and α-tocopherol remained 36% lower at 1 d whereas NGT remained 41% lower at d 3. Conclusions. Acute cholesterol reduction by LDL apheresis does not alter VEF, oxidative stress, or NO homeostasis in patients treated chronically for hypercholesterolemia.
Effective high-order solver with thermally perfect gas model for hypersonic heating prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang, Zhenhua; Yan, Chao; Yu, Jian; Qu, Feng; Ma, Libin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Design proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. • Line-implicit LUSGS enhances efficiency without extra memory consumption. • Develop unified framework for both second-order MUSCL and fifth-order WENO. • The designed gas model can be applied to much wider temperature range. - Abstract: Effective high-order solver based on the model of thermally perfect gas has been developed for hypersonic heat transfer computation. The technique of polynomial curve fit coupling to thermodynamics equation is suggested to establish the current model and particular attention has been paid to the design of proper numerical flux for thermally perfect gas. We present procedures that unify five-order WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory) scheme in the existing second-order finite volume framework and a line-implicit method that improves the computational efficiency without increasing memory consumption. A variety of hypersonic viscous flows are performed to examine the capability of the resulted high order thermally perfect gas solver. Numerical results demonstrate its superior performance compared to low-order calorically perfect gas method and indicate its potential application to hypersonic heating predictions for real-life problem.
Transition Prediction in Hypersonic Boundary Layers Using Receptivity and Freestream Spectra
Balakumar, P.; Chou, Amanda
2016-01-01
Boundary-layer transition in hypersonic flows over a straight cone can be predicted using measured freestream spectra, receptivity, and threshold values for the wall pressure fluctuations at the transition onset points. Simulations are performed for hypersonic boundary-layer flows over a 7-degree half-angle straight cone with varying bluntness at a freestream Mach number of 10. The steady and the unsteady flow fields are obtained by solving the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric coordinates using a 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using a third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. The calculated N-factors at the transition onset location increase gradually with increasing unit Reynolds numbers for flow over a sharp cone and remain almost the same for flow over a blunt cone. The receptivity coefficient increases slightly with increasing unit Reynolds numbers. They are on the order of 4 for a sharp cone and are on the order of 1 for a blunt cone. The location of transition onset predicted from the simulation including the freestream spectrum, receptivity, and the linear and the weakly nonlinear evolutions yields a solution close to the measured onset location for the sharp cone. The simulations over-predict transition onset by about twenty percent for the blunt cone.
Li, Yijun; Nie, Min; Wang, Qi
2018-01-10
Electromechanical sensors are indispensable components in functional devices and robotics application. However, the fabrication of the sensors still maintains a challenging issue that high percolation threshold and easy failure of conductive network are derived from uniaxial orientation of conductive fillers in practical melt processing. Herein, we reported a facile fabrication method to prepare a multiaxial low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/carbon fibers (CFs) tube with bidirectional controllable electrical conductivity and sensitive strain-responsive performance via rotation extrusion technology. The multidimensional helical flow is confirmed in the reverse rotation extrusion, and the CFs readily respond to the flow field leading to a multiaxial orientation in the LDPE matrix. In contrast to uniaxial LDPE/CF composites, which perform a "head to head" conjunction, multiaxial-orientated CF networks exhibit a unique multilayer structure in which the CFs with distinct orientation direction intersect in the interface, endowing the LDPE/CF composites with a low percolation threshold (15 wt %) to those of the uniaxial ones (∼35 wt %). The angles between two axes play a vital role in determining the density of the conductive networks in the interface, which is predominant in tuning the bending-responsive behaviors with a gauge factor range from 12.5 to 56.3 and the corresponding linear respond region from ∼15 to ∼1%. Such a superior performance of conductive LDPE/CF tube confirms that the design of multiaxial orientation paves a novel way to facile fabrication of advanced cost-effective CF-based smart materials, shedding light on promising applications such as smart materials and intelligent engineering monitoring.
Role of Turbulent Prandtl Number on Heat Flux at Hypersonic Mach Number
Xiao, X.; Edwards, J. R.; Hassan, H. A.
