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  1. Hyperoxic treatment induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in a rat adenocarcinoma model.

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    Ingrid Moen

    Full Text Available Tumor hypoxia is relevant for tumor growth, metabolism and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT. We report that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO treatment induced mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET in a dimethyl-alpha-benzantracene induced mammary rat adenocarcinoma model, and the MET was associated with extensive coordinated gene expression changes and less aggressive tumors. One group of tumor bearing rats was exposed to HBO (2 bar, pO(2 = 2 bar, 4 exposures à 90 minutes, whereas the control group was housed under normal atmosphere (1 bar, pO(2 = 0.2 bar. Treatment effects were determined by assessment of tumor growth, tumor vascularisation, tumor cell proliferation, cell death, collagen fibrils and gene expression profile. Tumor growth was significantly reduced (approximately 16% after HBO treatment compared to day 1 levels, whereas control tumors increased almost 100% in volume. Significant decreases in tumor cell proliferation, tumor blood vessels and collagen fibrils, together with an increase in cell death, are consistent with tumor growth reduction and tumor stroma influence after hyperoxic treatment. Gene expression profiling showed that HBO induced MET. In conclusion, hyperoxia induced MET with coordinated expression of gene modules involved in cell junctions and attachments together with a shift towards non-tumorigenic metabolism. This leads to more differentiated and less aggressive tumors, and indicates that oxygen per se might be an important factor in the "switches" of EMT and MET in vivo. HBO treatment also attenuated tumor growth and changed tumor stroma, by targeting the vascular system, having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects.

  2. Hydrogen gas reduces hyperoxic lung injury via the Nrf2 pathway in vivo

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    Kawamura, Tomohiro; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Shigemura, Norihisa; Huang, Chien-Sheng; Masutani, Kosuke; Tanaka, Yugo; Noda, Kentaro; Peng, Ximei; Takahashi, Toru; Billiar, Timothy R.; Okumura, Meinoshin; Toyoda, Yoshiya; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperoxic lung injury is a major concern in critically ill patients who receive high concentrations of oxygen to treat lung diseases. Successful abrogation of hyperoxic lung injury would have a huge impact on respiratory and critical care medicine. Hydrogen can be administered as a therapeutic medical gas. We recently demonstrated that inhaled hydrogen reduced transplant-induced lung injury and induced heme oxygenase (HO)-1. To determine whether hydrogen could reduce hyperoxic lung injury and investigate the underlying mechanisms, we randomly assigned rats to four experimental groups and administered the following gas mixtures for 60 h: 98% oxygen (hyperoxia), 2% nitrogen; 98% oxygen (hyperoxia), 2% hydrogen; 98% balanced air (normoxia), 2% nitrogen; and 98% balanced air (normoxia), 2% hydrogen. We examined lung function by blood gas analysis, extent of lung injury, and expression of HO-1. We also investigated the role of NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2, which regulates HO-1 expression, by examining the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes and the ability of hydrogen to reduce hyperoxic lung injury in Nrf2-deficient mice. Hydrogen treatment during exposure to hyperoxia significantly improved blood oxygenation, reduced inflammatory events, and induced HO-1 expression. Hydrogen did not mitigate hyperoxic lung injury or induce HO-1 in Nrf2-deficient mice. These findings indicate that hydrogen gas can ameliorate hyperoxic lung injury through induction of Nrf2-dependent genes, such as HO-1. The findings suggest a potentially novel and applicable solution to hyperoxic lung injury and provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms and actions of hydrogen. PMID:23475767

  3. Prenatal administration of the cytochrome P4501A inducer, Β-naphthoflavone (BNF), attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice: Implications for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants

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    Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Liang Yanhong Wei; Jiang Weiwu; Wang Lihua; Barrios, Roberto; Yang Peiying; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2011-01-01

    Supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal treatment of pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) with the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 inducer, ss-napthoflavone (BNF), will lead to attenuation of lung injury in newborns (delivered from these dams) exposed to hyperoxia by mechanisms entailing transplacental induction of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes. Pregnant mice were administered the vehicle corn oil (CO) or BNF (40 mg/kg), i.p., once daily for 3 days on gestational days (17-19), and newborns delivered from the mothers were either maintained in room air or exposed to hyperoxia (> 95% O 2 ) for 1-5 days. After 3-5 days of hyperoxia, the lungs of CO-treated mice showed neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary edema, and perivascular inflammation. On the other hand, BNF-pretreated neonatal mice showed decreased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These mice displayed marked induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) (CYP1A2) activities, and levels of the corresponding apoproteins and mRNA levels until PND 3 in liver, while CYP1A1 expression alone was augmented in the lung. Prenatal BNF did not significantly alter gene expression of pulmonary NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1). Hyperoxia for 24-72 h resulted in increased pulmonary levels of the F 2 -isoprostane 8-iso-PGF 2α , whose levels were decreased in mice prenatally exposed to BNF. In conclusion, our results suggest that prenatal BNF protects newborns against hyperoxic lung injury, presumably by detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by CYP1A enzymes, a phenomenon that has implications for prevention of BPD in infants. - Highlights: → Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants. → Hyperoxia causes lung injury in experimental animals. → Prenatal treatment of mice with beta-naphthoflavone attenuates oxygen injury

  4. Regulation of cytochrome P4501A1 expression by hyperoxia in human lung cell lines: Implications for hyperoxic lung injury

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    Bhakta, Kushal Y.; Jiang, Weiwu; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Fazili, Inayat S.; Muthiah, Kathirvel; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2008-01-01

    Supplemental oxygen, used to treat pulmonary insufficiency in newborns, contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Cytochrome P4501A enzymes are induced by hyperoxia in animal models, but their role in human systems is unknown. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of induction of CYP1A1 by hyperoxia in human lung cell lines. Three human lung cell lines were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O2) for 0-72 h, and CYP1A1 activities, apoprotein contents, and mRNA levels were determined. Hyperoxia significantly induced CYP1A1 activity and protein contents (2-4 fold), and mRNA levels (30-40 fold) over control in each cell line. Transfection of a CYP1A1 promoter/luciferase reporter construct, followed by hyperoxia (4-72 h), showed marked (2-6 fold) induction of luciferase expression. EMSA and siRNA experiments strongly suggest that the Ah receptor (AHR) is involved in the hyperoxic induction of CYP1A1. MTT reduction assays showed attenuation of cell injury with the CYP1A1 inducer beta-naphthoflavone (BNF). Our results strongly suggest that hyperoxia transcriptionally activates CYP1A1 expression in human lung cell lines by AHR-dependent mechanisms, and that CYP1A1 induction is associated with decreased toxicity. This novel finding of induction of CYP1A1 in the absence of exogenous AHR ligands could lead to novel interventions in the treatment of BPD

  5. Effect of CPAP in a Mouse Model of Hyperoxic Neonatal Lung Injury

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    Reyburn, Brent; Fiore, Juliann M. Di; Raffay, Thomas; Martin, Richard J.; Y.S., Prakash; Jafri, Anjum; MacFarlane, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] and supplemental oxygen have become the mainstay of neonatal respiratory support in preterm infants. Although oxygen therapy is associated with respiratory morbidities including bronchopulmonary dysplasia [BPD], the long-term effects of CPAP on lung function are largely unknown. We used a hyperoxia-induced mouse model of BPD to explore the effects of daily CPAP during the first week of life on later respiratory system mechanics. Objective To test the hypothesis that daily CPAP in a newborn mouse model of BPD improves longer term respiratory mechanics. Methods Mouse pups from C57BL/6 pregnant dams were exposed to room air [RA] or hyperoxia [50% O2, 24hrs/day] for the first postnatal week with or without exposure to daily CPAP [6cmH2O, 3hrs/day]. Respiratory system resistance [Rrs] and compliance [Crs] were measured following a subsequent 2 week period of room RA recovery. Additional measurements included radial alveolar counts and macrophage counts. Results Mice exposed to hyperoxia had significantly elevated Rrs, decreased Crs, reduced alveolarization, and increased macrophage counts at three weeks compared to RA treated mice. Daily CPAP treatment significantly improved Rrs, Crs and alveolarization, and decreased lung macrophage infiltration in hyperoxia-exposed pups. Conclusions We have demonstrated that daily CPAP had a longer term benefit on baseline respiratory system mechanics in a neonatal mouse model of BPD. We speculate that this beneficial effect of CPAP was the consequence of a decrease in the inflammatory response and resultant alveolar injury associated with hyperoxic newborn lung injury. PMID:26394387

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid generation by pulmonary NKT cell ENPP-2/autotaxin exacerbates hyperoxic lung injury.

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    Nowak-Machen, Martina; Lange, Martin; Exley, Mark; Wu, Sherry; Usheva, Anny; Robson, Simon C

    2015-12-01

    Hyperoxia is still broadly used in clinical practice in order to assure organ oxygenation in critically ill patients, albeit known toxic effects. In this present study, we hypothesize that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediates NKT cell activation in a mouse model of hyperoxic lung injury. In vitro, pulmonary NKT cells were exposed to hyperoxia for 72 h, and the induction of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP-2) was examined and production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) was measured. In vivo, animals were exposed to 100 % oxygen for 72 h and lungs and serum were harvested. Pulmonary NKT cells were then incubated with the LPA antagonist Brp-LPA. Animals received BrP-LPA prior to oxygen exposure. Autotaxin (ATX, ENPP-2) was significantly up-regulated on pulmonary NKT cells after hyperoxia (p NKT cells. LPA levels were significantly reduced by incubating NKT cells with LPA-BrP during oxygen exposure (p NKT cell numbers in vivo. BrP-LPA injection significantly improved survival as well as significantly decreased lung injury and lowered pulmonary NKT cell numbers. We conclude that NKT cell-induced hyperoxic lung injury is mediated by pro-inflammatory LPA generation, at least in part, secondary to ENPP-2 up-regulation on pulmonary NKT cells. Being a potent LPA antagonist, BrP-LPA prevents hyperoxia-induced lung injury in vitro and in vivo.

  7. A novel perspective to calibrate temporal delays in cerebrovascular reactivity using hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges.

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    Champagne, Allen A; Bhogal, Alex A; Coverdale, Nicole S; Mark, Clarisse I; Cook, Douglas J

    2017-12-05

    Redistribution of blood flow across different brain regions, arising from the vasoactive nature of hypercapnia, can introduce errors when examining cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) response delays. In this study, we propose a novel analysis method to characterize hemodynamic delays in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to hypercapnia, and hyperoxia, as a way to provide insight into transient differences in vascular reactivity between cortical regions, and across tissue depths. A pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling sequence was used to acquire BOLD and cerebral blood flow simultaneously in 19 healthy adults (12 F; 20 ± 2 years) during boxcar CO 2 and O 2 gas inhalation paradigms. Despite showing distinct differences in hypercapnia-induced response delay times (P  0.05) once calibrated for bolus arrival time derived using non-vasoactive hyperoxic gas challenges. Longer hypercapnic temporal delays were observed as the depth of the white matter tissue increased, although no significant differences in response lag were found during hyperoxia across tissue depth, or between grey and white matter. Furthermore, calibration of hypercapnic delays using hyperoxia revealed that deeper white matter layers may be more prone to dynamic redistribution of blood flow, which introduces response lag times ranging between 1 and 3 s in healthy subjects. These findings suggest that the combination of hypercapnic and hyperoxic gas-inhalation MRI can be used to distinguish between differences in CVR that arise as a result of delayed stimulus arrival time (due to the local architecture of the cerebrovasculature), or preferential blood flow distribution. Calibrated response delays to hypercapnia provide important insights into cerebrovascular physiology, and may be used to correct response delays associated with vascular impairment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Placental baseline conditions modulate the hyperoxic BOLD-MRI response.

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    Sinding, Marianne; Peters, David A; Poulsen, Sofie S; Frøkjær, Jens B; Christiansen, Ole B; Petersen, Astrid; Uldbjerg, Niels; Sørensen, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Human pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction may be characterized by a high hyperoxic Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI response. The pathophysiology behind this phenomenon remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it is associated with altered placental baseline conditions, including a lower oxygenation and altered tissue morphology, as estimated by the placental transverse relaxation time (T2*). We included 49 normal pregnancies (controls) and 13 pregnancies complicated by placental dysfunction (cases), defined by a birth weight baseline BOLD)/baseline BOLD) from a dynamic single-echo gradient-recalled echo (GRE) MRI sequence and the absolute ΔT2* (hyperoxic T2*- baseline T2*) from breath-hold multi-echo GRE sequences. In the control group, the relative ΔBOLD response increased during gestation from 5% in gestational week 20 to 20% in week 40. In the case group, the relative ΔBOLD response was significantly higher (mean Z-score 4.94; 95% CI 2.41, 7.47). The absolute ΔT2*, however, did not differ between controls and cases (p = 0.37), whereas the baseline T2* was lower among cases (mean Z-score -3.13; 95% CI -3.94, -2.32). Furthermore, we demonstrated a strong negative linear correlation between the Log 10 ΔBOLD response and the baseline T2* (r = -0.88, p baseline conditions, as the absolute increase in placental oxygenation (ΔT2*) does not differ between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal Route for Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation to Protect Against Neonatal Hyperoxic Lung Injury: Gene Expression Profiles and Histopathology.

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    Dong Kyung Sung

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal route of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC transplantation. To this end, gene expression profiling was performed to compare the effects of intratracheal (i.t. versus intravenous (i.v. MSC administration. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of each route to protect against neonatal hyperoxic lung injury was also determined. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hyperoxia (90% oxygen from birth for 14 days. Human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs labeling with PKH26 were transplanted through either the i.t. (5×10(5 or i.v. (2×10(6 route at postnatal day (P 5. At P14, lungs were harvested for histological, biochemical and microarray analyses. Hyperoxic conditions induced an increase in the mean linear intercept and mean alveolar volume (MAV, indicative of impaired alveolarization. The number of ED-1 positive cells was significantly decreased by both i.t. and i.v. transplantations. However, i.t. administration of MSCs resulted in a greater decrease in MAV and ED-1 positive cells compared to i.v. administration. Moreover, the number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly decreased in the i.t. group, but not in the i.v. group. Although the i.t. group received only one fourth of the number of MSCs that the i.v. group did, a significantly higher number of donor cell-derived red PKH 26 positivity were recovered in the i.t. group. Hyperoxic conditions induced the up regulation of genes associated with the inflammatory response, such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1 α, tumor necrosis factor-α and inter leukin-6; genes associated with cell death, such as p53 and caspases; and genes associated with fibrosis, such as connective tissue growth factor. In contrast, hyperoxic conditions induced the dwon-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor. These hyperoxia-induced changes in gene expression were decreased in the i.t. group, but not in the i.v. group. Thus

  10. Investigating hyperoxic effects in the rat brain using quantitative susceptibility mapping based on MRI phase.

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    Hsieh, Meng-Chi; Kuo, Li-Wei; Huang, Yun-An; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2017-02-01

    To test whether susceptibility imaging can detect microvenous oxygen saturation changes, induced by hyperoxia, in the rat brain. A three-dimensional gradient-echo with a flow compensation sequence was used to acquire T2*-weighted images of rat brains during hyperoxia and normoxia. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and QSM-based microvenous oxygenation venography were computed from gradient-echo (GRE) phase images and compared between the two conditions. Pulse oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) in the cortex was examined and compared with venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) estimated by QSM. Oxygen saturation change calculated by a conventional Δ R2* map was also compared with the ΔSvO 2 estimated by QSM. Susceptibilities of five venous and tissue regions were quantified separately by QSM. Venous susceptibility was reduced by nearly 10%, with an SvO 2 shift of 10% during hyperoxia. A hyperoxic effect, confirmed by SpO 2 measurement, resulted in an SvO 2 increase in the cortex. The ΔSvO 2 between hyperoxia and normoxia was consistent with what was estimated by the Δ R2* map in five regions. These findings suggest that a quantitative susceptibility map is a promising technique for SvO 2 measurement. This method may be useful for quantitatively investigating oxygenation-dependent functional MRI studies. Magn Reson Med 77:592-602, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Forced vital capacity and not central chemoreflex predicts maximal hyperoxic breath-hold duration in elite apneists.

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    Bain, Anthony R; Barak, Otto F; Hoiland, Ryan L; Drvis, Ivan; Bailey, Damian M; Dujic, Zeljko; Mijacika, Tanja; Santoro, Antoinette; DeMasi, Daniel K; MacLeod, David B; Ainslie, Philip N

    2017-08-01

    The determining mechanisms of a maximal hyperoxic apnea duration in elite apneists have remained unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that maximal hyperoxic apnea duration in elite apneists is related to forced vital capacity (FVC) but not the central chemoreflex (for CO 2 ). Eleven elite apneists performed a maximal dry static-apnea with prior hyperoxic (100% oxygen) pre-breathing, and a central chemoreflex test via a hyperoxic re-breathing technique (hyperoxic-hypercapnic ventilatory response: HCVR); expressed as the increase in ventilation (pneumotachometry) per increase in arterial CO 2 tension (PaCO 2 ; radial artery). FVC was assessed using standard spirometry. Maximal apnea duration ranged from 807 to 1262s (mean=1034s). Average HCVR was 2.0±1.2Lmin -1 mmHg -1 PaCO 2 . The hyperoxic apnea duration was related to the FVC (r 2 =0.45, p0.05). These findings were interpreted to suggest that during a hyperoxic apnea, a larger initial lung volume prolongs the time before reaching intolerable discomfort associated with pending lung squeeze, while CO 2 sensitivity has little impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein Expression Profile of Rat Type Two Alveolar Epithelial Cells During Hyperoxic Stress and Recovery

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    Bhargava, Maneesh

    Rationale: In rodent model systems, the sequential changes in lung morphology resulting from hyperoxic injury are well characterized, and are similar to changes in human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the injured lung, alveolar type two (AT2) epithelial cells play a critical role restoring the normal alveolar structure. Thus characterizing the changes in AT2 cells will provide insights into the mechanisms underpinning the recovery from lung injury. Methods: We applied an unbiased systems level proteomics approach to elucidate molecular mechanisms contributing to lung repair in a rat hyperoxic lung injury model. AT2 cells were isolated from rat lungs at predetermined intervals during hyperoxic injury and recovery. Protein expression profiles were determined by using iTRAQRTM with tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Of 959 distinct proteins identified, 183 significantly changed in abundance during the injury-recovery cycle. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified cell cycle, cell differentiation, cell metabolism, ion homeostasis, programmed cell death, ubiquitination, and cell migration to be significantly enriched by these proteins. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of data acquired during lung repair revealed differential expression of gene sets that control multicellular organismal development, systems development, organ development, and chemical homeostasis. More detailed analysis identified activity in two regulatory pathways, JNK and miR 374. A Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) algorithm identified protein clusters with coherent changes during injury and repair. Conclusion: Coherent changes occur in the AT2 cell proteome in response to hyperoxic stress. These findings offer guidance regarding the specific molecular mechanisms governing repair of the injured lung.

  13. Hyperoxic preconditioning fails to confer additional protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute diabetic rat heart.

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    Pourkhalili, Khalil; Hajizadeh, Sohrab; Akbari, Zahra; Dehaj, Mansour Esmaili; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Alizadeh, Alimohammad

    2012-01-01

    Experimental studies show that detrimental effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can be attenuated by hyperoxic preconditioning in normal hearts, however, there are few studies about hyperoxia effects in diseased myocardium. The present study was designed to assess the cardioprotective effects of hyperoxia pretreatment (≥ 95 % O2) in acute diabetic rat hearts. Normal and one week acute diabetic rats were either exposed to 60 (H60) and 180 (H180) min of hyperoxia or exposed to normal atmospheric air (21 % O2). Then hearts were isolated immediately and subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Infarct size, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enzymes release and ischemia induced arrhythmias were determined. Heart of diabetic control rats had less infarct size and decreased LDH and CK-MB release compared to normal hearts. 60 and 180 min of hyperoxia reduced myocardial infarct size and enzymes release in normal hearts. 180 min of hyperoxia also decreased cardiomyocytes apoptosis in normal state. On the other hand, protective values of hyperoxia were not significantly different in diabetic hearts. Moreover, hyperoxia reduced severity of ventricular arrhythmias in normal rat hearts whereas; it did not confer any additional antiarrhythmic protection in diabetic hearts. These findings suggest that diabetic hearts are less susceptible to ischemia-induced arrhythmias and infarction. Hyperoxia greatly protects rat hearts against I/R injury in normal hearts, however, it could not provide added cardioprotective effects in acute phase of diabetes.

  14. Hydrogen alleviates hyperoxic acute lung injury related endoplasmic reticulum stress in rats through upregulation of SIRT1.

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    Sun, Qiang; Han, Wenjie; Hu, Huijun; Fan, Danfeng; Li, Yanbo; Zhang, Yu; Lv, Yan; Li, Mingxin; Pan, Shuyi

    2017-06-01

    Hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI) is a major clinical problem for patients undergoing supplemental oxygen therapy. Currently in clinical settings there exist no effective means of prevention or treatment methods. Our previous study found that: hydrogen could reduce HALI, as well as oxidative stress. This research will further explore the mechanism underlying the protective effect of hydrogen on oxygen toxicity. Rats were randomly assigned into three experimental groups and were exposed in a oxygen chamber for 60 continuous hours: 100% balanced air (control); 100% oxygen (HALI); 100% oxygen with hydrogen treatment (HALI + HRS). We examined lung function by wet to dry ratio of lung, lung pleural effusion and cell apoptosis. We also detected endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) by examining the expression of CHOP, GRP78 and XBP1. We further investigated the role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in HALI, which contributes to cellular regulation including ERS, by examining its expression after hydrogen treatment with SIRT1 inhibitor. Hydrogen could significantly reduce HALI by reducing lung edema and apoptosis, inhibiting the elevating of ERS and increased SIRT1 expression. By inhibition of SIRT1 expression, the effect of hydrogen on prevention of HALI is significantly weakened, the inhibition of the ERS was also reversed. Our findings indicate that hydrogen could reduce HALI related ERS and the mechanism of hydrogen may be associated with upregulation of SIRT1, this study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of hydrogen, which provides a new theoretical basis for clinical application of hydrogen.

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is necessary to protect fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells against hyperoxic injury: Mechanistic roles of antioxidant enzymes and RelB

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    Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Chu, Chun; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Welty, Stephen E.; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protects adult and newborn mice against hyperoxic lung injury by mediating increases in the expression of phase I (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A) and phase II (NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)) antioxidant enzymes (AOE). AhR positively regulates the expression of RelB, a component of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) protein that contributes to anti-inflammatory processes in adult animals. Whether AhR regulates the expression of AOE and RelB, and protects fetal primary human lung cells against hyperoxic injury is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that AhR-deficient fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) will have decreased RelB activation and AOE, which will in turn predispose them to increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC upon exposure to hyperoxia. AhR-deficient HPMEC showed increased hyperoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC. Additionally, AhR-deficient cell culture supernatants displayed increased macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and 1β, indicating a heightened inflammatory state. Interestingly, loss of AhR was associated with a significantly attenuated CYP1A1, NQO1, superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1), and nuclear RelB protein expression. These findings support the hypothesis that decreased RelB activation and AOE in AhR-deficient cells is associated with increased hyperoxic injury compared to AhR-sufficient cells. - Highlights: • AhR deficiency potentiates oxygen toxicity in human fetal lung cells. • Deficient AhR signaling increases hyperoxia-induced cell death. • AhR deficiency increases hyperoxia-induced ROS generation and inflammation. • Anti-oxidant enzyme levels are attenuated in AhR-deficient lung cells

  16. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor is necessary to protect fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells against hyperoxic injury: Mechanistic roles of antioxidant enzymes and RelB

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    Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Chu, Chun; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Welty, Stephen E.; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy, E-mail: shivanna@bcm.edu

    2015-07-15

    Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) protects adult and newborn mice against hyperoxic lung injury by mediating increases in the expression of phase I (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A) and phase II (NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)) antioxidant enzymes (AOE). AhR positively regulates the expression of RelB, a component of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) protein that contributes to anti-inflammatory processes in adult animals. Whether AhR regulates the expression of AOE and RelB, and protects fetal primary human lung cells against hyperoxic injury is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that AhR-deficient fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) will have decreased RelB activation and AOE, which will in turn predispose them to increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC upon exposure to hyperoxia. AhR-deficient HPMEC showed increased hyperoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and cell death compared to AhR-sufficient HPMEC. Additionally, AhR-deficient cell culture supernatants displayed increased macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and 1β, indicating a heightened inflammatory state. Interestingly, loss of AhR was associated with a significantly attenuated CYP1A1, NQO1, superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1), and nuclear RelB protein expression. These findings support the hypothesis that decreased RelB activation and AOE in AhR-deficient cells is associated with increased hyperoxic injury compared to AhR-sufficient cells. - Highlights: • AhR deficiency potentiates oxygen toxicity in human fetal lung cells. • Deficient AhR signaling increases hyperoxia-induced cell death. • AhR deficiency increases hyperoxia-induced ROS generation and inflammation. • Anti-oxidant enzyme levels are attenuated in AhR-deficient lung cells

  17. Sildenafil attenuates pulmonary inflammation and fibrin deposition, mortality and right ventricular hypertrophy in neonatal hyperoxic lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersma Hester

    2009-04-01

    inflammatory response, fibrin deposition and RVH, and stimulates alveolarization. Initiation of sildenafil treatment after hyperoxic lung injury and continued during room air recovery improves alveolarization and restores pulmonary angiogenesis and RVH in experimental BPD.

  18. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

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    Lingappan, Krithika, E-mail: lingappa@bcm.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I. [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Barrios, Roberto [Department of Pathology and Genomic Medicine, The Methodist Hospital Physician Organization, 6565 Fannin Street, Suite M227, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Moorthy, Bhagavatula [Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, 1102 Bates Avenue, MC: FC530.01, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO{sub 2} > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F{sub 2} alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure.

  19. Sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury in mice: Implications for acute and chronic lung disease in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingappan, Krithika; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Couroucli, Xanthi I.; Barrios, Roberto; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2013-01-01

    Sex-specific differences in pulmonary morbidity in humans are well documented. Hyperoxia contributes to lung injury in experimental animals and humans. The mechanisms responsible for sex differences in the susceptibility towards hyperoxic lung injury remain largely unknown. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that mice will display sex-specific differences in hyperoxic lung injury. Eight week-old male and female mice (C57BL/6J) were exposed to 72 h of hyperoxia (FiO 2 > 0.95). After exposure to hyperoxia, lung injury, levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2 alpha (8-iso-PGF 2α) (LC–MS/MS), apoptosis (TUNEL) and inflammatory markers (suspension bead array) were determined. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A expression in the lung was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After exposure to hyperoxia, males showed greater lung injury, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis, compared to air-breathing controls than females. Pulmonary 8-iso-PGF 2α levels were higher in males than females after hyperoxia exposure. Sexually dimorphic increases in levels of IL-6 (F > M) and VEGF (M > F) in the lungs were also observed. CYP1A1 expression in the lung was higher in female mice compared to males under hyperoxic conditions. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that male mice are more susceptible than females to hyperoxic lung injury and that differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers contribute to these sex-specific dimorphic effects. In conclusion, this paper describes the establishment of an animal model that shows sex differences in hyperoxic lung injury in a temporal manner and thus has important implications for lung diseases mediated by hyperoxia in humans. - Highlights: • Male mice were more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than females. • Sex differences in inflammatory markers were observed. • CYP1A expression was higher in females after hyperoxia exposure

  20. Lung morphometry, collagen and elastin content: changes after hyperoxic exposure in preterm rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Suman Mascaretti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elastic and collagen fiber deposition increases throughout normal lung development, and this fiber network significantly changes when development of the lung is disturbed. In preterm rats and lambs, prolonged hyperoxic exposure is associated with impaired alveolization and causes significant changes in the deposition and structure of elastic fibers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of hyperoxic exposure on elastic and collagen fiber deposition in the lung interstitial matrix and in alveolarization in preterm rabbits. METHODS: After c-section, 28-day preterm New-Zealand-White rabbits were randomized into 2 study groups, according to the oxygen exposure, namely: Room air (oxygen = 21% or Oxygen (oxygen > 95%. The animals were killed on day 11 and their lungs were analyzed for the alveolar size (Lm, the internal surface area (ISA, the alveoli number, and the density and distribution of collagen and elastic fibers. RESULTS: An increase in the Lm and a decrease in the alveoli number were observed among rabbits that were exposed to hyperoxia with no differences regarding the ISA. No difference in the density of elastic fibers was observed after oxygen exposure, however there were fewer collagen fibers and an evident disorganization of fiber deposition. DISCUSSION: This model reproduces anatomo-pathological injuries representing the arrest of normal alveolar development and lung architecture disorganization by just a prolonged exposition to oxygen. CONCLUSIONS: In the preterm rabbit, prolonged oxygen exposure impaired alveolization and also lowered the proportion of collagen fibers, with an evident fiber network disorganization.

  1. Brca1/p53 deficient mouse breast tumor hemodynamics during hyperoxic respiratory challenge monitored by a novel wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Austin; Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Eva Y. H. P.; Tromberg, Bruce; Cerussi, Albert; Choi, Bernard

    2009-02-01

    Current imaging modalities allow precise visualization of tumors but do not enable quantitative characterization of the tumor metabolic state. Such quantitative information would enhance our understanding of tumor progression and response to treatment, and to our overall understanding of tumor biology. To address this problem, we have developed a wide-field functional imaging (WiFI) instrument which combines two optical imaging modalities, spatially modulated imaging (MI) and laser speckle imaging (LSI). Our current WiFI imaging protocol consists of multispectral imaging in the near infrared (650-980 nm) spectrum, over a wide (7 cm × 5 cm) field of view. Using MI, the spatially-resolved reflectance of sinusoidal patterns projected onto the tissue is assessed, and optical properties of the tissue are estimated using a Monte Carlo model. From the spatial maps of local absorption and reduced scattering coefficients, tissue composition information is extracted in the form of oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations, and percentage of lipid and water. Using LSI, the reflectance of a 785 nm laser speckle pattern on the tissue is acquired and analyzed to compute maps of blood perfusion in the tissue. Tissue metabolism state is estimated from the values of blood perfusion, volume and oxygenation state. We currently are employing the WiFI instrument to study tumor development in a BRCA1/p53 deficient mice breast tumor model. The animals are monitored with WiFI during hyperoxic respiratory challenge. At present, four tumors have been measured with WiFI, and preliminary data suggest that tumor metabolic changes during hyperoxic respiratory challenge can be determined.

  2. Treatment of lithium induced tremor with atenolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davé, M

    1989-03-01

    This is the first report on the successful treatment of one patient with lithium induced tremor with hydrophilic atenolol, which is a relatively selective beta 1 adrenergic receptor blocker. Atenolol's advantages over lipophilic beta blockers in the treatment of lithium induced tremor are discussed.

  3. Simultaneous administration of glucose and hyperoxic gas achieves greater improvement in tumor oxygenation than hyperoxic gas alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, Stacey A.; Lanzen, Jennifer L.; Braun, Rod D.; Rosner, Gary; Secomb, Timothy W.; Biaglow, John; Brizel, David M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To test the feasibility of hyperglycemic reduction of oxygen consumption combined with oxygen breathing (O 2 ), to improve tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Fischer-344 rats bearing 1 cm R3230Ac flank tumors were anesthetized with Nembutal. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, tumor blood flow ([TBF], laser Doppler flowmetry), pH, and pO 2 were measured before, during, and after glucose (1 or 4 g/kg) and/or O 2 . Results: Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were unaffected by treatment. Glucose at 1 g/kg yielded maximum blood glucose of 400 mg/dL, no change in TBF, reduced tumor pH (0.17 unit), and 3 mm Hg pO 2 rise. Glucose at 4 g/kg yielded maximum blood glucose of 900 mg/dL, pH drop of 0.6 unit, no pO 2 change, and reduced TBF (31%). Oxygen tension increased by 5 mm Hg with O 2 . Glucose (1 g/Kg) + O 2 yielded the largest change in pO 2 (27 mm Hg); this is highly significant relative to baseline or either treatment alone. The effect was positively correlated with baseline pO 2 , but 6 of 7 experiments with baseline pO 2 2 to improve tumor oxygenation. However, some cell lines are not susceptible to the Crabtree effect, and the magnitude is dependent on baseline pO 2 . Additional or alternative manipulations may be necessary to achieve more uniform improvement in pO 2

  4. Effect of Exposure to Hyperoxic, Hypobaric, and Hyperbaric Environments on Concentrations of Selected Aerobic and Anaerobic Fecal Flora of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, James D.; Gordon, Francis B.

    1975-01-01

    Alterations in selected aerobic and anaerobic fecal microflora of the mouse were determined during exposure to hyperoxic and normoxic hypo- and hyperbaric environments. Examination of fecal cultures obtained during exposure for 6 weeks to either 60 or 77% oxygen concentration at 1 atmosphere absolute revealed little alteration in the aerobic or anaerobic flora. There appeared to be only a retardation in the reduction of the Klebsiella-Enterobacter flora which normally occurs after weaning. During exposure to hypobaric environments (100% O2, 0.2 atmosphere absolute), significant alterations in concentrations of Escherichia coli, slow lactose fermenters, Klebsiella-Enterobacter, and enterococci were found in some instances. All alterations were toward increased concentrations. Variations in concentrations of different colony types of obligately anaerobic gram-positive (anGPR) and gram-negative (anGNR) rods cultured during the same experiments also occurred. One colony type of anGPR appeared to decrease while a second type increased in numbers. Concentrations of three colony types of anGNR were generally, but not always, increased. During hyperbaric exposure (2.8% O2, 7.5 atmospheres absolute), increased concentrations of Klebsiella-Enterobacter, E. coli, slow lactose fermenters and enterococci were also noted. Changes in numbers of both colony types of anGPR, when occurring, were in the direction of lower numbers. Alteration in numbers of anGNR were in both directions but were more frequent in the direction of higher numbers. After return to normal air for 4 weeks of either hypo- or hyperbaric exposure, fecal concentrations of all organisms tended to revert toward control values with the exception of the anGPR which remained in lower concentrations after termination of the hyperbaric exposure. These observations indicate that, despite the great variation in the fecal flora among individual mice, it is possible to discover the effects induced by altered gaseous

  5. Diffusion Limitation and Hyperoxic Enhancement of Oxygen Consumption in Zooxanthellate Sea Anemones, Zoanthids, and Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shick, J M

    1990-08-01

    Depending on their size and morphology, anthozoan polyps and colonies may be diffusion-limited in their oxygen consumption, even under well-stirred, air-saturated conditions. This is indicated by an enhancement of oxygen consumption under steady-state hyperoxic conditions that simulate the levels of O2 produced photosynthetically by zooxanthellae in the hosts' tissues. Such hyperoxia in the tissues of zooxanthellate species negates the effect of the diffusive boundary layer, and increases the rate of oxygen consumption; thus, in many cases, the rate of respiration measured under normoxia in the dark may not be representative of the rate during the day when the zooxanthellae are photosynthesizing and when the supply of oxygen for respiration is in the tissues themselves, not from the environment. These results have implications in respirometric methodology and in calculating the rate of gross photosynthesis in energetic studies. The activity of cytochrome c oxidase is higher in aposymbiotic than in zooxanthellate specimens of the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella, and this may indicate a compensation for the relative hypoxia in the tissues of the former, enhancing the delivery of oxygen to the mitochondria from the environment.

  6. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REYHANEH SEPEHR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD, referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2 pups, hyperoxic (90% O2 pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS, and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS. Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~ 31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  7. Measurement of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF): An optimized BOLD signal model for use with hypercapnic and hyperoxic calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Alberto; Murphy, Kevin; Stone, Alan J; Germuska, Michael A; Griffeth, Valerie E M; Blockley, Nicholas P; Buxton, Richard B; Wise, Richard G

    2016-04-01

    Several techniques have been proposed to estimate relative changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2) by exploiting combined BOLD fMRI and cerebral blood flow data in conjunction with hypercapnic or hyperoxic respiratory challenges. More recently, methods based on respiratory challenges that include both hypercapnia and hyperoxia have been developed to assess absolute CMRO2, an important parameter for understanding brain energetics. In this paper, we empirically optimize a previously presented "original calibration model" relating BOLD and blood flow signals specifically for the estimation of oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and absolute CMRO2. To do so, we have created a set of synthetic BOLD signals using a detailed BOLD signal model to reproduce experiments incorporating hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges at 3T. A wide range of physiological conditions was simulated by varying input parameter values (baseline cerebral blood volume (CBV0), baseline cerebral blood flow (CBF0), baseline oxygen extraction fraction (OEF0) and hematocrit (Hct)). From the optimization of the calibration model for estimation of OEF and practical considerations of hypercapnic and hyperoxic respiratory challenges, a new "simplified calibration model" is established which reduces the complexity of the original calibration model by substituting the standard parameters α and β with a single parameter θ. The optimal value of θ is determined (θ=0.06) across a range of experimental respiratory challenges. The simplified calibration model gives estimates of OEF0 and absolute CMRO2 closer to the true values used to simulate the experimental data compared to those estimated using the original model incorporating literature values of α and β. Finally, an error propagation analysis demonstrates the susceptibility of the original and simplified calibration models to measurement errors and potential violations in the underlying assumptions of isometabolism

  8. Nutritional considerations during prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperbaric, hyperoxic environment: recommendations for saturation divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, S K; Swinton, P A; Dolan, E

    2016-01-01

    Saturation diving is an occupation that involves prolonged exposure to a confined, hyperoxic, hyperbaric environment. The unique and extreme environment is thought to result in disruption to physiological and metabolic homeostasis, which may impact human health and performance. Appropriate nutritional intake has the potential to alleviate and/or support many of these physiological and metabolic concerns, whilst enhancing health and performance in saturation divers. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to identify the physiological and practical challenges of saturation diving and consequently provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for saturation divers to promote health and performance within this challenging environment. Saturation diving has a high-energy demand, with an energy intake of between 44 and 52 kcal/kg body mass per day recommended, dependent on intensity and duration of underwater activity. The macronutrient composition of dietary intake is in accordance with the current Institute of Medicine guidelines at 45-65 % and 20-35 % of total energy intake for carbohydrate and fat intake, respectively. A minimum daily protein intake of 1.3 g/kg body mass is recommended to facilitate body composition maintenance. Macronutrient intake between individuals should, however, be dictated by personal preference to support the attainment of an energy balance. A varied diet high in fruit and vegetables is highly recommended for the provision of sufficient micronutrients to support physiological processes, such as vitamin B12 and folate intake to facilitate red blood cell production. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E, are also recommended to reduce oxidised molecules, e.g. free radicals, whilst selenium and zinc intake may be beneficial to reinforce endogenous antioxidant reserves. In addition, tailored hydration and carbohydrate fueling strategies for underwater work are also advised.

  9. Sepsis-Induced Cardiomyopathy: Mechanisms and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Cun Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a lethal syndrome with a high incidence and a weighty economy burden. The pathophysiology of sepsis includes inflammation, immune dysfunction, and dysfunction of coagulation, while sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC, defined as a global but reversible dysfunction of both sides of the heart induced by sepsis, plays a significant role in all of the aspects above in the pathogenesis of sepsis. The complex pathogenesis of SIC involves a combination of dysregulation of inflammatory mediators, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, disorder of calcium regulation, autonomic nervous system dysregulation, and endothelial dysfunction. The treatments for SIC include the signal pathway intervention, Chinese traditional medicine, and other specific therapy. Here, we reviewed the latest literatures on the mechanisms and treatments of SIC and hope to provide further insights to researchers and create a new road for the therapy of sepsis.

  10. Induced vasodilation as treatment for Raynaud's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, J B; Sampson, J B; Roberts, D E; Beetham, W P

    1982-11-01

    We examined the efficacy of induced vasodilation as a treatment of idiopathic Raynaud's disease. Eight persons with Raynaud's disease and seven normal persons each received 27 simultaneous pairings of hand immersion in warm water (43 degrees C) for 10 minutes with exposure of the whole body to cold (0 degrees C). A second group of seven normal persons and nine persons with Raynaud's disease received no treatments. All subjects had cold test exposures (0 degrees C) at the start and end of the study. Subjects with Raynaud's disease who received treatments showed significant increases in digital temperatures (2.2 degrees C) during the cold test compared with the values of untreated subjects with Raynaud's disease (p less than 0.05); normal subjects who had received treatments showed no difference from those who had not. Digital temperatures of subjects with Raynaud's disease after treatment increased to levels approaching those of normal subjects, although they showed lower digital temperatures during initial exposure to cold (p less than 0.01). This therapy offers a practical alternative to traditional treatments.

  11. Effects of breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture on blood oxygenation and vascularity of head-and-neck tumors as measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijpkema, Mark; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Joosten, Frank; Kogel, Albert J. van der; Heerschap, Arend

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: For head-and-neck tumors, breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture and administration of nicotinamide has been shown to result in a significantly improved tumor response to accelerated radiotherapy (ARCON, Accelerated Radiotherapy with CarbOgen and Nicotinamide). This may be caused by improved tumor oxygenation, possibly mediated by vascular effects. In this study, both blood oxygenation and vascular effects of breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture (98% O 2 +2% CO 2 ) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with head-and-neck tumors. Methods and Materials: Tumor vascularity and oxygenation were investigated by dynamic gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI, respectively. Eleven patients with primary head-and-neck tumors were each measured twice; with and without breathing the hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture. Results: BOLD MR imaging revealed a significant increase of the MRI time constant of transverse magnetization decay (T 2 *) in the tumor during hypercapnic hyperoxygenation, which correlates to a decrease of the deoxyhemoglobin concentration. No changes in overall tumor vascularity were observed, as measured by the gadolinium contrast uptake rate in the tumor. Conclusion: Breathing a hyperoxic hypercapnic gas mixture improves tumor blood oxygenation in patients with head-and-neck tumors, which may contribute to the success of the ARCON therapy

  12. Effect of exposure to hyperoxic, hypobaric, and hyperbaric environments on concentrations of selected and aerobic and anaerobic fecal flora of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, J D; Gordon, F B

    1975-03-01

    Alterations in selected aerobic and anaerobic fecal microflora of the mouse were determined during exposure to hyperoxic and normoxic hypo- and hyperbaric environments. Examination of fecal cultures obtained during exposure for 6 weeks to either 60 or 77% oxygen concentration 1 atmosphere absolute revealed little alteration in the aerobic or anaerobic flora. There appeared to be only a retardation in the reduction of the Klebsiella-Enterobacter flora which normally occurs after weaning. During exposure to hypobaric environments (100% O-2, 0.2 atmosphere absolute), significant alterations in concentrations of Escherichia coli, slow lactose fermenters, Klebsiella-Enterobacter, and enterococci were found in some instances. All alterations were toward increased concentrations. Variations in concentrations of different colony types of obligately anaerobic gram-positive (anGPR) and gram-negative (anGNR) rods cultured during the same experiments also occurred. One colony type of anGPR appeared to decrease while a second type increased in numbers. Concentrations of three colony types of anGNR were generally, but not always, increased. During hyperbaric exposure (2.8% O-2, 7.5 atmospheres absolute), increased concentrations of Klebsiella-Enterobacter, E. coli, slow lactose fermenters and enterococci were also noted. Changes in numbers of both colony types of anGPR, when occurring, were in the direction of lower numbers. Alteration in numbers of anGNR were in both directions but were more frequent in the direction of higher numbers. After return to normal air for 4 weeks of either hypo- or hyperbaric exposure, fecal concentrations of all organisms tended to revert toward control values with the exception of the anGPR which remained in lower concentrations after termination of the hyperbaric exposure. These observations indicate that, despite the great variation in the fecal flora among individual mice, it is possible to discover the effects induced by altered gaseous

  13. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05< p<0.10). Following establishment of defunctioning colostomy on account of rectovaginal fistulae in 25 patients, eight patients developed new fistulae, Significantly more patients with fistulae died of recurrence as compared with patients with other lesions (p<0.01). Defunctioning colostomy in the treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. (author)

  14. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. 11 refs.