2004-01-01
Present simulation of turbulent flows involving shock wave/boundary layer interaction invariably overestimates heat flux by almost a factor of two. One possible reason for such a performance is a result of the fact that the turbulence models employed make use of Morkovin's hypothesis. This hypothesis is valid for non-hypersonic Mach numbers and moderate rates of heat transfer. At hypersonic Mach numbers, high rates of heat transfer exist in regions where shock wave/boundary layer interactions are important. As a result, one should not expect traditional turbulence models to yield accurate results. The goal of this investigation is to explore the role of a variable Prandtl number formulation in predicting heat flux in flows dominated by strong shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The intended applications involve external flows in the absence of combustion such as those encountered in supersonic inlets. This can be achieved by adding equations for the temperature variance and its dissipation rate. Such equations can be derived from the exact Navier-Stokes equations. Traditionally, modeled equations are based on the low speed energy equation where the pressure gradient term and the term responsible for energy dissipation are ignored. It is clear that such assumptions are not valid for hypersonic flows. The approach used here is based on the procedure used in deriving the k-zeta model, in which the exact equations that governed k, the variance of velocity, and zeta, the variance of vorticity, were derived and modeled. For the variable turbulent Prandtl number, the exact equations that govern the temperature variance and its dissipation rate are derived and modeled term by term. The resulting set of equations are free of damping and wall functions and are coordinate-system independent. Moreover, modeled correlations are tensorially consistent and invariant under Galilean transformation. The final set of equations will be given in the paper.
Viscous Interactions at Hypersonic Speed.
1986-09-12
had been allowed to occur. The experimental transition Reynolds numbers apd a lesser effect for high studies of Morrisette Stone and Carey l 0 at... joJO lSR TO ~tAS. 2 I(h% LOU -m Fir26 Meet Traner Distribution to theSo Cone in ’sens Asymmnesr T eaedtlond Flow Induced byTwo Mjeoet GOMM in the
Experimental atheromatous plaque imaging with 99mTc labelled low density lipoproteins in rabbit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Quanshi; Chen Yu; Wu Chunshan; Zhang Yijin; Liu Dexuan
1996-01-01
Atheromatous plaque imaging with 99m Tc labeled low density lipoproteins ( 99m Tc-LDL) were evaluated in rabbits for its clinical prospect. The 99m Tc-LDL atheromatous plaque imaging were performed in 9 rabbit models of atherosclerosis and 4 controls. The imagings were compared with autoradiographic and pathological results. The rabbit models of atherosclerosis by high cholesterol and high fat diet were successful in 100%. The atheromatous plaques well visualized in 8 of 9 rabbit models 24 hours after injection. The site and density of radioactive accumulation was closely correlated in autoradiography also. There was no radioactive spot in 4 controls. 99m Tc-LDL imaging may have a significant value for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis
Fullerene-based low-density superhard materials with tunable bandgaps
Cao, Ai-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Juan; Gan, Li-Hua
2018-06-01
Four carbon allotropes built from tetrahedral symmetrical fullerenes C28 and C40 are predicted to be superhard materials with mass density around that of water, and all of them are porous semiconductors. Both the bandgaps and hardness decrease with increasing ratio of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. The mechanical and thermodynamic stabilities of C28- and C40-based allotropes at zero pressure are confirmed by a variety of state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The evolution trend of bandgap found here suggests that one can obtain low-density hard materials with tunable bandgaps by substituting the carbon atom in diamond with different Td-symmetrical non-IPR fullerene Cn.
Hyperbranched polyester polyol plasticized tapioca starch/low density polyethylene blends
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guzman, Manuel; Giraldo, Diego; Murillo, Edwin, E-mail: edwinalbertomurillo@gmail.com [Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Universidad Francisco de Paula Santander, San Jose de Cucuta (Colombia)
2017-01-15
n this work, low density polyethylene (LDPE)/plasticised starch (TPS) blends were prepared. The TPS employed in this study was obtained by plasticization of tapioca starch with a hyperbranched polyester polyol. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melting temperature increased with the TPS content. The opposite effect was exhibited in the crystallization temperature and additional changes were not observed during the heating. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a reduction in intensity of the peak at Bragg’s angle 17.5°, proving a diminution on A type crystallinity with the increasing amount of LDPE. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy exhibited starch granules without destructure. TPS acted as a filler to LDPE, since the mechanical properties (Young's modulus and tensile strength) improved ostensibly. The Young' modulus and tensile strength decreased with the amount of LDPE, however, the elongation at break exhibited an opposite behavior. (author)
An FPGA Implementation of (3,6-Regular Low-Density Parity-Check Code Decoder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tong Zhang
2003-05-01
Full Text Available Because of their excellent error-correcting performance, low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have recently attracted a lot of attention. In this paper, we are interested in the practical LDPC code decoder hardware implementations. The direct fully parallel decoder implementation usually incurs too high hardware complexity for many real applications, thus partly parallel decoder design approaches that can achieve appropriate trade-offs between hardware complexity and decoding throughput are highly desirable. Applying a joint code and decoder design methodology, we develop a high-speed (3,k-regular LDPC code partly parallel decoder architecture based on which we implement a 9216-bit, rate-1/2(3,6-regular LDPC code decoder on Xilinx FPGA device. This partly parallel decoder supports a maximum symbol throughput of 54 Mbps and achieves BER 10Ã¢ÂˆÂ’6 at 2 dB over AWGN channel while performing maximum 18 decoding iterations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hay, R.V.; Ryan, J.W.; Williams, K.A.; Atcher, R.W.; Brechbiel, M.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Fleming, R.M.; Stark, V.J.; Lathrop, K.A.; Harper, P.V.
1992-01-01
The authors propose a model to generate radiation absorbed dose estimates for radiolabeled low density lipoprotein (LDL), based upon eight studies of LDL biodistribution in three adult human subjects. Autologous plasma LDL was labeled with Tc-99m, I-123, or In-111 and injected intravenously. Biodistribution of each LDL derivative was monitored by quantitative analysis of scintigrams and direct counting of excreta and of serial blood samples. Assuming that transhepatic flux accounts for the majority of LDL clearance from the bloodstream, they obtained values of cumulated activity (A) and of mean dose per unit administered activity (D) for each study. In each case highest D values were calculated for liver, with mean doses of 5 rads estimated at injected activities of 27 mCi, 9 mCi, and 0.9 mCi for Tc-99m-LDL, I-123-LDL, and In-111-LDL, respectively
Lee, Dae Ho; Kim, Yongkwan; Fearing, Ronald S; Maboudian, Roya
2011-09-06
Ordered low-density polyethylene (LDPE) nanofiber arrays are fabricated from silicon nanowire (SiNW) templates synthesized by a simple wet-chemical process based on metal-assisted electroless etching combined with colloidal lithography. The geometrical effect of nanofibrillar structures on their macroscale friction is investigated over a wide range of diameters and lengths under the same fiber density. The optimum geometry for contacting a smooth glass surface is presented with discussions on the compromise between fiber tip-contact area and fiber compliance. A friction design map is developed, which shows that the theoretical optimum design condition agrees well with the LDPE nanofiber geometries exhibiting high measured friction. © 2011 American Chemical Society
Low-density carbonized composite foams for direct-drive laser ICF targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong, Fung-Ming.
1989-03-01
The design for a direct-drive, high-gain laser inertial confinement fusion target calls for the use of a low-density, low-atomic-number foam to confine and stabilize liquid deuterium-tritium (DT) in a spherical-shell configuration. Over the past two years, we have successfully developed polystyrene foams (PS) and carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams (CRF) for that purpose. Both candidates are promising materials with unique characteristics. PS has superior mechanical strength and machinability, but its relatively large thermal contraction is a significant disadvantage. CRF has outstanding wettability and dimensional stability in liquid DT; yet it is much more fragile than PS. To combine the strengths of both materials, we have recently developed a polymer composite foam which exceeds PS in mechanical strength, but retains the wettability and dimension stability of CRF. This paper will discuss the preparation, structure, and properties of the polymer composite foams. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djavaheri-Mergny, M.; Santus, R.; Mora, L.; Maziere, J.C.; Faculte de Medecine Saint-Antoine, 75 -Paris; Maziere, C.; Auclair, M.; Dubertret, L.