  15. Influence of Hypoxic Interval Training and Hyperoxic Recovery on Muscle Activation and Oxygenation in Connection with Double-Poling Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zinner

    Full Text Available Here, we evaluated the influence of breathing oxygen at different partial pressures during recovery from exercise on performance at sea-level and a simulated altitude of 1800 m, as reflected in activation of different upper body muscles, and oxygenation of the m. triceps brachii. Ten well-trained, male endurance athletes (25.3±4.1 yrs; 179.2±4.5 cm; 74.2±3.4 kg performed four test trials, each involving three 3-min sessions on a double-poling ergometer with 3-min intervals of recovery. One trial was conducted entirely under normoxic (No and another under hypoxic conditions (Ho; FiO2 = 0.165. In the third and fourth trials, the exercise was performed in normoxia and hypoxia, respectively, with hyperoxic recovery (HOX; FiO2 = 1.00 in both cases. Arterial hemoglobin saturation was higher under the two HOX conditions than without HOX (p<0.05. Integrated muscle electrical activity was not influenced by the oxygen content (best d = 0.51. Furthermore, the only difference in tissue saturation index measured via near-infrared spectroscopy observed was between the recovery periods during the NoNo and HoHOX interventions (P<0.05, d = 0.93. In the case of HoHo the athletes' Pmean declined from the first to the third interval (P < 0.05, whereas Pmean was unaltered under the HoHOX, NoHOX and NoNo conditions. We conclude that the less pronounced decline in Pmean during 3 x 3-min double-poling sprints in normoxia and hypoxia with hyperoxic recovery is not related to changes in muscle activity or oxygenation. Moreover, we conclude that hyperoxia (FiO2 = 1.00 used in conjunction with hypoxic or normoxic work intervals may serve as an effective aid when inhaled during the subsequent recovery intervals.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of the Preterm Rabbit Lung after Seven Days of Hyperoxic Exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Salaets

    Full Text Available The neonatal management of preterm born infants often results in damage to the developing lung and subsequent morbidity, referred to as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Animal models may help in understanding the molecular processes involved in this condition and define therapeutic targets. Our goal was to identify molecular pathways using the earlier described preterm rabbit model of hyperoxia induced lung-injury. Transcriptome analysis by mRNA-sequencing was performed on lungs from preterm rabbit pups born at day 28 of gestation (term: 31 days and kept in hyperoxia (95% O2 for 7 days. Controls were preterm pups kept in normoxia. Transcriptomic data were analyzed using Array Studio and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA, in order to identify the central molecules responsible for the observed transcriptional changes. We detected 2217 significantly dysregulated transcripts following hyperoxia, of which 90% could be identified. Major pathophysiological dysregulations were found in inflammation, lung development, vascular development and reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism. To conclude, amongst the many dysregulated transcripts, major changes were found in the inflammatory, oxidative stress and lung developmental pathways. This information may be used for the generation of new treatment hypotheses for hyperoxia-induced lung injury and BPD.

  17. Treatment of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    d'Aldin, Gervais

    1999-01-01

    .... Guinea pigs are subjected to an acoustic trauma. The recovery of the noise-induced hearing loss is followed up to 14 days post exposure by electrocochleography and morphologic examination of the cochlea is performed...

  18. Asparaginase-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia Presenting as Pseudohyponatremia during Leukemia Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Hinson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginase is a chemotherapeutic agent used to induce disease remission in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. We describe the cases of two females with ALL who developed pseudohyponatremia as a presentation of hypertriglyceridemia following asparaginase treatment. Nine similar published cases of asparaginase-induced hypertriglyceridemia and its complications are also discussed. Possible mechanisms of action include inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, decreased hepatic synthesis of lipoprotein, and increased synthesis of VLDL. Effects of asparaginase-induced hypertriglyceridemia range from asymptomatic to transaminasemia, pancreatitis, and life-threatening thrombosis or hyperviscosity syndrome. All cases of hypertriglyceridemia described resolved following cessation of asparaginase treatment ± further treatments.

  19. Treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste

    2013-01-01

    impairment of performance to severe bronchospasm and a large reduction in FEV1. Treatment of EIB varies from daily to less frequent therapy, depending on the level of activity. In this article, the authors evaluate the treatment possibilities before, during, and after exercise. They also review medications...

  20. Capecitabine treatment of HCT-15 colon cancer cells induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HCT-15 cells caused condensation of DNA and induced apoptosis in a concentration- ... Conclusion: Capecitabine treatment causes inhibition of colon cancer growth via the mitochondrial ... fluoropyrimidine aimed to selectively transfer 5-.

  1. Neuroprotective Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosner, Mordechai

    2001-01-01

    .... It is not possible to prevent all these injuries and there is no treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan, memantine and brimonidine in our rat model of laser- induced retinal-lesions Methods...

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Tinnitus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Richard A. Altschuler CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Michigan REPORT DATE: 2014...3 Ju 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Prevention and Treatment of Noise-Induced Tinnitus 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...prevent or treat noise induced tinnitus . Our studies showed a military relevant small arms fire-like noise will induce tinnitus in approximately 33

  3. Islet-cell dysfunction induced by glucocorticoid treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Raalte, Daniël H; Kwa, Kelly A A; van Genugten, Renate E

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids impair glucose tolerance by inducing insulin resistance. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoid treatment on islet-cell function in healthy males and studied the role of the autonomic nervous system.......Glucocorticoids impair glucose tolerance by inducing insulin resistance. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of glucocorticoid treatment on islet-cell function in healthy males and studied the role of the autonomic nervous system....

  4. Asparaginase-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia Presenting as Pseudohyponatremia during Leukemia Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hinson, Ashley; Newbern, Dorothee; Linardic, Corinne M.

    2014-01-01

    Asparaginase is a chemotherapeutic agent used to induce disease remission in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We describe the cases of two females with ALL who developed pseudohyponatremia as a presentation of hypertriglyceridemia following asparaginase treatment. Nine similar published cases of asparaginase-induced hypertriglyceridemia and its complications are also discussed. Possible mechanisms of action include inhibition of lipoprotein lipase, decreased hepatic synthesis...

  5. Radiation Induced Treatment of Organic Pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergun, E.; Öztürk, Ş.; Kantoğlu, Ö.

    2012-01-01

    In this period of the research, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, characterization of alkaloids present and radiolysis products formed after irradiation, under different conditions of ambient and additives, optimization of dose to achieve desired end characteristics for discharge of waste water were aimed. In this regard, unirradiated and irradiated wastewaters were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic digestions. Substrate removal efficiencies of unirradiated and irradiated wastewater with various initial COD values were determined with SBR aerobic digestion treatment method. On the other hand Fenton’s advanced oxidation treatment method was also applied for pre-treatment. BMP tests of anaerobic digestion were also completed. LC/MS studies were carried out on unirradiated and irradiated alkaloid standard solutions of morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine to determine the degradation mechanisms and byproducts. Dose optimization studies were completed and found to be a lower dose of 5 kGy rather than 40 kGy for ambient irradiation conditions. (author)

  6. Radiation Induced Treatment of Organic Pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun, E.; Öztürk, Ş.; Kantoğlu, Ö. [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Sarayköy Nuclear research and Training Center, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-07-01

    In this period of the research, aerobic and anaerobic digestion, characterization of alkaloids present and radiolysis products formed after irradiation, under different conditions of ambient and additives, optimization of dose to achieve desired end characteristics for discharge of waste water were aimed. In this regard, unirradiated and irradiated wastewaters were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic digestions. Substrate removal efficiencies of unirradiated and irradiated wastewater with various initial COD values were determined with SBR aerobic digestion treatment method. On the other hand Fenton’s advanced oxidation treatment method was also applied for pre-treatment. BMP tests of anaerobic digestion were also completed. LC/MS studies were carried out on unirradiated and irradiated alkaloid standard solutions of morphine, codeine, thebaine, papaverine, and noscapine to determine the degradation mechanisms and byproducts. Dose optimization studies were completed and found to be a lower dose of 5 kGy rather than 40 kGy for ambient irradiation conditions. (author)

  7. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  8. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome : Improving outcome with lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, M. D. N. L.; Nuver, J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Vrieling, A. H.; Gietema, J. A.; Walenkamp, A. M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but

  9. Neuroleptic induced tardive dyskinesa in a patient on treatment for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case, a thirty six year old patient on treatment for schizophrenia is described with severe tardive dyskinesia. The most likely cause is long term treatment with two highly potent typical antipsychotic medications. The patient was initially treated with Benzhexol, an anticholinergic agent with the potential to induce or ...

  10. The common antitussive agent dextromethorphan protects against hyperoxia-induced cell death in established in vivo and in vitro models of neonatal brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posod, A; Pinzer, K; Urbanek, M; Wegleiter, K; Keller, M; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, U; Griesmaier, E

    2014-08-22

    Preterm infants are prematurely subjected to relatively high oxygen concentrations, even when supplemental oxygen is not administered. There is increasing evidence to show that an excess of oxygen is toxic to the developing brain. Dextromethorphan (DM), a frequently used antitussive agent with pleiotropic mechanisms of action, has been shown to be neuroprotective in various models of central nervous system pathology. Due to its numerous beneficial properties, it might also be able to counteract detrimental effects of a neonatal oxygen insult. The aim of the current study was to evaluate its therapeutic potential in established cell culture and rodent models of hyperoxia-induced neonatal brain injury. For in vitro studies pre- and immature oligodendroglial (OLN-93) cells were subjected to hyperoxic conditions for 48 h after pre-treatment with increasing doses of DM. For in vivo studies 6-day-old Wistar rat pups received a single intraperitoneal injection of DM in two different dosages prior to being exposed to hyperoxia for 24h. Cell viability and caspase-3 activation were assessed as outcome parameters at the end of exposure. DM significantly increased cell viability in immature oligodendroglial cells subjected to hyperoxia. In pre-oligodendroglial cells cell viability was not significantly affected by DM treatment. In vivo caspase-3 activation induced by hyperoxic exposure was significantly lower after administration of DM in gray and white matter areas. In control animals kept under normoxic conditions DM did not significantly influence caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. The present results indicate that DM is a promising and safe treatment strategy for neonatal hyperoxia-induced brain injury that merits further investigation. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anesthesia-induced epilepsy: causes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojuan; Wang, Xuefeng

    2014-09-01

    Epilepsy is a type of chronic brain disease that results from an abnormally high synchronization of neuronal discharge. The typical clinical features of epilepsy are paroxysms and transient and stereotyped brain dysfunction. Many cases of epileptic seizures occurring during anesthesia have been reportedx. Recently, risk assessment of epileptic seizures during surgery and anesthesia has gained increasing attention. In this review, we systematically summarize the influence of anesthesia on epileptic seizures; the types, durations and frequencies of seizures related to anesthesia; and the epidemiology, prevention, treatment and prognosis of epilepsy. We also explore the possible mechanism of epilepsy and provide guidance for anesthesia during surgeries.

  12. Treatment of radiation-induced vesicovaginal fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parm Ulhoei, B.; rosgaard, A.; Harling, H.

    1994-01-01

    The records of 23 patients with vesicovaginal fistulae (VVF) probably caused by irradiation treatment for cancer of the uterine cervix were analyzed. The median latency between irradiation and fistula formation was 17 years. Ten patients had histologically verified cancer recurrence besides a VVF. In addition, nine patients had a rectovaginal- and one an ileovaginal fistula. Twelve patients were treated primarily with ureteroileocutaneostomy a.m. Bricker. Six had bladder drainage, and four of these had ureteroileocutaneostomy performed at a later stage. Four patients initially underwent percutaneous nephrostomy. One patients had a unilateral ureteroileocutaneostomy performed. Eight patients are alive today (median observation time 2.5 years), and all of these had had ureteroileocutaneostomy performed. Three of these patients (39%) were completely relieved of symptoms while the rest occasionally experienced pain, vaginal discharge and bladder empyema. We conclude that ureteroilocutaneostomy a.m. Bricker is a satisfactory procedure for vesicovaginal fistulae because the socially incapacitating symptoms disappear or are considerably diminished. (au) (9 refs.)

  13. Carbon tetrachloride treatment induces anorexia independently of hepatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Okabe, S

    2000-08-01

    Oxidative stress is involved in the development of anorexia. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of anorexia in oxygen radical-induced hepatitis. A low dose of carbon tetrachloride (1 ml/kg of a 1:1 solution with olive oil) was orally administered to rats with and without food restriction. In rats with food restriction, carbon tetrachloride treatment induced hepatitis and reduced the body weight gain. In contrast, carbon tetrachloride treatment did not induce hepatitis in rats without food restriction, but the body weight was decreased. In these rats, the loss of body weight was accompanied by a decrease in food intake. The present results indicate that the administration of a low dose of carbon tetrachloride to rats without food restriction induced anorexia independently of hepatitis.

  14. Chinese Medicine Treatment for Afatinib-Induced Paronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yuu Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Afatinib (Gilotrif™ is widely used to treat patients with mutant activating epidermal growth factor receptor- (EGFR- dependent lung adenocarcinoma; however, it has various adverse side effects. Here, we report a patient with afatinib-induced paronychia. After Chinese medicine treatment with the well-known anticancer Chinese herbs, Jen-Ren-Hwo-Minq-Saan, and decoction of Ban-Zhi-Lian (Scutellaria barbata with Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao (Hedyotis diffusa Willd, patient’s condition was significantly improved. This shows that these Chinese medicines can not only be used in cancer treatment but also be used in the afatinib-induced paronychia.

  15. Induced polygenic variability using combination treatment of gamma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced mutation in plant improvement has been proven to be one of the alternative ways to generate new sources of genetic variation in blackgram. In this study, dry seeds of VBN 4 blackgram were treated with combination treatment of both gamma rays (400, 500 and 600 Gy) and ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) (50, ...

  16. Carbamazepine in the treatment of Lyme disease-induced hyperacusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nields, J A; Fallon, B A; Jastreboff, P J

    1999-01-01

    Lyme disease-induced hyperacusis can be an intensely disabling, chronic condition that is accompanied by posttraumatic stress disorder-like psychobehavioral sequelae. The authors describe effective treatment of 2 patients with carbamazepine. Speculations regarding a mode of action are offered.

  17. Treatment with pioglitazone induced significant, reversible mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkhan, Mozhgan; Dencker, Magnus; Frid, Anders

    2008-04-30

    There has in recent years been great concern about possible cardiac side effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs). We present a case-report of a 60 year-old male who developed significant mitral regurgitation during six months treatment with pioglitazone in parallel with laboratory indications of fluid retention. Echocardiography six months after discontinuation of medication showed regression of mitral regurgitation and the laboratory parameters were also normalized. It is noteworthy that six months treatment with pioglitazone could induce significant valve dysfunction, which was reversible, and this underlines the importance of carefully monitoring patients when placing them on treatment with TZDs.

  18. Treatment with pioglitazone induced significant, reversible mitral regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frid Anders

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has in recent years been great concern about possible cardiac side effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs. We present a case-report of a 60 year-old male who developed significant mitral regurgitation during six months treatment with pioglitazone in parallel with laboratory indications of fluid retention. Echocardiography six months after discontinuation of medication showed regression of mitral regurgitation and the laboratory parameters were also normalized. It is noteworthy that six months treatment with pioglitazone could induce significant valve dysfunction, which was reversible, and this underlines the importance of carefully monitoring patients when placing them on treatment with TZDs.

  19. The Triaging and Treatment of Cold-Induced Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Christoph; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Daigeler, Adrien; Goertz, Ole

    2015-10-30

    In Central Europe, cold-induced injuries are much less common than burns. In a burn center in western Germany, the mean ratio of these two types of injury over the past 10 years was 1 to 35. Because cold-induced injuries are so rare, physicians often do not know how to deal with them. This article is based on a review of publications (up to December 2014) retrieved by a selective search in PubMed using the terms "freezing," "frostbite injury," "non-freezing cold injury," and "frostbite review," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. Freezing and cold-induced trauma are part of the treatment spectrum in burn centers. The treatment of cold-induced injuries is not standardized and is based largely on case reports and observations of use. distinction is drawn between non-freezing injuries, in which there is a slow temperature drop in tissue without freezing, and freezing injuries in which ice crystals form in tissue. In all cases of cold-induced injury, the patient should be slowly warmed to 22°-27°C to prevent reperfusion injury. Freezing injuries are treated with warming of the body's core temperature and with the bathing of the affected body parts in warm water with added antiseptic agents. Any large or open vesicles that are already apparent should be debrided. To inhibit prostaglandin-mediated thrombosis, ibuprofen is given (12 mg/kg body weight b.i.d.). The treatment of cold-induced injuries is based on their type, severity, and timing. The recommendations above are grade C recommendations. The current approach to reperfusion has yielded promising initial results and should be further investigated in prospective studies.

  20. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: current and emerging treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihler F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Ihler, Martin CanisDepartment of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Ragweed (Ambrosia spp. is an annually flowering plant whose pollen bears high allergenic potential. Ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis has long been seen as a major immunologic condition in Northern America with high exposure and sensitization rates in the general population. The invasive occurrence of ragweed (A. artemisiifolia poses an increasing challenge to public health in Europe and Asia as well. Possible explanations for its worldwide spread are climate change and urbanization, as well as pollen transport over long distances by globalized traffic and winds. Due to the increasing disease burden worldwide, and to the lack of a current and comprehensive overview, this study aims to review the current and emerging treatment options for ragweed-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. Sound clinical evidence is present for the symptomatic treatment of ragweed-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with oral third-generation H1-antihistamines and leukotriene antagonists. The topical application of glucocorticoids has also been efficient in randomized controlled clinical trials. Combined approaches employing multiple agents are common. The mainstay of causal treatment to date, especially in Northern America, is subcutaneous immunotherapy with the focus on the major allergen, Amb a 1. Beyond this, growing evidence from several geographical regions documents the benefit of sublingual immunotherapy. Future treatment options promise more specific symptomatic treatment and fewer side effects during causal therapy. Novel antihistamines for symptomatic treatment are aimed at the histamine H3-receptor. New adjuvants with toll-like receptor 4 activity or the application of the monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, omalizumab, are supposed to enhance conventional immunotherapy. An approach targeting toll-like receptor 9 by

  1. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Keratoconus Progression Induced by In Vitro Fertilization Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Erdem; Yalinbas, Duygu; Aydin, Bahri; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate patients with keratoconus who manifested progression after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Patients with keratoconus who received IVF treatment were included in this study. None of the patients became pregnant as a result of the IVF treatment. Progression of keratoconus was determined by changes in corrected distance visual acuity and/or topographic changes and subjective assessments. Three patients with keratoconus received IVF treatment and keratoconus progression was detected in all 6 eyes of the patients. The mean age of the patients was 32.3 ± 3.6 years (range: 28 to 36 years) and the mean follow-up duration was 15.6 ± 3.2 months (range: 12 to 18 months). The mean and the maximum keratometry values increased and corrected distance visual acuity decreased after 2.3 IVF treatments. Drugs used in IVF treatment increase estrogen levels, which may affect corneal biomechanics and induce progression of keratoconus. Corneal cross-linking treatment could be offered to minimize the risk of keratoconus progression before IVF treatment. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Treatment of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis resistant to conventional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nišić Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amiodarone as an antiarrhythmic medication is necessary in the prevention and treatment of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, however, it can induce thyroid dysfunction. Thyroid dysfunction may be either hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, however, 50% of patients who have used amiodarone are euthyroid. Case report: A 27-year-old female patient, hospitalized at the Clinic for Endocrinology due to type 2 amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis. The patient had previously received amiodarone for two years. At age 25, the patient was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy (EF 25%, EDD/ESD 56-57/47 mm with mild Ebstein’s anomaly, WPW Sy and recorded episodes of non-sustained VT. In order to reduce the risk of sudden death and prevent malignant ventricular arrhythmias, ICD-VR was implanted and amiodarone was prescribed. Treatment with propylthiouracil (PTU and dexamethasone was initiated after thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed. Three weeks after the introduction of PTU, hepatotoxicity was registered, thus the medication was discontinued. Thyrozol, which regulates the hepatotoxicity parameters, was introduced. Sodium perchlorate and glucocorticoid (per os, IV and intrathyroidal therapy was introduced. The treatment had lasted for fifty days and laboratory signs of thyrotoxicosis were still present, which is why a total of eight plasmapheresis sessions were performed. Each plasmapheresis resulted in a significant decrease in FT4 and a slight decrease in FT3. After seventy two days of treatment, an optimal hormonal status of the thyroid gland was established and total thyroidectomy was performed. Conclusion: Patient was treated for amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT type 2, which was resistant to conventional therapy for a long period of time. Successful treatment was achieved by applying plasmapheresis although the effect of perchlorate and glucocorticoids application cannot be disregarded.

  4. Hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy: case report, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogasundaram, Haran; Putko, Brendan N; Tien, Julia; Paterson, D Ian; Cujec, Bibiana; Ringrose, Jennifer; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-12-01

    Drug-induced heart and vascular disease remains an important health burden. Hydroxychloroquine and its predecessor chloroquine are medications commonly used in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and other connective tissue disorders. Hydroxychloroquine interferes with malarial metabolites, confers immunomodulatory effects, and also affects lysosomal function. Clinical monitoring and early recognition of toxicity is an important management strategy in patients who undergo long-term treatment with hydroxychloroquine. Retinal toxicity, neuromyopathy, and cardiac disease are recognized adverse effects of hydroxychloroquine. Immediate withdrawal of hydroxychloroquine is essential if toxicity is suspected because of the early reversibility of cardiomyopathy. In addition to recommended ophthalmological screening, regular screening with 12-lead electrocardiogram and transthoracic echocardiography to detect conduction system disease and/or biventricular morphological or functional changes should be considered in hydroxychloroquine-treated patients. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and endomyocardial biopsy are valuable tools to provide prognostic insights and confirm the diagnosis of hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy. In conclusion, chronic use of hydroxychloroquine can result in an acquired lysosomal storage disorder, leading to a drug-induced cardiomyopathy characterized by concentric hypertrophy and conduction abnormalities associated with increased adverse clinical outcomes and mortality. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  6. Ecstasy-Induced Caspase Expression Alters Following Ginger Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soleimani Asl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to 3-4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA leads to cell death. Herein, we studied the protective effects of ginger on MDMA- induced apoptosis. Methods: 15 Sprague dawley male rats were administrated with 0, 10 mg/kg MDMA, or MDMA along with 100mg/kg ginger, IP for 7 days. Brains were removed to study the caspase 3, 8, and 9 expressions in the hippocampus by RT-PCR. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using the one-way ANOVA test. Results: MDMA treatment resulted in a significant increase in caspase 3, 8, and 9 as compared to the sham group (p<0.001. Ginger administration however, appeared to significantly decrease the same (p<0.001. Discussion: Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to the improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.

  7. Emerging treatment strategies for trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, B; Fries, D

    2012-01-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy has a multifactorial aetiology. Coagulopathy is related to blood loss including consumption of clotting factors and platelets and haemodilution. Additionally hyperfibrinolysis, hypothermia, acidosis and metabolic changes affect the coagulation system. This is a review of pathophysiology and new treatment strategies for trauma-induced coagulopathy. Paradigms are actively changing and there is still a shortage of data. The aim of any haemostatic therapy is to control bleeding and minimize blood loss and transfusion requirements. Transfusion of allogeneic blood products as well as trauma-induced coagulopathy cause increased morbidity and mortality. Current opinion is based on present studies and results from small case series, combined with findings from experimental studies in animals, in vitro studies and expert opinions, as opposed to large, randomized, placebo-controlled studies. A summary of new and emerging strategies, including medical infusion and blood products, to beneficially manipulate the coagulation system in the critically injured patient is suggested. Future treatment of trauma-induced coagulopathy may be based on systemic antifibrinolytics, local haemostatics and individualized point-of-care-guided rational use of coagulation factor concentrates such as fibrinogen, prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant factor VIIa and factor XIII. The authors speculate that timely and rational use of coagulation factor concentrates will be more efficacious and safer than ratio-driven use of transfusion packages of allogeneic blood products. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Analgesic treatment of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Deuis, Jennifer R; Inserra, Marco C; Collins, Lindon S; Namer, Barbara; Cabot, Peter J; Reeh, Peter W; Lewis, Richard J; Vetter, Irina

    2013-10-01

    Ciguatera, the most common form of nonbacterial ichthyosarcotoxism, is caused by consumption of fish that have bioaccumulated the polyether sodium channel activator ciguatoxin. The neurological symptoms of ciguatera include distressing, often persistent sensory disturbances such as paraesthesias and the pathognomonic symptom of cold allodynia. We show that intracutaneous administration of ciguatoxin in humans elicits a pronounced axon-reflex flare and replicates cold allodynia. To identify compounds able to inhibit ciguatoxin-induced Nav responses, we developed a novel in vitro ciguatoxin assay using the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Pharmacological characterisation of this assay demonstrated a major contribution of Nav1.2 and Nav1.3, but not Nav1.7, to ciguatoxin-induced Ca2+ responses. Clinically available Nav inhibitors, as well as the Kv7 agonist flupirtine, inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive ciguatoxin-evoked responses. To establish their in vivo efficacy, we used a novel animal model of ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia. However, differences in the efficacy of these compounds to reverse ciguatoxin-induced cold allodynia did not correlate with their potency to inhibit ciguatoxin-induced responses in SH-SY5Y cells or at heterologously expressed Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nav1.7, or Nav1.8, indicating cold allodynia might be more complex than simple activation of Nav channels. These findings highlight the need for suitable animal models to guide the empiric choice of analgesics, and suggest that lamotrigine and flupirtine could be potentially useful for the treatment of ciguatera. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B.; Fernberg, J.-O.

    1996-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author)

  10. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B. [Karolinska Inst., Huddinge (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology; Fernberg, J.-O. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology

    1996-05-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author).

  11. Gynecologic cancer treatment: risk factors for therapeutically induced neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, G.L.; Hoover, R.; Young, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention in a course of illness, while producing the desired result, also may have some adverse long-term effects on the patient. Second malignancies are one of the known complications of therapy. The treatments of gynecologic cancers by surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy have been associated with subsequent neoplasms. The use of normal skin from the thigh to fabricate an artificial vagina has resulted in more squamous cell carcinomas than expected. Alkylating agents used in the treatment of ovarian cancer and other diseases have been shown to lead to an increased risk of leukemia. The incidence of lymphoma and uterine, urinary bladder and colon carcinomas has been associated with prior irradiation for gynecologic disease. The literature regarding the therapeutically induced risk factors in gynecologic therapy is reviewed and areas of our knowledge that require more investigation are identified

  12. Rapid treatment-induced brain changes in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-03-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray, two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation.

  13. Pilocarpine and carbacholine in treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, H.; Bostroem, P.; Makkonen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with radiation-related xerostomia were treated with oral pilocarpine solution 6 mg t.i.d., and after a 4-week drug-free period 16 of these patients were treated with carbacholine 2 mg tablets t.i.d. Basal and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured before commencing the drug treatment, and after 1 and 12 weeks on treatment. On a subjective linear scale both pilocarpine (p=0.01) and carbacholine (p=0.02) improved mouth moistness. Only 2 of the 8 patients with no basal or stimulated saliva flow reported some subjective benefit from the drug treatment, whereas all 8 patients with less severe xerostomia improved (p=0.007). However, the salivary flow rates measured 12 h after the last drug dose did not improve with either drug. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. It is concluded that both drugs may be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with residual salivary function. (author). 6 refs., tabs

  14. Rhabdomyolysis induced by antiepileptic drugs: characteristics, treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhou, Shengnian

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis syndrome refers to a variety of factors that affect the striated muscle cell membrane, the membrane channels and its energy supply. Most cases of rhabdomyolysis are due to direct trauma. However, infection, toxins, drugs, muscle ischemia, electrolyte imbalance, metabolic diseases, genetic diseases and abnormal body temperature can also lead to rhabdomyolysis. Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases. The primary long-term treatment is antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), which may cause rhabdomyolysis. This article summarizes the characteristics, treatment methods and prognosis of patients with rhabdomyolysis that is induced by antiepileptic drugs. This review is based on PubMed, EMBASE and MEDLINE searches of the literature using the keywords "epilepsy", "antiepileptic drugs","status epilepticus","rhabdomyolysis", and "antiepileptic drugs and rhabdomyolysis syndrome" as well as extensive personal clinical experience with various antiepileptic drugs. Potential relationships between antiepileptic drugs and rhabdomyolysis are discussed. Worldwide, there are approximately 50 million epilepsy patients, most of whom are treated with drugs. Reports have indicated that the majority of antiepileptic drugs on the market can cause rhabdomyolysis. Although rhabdomyolysis induced by antiepileptic drugs is a rare condition with a low incidence, this condition has serious consequences and merits attention from clinicians.

  15. Methylnaltrexone in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld1, Kelly M Standifer21Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma Center for Neuroscience, Department of Physiology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Oklahoma Center for Neuroscience, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: Constipation is a significant problem related to opioid medications used to manage pain. This review attempts to outline the latest findings related to the therapeutic usefulness of a μ opioid receptor antagonist, methylnaltrexone in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation. The review highlights methylnaltrexone bromide (RelistorTM; Progenics/Wyeth a quaternary derivative of naltrexone, which was recently approved in the United States, Europe and Canada. The Food and Drug Administration in the United States approved a subcutaneous injection for the treatment of opioid bowel dysfunction in patients with advanced illness who are receiving palliative care and when laxative therapy has been insufficient. Methylnaltrexone is a peripherally restricted, μ opioid receptor antagonist that accelerates oral–cecal transit in patients with opioidinduced constipation without reversing the analgesic effects of morphine or inducing symptoms of opioid withdrawal. An analysis of the mechanism of action and the potential benefits of using methylnaltrexone is based on data from published basic research and recent clinical studies.Keywords: methylnaltrexone, constipation, opioid

  16. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  17. Adjunctive treatment with aripiprazole for risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjbar F

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatemeh Ranjbar,1 Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani,2,3 Parisa Niari Khams,1 Asghar Arfaie,1 Azim Salari,4 Mostafa Farahbakhsh1 1Clinical Psychiatry Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran; 2Road Traffic Injury Research Center, Department of Statistics & Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3World Health Organization Collaborating Center on Community Safety Promotion, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; 4Emam Khomeini Hospital, Naghadeh, West Azerbaijan, Iran Background: Antipsychotics have been used for more than 50 years in the treatment of schizophrenia and many other psychiatric disorders. Prolactin levels usually increase in patients treated with risperidone. Aripiprazole, which has a unique effect as an antipsychotic, is a D2 receptor partial agonist. It is an atypical antipsychotic with limited extrapyramidal symptoms. Since it acts as an antagonist in hyperdopaminergic conditions and as an agonist in hypodopaminergic conditions, it does not have adverse effects on serum prolactin levels. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of aripiprazole on risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia. Methods: This before-and-after clinical trial was performed in 30 patients. Baseline prolactin levels were measured in all patients who were candidates for treatment with risperidone. In subjects with elevated serum prolactin, aripiprazole was added to their treatment. Serum prolactin levels were measured during the first week, second week, and monthly thereafter for at least 3 months or until prolactin levels became normal. The data were analyzed using Stata version 11 software. Survival analysis and McNemar’s test were also performed. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.8 years. Prolactin levels normalized in 23 (77% participants during the study, and menstrual disturbances normalized in 25 (83.3%. Prolactin levels normalized in most patients between days 50

  18. Gynecologic cancer treatment: risk factors for therapeutically induced neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messerschmidt, G.L.; Hoover, R.; Young, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Therapeutic intervention in a course of illness, while producing the desired result, also may have some adverse long-term effects on the patient. Second malignancies are one of the known complications of therapy. The treatments of gynecologic cancers by surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy have been associated with subsequent neoplasms. Care must be exercised in associating previous therapy and a subsequent malignancy. Naturally occurring second cancers must be separated from those which are iatrogenic. Associations in the literature have been made involving malignancies as a sequelae of prior gynecologic therapy. The use of normal skin from the thigh to fabricate an artificial vagina has resulted in more squamous cell carcinomas than expected. Alkylating agents used in the treatment of ovarian cancer and other diseases have been shown to lead to an increased risk of leukemia. Irradiation therapy, however, has not yet been shown to be related to leukemia in cervical cancer patients. The incidence of lymphoma and uterine, urinary bladder and colon carcinomas has been associated with prior irradiation for gynecologic disease. The literature regarding the therapeutically induced risk factors in gynecologic therapy is reviewed and areas of our knowledge that require more investigation are identified

  19. [The effect of prophylactically administered n-acetylcysteine on clinical indicators for tissue oxygenation during hyperoxic ventilation in cardiac risk patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, C; Giese, C; Meier-Hellmann, A; Specht, M; Hannemann, L; Schaffartzik, W; Reinhart, K

    1996-04-01

    Hyperoxic ventilation, used to prevent hypoxia during potential periods of hypoventilation, has been reported to paradoxically decrease whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2). Reduction in nutritive blood flow due to oxygen radical production is one possible mechanism. We investigated whether pretreatment with the sulfhydryl group donor and O2 radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) would preserve VO2 and other clinical indicators of tissue oxygenation in cardiac risk patients. Thirty patients, requiring hemodynamic monitoring (radial and pulmonary artery catheters) because of cardiac risk factors, were included in this randomized investigation. All patients exhibited stable clinical conditions (hemodynamics, body temperature, hemoglobin, F1O2 depression ( > 0.2 mV) was significantly less marked in the NAC group (NAC: -0.02 +/- 0.17 vs placebo: -0.23 +/- 0.15; P depression if patients were prophylactically treated with NAC. This suggests that pretreatment with NAC could be considered to attenuate impaired tissue oxygenation and to preserve myocardial performance better in cardiac risk patients during hyperoxia.

  20. Air breathing in Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami, under normoxic and hyperoxic conditions, and the association with sunlight and reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, O E; Bergman, H L; Wood, C M; Laurent, P; Kavembe, D G; Bianchini, A; Maina, J N; Chevalier, C; Bianchini, L F; Papah, M B; Ojoo, R O

    2014-03-01

    Observations of the Magadi tilapia Alcolapia grahami in hot, highly alkaline Lake Magadi revealed that they air breathe not only during hypoxia, as described previously, but also during normoxia and hyperoxia. Air breathing under these latter conditions occurred within distinct groupings of fish (pods) and involved only a small proportion of the population. Air breathing properties (duration and frequency) were quantified from video footage. Air breathing within the population followed a diel pattern with the maximum extent of pod formation occurring in early afternoon. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the water may be an irritant that encourages the air-breathing behaviour. The diel pattern of air breathing in the field and in experiments followed the diel pattern of ROS concentrations in the water which are amongst the highest reported in the literature (maximum daytime values of 2.53 – 8.10 μM H₂O₂). Interlamellar cell masses (ILCM) occurred between the gill lamellae of fish from the lagoon with highest ROS and highest oxygen levels, while fish from a normoxic lagoon with one third the ROS had little or no ILCM. This is the first record of air breathing in a facultative air-breathing fish in hyperoxic conditions and the first record of an ILCM in a cichlid species. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Antituberculosis Drug-Induced Liver Injury with Autoimmune Features: Facing Diagnostic and Treatment Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adriana Rangel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case report of antituberculosis drug-induced liver injury that offered diagnostic challenges (namely, the possibility of drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis and treatment difficulties.

  2. Successful treatment of sodium oxalate induced urolithiasis with Helichrysum flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaran, Metin; Orhan, Nilüfer; Farahvash, Amirali; Ekin, Hasya Nazlı; Kocabıyık, Murat; Gönül, İpek Işık; Şen, İlker; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-06-20

    Helichrysum (Asteraceae) flowers, known as "altın otu, yayla çiçeği, kudama çiçeği" , are widely used to remove kidney stones and for their diuretic properties in Turkey. To determine the curative effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M. Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and H. stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on sodium oxalate induced kidney stones. Infusions prepared from the capitulums of HG and HS were tested for their curative effect on calcium oxalate deposition induced by sodium oxalate (70mg/kg i.p.). Following the injection of sodium oxalate for 5 days, plant extracts were administered to rats at two different doses. Potassium citrate was used as positive control. Water intake, urine volume, body, liver and kidney weights were measured; biochemical and hematological analyses were conducted on urine and blood samples. Additionally, histopathological examinations were done on kidney samples. H. stoechas extract showed prominent effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 0.33), whereas number of kidney stones was maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.33). The reduction in the uric acid and oxalate levels of urine samples and the elevation in the urine citrate levels are significant and promising in extract groups. Some hematological, biochemical and enzymatic markers are also ameliorated by the extracts. This is the first report on the curative effect of immortal flowers. Our preliminary study indicated that Helichrysum extracts may be used for treatment of urolithiasis and Helichrysum extracts are an alternative therapy to potassium citrate for patients suffering from kidney stones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extracorporeal Treatment in Severe Hypertriglyceridemia-Induced Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Heike; Balta, Zeynep; Klein, Burkhard; Strassburg, Christian P

    2015-08-01

    Plasmapheresis is a well-accepted treatment option in severe hypertriglyceridemia-induced pancreatitis (HTGP). The rationale behind this approach is the depletion of triglycerides and the reduction of inflammatory cytokines. The time span between onset of clinical symptoms and start of plasmapheresis might have an important impact on mortality. Hyperviscosity of patients' plasma represents another special challenge for the applied separation technology. The procedures can be performed either by centrifugal device (CFD) or membrane based (MBS) units. The present study reports the outcome of 10 patients suffering from HTG. The expected mortality of the collective was 25%. Plasmapheresis was started after an average 16.3 h (SD ± 6.7 h) after onset of symptoms. No mortality occurred. Apheresis was statistically equally effective with both devices. A median of 3 sessions reduced the TG level to normal and correlated with patients' improvement. During follow up, three patients developed a pancreatic pseudocyst requiring surgical intervention without further complication. © 2015 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2015 International Society for Apheresis.

  4. Radiation induced sarcoma after treatment of glioblastoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Victor Domingos Lisita; Anjos, Caroline Souza dos; Candido, Priscila Barile Marchi; Dias Junior, Antonio Soares; Santos, Evandro Airton Sordi dos; Godoy, Antonio Carlos Cavalcante; Saggioro, Fabiano P.; Carlotti Junior, Carlos Gilberto; Oliveira, Harley Francisco de; Peria, Fernanda Maris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glioblastoma multiform is the most lethal central nervous system neoplasm, with a median survival of around 13 months and the worst prognosis among all gliomas. The therapeutic approach of glioblastoma consists in neurosurgery with maximum possible resection of tumor volume, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy reduces the risk of tumor recurrence through direct and indirect damage to tumor deoxyribonucleic acid. The long-term effects of radiation therapy include tissue necrosis, vasculopathy, and radiation-induced neoplasia. The most reported secondary intracranial malignant tumors include meningiomas, gliomas, and sarcomas. The latency period between skull radiotherapy and the appearance of radioinduced lesions varies in the literature from six months to 47 years, with an average of 18.7 years. Case report: The present report describes the appearance of high-grade spindle cell sarcoma after ten months in a patient who received glioblastoma treatment at Hospital das Clínicas of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo. Conclusion: The rarity of this association is probably due to the poor survival of patients with glioblastoma, thus limiting the time to development of secondary neoplasia

  5. Biomarkers for the early detection of cancer treatment induced cardiotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, Ben

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, the role of several imaging and nonimaging markers for the detection of anthracycline-induced and trastuzumab-induced cardiotoxicity (respectively AIC and TIC) is evaluated. Especially, the pathophysiology of these processes and the interrelationship of the various markers are

  6. Importance of local skin treatments during radiotherapy for prevention and treatment of radio-induced epithelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargari, C.; Fromantin, I.; Kirova, Y.M.; Chargari, C.

    2009-01-01

    Radio-epithelitis represents a common problem, for which treatments are characterized by a great heterogeneity. The present review of literature focuses on data referenced in Pub med/Medline and published in French/English. Despite a real preclinical rationale, aloe vera and trolamine failed to demonstrate any benefit in the prophylactic settings. In a prospective assessment phase III assessment, Calendula officinalis was shown to be superior to trolamine for the prevention of radio-epithelitis. In the curative settings, sucrafalte failed to demonstrate any benefit. The benefit of dermo-corticoids was suggested in terms of erythema and itching. Promising clinical results are available with hyaluronic acid (M.A. S065D and Ialugen) and silver leaf may reduce the intensity of cutaneous radio-induced side effects. Data from the literature are conflicting, making real the difficulty to adopt from clinical trials any proof-of-principle strategy. Considering these uncertainties, several strategies are allowed. New topics are under investigation. Present data from the literature highlight the need for further trials, in order to propose evidence-based treatments and to harmonize clinical practice. (authors)

  7. Electronically Induced Redox Barriers for Treatment of Groundwater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sale, Tom; Gilbert, David

    2006-01-01

    ...) and Colorado State University (CSU). The focus is an innovative electrolytic approach for managing redox-sensitive contaminants in groundwater, referred to as electrically induced redox barrier (e-barriers...

  8. A hyperoxic lung injury model in premature rabbits: the influence of different gestational ages and oxygen concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Munhoz Manzano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animal models have been developed to study bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. The preterm rabbit is a low-cost, easy-to-handle model, but it has a high mortality rate in response to the high oxygen concentrations used to induce lung injury. The aim of this study was to compare the mortality rates of two models of hyperoxia-induced lung injury in preterm rabbits. METHODS: Pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to caesarean section on gestational day 28 or 29 (full term  = 31 days. The premature rabbits in the 28-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂ ≥95%, and the rabbits in the 29-day gestation group were exposed to room air or FiO₂  = 80% for 11 days. The mean linear intercept (Lm, internal surface area (ISA, number of alveoli, septal thickness and proportion of elastic and collagen fibers were quantified. RESULTS: The survival rates in the 29-day groups were improved compared with the 28-day groups. Hyperoxia impaired the normal development of the lung, as demonstrated by an increase in the Lm, the septal thickness and the proportion of elastic fibers. Hyperoxia also decreased the ISA, the number of alveoli and the proportion of collagen fibers in the 28-day oxygen-exposed group compared with the control 28-day group. A reduced number of alveoli was found in the 29-day oxygen exposed animals compared with the control 29-day group. CONCLUSIONS: The 29-day preterm rabbits had a reduced mortality rate compared with the 28-day preterm rabbits and maintained a reduction in the alveoli number, which is comparable to BPD in humans.

  9. Quality control in radiotherapy treatment: Radiation induced myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Vicioso, E.; Ruiz-Cruces, R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct injury of the spinal cord has been reported many times, particularly in cases of overexposures with radiotherapy of neoplasm that occurred outside the Central Nervous System. Permanent damage to the spinal cord is the most feared complication of radiation therapy treatments and one of the relatively common causes of litigation for medical malpractice in the context of cancer treatment. We have learned from clinical experience, data from randomized trials and animal experimentation, the dose tolerance as well as the interfraction interval for hyperfractionation regimes. We are still lacking precious clinical information, in particular the dose tolerance in combined modality treatments that represent the vast majority of modern treatments. (author)

  10. Treatment of amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism with potassium perchlorate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, E. W.; Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Nikkels, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    The antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone, induces thyroid dysfunction, which is potentially dangerous in cardiac patients. After discontinuation of the drug it takes several months before euthyroidism is restored. The potent antithyroid drug, potassium perchlorate (KClO4), is used successfully to treat

  11. Effect of Magnesium pre-treatment on Alloxan induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The role of vitamins and mineral supplementation in the prevention of diabetes mellitus is not well elucidated. Objective: The effect of prior administration of magnesium on alloxan induced diabetes was assessed in rats. Methods: 36 Male albino rats were used for this study. The animals were divided into 6 ...

  12. Minocycline treatment ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neurogenic defects and depression-like behaviors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Shun eZheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that is widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and malignancy, because of its immune-activating, antiviral, and antiproliferative properties. However, long-term IFN-α treatment frequently causes depression, which limits its clinical utility. The precise molecular and cellular mechanisms of IFN-α-induced depression are not currently understood. Neural stem cells (NSCs in the hippocampus continuously generate new neurons, and some evidence suggests that decreased neurogenesis plays a role in the neuropathology of depression. We previously reported that IFN-α treatment suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and induced depression-like behaviors via its receptors in the brain in adult mice. However, it is unclear how systemic IFN-α administration induces IFN-α signaling in the hippocampus. In this study, we analyzed the role of microglia, immune cells in the brain, in mediating the IFN-α-induced neurogenic defects and depressive behaviors. In vitro studies demonstrated that IFN-α treatment induced the secretion of endogenous IFN-α from microglia, which suppressed NSC proliferation. In vivo treatment of adult mice with IFN-α for five weeks increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-α, and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Both effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation. Furthermore, minocycline treatment significantly suppressed IFN-α-induced depressive behaviors in mice. These results suggest that microglial activation plays a critical role in the development of IFN-α-induced depression, and that minocycline is a promising drug for the treatment of IFN-α-induced depression in patients, especially those who are low responders to conventional antidepressant treatments.

  13. Occult HBV reactivation induced by ibrutinib treatment: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jésus Ngoma, Patrick; Kabamba, Benoît; Dahlqvist, Geraldine; Sempoux, Christine; Lanthier, Nicolas; Shindano, Tony; Van Den Neste, Eric; Horsmans, Yves

    2015-12-01

    Ibrutinib is a small molecule that has been recently developped for the treatment of B cell malignancies. Common side effects are diarrhoea, nausea, fatigue, infections, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Here we report the first case of Hepatitis B virus reactivation in a 80 years old chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patient receiving ibrutinib, suggesting that such treatment must be associated with HBV screening. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  14. Management of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; de Graaf, JC; Coenen, JLLM; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2001-01-01

    The anticancer agents fluorouracil, raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin show limited efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer and may be associated with substantial toxicity. Therefore, the prevention and reduction of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects is of major significance, in

  15. Surgical treatment of 2 cases of irradiation induced constrictive pericarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osawa, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Wataru; Yoshii, Shinpei [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)] (and others)

    1999-11-01

    A 72-years-old man underwent radiation therapy (62 Gy) for esophageal carcinoma. Twelve months later, symptoms of heart failure such as syncope, cough and hepatomegaly manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was evident. Pericardiectomy without extracorporeal circulation was performed. Operative findings and pathological results were compatible with radiation-induced constrictive pericarditis. He recovered from the heart failure, and has been doing well 3 months after the surgery. A 54-years-old man underwent thymectomy for malignant thymoma. He underwent a radiation therapy (52 Gy) postoperatively. After 12 months from the irradiation, syncope and dyspnea manifested. On catheter study, a dip and plateau pattern of right ventricular pressure curve was observed. Pericardiectomy with extracorporeal circulation was performed. He recovered from the heart failure after pericardiectomy, however he died of radiation-induced pneumonitis 6 months later. (author)

  16. Treatment-Induced Autophagy Associated with Tumor Dormancy and Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    mechanisms make cellular transformation an inevitable event. Harmless somatic mutations have been reported in healthy hematopoietic stem cells of womenwith a...adult stem cells are also in a state of quiescent dormancy until they receive specific signals, such as tissue injury, to exit from dormancy and...lesions. RONS also induce DNA double- strand breaks, which can also be potently mutagenic if not accurately repaired. How- ever, detection of malignant

  17. The Modern Approaches to Prevention and Treatment of NSAID-Induced Gastropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Tkach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents recent data on the different tactics for treatment and prevention of NSAID-induced gastropathy. On the basis of the carried out analysis it has been concluded that the most effective strategies are the use of proton pomp inhibitors and eradication of  infection. The use of double doses of proton pomp inhibitors allows improving the efficacy of prevention and treatment of NSAID-induced gastropathy.

  18. The Modern Approaches to Prevention and Treatment of NSAID-Induced Gastropathy

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. Tkach

    2013-01-01

    The article presents recent data on the different tactics for treatment and prevention of NSAID-induced gastropathy. On the basis of the carried out analysis it has been concluded that the most effective strategies are the use of proton pomp inhibitors and eradication of  infection. The use of double doses of proton pomp inhibitors allows improving the efficacy of prevention and treatment of NSAID-induced gastropathy.

  19. Acute Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea in Children: Clinical Picture, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Niankovskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical picture and treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea in children. There are presented the basic thesis of ESPGHAN consensus (2014 about acute diarrheas. There was analyzed the effectiveness of probiotic Subalin producing interferon for the treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea. It was demonstrated its effectiveness according to the literature review and own data.

  20. Drug-induced Fanconi syndrome associated with fumaric acid esters treatment for psoriasis: A case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.M.W. Balak (Deepak); J.N.B. Bavinck (Jan Nico Bouwes); De Vries, A.P.J. (Aiko P. J.); Hartman, J. (Jenny); Martino Neumann, H.A. (Hendrik A.); R. Zietse (Bob); H.B. Thio (Bing)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Fumaric acid esters (FAEs), an oral immunomodulating treatment for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, have been anecdotally associated with proximal renal tubular dysfunction due to a drug-induced Fanconi syndrome. Few data are available on clinical outcomes of FAE-induced

  1. Movement disorders induced in monkeys by chronic haloperidol treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, B; Santelli, S; Lusink, G

    1977-01-01

    After several months of treatment, Cebus apella, Cebus albifrons, and Saimiri sciurea monkeys maintained on haloperidol, in doses of 0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg orally 5 days per week, began to display severe movement disorders, typically 1 to 6 h post-drug. Cebus monkeys exhibited violent, uncontrolled movements that flung the animals about the cage. Such episodes usually lasted only a few minutes, recurring several times during the period following drug ingestion. Writhing and bizarre postures dominated the response in S. sciurea. Cessation of drug treatment produced no distinctive after-effects. When tested as long as 508 days after the last administration, however, Cebus monkeys responded to haloperidol with several episodes of hyperkinesis, even at challenge doses considerably lower than those in the original treatment.

  2. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...... by HHP treatment was investigated in different holding media with or without Ca(2+). The efficiency of activation was tested at different pressure levels and media including T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 containing 2% cattle serum), and mannitol-PVA fusion medium with (MPVA + Ca(2+)) or without Ca(2...

  3. Lentinan treatment of Plasmodium yoelii-infected mice induces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-31

    Jan 31, 2012 ... infected mice results in down-regulation of the Th1-type immune response, leading to death (Wu et al., 2007;. Amante et al., 2007). Thus, these cells help to promote the pathogenesis of malaria. Several treatments are commonly used to combat malaria; most often is quinine administration (Sahu et al.,.

  4. Hot water treatments delay cold-induced banana peel blackening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Promyou, S.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2008-01-01

    Banana fruit of cv. Gros Michel (Musa acuminata, AAA Group, locally called cv. Hom Thong) and cv. Namwa (Musa x paradisiaca, ABB Group) were immersed for 5, 10 and 15 min in water at 42 degrees C, or in water at 25 degrees C (control), and were then stored at 4 degrees C. Hot water treatment for 15

  5. Formalin treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, E.; Ibsen, T.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Reimer, E.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 71-year-old man developed severe hemorrhagic proctitis 1 year after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Conservative treatment as well as performance of a colostomy failed to control the rectal bleeding. After irrigation of the rectum with a formalin solution the bleeding stopped, and no recurrence has been observed for the next 14 months

  6. Treatment of radiation-induced gastrointestinal distress with acetylsalicylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennie, A T; Dalley, V M [Royal Marsden Hospital, London (UK); Dinneen, L C; Collier, H O.J.

    1975-11-15

    Highly buffered acetylsalicylate was used to treat diarrhoea and other gastro-intestinal side-effects of radiotherapy in 28 women who were receiving treatment for uterine cancer. In a double-blind, balanced, and randomised trial, acetylsalicylate significantly reduced the number of bowel motions and relieved abdominal pain and flatulence.

  7. Herbal Medicine as Inducers of Apoptosis in Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Safarzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer.

  8. Treatment of a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ichirou; Harashina, Takao; Inoue, Takeo; Ueda, Kouichi; Hatoko, Mituo; Shidara, Yukinobu; Ito, Yoshiyasu.

    1990-01-01

    A radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a mastectomy causes severe pain and numbness, as well as motor and sensory disorders. Severe pain is often resistant to analgesic blocks, and in most instances, the effect of neurolysis is only temporary. We have treated two such patients with microsurgical neurolysis and then have covered the nerve by transferred muscles. In one case, the exposed brachial plexus was covered with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and in the other, with a free rectus abdominis muscle flap. Pain and numbness were markedly improved in these two patients soon after the surgery, and the improvement in the sensory function also was relatively satisfactory. In one case, the motor function also improved. These patients have had no recurrence of pain or numbness for 4 years and 2 months and 4 years and 7 months after surgery, respectively. Further, their sensory and motor disorders did not advance. Surgical indications for a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy remain controversial, since the operation does not always ensure a marked improvement in the sensory and motor functions. Further, the operation is ineffective for patients with advanced nerve degeneration. Taking these factors into consideration, the preoperative predication of beneficial effects from this surgery is difficult. Despite our limited experience, however, our surgical method has been thought to be effective because it achieves a marked improvement in the numbness and pain experienced in the arms, which are usually the patients' chief complaints. (author)

  9. Herbal medicine as inducers of apoptosis in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Elham; Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Siamak; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-10-01

    Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Nowadays, cancer is considered as a human tragedy and one of the most prevalent diseases in the wide, and its mortality resulting from cancer is being increased. It seems necessary to identify new strategies to prevent and treat such a deadly disease. Control survival and death of cancerous cell are important strategies in the management and therapy of cancer. Anticancer agents should kill the cancerous cell with the minimal side effect on normal cells that is possible through the induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis is known as programmed cell death in both normal and damaged tissues. This process includes some morphologically changes in cells such as rapid condensation and budding of the cell, formation of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies with well-preserved organelles. Induction of apoptosis is one of the most important markers of cytotoxic antitumor agents. Some natural compounds including plants induce apoptotic pathways that are blocked in cancer cells through various mechanisms in cancer cells. Multiple surveys reported that people with cancer commonly use herbs or herbal products. Vinca Alkaloids, Texans, podo phyllotoxin, Camptothecins have been clinically used as Plant derived anticancer agents. The present review summarizes the literature published so far regarding herbal medicine used as inducers of apoptosis in cancer.

  10. Genetic modification to induce CXCR2 overexpression in mesenchymal stem cells enhances treatment benefits in radiation-induced oral mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zongshan; Wang, Jiancheng; Huang, Qiting; Shi, Yue; Wei, Zhewei; Zhang, Xiaoran; Qiu, Yuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yi; Qin, Wei; Huang, Shuheng; Huang, Yinong; Liu, Xin; Xia, Kai; Zhang, Xinchun; Lin, Zhengmei

    2018-02-14

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects patient quality of life and reduces tolerance to cancer therapy. Unfortunately, traditional treatments are insufficient for the treatment of mucositis and might elicit severe side effects. Due to their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a potential therapeutic strategy for mucositis. However, systemically infused MSCs rarely reach inflamed sites, impacting their clinical efficacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that chemokine axes play an important role in MSC targeting. By systematically evaluating the expression patterns of chemokines in radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis, we found that CXCL2 was highly expressed, whereas cultured MSCs negligibly express the CXCL2 receptor CXCR2. Thus, we explored the potential therapeutic benefits of the transplantation of CXCR 2 -overexpressing MSCs (MSCs CXCR2 ) for mucositis treatment. Indeed, MSCs CXCR2 exhibited enhanced targeting ability to the inflamed mucosa in radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis mouse models. Furthermore, we found that MSC CXCR2 transplantation accelerated ulcer healing by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory chemokines and radiogenic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, these findings indicate that CXCR2 overexpression in MSCs accelerates ulcer healing, providing new insights into cell-based therapy for radiation/chemical-induced oral mucositis.

  11. Conidiation of Neurospora crassa induced by treatment with natrium fluoride in submerged culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, W E; Turian, G

    1975-01-01

    A transient treatment of pregerminated conidia of Neurospora crassa with NaF induced young, submerged cultures to prematurely differentiate conidia. The inductive treatment decreased the rate of respiration (with lower RQ), reduced the relative concentration of nucleoside triphosphates, and inhibited leucine incorporation into protein and adenosine incorporation into RNA.

  12. Anti-PD-L1 Treatment Induced Central Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Tella, Sri Harsha; Del Rivero, Jaydira; Kommalapati, Anuhya; Ebenuwa, Ifechukwude; Gulley, James; Strauss, Julius; Brownell, Isaac

    2018-02-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), anti-programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1), and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (anti-CTLA4) monoclonal antibodies, have been widely used in cancer treatment. They are known to cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which resemble autoimmune diseases. Anterior pituitary hypophysitis with secondary hypopituitarism is a frequently reported irAE, especially in patients receiving anti-CTLA4 treatment. In contrast, posterior pituitary involvement, such as central diabetes insipidus (DI), is relatively rare and is unreported in patients undergoing PD-1/PD-L1 blockade. We describe a case of a 73-year-old man with Merkel cell carcinoma who received the anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody avelumab and achieved partial response. The patient developed nocturia, polydipsia, and polyuria 3 months after starting avelumab. Further laboratory testing revealed central DI. Avelumab was held and he received desmopressin for the management of central DI. Within 6 weeks after discontinuation of avelumab, the patient's symptoms resolved and he was eventually taken off desmopressin. The patient remained off avelumab and there were no signs or symptoms of DI 2 months after the discontinuation of desmopressin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of central DI associated with anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy. The patient's endocrinopathy was successfully managed by holding treatment with the immune checkpoint inhibitor. This case highlights the importance of early screening and appropriate management of hormonal irAEs in subjects undergoing treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors to minimize morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  13. Successful treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome-induced pyoderma gangrenosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, E; Duman, A E; Cetiner, D; Buyukasik, Y; Haznedaroglu, I C; Uner, A; Demirhan, B; Kerimoglu, U; Barista, I; Calguneri, M; Ozcebe, O I

    2006-12-01

    We report successful treatment of a refractory myelodysplastic syndrome-associated pyoderma gangrenosum with the combination of thalidomide and interferon-alpha2a in a single patient. A non-healing wound developed on a 40-year-old woman's left thumb after minor trauma. Massive ulcerovegetative lesions developed after reconstruction surgery. Histopathological examination of the bone marrow and cytogenetic studies revealed an atypical myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome. The skin lesions resolved dramatically after two months of thalidomide and interferon-alpha2a combination therapy and the haematological status improved.

  14. Cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic adenocarcinomata following cytotoxic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1978-08-25

    A stathmokinetic technique was used to study cell proliferation in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinomata of rat colon following treatment with cytotoxic drugs. The rate of cell division was significantly increased three days after treatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine and seven days after treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Acceleration of tumour cell proliferation following 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine treatment was inhibited by treating animals with the antiseritoninergic drug Xylamidine Tosylate. Acceleration of tumour cell proliferation following 5-fluorouracil treatment was inhibited by treating animals either with the antiseritoninergic drug BW501 or with the histamine H2-receptor blocking drug Cimetidine.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation-induced burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portas, Mercedes; Pomerane, Armando; Genovese, Jorge; Perez, Maria R.; Gisone, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of radioactive sources in medicine, industry and research is associated with a probability of accidental overexposures to ionizing radiation, among which localized irradiation are the most frequent events. Moreover, between 5 and 8 % of the patients undergoing therapeutical irradiations could exhibit a higher individual radiosensitivity which could account for severe skin reactions. Localized overexposures may damage not only epidermis and dermis but also deeper connective tissue, vessels, muscles and even bones. Within the framework of a cooperation agreement between the Buenos Aires Burn Hospital and the National Board of Nuclear Regulation, a Radio pathology Committee has been established in 1997 with the purpose of carrying out a collaborative project concerning diagnosis and treatment of radiological burns. The present document particularly considers radiological burns form the point of view of their physiopathology, physical and biological dosimetry, diagnosis prognosis and treatment. It also includes basic concepts of radiation biology and radio pathology. It could be an useful tool for training medical practitioners and also a practical guidance for organizing medical response in accidental overexposures. (author)

  16. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-12-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine.

  17. Surgical treatment of radiation induced injuries of the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, E.H.; Symmonds, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    In the patient who has received high dose irradiation of the pelvis and abdomen, all abdominopelvic operations should be avoided, unless it is absolutely essential. Persisting obstruction, hemorrhage, intestinal perforation with peritonitis and with abscess and fistula formation are valid indications for surgical intervention. Ninety-three patients have been operated upon for these complications after irradiation. Some anastomotic dehiscence occurred in ten patients. Six operative deaths occurred. Of the 93 patients, 65 were managed by means of complete resection of the involved segment of intestine, followed by restoration of intestinal continuity by means of an end-to-end anastomosis. This is the treatment of choice when the involved area can be safely resected. In the absence of actual intestinal necrosis and when segments of strictured small intestine are adherent deep in the pelvis, and intestinal bypass procedure may represent the treatment of choice. This was accomplished in 20 patients, two of whom eventually required a second operation for resection of the bypassed segment of intestine

  18. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

  19. The prevention and treatment of radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zyl, A.J.

    1992-11-01

    Nausea and vomiting are side-effects that are associated with chemo- and radiotherapy. A single-blind study to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous granisetron (G) with metoclopramide (M) plus dexamethasone (D) in the prophylaxis and control of nausea and emesis in patients undergoing hemi-body irradiation (HBI) was performed. G (3 mg) or M (20 mg) plus D (12 mg) were given intravenously, thirty minutes prior to the start of radiotherapy. Patients were monitored for nausea, vomiting and side-effects. Thirty-five patients were treated, 28 men and 7 women. A total of 21 (60%) patients did not vomit during the first 24 hours after the start of radiotherapy. Both G and M plus D offer safe and effective anti-emetic regimes for the prophylaxis and control of radiotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. However, granisetron was found to be more effective than metoclopramide plus dexamethasone in preventing nausea and vomiting. 101 refs., 40 tabs., 8 figs

  20. Tetracycline-induced renal failure after dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig S; McGarity, Gary J

    2009-01-01

    Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics used by dental practitioners in the treatment of periodontal disease. They generally are safe in adults. However, caution is advised in patients who have pre-existing kidney disease. A 42-year-old woman with polycystic kidney disease received a prescription for tetracycline (250 milligrams, four times daily) after undergoing tooth extractions. She developed nausea, vomiting and diarrhea within days and end-stage renal disease within two weeks of taking the antibiotic. Hemodialysis was required to stabilize the patient's condition. Use of the Naranjo nomogram demonstrated an association between the two events. This case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medical history and understanding potential adverse drug effects before prescribing a common antibiotic.

  1. Radiation-induced skin toxicity: prevention and treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorette, G.; Machet, L.

    2001-01-01

    Acute and long term effects are frequent after radiotherapy. They may alter the general status and quality of life of the patients. Chronic radiodermatitis may result in ulceration and in transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. There is a correlation of the frequency of acute dermatitis with the total dose. Chronic radiodermatitis may develop after repeated small doses of ionizing radiation for cardiac catheterization and coronary angio-plasties. The other prognostic factors for the level of acute and late skin reactions are volume of tissue treated, total daily dose, fractionations schemes... but there are some variation in the degree of reaction in patients treated with identical radiotherapy schedules. There is a patient - to- patient variability. Several diseases as systemic sclerosis, some genetic diseases, perhaps some drugs may increase the cutaneous reactions. So both acute and chronic irradiation injury is a complex process with many regulations. Chronic fibrosis may be caused by mechanism of cell activation (and particularly fibroblasts). Cytokines e.g transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) might be involved in the induction of fibrosis. Treatment use emollients. Superoxide dismutase was used as an ointment for radio-fibrosis therapy and obtains a reduction of the fibrosis. In late phases plastic surgery or sometimes cryo-surgery can be used. (authors)

  2. Clinical Studies Applying Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells for the Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara E. Jäkel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC seems to be resistant to conventional chemo- and radiotherapy and the general treatment regimen of cytokine therapy produces only modest responses while inducing severe side effects. Nowadays standard of care is the treatment with VEGF-inhibiting agents or mTOR inhibition; nevertheless, immunotherapy can induce complete remissions and long-term survival in selected patients. Among different adoptive lymphocyte therapies, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells have a particularly advantageous profile as these cells are easily available, have a high proliferative rate, and exhibit a high antitumor activity. Here, we reviewed clinical studies applying CIK cells, either alone or with standard therapies, for the treatment of RCC. The adverse events in all studies were mild, transient, and easily controllable. In vitro studies revealed an increased antitumor activity of peripheral lymphocytes of participants after CIK cell treatment and CIK cell therapy was able to induce complete clinical responses in RCC patients. The combination of CIK cell therapy and standard therapy was superior to standard therapy alone. These studies suggest that CIK cell immunotherapy is a safe and competent treatment strategy for RCC patients and further studies should investigate different treatment combinations and schedules for optimal application of CIK cells.

  3. Drug-Induced Hypothermia as Beneficial Treatment before and after Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Flemming F; Hasseldam, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Hypothermia is still unproven as beneficial treatment in human stroke, although in animal models, conditioning the brain with hypothermia has induced tolerance to insults. Here, we delineate the feasibility of drug-induced mild hypothermia in reducing ischemic brain damage when...... conditioning before (preconditioning) and after (postconditioning) experimental stroke. Methods: Hypothermia was induced in rats with a bolus of 6 mg/kg talipexole followed by 20 h continuous talipexole infusion of 6 mg/kg in total. Controls received similar treatment with saline. The core body temperature...... was continuously monitored. In preconditioning, hypothermia was terminated before either reversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 60 min or global ischemia for 10 min with 2-vessel occlusion and hypotension. In postconditioning, rats experienced 60 min of MCAO before hypothermia was induced...

  4. Ileal perforation induced by acute radiation injury under gefitinib treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Takayuki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Enteritis is one of the side effects of radiotherapy to the abdominal cavity. Radiation enteritis involves damage to mucous membranes in the acute phase and to stromal tissues in the late phase. Perforation of the intestine tends to occur in the late phase, and rarely in the acute phase. However, we describe here a case of intestinal perforation occurring in the acute phase after irradiation in a patient who received gefitinib treatment. Gefitinib, one of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), is widely used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but is simultaneously known to inhibit wound healing. We suspect that gefitinib may affect regeneration of the small intestinal mucosa injured by irradiation. A 76-year-old woman had NSCLC with metastases to the 5th lumbar, sacral, and right iliac bones. To control the pain from bone metastasis, anterior-posterior opposing portal irradiation (total 35 Gy) was started, and was completed over 22 days. On day 25 after starting radiotherapy, the patient began to take gefitinib. On day 35, she presented with acute peritonitis, and an emergency laparotomy was performed. The terminal ileum was affected by radiation enteritis and there were two pin-hole perforations. In the surgical specimen, no cancerous lesions were detected, and immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR) was negative. pEGFR has an important role in mucous membrane repair after irradiation. Intestinal perforation in the acute phase of radiation enteritis may be associated with impaired mucosal repair mechanisms due to the use of an EGFR-TKI such as gefitinib, as evidenced by the absence of pEGFR. (author)

  5. Inducible protein-10 as a predictive marker of antiviral hepatitis C treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neesgaard, Bastian; Ruhwald, Morten; Weis, Nina

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate interferon-γ-inducible protein-10's (IP-10) potential to anticipate rapid (RVR)- and sustained virological responses (SVR) to chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment. METHODS: We included case series examining RVR or SVR in relation to 24 or 48 wk treatment for CHC, in patients...... treatment free for at least six months, with genotype 1 or 4, and in relation to 24 wk treatment for genotype 2 and 3, with pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin. Patients had to have both a baseline IP-10 level as well as a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA determination 4 wk after treatment...... initiation or 24 wk after end of treatment. Studies including patients with liver diseases other than CHC, human immunodeficiency virus-infection, treatment with immunosuppresents or cytostatica, alcohol dependency or active intravenous drug-use were excluded. We found 81 articles by searching the MEDLINE...

  6. Fluoxetine treatment ameliorates depression induced by perinatal arsenic exposure via a neurogenic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Solomon, Benjamin R.; Ulibarri, Adam L.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported an association between arsenic exposure and increased rates of psychiatric disorders, including depression, in exposed populations. We have previously demonstrated that developmental exposure to low amounts of arsenic induces depression in adulthood along with several morphological and molecular aberrations, particularly associated with the hippocampus and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. The extent and potential reversibility of this toxin-induced damage has not been characterized to date. In this study, we assessed the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant, on adult animals exposed to arsenic during development. Perinatal arsenic exposure (PAE) induced depressive-like symptoms in a mild learned helplessness task and in the forced swim task after acute exposure to a predator odor (2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, TMT). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented these behaviors in both tasks in arsenic-exposed animals and ameliorated arsenic-induced blunted stress responses, as measured by corticosterone (CORT) levels before and after TMT exposure. Morphologically, chronic fluoxetine treatment reversed deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) after PAE, specifically differentiation and survival of neural progenitor cells. Protein expression of BDNF, CREB, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and HDAC2 was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of arsenic animals after fluoxetine treatment. This study demonstrates that damage induced by perinatal arsenic exposure is reversible with chronic fluoxetine treatment resulting in restored resiliency to depression via a neurogenic mechanism. PMID:24952232

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of radiation-induced optic neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, J.; Schatz, N.J.

    1986-01-01

    Four patients with radiation-induced optic neuropathies were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. They had received radiation therapy for treatment of pituitary tumors, reticulum cell sarcoma, and meningioma. Two presented with amaurosis fugax before the onset of unilateral visual loss and began hyperbaria within 72 hours after development of unilateral optic neuropathy. Both had return of visual function to baseline levels. The others initiated treatment two to six weeks after visual loss occurred in the second eye and had no significant improvement of vision. Treatment consisted of daily administration of 100% oxygen under 2.8 atmospheres of pressure for 14-28 days. There were no medical complications of hyperbaria. While hyperbaric oxygen is effective in the treatment of radiation-induced optic neuropathy, it must be instituted within several days of deterioration in vision for restoration of baseline function

  8. Radio-induced glioblastoma and myxoma after treatment of undifferentiated carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, J.; Ben Salah, H.; Kammoun, W.; Ghorbel, A.; Drira, M.M.; Frikha, M.; Jlidi, R.; Besbes, M.; Maalej, M.

    2000-01-01

    Radio-induced tumor have been known for a long time to occur after treatment of cancer during childhood. This entity is exceptional following radiotherapy of the cavum. Skull and facial osteosarcoma were described after treatment of UCNT. We report two observations of radio-induced tumors arising respectively three and seven years after treatment of UCNT. The first one is a temporo-parietal glioblastoma and the second is a rhino- and pharyngeal myxoma. The two patients are alive after treatment of the second tumor. The delay of appearance of these tumors, their situation in the field's irradiated and dose received suggests their radioinduced nature. However, the cytogenetic study is necessary to confirm the implication of radiotherapy in the genesis of these cancers. (authors)

  9. Treatment of phobophobia by exposure to CO2-induced anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griez, E; van den Hout, M A

    1983-08-01

    It is argued that fear of fear, or phobophobia, can be an important maintaining factor in cases of seemingly free-floating anxiety with periodic panic attacks and that effective treatment consists of exposure to the feared neurovegetative sensations. The case history presented suggests that inhalation of CO2-O2 mixtures induces the phobic interoceptive sensations and that it can be used in the exposure treatment of phobophobia.

  10. Gamma knife surgery-induced ependymoma after the treatment of meningioma - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Pan, Li; Che, Xiaoming; Lou, Meiqing

    2012-01-01

    Gamma knife surgery is widely used for a number of neurological disorders. However, little is known about its long-term complications such as carcinogenic risks. Here, we present a case of a radiosurgery-induced ependymoma by gamma knife surgery for the treatment of a spinal meningioma in a 7-year-old patient. In light of reviewing the previous reports, we advocate high caution in making young patients receive this treatment.

  11. Flavanone silibinin treatment attenuates nitrogen mustard-induced toxic effects in mouse skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Anil K.; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Inturi, Swetha; Kumar, Dileep [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Orlicky, David J. [Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); White, Carl W. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045USA (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@UCDenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Currently, there is no effective antidote to prevent skin injuries by sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM), which are vesicating agents with potential relevance to chemical warfare, terrorist attacks, or industrial/laboratory accidents. Our earlier report has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of silibinin, a natural flavanone, in reversing monofunctional alkylating SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide-induced toxic effects in mouse skin. To translate this effect to a bifunctional alkylating vesicant, herein, efficacy studies were carried out with NM. Topical application of silibinin (1 or 2 mg) 30 min after NM exposure on the dorsal skin of male SKH-1 hairless mice significantly decreased NM-induced toxic lesions at 24, 72 or 120 h post-exposure. Specifically, silibinin treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction of NM-induced increase in epidermal thickness, dead and denuded epidermis, parakeratosis and microvesication. Higher silibinin dose also caused a 79% and 51%reversal in NM-induced increases in myeloperoxidase activity and COX-2 levels, respectively. Furthermore, silibinin completely prevented NM-induced H2A.X phosphorylation, indicating reversal of DNA damage which could be an oxidative DNA damage as evidenced by high levels of 8-oxodG in NM-exposed mouse skin that was significantly reversed by silibinin. Together, these findings suggest that attenuation of NM-induced skin injury by silibinin is due to its effects on the pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation, vesication and oxidative stress. In conclusion, results presented here support the optimization of silibinin as an effective treatment of skin injury by vesicants. - Highlights: • Silibinin treatment attenuated nitrogen mustard (NM)-induced skin injury. • Silibinin affects pathways associated with DNA damage, inflammation and vesication. • The efficacy of silibinin could also be associated with oxidative stress. • These results support testing and optimization of

  12. Curcumin photodynamic effect in the treatment of the induced periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Ferro-Alves, Marcio Luiz; Longo, Mariéllen; Nuernberg, Marta Aparecida Alberton; Ferreira, Renata Pironato; Andreati, Adriele; Ervolino, Edilson; Duque, Cristiane; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia

    2017-11-01

    This study assessed the effect of curcumin as a photosensitizer in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) for the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats. Periodontitis was induced via a ligature around the mandibular first molar on the left side of 96 rats. The ligature was removed 7 days later, and the animals were randomized into four groups: NT, no local treatment; CUR, irrigation with curcumin solution (40 μM); LED, irradiation with a light-emitting diode (LED, InGaN, 465-485 nm, 200 mW/cm 2 , 60 s); and aPDT, irrigation with curcumin solution (40 μM) followed by irradiation with LED. Eight animals from each group were euthanized at 7, 15, and 30 days post-treatment. Treatments were assessed using alveolar bone loss (ABL) in the furcation region using histological, histometric, and immunohistochemical analyses. Rats treated with aPDT exhibited less ABL at 7 days compared to the NT group, moderate pattern immunolabeling for osteoprotegerin at 30 days, and a pattern of immunolabeling for RANKL from moderate to low. Treatments resulted in smaller numbers of TRAP-positive cells compared to the NT group. aPDT as monotherapy using curcumin as a photosensitizer and LED as the light source was effective in the treatment of induced periodontitis in rats.

  13. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dongxi, E-mail: lidongxi@mail.nwpu.edu.c [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Xu Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu Yong [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2011-01-31

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  14. Fluctuations induced extinction and stochastic resonance effect in a model of tumor growth with periodic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongxi; Xu Wei; Guo, Yongfeng; Xu Yong

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a stochastic model of tumor growth derived from the catalytic Michaelis-Menten reaction with positional and environmental fluctuations under subthreshold periodic treatment. Firstly, the influences of environmental fluctuations on the treatable stage are analyzed numerically. Applying the standard theory of stochastic resonance derived from the two-state approach, we derive the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) analytically, which is used to measure the stochastic resonance phenomenon. It is found that the weak environmental fluctuations could induce the extinction of tumor cells in the subthreshold periodic treatment. The positional stability is better in favor of the treatment of the tumor cells. Besides, the appropriate and feasible treatment intensity and the treatment cycle should be highlighted considered in the treatment of tumor cells.

  15. Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns as affected by inoculant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekman, W.E.; Heijnen, C.E.; Trevors, J.T.; Elsas, van J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Water flow induced transport of Pseudomonas fluorescens cells through soil columns was measured as affected by the inoculant treatment. Bacterial cells were introduced into the topsoil of columns, either encapsulated in alginate beads of different types or mixed with bentonite clay in concentrations

  16. Stress-induced osteolysis of distal clavicle: imaging patterns and treatment using CT-guided injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopov, V.; Groshar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Fuchs, D. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel); Bar-Meir, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    2001-02-01

    Osteolysis of distal clavicle (ODC) may occur in patients who experience repeated stress or microtrauma to the shoulder. This entity has clinical and radiological findings similar to post-traumatic ODC. We describe a case of successful treatment of stress-induced ODC with CT-guided injection of corticosteroid and anesthetic drug into the acromioclavicular joint. (orig.)

  17. Stress-induced osteolysis of distal clavicle: imaging patterns and treatment using CT-guided injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopov, V.; Groshar, D.; Fuchs, D.; Bar-Meir, E.

    2001-01-01

    Osteolysis of distal clavicle (ODC) may occur in patients who experience repeated stress or microtrauma to the shoulder. This entity has clinical and radiological findings similar to post-traumatic ODC. We describe a case of successful treatment of stress-induced ODC with CT-guided injection of corticosteroid and anesthetic drug into the acromioclavicular joint. (orig.)

  18. Fluoride in the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, WF; Jacobs, JWG; Bijlsma, JWJ

    2000-01-01

    Since the use of fluoride has been shown to stimulate bone formation and since decreased bone formation is a key feature in the pathogenesis of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis (CIOP), fluoride is, at least theoretically, attractive for the prevention and treatment of CIOP. In postmenopausal

  19. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee...... only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region). Discharge summaries with diagnosis related to anaphylaxis according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) were reviewed to identify bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions. The severity of the anaphylactic reaction...... was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...

  20. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-01-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA’s simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230 MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity. - Highlights: • A detailed study on patient-induced radioactivity was conducted by adopting Monte Carlo code FLUKA and activation formula. • New formulas for calculating the activity build-up process of periodic irradiation were derived and extensively studied. • Patient induced radioactivity, which has been ignored for years, is confirmed as a vital factor for radiation protection. • The induced radioactivity from single short-time treatment and long-time running (saturation) were studied and compared. • Some suggestions on how to reduce the hazard of patient’s induced radioactivity were given.

  1. Successful treatment of tumor-induced osteomalacia with CT-guided percutaneous ethanol and cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, Sean; Olson, Erik; King, David; Shaker, Joseph L

    2012-10-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia is a rare condition usually caused by benign mesenchymal tumors. When the tumor can be found, patients are usually managed by wide excision of the tumor. We report a 51-yr-old male with clinical and biochemical evidence of tumor-induced osteomalacia caused by a mesenchymal tumor in the right iliac bone. He declined surgery and appears to have been successfully managed by computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation and percutaneous cryoablation. Our patient appears to have had an excellent clinical and biochemical response to computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol ablation and percutaneous cryoablation. We found one prior case of image-guided ablation using radiofrequency ablation for tumor-induced osteomalacia. Although the standard treatment for tumor-induced osteomalacia is wide excision of the tumor, image-guided ablation may be an option in patients who cannot have appropriate surgery or who decline surgery.

  2. Tiagabine treatment in kainic acid induced cerebellar lesion of dystonia rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tsui-chin; Ngampramuan, Sukonthar; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2016-01-01

    Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive involuntary muscle contractions that lead to twisting movements. The exaggerated movements have been studied and have implicated basal ganglia as the point of origin. In more recent studies, the cerebellum has also been identified as the possible target of dystonia, in the search for alternative treatments. Tiagabine is a selective GABA transporter inhibitor, which blocks the reuptake and recycling of GABA. The study of GABAergic drugs as an alternative treatment for cerebellar induced dystonia has not been reported. In our study, tiagabine was i.p. injected into kainic acid induced, cerebellar dystonic adult rats, and the effects were compared with non-tiagabine injected and sham-operated groups. Beam walking apparatus, telemetric electromyography (EMG) recording, and histological verification were performed to confirm dystonic symptoms in the rats on post-surgery treatment. Involuntary dystonic spasm was observed with repetitive rigidity, and twisting movements in the rats were also confirmed by a high score on the dystonic scoring and a high amplitude on the EMG data. The rats with tiagabine treatment were scored based on motor amelioration assessed via beam walking. The result of this study suggests and confirms that low dose of kainic acid microinjection is sufficient to induce dystonia from the cerebellar vermis. In addition, from the results of the EMG recording and the behavioral assessment through beam walking, tiagabine is demonstrated as being effective in reducing dystonic spasm and may be a possible alternative therapeutic drug in the treatment of dystonia. PMID:28337103

  3. Evaluation of effectiveness of hydrolyzed dextran in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slinchenko, N.Z.; Filipchenko, L.L.; Volkova, V.M.

    1986-05-01

    An experimental group and a control group identical in age, work experience, dust exposure and expression of disease were treated for dust-induced bronchitis. The control group received broncholytics, anti-inflammatory preparations and physiotherapy; the experimental group received same treatment plus 200 ml of rheopolyglucin, a 10% solution of dextran (water-soluble polysaccharide of glucose), twice a week for 2 to 3 weeks. In addition to general laboratory and clinical methods of investigation, cytologic analysis of sputum before and after treatment was carried out. Results of experiment are given in 3 tables showing: Dynamics of Allergic Signs after Treatment with Rheopolyglucin, Dynamics of Content of Eosinophils in Blood after Treatment, and Cytologic Characteristics of Mucus of Patients with Dust-Induced Bronchitis. Patients treated with rheopolyglucin improved more than control group in abatement of suppurative process in lungs, strengthening of specific cellular and humoral mechanisms of immune response at level of bronchopulmonary system, increased expulsion of mineral dust from lungs and significant reduction of allergic reaction. Results quantitated in tables prove advantages of adding rheopolyglucin to traditional therapy in treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. 19 refs.

  4. Prenatal phencyclidine treatment induces behavioral deficits through impairment of GABAergic interneurons in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriumi, Kazuya; Oki, Mika; Muto, Eriko; Tanaka, Junko; Mouri, Akihiro; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We previously reported that prenatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) induces glutamatergic dysfunction in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), leading to schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits in adult mice. However, little is known about the prenatal effect of PCP treatment on other types of neurons. We focused on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons and evaluated the effect of prenatal PCP exposure on the neurodevelopment of GABAergic interneurons in the PFC. PCP was administered at the dose of 10 mg/kg/day to pregnant dams from embryonic day 6.5 to 18.5. After the pups were reared to adult, we analyzed their GABAergic system in the PFC using immunohistological, biochemical, and behavioral analyses in adulthood. The prenatal PCP treatment decreased the density of parvalbumin-positive cells and reduced the expression level of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and GABA content of the PFC in adults. Additionally, prenatal PCP treatment induced behavioral deficits in adult mice, such as hypersensitivity to PCP and prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits. These behavioral deficits were ameliorated by pretreatment with the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen. Furthermore, the density of c-Fos-positive cells was decreased after the PPI test in the PFC of mice treated with PCP prenatally, and this effect was ameliorated by pretreatment with baclofen. These findings suggest that prenatal treatment with PCP induced GABAergic dysfunction in the PFC, which caused behavioral deficits.