1993-01-01
Exposure of MRC5 human fibroblasts to UVA radiation (365 nm) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake and degradation by cells. Following a 25 J/cm 2 irradiation dose, about 45% and 70% reduction in 125 I-LDL uptake and degradation were observed, respectively. Under the same conditions, the 14 C-sucrose uptake was also decreased to about the same extent as LDL uptake. Cell pretreatment with the antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C did not prevent the UVA-induced fall in LDL degradation. These results point to the possible effects of UVA radiation on receptor-mediated and nonspecific uptake of exogenous molecules. With special regard to the alterations in receptor-mediated processing of exogenous ligands, such a phenomenon could be of importance in UVA-induced skin degenerative processes. (Author)
Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.; Noriman, N. Z.; Ragunathan, S.; Ismail, H.
2015-07-01
Soya spent powder was blended with low density polyethylene (LDPE) ranging from 5-25 wt%. Glycerol was added to soya spent powder (SSP) for preparation of thermoplastic soya spent powder (TSSP). Then, the blends were exposed to natural weathering for 6 months. The susceptibility of the LDPE/soya spent powder blends based on its tensile, morphological properties and structural changes was measured every three months. The tensile strength of LDPE/TSSP blends after 6 months of weathering was the lowest compared to the other blends whereas LDPE/SSP blends after 6 months of weathering demonstrated the lowest elongation at break (Eb). Large pore can be seen on the surface of 25 wt% of LDPE/SSP blends.
Hyperbranched polyester polyol plasticized tapioca starch/low density polyethylene blends
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Guzmán
Full Text Available Abstract In this work, low density polyethylene (LDPE/plasticized starch (TPS blends were prepared. The TPS employed in this study was obtained by plasticization of tapioca starch with a hyperbranched polyester polyol. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melting temperature increased with the TPS content. The opposite effect was exhibited in the crystallization temperature and additional changes were not observed during the heating. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a reduction in intensity of the peak at Bragg’s angle 17.5°, proving a diminution on A type crystallinity with the increasing amount of LDPE. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy exhibited starch granules without destructure. TPS acted as a filler to LDPE, since the mechanical properties (Young’s modulus and tensile strength improved ostensibly. The Young’ modulus and tensile strength decreased with the amount of LDPE, however, the elongation at break exhibited an opposite behavior.
Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1) in sickle cell disease vasculopathy
Chen, Mingyi; Qiu, Hong; Lin, Xin; Nam, David; Ogbu-Nwobodo, Lucy; Archibald, Hannah; Joslin, Amelia; Wun, Ted; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Green, Ralph
2017-01-01
Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an endothelial receptor for oxidized LDL. Increased expression of LOX-1 has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions and diabetic vasculopathy. In this study, we investigate the expression of LOX-1 receptor in sickle cell disease (SCD) vasculopathy. Expression of LOX-1 in brain vascular endothelium is markedly increased and LOX-1 gene expression is upregulated in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells by incubation with SCD erythrocytes. Also, the level of circulating soluble LOX-1 concentration is elevated in the plasma of SCD patients. Increased LOX-1 expression in endothelial cells is potentially involved in the pathogenesis of SCD vasculopathy. Soluble LOX-1 concentration in SCD may provide a novel biomarker for risk stratification of sickle cell vascular complications. PMID:27519944
Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping
2015-10-30
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lipid oxidation in human low-density lipoprotein induced by metmyoglobin/H2O2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witting, P K; Willhite, C A; Davies, Michael Jonathan
1999-01-01
Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H(2)O(2) can oxidize low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro, and oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases such as metMb is unclear. Herein, we show that during metMb/H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation of native LDL...... of CE-O(O)H is dependent on, and correlates with, LDL's alpha-TOH content, yet does not require preformed lipid hydroperoxides or H(2)O(2). This indicates that in native LDL alpha-TOH can act as a phase-transfer agent and alpha-TO(*) as a chain-transfer agent propagating LDL lipid peroxidation via...
Low-density lipoprotein modified by myeloperoxidase oxidants induces endothelial dysfunction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdo, Adrian; Rayner, B.S.; van Reyk, D.M.
2017-01-01
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by hypochlorous acid (HOCl) produced by myeloperoxidase (MPO) is present in atherosclerotic lesions, where it is implicated in the propagation of inflammation and acceleration of lesion development by multiple pathways, including the induction of endothelial......, although emerging evidence suggests that these particles have distinct biological properties. This is important because elevated plasma SCN- is linked with both the propagation and prevention of atherosclerosis. In this study, we demonstrate that both HOSCN- and HOCl-modified LDL inhibit endothelium......-mediated vasorelaxation ex vivo in rat aortic ring segments. In vitro experiments with human coronary artery endothelial cells show that HOSCN-modified LDL decreases in the production of nitric oxide (NO•) and induces the loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. This occurs to a similar extent...
Accumulation and interaction of hypericin in low-density lipoprotein--a photophysical study.
Mukherjee, Prasun; Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Halder, Mintu; Petrich, Jacob W; Miskovsky, Pavol
2008-01-01
The accumulation and interaction of hypericin with the biologically important macromolecule, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), is investigated using various steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. It is concluded that multiple hypericins can penetrate considerably deeply into the LDL molecule. Up to approximately 20 nonaggregated hypericin molecules can enter LDL; but upon increasing the hypericin concentration, the fluorescence lifetime of hypericin decreases drastically, suggesting most likely the self-quenching of aggregated hypericin. There is also evidence of energy transfer from tryptophans of the constituent protein, apoB-100, to hypericin in LDL. The results demonstrate the ability of LDL to solubilize hypericin (a known photosensitizer) in nonaggregated form, which has implications for the construction of drug delivery systems.
Transport tensors in perfectly aligned low-density fluids: Self-diffusion and thermal conductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, G. S.; Kumar, B.
2001-01-01
The modified Taxman equation for the kinetic theory of low-density fluids composed of rigid aspherical molecules possessing internal degrees of freedom is generalized to obtain the transport tensors in a fluid of aligned molecules. The theory takes care of the shape of the particles exactly but the solution has been obtained only for the case of perfectly aligned hard spheroids within the framework of the first Sonine polynomial approximation. The expressions for the thermal-conductivity components have been obtained for the first time whereas the self-diffusion components obtained here turn out to be exactly the same as those derived by Kumar and Masters [Mol. Phys. >81, 491 (1994)] through the solution of the Lorentz-Boltzmann equation. All our expressions yield correct results in the hard-sphere limit
Direct effects of fatty meals and adiposity on oxidised low-density lipoprotein.
Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Alonso-Barreto, Arely S; Mendieta-Zerón, Hugo
2015-01-01
High-fat intake and high adiposity contribute to hyperlipaemia. In a hyperlipaemic state, lipoproteins infiltrate arterial wall where they are modified and cause an immune response characteristic of atherosclerosis. A small fraction of modified lipoproteins including oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) returns to circulation. The present study tracked high-fat meals during four weeks as to find effects of sustained frequency change on adiposity and ox-LDL. The findings indicated that changes in frequency of consumption of high-fat eating episodes correlated directly with changes in adiposity and ox-LDL. Hence the number of fatty meals consumed by people with overweight or obesity in few weeks could affect the atherogenic process. Copyright © 2015 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taheri Qazvini, N.; Mohammadi, N.; Ghaffarian, R.; Assempour, H.; Haghighatkish, M.
2002-01-01
The effect of two important parameters of film blowing processes, i.e., take-up ration and blow-up ratio, on the overall orientation of low-density blown films have been investigated using birefringence measurements. Furthermore, by combining x-ray diffraction pole figure analysis and birefringence, the White and Spruiell biaxial orientation functions have been determined for aforementioned sample. Within the range of processing condition studied, increasing take-up ratio, increases orientation in both machine and transverse direction. Upon increasing blow-up ratio, orientation in the transverse direction increases and the overall orientation state approaches to equal biaxial one. Characterization of the crystalline regions by pole figure analysis reveals that a and b crystallographic axes preferentially orientate in the film plane and the direction normal to it, respectively. The amorphous regions do not have any preferential orientation
Faris, N. A.; Noriman, N. Z.; Haron, Adli; Sam, S. T.; Hamzah, R.; Shayfull, Z.; Ghazali, M. F.