  5. Visually induced analgesia during massage treatment in chronic back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, A; Trojan, J; Zieglgänsberger, W; Diers, M

    2017-11-01

    Previous findings suggest that watching sites of experimental and chronic pain can exert an analgesic effect. Our present study investigates whether watching one's back during massage increases the analgesic effect of this treatment in chronic back pain patients. Twenty patients with chronic back pain were treated with a conventional massage therapy. During this treatment, patients received a real-time video feedback of their own back. Watching a neutral object, a video of another person of the same sex being massaged, a picture of the own back, and keeping one's eyes closed were used as controls. These conditions were presented in randomized order on five separate days. All conditions yielded significant decreases in habitual pain intensity. The effect of real-time video feedback of the own back on massage treatment was the strongest and differed significantly from the effect of watching a neutral object, but not from the other control conditions, which may have induced slight effects of their own. Repeated real-time video feedback may be useful during massage treatment of chronic pain. This study shows that inducing visual induced analgesia during massage treatment can be helpful in alleviating chronic pain. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  6. Effect of Bauhinia holophylla treatment in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcelo S; Rodrigues, Luhara S; S, Leila; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Q; Soares, Thaigra S; Américo, Madileine F; Campos, Kleber E; Damasceno, Débora C; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2017-01-01

    Bauhinia holophylla, commonly known as "cow's hoof", is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the diabetes treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was at evaluating the aqueous extract effect of Bauhinia holophylla leaves treatment on the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by Streptozotocin (40 mg/Kg) in female Wistar rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Bauhinia holophylla leaves was given to non-diabetic and diabetic rats at a dose of 400 mg/kg during 21 days. On day 17 of treatment, the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test was performed to determine the area under the curve. At the end of the treatment, the animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters analysis. After treatment with Bauhinia holophylla extract, non-diabetic and diabetic rats presented no glycemic changes. On the other hand, the plant treatment decreased body weight and increased ALT and AST activities. In conclusion, the treatment with aqueous extract of B. holophylla leaves given to diabetic rats presented no hypoglycemic effect in nondiabetic animals and no antidiabetic effect in diabetic animals with the doses studied. In addition, the diabetic animals treated with the B. holophylla extract showed inconvenient effects and its indiscriminate consumption requires particular carefulness.

  7. Stall Margin Improvement in a Centrifugal Compressor through Inducer Casing Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. N. K. Satish Koyyalamudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of high stage pressure ratio with increased aerodynamic loading has led to reduction in stable operating range of centrifugal compressors with stall and surge initiating at relatively higher mass flow rates. The casing treatment technique of stall control is found to be effective in axial compressors, but very limited research work is published on the application of this technique in centrifugal compressors. Present research was aimed to investigate the effect of casing treatment on the performance and stall margin of a high speed, 4 : 1 pressure ratio centrifugal compressor through numerical simulations using ANSYS CFX software. Three casing treatment configurations were developed and incorporated in the shroud over the inducer of the impeller. The predicted performance of baseline compressor (without casing treatment was in good agreement with published experimental data. The compressor with different inducer casing treatment geometries showed varying levels of stall margin improvement, up to a maximum of 18%. While the peak efficiency of the compressor with casing treatment dropped by 0.8%–1% compared to the baseline compressor, the choke mass flow rate was improved by 9.5%, thus enhancing the total stable operating range. The inlet configuration of the casing treatment was found to play an important role in stall margin improvement.

  8. Comparison of lens oxidative damage induced by vitrectomy and/or hyperoxia in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare of lens oxidative damage induced by vitrectomy and/or hyperoxia in rabbit. METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand rabbits (2.4-2.5 kg were randomly divided into two groups (Group A, n=12; Group B, n=4. In Group A, the right eyes were treated with vitrectomy and systemic hyperoxia (oxygen concentration: 80%-85%, 1 ATA, 4h/d (Group A-right, and the left eyes were treated with hyperoxia without vitrectomy surgery (Group A-left. Four rabbits in group B (eight eyes were untreated as the controls. Lens transparency was monitored with a slit lamp and recorded before and after vitrectomy. After hyperoxic treatment for 6mo, the eyeballs were removed and the lens cortices (containing the capsules and nuclei were separated for further morphological and biochemical evaluation. RESULTS: Six months after treatments, there were no significant morphological changes in the lenses in any experimental group when observed with a slit lamp. However, the levels of water-soluble proteins and ascorbate, and the activities of catalase and Na+-K+-ATPase were significantly reduced, whereas the levels of malondialdehyde and transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2 were significantly elevated, in both the cortices and nuclei of eyes treated with vitrectomy and hyperoxia. The increase in protein-glutathione mixed disulfides and the reduction in water-soluble proteins were more obvious in the lens nuclei. The levels of ascorbate in the vitreous fluid were also reduced after vitrectomy, whereas TGF-β2 increased after vitrectomy and hyperoxia. Systemic hyperoxia exposure increased these effects. CONCLUSION: Removal of the intact vitreous gel with vitrectomy and exposing the lens to increased oxygen from the retina induce lens oxidation and aggregation. Thus, an intact vitreous gel structure may protect the lens from oxidative insult and maintain lens transparency.

  9. Pre-Treatment with Amifostine Protects against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruption of Taste in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Carroll, Brittany L.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Delay, Eugene R.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYP), a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy. PMID:23626702

  10. Pre-treatment with amifostine protects against cyclophosphamide-induced disruption of taste in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Mukherjee

    Full Text Available Cyclophosphamide (CYP, a commonly prescribed chemotherapy drug, has multiple adverse side effects including alteration of taste. The effects on taste are a cause of concern for patients as changes in taste are often associated with loss of appetite, malnutrition, poor recovery and reduced quality of life. Amifostine is a cytoprotective agent that was previously shown to be effective in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis and nephrotoxicity. Here we determined its ability to protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to taste buds using a mouse model of CYP injury. We conducted detection threshold tests to measure changes in sucrose taste sensitivity and found that administration of amifostine 30 mins prior to CYP injection protected against CYP-induced loss in taste sensitivity. Morphological studies showed that pre-treatment with amifostine prevented CYP-induced reduction in the number of fungiform taste papillae and increased the number of taste buds. Immunohistochemical assays for markers of the cell cycle showed that amifostine administration prevented CYP-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and also protected against loss of mature taste cells after CYP exposure. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer patients with amifostine prior to chemotherapy may improve their sensitivity for taste stimuli and protect the taste system from the detrimental effects of chemotherapy.

  11. Cyclosporine A and palmitic acid treatment synergistically induce cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yi, E-mail: yi.luo@pfizer.com; Rana, Payal; Will, Yvonne

    2012-06-01

    Immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment can cause severe side effects. Patients taking immunosuppressant after organ transplantation often display hyperlipidemia and obesity. Elevated levels of free fatty acids have been linked to the etiology of metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver and steatohepatitis. The contribution of free fatty acids to CsA-induced toxicity is not known. In this study we explored the effect of palmitic acid on CsA-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. CsA by itself at therapeutic exposure levels did not induce detectible cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Co-treatment of palmitic acid and CsA resulted in a dose dependent increase in cytotoxicity, suggesting that fatty acid could sensitize cells to CsA-induced cytotoxicity at the therapeutic doses of CsA. A synergized induction of caspase-3/7 activity was also observed, indicating that apoptosis may contribute to the cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that CsA reduced cellular oxygen consumption which was further exacerbated by palmitic acid, implicating that impaired mitochondrial respiration might be an underlying mechanism for the enhanced toxicity. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) attenuated palmitic acid and CsA induced toxicity, suggesting that JNK activation plays an important role in mediating the enhanced palmitic acid/CsA-induced toxicity. Our data suggest that elevated FFA levels, especially saturated FFA such as palmitic acid, may be predisposing factors for CsA toxicity, and patients with underlying diseases that would elevate free fatty acids may be susceptible to CsA-induced toxicity. Furthermore, hyperlipidemia/obesity resulting from immunosuppressive therapy may aggravate CsA-induced toxicity and worsen the outcome in transplant patients. -- Highlights: ► Palmitic acid and cyclosporine (CsA) synergistically increased cytotoxicity. ► The impairment of mitochondrial functions may contribute to the enhanced toxicity. ► Inhibition of JNK activity attenuated

  12. Arginyl-glutamine dipeptide or docosahexaenoic acid attenuates hyperoxia-induced small intestinal injury in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Ma, Liya; Liu, Xueyan; Shaw, Lynn; Li Calzi, Sergio; Grant, Maria B; Neu, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Supplementation studies of glutamine, arginine, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have established the safety of each of these nutrients in neonates; however, the potential for a more stable and soluble dipeptide, arginyl-glutamine (Arg-Gln) or DHA with anti-inflammatory properties, to exert benefits on hyperoxia-induced intestinal injury has not been investigated. Arg-Gln dipeptide has been shown to prevent retinal damage in a rodent model of oxygen-induced injury. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether Arg-Gln dipeptide or DHA could also attenuate markers of injury and inflammation to the small intestine in this same model. Seven-day-old mouse pups were placed with their dams in 75% oxygen for 5 days. After 5 days of hyperoxic exposure (P7-P12), pups were removed from hyperoxia and allowed to recover in atmospheric conditions for 5 days (P12-P17). Mouse pups received Arg-Gln (5g·kg·day) or DHA (5g·kg·day) or vehicle orally started on P12 through P17. Distal small intestine (DSI) histologic changes, myeloperoxidase (MPO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), inflammatory cytokines, and tissue apoptosis were evaluated. Hyperoxic mice showed a greater distortion of overall villus structure and with higher injury score (PDHA supplementation groups were more similar to the room air control group. Supplementation of Arg-Gln or DHA reduced hyperoxia-induced MPO activity (PDHA returned LDH activity to the levels of control. Hyperoxia induced apoptotic cell death in DSIs, and both Arg-Gln and DHA reversed this effect (PDHA may limit some inflammatory and apoptotic processes involved in hyperoxic-induced intestinal injury in neonatal mice.

  13. Constraint-induced aphasia therapy versus intensive semantic treatment in fluent aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilssens, Ineke; Vandenborre, Dorien; van Dun, Kim; Verhoeven, Jo; Visch-Brink, Evy; Mariën, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The authors compared the effectiveness of 2 intensive therapy methods: Constraint-Induced Aphasia Therapy (CIAT; Pulvermüller et al., 2001) and semantic therapy (BOX; Visch-Brink & Bajema, 2001). Nine patients with chronic fluent aphasia participated in a therapy program to establish behavioral treatment outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups (CIAT or BOX). Intensive therapy significantly improved verbal communication. However, BOX treatment showed a more pronounced improvement on two communication-namely, a standardized assessment for verbal communication, the Amsterdam Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (Blomert, Koster, & Kean, 1995), and a subjective rating scale, the Communicative Effectiveness Index (Lomas et al., 1989). All participants significantly improved on one (or more) subtests of the Aachen Aphasia Test (Graetz, de Bleser, & Willmes, 1992), an impairment-focused assessment. There was a treatment-specific effect. BOX treatment had a significant effect on language comprehension and semantics, whereas CIAT treatment affected language production and phonology. The findings indicate that in patients with fluent aphasia, (a) intensive treatment has a significant effect on language and verbal communication, (b) intensive therapy results in selective treatment effects, and (c) an intensive semantic treatment shows a more striking mean improvement on verbal communication in comparison with communication-based CIAT treatment.

  14. A Survey of Chinese Medicinal Herbal Treatment for Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Meyer-Hamme

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucositis is one of the common side effects of chemotherapy treatment with potentially severe implications. Despite several treatment approaches by conventional and complementary western medicine, the therapeutic outcome is often not satisfactory. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM offers empirical herbal formulas for the treatment of oral ulceration which are used in adaptation to chemotherapy-induced mucositis. While standard concepts for TCM treatment do not exist and acceptance by conventional oncologists is still low, we conducted a review to examine the evidence of Chinese herbal treatment in oral mucositis. Eighteen relevant studies on 4 single herbs, 2 combinations of 2 herbs, and 11 multiherbal prescriptions involving 3 or more compounds were included. Corresponding molecular mechanisms were investigated. The knowledge about detailed herbal mechanisms, especially in multi-herbal prescriptions is still limited. The quality of clinical trials needs further improvement. Meta-analysis on the existent database is not possible but molecular findings on Chinese medicinal herbs indicate that further research is still promising for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis.

  15. The neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on laser-induced retinal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskia-Dai, Victoria; Belokopytov, Mark; Dubinsky, Galina; Nachum, Gal; Avni, Isaac; Belkin, Michael; Rosner, Mordechai

    2005-04-01

    Retinal damage induced by mechanical trauma, ischemia or laser photocoagulation increases considerably by secondary degeneration processes. The spread of damage may be ameliorated by neuroprotection that is aimed at reducing the extent of the secondary degeneration and promote healing processes. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment consists of inspiration of oxygen at higher than one absolute atmospheric pressure. Improved neural function was observed in patients with acute brain trauma or ischemia treated with HBO. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on laser induced retinal damage in a rat model. Standard argon laser lesions were created in 25 pigmented rats divided into three groups: Ten rats were treated immediately after the irradiation with HBO three times during the first 24 hr followed by 12 consecutive daily treatments. Five rats received a shorter treatment regimen of 10 consecutive HBO treatments. The control group (10 rats) underwent the laser damage with no additional treatment. The retinal lesions were evaluated 20 days after the injury. All outcome measures were improved by the longer HBO treatment (Ptreatment was less effective, showing an increase only in nuclei density at the central area of lesion (Pretinal damage in a rat model. In the range of HBO exposures studied, longer exposure provides more neuroprotection. These results encourage further evaluation of the potential therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen in diseases and injuries of the retina.

  16. Positive interaction between prebiotics and thiazolidinedione treatment on adiposity in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alligier, Maud; Dewulf, Evelyne M; Salazar, Nuria; Mairal, Aline; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Cani, Patrice D; Langin, Dominique; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2014-07-01

    To investigate whether inulin-type fructan (ITF) prebiotics could counteract the thiazolidinedione (TZD, PPARγ activator) induced-fat mass gain, without affecting its beneficial effect on glucose homeostasis, in high-fat (HF) diet fed mice. Male C57bl6/J mice were fed a HF diet alone or supplemented with ITF prebiotics (0.2 g/day × mouse) or TZD (30 mg pioglitazone (PIO)/kg body weight × day) or both during 4 weeks. An insulin tolerance test was performed after 3 weeks of treatment. As expected, PIO improved glucose homeostasis and increased adiponectinaemia. Furthermore, it induced an over-expression of several PPARγ target genes in white adipose tissues. ITF prebiotics modulated the PIO-induced PPARγ activation in a tissue-dependent manner. The co-treatment with ITF prebiotics and PIO maintained the beneficial impact of TZD on glucose homeostasis and adiponectinaemia. Moreover, the combination of both treatments reduced fat mass accumulation, circulating lipids and hepatic triglyceride content, suggesting an overall improvement of metabolism. Finally, the co-treatment favored induction of white-to-brown fat conversion in subcutaneous adipose tissue, thereby leading to the development of brite adipocytes that could increase the oxidative capacity of the tissue. ITF prebiotics decrease adiposity and improve the metabolic response in HF fed mice treated with TZD. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  17. Chemotherapy-Induced Fatigue Correlates With Higher Fatigue Scores Before Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, José Klerton Luz; Giglio, Adriana Del; Munhoz, Bruna Antenusse; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Cruz, Felipe Melo; Giglio, Auro Del

    2017-06-01

    Cancer chemotherapy can induce fatigue in about 20% to 30% of patients. So far, there is very little information as to the predictors of chemotherapy-induced fatigue (CIF). We evaluated potential predictors of CIF in a sample of patients with cancer with several types of solid tumors scheduled to receive chemotherapy according to institutional protocols. Before their first and second chemotherapy cycles, patients answered to the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), Chalder, Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Stress thermometer, and HADS questionnaires as well as provided blood samples for inflammatory markers. We evaluated 52 patients, 37 (71%) were female and mean age was 53 years. The most common tumors were breast cancer 21 (40%) and gastrointestinal tumors 12 (23%). Although 14 (25.2%) patients had an increase in their fatigue BFI scores equal or above 3 points from baseline, we observed no significant overall differences between BFI scores before and after chemotherapy. The only 2 factors associated with an increase of 3 points in the BFI scores after chemotherapy were race and higher baseline BFI levels. By multivariate analysis, overall BFI and Chalder scores after chemotherapy also correlated significantly with their respective baseline scores before treatment. HADS scores before treatment correlated with overall BFI scores postchemotherapy, whereas MNA scores before chemotherapy and female sex correlated with higher Chalder scores after treatment. We conclude that fatigue induced by chemotherapy is common and consistently associated with higher fatigue scores before treatment. Screening for fatigue before chemotherapy may help to identify patients who are prone to develop CIF.

  18. Martensitic phase transformations in the nanostructured surface layers induced by mechanical attrition treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Zhichun; Wang Xiaowei; Wu Erdong; Liu Gang

    2005-01-01

    Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis have been used to investigate the relationship between characteristics of phase transformation and the treatment time in surface nanocrystallized 316L stainless steel induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). A similar trend of development of the martensitic phase upon the treatment time has been observed from both CEMS and XRD measurements. However, in the CEMS measurement, two types of martensite phase with different magnetic hyperfine fields are revealed. Based on a random distribution of the non-iron coordinating atoms, a three-element theoretical model is developed to illustrate the difference of two types of martensite phase. The calculated results indicate the segregation of the non-iron atoms associated with SMAT treatment

  19. Naloxegol in opioid-induced constipation: a new paradigm in the treatment of a common problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Stephanie C; Bruner, Heather C

    2017-01-01

    Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) imposes a significant burden for patients taking pain medications, often resulting in decreased quality of life. Treatment of OIC with traditional medications for functional constipation can be incompletely effective, leading to nonadherence with opioid treatment and undertreated pain. An emerging class of medications that counteract the adverse effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract while preserving central nervous system-based pain relief may represent a paradigm shift in the prevention and treatment of OIC. One of these medications, naloxegol, is a once-daily, oral opioid antagonist that is effective, well-tolerated, and approved for treatment of OIC in patients with noncancer pain. More studies are needed to demonstrate this same utility in patients with cancer-related pain.

  20. Clinical utility of naloxegol in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Heather C; Atayee, Rabia S; Edmonds, Kyle P; Buckholz, Gary T

    2015-01-01

    Opioids are a class of medications frequently used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, exerting their desired effects at central opioid receptors. Agonism at peripherally located opioid receptors, however, leads to opioid-induced constipation (OIC), one of the most frequent and debilitating side effects of prolonged opioid use. Insufficient relief of OIC with lifestyle modification and traditional laxative treatments may lead to decreased compliance with opioid regimens and undertreated pain. Peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs) offer the reversal of OIC without loss of central pain relief. Until recently, PAMORAs were restricted to subcutaneous route or to narrow patient populations. Naloxegol is the first orally dosed PAMORA indicated for the treatment of OIC in noncancer patients. Studies have suggested its efficacy in patients failing traditional constipation treatments; however, insufficient evidence exists to establish its role in primary prevention of OIC at this time.

  1. Repeated Treatments with Ingenol Mebutate Prevents Progression of UV-Induced Photodamage in Hairless Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlendsson, Andrés Már; Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Bay, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Ingenol mebutate (IngMeb) is an effective treatment for actinic keratosis. In this study, we hypothesized that repeated treatments with IngMeb may prevent progression of UV-induced photodamage, and that concurrent application of a corticosteroid may reduce IngMeb-induced local...... once daily for 5 days prior to each IngMeb application, as well as 6 h and 1 day post treatment. One week after IngMeb treatment No. 1, 3, and 5 (Days 28, 84, and 140), biopsies from four mice in each group were collected for histological evaluation of UV-damage on a standardized UV-damage scale (0......-12). LSR (0-24) were assessed once daily (Days 1-7) after each IngMeb treatment. RESULTS: IngMeb prevented progression of photodamage in terms of keratosis grade, epidermal hypertrophy, dysplasia, and dermal actinic damage with a lower composite UV-damage score on day 140 (UVR 10.25 vs. UVR+IngMeb 6.00, p...

  2. Hyperbaric oxygen as sole treatment for severe radiation - induced haemorrhagic cystitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellis, Athanasios, E-mail: aedellis@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Aretaieion Academic Hospital, Athens (Greece); Papatsoris, Athanasios; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Skolarikos, Andreas [Department of Urology, University of Athens, Sismanoglio General Hospital, Athens (Greece); Kalentzos, Vasileios [Department of Diving and Hyperbaric Oxygen, Naval and Veterans Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2017-05-15

    Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen as the primary and sole treatment for severe radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis. Materials and methods: Hyperbaric oxygen was prospectively applied as primary treatment in 38 patients with severe radiation cystitis. Our primary endpoint was the incidence of complete and partial response to treatment, while the secondary endpoints included the duration of response, the correlation of treatment success-rate to the interval between the onset of haematuria and initiation of therapy, blood transfusion need and total radiation dose, the number of sessions to success, the avoidance of surgery and the overall survival. Results: All patients completed therapy without complications with a mean follow-up of 29.33 months. Median number of sessions needed was 33. Complete and partial response rate was 86.8% and 13.2%, respectively. All 33 patients with complete response received therapy within 6 months of the haematuria onset. One patient needed cystectomy, while 33 patients were alive at the end of follow-up. Conclusions: Our study suggests the early primary use of hyperbaric oxygen for radiation-induced severe cystitis as an effective and safe treatment option. (author)

  3. Evaluation of a polyacrylamide hydrogel in the treatment of induced osteoarthritis in a goat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tnibar, Aziz; Persson, Ann; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogel (PAAG) is an inert, non-degradable, non-immunogenic polymer gel with high viscoelasticity consisting of 97.5% sterile water and 2.5% cross-linked polyacrylamide. Its biocompatibility in soft tissues has been demonstrated. PAAG has recently been tested for the treatment of ...... of osteoarthritis (OA) in horses with highly encouraging results; however no standardized experimental studies have been done to explore its efficacy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PAAG in the treatment of induced OA in a goat model...

  4. Locally Induced Adipose Tissue Browning by Microneedle Patch for Obesity Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Qiongming; Yu, Jicheng; Yu, Shuangjiang; Wang, Jinqiang; Qiang, Li; Gu, Zhen

    2017-09-26

    Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems in the 21st century that may lead to many comorbidities such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Current treatments toward obesity including diet, physical exercise, pharmacological therapy, as well as surgeries are always associated with low effectiveness or undesired systematical side effects. In order to enhance treatment efficiency with minimized side effects, we developed a transcutaneous browning agent patch to locally induce adipose tissue transformation. This microneedle-based patch can effectively deliver browning agents to the subcutaneous adipocytes in a sustained manner and switch on the "browning" at the targeted region. It is demonstrated that this patch reduces treated fat pad size, increases whole body energy expenditure, and improves type-2 diabetes in vivo in a diet-induced obesity mouse model.

  5. Changes induced in spice paprika powder by treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispeter, J.; Bajusz-Kabok, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabo, G.; Fodor, E.; Pali, T.

    2003-01-01

    The changes in spice paprika powder induced by ionizing radiation, saturated steam (SS) and their combination were studied as a function of the absorbed radiation dose and the storage time. The SS treatment lead to a decrease in color content (lightening) after 12 weeks of storage, together with the persistence of free radicals and viscosity changes for a longer period. The results suggest that ionizing radiation is a more advantageous method as concerns preservation of the quality of spice paprika

  6. Drug-Induced Liver Injury by Glatiramer Acetate Used for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Onmez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Glatiramer acetate (GA, Copaxone is an approved drug for the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis. Most common side effects observed with GA are local injection site reactions, which can include pain, swelling, or redness. However, systemic adverse event such as hepatotoxicity related to GA is rarely seen. In this report, we present a case of GA-induced toxic hepatitis associated with cholestatic and hepatocellular damage.

  7. Successful treatment of laser induced hypopigmentation with narrowband ultraviolet B targeted phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Q-switched 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Qs 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser plays an important role in the treatment of pigmentary skin disorders, including tattoos. Although it has high efficacy and safety, adverse effect like hypopigmentation may occur causing anxiety to patients. We present a case report of Qs 1064 nm Nd: YAG laser induced hypopigmentation which was successfully treated with ultraviolet B targeted phototherapy, with rapid and satisfactory re-pigmentation.

  8. Development and assessment of countermeasure formulations for treatment of lung injury induced by chlorine inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail: Gary.Hoyle@louisville.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F.; Mo, Yiqun; Humphrey, David M. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Rawson, Greg; Niño, Joe A.; Carson, Kenneth H. [Microencapsulation and Nanomaterials Department, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Chlorine is a commonly used, reactive compound to which humans can be exposed via accidental or intentional release resulting in acute lung injury. Formulations of rolipram (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor), triptolide (a natural plant product with anti-inflammatory properties), and budesonide (a corticosteroid), either neat or in conjunction with poly(lactic:glycolic acid) (PLGA), were developed for treatment of chlorine-induced acute lung injury by intramuscular injection. Formulations were produced by spray-drying, which generated generally spherical microparticles that were suitable for intramuscular injection. Multiple parameters were varied to produce formulations with a wide range of in vitro release kinetics. Testing of selected formulations in chlorine-exposed mice demonstrated efficacy against key aspects of acute lung injury. The results show the feasibility of developing microencapsulated formulations that could be used to treat chlorine-induced acute lung injury by intramuscular injection, which represents a preferred route of administration in a mass casualty situation. - Highlights: • Chlorine causes lung injury when inhaled and is considered a chemical threat agent. • Countermeasures for treatment of chlorine-induced acute lung injury are needed. • Formulations containing rolipram, triptolide, or budesonide were produced. • Formulations with a wide range of release properties were developed. • Countermeasure formulations inhibited chlorine-induced lung injury in mice.

  9. Acupuncture as method of treatment and arresting progress of dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baburina, E.B.; Bykova, E.A.

    1983-10-01

    Acupuncture is an effective therapy for treatment of dust-induced bronchitis. It can be used independently or in combination with medicaments. Fifty men were divided into two groups of 20 and 30. One group was treated by acupuncture alone, the other with combined therapy. Acupuncture produced excellent results; combined treatment, good and satisfactory results. Since acupuncture reduced the possibility of complications, allergic reactions and side effects due to medication, it is an excellent means of preventing progress of dust-induced bronchitis. Patients experience 9 months remission of symptoms after treatment with acupuncture while medical therapy alone only relieves them for 1 to 1 1/2 months. Patients with chronic dust-induced bronchitis should receive a second course of acupuncture in 6 to 8 months to prevent recurrence of symptoms and progress of disease. Because of insufficient study of lasting effects of acupuncture, final conclusions about its effectiveness cannot be made, however, current evidence indicates it is a highly useful therapy. 6 references.

  10. Moxibustion for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae-Young; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ernst, Edzard

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of moxibustion as a treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. Twelve databases were searched from their inception through June 2014, without a language restriction. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included if moxibustion was used as the sole treatment or as a part of a combination therapy with conventional drugs for leukopenia induced by chemotherapy. Cochrane criteria were used to assess the risk of bias. Six RCTs with a total of 681 patients met our inclusion criteria. All of the included RCTs were associated with a high risk of bias. The trials included patients with various types of cancer receiving ongoing chemotherapy or after chemotherapy. The results of two RCTs suggested the effectiveness of moxibustion combined with chemotherapy vs. chemotherapy alone. In four RCTs, moxibustion was more effective than conventional drug therapy. Six RCTs showed that moxibustion was more effective than various types of control interventions in increasing white blood cell counts. There is low level of evidence based on these six trials that demonstrates the superiority of moxibustion over drug therapies in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia. However, the number of trials, the total sample size, and the methodological quality are too low to draw firm conclusions. Future RCTs appear to be warranted.

  11. The prevention, detection and management of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity: a meta-review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, Aaron; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Lawrence, Petra; Clark, Robyn A

    2015-01-01

    The benefits associated with some cancer treatments do not come without risk. A serious side effect of some common cancer treatments is cardiotoxicity. Increased recognition of the public health implications of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity has resulted in a proliferation of systematic reviews in this field to guide practice. Quality appraisal of these reviews is likely to limit the influence of biased conclusions from systematic reviews that have used poor methodology related to clinical decision-making. The aim of this meta-review is to appraise and synthesise evidence from only high quality systematic reviews focused on the prevention, detection or management of cancer treatment-induced cardiotoxicity. Using Cochrane methodology, we searched databases, citations and hand-searched bibliographies. Two reviewers independently appraised reviews and extracted findings. A total of 18 high quality systematic reviews were subsequently analysed, 67 % (n = 12) of these comprised meta-analyses. One systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence regarding the utility of cardiac biomarkers for the detection of cardiotoxicity. The following strategies might reduce the risk of cardiotoxicity: 1) The concomitant administration of dexrazoxane with anthracylines; 2) The avoidance of anthracyclines where possible; 3) The continuous administration of anthracyclines (>6 h) rather than bolus dosing; and 4) The administration of anthracycline derivatives such as epirubicin or liposomal-encapsulated doxorubicin instead of doxorubicin. In terms of management, one review focused on medical interventions for treating anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity during or after treatment of childhood cancer. Neither intervention (enalapril and phosphocreatine) was associated with statistically significant improvement in ejection fraction or mortality. This review highlights the lack of high level evidence to guide clinical decision-making with respect to the detection

  12. Orthodontic treatment-induced temporal alteration of jaw-opening reflex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Au; Hasegawa, Naoya; Adachi, Kazunori; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Suda, Naoto

    2017-10-01

    The impairment of orofacial motor function during orthodontic treatment needs to be addressed, because most orthodontic patients experience pain and motor excitability would be affected by pain. In the present study, the temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was investigated to determine if orthodontic treatment affects orofacial motor function. The excitability of jaw-opening reflex evoked by electrical stimulation on the gingiva and recorded bilaterally in the anterior digastric muscles was evaluated at 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 7 days (D7) after orthodontic force application to the teeth of right side; morphological features (e.g., osteoclast genesis and tooth movement) were also evaluated. To clarify the underlying mechanism of orthodontic treatment-induced alteration of orofacial motor excitability, analgesics were administrated for 1 day. At D1 and D3, orthodontic treatment significantly decreased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex but significantly increased the threshold at D7. Other parameters of the jaw-opening reflex were also evaluated (e.g., latency, duration and area under the curve of anterior digastric muscles activity), and only the latency of the D1 group was significantly different from that of the other groups. Temporal alteration of the jaw-opening reflex excitability was significantly correlated with changes in morphological features. Aspirin (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) significantly increased the threshold for inducing the jaw-opening reflex, whereas a lower dose (75-150 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) of aspirin or acetaminophen (300 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 ) failed to alter the jaw-opening reflex excitability. These results suggest that an increase of the jaw-opening reflex excitability can be induced acutely by orthodontic treatment, possibly through the cyclooxygenase activation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It is well known that motor function is affected by pain, but the effect of orthodontic treatment-related pain on the trigeminal

  13. Treatment and prophylaxis with sucralfate ameliorates hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury in pup rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sencan, Arzu Bostanci; Sencan, Aydin; Aktas, Safiye; Habif, Sara; Kabaroglu, Ceyda; Parildar, Zuhal; Karaca, Irfan

    2005-04-01

    Sucralfate is widely used as a cytoprotective agent in patients with peptic ulcer and other intestinal mucosal injury. The aim of this study is to investigate whether sucralfate has any effect on the prevention and treatment of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury. Four groups of 10 1-day-old rat pups were studied. Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/O)-induced intestinal injury was created. Group 1 was subjected to H/O just after birth and sacrificed at the end of the third day (Treatment Control). Group 2 was subjected to H/O just after birth and treated with sucralfate for 3 days. They were sacrificed at the end of the third day (Treatment). Group 3 was subjected to H/O on the third day after birth and then sacrificed (Prophylaxis Control). Group 4 was treated with sucralfate for the first 3 days, then H/O was created. Just after H/O, the pups were sacrificed (Prophylaxis). The intestinal tissues were harvested for histopathological investigation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the intestinal tissues were determined. The mucosal injury grades of the treatment and prophylaxis groups were significantly lower than those of control groups (p<0.05). The mean MDA level in the treatment and prophylaxis groups were 0.42+/-0.17 and 0.21+/-0.23 nmol/mg respectively. The MDA levels of both groups were significantly lower than in the control groups (p<0.05). The present study shows that sucralfate has beneficial effects in an experimental model of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced intestinal injury.

  14. Therapeutic use of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for the treatment of radio-induced diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouiseddine, Moubarak

    2008-05-01

    Ionising radiation can induce toxic effects on body. They provoke physiological modifications of tissues and organs which can be lethal. Total body irradiation or local abdominal irradiation can induce serious complications. Intestine is the first tissue concerned by these side effects. Radiation induces malabsorption of the intestine and lost of it integrity. Radio-induced physiopathological effects on intestine could lead to distant effects on other tissues and organs such as liver. The actual treatments have a limited efficiency or are not adapted to gastrointestinal damages. Indeed, in this type of lesions, the heterogeneous systems which are concerned and the gravity of lesions complicates the medical care. Our purpose is to show that cell therapy using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) constitutes resolution in this type of illness. The works which are presented in this thesis show that MSC are multi-potent and have heterogeneous expression of molecules. These cells are able to establish themselves in many organs and tissues after injection into irradiated body. Thus we have shown that MSC can prevent the small intestine from radio-induced damages. Indeed we demonstrate that through their actions on gut, MSC can indirectly restore hepatic integrity. (author)

  15. Melatonin inhibits snake venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress and augments treatment efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rachana D; Katkar, Gajanan D; Sundaram, Mahalingam S; Swethakumar, Basavarajaiah; Girish, Kesturu S; Kemparaju, Kempaiah

    2017-05-01

    Snakebite is a neglected health hazard. Its patho-physiology has largely been focused on systemic and local toxicities; whereas, venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress has long been ignored. Antivenom therapy although neutralizes venom lethality and saves many lives, remains ineffective against oxidative stress. This prompted us to complement antivenom with an antioxidant molecule melatonin that would protect against oxidative stress and increase the efficacy of the existing snakebite therapy. Here we show that D. russelli and E. carinatus venoms induce strong oxidative stress that persists even after antivenom administration in mice model. Additionally, antivenoms also induce oxidative stress. Polyvalent antivenom induce more oxidative stress than monovalent antivenom. Strikingly, antivenom and melatonin together not only inhibit venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress but also significantly reduce the neutralizing antivenom dose. This study provides a therapeutic potential for enhancing the existing snakebite therapy. The combined treatment of antivenom+melatonin would prevent the upsurge of oxidative stress as well as minimize the antivenom load. Thus the investigation offers immense scope for physicians and toxinologists to reinvestigate, design new strategies and think beyond the conventional mode of antivenom therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vorapaxar treatment reduces mesangial expansion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Maaike; Duitman, JanWillem; Florquin, Sandrine; Spek, C Arnold

    2018-04-24

    Twenty years after the onset of diabetes, up to 40% of patients develop diabetic nephropathy. Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) has recently been shown to aggravate the development of experimental diabetic nephropathy. PAR-1 deficient mice develop less albuminuria and glomerular lesions and PAR-1 stimulation induces proliferation and fibronectin production in mesangial cells in vitro . Vorapaxar is a clinically available PAR-1 inhibitor which is currently used for secondary prevention of ischemic events. The aim of this study was to investigate in a preclinical setting whether vorapaxar treatment may be a novel strategy to reduce diabetes-induced kidney damage. While control treated diabetic mice developed significant albuminuria, mesangial expansion and glomerular fibronectin deposition, diabetic mice on vorapaxar treatment did not show any signs of kidney damage despite having similar levels of hyperglycemia. These data show that PAR-1 inhibition by vorapaxar prevents the development of diabetic nephropathy in this preclinical animal model for type I diabetes and pinpoint PAR-1 as a novel therapeutic target to pursue in the setting of diabetic nephropathy. 22 C57Bl/6 mice were made diabetic using multiple low-dose streptozotocin injections (50 mg/kg) and 22 littermates served as non-diabetic controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, 11 mice of each group were assigned to control or vorapaxar treatment. Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks of treatment and kidney damage was evaluated.

  17. The efficacy of Pistacia Terebinthus soap in the treatment of cetuximab-induced skin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastekin, Didem; Tambas, Makbule; Kilic, Kemal; Erturk, Kayhan; Arslan, Deniz

    2014-12-01

    This open-labeled phase II, efficacy-finding study evaluated the efficiency and safety of Pistacia terebinthus soap in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who developed cetuximab induced skin toxicity. Patients who received cetuximab plus chemotherapy and developed Grade 2 or 3 skin toxicity were treated twice daily with a soap made of oil extracted from Pistacia terebinthus. During treatment, no topical or oral antibiotics, corticosteroids or other moisturizers were used. Patients were examined 1 week later and their photographs were taken. Fifteen mCRC patients who developed skin toxicity while receiving first-line CTX in combination with chemotherapy were included into the study. Eight patients were male and the median age was 58 (25-70). Sixty percent of the patients (n:9) had Grade 3 skin toxicity. Complete response rates in patients with Grade 2 and Grade 3 skin toxicities were 100 and 33%, respectively. In the remaining patients with Grade 3 toxicity the skin toxicity regressed to Grade 1. The objective response rate was 100%, and no delay, dose reduction or discontinuation of CTX treatment due to skin toxicity was necessary. Skin toxicity reoccurred in all patients when patients stopped administering the soap and therefore they used it throughout the cetuximab treatment. Pistacia terebinthus soap seemed to be used safely and effectively in the treatment of skin toxicity induced by Cetuximab.

  18. Chemotherapy-Induced Constipation and Diarrhea: Pathophysiology, Current and Emerging Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Rachel M.; Stojanovska, Vanesa; Abalo, Raquel; Bornstein, Joel C.; Nurgali, Kulmira

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects of chemotherapy are a debilitating and often overlooked clinical hurdle in cancer management. Chemotherapy-induced constipation (CIC) and Diarrhea (CID) present a constant challenge in the efficient and tolerable treatment of cancer and are amongst the primary contributors to dose reductions, delays and cessation of treatment. Although prevalence of CIC is hard to estimate, it is believed to affect approximately 16% of cancer patients, whilst incidence of CID has been estimated to be as high as 80%. Despite this, the underlying mechanisms of both CID and CIC remain unclear, but are believed to result from a combination of intersecting mechanisms including inflammation, secretory dysfunctions, GI dysmotility and alterations in GI innervation. Current treatments for CIC and CID aim to reduce the severity of symptoms rather than combating the pathophysiological mechanisms of dysfunction, and often result in worsening of already chronic GI symptoms or trigger the onset of a plethora of other side-effects including respiratory depression, uneven heartbeat, seizures, and neurotoxicity. Emerging treatments including those targeting the enteric nervous system present promising avenues to alleviate CID and CIC. Identification of potential targets for novel therapies to alleviate chemotherapy-induced toxicity is essential to improve clinical outcomes and quality of life amongst cancer sufferers. PMID:27857691

  19. Analysis of physiological responses associated with emotional changes induced by viewing video images of dental treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Taki; Miwa, Zenzo; Tsuchihashi, Natsumi; Uehara, Naoko; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2015-03-30

    Since the understanding of emotional changes induced by dental treatments is important for dentists to provide a safe and comfortable dental treatment, we analyzed physiological responses during watching video images of dental treatments to search for the appropriate objective indices reflecting emotional changes. Fifteen healthy young adult subjects voluntarily participated in the present study. Electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG) and corrugator muscle electromyogram (EMG) were recorded and changes of them by viewing videos of dental treatments were analyzed. The subjective discomfort level was acquired by Visual Analog Scale method. Analyses of autonomic nervous activities from ECG and four emotional factors (anger/stress, joy/satisfaction, sadness/depression and relaxation) from EEG demonstrated that increases in sympathetic nervous activity reflecting stress increase and decreases in relaxation level were induced by the videos of infiltration anesthesia and cavity excavation, but not intraoral examination. The corrugator muscle activity was increased by all three images regardless of video contents. The subjective discomfort during watching infiltration anesthesia and cavity excavation was higher than intraoral examination, showing that sympathetic activities and relaxation factor of emotion changed in a manner consistent with subjective emotional changes. These results suggest that measurement of autonomic nervous activities estimated from ECG and emotional factors analyzed from EEG is useful for objective evaluation of subjective emotion.

  20. Naloxegol in opioid-induced constipation: a new paradigm in the treatment of a common problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon SC

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie C Yoon,1 Heather C Bruner2 1Scripps Health and University of California San Diego, Joint Hospice and Palliative Medicine Fellowship, San Diego, 2Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, Doris A. Howell Palliative Care Service, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Opioid-induced constipation (OIC imposes a significant burden for patients taking pain medications, often resulting in decreased quality of life. Treatment of OIC with traditional medications for functional constipation can be incompletely effective, leading to nonadherence with opioid treatment and undertreated pain. An emerging class of medications that counteract the adverse effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract while preserving central nervous system-based pain relief may represent a paradigm shift in the prevention and treatment of OIC. One of these medications, naloxegol, is a once-daily, oral opioid antagonist that is effective, well-tolerated, and approved for treatment of OIC in patients with noncancer pain. More studies are needed to demonstrate this same utility in patients with cancer-related pain. Keywords: opioid-induced constipation, chronic pain, bowel care, peripherally acting mu-opioid-receptor antagonist, OIBD

  1. Clinical utility of naloxegol in the treatment of opioid-induced constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruner HC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heather C Bruner,1 Rabia S Atayee,2 Kyle P Edmonds,3 Gary T Buckholz3 1Scripps Health and University of California San Diego, Joint Hospice and Palliative Medicine Fellowship, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of California San Diego, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, La Jolla, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, Doris A Howell Palliative Care Service, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Opioids are a class of medications frequently used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, exerting their desired effects at central opioid receptors. Agonism at peripherally located opioid receptors, however, leads to opioid-induced constipation (OIC, one of the most frequent and debilitating side effects of prolonged opioid use. Insufficient relief of OIC with lifestyle modification and traditional laxative treatments may lead to decreased compliance with opioid regimens and undertreated pain. Peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORAs offer the reversal of OIC without loss of central pain relief. Until recently, PAMORAs were restricted to subcutaneous route or to narrow patient populations. Naloxegol is the first orally dosed PAMORA indicated for the treatment of OIC in noncancer patients. Studies have suggested its efficacy in patients failing traditional constipation treatments; however, insufficient evidence exists to establish its role in primary prevention of OIC at this time. Keywords: opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, chronic pain, peripherally-acting mu-opioid antagonist, bowel care, OIC, OIBD 

  2. Chronic caffeine treatment prevents sleep deprivation-induced impairment of cognitive function and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2010-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide a detailed account of the effect of chronic treatment with a small dose of caffeine on the deleterious effects of sleep loss on brain function in rats. We investigated the effects of chronic (4 weeks) caffeine treatment (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on memory impairment in acutely (24 h) sleep-deprived adult male Wistar rats. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform model. The effects of caffeine on sleep deprivation-induced hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits were studied by 3 approaches: learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze task, electrophysiological recording of early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in area CA1 of the hippocampus, and levels of memory- and synaptic plasticity-related signaling molecules after E-LTP induction. The results showed that chronic caffeine treatment prevented impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning, shortterm memory and E-LTP of area CA1 in the sleep-deprived rats. In correlation, chronic caffeine treatment prevented sleep deprivation-associated decrease in the levels of phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) during expression of E-LTP. The results suggest that long-term use of a low dose of caffeine prevents impairment of short-term memory and E-LTP in acutely sleep-deprived rats.