2017-09-01
The potential of Cyperus Odoratus (CY) as a filler was studied. The CY, in a powder form, was mixed with Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE), prior to being fed into a twin screw extruder and subsequently into an injection moulding machine to produce LLDPY/CY biocomposites. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was utilized and tensile tests were performed on the test specimens to characterize the structure and properties of the composites. The integration of CY powder and LLDPE resulted in an increment of the modulus of elasticity, but a reduction in tensile strength and elongation at break. The morphology characterization of these composites, determined through the SEM, showed poor interfacial adhesion between the filler and the thermoplastic LLDPE matrix.
Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Saad, David
2003-01-01
Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models
Effect of high density lipoproteins on permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimov, A.N.; Popov, V.A.; Nagornev, V.A.; Pleskov, V.M.
1985-01-01
A study was made on the effect of high density lipoproteins (HDL) on the permeability of rabbit aorta to low density lipoproteins (LDL) after intravenous administration of human HDL and human ( 125 I)LDL to normal and hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Evaluation of radioactivity in plasma and aorta has shown that the administration of a large dose of HDL decreased the aorta permeability rate for ( 125 I)LDL on an average by 19% in normal rabbits, and by 45% in rabbits with moderate hypercholesterolemia. A historadiographic study showed that HDL also decreased the vessel wall permeability to ( 125 I)LDL in normal and particularly in hypercholesterolemic animals. The suggestion was made that HDL at very high molar concentration can hamper LDL transportation through the intact endothelial layer into the intima due to the ability of HDL to compete with LDL in sites of low affinity on the surface of endothelial cells. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreto, Helio F.R.; Oliveira, Ana C.F. de; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate structural changes of low density polyethylene (LDPE) modified by ionizing radiation (gamma rays). The gamma radiation process for modification of commercial polymers is a widely applied technique to promote new physical-chemical and mechanical properties. Gamma irradiation originates free radicals which can induce chain scission or recombination, providing its annihilation, branching or crosslinking. The samples were prepare in hydraulic press in temperature 180 deg C after was irradiated with gamma source of 60 Co at doses of 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 kGy at a dose rate of 5 kGy/h in inert atmosphere. The changes in molecular structure of LDPE, after gamma irradiations were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tensile machine and oscillatory rheology. The results showed the variations of the properties depending on the dose at each atmosphere. (author)
Field emission properties of low-density carbon nanotubes prepared on anodic aluminum-oxide template
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeong, Soo-Hwan [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Hong [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
2004-08-15
Anodic aluminum-oxide (AAO) templates were fabricated by two-step anodizing an Al film. After the Co catalyst had been electrochemically deposited onto the bottom of the AAO template, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by using catalytic pyrolysis of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at 650 .deg. C. Overgrowth of CNTs with low density on the AAO templates was observed. The field-emission measurements on the samples showed a turn-on field of 2.17 V/mum and a field enhancement factor of 5700. The emission pattern on a phosphor screen was quite homogeneous over the area at a relatively low electric field.
Spatially coupled low-density parity-check error correction for holographic data storage
Ishii, Norihiko; Katano, Yutaro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Kinoshita, Nobuhiro
2017-09-01
The spatially coupled low-density parity-check (SC-LDPC) was considered for holographic data storage. The superiority of SC-LDPC was studied by simulation. The simulations show that the performance of SC-LDPC depends on the lifting number, and when the lifting number is over 100, SC-LDPC shows better error correctability compared with irregular LDPC. SC-LDPC is applied to the 5:9 modulation code, which is one of the differential codes. The error-free point is near 2.8 dB and over 10-1 can be corrected in simulation. From these simulation results, this error correction code can be applied to actual holographic data storage test equipment. Results showed that 8 × 10-2 can be corrected, furthermore it works effectively and shows good error correctability.