  3. The effectiveness of the treatment of severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Garas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic multifactorial diseases of the lungs. At least 10–12 % of patients with bronchial asthma are suffering from a severe form of the disease. One aspect of inadequate severe asthma control is its phenotypic heterogeneity, interest of experts increases to the problem of exercise-induced asthma. The purpose of the study was to increase efficiency of treatment for severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren based on the analysis of the attack dynamics and to achieve disease control according to main inflammatometric and spirometric indices. Materials and methods. We examined 46 children with severe persistent bronchial asthma, in particular, 15 schoolchildren suffering from severe exercise-induced asthma, the second clinical group (comparison one consisted of 31 children suffering from severe type of the disease, with no signs of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Basic therapy effectiveness was determined prospectively by assessing the disease control using AST-test with an interval of 3 months. The severity of bronchial obstruction syndrome in patients on admission to hospital during exacerbation was assessed by score scale. Airway hyperresponsiveness was evaluated according to the results of bronchoprovocation with histamine. Results. Children of I clinical group had more significant manifestations of bronchial obstruction during the week of inpatient treatment than the comparison group of patients, including significantly more severe manifestations of bronchial obstruction were verified on 1st and 7th day of hospitalization. Due to the analysis of basic therapy effectiveness, only a quarter of I clinical group patients and a larger part of schoolchildren in comparison group achieved the partial control after a 3-month course of anti-inflammatory treatment. Eosinophilic inflammation was observed in most children with severe exercise-induced asthma (60.1 % and in 47.2 % of

  4. The standardization of acupuncture treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Xin; Tian, Guang; He, Jing

    2016-07-01

    To assess the relative standardization of acupuncture protocols for radiation-induced xerostomia. A literature search was carried out up to November 10, 2012 in the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastruction with the terms: radiation-induced xerostomia, acupuncture, acupuncture treatment, and acupuncture therapy. Five ancient Chinese classic acupuncture works were also reviewed with the keywords "dry mouth, thirst, dry tongue, dry eyes and dry lips" to search the effective acupuncture points for dry mouth-associated symptoms in ancient China. Twenty-two full-text articles relevant to acupuncture treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia were included and a total of 48 acupuncture points were searched in the 5 ancient Chinese classic acupuncture works, in which the most commonly used points were Chengjiang (CV24), Shuigou (GV 26), Duiduan (GV 27), Jinjin (EX-HN 12), and Yuye (EX-HN 13) on head and neck, Sanjian (LI 3), Shangyang (LI 1), Shaoshang (LU 11), Shaoze (SI 1), Xialian (LI 8) on hand, Fuliu (KI 7), Dazhong (KI 4), Zuqiaoyin (GB 44), Taichong (LR 3), Zhaohai (KI 6) on foot, Burong (ST 19), Zhangmen (LR 13), Tiantu (CV 22), Qimen (LR 14) on abdomen, Feishu (BL 13), Danshu (BL 19), Xiaochaogshu (BL 27), Ganshu (BL 18) on back, Shenmen (TF 4), Shen (CO10, Kidney), Yidan (CO11, Pancreas) and Pi (CO13, Spleen) on ear. There were considerable heterogeneities in the current acupuncture treatment protocols for radiation-induced xerostomia. Based on the results of the review and the personal perspectives, the authors provide a recommendation for manual acupuncture protocols in treating radiationinduced xerostomia patients with head and neck cancer.

  5. Therapeutic treatment with a novel hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylase inhibitor (TRC160334 ameliorates murine colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ram Gupta,1 Anita R Chaudhary,2 Binita N Shah,1 Avinash V Jadhav,3 Shitalkumar P Zambad,1 Ramesh Chandra Gupta,4 Shailesh Deshpande,4 Vijay Chauthaiwale,4 Chaitanya Dutt4 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Cellular and Molecular Biology, 3Preclinical Safety Evaluation, 4Discovery, Torrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India Background and aim: Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD can be achieved by improvement of intestinal barrier protection. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF has been identified as a critical factor for barrier protection during mucosal insult and is linked with improvement in symptoms of colitis. Although prophylactic efficacy of HIF hydroxylase inhibitors in murine colitis have been established, its therapeutic efficacy in clinically relevant therapeutic settings have not been established. In the present study we aim to establish therapeutic efficacy of TRC160334, a novel HIF hydroxylase inhibitor, in animal models of colitis. Methods: The efficacy of TRC160334 was evaluated in two different mouse models of colitis by oral route. A prophylactic efficacy study was performed in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced mouse model of colitis representing human Crohn's disease pathology. Additionally, a therapeutic efficacy study was performed in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of colitis, a model simulating human ulcerative colitis. Results: TRC160334 treatment resulted in significant improvement in disease end points in both models of colitis. TRC160334 treatment resulted into cytoprotective heatshock protein 70 induction in inflamed colon. TRC160334 successfully attenuated the rate of fall in body weight, disease activity index, and macroscopic and microscopic scores of colonic damage leading to overall improvement in study outcome. Conclusion: Our findings are the first to demonstrate that therapeutic intervention with a HIF hydroxylase inhibitor

  6. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Jakob Lykke; Brock, Christina; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Nilsson, Matias; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2015-11-01

    In recent years prescription of opioids has increased significantly. Although effective in pain management, bothersome gastrointestinal adverse effects are experienced by a substantial proportion of opioid-treated patients. This can lead to difficulties with therapy and subsequently inadequate pain relief. Collectively referred to as opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, these adverse effects are the result of binding of exogenous opioids to opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This leads to disturbance of three important gastrointestinal functions: motility, coordination of sphincter function and secretion. In the clinic this manifests in a wide range of symptoms such as reflux, bloating, abdominal cramping, hard, dry stools, and incomplete evacuation, although the most known adverse effect is opioid-induced constipation. Traditional treatment with laxatives is often insufficient, but in recent years a number of novel pharmacological approaches have been introduced. In this review the pathophysiology, symptomatology and prevalence of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction is presented along with the benefits and caveats of a suggested consensus definition for opioid-induced constipation. Finally, traditional treatment is appraised and compared with the latest pharmacological developments. In conclusion, opioid antagonists restricted to the periphery show promising results, but use of different definitions and outcome measures complicate comparison. However, an international working group has recently suggested a consensus definition for opioid-induced constipation and relevant outcome measures have also been proposed. If investigators within this field adapt the suggested consensus and include symptoms related to dysfunction of the upper gut, it will ease comparison and be a step forward in future research.

  7. Acupuncture for treatment of hospital-induced constipation in children: a retrospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Eric Falk; Findeisen, Annette; Nowak, Andreas; Rüdiger, Mario; Usichenko, Taras Ivanovich

    2012-12-01

    Acupuncture is a promising option in the treatment of functional bowel disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptance of acupuncture for the treatment of hospital-induced constipation (HIC) in children. Bilateral stimulation of acupuncture point LI11 was applied in 10 children with HIC using fixed indwelling acupuncture needles (0.9 mm long) before considering starting conventional local constipation therapy with laxative suppositories. The clinical records were studied retrospectively for feasibility, acceptance and effectiveness of acupuncture. Acupuncture was feasible in all children and application of the indwelling needles was tolerated without fear. Side effects were not observed. After a median of 3 days of HIC, all children defaecated within 2 h after LI11 stimulation. No patient required conventional local constipation therapy. Acupuncture for the treatment of HIC is feasible and acceptable. Its effect should be verified in a randomised controlled trial.

  8. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogerio Ferreti; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Alves, Fabio de Abreu

    2005-01-01

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  9. Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Gammaknife Radiosurgery-Induced Brain Radiation Necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yifang; Zheng, Chutian; Feng, Yiping; Xu, Qingsheng

    2017-09-01

    Radiation necrosis is one of the complications of Gammaknife radiosurgery. The traditional treatment of radiation necrosis carries a high risk of failure, Bevacizumab is an antiangiogenic monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, a known mediator of cerebral edema. It can be used to successfully treat brain radiation necrosis. Two patients with a history of small cell lung cancer presented with metastatic disease to the brain. They underwent Gammaknife radiosurgery to brain metastases. Several months later, magnetic resonance imaging showed radiation necrosis with significant surrounding edema. The patients had a poor response to treatment with dexamethasone. They were eventually treated with bevacizumab (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks, 7.5 mg/kg every 3 weeks, respectively), and the treatment resulted in significant clinical and radiographic improvement. Bevacizumab can be successfully used to treat radiation necrosis induced by Gammaknife radiosurgery in patients with cerebral metastases. It is of particular benefit in patients with poor reaction to corticosteroids and other medications.

  10. Antiretroviral treatment interruptions induced by the Kenyan postelection crisis are associated with virological failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Marita; Diero, Lameck; Kemboi, Emmanuel; Mambo, Fidelis; Rono, Mary; Injera, Wilfred; Delong, Allison; Schreier, Leeann; Kaloustian, Kara W; Sidle, John; Buziba, Nathan; Kantor, Rami

    2013-10-01

    Antiretroviral treatment interruptions (TIs) cause suboptimal clinical outcomes. Data on TIs during social disruption are limited. We determined effects of unplanned TIs after the 2007-2008 Kenyan postelection violence on virological failure, comparing viral load (VL) outcomes in HIV-infected adults with and without conflict-induced TI. Two hundred and one patients were enrolled, median 2.2 years after conflict and 4.3 years on treatment. Eighty-eight patients experienced conflict-related TIs and 113 received continuous treatment. After adjusting for preconflict CD4, patients with TIs were more likely to have detectable VL, VL >5,000 and VL >10,000. Unplanned conflict-related TIs are associated with increased likelihood of virological failure.

  11. Neonatal periostin knockout mice are protected from hyperoxia-induced alveolar simplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Bozyk

    Full Text Available In bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, alveolar septae are thickened with collagen and α-smooth muscle actin, transforming growth factor (TGF-β-positive myofibroblasts. Periostin, a secreted extracellular matrix protein, is involved in TGF-β-mediated fibrosis and myofibroblast differentiation. We hypothesized that periostin expression is required for hypoalveolarization and interstitial fibrosis in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, an animal model for this disease. We also examined periostin expression in neonatal lung mesenchymal stromal cells and lung tissue of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice and human infants with BPD. Two-to-three day-old wild-type and periostin null mice were exposed to air or 75% oxygen for 14 days. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from tracheal aspirates of premature infants. Hyperoxic exposure of neonatal mice increased alveolar wall periostin expression, particularly in areas of interstitial thickening. Periostin co-localized with α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting synthesis by myofibroblasts. A similar pattern was found in lung sections of infants dying of BPD. Unlike wild-type mice, hyperoxia-exposed periostin null mice did not show larger air spaces or α-smooth muscle-positive myofibroblasts. Compared to hyperoxia-exposed wild-type mice, hyperoxia-exposed periostin null mice also showed reduced lung mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin, elastin, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL4. TGF-β treatment increased mesenchymal stromal cell periostin expression, and periostin treatment increased TGF-β-mediated DNA synthesis and myofibroblast differentiation. We conclude that periostin expression is increased in the lungs of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice and infants with BPD, and is required for hyperoxia-induced hypoalveolarization and interstitial fibrosis.

  12. Fasting and meal-induced CCK and PP secretion following intragastric balloon treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H; de Groot, Gerrit H

    2013-05-01

    Satiety is centrally and peripherally mediated by gastrointestinal peptides and the vagal nerve. We aimed to investigate whether intragastric balloon treatment affects satiety through effects on fasting and meal-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) secretion. Patients referred for obesity treatment were randomised to 13 weeks of sham treatment followed by 13 weeks of balloon treatment (group 1; sham/balloon) or to twice a 13-week period of balloon treatment (group 2; balloon/balloon). Blood samples were taken for fasting and meal-stimulated CCK and PP levels at the start (T0) and after 13 (T1) and 26 (T2) weeks. Patients filled out visual analogue scales (VAS) to assess satiety. Forty-two patients (35 females, body weight 125.1 kg, BMI 43.3 kg/m(2)) participated. In group 1, basal CCK levels decreased but meal-stimulated response remained unchanged after 13 weeks of sham treatment. In group 2, basal and meal-stimulated CCK levels decreased after 13 weeks of balloon treatment. At the end of the second 13-week period, when group 1 had their first balloon treatment, they duplicated the initial 13-week results of group 2, whereas group 2 continued their balloon treatment and reduced meal-stimulated CCK release. Both groups showed reduced meal-stimulated PP secretions at T1 and T2 compared to T0. Changes in diet composition and VAS scores were similar. Improvements in glucose homeostasis partly explained the PP results. The reduced CCK and PP secretion after balloon positioning was unexpected and may reflect delayed gastric emptying induced by the balloon. Improved glucose metabolism partly explained the reduced PP secretion. Satiety and weight loss were not adversely influenced by these hormonal changes.

  13. Effects of sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Woo; Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Yoon, Jeungwon; Jung, Tae-Young; Kwon, Ki-Rok; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Sagar, Stephen; Wong, Raimond; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2012-06-01

    This is a case series reporting safety and degree of response to 1 dose level of sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture (SBVP) or melittin as a symptom-control therapy for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). All treatments were conducted at the East West Cancer Center (EWCC), Dunsan Oriental Hospital, Daejeon University, Republic of Korea, an institution that uses complementary therapies for cancer patients. Five consecutive patients with CIPN were referred to the EWCC from March 20, 2010, to April 10, 2010. Patients with World Health Organization Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy (WHO CIPN) grade 2 or more were treated with SBVP for 3 treatment sessions over a 1-week period. Measures of efficacy and safety. Validated Visual Analog System (VAS) pain scale, WHO CIPN grade, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) were compared before and after the 1-week course of treatment. To ensure the safety of SBVP, pretreatment skin response tests were given to patients to avoid any potential anaphylactic adverse effects. All patients were closely examined for any allergenic responses following each treatment session. One patient discontinued treatment after the first session, and 4 patients completed all treatment sessions. Using each patient as their own comparator, marked improvements of VAS, WHO CIPN grade, and physical section scores of FACT-G were seen in 3 patients. Most important, there were no related adverse side effects found. This safety results of the SBVP therapy merits further investigations in a larger size trial for it to develop into a potential intervention for managing CIPN symptoms. This study will be extended to a dose-response evaluation to further establish safety and response, prior to a randomized trial.

  14. Skeletal and dental changes induced by bionator in early treatment of class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Barnabé Raveli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to investigate the amount of skeletal and dentoalveolar changes after early treatment of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion with bionator appliance in prepubertal growing patients. Forty Class II patients were divided in two groups. Treated group consisted of 20 subjects treated consecutively with bionator. Mean age at the start of treatment (T0 was 9.1 years, while it was 10.6 years at the end of treatment (T1. Mean treatment time was 17.7 months. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of treated group were evaluated and compared with a control group consisted of 20 patients with untreated Class II malocclusion. Intergroup comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests and chi-square test with Yates’ correction at a significance level of 5 per cent. Bionator appliance was effective in generating differential growth between the jaws. Cephalometric skeletal measurements ANB, WITS, Lafh, Co-A and dental L6-Mp, U1.Pp, IsIi, OB, OJ showed statistically significantly different from the control. Bionator induced more dentoalveolar changes than skeletal during treatment in prepubertal stage.

  15. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-09-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA's simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mediastinal Tracheostoma for Treatment of Tracheostenosis after Tracheostomy in a Patient with Mucopolysaccharidosis-Induced Tracheomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Chikaishi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Treatment of tracheostenosis after tracheostomy in pediatric patients is often difficult. Mucopolysaccharidosis is a lysosomal storage disease that may induce obstruction of the airways. Case Presentation. A 16-year-old male patient underwent long-term follow-up after postnatal diagnosis of type II mucopolysaccharidosis. At 11 years of age, tracheostomy was performed for mucopolysaccharidosis-induced laryngeal stenosis. One week prior to presentation, he was admitted to another hospital on an emergency basis for major dyspnea. He was diagnosed with tracheostenosis caused by granulation. The patient was then referred to our institution. The peripheral view of his airway was difficult because of mucopolysaccharidosis-induced tracheomalacia. For airway management, a mediastinal tracheostoma was created with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. To maintain the blood flow, the skin incision for the mediastinal tracheal hole was sharply cut without an electrotome. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was weaned from the ventilator on postoperative day 19. He was discharged 1.5 months postoperatively. Although he was referred to another institution because of respiratory failure caused by his primary disease 6 months postoperatively, his airway management remained successful for 1.5 years postoperatively. Conclusion. Mediastinal tracheostomy was useful for treatment of tracheostenosis caused by granulation tissue formation after a tracheostomy.

  17. Epoetin beta for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galli L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Luca Galli,1 Clara Ricci,2 Colin Gerard Egan2 1Oncology Unit 2, University Hospital of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; 2Primula Multimedia SRL, Pisa, Italy Abstract: Epoetin beta belongs to the class of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs that are currently available to treat anemic patients receiving chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced anemia affects a high percentage of cancer patients and, due to its negative effects on disease outcome and the patient’s quality of life, should be treated when first diagnosed. Initial trials with ESAs have shown efficacy in improving quality of life and reducing the need for blood transfusions in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. However, recent meta-analyses have provided conflicting data on the impact of ESAs on survival and tumor progression. Here we provide an overview of these recent data and review the role of epoetin beta in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia over the past 20 years. Keywords: epoetin beta, erythropoietin, chemotherapy, cancer, anemia, treatment

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nyssa F; Xiao, Christopher; Sood, Amit J; Lovelace, Tiffany L; Nguyen, Shaun A; Sharma, Anand; Day, Terry A

    2015-07-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is one of the most common morbidities of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. However, in spite of its high rate of occurrence, there are few effective therapies available for its management. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen on the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life. PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched for retrospective or prospective trials assessing subjective xerostomia, objective xerostomia, or xerostomia-related quality of life. To be included, patients had to have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, but not hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). The systematic review initially identified 293 potential articles. Seven studies, comprising 246 patients, qualified for inclusion. Of the included studies, 6 of 7 were prospective in nature, and 1 was a retrospective study; and 2 of the 7 were controlled studies. HBOT may have utility for treating radiation-induced xerostomia refractory to other therapies. Additionally, HBOT may induce long-term improvement in subjective assessments of xerostomia, whereas other therapies currently available only provide short-term relief. The strength of these conclusions is limited by the lack of randomized controlled clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of chronic resveratrol treatment on vascular responsiveness of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silan, Coskun

    2008-05-01

    Deficiency in the vasorelaxant capacity is a result of an oxidative stress in diabetic animals and seems to be an etiological factor of vascular complications of diabetes. The present study was designed to examine whether resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic compound which is naturally present in grape and red wine, has a protective effect on diabetic aorta. Resveratrol (5 mg/kg/d, i.p.) was administered for 42 d to streptozotocin (STZ) (60 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats. Loss of weight, hyperglycemia, and elevated levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) were observed in diabetic rats. Resveratrol treatment was significantly effective for these metabolic and biochemical abnormalities. The contractile responses of the aorta were recorded. Compared with control subjects, the aorta showed significantly enhanced contractile responses to noradrenaline (NA), but not to potassium chloride (KCl), in diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with resveratrol significantly reversed the increases in responsiveness and sensitivity of aorta to noradrenaline. In diabetic aorta, the relaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach) was found to be significantly decreased compared with control subjects, and resveratrol treatment reversed this; no such change was observed in the relaxation response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP). These results indicated that resveratrol significantly improved not only glucose metabolism and oxidative injury but also impaired vascular responses in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  20. Metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Tong, Jian-hua; Zhu, Gang; Liang, Guang-ming; Yan, Hong-fei; Wang, Xiu-zhen

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of metformin for treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Seventy-two patients with first-episode schizophrenia who gained more than 7% of their predrug weight were randomly assigned to receive 1000 mg/d of metformin or placebo in addition to their ongoing treatment for 12 weeks using a double-blind study design. The primary outcome was change in body weight. The secondary outcomes included changes in body mass index, fasting glucose and insulin, and insulin resistance index. Of the 72 patients who were randomly assigned, 66 (91.6%) completed treatments. The body weight, body mass index, fasting insulin and insulin resistance index decreased significantly in the metformin group, but increased in the placebo group during the 12-week follow-up period. Significantly more patients in the metformin group lost their baseline weight by more than 7%, which was the cutoff for clinically meaningful weight loss. Metformin was tolerated well by majority patients. Metformin was effective and safe in attenuating antipsychotic-induced weight gain and insulin resistance in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Patients displayed good adherence to metformin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Paliperidone for the treatment of ketamine-induced psychosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccoli, M L; Muscella, A; Fucile, C; Carrozzino, R; Mattioli, F; Martelli, A; Orengo, S

    2014-01-01

    Ketamine is an anaesthetic and analgesic drug synthesized in the 1960s from phencyclidine. The recreational use of ketamine increased among the dance culture of techno and house music, in particular in clubs, discotheques, and rave parties. The psychotropic effects of ketamine are now well known and they range from dissociation to positive, negative, and cognitive schizophrenia-like symptoms. We report a case of a chronic oral consumption of ketamine which induced agitation, behavioral abnormalities, and loss of contact with reality in a poly-drug abuser; these symptoms persisted more than two weeks after the drug consumption had stopped. Antipsychotic treatment with paliperidone led to a successful management of the psychosis, getting a complete resolution of the clinical picture. Paliperidone has proven to be very effective in the treatment of ketamine-induced disorders. Moreover, the pharmacological action and metabolism of paliperidone are poorly dependent from the activity of liver enzymes, so that it seems to be one of the best second generation antipsychotics for the treatment of smokers and alcohol abusers.

  2. Induction of cytoplasmic petite in yeast by guanidine hydrochloride: combined treatment with other inducing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, L L; Juliani, M H

    1980-06-01

    We have studied the induction of rho- mutants by guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) in combination with other known inducers: ethidium bromide (EB), berenil and ultraviolet light. Competition was observed when cells were simultaneously treated with optimal concentrations of EB and GuHCl; on the other hand, treatment of cells with EB in the presence of non-inducing concentrations of GuHCl resulted in the stimulation of rho- induction of EB. Furthermore, using a strain which upon treatment with high EB concentrations shows recovery of respiratory competence, the presence of GuHCl did not interfere either with the early phase of induction or with the recovery phase, but it did interfere in a competitive fashion with the final irreversible phase of EB induction. In the case of berenil, a synergistic effect was seen when cells were pretreated with GuHCl. A synergistic induction was also observed when cells were submitted to UV prior to GuHCl treatment. These results suggest that GuHCl, EB and berenil act via some common step in their rho- induction pathways. Moreover, GuHCl may somehow be decreasing the efficiency of dark repair of ultraviolet lesions on mitochondrial DNA.

  3. Lithium Carbonate in the Treatment of Graves’ Disease with ATD-Induced Hepatic Injury or Leukopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendong Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. GD with ATD-induced hepatic injury or leukopenia occurs frequently in clinical practice. The purpose of the present study was to observe the clinical effect of lithium carbonate on hyperthyroidism in patients with GD with hepatic injury or leukopenia. Methods. Fifty-one patients with GD with hepatic injury or leukopenia participated in the study. All patients were treated with lithium carbonate, in addition to hepatoprotective drugs or drugs that increase white blood cell count. Thyroid function, liver function, and white blood cells were measured. Clinical outcomes were observed after a 1-year follow-up. Results. After treatment for 36 weeks, symptoms of hyperthyroidism and the level of thyroid hormones were improved and liver function, and white blood cells returned to a normal level. Twelve patients (23.5% obtained clinical remission, 6 patients (11.8% relapsed after withdrawal, 25 patients (49.0% received radioiodine therapy, and 8 patients (15.7% underwent surgical procedures after lithium carbonate treatment. Conclusion. Lithium carbonate has effects on the treatment of mild-to-moderate hyperthyroidism caused by GD, and it is particularly suitable for patients with ATD-induced hepatic injury or leukopenia.

  4. Health-Care Waste Treatment Technology Selection Using the Interval 2-Tuple Induced TOPSIS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Health-care waste (HCW management is a major challenge for municipalities, particularly in the cities of developing nations. Selecting the best treatment technology for HCW can be regarded as a complex multi-criteria decision making (MCDM issue involving a number of alternatives and multiple evaluation criteria. In addition, decision makers tend to express their personal assessments via multi-granularity linguistic term sets because of different backgrounds and knowledge, some of which may be imprecise, uncertain and incomplete. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to propose a new hybrid decision making approach combining interval 2-tuple induced distance operators with the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS for tackling HCW treatment technology selection problems with linguistic information. The proposed interval 2-tuple induced TOPSIS (ITI-TOPSIS can not only model the uncertainty and diversity of the assessment information given by decision makers, but also reflect the complex attitudinal characters of decision makers and provide much more complete information for the selection of the optimum disposal alternative. Finally, an empirical example in Shanghai, China is provided to illustrate the proposed decision making method, and results show that the ITI-TOPSIS proposed in this paper can solve the problem of HCW treatment technology selection effectively.

  5. New treatments on the horizon for chemoradiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Herrstedt, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    the proper timing, duration, and combination of antiemetic drugs for the prevention of chemoradiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (C-RINV). AREAS COVERED: The article summarises the available antiemetic studies, the evidence for antiemetic prophylaxis of C-RINV, and the future perspectives for antiemetic...... research in chemoradiotherapy. EXPERT OPINION: Antiemetic prophylaxis for patients receiving concomitant chemoradiotherapy has, for many years, been an orphan research area. The distinction between acute and delayed nausea and vomiting does not apply to fractionated radiotherapy, and prophylaxis should...... be considered to cover the entire course of treatment and not only the acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The best prophylaxis in women receiving fractionated radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin is a combination of the neurokinin receptor antagonist fosaprepitant...

  6. Comparison of expandable endotracheal stents in the treatment of surgically induced piglet tracheomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, E A; Parsons, D S; Lally, K P; Van Dellen, A F

    1991-09-01

    Present surgical alternatives for pediatric tracheobronchomalacia are limited and associated with many potentially undesirable complications. The feasibility of different intraluminal expandable endotracheal stents for the treatment of surgically induced tracheomalacia was analyzed in 27 piglets. A potentially fatal tracheomalacia was surgically created. Either a stainless steel "zig-zag" stent or a woven polymeric stent was then implanted. Tracheal patency, mucosal function, histopathologic respiratory tract changes, and effects of the stent on esophageal motility were evaluated over a 16-week period. Piglets with steel stents uniformly experienced intense inflammation leading to tracheal dysfunction and death. Piglets with polymeric stents experienced minimal respiratory symptoms. Expandable polymeric endotracheal stents alleviate surgically induced piglet tracheomalacia, were easy to insert, allowed for tracheal growth, and reduced the need for high-risk surgical procedures with prolonged ventilatory support.

  7. Induced radioisotopes inside the treatment hall with a Linac for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon M, H. A. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., Fracc. Bona Gens, 20255 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Rivera P, E.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A., E-mail: asa_15@hotmail.com [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, C. Jose Gutierrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-15

    When Linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the Linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect; this last are mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation mainly in the concrete walls and the Linac components. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. (Author)

  8. Induced sputum MMP-1, -3 & -8 concentrations during treatment of tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A Ugarte-Gil

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB destroys lung tissues and this immunopathology is mediated in part by Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs. There are no data on the relationship between local tissue MMPs concentrations, anti-tuberculosis therapy and sputum conversion.Induced sputum was collected from 68 TB patients and 69 controls in a cross-sectional study. MMPs concentrations were measured by Luminex array, TIMP concentrations by ELISA and were correlated with a disease severity score (TBscore. 46 TB patients were then studied longitudinally at the 2nd, 8th week and end of treatment.Sputum MMP-1,-2,-3,-8,-9 and TIMP-1 and -2 concentrations are increased in TB. Elevated MMP-1 and -3 concentrations are independently associated with higher TB severity scores (p<0.05. MMP-1, -3 and -8 concentrations decreased rapidly during treatment (p<0.05 whilst there was a transient increase in TIMP-1/2 concentrations at week 2. MMP-2, -8 and -9 and TIMP-2 concentrations were higher at TB diagnosis in patients who remain sputum culture positive at 2 weeks and MMP-3, -8 and TIMP-1 concentrations were higher in these patients at 2nd week of TB treatment.MMPs are elevated in TB patients and associate with disease severity. This matrix-degrading phenotype resolves rapidly with treatment. The MMP profile at presentation correlates with a delayed treatment response.

  9. Prevention and treatment of respiratory consequences induced by sulfur mustard in Iranian casualties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed M Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 100,000 Iranian have been exposed to chemical weapons during Iraq-Iran conflict (1980-88. After being spent of more than two decades, still about 30,000 of them are under follow-up treatment. The main aim of this study was to review various preventive and therapeutic methods for injured patients with sulfur mustard in different phases. Methods: For gathering information, we have used the electronic databases including Scopus, Medline, ISI, IranMedex, Irandoc sites. According to this search strategy, 104 published articles associated to respiratory problems and among them 50 articles related to prevention and treatment of respiratory problems were found and reviewed. Results: There is not any curative treatment for sulfur mustard induced lung injuries, but some valuable experienced measures for prevention and palliative treatments are available. Some useful measures in acute phase include: Symptomatic management, oxygen supplementation, tracheostomy in laryngospasm, use of moist air, respiratory physical therapy, mucolytic agents and bronchodilators. In the chronic phases, these measures include: Periodic clinical examinations, administration of inhaled corticosteroids alone or with long-acting beta 2 agonists, use of antioxidants, magnesium ions, long term oxygen supplement, therapeutic bronchoscopy, laser therapy, and use of respiratory tract stents. Conclusions: Most treatments are symptomatic but using preventive points immediately after exposure could improve following outcomes.

  10. Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønborg SM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of

  11. ٍEvaluating Baremoom Mouthwash Efficacy in Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Akhavan Karbasi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is regarded as a painful and discomforting chemotherapy complication , affecting patient’s quality of life and endurance to continue the treatment. Hence, treatment of mucositis is of great significance. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Baremoom mouthwash in treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis . Methods: This interventional double-blinded randomized clinical trial study was performed on 40 adult patients under chemotherapy in blood and oncology department of Shahid Sadouqhi hospital. The total of 40 patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental baremoom group and a control placebo group each containing 20 subjects. Baremoom mouthwash (30% extract, Soren Tektoos, Mashhad and placebo mouthwash ( Sterile water with allowable additives ,Soren Tektoos, Mashhad with same apparent properties were given to the patients (3 times a day for 7 days after mucositis detection. The patients were evaluated in regard with mucositis grade (0-4 WHO and wounds extension on 1th , 3th and 7th days after the study begining. In order to statistically analyze the collected data, Freidman, Mann–Whitney, and wilcoxon W tests were applied utilizing SPSS software (ver, 17. Results: On 3rd  and 7th  days, mean degree of wound extension and mucositis were demonstrated to be significantly different between the two groups. According to Friedman test, both experimental and control groups revealed a significant difference in regard with wound extension and mucositis grade within the three time periods. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that Baremoom mouthwash was more effective in chemotherapy- induced mucositis than placebo. Hence, this agent can be recommended as an appropriate medicine in order to eliminate mucositis symtoms and decrease oral ulcers.

  12. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-12-14

    To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15(th) day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3(rd) and 5(th) days of colitis induction; P < 0.01). The DAI was also significantly higher in the colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6(th) day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P < 0.05). MPO activity in the colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P < 0.05). Kefir treatment

  13. Fluoxetine treatment induces dose dependent alterations in depression associated behavior and neural plasticity in female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hodes, Georgia E.; Hill-Smith, Tiffany E.; Lucki, Irwin

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressant induced increases in neurogenesis and neurotrophin mobilization in rodents and primates are proposed to be necessary for behavioral efficacy. The current study examines the relationship between the effects of fluoxetine treatment on behavior, cell proliferation and the neurotrophin BDNF in females. Female MRL/MpJ mice were treated acutely (5 and 10 mg/kg) or chronically (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg b.i.d.) with fluoxetine and tested in the tail suspension test (TST) and or novelty indu...

  14. The effect of thermal treatment on radiation-induced EPR signals in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorona, I.P.; Ishchenko, S.S.; Baran, N.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on the radiation-induced EPR spectrum of tooth enamel was studied. Annealing before sample irradiation was found to increase enamel radiation sensitivity by more than 40%. Depending on the annealing conditions the EPR signals of three supplementary radiation radicals were observed in addition to the main signal caused by CO 2 - radicals. It was found that the presence of these signals in the enamel EPR spectra provides evidence of sample annealing. The possibility of obtaining information about sample history by studying the additional EPR signals is discussed. It can be important to EPR dating and EPR dosimetry

  15. 3D numerical modeling of coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment with malice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triwong Peeteenut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a multi-method Malice package for three dimension coupled phenomena in induced processes of heat treatment by an algorithm weakly coupled with the Migen package integral method defining the electromagnetic model and the Flux-Expert package finite element method defining the thermal model. The integral method is well suited to inductive systems undergoing sinusoidal excitation at midrange or high frequency. The unknowns of both models are current density, scalar potential and temperature. Joule power in the electromagnetic model is generated by Eddy currents. It becomes the heat source in the thermal model.

  16. Meiotic anomalies induced by γ-rays and ethyl methanesulphonate treatments in pearl millet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxmi, V.; Singh, R.B.; Singh, B.D.; Singh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Seven inbreds, viz. Tif-23A, 23D 2 A, Tif-238, 23D 2 B, K560, Bil3B and J104 and 3 commercial hybrids, viz. HB1, HB3 and HB5, of pearl millet were treated with γ-rays (10,20, 30kr) and/or ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6%). PMC's of plants from mutagen treated populations showed chromatin bridges, laggards, fragments, cytomixis, tripolar division, inversion, micronuclei and unequal chromosome distributions were more fragment than other anomalies. γ-Rays were more effective than EMS or the combination treatments in inducing cytological anomalies. (author)

  17. Chronic treatment with antipsychotics in rats as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouzet, B; Mow, T; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2003-01-01

    compounds in an animal model of weight gain. With the aim of evaluating whether the rat can be used as a model for antipsychotic-induced weight gain, we have investigated the effect of chronic treatment (3 weeks) with one antipsychotic drug inducing weight gain in clinic (olanzapine) and one antipsychotic...

  18. Kava and valerian in the treatment of stress-induced insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, D

    2001-09-01

    Kava and valerian are herbal remedies, claimed to have anxiolytic and sedative properties respectively, without dependence potential or any appreciable side-effects. In this pilot study, 24 patients suffering from stress-induced insomnia were treated for 6 weeks with kava 120 mg daily. This was followed by 2 weeks off treatment and then, 5 having dropped out, 19 received valerian 600 mg daily for another 6 weeks. Stress was measured in three areas: social, personal and life-events; insomnia in three areas also: time to fall asleep, hours slept and waking mood. Total stress severity was significantly relieved by both compounds (p effects was 58% with each drug respectively and the 'commonest' effect was vivid dreams with valerian (16%), followed by dizziness with kava (12% ). These compounds may be useful in the treatment of stress and insomnia but further studies are required to determine their relative roles for such indications. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Statin Treatment in Hypercholesterolemic Men Does Not Attenuate Angiotensin II-Induced Venoconstriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Christoph; Guenther, Kristina; Hermann, Cosima; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Schroeder, Christoph; Haufe, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies suggested that statins attenuate vascular AT1 receptor responsiveness. Moreover, the augmented excessive pressor response to systemic angiotensin II infusions in hypercholesterolemic patients was normalized with statin treatment. In 12 hypercholesterolemic patients, we tested the hypothesis that statin treatment attenuates angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction in hand veins assessed by a linear variable differential transducer. Subjects ingested daily doses of either atorvastatin (40 mg) or positive control irbesartan (150 mg) for 30 days in a randomized and cross-over fashion. Ang II–induced venoconstriction at minute 4 averaged 59%±10% before and 28%±9% after irbesartan (mean ± SEM; Pblood pressure buffering reflexes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00154024 PMID:25264877

  20. Measurement of heat treatment induced residual stresses by using ESPI combined with hole-drilling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Cheng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, residual stresses in heat treated specimen were measured by using ESPI (Electronic Speckle-Pattern Interferometry combined with the hole-drilling method. The specimen, made of SUS 304 austenitic stainless steel, was quenched and water cooled to room temperature. Numerical simulation using a hybrid FDM/FEM package was also carried out to simulate the heat treatment process. As a result, the thermal stress fields were obtained from both the experiment and the numerical simulation. By comparision of stress fields, results from the experimental method and numerical simulation well agreed to each other, therefore, it is proved that the presented experimental method is applicable and reliable for heat treatment induced residual stress measurement.

  1. Granisetron in the treatment of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong Eon; Kang, Ji No

    1999-01-01

    Granisetron is a potent, the most selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and is reported to be effective in treatment of radiation-induced emesis. The antiemetic efficacy and safety of oral granisteron was evaluated in patients with receiving highly emetogenic treatment by conventional fractionated irradiation. Patients with various cancers who were being treated with irradiation were accrued into the present study. The intensity of nausea was evaluated on first 24 hours and on day-7 by patients according to the degree of interference with normal daily life as followings; a) none; b) present but no interference with normal daily life (mild); c) interference with normal daily life (moderate); and d) bedridden because of nausea (severe). Non or mild state was considered to indicate successful treatment. The efficacy of antiemetic treatment was graded as follows; a) complete response; no vomiting, no worse than mild nausea and receive no rescue antiementic therapy over the 24h period, b) major response; either one episode of vomiting or moderate/severe nausea or had received rescue medication over 24h period, or any combination of these, c) minor response; two to four episodes of vomiting over the 24h period, regardless of nausea and rescue medication, d) failure; more than four medication. The score of the most symptom m was recorded and the total score over 24 hours was summarized. The complete or major response was considered to indicate successful treatment. A total of 10 patients were enrolled into this study, and all were assessable for efficacy analysis. Total nausea control was achieved in 90% (9/10:none=60% plus mild=30%) of total patients after 7 days. The control of vomiting by granisteron was noted in seven patients (70%) of complete response and three (30%) of major response with a hundred-percent successful treatment over 7 days. The minor response or treatment failure were not observed. No significant adverse events or toxicities from granisetron were

  2. Granisetron in the treatment of radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seong Eon; Kang, Ji No [College of Medicine, Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Granisetron is a potent, the most selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and is reported to be effective in treatment of radiation-induced emesis. The antiemetic efficacy and safety of oral granisteron was evaluated in patients with receiving highly emetogenic treatment by conventional fractionated irradiation. Patients with various cancers who were being treated with irradiation were accrued into the present study. The intensity of nausea was evaluated on first 24 hours and on day-7 by patients according to the degree of interference with normal daily life as followings; a) none; b) present but no interference with normal daily life (mild); c) interference with normal daily life (moderate); and d) bedridden because of nausea (severe). Non or mild state was considered to indicate successful treatment. The efficacy of antiemetic treatment was graded as follows; a) complete response; no vomiting, no worse than mild nausea and receive no rescue antiementic therapy over the 24h period, b) major response; either one episode of vomiting or moderate/severe nausea or had received rescue medication over 24h period, or any combination of these, c) minor response; two to four episodes of vomiting over the 24h period, regardless of nausea and rescue medication, d) failure; more than four medication. The score of the most symptom m was recorded and the total score over 24 hours was summarized. The complete or major response was considered to indicate successful treatment. A total of 10 patients were enrolled into this study, and all were assessable for efficacy analysis. Total nausea control was achieved in 90% (9/10:none=60% plus mild=30%) of total patients after 7 days. The control of vomiting by granisteron was noted in seven patients (70%) of complete response and three (30%) of major response with a hundred-percent successful treatment over 7 days. The minor response or treatment failure were not observed. No significant adverse events or toxicities from granisetron were

  3. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 ± 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 ± 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 ± 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  4. Treatment of lymphatic malformations of head and neck with OK-432 sclerotherapy induce systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närkiö-Mäkelä, Mervi; Mäkelä, Teppo; Saarinen, Pia; Salminen, Päivi; Julkunen, Ilkka; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Systemic immune responses after OK-432 (Picibanil) sclerotherapy in patients with head and neck lymphatic malformations (LM) were examined to achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of OK-432 sclerotherapy and to evaluate the long-term treatment outcome. Serum samples from 17 consecutive patients with head and neck LMs were collected during a total of 26 OK-432 treatment episodes. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukins (IL) 1β, 6, 8, 10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, RANTES, immune protein (IP)-10 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 as well as blood leukocyte counts were determined. Clinical outcome of the treatment was evaluated at the last visit and from patient files. Elevated serum levels of IP-10 (means at baseline 702 ng/L, after 1 day 1180 ng/L, after 4 weeks 691 ng/L) were seen on day one after OK-432 sclerotherapy (p < 0.05). C-reactive protein and leukocyte counts 1 day after treatment differed statistically significantly (p < 0.05) from the baseline. No significant differences with other cytokines investigated were observed. Patients with macrocystic LM responded better than patients with microcystic LM (p = 0.01). The elevated levels of IP-10, C-reactive protein and leukocyte levels indicate that OK-432 sclerotherapy induces systemic immune responses in patients with LM. The mechanisms of OK-432 sclerotherapy are still not precisely understood, but the IP-10 elevation may reflect local antiangiogenetic properties of immunoactivation induced by OK-432.

  5. Fractal analysis of the surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Kun; Kim, Jin Soo [School of Dentisity, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of surgical treatment of ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs using fractal analysis. Also, the capabilities of fractal analysis as bone analysis techniques were compared with those of histomorphometric analysis. A total of 24 implants were inserted in 6 dogs. After a 3-months, experimental periimplantitis characterized by a bone loss of about 3 mm was established by inducing with wires. Surgical treatment involving flap procedure, debridement of implants surface with chlorhexidine and saline (group 1), guided bone regeneration (GBR) with absorbable collagen membrane and mineralized bone graft (group 2), and CO2 laser application with GBR (group 3) were performed. After animals were sacrificed in 8 and 16 weeks respectively, bone sections including implants were made. Fractal dimensions were calculated by box-counting method on the skeletonized images, made from each region of interest, including five screws at medial and distal aspects of implant, were selected. Statistically significant differences in the fractal dimensions between the group 1 (0.9340 {+-} 0.0126) and group 3 (0.9783 {+-} 0.0118) at 16 weeks were found (P<0.05). The fractal dimension was statistically significant different between 8 (0.9395 {+-} 0.0283) and 16 weeks in group 3 (P<0.05). These results were similar with the result of the evaluation of new bone formation in histomorphometric analysis. Treatment of experimental peri-implantitis by using CO2 laser with GBR is more useful than other treatments in the formation of new bone and also the tendency of fractal dimension to increase relative to healing time may be a useful means of evaluating.

  6. Microwave-induced titanate nanotubes and the corresponding behaviour after thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, H H; Lo, S L; Liou, Y H

    2007-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the influence of microwave irradiation on the characterizations of titanate nanotubes (TNTs) synthesized by microwave hydrothermal treatment (M-H treatment). Based on the performance of specific surface areas determined by the classic Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method (S BET ), TNTs synthesized at 130 deg. C for 1.5 h with and without 400 W irradiation presented S BET values of 256 and 76 m 2 g -1 , respectively. The result indicates that the formation kinetics of TNTs is significantly enhanced by M-H treatment. The microwave-induced TNTs are preferentially assigned for Na x H 2-x Ti 3 O 7 structure and the Na/H ratio appreciably increases with higher irradiation power. Regarding the behaviour of TNTs after thermal treatment, TNTs synthesized under 70 W presented anatase phase at 500 deg. C through rearrangement and restacking of [TiO 6 ]. Anatase-to-rutile transformation subsequently occurred at 700 deg. C. TNTs synthesized under 400 and 700 W presented a rod shape at 700 deg. C. The rod shape mainly comprise of Na 2 Ti 6 O 13 of which the (Ti 3 O 7 ) 2- layers with the topotactical connection proceed to form (Ti 6 O 13 ) 2- along the [110] direction during the thermal process

  7. [Metronidazole-Induced Encephalopathy during Brain Abscess Treatment:Two Case Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuka; Asaoka, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Taku; Uchida, Kazuki; Shimbo, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Itamoto, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Metronidazole is a widely used antibiotic against anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. We report two cases of metronidazole-induced encephalopathy(MIE)during treatment of a brain abscess with metronidazole. The patients developed mental disturbance, and brain MRI showed reversible signals on DWI, FLAIR, and T2. Case 1: A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cerebellar abscess. We initiated treatment with oral metronidazole. After taking the medication, she developed mental disturbance, and her brain MRI showed a hyperintensity within the corpus callosum. We suspected metronidazole toxicity and discontinued metronidazole treatment. The symptoms resolved rapidly within a week, and the hyperintensity on the MRI disappeared. Case 2: A 22-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a brain abscess. We initiated treatment with oral metronidazole. On day 38, he developed mental disturbance, and his MRI showed hyperintensities within the bilateral dentate nuclei and corpus callosum. These symptoms were consistent with MIE. After cessation of metronidazole, his symptoms and abnormal MRI signals completely disappeared.

  8. Pilot evaluation of Scrambler therapy for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachman, Deirdre R; Weisbrod, Breanna L; Seisler, Drew K; Barton, Debra L; Fee-Schroeder, Kelliann C; Smith, Thomas J; Lachance, Daniel H; Liu, Heshan; Shelerud, Randy A; Cheville, Andrea L; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2015-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), a common side effect of chemotherapy, needs better effective treatments. Preliminary data support the use of Scrambler therapy, a device which treats pain via noninvasive cutaneous electrostimulation, for the treatment of CIPN. The current manuscript reports data from a pilot trial, performed to investigate the effect of Scrambler therapy for the treatment of established CIPN. Eligible patients had CIPN symptoms of ≥1 month duration with tingling and/or pain ≥4/10 during the prior week. Patients were treated with Scrambler therapy to the affected area(s) for up to ten daily 30-min sessions. Symptoms were monitored using a neuropathy questionnaire consisting of numerical analog scales ranging from 0 to 10, daily before therapy as well as weekly for 10 weeks after therapy. Descriptive summary statistics formed the basis of data analysis. Thirty-seven patients were enrolled. Twenty-five patients were treated primarily on their lower extremities while 12 were treated primarily on their upper extremities. There was a 53 % reduction in pain score from baseline to day 10; a 44 % reduction in tingling; and a 37 % reduction in numbness. Benefit appeared to last throughout 10 weeks of follow-up. There were no substantial adverse events. Preliminary data support that Scrambler therapy may be effective for the treatment of CIPN: a prospective placebo-controlled clinical trial should be performed.

  9. Prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Ieda Lessa de Souza; Camargo, Teresa Caldas

    2007-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis have still not been fully defined. The current study thus involved a literature search aimed at identifying preventive and therapeutic measures in relation to oral mucositis in patients submitted to radiotherapy, analyzing the level of evidence in the selected studies, identifying which indications for prevention and treatment in the literature pertain to the field of nursing, and critically analyzing the results and their implications for nursing care. This was a systematic literature survey without a meta analysis, consulting the following databases: BIREME, Medline, CancerLit, Scirus, CAPES, Free medical journal, High wire press, SCIELO, and Medscape, from 2000 to 2005. According to observations, nursing care was capable of improving patient's quality of life, promoting education of patients, implementing and supervising oral care programs, and providing guidance on hygiene, prevention, and treatment of oral mucositis, including pain management. However, no Brazilian nursing publications were found on the subject. Research and publications focusing on nursing experience in the prevention and treatment of radiotherapy-related oral mucositis and the implications for patients and nurses are important to provide evidence-based nursing guidelines. (author)

  10. Prevention of radiation-induced bacteraemia by post-treatment with OK-432 and aztreonam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine); Uchida, A. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center)

    1993-03-01

    The effects of combined treatment with OK-432, an immunomodulator prepared from Streptococcus haemolyticus, and aztreonam, a monobactum antibiotic, in the prevention of radiation-induced bacteraemia and mortality were examined in ICR-MCH mice irradiated with 9.5 Gy. The organisms recovered from the irradiated mice were Streptococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Treatment with aztreonam reduced the incidence of mice infected with Proteus mirabilis (p<0.01), but it showed no efficacy on Streptococcus faecalis. OK-432 could reduce the frequency of bacteraemia attributed to both organisms (p<0.05). Combined treatment with OK-432 and aztreonam further decreased the incidence of bacteraemia by both organisms; no organisms were recovered at 14 days following irradiation. The survival rate at 30 days following irradiation was 80% in mice treated with OK-432 plus aztreonam and 55% with OK-432 alone, while it was 0% in the groups treated with aztreonam or saline alone. These results indicated that combined treatment with OK-432 and a suitable antibiotic such as aztreonam is more effective than OK-432 or aztreonam alone. (Author).

  11. Prevention of radiation-induced bacteraemia by post-treatment with OK-432 and aztreonam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurishita, A.; Ono, T.; Uchida, A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of combined treatment with OK-432, an immunomodulator prepared from Streptococcus haemolyticus, and aztreonam, a monobactum antibiotic, in the prevention of radiation-induced bacteraemia and mortality were examined in ICR-MCH mice irradiated with 9.5 Gy. The organisms recovered from the irradiated mice were Streptococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabilis. Treatment with aztreonam reduced the incidence of mice infected with Proteus mirabilis (p<0.01), but it showed no efficacy on Streptococcus faecalis. OK-432 could reduce the frequency of bacteraemia attributed to both organisms (p<0.05). Combined treatment with OK-432 and aztreonam further decreased the incidence of bacteraemia by both organisms; no organisms were recovered at 14 days following irradiation. The survival rate at 30 days following irradiation was 80% in mice treated with OK-432 plus aztreonam and 55% with OK-432 alone, while it was 0% in the groups treated with aztreonam or saline alone. These results indicated that combined treatment with OK-432 and a suitable antibiotic such as aztreonam is more effective than OK-432 or aztreonam alone. (Author)

  12. Modern strategy of diagnostics and treatment of NSAID-induced enteropathy in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipatova Т.Е.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to improve the efficiency of diagnosis and treatment of NSAID-induced enteropathy at elderly patients with chronic pain (osteoarthritis, dorsopathy. Material and Methods. 300 elderly with osteoarthritis or dorsopathies regularly (8 weeks or more receiving diclofenac at 75 mg per day were inspected. Clinical features, morphology, components of the diffuse endocrine system of the small intestine were studied. Results. It is defined, that at elderly patients with regular use of NSAIDs in 25% of cases postbulbar erosive duodenitis, in 75% of cases inflammatory and atrophic changes of the distal duodenum were diagnosed. Diagnosis of NSAID-induced enteropathy at elderly should include faecal calprotectin and morphology analysis of postbulbar area of the duodenum. Use meloxicam and sulfasalazine at older patients helps to eliminate or reduce intestinal dyspepsia, malabsorption, and intestinal inflammation on the results of faecal calprotectin and of histology of the small intestine. Conclusion. Elderly patients are at high-risk group for NSAID-induced enteropathy due to functional disturbances in the neuroendocrine system of the small intestine.

  13. Physiological bases and treatment to the radiation-induced emetic reflex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulen Napoles, Barbara M.; Torres Babie, Priscilla; Ropero Toirac, Ramon de J.

    2002-01-01

    In the course of the specific oncologic treatment, there are frequent complications such as nausea and vomiting. The radiation-induced emetic reflex depends on various factors: primary site of radiation, administered dose, fractioning, irradiated volume, the sensory and psychic characteristics of the patient as well as the chemotherapy association. It is known that the afferent path to the so-called center of vomiting is determined by chemical mediators, protuberance receptors of the intracranial pressure and the unleashing chemoreceptor zone. In radiation-induced emesis, the exact mechanism is yet to be determined but it is known that radiation stimulates the production of chemical mediators and serotonin released by enterochromaffin cells that act upon the center of vomiting and vagal nucleus. Most of patients who are exposed to irradiation of their upper and middle hemibody as well as all the patients exposed to whole-body irradiation present with nausea and vomiting. The therapeutical anti-emetic recommendations are based on the neurochemical control of vomiting and the emetogenic effect of radiotherapy. 5HT3 receptor-antagonists are evaluated as effective agents in the control of radiation-induced emesis

  14. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents

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    Signorá Peres Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10 and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13 groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%, an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%, and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times, bradycardic responses (>4 times, and vagal (~38% and sympathetic effects (~36% were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  15. Seawater-drowning-induced acute lung injury: From molecular mechanisms to potential treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Faguang; Li, Congcong

    2017-06-01

    Drowning is a crucial public safety problem and is the third leading cause of accidental fatality, claiming ~372,000 lives annually, worldwide. In near-drowning patients, acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most common complications. Approximately 1/3 of near-drowning patients fulfill the criteria for ALI or ARDS. In the present article, the current literature of near-drowning, pathophysiologic changes and the molecular mechanisms of seawater-drowning-induced ALI and ARDS was reviewed. Seawater is three times more hyperosmolar than plasma, and following inhalation of seawater the hyperosmotic seawater may cause serious injury in the lung and alveoli. The perturbing effects of seawater may be primarily categorized into insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant, blood-air barrier disruption, formation of pulmonary edema, inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and various other hypertonic stimulation. Potential treatments for seawater-induced ALI/ARDS were also presented, in addition to suggestions for further studies. A total of nine therapeutic strategies had been tested and all had focused on modulating the over-activated immunoreactions. In conclusion, seawater drowning is a complex injury process and the exact mechanisms and potential treatments require further exploration.

  16. Locally induced hypothermia for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: A physical feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotboom, J.; Kiefer, C.; Brekenfeld, C.; Ozdoba, C.; Remonda, L.; Nedeltchev, K.; Schroth, G.; Arnold, M.; Mattle, H.

    2004-01-01

    During the treatment of stroke by local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) it is frequently possible to pass the blood clot with a micro-catheter, allowing perfusion of brain tissue distally to the occlusion. This possibility allows for new early treatments of ischaemic brain tissue, even before the blood clot has been removed. One potential new approach to preserve brain tissue at risk may be locally induced endovascular hypothermia. Physical parameters such as the required micro-catheter input pressure, output velocity and flow rates, and a heat exchange model, applicable in the case of a micro-catheter placed within a guiding catheter, are presented. Also, a simple cerebral temperature model is derived that models the temperature response of the brain to the perfusion with coolant fluids. Based on this model, an expression has been derived for the time needed to reach a certain cerebral target temperature. Experimental in vitro measurements are presented that confirm the usability of standard commercially available micro-catheters to induce local hypothermia of the brain. If applied in vivo, the model predicts a local cooling rate of ischaemic brain tissue of 300 g of approximately 1 C in 1 min, which is up to a factor 30-times faster than the time-consuming systemic hypothermia via the skin. Systemic body temperature is only minimally affected by application of local hypothermia, thus avoiding many limitations and complications known in systemic hypothermia. (orig.)

  17. Locally induced hypothermia for treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: A physical feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slotboom, J.; Kiefer, C.; Brekenfeld, C.; Ozdoba, C.; Remonda, L.; Nedeltchev, K.; Schroth, G. [Inselspital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University of Bern, Berne (Switzerland); Arnold, M.; Mattle, H. [University of Bern, Department of Neurology, Berne (Switzerland)

    2004-11-01

    During the treatment of stroke by local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) it is frequently possible to pass the blood clot with a micro-catheter, allowing perfusion of brain tissue distally to the occlusion. This possibility allows for new early treatments of ischaemic brain tissue, even before the blood clot has been removed. One potential new approach to preserve brain tissue at risk may be locally induced endovascular hypothermia. Physical parameters such as the required micro-catheter input pressure, output velocity and flow rates, and a heat exchange model, applicable in the case of a micro-catheter placed within a guiding catheter, are presented. Also, a simple cerebral temperature model is derived that models the temperature response of the brain to the perfusion with coolant fluids. Based on this model, an expression has been derived for the time needed to reach a certain cerebral target temperature. Experimental in vitro measurements are presented that confirm the usability of standard commercially available micro-catheters to induce local hypothermia of the brain. If applied in vivo, the model predicts a local cooling rate of ischaemic brain tissue of 300 g of approximately 1 C in 1 min, which is up to a factor 30-times faster than the time-consuming systemic hypothermia via the skin. Systemic body temperature is only minimally affected by application of local hypothermia, thus avoiding many limitations and complications known in systemic hypothermia. (orig.)

  18. Seawater-drowning-induced acute lung injury: From molecular mechanisms to potential treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Faguang; Li, Congcong

    2017-01-01

    Drowning is a crucial public safety problem and is the third leading cause of accidental fatality, claiming ~372,000 lives annually, worldwide. In near-drowning patients, acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most common complications. Approximately 1/3 of near-drowning patients fulfill the criteria for ALI or ARDS. In the present article, the current literature of near-drowning, pathophysiologic changes and the molecular mechanisms of seawater-drowning-induced ALI and ARDS was reviewed. Seawater is three times more hyperosmolar than plasma, and following inhalation of seawater the hyperosmotic seawater may cause serious injury in the lung and alveoli. The perturbing effects of seawater may be primarily categorized into insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant, blood-air barrier disruption, formation of pulmonary edema, inflammation, oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and various other hypertonic stimulation. Potential treatments for seawater-induced ALI/ARDS were also presented, in addition to suggestions for further studies. A total of nine therapeutic strategies had been tested and all had focused on modulating the over-activated immunoreactions. In conclusion, seawater drowning is a complex injury process and the exact mechanisms and potential treatments require further exploration. PMID:28587319

  19. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Induced Thyroid Dysfunction: A Review of Its Incidence, Pathophysiology, Clinical Relevance, and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ahmadieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI belong to a new class of molecular multitargeted anticancer therapy which targets different growth factor receptors and hence attenuates cancer cell survival and growth. Since their introduction as adjunct treatment for renal cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, a number of reports have demonstrated that TKI can induce thyroid dysfunction which was especially more common with sunitinib maleate. Many mechanisms with respect to this adverse effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been proposed including their induction of thyroiditis, capillary regression in the thyroid gland, antithyroid peroxidase antibody production, and their ability to decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid gland. Of interest is the observation that TKI-induced thyroid dysfunction may actually be protective as it was shown to improve overall survival, and it was suggested that it may have a prognostic value. Followup on thyroid function tests while patients are maintained on tyrosine kinase inhibitor is strongly recommended. When thyroid dysfunction occurs, appropriate treatment should be individualized depending on patients symptoms and thyroid stimulating hormone level.

  20. Pathophysiology of visual disorders induced by phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschos MM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marilita M Moschos, Eirini Nitoda 1st Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Aim: The aim of this review was to summarize the ocular action of the most common phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and the subsequent visual disorders.Method: This is a literature review of several important articles focusing on the pathophysiology of visual disorders induced by PDE inhibitors.Results: PDE inhibitors have been associated with ocular side effects, including changes in color vision and light perception, blurred vision, transient alterations in electroretinogram (ERG, conjunctival hyperemia, ocular pain, and photophobia. Sildenafil and tadalafil may induce reversible increase in intraocular pressure and be involved in the development of nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Reversible idiopathic serous macular detachment, central serous chorioretinopathy, and ERG disturbances have been related to the significant impact of sildenafil and tadalafil on retinal perfusion.Discussion: So far, PDE inhibitors do not seem to cause permanent toxic effects on chorioretinal tissue and photoreceptors. However, physicians should write down any visual symptom observed during PDE treatment and refer the patients to ophthalmologists. Keywords: erectile dysfunction, pathophysiological mechanisms, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, PDE5, visual disorders

  1. Effect of the treatment with Euterpe oleracea Mart. oil in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Souza, Belmira S Faria; Carvalho, Helison O; Ferreira, Irlon M; da Cunha, Edilson L; Barros, Albenise Santana; Taglialegna, Talisson; Carvalho, José C T

    2017-06-01

    Dyslipidemias are defined as changes in lipid metabolism that have abnormal concentrations of lipids or lipoproteins in the bloodstream. Chronic increase in triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) levels are known as risk factors for the atherogenesis process as well as other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The magnitude of the problems caused by dyslipidemias impels research by new agents that act in the prevention and control. Thus, products from the Amazonian biodiversity, such as Euterpe oleracea oil (OFEO), rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), constitutes a study source for the treatment of alterations in lipid metabolism. The present study aims to investigate the effect of OFEO treatment in rats with Triton-induced dyslipidemia (Tyloxapol WR1339). The physicochemical and chromatographic results confirmed the chemical composition of OFEO with a predominance of UFAs (67.83%), with Oleic acid being the majority (54.32%). At Triton-induced dyslipidemia, the animals treated with OFEO and Simvastatin showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels, with values ​​of 121.7±29.5 (pdyslipidemia, acting as antihypercholesterolemic and antihypertriglyceridemic, thus possibly contributing as a preventive agent for CVDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Arsenite Intoxication-Induced Peripheral Vasculopathy with Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hung Chiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite (As, a notorious toxic metal, is ubiquitously distributed in the earth and poses a serious threat to human health. Histopathological lesions of As intoxication are known as thromboangiitis obliterans, which are resistant to current treatment and often lead to lower limb amputation. In this study, we attempt to find that treatment with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs may be effective for As-induced vasculopathy. We first conducted an in vitro study with a co-culture system containing human MSCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and treated individual and co-cultured cells with various concentrations of arsenite. We also designed an in vivo study in which Sprague Dawley (SD rats received periodic intraperitoneal (IP injections of 16 ppm arsenite for 12 weeks. MSCs were harvested from BALB/c mice that were transplanted via tail vein injection. We found that there was significantly higher cellular viability in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs than in HUVECs under concentrations of arsenite between 15 and 25 μM. The Annexin V apoptosis assay further confirmed this finding. Cytokine array assay for As-conditioned media revealed an elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level secreted by MSCs, which is crucial for HUVEC survival and was evaluated by an siRNA VEGF knockdown test. In the in vivo study, we demonstrated early apoptotic changes in the anterior tibial vessels of As-injected SD rats with a Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay, but these apoptotic changes were less frequently observed upon MSCs transplantation, indicating that the cytoprotective effect of MSCs successfully protected against As-induced peripheral vasculopathy. The feasibility of MSCs to treat and /or prevent the progression of As-induced vasculopathy is justified. Further clinical studies are required to demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of MSCs in patients suffering from As intoxication with

  3. Lycopene Usage as a Treatment for Kidney Dysfunctions Induced by Adriamycin in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekawy, H.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Adriamycin is chemically synthesized antibiotic anthracycline and due to the successful action of it as a chemotherapy agent, several strategies have been tried to prevent or attenuate the side effects of adriamycin. Lycopene, a carotenoid naturally occurring in tomatoes, has attracted considerable attention as an antioxidant. Rats were divided into 4 groups; control group, ravaged and injected with vehicles, lycopene group, received lycopene (5 mg/kg body weight/day by gavages) and injected intra peritoneum (ip) with 0.5 ml of vehicle for 7 weeks. Adriamycin group injected with adriamycin (4 doses of ip 4 mg/kg body weight at 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks) or adriamycin and lycopene group received both lycopen and adriamycin dosage. In adriamycin groups, plasma creatinine, urea and malondialdeyde (MDA) levels were increased significantly, total proteins level was decreased and serum nitric oxide (NO) level was increased significantly. Moreover, blood level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) were reduced significantly. Furthermore, renal MDA and NO concentrations were increased significantly and levels of GSH, SOD, CAT and GSHPx were reduced significantly. Protracted treatment of adriamycin-treated rats with lycopene resulted in a significant modulation in all plasma, serum, blood and renal tested parameters. These results have suggested that lycopene modulated the kidney damage induced by the adriamycin nephrotoxicant in male rats. The mechanisms of lycopene overcome against adriamycin-induced toxicity were proved to be due to inhibition of lipid per oxidation (LP) and GSH depletion. The present study demonstrated a beneficial effect of lycopene treatment against adriamycin-induced kidney disorders by reversing the oxidative stress

  4. 3-Bromopyruvate treatment induces alterations of metabolic and stress-related pathways in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasserini, Davide; Davidescu, Magdalena; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Susta, Federica; Macchioni, Lara; Petricciuolo, Maya; Castigli, Emilia; Roberti, Rita; Binaglia, Luciano; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2017-01-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour of adults. The metabolic phenotype of GBM cells is highly dependent on glycolysis; therefore, therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with glycolytic pathways are under consideration. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a potent antiglycolytic agent, with a variety of targets and possible effects on global cell metabolism. Here we analyzed the changes in protein expression on a GBM cell line (GL15 cells) caused by 3BP treatment using a global proteomic approach. Validation of differential protein expression was performed with immunoblotting and enzyme activity assays in GL15 and U251 cell lines. The results show that treatment of GL15 cells with 3BP leads to extensive changes in the expression of glycolytic enzymes and stress related proteins. Importantly, other metabolisms were also affected, including pentose phosphate pathway, aminoacid synthesis, and glucose derivatives production. 3BP elicited the activation of stress response proteins, as shown by the phosphorylation of HSPB1 at serine 82, caused by the concomitant activation of the p38 pathway. Our results show that inhibition of glycolysis in GL15 cells by 3BP influences different but interconnected pathways. Proteome analysis may help in the molecular characterization of the glioblastoma response induced by pharmacological treatment with antiglycolytic agents. Alteration of the glycolytic pathway characterizes glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most common brain tumours. Metabolic reprogramming with agents able to inhibit carbohydrate metabolism might be a viable strategy to complement the treatment of these tumours. The antiglycolytic agent 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) is able to strongly inhibit glycolysis but it may affect also other cellular pathways and its precise cellular targets are currently unknown. To understand the protein expression changes induced by 3BP, we performed a global proteomic analysis of a GBM cell line (GL15) treated with 3BP. We

  5. A stepwise protocol for the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghuai; Lv, Hanjing; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is difficult to manage. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a novel stepwise protocol for treating this condition. Methods A total of 103 consecutive patients with suspected refractory reflux-induced chronic cough failing to a standard anti-reflux therapy were treated with a stepwise therapy. Treatment commences with high-dose omeprazole and, if necessary, is escalated to subsequent sequential treatment with ranitidine and finally baclofen. The primary end-point was overall cough resolution, and the secondary end-point was cough resolution after each treatment step. Results High-dose omeprazole eliminated or improved cough in 28.1% of patients (n=29). Further stepwise of treatment with the addition of ranitide yielded a favorable response in an additional 12.6% (n=13) of patients, and subsequent escalation to baclofen provoked response in another 36.9% (n=38) of patients. Overall, this stepwise protocol was successful in 77.6% (n=80) of patients. The diurnal cough symptom score fell from 3 [1] to 1 [0] (Z=6.316, P=0.000), and the nocturnal cough symptom score decreased from 1 [1] to 0 [1] (Z=–4.511, P=0.000), with a corresponding reduction in the Gastroesophageal Reflux Diagnostic Questionnaire score from 8.6±1.7 to 6.8±0.7 (t=3.612, P=0.000). Conversely, the cough threshold C2 to capsaicin was increased from 0.49 (0.49) µmol/L to 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L (Z=–5.892, P=0.000), and the cough threshold C5 was increased from 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L to 7.8 (5.85) µmol/L (Z=–5.171, P=0.000). Conclusions Sequential stepwise anti-reflux therapy is a useful therapeutic strategy for refractory reflux-induced chronic cough. PMID:26904227

  6. Prevention of organophosphate-induced chronic epilepsy by early benzodiazepine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrot, Shai; Ramaty, Erez; Biala, Yoav; Bar-Klein, Guy; Daninos, Moshe; Kamintsky, Lyn; Makarovsky, Igor; Statlender, Liran; Rosman, Yossi; Krivoy, Amir; Lavon, Ophir; Kassirer, Michael; Friedman, Alon; Yaari, Yoel

    2014-09-02

    Poisoning with organophosphates (OPs) may induce status epilepticus (SE), leading to severe brain damage. Our objectives were to investigate whether OP-induced SE leads to the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs), the hallmark of chronic epilepsy, and if so, to assess the efficacy of benzodiazepine therapy following SE onset in preventing the epileptogenesis. We also explored early changes in hippocampal pyramidal cells excitability in this model. Adult rats were poisoned with the paraoxon (450μg/kg) and immediately treated with atropine (3mg/kg) and obidoxime (20mg/kg) to reduce acute mortality due to peripheral acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Electrical brain activity was assessed for two weeks during weeks 4-6 after poisoning using telemetric electrocorticographic intracranial recordings. All OP-poisoned animals developed SE, which could be suppressed by midazolam. Most (88%) rats which were not treated with midazolam developed SRSs, indicating that they have become chronically epileptic. Application of midazolam 1min following SE onset had a significant antiepileptogenic effect (only 11% of the rats became epileptic; p=0.001 compared to non-midazolam-treated rats). Applying midazolam 30min after SE onset did not significantly prevent chronic epilepsy. The electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal cells, assessed electrophysiologically in hippocampal slices, were not altered by OP-induced SE. Thus we show for the first time that a single episode of OP-induced SE in rats leads to the acquisition of chronic epilepsy, and that this epileptogenic outcome can be largely prevented by immediate, but not delayed, administration of midazolam. Extrapolating these results to humans would suggest that midazolam should be provided together with atropine and an oxime in the immediate pharmacological treatment of OP poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment with salvianolic acid B restores endothelial function in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Wei Chih; Liu, Jian; Lau, Chi Wai; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Huang, Yu

    2017-07-15

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is one of the most abundant phenolic acids derived from the root of Danshen with potent anti-oxidative properties. The present study examined the vasoprotective effect of Sal B in hypertensive mice induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). Sal B (25mg/kg/day) was administered via oral gavage for 11days to Ang II (1.2mg/kg/day)-infused C57BL/6J mice (8-10weeks old). The vascular reactivity (both endothelium-dependent relaxations and contractions) in mouse arteries was examined by wire myography. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein level and localization of angiotensin AT 1 receptors and the proteins involved in ROS formation were evaluated using dihydroethidium (DHE) fluorescence, lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The changes of ROS generating proteins were also assessed in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to Ang II with and without co-treatment with Sal B (0.1-10nM). Oral administration of Sal B reversed the Ang II-induced elevation of arterial systolic blood pressure in mice, augmented the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and attenuated the exaggerated endothelium-dependent contractions in both aortas and renal arteries of Ang II-infused mice. In addition, Sal B treatment normalized the elevated levels of AT 1 receptors, NADPH oxidase subunits (NOx-2 and NOx-4) and nitrotyrosine in arteries of Ang II-infused mice or in Ang II-treated HUVECs. In summary, the present study provided additional evidence demonstrating that Sal B treatment for 11days reverses the impaired endothelial function and with a marked inhibition of AT 1 receptor-dependent vascular oxidative stress. This vasoprotective and anti-oxidative action of Sal B most likely contributes to the anti-hypertensive action of the plant-derived compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Menses resumption after cancer treatment-induced amenorrhea occurs early or not at all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Melanie H; Mertens, Ann C; Spencer, Jessica B; Manatunga, Amita K; Howards, Penelope P

    2016-03-01

    To identify factors associated with cancer treatment-induced amenorrhea and time to return of menses. Population-based cohort study. Not applicable. Female cancer survivors who were diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 20 and 35 and were at least 2 years postdiagnosis at the time of recruitment (median = 7 years; interquartile range, 5-11). None. Amenorrhea (≥6 months without menses) and resumption of menses. After excluding women with hysterectomies before cancer diagnosis, 1,043 women were eligible for analysis. Amenorrhea occurred in 31.6% of women. Among women treated with chemotherapy (n = 596), older age at diagnosis (30-35 vs. 20-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30, 4.30) and nulligravidity (vs. gravid: aOR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02, 2.21) were risk factors for amenorrhea. Among amenorrheic women, menses resumed in most (70.0%), and resumption occurred within 2 years of treatment for 90.0% of women. Survivors of breast cancer were more likely to resume menses at times greater than 1 year compared with lymphoma and pelvic-area cancers. Women diagnosed at older ages, those exposed to chemotherapy, and those exposed to any radiation experienced longer times to return of menses. Women who were older at diagnosis were more likely to have irregular cycles when menses returned. Treatment-induced amenorrhea is common in cancer survivors, although most women resume menses within 2 years. However, once resumed, older women are more likely to have irregular cycles. Age at diagnosis and pregnancy history affect the risk of amenorrhea. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Surgical treatment of tumor-induced osteomalacia: a retrospective review of 40 cases with extremity tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-jian; Jin, Jin; Qiu, Gui-xing; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yong

    2015-02-26

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare syndrome typically caused by mesenchymal tumors. It has been shown that complete tumor resection may be curative. However, to our knowledge, there has been no report of a large cohort to exam different surgical approaches. This study was aimed to assess outcomes of different surgical options of patients with tumor-induced osteomalacia at a single institution. Patients with extremity tumors treated in our hospital from January, 2004 to July, 2012 were identified. The minimum follow-up period was 12 months. Patient's demography, tumor location, preoperative preparation, type of surgeries were summarized, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Successful treatment was defined as significant symptom improvement, normal serum phosphorus and significant improvement or normalization of bone mineral density at the last follow-up. Differences between patients with soft tissue tumors and bone tumors were compared. There were 40 (24 male and 16 female) patients identified, with an average age of 44 years. The tumors were isolated in either soft tissue (25 patients) or bone (12 patients) and combined soft tissue and bone invasion was observed in 3 patients. For the primary surgery, tumor resection and tumor curettage were performed. After initial surgical treatment, six patients then received a second surgery. Four patients were found to have malignant tumors base on histopathology. With a minimum follow-up period of 12 months, 80% of patients (32/40) were treated successfully, including 50% of patients (2/4) with malignant tumors. Compared to patients with bone tumor, surgical results were better in patient with soft tissue tumor. Surgical treatment was an effective way for TIO. Other than tumor curettage surgery, tumor resection is the preferred options for these tumors.

  10. Treatment-Induced Neuroplasticity Following Intensive Speech Therapy and a Home Practice Program in Fifteen Cases of Chronic Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquie Kurland

    2015-04-01

    •\tActivity in R posSTG decreased over time for CORR pictures while increasing over time for TR/PR pictures Discussion Short-term intensive treatment followed by a home practice program can produce enduring language improvements that provide rich opportunities for investigating treatment-induced neuroplasticity in aphasia. Given the high degree of individual variability in lesion location/extent, and the resulting variability in aphasia type/severity, it makes sense to examine treatment-induced changes in neural activity patterns within subjects where ‘signature’ patterns of activity are remarkably reliable across time.

  11. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them.

  12. Chemotherapy and Radiofrequency-Induced Mild Hyperthermia Combined Treatment of Orthotopic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Agha, Mahdi S; Ho, Jason Chak-Shing; Ware, Matthew J; Law, Justin J; Newton, Jared M; Nguyen, Lam; Curley, Steven A; Corr, Stuart J

    2018-04-02

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) have one of the poorest survival rates of all cancers. The main reason for this is related to the unique tumor stroma and poor vascularization of PDAC. As a consequence, chemotherapeutic drugs, such as nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, cannot efficiently penetrate into the tumor tissue. Non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) mild hyperthermia treatment was proposed as a synergistic therapy to enhance drug uptake into the tumor by increasing tumor vascular inflow and perfusion, thus, increasing the effect of chemotherapy. RF-induced hyperthermia is a safer and non-invasive technique of tumor heating compared to conventional contact heating procedures. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term effects (~20 days and 65 days, respectively) of combination chemotherapy and RF hyperthermia in an orthotopic PDAC model in mice. The benefit of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine treatment was confirmed in mice; however, the effect of treatment was statistically insignificant in comparison to saline treated mice during long-term observation. The benefit of RF was minimal in the short-term and completely insignificant during long-term observation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Non-human primate FOG develops with advanced parkinsonism induced by MPTP Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Gonzalo J; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Wahlquist, Amy E; Factor, Stewart A; Papa, Stella M

    2012-10-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is a debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other forms of parkinsonism. The anatomical or pathophysiological correlates are poorly understood largely due to the lack of a well-established animal model. Here we studied whether FOG is reproduced in the non-human primate (NHP) model of PD. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys (Genus Macaca, n=29) were examined for the development of FOG, and the leg movements were recorded with accelerometry. The relationships between developing FOG and the animals' characteristics, the MPTP treatments, and the modeled outcomes were determined. In parkinsonian monkeys FOG developed frequently (48%) manifesting similar characteristics to those seen in PD patients. In addition, FOG episodes in the monkey were accompanied by leg trembling with the typical duration (2-10s) and frequency (~7 Hz). The development of NHP FOG was significantly associated with the severity of parkinsonism, as shown by high motor disability scores (≥ 20) and levodopa-induced dyskinesia scores (p=0.01 and p=0.04, respectively). Differences in demographics and MPTP treatments (doses, treatment duration, etc.) had no influence on NHP FOG occurrence, with the exception of gender that showed FOG predominance in males (p=0.03). The unique features of FOG in PD can be replicated in severely parkinsonian macaques, and this represents the first description of a FOG animal model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Endovascular treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms in rabbits using stents: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hans, F.J.; Thiex, R.; Gilsbach, J.M.; Krings, T.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Dreeskamp, H.; Stein, K.P.; Meetz, A.; Thron, A.; Pfeffer, J.; Scherer, K.; Brunn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Although Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) systems have been generally accepted for treatment of intracranial aneurysms, primary stenting of aneurysms using porous stents or implantation of coils after stent placement remains experimental. Testing of these new methods requires an animal model which imitates human aneurysms in size, configuration and neck morphology. We assessed in detail the technical requirements of and steps for transfemoral stent treatment of experimentally induced aneurysms at the top of the brachiocephalic trunk in rabbits. We created aneurysms in ten rabbits by distal ligation and intraluminal digestion of the right common carotid artery with elastase. We treated five animals with porous stents alone, and five with stents plus coiling via the meshes of the stent, which permitted dense packing of coils. No complications related to the procedures occurred. In all animals, even in those treated solely with porous stents, total occlusion of the aneurysm was achieved. Our animal model can be suitable for testing the biocompatibility and occlusion rate of new methods and devices for the treatment of experimental aneurysms. (orig.)

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with nonacid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghuai Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal reflux (GER is one of the most common causes of chronic cough, and chronic cough due to GER represents a subtype of GER-related diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC can be divided into two subgroups based on the pH of the GER. Nonacid GERC is less common than acid GERC, and its diagnosis and treatment strategy have not been standardized. However, nonacid GERC usually presents with its unique set of characteristics and features upon diagnosis and treatment in the clinic. Although the underlying molecular mechanism of nonacid GERC is not fully understood, it is considered to be associated with reflux theory, reflex theory and airway hypersensitivity. Multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring is a promising new technique that can detect both acid and nonacid reflux, and our findings as well as those of others have shown its usefulness in diagnosing nonacid GERC. Development of new diagnostic techniques has led to an increased rate of nonacid GERC diagnosis. We summarize our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of nonacid GERC and provide a guide for future therapeutic approaches.

  16. The dietary fiber profile of fruit peels and functionality modifications induced by high hydrostatic pressure treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Ortigoza, Viridiana; García-Amezquita, Luis Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O; Welti-Chanes, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and temperature on composition of non-conventional dietary fiber (DF) sources and functional properties were evaluated. Mango, orange, or prickly pear peels were processed at 600 MPa during 10 min at 22 ℃ and 55 ℃. Total (TDF), soluble (SDF), and insoluble (IDF) dietary fiber, water/oil holding, and retention capacity, solubility, swelling capacity, and bulk density were assayed. An increment in the SDF content was observed due to the effect of pressure with the greatest changes noticed in mango peel, increasing from 37.4% (control) to 45.7% (SDF/TDF) in the HHP-treated (55 ℃) sample. Constant values of TDF after the treatments suggest a conversion of IDF to SDF in mango (38.9%-40.5% dw) and orange (49.0%-50.8% dw) peels. The highest fiber solubility values were observed for mango peel ranging between 80.3% and 83.9%, but the highest increase, from 55.1% to 62.3%, due to treatment was displayed in orange peel processed at 22 ℃. A relationship between DF modifications induced by HHP treatment and changes in the functional properties of the materials was established. Application of HHP opens up the opportunity to modify non-conventional sources of DF and to obtain novel functional properties for different food applications.

  17. Prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in International and Italian scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Delle Sedie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis (OP and increased risk of fracture (Fx associated with chronic glucocorticoid treatment pushed panels of experts and scientific societies to produce recommendations for both prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced OP (GIO. Recently the American College of Rheumatology developed and/or endorsed their updated guidelines and recommendations for the prevention and treatment of GIO. In these recommendations the use of FRAX tool, for the 10-year probability of a major osteoporotic Fx, was integrated with other clinical risk factors to define low-, medium-, and high-risk patients. Updated approaches are delineated for post-menopausal women and men >50 years, pre-menopausal women not of childbearing potential, men 50 years, receiving >5 mg/day prednisone equivalent for >3 months; more recently teriparatide has also been included, only for those patients presenting ≥1 prevalent fragility Fx and receiving >5 mg/day prednisone equivalent for >12 months. Also zoledronic acid has been approved by Italian Agency of the Drug (AIFA, 30/08/10 for “… post-menopausal women and men chronically treated with GC ad high risk of Fx”, but the drug is dispensed exclusively at the hospital.

  18. Significant clinical improvement in radiation-induced lumbosacral poly-radiculopathy by a treatment combining pentoxifylline, tocopherol, and clodronate (Pentoclo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanian, S. [Hop St Louis, Serv Oncol Radiotherapie, APHP, F-75010 Paris, (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA-LARIA, CIRIL-GANIL, Caen, (France); Maisonobe, T. [Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Federat Neurophysiol Clin, APHP, Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced (RI) peripheral neuropathy is a rare and severe delayed complication of radiotherapy that is spontaneously irreversible, with no standard of treatment. We previously developed a successful antioxidant treatment in RI fibrosis and necrosis. Two patients with progressive worsening RI lumbosacral poly-radiculopathy experienced over several years a significant clinical improvement in their neurological sensorimotor symptoms with long-term pentoxifylline-tocopherol-clodronate treatment, and good safety. (authors)

  19. Modification of radiation induced genetic damage and impaired DNA synthesis by thiourea treatment in Solanum incanum L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Girish

    1991-01-01

    Modification of induced genetic damage after exposure to LD 50 and LD 90 doses of 60 Co gamma-irradiation on dormant seeds of Solanum incanum L. by pre- and post-treatments of thiourea was investigated. Thiourea pre-treatment reduced cellular lesions, growth injury and the death of seedlings, while post-treatment increased lethality. Incorporation of 3 H-tymidine into DNA fraction gradually increased with 10 -4 to 10 -2 M thiourea treatment when applied before irradiation. Post-treatment of the thiourea, on the other hand, not only showed poor labelling of DNA but also delayed its synthesis. (author)

  20. Radio-induced fibrosis of skin: contribution to its development and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine

    1999-01-01

    Fibrosis of skin is frequently observed after therapeutic and accidental irradiations, and is characterized by the appearance of activated fibroblasts called myo-fibroblasts and the accumulation of extracellular matrix compounds. We postulated that radiation fibrosis could be considered as a chronic scar, where constant production of activating signals are emitted, whereas no negative feed back regulation occur. However, recent studies demonstrated that radiation-induced fibrosis could be treated using therapeutic agents like the superoxide dismutase. In order to better understand the mechanisms leading to skin fibrosis, we studied both the early reactions and the late fibrotic tissue induced by high radiation doses in normal skin. In particular, we investigated in the role of growth factors in these reactions. The synthesis of TGF-β1 was found to be increased, both the epidermis and the dermis, immediately after irradiation. This overexpression sustained during the development and the persistence phases of fibrosis, suggesting that the immediate cellular response induce a cascade of activation for genes and proteins which will result in the late effect of radiation in skin. Furthermore, these observations showed that the TGF-β1 could be a target for anti-fibrotic treatment. In order to test this hypothesis and to investigate further in the mechanisms leading to fibrosis regression after SOD treatment, we develop normal and fibrosis-like reconstructed skin models. These reconstructed skins were treated with liposomal and carrier-free Cu/Zn SOD, and examined for their effects on cell number, apoptosis and phenotypic differentiation. The results showed that SOD did not induce myo-fibroblast cell death or apoptosis whereas it significantly reduced TGF-β1 expression, thus demonstrating that SOD might be considered as a potent antagonist of the major fibro-genic growth factor. We also found that SOD significantly lowered the levels of the myo-fibroblast marker

  1. Treatment with a JNK inhibitor increases, whereas treatment with a p38 inhibitor decreases, H2O2-induced calf pulmonary arterial endothelial cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woo Hyun

    2017-08-01

    Oxidative stress induces apoptosis in endothelial cells (ECs). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) promote cell death by regulating the activity of various mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ECs. The present study investigated the effects of MAPK inhibitors on cell survival and glutathione (GSH) levels upon H 2 O 2 treatment in calf pulmonary artery ECs (CPAECs). H 2 O 2 treatment inhibited the growth and induced the death of CPAECs, as well as causing GSH depletion and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). While treatment with the MEK or JNK inhibitor impaired the growth of H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs, treatment with the p38 inhibitor attenuated this inhibition of growth. Additionally, JNK inhibitor treatment increased the proportion of sub-G 1 phase cells in H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs and further decreased the MMP. However, treatment with a p38 inhibitor reversed the effects of H 2 O 2 treatment on cell growth and the MMP. Similarly, JNK inhibitor treatment further increased, whereas p38 inhibitor treatment decreased, the proportion of GSH-depleted cells in H 2 O 2 -treated CPAECs. Each of the MAPK inhibitors affected cell survival, and ROS or GSH levels differently in H 2 O 2 -untreated, control CPAECs. The data suggest that the exposure of CPAECs to H 2 O 2 caused the cell growth inhibition and cell death through GSH depletion. Furthermore, JNK inhibitor treatment further enhanced, whereas p38 inhibitors attenuated, these effects. Thus, the results of the present study suggest a specific protective role for the p38 inhibitor, and not the JNK inhibitor, against H 2 O 2 -induced cell growth inhibition and cell death.