Typical performance of regular low-density parity-check codes over general symmetric channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, Toshiyuki [Department of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minami-Osawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Saad, David [Neural Computing Research Group, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)
2003-10-31
Typical performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes over a general binary-input output-symmetric memoryless channel is investigated using methods of statistical mechanics. Relationship between the free energy in statistical-mechanics approach and the mutual information used in the information-theory literature is established within a general framework; Gallager and MacKay-Neal codes are studied as specific examples of LDPC codes. It is shown that basic properties of these codes known for particular channels, including their potential to saturate Shannon's bound, hold for general symmetric channels. The binary-input additive-white-Gaussian-noise channel and the binary-input Laplace channel are considered as specific channel models.
Entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Clark, David; Tonchev, Vladimir D.; Vandendriessche, Peter; De Boeck, Maarten
2010-01-01
This article develops a general method for constructing entanglement-assisted quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, which is based on combinatorial design theory. Explicit constructions are given for entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes with many desirable properties. These properties include the requirement of only one initial entanglement bit, high error-correction performance, high rates, and low decoding complexity. The proposed method produces several infinite families of codes with a wide variety of parameters and entanglement requirements. Our framework encompasses the previously known entanglement-assisted quantum LDPC codes having the best error-correction performance and many other codes with better block error rates in simulations over the depolarizing channel. We also determine important parameters of several well-known classes of quantum and classical LDPC codes for previously unsettled cases.
Entanglement-assisted quantum quasicyclic low-density parity-check codes
Hsieh, Min-Hsiu; Brun, Todd A.; Devetak, Igor
2009-03-01
We investigate the construction of quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes from classical quasicyclic (QC) LDPC codes with girth greater than or equal to 6. We have shown that the classical codes in the generalized Calderbank-Skor-Steane construction do not need to satisfy the dual-containing property as long as preshared entanglement is available to both sender and receiver. We can use this to avoid the many four cycles which typically arise in dual-containing LDPC codes. The advantage of such quantum codes comes from the use of efficient decoding algorithms such as sum-product algorithm (SPA). It is well known that in the SPA, cycles of length 4 make successive decoding iterations highly correlated and hence limit the decoding performance. We show the principle of constructing quantum QC-LDPC codes which require only small amounts of initial shared entanglement.
Quantum Kronecker sum-product low-density parity-check codes with finite rate
Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P.
2013-07-01
We introduce an ansatz for quantum codes which gives the hypergraph-product (generalized toric) codes by Tillich and Zémor and generalized bicycle codes by MacKay as limiting cases. The construction allows for both the lower and the upper bounds on the minimum distance; they scale as a square root of the block length. Many thus defined codes have a finite rate and limited-weight stabilizer generators, an analog of classical low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Compared to the hypergraph-product codes, hyperbicycle codes generally have a wider range of parameters; in particular, they can have a higher rate while preserving the estimated error threshold.
An Investigation on Rheology of Peroxide Cross-linking of Low Density Polyethylene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ghasemi, Ismaeil; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Szabo, Peter
2005-01-01
One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross-linking on th......One of the most important post-reactor modifications of polyethylene is cross-linking. It improves some properties of polyethylene such as environmental stress cracking resistance, chemical and abrasion resistance, and service temperature. In this study, the effect of peroxide cross......-linking on the rheological behaviour of low density polyethylene was investigated by using a combination of creep test and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in isotherm condition. The used peroxide was di-cumyl peroxide and its concentration was 2 wt%. The experiments were carried out at 150,160, and 170 degrees C...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pattison, David I; Hawkins, Clare Louise; Davies, Michael Jonathan
2003-01-01
Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is believed to contribute to the increased uptake of LDL by macrophages, which is an early event in atherosclerosis. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been implicated as one of the major oxidants involved in these processes. In a previous study, the rates...... of reaction of HOCl with the reactive sites in proteins were investigated (Pattison, D. I., and Davies, M. J. (2001) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14, 1453-1464). The work presented here expands on those studies to determine absolute second-order rate constants for the reactions of HOCl with various lipid components...... nitrogen- and carbon-centered radicals. Subsequent reactions of these species may induce oxidation of the LDL lipid component. In contrast, phosphoryl-choline reacted much more slowly (k Reaction of HOCl with 3-pentenoic acid was used as a model of lipid double bonds...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akl C. Fahed
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Pregnancy in women with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH has been rarely reported and might pose risks on the mother and her fetus. Although most reported cases remained on low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis, there are no clear guidelines regarding the management of this entity. We report the first case of an uncomplicated pregnancy in a 24-year-old homozygous FH woman who was not maintained on LDL apheresis. FH expresses a wide variability in the phenotype, and management of homozygous FH cases who desire to become pregnant should be individualized based on preconceptional assessment with frequent antenatal follow-up. Decisions on management should be made after weighing the risks versus benefits of LDL apheresis.