  2. Symbiosis-induced adaptation to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, Sophie; Furla, Paola; Plantivaux, Amandine; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Cnidarians in symbiosis with photosynthetic protists must withstand daily hyperoxic/anoxic transitions within their host cells. Comparative studies between symbiotic (Anemonia viridis) and non-symbiotic (Actinia schmidti) sea anemones show striking differences in their response to oxidative stress. First, the basal expression of SOD is very different. Symbiotic animal cells have a higher isoform diversity (number and classes) and a higher activity than the non-symbiotic cells. Second, the symbiotic animal cells of A. viridis also maintain unaltered basal values for cellular damage when exposed to experimental hyperoxia (100% O(2)) or to experimental thermal stress (elevated temperature +7 degrees C above ambient). Under such conditions, A. schmidti modifies its SOD activity significantly. Electrophoretic patterns diversify, global activities diminish and cell damage biomarkers increase. These data suggest symbiotic cells adapt to stress while non-symbiotic cells remain acutely sensitive. In addition to being toxic, high O(2) partial pressure (P(O(2))) may also constitute a preconditioning step for symbiotic animal cells, leading to an adaptation to the hyperoxic condition and, thus, to oxidative stress. Furthermore, in aposymbiotic animal cells of A. viridis, repression of some animal SOD isoforms is observed. Meanwhile, in cultured symbionts, new activity bands are induced, suggesting that the host might protect its zooxanthellae in hospite. Similar results have been observed in other symbiotic organisms, such as the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Molecular or physical interactions between the two symbiotic partners may explain such variations in SOD activity and might confer oxidative stress tolerance to the animal host.

  3. Non-Invasive Radiofrequency-Induced Targeted Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Raoof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted biological therapies for hepatocellular cancer have shown minimal improvements in median survival. Multiple pathways to oncogenesis leading to rapid development of resistance to such therapies is a concern. Non-invasive radiofrequency field-induced targeted hyperthermia using nanoparticles is a radical departure from conventional modalities. In this paper we underscore the need for innovative strategies for the treatment of hepatocellular cancer, describe the central paradigm of targeted hyperthermia using non-invasive electromagnetic energy, review the process of characterization and modification of nanoparticles for the task, and summarize data from cell-based and animal-based models of hepatocellular cancer treated with non-invasive RF energy. Finally, future strategies and challenges in bringing this modality from bench to clinic are discussed.

  4. Surface mechanical attrition treatment induced phase transformation behavior in NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.; Wen, C.S.; Lu, J.; Wu, S.L.; Xin, Y.C.; Zhang, W.J.; Chu, C.L.; Chung, J.C.Y.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The phase constituents and transformation behavior of the martensite B19' NiTi shape memory alloy after undergoing surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) are investigated. SMAT is found to induce the formation of a parent B2 phase from the martensite B19' in the top surface layer. By removing the surface layer-by-layer, X-ray diffraction reveals that the amount of the B2 phase decreases with depth. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) further indicates that the deformed martensite in the sub-surface layer up to 300 μm deep exhibits the martensite stabilization effect. The graded phase structure and transformation behavior in the SMATed NiTi specimen can be attributed to the gradient change in strain with depth.

  5. Rivastigmine treatment for the prevention of electroconvulsive therapy-induced memory deficits in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjer, Rafael; Ophir, Dana; Bar, Faina; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Strous, Rael D

    2012-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective strategy in some treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia. However, ECT is associated with cognitive adverse effects, most notably, memory loss. This study examined the effects of rivastigmine, a selective central nervous system acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, with benefits on cognition in Alzheimer disease, on memory performance in patients with schizophrenia treated with ECT. Thirty inpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision schizophrenia treated with ECT were coadministered rivastigmine (3-4.5 mg/d) or placebo in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (maximum period of 4 weeks). Over the ECT course, scores on the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment in subjects receiving placebo showed no significant change, whereas subjects receiving rivastigmine displayed decreased cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment scores, indicating cognitive improvement (P ECT and indicate possible beneficial effects of rivastigmine coadministration in minimizing some of these ECT-induced cognitive impairments.

  6. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    the hyperplastic growth phase of the prostate in newborn rats.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Newborn rats were treated for 8 weeks with EGF (150 microg/kg body weight per day), administered as daily subcutaneous injections. Sections of the prostate tissue were examined by a stereological technique to determine tissue......OBJECTIVE: The epidermal growth factor (EGF) system is expressed in the rat prostate, and growth factors from this system induce proliferation in prostate epithelial and stromal cell cultures. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible growth-promoting effects of the system during...... of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p

  7. Nucleoli in large (giant bi- and multinucleate cells after apoptosis-inducing photodynamic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Smetana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study was undertaken to provide information on nucleolar changes accompanying the apoptotic process in large or giant binucleate and multinucleate cells (LBMNCs. Such cells were present in a small but constant percentage in cultures of HL-60 cells. The apoptotic process was induced by photodynamic treatment (PDT by means of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA as the precursor of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX and irradiation with broad spectrum blue light (BL. Nucleolar changes in LBMNCs were characterized by marked reduction or disappearance of silver stained particles representing AgNORs in nucleoli including the large ones. In addition, PDT also significantly reduced the number of nucleoli regardless of their size. These changes apparently reflected the decrease or cessation of nucleolar biosynthetic activities and resembled those which were previously observed in naturally maturing bone marrow megakaryocytes (Janoutová et al., 2001.

  8. Successful Treatment of Antiepileptic Drug-Induced DRESS Syndrome with Pulse Methylprednisolone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celebi Kocaoglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening syndrome characterized by skin rash, fever, lymph node enlargement, and involvement of internal organs. It is most commonly induced by aromatic anticonvulsants and antibiotics. Nonaromatic anticonvulsants are rarely encountered as the causes of DRESS syndrome. In the present report, three discrete cases with DRESS syndrome developing due to three antiepileptic drugs, including valproic acid (nonaromatic, carbamazepine (aromatic, and lamotrigine (aromatic, and their treatment modalities were aimed to be discussed in light of the literature. To the best of our knowledge, our cases are the first children to be treated with pulse methylprednisolone in the literature.

  9. Assessment of Respiration-Induced Motion and Its Impact on Treatment Outcome for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the analysis of free-breathing lung tumor motion characteristics using GE 4DCT and Varian RPM systems. Tumor respiratory movement was found to be associated with GTV size, the superior-inferior tumor location in the lung, and the attachment degree to rigid structure (e.g., chest wall, vertebrae, or mediastinum, with tumor location being the most important factor among the other two. Improved outcomes in survival and local control of 43 lung cancer patients were also reported. Consideration of respiration-induced motion based on 4DCT for lung cancer yields individualized margin and more accurate and safe target coverage and thus can potentially improve treatment outcome.

  10. [Experience of treatment of patients with gastropathy induced by non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhrushev, Ia M; Loshchakova, O Iu

    2007-01-01

    A complex study of 147 patients who were taking non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) revealed gastric lesions in 120 patients (81.6%). H2 blocker (ranitidine) was used for treating 40 patients with NSAID-induced gastropathy, proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) was used for 40 patients, and Gastrozepin combined with Misoprostol--for 40 patients. Pain syndrome and dyspepsia were eliminated in most of the patients as a result of the treatment. Using Gastrozepin and Misoprostol produced an active effect on the trophic processes in the gastric mucous coat and caused erosion and ulcer healing. As compared to ranitidine and omeprazole, Gastrozepin used in combination with Cytotec produces a lower effect on the reduction of the acid-producing stomach function, yet it has a considerably greater effect on the normalization of the gastric mucus structure and restoration of metabolism of the gastric mucous coat collagen.

  11. Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia during treatment of Fournier gangrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Timothy Lee; Thangasamy, Isaac A; Reynolds, Jamie

    2014-10-14

    We present a case of bilateral adrenal haemorrhage (BAH) associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in a 61-year-old man admitted to hospital for the treatment of Fournier's gangrene. He presented to hospital with scrotal swelling and fever, and developed spreading erythaema and a gangrenous scrotum. His scrotum was surgically debrided and intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Unfractionated heparin was given postoperatively for venous thromboembolism prophylaxis. The patient deteriorated clinically 8-11 days postoperatively with delirium, chest pain and severe hypertension followed by hypotension and thrombocytopaenia. Abdominal CT scan revealed bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. Antibodies to the heparin-platelet factor 4 complex were present. HIT-associated BAH was diagnosed and heparin was discontinued. Intravenous bivalirudin and hydrocortisone were started, with rapid improvement in clinical status. BAH is a rare complication of HIT and should be considered in the postoperative patient with unexplained clinical deterioration. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Laser-Induced Focused Ultrasound for Cavitation Treatment: Toward High-Precision Invisible Sonic Scalpel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taehwa; Luo, Wei; Li, Qiaochu; Demirci, Hakan; Guo, L Jay

    2017-10-01

    Beyond the implementation of the photoacoustic effect to photoacoustic imaging and laser ultrasonics, this study demonstrates a novel application of the photoacoustic effect for high-precision cavitation treatment of tissue using laser-induced focused ultrasound. The focused ultrasound is generated by pulsed optical excitation of an efficient photoacoustic film coated on a concave surface, and its amplitude is high enough to produce controllable microcavitation within the focal region (lateral focus <100 µm). Such microcavitation is used to cut or ablate soft tissue in a highly precise manner. This work demonstrates precise cutting of tissue-mimicking gels as well as accurate ablation of gels and animal eye tissues. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Vacuum treatment of CR-39 for the reduction of background in neutron induced autoradiography of boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C.; Dietze, K.; Hunyadi, I.; Csige, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of etching time and vacuum processing before, during, and after neutron irradiation on the ''signal/noise'' ratio of the neutron induced autoradiography of boron using CR-39 track detectors has been investigated. The neutron irradiation was carried out in a vacuum chamber using the Cf-252 neutron source of the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research at Leipzig. Hungarian-made CR-39 type track detectors, MA-ND/p and MA-ND/α, produced in different years, are compared. After a few hours of 2 kPa (about 10 -2 Torr) vacuum treatment, the ''signal/noise'' ratio for boron determination is improved remarkably in most cases of the detector and etching-time combinations used. (author)

  14. Vacuum treatment of CR-39 for the reduction of background in neutron induced autoradiography of boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C.; Dietze, K. (Central Inst. of Isotope and Radiation Research, Leipzig (Germany, F.R.)); Hunyadi, I.; Csige, I.; Somogyi, G. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1991-01-01

    The influence of etching time and vacuum processing before, during, and after neutron irradiation on the ''signal/noise'' ratio of the neutron induced autoradiography of boron using CR-39 track detectors has been investigated. The neutron irradiation was carried out in a vacuum chamber using the Cf-252 neutron source of the Central Institute of Isotope and Radiation Research at Leipzig. Hungarian-made CR-39 type track detectors, MA-ND/p and MA-ND/{alpha}, produced in different years, are compared. After a few hours of 2 kPa (about 10{sup -2} Torr) vacuum treatment, the ''signal/noise'' ratio for boron determination is improved remarkably in most cases of the detector and etching-time combinations used. (author).

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cells for the treatment of stroke: the potential and the pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fenggang; Li, Yingying; Morshead, Cindi M

    2013-09-01

    The extraordinary discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has led to the very real possibility that patient-specific cell therapy can be realized. The potential to develop cell replacement therapies outside the ethical and legal limitations, has initiated a new era of hope for regenerative strategies to treat human neurological disease including stroke. In this article, we will review and compare the current approaches to derive iPSCs from different somatic cells, and the induction into neuronal phenotypes, considering the advantages and disadvantages to the methodologies of derivation. We will highlight the work relating to the use of iPSC-based therapies in models of stroke and their potential use in clinical trials. Finally, we will consider future directions and areas of exploration which may promote the realization of iPSC-based cell replacement strategies for the treatment of stroke.

  16. Partial protection from organophosphate-induced cholinesterase inhibition by metyrapone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Świercz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphates are cholinesterase (ChE inhibitors with worldwide use as insecticides. Stress response, evidenced by a dramatic and relatively long-lasting (several hours rise in the plasma glucocorticoid concentration is an integral element of the organophosphate (OP poisoning symptomatology. In rodents, corticosterone (CORT is the main glucocorticoid. There are several reports suggesting a relationship between the stressor-induced rise in CORT concentraion (the CORT response and the activity of the cerebral and peripheral ChE. Thus, it seems reasonable to presume that, in OP intoxication, the rise in plasma CORT concentration may somehow affect the magnitude of the OP-induced ChE inhibition. Metyrapone (MET [2-methyl-1,2-di(pyridin-3-ylpropan-1-one] blocks CORT synthesis by inhibiting steoid 11β-hydroxylase, thereby preventing the CORT response. Chlorfenvinphos (CVP [2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl ethenyl diethyl phosphate] is an organophosphate insecticide still in use in some countries. Material and Methods: The purose of the present work was to compare the CVP-induced effects - the rise of the plasma CORT concentration and the reduction in ChE activity - in MET-treated and MET-untreated rats. Chlorfenvinphos was administered once at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg i.p. Metyrapone, at 100 mg/kg i.p., was administered five times, at 24-h intervals. The first MET dose was given two hours before CVP. Conclusion: The following was observed in the MET-treated rats: i no rise in plasma CORT concentration after the CVP administration, ii a reduced inhibition and a faster restitution of blood and brain ChE activities. The results suggest that MET treatment may confer significant protection against at least some effects of OP poisoning. The likely mechanism of the protective MET action has been discussed.

  17. Forced swimming-induced oxytocin release into blood and brain: Effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Luz; Plotsky, Paul M; Neumann, Inga D; de Jong, Trynke R

    2017-03-01

    The oxytocin (OXT) system is functionally linked to the HPA axis in a reciprocal and complex manner. Certain stressors are known to cause the simultaneous release of OXT and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) followed by corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, brain OXT attenuates ACTH and CORT responses. Although there are some indications of CORT influencing OXT neurotransmission, specific effects of CORT on neurohypophyseal or intra-hypothalamic release of OXT have not been studied in detail. In the present set of experiments, adult male rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated and fitted with a jugular vein catheter and/or microdialysis probe targeting the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Blood samples and dialysates were collected before and after forced swimming (FS) and analyzed for CORT, ACTH and AVP concentrations (in plasma) and OXT concentrations (in plasma and dialysates). Experimental treatments included acute infusion of CORT (70 or 175μg/kg i.v.) 5min prior to FS, or subcutaneous placement of 40% CORT pellets resulting in stable CORT levels in the normal basal range. Although ADX did not alter basal OXT concentrations either in plasma or in microdialysates from the PVN, it did cause an exaggerated peripheral secretion of OXT and a blunted intra-PVN release of OXT in response to FS. CORT pellets did not influence either of these ADX-induced effects, while acute infusion of 175μg/kg CORT rescued the stress-induced rise in OXT release within the PVN and modestly increased peripheral OXT secretion. In conclusion, these results indicate that CORT regulates both peripheral and intracerebral OXT release, but in an independent manner. Whereas the peripheral secretion of OXT occurs simultaneously to HPA axis activation in response to FS and is modestly influenced by CORT, HPA axis activation and circulating CORT strongly contribute to the stress-induced stimulation of OXT release within the PVN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Minithyrotomy with radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Shaun C; Park, Andrea M; Chernock, Rebecca D; Paniello, Randal C

    2016-10-01

    A simple, safe and effective surgical alternative for treating adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) would appeal to many patients. This study evaluates a new option, using radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (RFITT) of the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA) via the minithyrotomy approach to reduce the force of adduction. Fifteen dogs were used. In part 1, the optimal RFITT power settings, exposure time, probe location, and number of passes were determined. Part 2 compared laryngeal adductor pressures (LAPs) at baseline; immediately postintervention; and at 1, 3, or 6 months postintervention. Interventions included RFITT via the transcervical minithyrotomy approach (n = 15), transoral RFITT (n = 3), botulinum toxin (Botox) injection (n = 3), or no-intervention controls (n = 3). Postintervention induced phonation and histologic analyses were performed as well. In the minithyrotomy RFITT group, the mean LAP was 30.3% of baseline immediately posttreatment. At 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively, the mean LAPs were 24.9%, 44.8%, and 43.5%, respectively. Transoral RFITT reduced LAP to 56.6% of baseline immediately posttreatment, but returned to normal in the 1 and 3 month animals. The Botox injections dropped the LAP to 57% of baseline at 1 month, but returned to normal at 3 months. Mucosal waves, based on induced phonation stroboscopy, were present at the terminal date in all animals. Thirteen of 15 transcervical RFITT preparations (87%) showed no injury to the lamina propria, whereas 80% showed evidence of TA muscle atrophy and fibrosis. Minithyrotomy RFITT is a feasible technique that shows encouraging long-term results for the potential treatment of patients with ADSD. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:2325-2329, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Angioplasty and stent placement in the treatment of radiation-induced arterial injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pengcheng; Pierre, P.; Philippe, O.; Danial, C.; Jean-Paul, B.; Cyril, B.; Jean-Pierre, C.; Denis, K.; Helve, R.; Francis, J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and longterm patency of angioplasty and stent for the treatment of radiation induced arterial disease. Methods: PTA was attempted in 18 arterial lesions following irradiation in 14 patients. Thirteen stents were placed in 8 patients to treat occlusion (n = 3), aneurysm (n = 1), residual stenosis (n =2), multiple stenoses (n = 1), and delayed restenosis after previous balloon angioplasty (n = 1). The stents were readily visualized and patency of the stent and the target artery determined with Doppler US and (or) CT in all patients. Results: Interventional procedure was successful in 14 patients of which 8 underwent stent placement for their arterial lesions. Eleven of these patients demonstrated primary patency with relief of clinical symptoms with a mean follow-up of 2 years (range, 8 months -60 months). Clinical improvement was noted for the other patients. Eleven patients underwent PTA once or twice. One patient had PTA four times and three stents were installed, two of which were in the area of the aortic bifurcation, and one in the celiac trunk. another patient also had PTA four times and two stents were placed in the superior mesenteric artery. A stent was implanted in one patient because of PTA induced dissection and occlusion, and the arterial lesion was considered to be cured clinically after a follow-up of 5 years. Conclusions: The results suggested that PTA with single or multiple techniques may be effective immediately in the treatment of arterial lesions caused by radiation and can be considered the first therapeutic option in these cases

  20. Periostin-Binding DNA Aptamer Treatment Ameliorates Peritoneal Dialysis-Induced Peritoneal Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Young Nam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal fibrosis is a major complication in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients, which leads to dialysis discontinuation. Periostin, increased by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 stimulation, induces the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes. Aberrant periostin expression has been demonstrated to be associated with PD-related peritoneal fibrosis. Therefore, the effect of periostin inhibition by an aptamer-based inhibitor on peritoneal fibrosis was evaluated. In vitro, TGF-β1 treatment upregulated periostin, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA, and Snail expression and reduced E-cadherin expression in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs. Periostin small interfering RNA (siRNA treatment ameliorated the TGF-β1-induced periostin, fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail expression and restored E-cadherin expression in HPMCs. Similarly, the periostin-binding DNA aptamer (PA also attenuated fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail upregulation and E-cadherin downregulation in TGF-β1-stimulated HPMCs. In mice treated with PD solution for 4 weeks, the expression of periostin, fibronectin, α-SMA, and Snail was significantly increased in the peritoneum, whereas E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased. The thickness of the submesothelial layer and the intensity of Masson’s trichrome staining in the PD group were significantly increased compared to the untreated group. These changes were significantly abrogated by the intraperitoneal administration of PA. These findings suggest that PA can be a potential therapeutic strategy for peritoneal fibrosis in PD patients.

  1. Amphetamine-induced dopamine release and neurocognitive function in treatment-naive adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkasova, Mariya V; Faridi, Nazlie; Casey, Kevin F; O'Driscoll, Gillian A; Hechtman, Lily; Joober, Ridha; Baker, Glen B; Palmer, Jennifer; Dagher, Alain; Leyton, Marco; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2014-05-01

    Converging evidence from clinical, preclinical, neuroimaging, and genetic research implicates dopamine neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The in vivo neuroreceptor imaging evidence also suggests alterations in the dopamine system in ADHD; however, the nature and behavioral significance of those have not yet been established. Here, we investigated striatal dopaminergic function in ADHD using [(11)C]raclopride PET with a d-amphetamine challenge. We also examined the relationship of striatal dopamine responses to ADHD symptoms and neurocognitive function. A total of 15 treatment-free, noncomorbid adult males with ADHD (age: 29.87 ± 8.65) and 18 healthy male controls (age: 25.44 ± 6.77) underwent two PET scans: one following a lactose placebo and the other following d-amphetamine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.), administered double blind and in random order counterbalanced across groups. In a separate session without a drug, participants performed a battery of neurocognitive tests. Relative to the healthy controls, the ADHD patients, as a group, showed greater d-amphetamine-induced decreases in striatal [(11)C]raclopride binding and performed more poorly on measures of response inhibition. Across groups, a greater magnitude of d-amphetamine-induced change in [(11)C]raclopride binding potential was associated with poorer performance on measures of response inhibition and ADHD symptoms. Our findings suggest an augmented striatal dopaminergic response in treatment-naive ADHD. Though in contrast to results of a previous study, this finding appears consistent with a model proposing exaggerated phasic dopamine release in ADHD. A susceptibility to increased phasic dopamine responsivity may contribute to such characteristics of ADHD as poor inhibition and impulsivity.

  2. Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in premenopausal women: a need for therapeutic intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadji, P; Gnant, M; Body, J J; Bundred, N J; Brufsky, A; Coleman, R E; Guise, T A; Lipton, A; Aapro, M S

    2012-10-01

    Current clinical treatment guidelines recommend cytotoxic chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, or both (with targeted therapy if indicated) for premenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer, depending on the biologic characteristics of the primary tumor. Some of these therapies can induce premature menopause or are specifically designed to suppress ovarian function and reduce circulating estrogen levels. In addition to bone loss associated with low estrogen levels, cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a direct negative effect on bone metabolism. As a result, cancer treatment-induced bone loss poses a significant threat to bone health in premenopausal women with breast cancer. Clinical trials of antiresorptive therapies, such as bisphosphonates, have demonstrated the ability to slow or prevent bone loss in this setting. Current fracture risk assessment tools are based on data from healthy postmenopausal women and do not adequately address the risks associated with breast cancer therapy, especially in younger premenopausal women. We therefore recommend that all premenopausal women with breast cancer be informed about the potential risk of bone loss prior to beginning anticancer therapy. Women who experience amenorrhea should have bone mineral density assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and receive regular follow-up to monitor bone health. Regular exercise and daily calcium and vitamin D supplementation are recommended. Women with a Z-score <-2.0 or Z-score ≤-1.0 and/or a 5-10% annual decrease in bone mineral density should be considered for bisphosphonate therapy in addition to calcium and vitamin D supplements. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathomorphologic observation on treatment of radiation-induced lung damage in rats with

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jiangfeng; Qi Haowen; Zhao Feng; Fan Fengyun; Shi Mei; Zhao Yiling; Meng Yulin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To inquire into the means of preventing lung damage induced by thoracic irradiation. Methods: SD rats were divided randomly into 3 groups: normal control, irradiated control (Group IC) and irradiated and fluvastatin (Flu)-treated group (Group F). The later two groups of rats were irradiated with X-rays at a dose of 20 Gy thoracically. Beginning from the seventh day before irradiation the rats in the Group F were treated with Flu at a dose of 20 mg per day by garaging until the end of the experiment. Animals from each group were sacrificed on days 5, 15, 30, 60 respectively after irradiation. Sections of lung were examined with light microscopy, electron microscopy and morphometry. Results: The rats in the Group IC suffered from typical radiation pneumonitis (P<0.01). Electron microscopy indicated type II pneumonocytes and capillary endothelial cells were injured in rats of Group IC on days 30, 60. There were increase of collagen and a great quantity of mast cells in irradiated control rats. In rats of the Group F there was slight reaction in the lung. Conclusion: Fluvastatin could reduce radiation pneumonitis and inhibit increase of collagen. The treatment and prevention of radiation-induced lung injury in rats with fluvastatin is effective

  4. Bevacizumab as a treatment option for radiation-induced cerebral necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matuschek, Christiane; Boelke, Edwin; Budach, Wilfried [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Nawatny, Jens [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Hoffmann, Thomas K. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology; Peiper, Matthias; Orth, Klaus [Hospital Essen-Sued, Essen (Germany). Dept. of Surgery; Gerber, Peter Arne [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Dermatology; Rusnak, Ethelyn [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Anesthesiology; Lammering, Guido [Univ. Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands). Radiation Oncology

    2011-02-15

    Radiation necrosis of normal CNS tissue represents one of the main risk factors of brain irradiation, occurring more frequently and earlier at higher total doses and higher doses per fraction. At present, it is believed that the necrosis results due to increasing capillary permeability caused by cytokine release leading to extracellular edema. This process is sustained by endothelial dysfunction, tissue hypoxia, and subsequent necrosis. Consequently, blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at an early stage could be an option to reduce the development of radiation necrosis by decreasing the vascular permeability. This might help to reverse the pathological mechanisms, improve the symptoms and prevent further progression. A patient with radiation-induced necrosis was treated with an anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab), in whom neurologic signs and symptoms improved in accordance with a decrease in T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signals. Our case report together with the current literature suggests bevacizumab as a treatment option for patients with symptoms and radiological signs of cerebral necrosis induced by radiotherapy. (orig.)

  5. Cadmium induces apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells that can be reversed by treatment with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poliandri, Ariel H.B.; Cabilla, Jimena P.; Velardez, Miguel O.; Bodo, Cristian C.A.; Duvilanski, Beatriz H.

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd 2+ ) is an ubiquitous toxic metal that is involved in a variety of pathological conditions. Several reports indicate that Cd 2+ alters normal pituitary hormone secretion; however, little is known about the mechanisms that induce this misregulation. This paper reports the effect of Cd 2+ on anterior pituitary cell viability and its relation to prolactin secretion. Cd 2+ concentrations above 10 μM were found to be cytotoxic for pituitary cells. Morphological studies as well as DNA ladder fragmentation and caspase activation showed that Cd 2+ -treated cells undergo apoptosis. Even though several hours were needed to detect Cd 2+ -induced cytotoxicity, the effect of the metal became irreversible very quickly, requiring only 3 h of treatment. Prolactin release (measured at 48 h) was inhibited when the cells were exposed to Cd 2+ for 1 h, before any change in cell viability was observed. The antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and Trolox (a hydrosoluble derivative of vitamin E), but not ascorbic acid, reversed both Cd 2+ -mediated cytotoxicity and the inhibition of prolactin release, supporting the involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of Cd 2+ action. In summary, the present work demonstrates that Cd 2+ is cytotoxic for anterior pituitary cells, that this effect is due to an induction of apoptosis, and that it can be reversed by antioxidants

  6. Radiation-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. Pathophysiologie, approaches to treatment and prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classen, J.; Belka, C.; Paulsen, F.; Budach, W.; Hoffmann, W.; Bamberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal toxicity is frequently observed during radiotherapy of malignancies in the abdomen and pelvis. The proposed pathophysiology of radiation enteritis is complex and a variety of different treatment strategies have been suggested for the management of acute radiation-induced diarrhea. Material and methods: Data are presented from an extensive review of the current literature. Results: Radiation-induced diarrhea results from a variety of different pathophysiological mechanisms including malabsorption of bile salts and lactose, imbalances in local bacterial flora and changes in the intestinal patterns of motility. Up to date acute radiation diarrhea is predominantly treated symptomatically using opioide derivates (loperamide) or adsorbants of bile salts such as smectite. Clinical trials have been performed using L. acidophilus, smectite or sucralfate for diarrhea prophylaxis with moderate reduction of acute symptoms. Conclusions: Further evaluation of strategies for diarrhea prophylaxis is warranted. Due to the complex nature of radiation enteritis a multimodal approach taking into account alterations in intestinal motility patterns, malabsorption of bile salts and an imbalance of mucosal bacterial flora may offer new perspectives. (orig.) [de

  7. Thyroidectomy for the treatment of Graves’ thyrotoxicosis in thioamide-induced agranulocytosis and sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin L Knight

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A 51 year old man presented with sepsis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis. Empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics was followed by directed narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and his neutrophil count recovered with support from granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF analogue transfusions. After a brief period of multi-modal therapy for nine days including potassium iodide (Lugol’s iodine, cholestyramine, propanolol and lithium to temper his persisting hyperthyroidism, a total thyroidectomy was performed while thyroid hormone levels remained at thyrotoxic levels. Postoperative recovery was uncomplicated and he was discharged home on thyroxine. There is limited available evidence to guide treatment in this unique cohort of patients who require prompt management to avert impending clinical deterioration. This case report summarises the successful emergent control of thyrotoxicosis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis complicated by sepsis, and demonstrates the safe use of multi-modal pharmacological therapies in preparation for total thyroidectomy.

  8. Effectiveness of Physical Therapy as an Adjunctive Treatment for Trauma-induced Chronic Torticollis in Raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Benjamin N; Robinson, Narda; Kratz, Gail; Johnston, Matthew S

    2015-03-01

    Management of trauma-induced chronic torticollis in raptors has historically been challenging. Euthanasia is common in affected birds because of their inability to maintain normal cervical position, although they may be able to function normally. To assess effectiveness of physical therapy of the neck and head as an adjunct treatment for this condition, a case-control study was done in raptors admitted to the Rocky Mountain Raptor Program from 2003 to 2010. Eleven cases were identified with a diagnosis of chronic torticollis resulting from traumatic brain injury. Five cases were treated with physical therapy of the head and neck, and 6 control cases did not receive any physical therapy for the torticollis. Of the control cases, 0 of 6 had resolution of the torticollis, 0 of 6 were released, and 5 of 6 were euthanatized. Of the treated cases, 4 of 5 had complete resolution of the torticollis and 5 of 5 were released. Resolution of torticollis differed significantly between cases receiving physical therapy and controls. These results indicate that physical therapy should be used as an adjunctive therapy in cases of chronic torticollis induced by trauma in raptors because it results in better resolution of the torticollis and increased likelihood of release.

  9. Insulin treatment promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR and inhibits polyIC induced PKR threonine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetha, Medchalmi; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A

    2015-11-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IRβ) in insulin treated HepG2 cells is inversely correlated to ser(51) phosphorylation in the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) that regulates protein synthesis. Insulin stimulates interaction between IRβ and PKR, double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, also known as EIF2AK2, and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in PKR, as analyzed by immunoprecipitation and pull down assays using anti-IRβ and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, recombinant IRβ and immunopurified PKR. Further polyIC or synthetic double stranded RNA-induced threonine phosphorylation or activation of immunopurified and cellular PKR is suppressed in the presence of insulin treated purified IRβ and cell extracts. Acute, but not chronic, insulin treatment enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of IRβ, its interaction with PKR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide that stimulates threonine phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation and AG 1024, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of IRβ, reduces PKR association with the receptor, IRβ in HepG2 cells. These findings therefore may suggest that tyrosine phosphorylated PKR plays a role in the regulation of insulin induced protein synthesis and in maintaining insulin sensitivity, whereas, suppression of polyIC-mediated threonine phosphorylation of PKR by insulin compromises its ability to fight against virus infection in host cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bevacizumab as a treatment option for radiation-induced cerebral necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuschek, Christiane; Boelke, Edwin; Budach, Wilfried; Nawatny, Jens; Hoffmann, Thomas K.; Peiper, Matthias; Orth, Klaus; Gerber, Peter Arne; Rusnak, Ethelyn; Lammering, Guido; MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht

    2011-01-01

    Radiation necrosis of normal CNS tissue represents one of the main risk factors of brain irradiation, occurring more frequently and earlier at higher total doses and higher doses per fraction. At present, it is believed that the necrosis results due to increasing capillary permeability caused by cytokine release leading to extracellular edema. This process is sustained by endothelial dysfunction, tissue hypoxia, and subsequent necrosis. Consequently, blocking the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at an early stage could be an option to reduce the development of radiation necrosis by decreasing the vascular permeability. This might help to reverse the pathological mechanisms, improve the symptoms and prevent further progression. A patient with radiation-induced necrosis was treated with an anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab), in whom neurologic signs and symptoms improved in accordance with a decrease in T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signals. Our case report together with the current literature suggests bevacizumab as a treatment option for patients with symptoms and radiological signs of cerebral necrosis induced by radiotherapy. (orig.)

  11. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect from hyperoxic lung injury by ameliorating aberrant elastin remodeling in the lung of O2-exposed newborn rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chen; Peng, Danyi; Gao, Li; Tian, Daiyin; Dai, Jihong; Luo, Zhengxiu; Liu, Enmei; Chen, Hong; Zou, Lin; Fu, Zhou

    2018-01-08

    The incidence and mortality rates of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remain very high. Therefore, novel therapies are imminently needed to improve the outcome of this disease. Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) show promising therapeutic effects on oxygen-induced model of BPD. In our experiment, UC-MSCs were intratracheally delivered into the newborn rats exposed to hyperoxia, a well-established BPD model. This study demonstrated that UC-MSCs reduce elastin expression stimulated by 90% O 2 in human lung fibroblasts-a (HLF-a), and inhibit HLF-a transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts. In addition, the therapeutic effects of UC-MSCs in neonatal rats with BPD, UC-MSCs could inhibit lung elastase activity and reduce aberrant elastin expression and deposition in the lung of BPD rats. Overall, this study suggested that UC-MSCs could ameliorate aberrant elastin expression in the lung of hyperoxia-induced BPD model which may be associated with suppressing increased TGFβ1 activation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Non-prescription treatment of NSAID induced GORD by Australian pharmacies: a national simulated patient study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Brett; Matthews, Andrew; Bergin, Jenny

    2015-10-01

    Patients regularly present to community pharmacies for advice about and treatment for reflux symptoms and NSAIDs are a common cause of these symptoms. There is no published literature detailing the approach that pharmacies take to these enquiries, the pharmacotherapy they recommend or whether they contribute to the safe and effective use of reflux medicines. To assess in an observational study design the clinical history gathering, recommendations for GORD management and counselling provided by community pharmacies in a simulated patient scenario involving suspected NSAID induced reflux symptoms. Setting Australian community pharmacies. Simulated patients visited 223 community pharmacies to request treatment for reflux symptoms. The interaction was audiotaped and assessed against guidelines for the treatment of reflux symptoms. Alignment of community pharmacies with international expert gastroenterologist guidance and national professional practice guidelines for the treatment of reflux symptoms by pharmacists including: consultation with a pharmacist; confirmation of reflux diagnosis based on symptoms; recommendation of short courses proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy; advice on the safe and effective use of reflux medicines and referral to a doctor for further assessment. Pharmacists consulted with the simulated patient in 77% of cases. Symptoms were enquired about in 95% of cases and a medicines history taken in 69% of cases. Recommendations for treatment included: PPIs (18%), histamine H2 antagonists (57%) and antacids (19%). Advice on product use was given in 83% of cases. Referral to a doctor to discuss reflux symptoms was made in 63% of cases. When assessing patients for the symptoms of GORD, Australian pharmacists and non-pharmacist support staff take a comprehensive history including symptomatology, duration of symptoms, concomitant medicines and medical conditions and any GORD treatments previously trialled. They provide comprehensive counselling on the

  13. Implication of mGlu5 receptor in the enhancement of morphine-induced hyperlocomotion under chronic treatment with zolpidem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Masahiro; Ishii, Kazunori; Masukawa, Daiki; Ando, Koji; Ikekubo, Yuiko; Ishikawa, Yutori; Shibasaki, Yumiko; Mori, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Tsutomu

    2014-09-05

    Long-term exposure to zolpidem induces drug dependence, and it is well known that the balance between the GABAergic and glutamatergic systems plays a critical role in maintaining the neuronal network. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between GABAA receptor α1 subunit and mGlu5 receptor in the limbic forebrain including the N.Acc. after treatment with zolpidem for 7 days. mGlu5 receptor protein levels were significantly increased after treatment with zolpidem for 7 days, and this change was accompanied by the up-regulation of phospholipase Cβ1 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα, which are downstream of mGlu5 receptor in the limbic forebrain. To confirm that mGlu5 receptor is directly involved in dopamine-related behavior in mice following chronic treatment with zolpidem, we measured morphine-induced hyperlocomotion after chronic treatment with zolpidem in the presence or absence of an mGlu5 receptor antagonist. Although chronic treatment with zolpidem significantly enhanced morphine-induced hyperlocomotion, this enhancement of morphine-induced hyperlocomotion was suppressed by treating it with the mGlu5 receptor antagonist MPEP. These results suggest that chronic treatment with zolpidem caused neural plasticity in response to activation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system accompanied by an increase in mGlu5 receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential and Challenges of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Liver Diseases Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tens of millions of patients are affected by liver disease worldwide. Many of these patients can benefit from cell therapy involving living metabolically active cells, either by treatment of their liver disease, or by prevention of their disease phenotype. Cell therapies, including hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial liver (BAL devices, have been proposed as therapeutic alternatives to the shortage of transplantable livers. Both BAL and hepatocyte transplantation are cellular therapies that avoid use of a whole liver. Hepatocytes are also widely used in drug screening and liver disease modelling. However, the demand for human hepatocytes, heavily outweighs their availability by conventional means. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs technology brings together the potential benefits of embryonic stem cells (ESCs (i.e., self-renewal, pluripotency and addresses the major ethical and scientific concerns of ESCs: embryo destruction and immune-incompatibility. It has been shown that hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs can be generated from iPSCs. Furthermore, human iPSCs (hiPSCs can provide an unlimited source of human hepatocytes and hold great promise for applications in regenerative medicine, drug screening and liver diseases modelling. Despite steady progress, there are still several major obstacles that need to be overcome before iPSCs will reach the bedside. This review will focus on the current state of efforts to derive hiPSCs for potential use in modelling and treatment of liver disease.