In vitro biological efficacy of boronated low density lipoproteins for NCT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahl, S.B.; Pate, D.; Laster, B.H.; Popenoe, E.A.; Fairchild, R.G.
1992-01-01
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) are known to be internalized within the cell by receptor-mediated mechanisms. There is evidence that LDLs may be taken up avidly by tumor cells to provide cholesterol for the synthesis of cell membrane. Thus, the possibility exists that LDLs may provide an ideal vehicle for the transport of boron to tumor cells for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). A boronated analog of LDL has recently been synthesized for possible application in NCT. The analog was tested in cell culture for uptake and biological efficacy in the thermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). It was found that boron concentrations ten times higher than that required for NCT were easily obtained, and that uptake data were constant with a receptor mediated binding mechanism. The measured intracellular concentration of ∼240 μg 10 B/g cells is significantly higher than that obtained with any other boron compound previously evaluated for possible clinical application
Tapanuli Organoclay Addition Into Linear Low Density Polyethylene-Pineapple Fiber Composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adawiyah, Robiatul; Juwono, Ariadne L.; Roseno, Seto
2010-01-01
Linear low density polyethylene-Tapanuli organoclay-pineapple fiber composites were succesfully synthesized by a melt intercalation method. The clay was modified as an organoclay by a cation exchange reaction using hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMABr) surfactant. The X-ray diffraction results of the organoclay exhibited a higher basal spacing of 1.87 nm compared to the unmodified clay of 1.46 nm. The composite tensile strength was enhanced up to 46.4% with the 1 wt% organoclay addition. Both tensile and flexural moduli increased up to 150.6% and 43% with the 3 wt% organoclay addition to the composites. However, the flexural strength of the composites was not improved with the organoclay addition. The addition of organoclay has also decreased the heat deflection temperature of the composites.
Low-density, one-dimensional quantum gases in the presence of a localized attractive potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goold, J; O'Donoghue, D; Busch, Th
2008-01-01
We investigate low-density, quantum-degenerate gases in the presence of a localized attractive potential in the centre of a one-dimensional harmonic trap. The attractive potential is modelled using a parameterized δ-function, allowing us to determine all single-particle eigenfunctions analytically. From these we calculate the ground-state many-body properties for a system of spin-polarized fermions and, using the Bose-Fermi mapping theorem, extend the results to strongly interacting bosonic systems. We discuss the single-particle densities, the pair-correlation functions, the reduced single-particle density matrices and the momentum distributions as a function of the particle number and strength of the attractive point potential. As an important experimental observable, we place special emphasis on spatial coherence properties of such samples.
Low-density, high-strength intermetallic matrix composites by XD (trademark) synthesis
Kumar, K. S.; Dipietro, M. S.; Brown, S. A.; Whittenberger, J. D.
1991-01-01
A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the potential of particulate composites based on low-density, L1(sub 2) trialuminide matrices for high-temperature applications. The compounds evaluated included Al22Fe3Ti8 (as a multiphase matrix), Al67Ti25Cr8, and Al66Ti25Mn9. The reinforcement consisted of TiB2 particulates. The TiB2 composites were processed by ingot and powder metallurgy techniques. Microstructural characterization and mechanical testing were performed in the hot-pressed and hot-isostatic-pressed condition. The casting were sectioned and isothermally forged into pancakes. All the materials were tested in compression as a function of temperature, and at high temperatures as a function of strain rate. The test results are discussed.