  15. Stem cell therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced normal tissue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapel, A.; Benderitter, M.; Gourmelon, P.; Lataillade, J.J.; Gorin, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy may induce irreversible damage on healthy tissues surrounding the tumour. In Europe, per year, 1.5 million patients undergo external radiotherapy. Acute adverse effect concern 80% of patients. The late adverse effect of radiotherapy concern 5 to 10% of them, which could be life threatening. Eradication of these manifestations is crucial. The French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) contribute to understand effect of radiation on healthy tissue. IRSN is strongly implicated in the field of regeneration of healthy tissue after radiotherapy or radiological accident and in the clinical use of cell therapy in the treatment of irradiated patients. Our first success in cell therapy was the correction of deficient hematopoiesis in two patients. The intravenous injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) has restored bone marrow micro-environment after total body irradiation necessary to sustain hematopoiesis. Cutaneous radiation reactions play an important role in radiation accidents, but also as a limitation in radiotherapy and radio-oncology. We have evidenced for the first time, the efficiency of MSC therapy in the context of acute cutaneous and muscle damage following irradiation in five patients. Concerning the medical management of gastrointestinal disorder after irradiation, we have demonstrated the promising approach of the MSC treatment. We have shown that MSC migrate to damaged tissues and restore gut functions after radiation damage. The evaluation of stem cell therapy combining different sources of adult stem cells is under investigation

  16. Chronic ciguatoxin treatment induces synaptic scaling through voltage gated sodium channels in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Víctor; Vale, Carmen; Rubiolo, Juan A; Roel, Maria; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luís M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channels activators that cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents with long-term neurological alterations. In central neurons, chronic perturbations in activity induce homeostatic synaptic mechanisms that adjust the strength of excitatory synapses and modulate glutamate receptor expression in order to stabilize the overall activity. Immediate early genes, such as Arc and Egr1, are induced in response to activity changes and underlie the trafficking of glutamate receptors during neuronal homeostasis. To better understand the long lasting neurological consequences of ciguatera, it is important to establish the role that chronic changes in activity produced by ciguatoxins represent to central neurons. Here, the effect of a 30 min exposure of 10-13 days in vitro (DIV) cortical neurons to the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on Arc and Egr1 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Since the toxin increased the mRNA levels of both Arc and Egr1, the effect of CTX 3C in NaV channels, membrane potential, firing activity, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and glutamate receptors expression in cortical neurons after a 24 h exposure was evaluated using electrophysiological and western blot approaches. The data presented here show that CTX 3C induced an upregulation of Arc and Egr1 that was prevented by previous coincubation of the neurons with the NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin. In addition, chronic CTX 3C caused a concentration-dependent shift in the activation voltage of NaV channels to more negative potentials and produced membrane potential depolarization. Moreover, 24 h treatment of cortical neurons with 5 nM CTX 3C decreased neuronal firing and induced synaptic scaling mechanisms, as evidenced by a decrease in the amplitude of mEPSCs and downregulation in the protein level of glutamate receptors that was also prevented by tetrodotoxin

  17. Early treatment of chlorine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation with corticosteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonasson, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.jonasson@foi.se [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Wigenstam, Elisabeth [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden); Koch, Bo [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Bucht, Anders [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå (Sweden); Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) is an industrial gas that is highly toxic and irritating when inhaled causing tissue damage and an acute inflammatory response in the airways followed by a long-term airway dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether early anti-inflammatory treatment can protect against the delayed symptoms in Cl{sub 2}-exposed mice. BALB/c mice were exposed by nose-only inhalation using 200 ppm Cl{sub 2} during 15 min. Assessment of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammatory cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage, occurrence of lung edema and lung fibrosis were analyzed 24 h or 14 days post-exposure. A single dose of the corticosteroid dexamethasone (10 or 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 1, 3, 6, or 12 h following Cl{sub 2} exposure. High-dose of dexamethasone reduced the acute inflammation if administered within 6 h after exposure but treated animals still displayed a significant lung injury. The effect of dexamethasone administered within 1 h was dose-dependent; high-dose significantly reduced acute airway inflammation (100 mg/kg) but not treatment with the relatively low-dose (10 mg/kg). Both doses reduced AHR 14 days later, while lung fibrosis measured as collagen deposition was not significantly reduced. The results point out that the acute inflammation in the lungs due to Cl{sub 2} exposure only partly is associated with the long-term AHR. We hypothesize that additional pathogenic mechanisms apart from the inflammatory reactions contribute to the development of long-term airway dysfunction. By using this mouse model, we have validated early administration of corticosteroids in terms of efficacy to prevent acute lung injury and delayed symptoms induced by Cl{sub 2} exposure. - Highlights: • Inhalation of Cl{sub 2} may lead to a long-standing airway hyperresponsiveness. • The symptoms in Cl{sub 2}-exposed mice are similar to those described for RADS in humans. • Corticosteroids prevent delayed symptoms such as AHR in

  18. Improved functional assessment of osteoarthritic knee joint after chondrogenically induced cell treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ude, C C; Ng, M H; Chen, C H; Htwe, O; Amaramalar, N S; Hassan, S; Djordjevic, I; Rani, R A; Ahmad, J; Yahya, N M; Saim, A B; Idrus, R B Hj

    2015-08-01

    Our previous studies on osteoarthritis (OA) revealed positive outcome after chondrogenically induced cells treatment. Presently, the functional improvements of these treated OA knee joints were quantified followed by evaluation of the mechanical properties of the engineered cartilages. Baseline electromyogram (EMGs) were conducted at week 0 (pre-OA), on the locomotory muscles of nine un-castrated male sheep (Siamese long tail cross) divided into controls, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), before OA inductions. Subsequent recordings were performed at week 7 and week 31 which were post-OA and post-treatments. Afterwards, the compression tests of the regenerated cartilage were performed. Post-treatment EMG analysis revealed that the control sheep retained significant reductions in amplitudes at the right medial gluteus, vastus lateralis and bicep femoris, whereas BMSCs and ADSCs samples had no further significant reductions (P < 0.05). Grossly and histologically, the treated knee joints demonstrated the presence of regenerated neo cartilages evidenced by the fluorescence of PKH26 tracker. Based on the International Cartilage Repair Society scores (ICRS), they had significantly lower grades than the controls (P < 0.05). The compression moduli of the native cartilages and the engineered cartilages differed significantly at the tibia plateau, patella femoral groove and the patella; whereas at the medial femoral condyle, they had similar moduli of 0.69 MPa and 0.40-0.64 MPa respectively. Their compression strengths at all four regions were within ±10 MPa. The tissue engineered cartilages provided evidence of functional recoveries associated to the structural regenerations, and their mechanical properties were comparable with the native cartilage. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrastructural changes of human esophageal carcinoma induced by preoperative treatments with bleomycin and/or radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohro, T. (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1982-01-01

    In the present study, 44 cases of esophageal carcinoma were electron-microscopically examined. Nuclear bodies of various types observed in carcinoma cells or in normal mucosa of the esophagus treated by bleomycin and radiation, single or combined (BLM/R), were classified into seven types. Types A and B were observed in carcinoma cells of both conditions of untreated or treated with BLM/R. Types C, D and E were specific findings in squamous carcinoma cells after BLM/R treatment. Types F and G were considered to be far advanced in terms of other nuclear bodies and were observed in strongly affected carcinoma cells. These nucleolar changes were considered to be specific alterations induced by BLM in esophageal carcinoma cells. The appearance of various nuclear bodies and a series of nucleolar segregation after BLM/R treatments were confirmed as well in metastatic lesions of abdominal lymph nodes that may be affected only with minimal or disregardable scattered radiation, if any, giving no sifnificant influence to cell activity. This fact has suggested that types C, D and E nuclear bodies and nucleolar segregation are changes specific to BLM/R treatments, some solely to BLM. Other nuclear changes consisted in the appearance of fibrillar structures of three different types that were considered to have been produced by disturbed ribosomal activity in the nuclei. On the basis of results in the present study, BLM apparently showed serious evidence of remarkable influences or effects, although not constantly and generally available, on certain squamous carcinoma cells of the esophagus. Some of the evidence was represented by nucleolar segregation and characteristic nuclear bodies of different types, particularly of types C, D and E.

  20. Early postnatal treatment with clomipramine induces female sexual behavior and estrous cycle impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Limón-Morales, Ofelia; Bonilla-Jaime, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    Administration of clomipramine (CMI), a tricyclic antidepressant, in early stages of development in rats, is considered an animal model for the study of depression. This pharmacological manipulation has induced behavioral and physiological alterations, i.e., less pleasure-seeking behaviors, despair, hyperactivity, cognitive dysfunction, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and in HPA axis. These abnormalities in adult male rats are similar to the symptoms observed in major depressive disorders. One of the main pleasure-seeking behaviors affected in male rats treated with CMI is sexual behavior. However, to date, no effects of early postnatal CMI treatment have been reported on female reproductive cyclicity and sexual behavior. Therefore, we explored CMI administration in early life (8-21 PN) on the estrous cycle and sexual behavior of adult female rats. Compared to the rats in the early postnatal saline treatment (CTRL group), the CMI rats had fewer estrous cycles, fewer days in the estrous stage, and longer cycles during a 20-day period of vaginal cytology analysis. On the behavioral test, the CMI rats displayed fewer proceptive behaviors (hopping, darting) and had lower lordosis quotients. Also, they usually failed to display lordosis and only rarely manifested marginal or normal lordosis. In contrast, the CTRL rats tended to display normal lordosis. These results suggest that early postnatal CMI treatment caused long-term disruptions of the estrous cycle and female sexual behavior, perhaps by alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and in neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of the performance and motivational of sexual behavior as the noradrenergic and serotonergic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nature of chromosome gaps induced by alkylating agents and γ-rays as revealed by caffeine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, B.

    1981-01-01

    In the cells of primary roots of Crepis capillaris, post-treatment with caffeine increased the frequency of gaps and chromosomal aberrations induced by the alkylating agents ethyleneimine and N-nitroso-N-methylurethane and γ-rays. The increase in the frequency of gaps was considerably lower than that observed in chromosomal aberrations, this being more strongly expressed in the case fo the alkylating agents. The potentiating effect of caffeine on the γ-ray-induced chromosomal gaps was a little higher in S as compared in G 2 . These results lead to the conclusion that the alkylating agents and the γ-rays might induce 2 types of chromosomal gap. (orig.)

  2. Modeling Treatment Response for Lamin A/C Related Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Ki; Lau, Yee-Man; Cai, Zhu-Jun; Lai, Wing-Hon; Wong, Lai-Yung; Tse, Hung-Fat; Ng, Kwong-Man; Siu, Chung-Wah

    2017-07-28

    Precision medicine is an emerging approach to disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in the environment, lifestyle, and genetic makeup of patients. Patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cells hold promise to transform precision medicine into real-life clinical practice. Lamin A/C (LMNA)-related cardiomyopathy is the most common inherited cardiomyopathy in which a substantial proportion of mutations in the LMNA gene are of nonsense mutation. PTC124 induces translational read-through over the premature stop codon and restores production of the full-length proteins from the affected genes. In this study we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes from patients who harbored different LMNA mutations (nonsense and frameshift) to evaluate the potential therapeutic effects of PTC124 in LMNA -related cardiomyopathy. We generated human induced pluripotent stem cells lines from 3 patients who carried distinctive mutations (R225X, Q354X, and T518fs) in the LMNA gene. The cardiomyocytes derived from these human induced pluripotent stem cells lines reproduced the pathophysiological hallmarks of LMNA -related cardiomyopathy. Interestingly, PTC124 treatment increased the production of full-length LMNA proteins in only the R225X mutant, not in other mutations. Functional evaluation experiments on the R225X mutant further demonstrated that PTC124 treatment not only reduced nuclear blebbing and electrical stress-induced apoptosis but also improved the excitation-contraction coupling of the affected cardiomyocytes. Using cardiomyocytes derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells carrying different LMNA mutations, we demonstrated that the effect of PTC124 is codon selective. A premature stop codon UGA appeared to be most responsive to PTC124 treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. The ocular endothelin system: a novel target for the treatment of endotoxin-induced uveitis with bosentan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Sadullah; Halici, Zekai; Atmaca, Hasan Tarik; Yayla, Muhammed; Yildirim, Kenan; Ekinci, Metin; Akpinar, Erol; Altuner, Durdu; Cakici, Ozgur; Bayraktutan, Zafer

    2014-05-15

    We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of bosentan and dexamethasone in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). Endotoxin-induced uveitis was induced by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200 μg) in Wistar rats. Rats were divided randomly into 10 groups (n = 6). Bosentan at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg were administered orally 1 hour before and 12 hours after LPS injection, and dexamethasone was administered by intraperitoneally 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after LPS injection at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Data were collected at two time points for each control and treatment; animals were killed at either 3 or 24 hours after LPS injection. Histopathologic evaluation and aqueous humour measurements of TNF-α level were performed, and endothelin-1 (ET-1), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and endothelin receptor A and B (EDNRA and B) expression were analyzed. The group treated with 100 mg/kg bosentan at 24 hours displayed significantly milder uveitis and fewer inflammatory cells compared to LPS-injected animals, and there were similar findings in the dexamethasone-treated group at 24 hours. The TNF-α levels in the dexamethasone treatment group were lower than those in the LPS-induced uveitis control group (P treatment groups at 3 and 24 hours after LPS administration. Bosentan treatment at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly decreased iNOS expression compared to LPS-injected animals (P treatment groups was statistically significantly lower than that in the LPS-induced uveitis control group at 3 and 24 hours after LPS administration (P < 0.05). Bosentan reduces intraocular inflammation and has similar effects as dexamethasone in a rat model of EIU. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  4. Mesenchymal stromal cell treatment prevents H9N2 avian influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian influenza virus (AIV can cross species barriers and expand its host range from birds to mammals, even humans. Avian influenza is characterized by pronounced activation of the proinflammatory cytokine cascade, which perpetuates the inflammatory response, leading to persistent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and pulmonary infection in animals and humans. There are currently no specific treatment strategies for avian influenza. Methods We hypothesized that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs would have beneficial effects in the treatment of H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice. Six- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with 1 × 104 MID50 of A/HONG KONG/2108/2003 [H9N2 (HK] H9N2 virus to induce acute lung injury. After 30 min, syngeneic MSCs were delivered through the caudal vein. Three days after infection, we measured the survival rate, lung weight, arterial blood gas, and cytokines in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum, and assessed pathological changes to the lungs. Results MSC administration significantly palliated H9N2 AIV-induced pulmonary inflammation by reducing chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines levels, as well as reducing inflammatory cell recruit into the lungs. Thus, H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury was markedly alleviated in mice treated with MSCs. Lung histopathology and arterial blood gas analysis were improved in mice with H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury following MSC treatment. Conclusions MSC treatment significantly reduces H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice and is associated with reduced pulmonary inflammation. These results indicate a potential role for MSC therapy in the treatment of clinical avian influenza.

  5. Fluoxetine treatment is effective in a rat model of childhood-induced post-traumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel, Lior; Inbar, Sapir; Edut, Schachaf; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2017-01-01

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, their therapeutic efficacy is limited. Childhood adversities are considered a risk factor for developing PTSD in adulthood but may trigger PTSD without additional trauma in some individuals. Nevertheless, just as childhood is considered a vulnerable period it may also be an effective period for preventive treatment. Using a rat model of childhood-induced PTSD, ...

  6. Successful treatment of tumor-induced osteomalacia due to an intracranial tumor by fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Valentina D; Trepp-Carrasco, Alejandro G; Thompson, Robert; Recker, Robert R; Chong, William H; Collins, Michael T; Armas, Laura A G

    2013-11-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, characterized by tumor secretion of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) causing hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate wasting. TIO is usually caused by small, benign, difficult-to-localize, mesenchymal tumors. Although surgery with wide excision of tumor borders is considered the "gold standard" for definitive therapy, it can be associated with considerable morbidity depending on the location. To date, radiation therapy has not been considered as an effective treatment modality in TIO. A 67-year-old female presented with multiple nontraumatic fractures, progressive bone pain, and muscle weakness for 4 years. She was found to have biochemical evidence of urinary phosphate wasting with low serum phosphorus, low-normal serum calcium, normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and high serum FGF23 levels. TIO was diagnosed. Selective venous sampling for FGF23 confirmed that a 1.7-cm left frontal mass, radiographically similar to a meningioma, was the causative tumor. She declined surgery due to fear of complications and instead underwent fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for 6 weeks. In less than 4 years after radiation therapy, she was successfully weaned off phosphorus and calcitriol, starting from 2 g of oral phosphorus daily and 1 μg of calcitriol daily. Her symptoms have resolved, and she has not had any new fractures. Stereotactic radiotherapy was an effective treatment modality for TIO in our patient. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy represents an alternative to surgery for patients with TIO who are not surgical candidates or who decline surgery.

  7. The Use of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for the Study and Treatment of Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Marc C; Davila, Julio C; Vosough, Massoud; Gramignoli, Roberto; Skvorak, Kristen J; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Blake, William; Strom, Stephen C

    2016-02-01

    Liver disease is a major global health concern. Liver cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death in the world and currently the only therapeutic option for end-stage liver disease (e.g., acute liver failure, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, cholestatic diseases, metabolic diseases, and malignant neoplasms) is orthotropic liver transplantation. Transplantation of hepatocytes has been proposed and used as an alternative to whole organ transplant to stabilize and prolong the lives of patients in some clinical cases. Although these experimental therapies have demonstrated promising and beneficial results, their routine use remains a challenge due to the shortage of donor livers available for cell isolation, variable quality of those tissues, the potential need for lifelong immunosuppression in the transplant recipient, and high costs. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies and more reliable clinical treatments are urgently needed. Recent and continuous technological advances in the development of stem cells suggest they may be beneficial in this respect. In this review, we summarize the history of stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology in the context of hepatic differentiation and discuss the potential applications the technology may offer for human liver disease modeling and treatment. This includes developing safer drugs and cell-based therapies to improve the outcomes of patients with currently incurable health illnesses. We also review promising advances in other disease areas to highlight how the stem cell technology could be applied to liver diseases in the future. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Antioxidant treatment alters peripheral vascular dysfunction induced by postnatal glucocorticoid therapy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio A Herrera

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal glucocorticoid therapy in premature infants diminishes chronic lung disease, but it also increases the risk of hypertension in adulthood. Since glucocorticoid excess leads to overproduction of free radicals and endothelial dysfunction, this study tested the hypothesis that adverse effects on cardiovascular function of postnatal glucocorticoids are secondary to oxidative stress. Therefore, combined postnatal treatment of glucocorticoids with antioxidants may diminish unwanted effects.Male rat pups received a course of dexamethasone (Dex, or Dex with vitamins C and E (DexCE, on postnatal days 1-6 (P1-6. Controls received vehicle (Ctrl or vehicle with vitamins (CtrlCE. At P21, femoral vascular reactivity was determined via wire myography. Dex, but not DexCE or CtrlCE, increased mortality relative to Ctrl (81.3 versus 96.9 versus 90.6 versus 100% survival, respectively; P<0.05. Constrictor responses to phenylephrine (PE and thromboxane were enhanced in Dex relative to Ctrl (84.7+/-4.8 versus 67.5+/-5.7 and 132.7+/-4.9 versus 107.0+/-4.9% Kmax, respectively; P<0.05; effects that were diminished in DexCE (58.3+/-7.5 and 121.1+/-4.3% Kmax, respectively; P<0.05. Endothelium-dependent dilatation was depressed in Dex relative to Ctrl (115.3+/-11.9 versus 216.9+/-18.9, AUC; P<0.05; however, this effect was not restored in DexCE (68.3+/-8.3, AUC. Relative to Ctrl, CtrlCE alone diminished PE-induced constriction (43.4+/-3.7% Kmax and the endothelium-dependent dilatation (74.7+/-8.7 AUC; P<0.05.Treatment of newborn rats with dexamethasone has detrimental effects on survival and peripheral vasoconstrictor function. Coadministration of dexamethasone with antioxidant vitamins improves survival and partially restores vascular dysfunction. Antioxidant vitamins alone affect peripheral vascular function.

  9. Successful Treatment of Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia due to an Intracranial Tumor by Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepp-Carrasco, Alejandro G.; Thompson, Robert; Recker, Robert R.; Chong, William H.; Collins, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, characterized by tumor secretion of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) causing hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate wasting. TIO is usually caused by small, benign, difficult-to-localize, mesenchymal tumors. Although surgery with wide excision of tumor borders is considered the “gold standard” for definitive therapy, it can be associated with considerable morbidity depending on the location. To date, radiation therapy has not been considered as an effective treatment modality in TIO. Objective: A 67-year-old female presented with multiple nontraumatic fractures, progressive bone pain, and muscle weakness for 4 years. She was found to have biochemical evidence of urinary phosphate wasting with low serum phosphorus, low-normal serum calcium, normal 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and high serum FGF23 levels. TIO was diagnosed. Selective venous sampling for FGF23 confirmed that a 1.7-cm left frontal mass, radiographically similar to a meningioma, was the causative tumor. She declined surgery due to fear of complications and instead underwent fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for 6 weeks. Results: In less than 4 years after radiation therapy, she was successfully weaned off phosphorus and calcitriol, starting from 2 g of oral phosphorus daily and 1 μg of calcitriol daily. Her symptoms have resolved, and she has not had any new fractures. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiotherapy was an effective treatment modality for TIO in our patient. Fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy represents an alternative to surgery for patients with TIO who are not surgical candidates or who decline surgery. PMID:24014621

  10. Contrasting gene expression patterns induced by levodopa and pramipexole treatments in the rat model of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taravini, Irene R.; Larramendy, Celia; Gomez, Gimena; Saborido, Mariano D.; Spaans, Floor; Fresno, Cristobal; Gonzalez, German A.; Fernandez, Elmer; Murer, Mario G.; Gershanik, Oscar S.

    Whether the treatment of Parkinson's disease has to be initiated with levodopa or a D2 agonist like pramipexole remains debatable. Levodopa is more potent against symptoms than D2 agonists, but D2 agonists are less prone to induce motor complications and may have neuroprotective effects. Although

  11. Two cases of greater omentum use for treatment of radiation-induced chest lesions in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboinski, G [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1977-01-01

    Two cases of extensive ulcerations induced by radiotherapy during treatment of breast cancer are described. The ulcerations were excised and the remaining tissue defect was covered with greater omentum shifted to the chest. The omentum was covered with a free dermo-epidermal graft. In both cases rapid healing of the wound and disappearance of pain was obtained.

  12. Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padmini S J Khedoe

    Full Text Available COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD, and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice.Hyperlipidemic E3L mice were intranasally instilled with 10 μg LPS or vehicle twice in an acute 4-day study, or twice weekly during 20 weeks Western-type diet feeding in a chronic study. Mice received 0.5x106 MSC or vehicle intravenously twice after the first LPS instillation (acute study or in week 14, 16, 18 and 20 (chronic study. Inflammatory parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung tissue. Emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were assessed in the chronic study.In the acute study, intranasal LPS administration induced a marked systemic IL-6 response on day 3, which was inhibited after MSC treatment. Furthermore, MSC treatment reduced LPS-induced total cell count in BAL due to reduced neutrophil numbers. In the chronic study, LPS increased emphysema but did not aggravate atherosclerosis. Emphysema and atherosclerosis development were unaffected after MSC treatment.These data show that MSC inhibit LPS-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation in the acute study, whereas MSC treatment had no effect on inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in the chronic study.

  13. Recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing lead compounds isolated from marine sponge of potential relevance in cancer treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah

    2011-09-20

    Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. 2011 by the authors.

  14. Recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing lead compounds isolated from marine sponge of potential relevance in cancer treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Essack, Magbubah; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intense efforts to develop non-cytotoxic anticancer treatments, effective agents are still not available. Therefore, novel apoptosis-inducing drug leads that may be developed into effective targeted cancer therapies are of interest to the cancer research community. Targeted cancer therapies affect specific aberrant apoptotic pathways that characterize different cancer types and, for this reason, it is a more desirable type of therapy than chemotherapy or radiotherapy, as it is less harmful to normal cells. In this regard, marine sponge derived metabolites that induce apoptosis continue to be a promising source of new drug leads for cancer treatments. A PubMed query from 01/01/2005 to 31/01/2011 combined with hand-curation of the retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 39 recently confirmed apoptosis-inducing anticancer lead compounds isolated from the marine sponge that are selectively discussed in this review. 2011 by the authors.

  15. Proteome Changes in Maize Embryo (Zea mays L) Induced by Ion Beam Implantation Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Qin Guangyong; Huo Yuping; Tian Shuangqi; Tang Jihua

    2009-01-01

    Low energy ion beam implantation was applied to the maize (Zea mays L) embryo proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein profile analysis detected more than 1100 protein spots, 72 of which were determined to be expressed differently in the treated and control (not exposed to ion beam implantation) embryos. Of the 72 protein spots, 53 were up-regulated in the control and 19 were more abundantly expressed in the ion beam-treated embryos. The spots of up- or down-regulated proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among the identified proteins, 11 were up-regulated in the treated embryos. Four of these up-regulated proteins were antioxidant molecules, three were related to stress response, two to sugar metabolism and two were associated with heat shock response. Of the five proteins up-regulated in the control embryos, three were functionally related to carbohydrate metabolism; the functions of the remaining two proteins were unknown. The data collected during this study indicate that treatment of maize embryos with low energy ion beam implantation induces changes in stress tolerance enzymes/proteins, possibly as a result of alterations in metabolism. (ion beam bioengineering)

  16. Defect properties of ZnO nanopowders and their modifications induced by remote plasma treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramo, J A; Peters, R M; Quarles, C A; Strzhemechny, Y M [Physics Department, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States); Vallejo, H [North Side High School, Fort Worth, TX 79129 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) and positron lifetime (LT) measurements were used on several commercial ZnO nanopowders. We observed that sample-to-sample differences in the quality of the powders overshadow any observation of probable size effects. However, the average LT for all nanocrystals is longer than in a bulk sample, consistent with the hypothesis of crystals with surface and subsurface layers rich in defects. Temperature-dependent PL spectra from the ZnO nanopowders were analyzed in detail for the bound-exciton (BEx) range and the numerical fits of the peak positions yielded activation energies that suggested different channels of recombination for the BEx. Also, fits for the full width at half maximum (FWHM) show nonlinear behavior, indicating contribution from surface phonons. We, also, used remote nitrogen and hydrogen plasma treatment on the ZnO nanosystems to manipulate their surface and subsurface defect states. We demonstrated that those plasma species induce a variety of changes in the deep defect visible emission as well as in the BEx luminescence, most likely associated with the surface/subsurface states.

  17. Defect properties of ZnO nanopowders and their modifications induced by remote plasma treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramo, J A; Peters, R M; Quarles, C A; Strzhemechny, Y M; Vallejo, H

    2009-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and positron lifetime (LT) measurements were used on several commercial ZnO nanopowders. We observed that sample-to-sample differences in the quality of the powders overshadow any observation of probable size effects. However, the average LT for all nanocrystals is longer than in a bulk sample, consistent with the hypothesis of crystals with surface and subsurface layers rich in defects. Temperature-dependent PL spectra from the ZnO nanopowders were analyzed in detail for the bound-exciton (BEx) range and the numerical fits of the peak positions yielded activation energies that suggested different channels of recombination for the BEx. Also, fits for the full width at half maximum (FWHM) show nonlinear behavior, indicating contribution from surface phonons. We, also, used remote nitrogen and hydrogen plasma treatment on the ZnO nanosystems to manipulate their surface and subsurface defect states. We demonstrated that those plasma species induce a variety of changes in the deep defect visible emission as well as in the BEx luminescence, most likely associated with the surface/subsurface states.

  18. Imipenem Treatment Induces Expression of Important Genes and Phenotypes in a Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhabaan, Ghulam Nasser; AbuBakar, Sazaly; Cerqueira, Gustavo Maia; Al-Haroni, Mohammed; Pang, Sui Ping; Hassan, Hamimah

    2015-12-14

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a notorious multidrug-resistant pathogen, and development of novel control measures is of the utmost importance. Understanding the factors that play a role in drug resistance may contribute to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Pili are essential for A. baumannii adherence to and biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces as well as virulence. In the present study, we found that biofilm formation was significantly induced in an imipenem-resistant (Imp(r)) strain treated with a subinhibitory concentration of antibiotic compared to that in an untreated control and an imipenem-susceptible (Imp(s)) isolate. Using microarray and quantitative PCR analyses, we observed that several genes responsible for the synthesis of type IV pili were significantly upregulated in the Imp(r) but not in the Imp(s) isolate. Notably, this finding is corroborated by an increase in the motility of the Imp(r) strain. Our results suggest that the ability to overproduce colonization factors in response to imipenem treatment confers biological advantage to A. baumannii and may contribute to clinical success. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Feedback-induced bistability of an optically levitated nanoparticle: A Fokker-Planck treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wenchao; Rodenburg, Brandon; Bhattacharya, M.

    2016-08-01

    Optically levitated nanoparticles have recently emerged as versatile platforms for investigating macroscopic quantum mechanics and enabling ultrasensitive metrology. In this paper we theoretically consider two damping regimes of an optically levitated nanoparticle cooled by cavityless parametric feedback. Our treatment is based on a generalized Fokker-Planck equation derived from the quantum master equation presented recently and shown to agree very well with experiment [B. Rodenburg, L. P. Neukirch, A. N. Vamivakas, and M. Bhattacharya, Quantum model of cooling and force sensing with an optically trapped nanoparticle, Optica 3, 318 (2016), 10.1364/OPTICA.3.000318]. For low damping, we find that the resulting Wigner function yields the single-peaked oscillator position distribution and recovers the appropriate energy distribution derived earlier using a classical theory and verified experimentally [J. Gieseler, R. Quidant, C. Dellago, and L. Novotny, Dynamic relaxation of a levitated nanoparticle from a non-equilibrium steady state, Nat. Nano. 9, 358 (2014), 10.1038/nnano.2014.40]. For high damping, in contrast, we predict a double-peaked position distribution, which we trace to an underlying bistability induced by feedback. Unlike in cavity-based optomechanics, stochastic processes play a major role in determining the bistable behavior. To support our conclusions, we present analytical expressions as well as numerical simulations using the truncated Wigner function approach. Our work opens up the prospect of developing bistability-based devices, characterization of phase-space dynamics, and investigation of the quantum-classical transition using levitated nanoparticles.

  20. Ionic membranes obtained by radiation - induced graft copolymerization, II-characterization and waste treatment. Vol. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A M.I.; Nowier, H G; Aly, H F [National Center for Radiation and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Abd El-Rehim, H A; Hegazy, E A [Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Ionic membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films. To elucidate the possibility of practical use, a study was made for the characterization of the grafted and chemically treated mechanisms. The selectivity of such prepared membranes towards the chelation or absorption of different alkali metals was investigated, to find that the higher affinity was observed for K{sup +}, Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions compared to other alkali metals used. The metal uptake percent was determined using different techniques; flame photometer, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The uptake of metal from its feed solution by the the grafted membrane increased as the degree of grating increased, i.e. it is directly proportional to the functional carboxylic acid groups in the graft copolymer. As a consequence, the electrical conductivity of metal feed solution decreased during such process of metal chelation by membrane. The higher the grafting degree of membrane, the lower the electrical conductivity of metal feed solutions observed. the changes in thermal properties of the membranes prepared were investigated and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, (DSC), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermal stability of these membranes increased with degree of grafting due to the formation of cross linked network structure via hydrogen bonding. furthermore, such stability is enhanced for the alkali-treated membranes even at high elevated temperatures. The membranes prepared showed a great promise for possible use in some practical applications such as metal waste treatment. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Ionic membranes obtained by radiation - induced graft copolymerization, II-characterization and waste treatment. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.M.I.; Nowier, H.G.; Aly, H.F.; Abd El-Rehim, H.A.; Hegazy, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ionic membranes were prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto low density polyethylene films. To elucidate the possibility of practical use, a study was made for the characterization of the grafted and chemically treated mechanisms. The selectivity of such prepared membranes towards the chelation or absorption of different alkali metals was investigated, to find that the higher affinity was observed for K + , Na + and Li + ions compared to other alkali metals used. The metal uptake percent was determined using different techniques; flame photometer, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The uptake of metal from its feed solution by the the grafted membrane increased as the degree of grating increased, i.e. it is directly proportional to the functional carboxylic acid groups in the graft copolymer. As a consequence, the electrical conductivity of metal feed solution decreased during such process of metal chelation by membrane. The higher the grafting degree of membrane, the lower the electrical conductivity of metal feed solutions observed. the changes in thermal properties of the membranes prepared were investigated and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, (DSC), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The thermal stability of these membranes increased with degree of grafting due to the formation of cross linked network structure via hydrogen bonding. furthermore, such stability is enhanced for the alkali-treated membranes even at high elevated temperatures. The membranes prepared showed a great promise for possible use in some practical applications such as metal waste treatment. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Drug-Induced Sleep Endoscopy Changes the Treatment Concept in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Hybášková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE helps identify the site of obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA. A total of 51 consecutive patients with polysomnography-confirmed OSA were enrolled in this prospective study. The presumed site of obstruction was determined according to history, otorhinolaryngologic examination, and polysomnography and a therapeutic plan designed before DISE. In 11 patients with severe OSA and/or previously failed continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP treatment, DISE with simultaneous CPAP was performed. Multilevel collapse was noted in 49 patients (96.1%. The most frequent multilevel collapse was palatal, oropharyngeal, and tongue base collapse (n=17, 33.3%, followed by palatal and oropharyngeal collapse (n=12, 23.5%. Pathology of the larynx (epiglottis was observed in 16 patients (31.4%. The laryngeal obstruction as a reason for intolerance of CPAP was observed in 3/11 (27.3% patients. After DISE, the surgical plan was changed in 31 patients (60.8%. The results indicate that DISE helps identify the site of obstruction in the upper airways in patients with OSA more accurately and that the larynx plays an important role in OSA.

  3. Androgen Induces Adaptation to Oxidative Stress in Prostate Cancer: Implications for Treatment with Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehonathan H. Pinthus

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a standard treatment for prostate cancer (PC. The postulated mechanism of action for radiation therapy is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Adjuvant androgen deprivation (AD therapy has been shown to confer a survival advantage over radiation alone in high-risk localized PC. However, the mechanism of this interaction is unclear. We hypothesize that androgens modify the radioresponsiveness of PC through the regulation of cellular oxidative homeostasis. Using androgen receptor (AR+ 22rv1 and AR− PC3 human PC cell lines, we demonstrated that testosterone increased basal reactive oxygen species (bROS levels, resulting in dose-dependent activation of phospho-p38 and pAKT, increased expression of clusterin, catalase, manganese superoxide dismutase. Similar data were obtained in three human PC xenografts; WISH-PC14, WISH-PC23, CWR22, growing in testosterone-supplemented or castrated SCID mice. These effects were reversible through AD or through incubation with a reducing agent. Moreover, testosterone increased the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutases, glutathione reductase. Consequently, AD significantly facilitated the response of AR+ cells to oxidative stress challenge. Thus, testosterone induces a preset cellular adaptation to radiation through the generation of elevated bROS, which is modified by AD. These findings provide a rational for combined hormonal and radiation therapy for localized PC.

  4. Proteome Changes in Maize Embryo (Zea mays L) Induced by Ion Beam Implantation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongliang; Tang, Jihua; Qin, Guangyong; Huo, Yuping; Tian, Shuangqi

    2009-08-01

    Low energy ion beam implantation was applied to the maize (Zea mays L) embryo proteome using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein profile analysis detected more than 1100 protein spots, 72 of which were determined to be expressed differently in the treated and control (not exposed to ion beam implantation) embryos. Of the 72 protein spots, 53 were up-regulated in the control and 19 were more abundantly expressed in the ion beam-treated embryos. The spots of up- or down-regulated proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Among the identified proteins, 11 were up-regulated in the treated embryos. Four of these up-regulated proteins were antioxidant molecules, three were related to stress response, two to sugar metabolism and two were associated with heat shock response. Of the five proteins up-regulated in the control embryos, three were functionally related to carbohydrate metabolism; the functions of the remaining two proteins were unknown. The data collected during this study indicate that treatment of maize embryos with low energy ion beam implantation induces changes in stress tolerance enzymes/proteins, possibly as a result of alterations in metabolism.

  5. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  6. High-dose 8% capsaicin patch in treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipczak-Bryniarska, Iwona; Krzyzewski, Roger M; Kucharz, Jakub; Michalowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna; Kleja, Justyna; Woron, Jarosław; Strzepek, Katarzyna; Kazior, Lucyna; Wordliczek, Jerzy; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof

    2017-08-17

    High-dose capsaicin patch is effective in treatment of neuropathic pain in HIV-associated neuropathy and diabetic neuropathy. There are no studies assessing effectiveness of high-dose capsaicin patch in treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We sought to determine the effectiveness of treatment of pain associated with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy with high-dose capsaicin patch. Our study group consisted of 18 patients with clinically confirmed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy. Baseline characteristic including underling disease, received cumulative dose of neurotoxic agent, neuropathic symptoms, prior treatment and initial pain level were recorded. Pain was evaluated with Numeric Rating Scale prior to treatment with high-dose capsaicin and after 1.8 day and after 8 and 12 weeks after introducing treatment. Patients were divided into two groups accordingly to the amount of neurotoxic agent that caused neuropathy (high sensitivity and low sensitivity group). Most frequent symptoms of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy were: pain (88.89%), paresthesis (100%), sock and gloves sensation (100%) and hypoesthesis (100%). Initial pain level was 7.45 ± 1.14. Mean cumulative dose of oxaliplatin after which patients developed symptoms was 648.07 mg/m 2 . Mean pain level after 12 weeks of treatment was 0.20 ± 0.41. When examined according to high and low sensitivity to neurotoxic agent patients with low sensitivity had higher pain reduction, especially after 8 days after introducing treatment (69.55 ± 12.09 vs. 49.40 ± 20.34%; p = 0.02) and after 12 weeks (96.96 ± 5.56 vs. 83.93 ± 18.59%; p = 0.04). High-dose capsaicin patch is an effective treatment for pain associated with chemotherapy-induced neuropathy in patients treated with oxaliplatin. Patients with lower sensitivity to neurotoxic agents have better response to treatment and pain reduction.

  7. Current treatment for venom-induced consumption coagulopathy resulting from snakebite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalana Maduwage

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Venomous snakebite is considered the single most important cause of human injury from venomous animals worldwide. Coagulopathy is one of the commonest important systemic clinical syndromes and can be complicated by serious and life-threatening haemorrhage. Venom-induced consumption coagulopathy (VICC is the commonest coagulopathy resulting from snakebite and occurs in envenoming by Viperid snakes, certain elapids, including Australian elapids, and a few Colubrid (rear fang snakes. Procoagulant toxins activate the clotting pathway, causing a broad range of factor deficiencies depending on the particular procoagulant toxin in the snake venom. Diagnosis and monitoring of coagulopathy is problematic, particularly in resource-poor countries where further research is required to develop more reliable, cheap clotting tests. MEDLINE and EMBASE up to September 2013 were searched to identify clinical studies of snake envenoming with VICC. The UniPort database was searched for coagulant snake toxins. Despite preclinical studies demonstrating antivenom binding toxins (efficacy, there was less evidence to support clinical effectiveness of antivenom for VICC. There were no placebo-controlled trials of antivenom for VICC. There were 25 randomised comparative trials of antivenom for VICC, which compared two different antivenoms (ten studies, three different antivenoms (four, two or three different doses or repeat doses of antivenom (five, heparin treatment and antivenom (five, and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment and antivenom (one. There were 13 studies that compared two groups in which there was no randomisation, including studies with historical controls. There have been numerous observational studies of antivenom in VICC but with no comparison group. Most of the controlled trials were small, did not use the same method for assessing coagulopathy, varied the dose of antivenom, and did not provide complete details of the study design (primary outcomes

  8. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis; Einsatz von Sucralfat in der Radioonkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belka, C. [Univ. Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie; Hoffmann, W. [Univ. Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie; Paulsen, F. [Univ. Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie; Bamberg, M. [Univ. Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlentherapie

    1997-05-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Schleimhautreaktionen stellen eine wesentliche akute und chronische Nebenwirkung radioonkologischer Therapieverfahren dar. Klinisch im Vordergrund stehen Schmerzen, Ernaeherungsprobleme und Durchfaelle. Da bislang keine kausalen Therapie- oder Prophylaxemassnahmen bekannt sind, erfolgt die Behandlung symptomorientiert. Hierbei kommen insbesondere lokale und systemische

  9. Roxithromycin inhibits VEGF-induced human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation: Opportunities for the treatment of asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Qing-Mei; Jiang, Ping; Yang, Min; Qian, Xue-Jiao; Liu, Jiang-Bo; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-β-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma. - Highlights: • RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. • VEGF-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2. • RXM inhibits activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation

  10. Roxithromycin inhibits VEGF-induced human airway smooth muscle cell proliferation: Opportunities for the treatment of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Qing-Mei, E-mail: 34713316@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Tianjin Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin (China); Jiang, Ping, E-mail: jiangping@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Yang, Min, E-mail: YangMin@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Qian, Xue-Jiao, E-mail: qianxuejiao@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Liu, Jiang-Bo, E-mail: LJB1984@163.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China); Kim, Sung-Ho, E-mail: chenghao0726@hotmail.com [Department of Respiration, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin (China)

    2016-10-01

    Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by reversible airway obstruction with persistent airway inflammation and airway remodelling, which is associated with increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass. Roxithromycin (RXM) has been widely used in asthma treatment; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in inflammatory and airway blood vessel remodelling in patients with asthma, and shown to promote ASM cell proliferation. Here, we investigated the effect of RXM on VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. We tested the effect of RXM on proliferation and cell cycle progression, as well as on the expression of phospho-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phospho-Akt, and caveolin-1 in VEGF-stimulated ASM cells. RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. Additionally, VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2, but not that of Akt. Furthermore, RXM treatment inhibits VEGF-induced activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation of caveolin-1 in a dose-dependent manner. RXM also inhibited TGF-β-induced VEGF secretion by ASM cells and BEAS-2B cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that RXM inhibits VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation by suppression of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2 activation and caveolin-1 down-regulation, which may be involved in airway remodelling. Further elucidation of the mechanisms underlying these observations should enable the development of treatments for smooth muscle hyperplasia-associated diseases of the airway such as asthma. - Highlights: • RXM inhibited VEGF-induced ASM cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest. • VEGF-induced cell proliferation was suppressed by inhibiting the activity of ERK1/2. • RXM inhibits activation of VEGFR2 and ERK and downregulation

  11. Systemic anti-tumor necrosis factor antibody treatment exacerbates endotoxin-induced uveitis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, A. F.; van Haren, M. A.; Verhagen, C.; Hoekzema, R.; Kijlstra, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor is released in the circulation and aqueous humor during endotoxin-induced uveitis, and induces acute uveitis when injected intraocularly in rats. To elucidate the role of tumor necrosis factor in the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis we analysed the effect of

  12. Application of induced short-term hyperglycemia in comprehensive treatment of locally disseminated cancer of mammary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letyagin, V.P.; Poddubnyj, I.K.; Sokolova, I.G.; Ermilova, V.D.; Ajtakova, T.I.

    1984-01-01

    The paper deals with an analysis of the results of treatment of 12 patients with mammary gland cancer receiving preoperative radiation and chemotherapy and in whom short-term hyperglycemia was simultaneously induced. The peculiarities of the said modality and advantages offered by its application are discussed. The cases given the same treatment unaccompanied by hyperglycemia were in control. Since short-term hyperglycemia as a component of comprehensive treatment of mammary gland cancer resulted in a higher effectiveness of the latter, it merits attention and further studies

  13. Effect of subchronic caffeine treatment on MK-801-induced changes in locomotion, cognition and ataxia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, R V; Dall'Igna, O P; Tort, A B L; Schuh, J F; Neto, P F; Santos Gomes, M W; Souza, D O; Lara, D R

    2005-03-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists cause hyperlocomotion and cognitive deficits in rodents, and caffeine-tolerant mice show diminished locomotor response to NMDA receptor antagonists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subchronic caffeine treatment on MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion, ataxia and cognitive deficits, as well as amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion in mice. Mice were treated subchronically with caffeine (0, 0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/ml and 1, 3 and 7 days) and evaluated for locomotor activity, working memory (delayed alternation test), long-term memory (inhibitory avoidance task) and ataxia. Hyperlocomotion induced by MK-801 (0.25 mg/kg i.p.) was diminished after 3 days and almost abolished after 7 days of caffeine treatment at the 1 mg/ml dose, and this effect was also dose-dependent. Ataxia induced by 0.5 mg/kg MK-801 was not affected by caffeine treatment, but a short-lived hyperlocomotor effect was observed. Performance deficit in the inhibitory avoidance task induced by MK-801 (0.01 mg/kg) was prevented in mice treated with caffeine for 7 days at 1 mg/ml, and perseverative errors in the T-maze by MK-801 (0.4 mg/kg) were attenuated. The locomotor effect of amphetamine (5 mg/kg) was unaffected by subchronic caffeine treatment. The findings that hyperlocomotion and cognitive effects induced by MK-801 can be specifically influenced by reduced adenosinergic activity agree with a model of adenosine hypofunction in schizophrenia, since NMDA receptor antagonists are pharmacological models for this disorder.

  14. Putrescine treatment reverses α-tocopherol-induced desynchronization of polyamine and retinoid metabolism during rat liver regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Sánchez-Sevilla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pre-treatment with α-tocopherol inhibits progression of rat liver proliferation induced by partial hepatectomy (PH, by decreasing and/or desynchronizing cyclin D1 expression and activation into the nucleus, activation and nuclear translocation of STAT-1 and -3 proteins and altering retinoid metabolism. Interactions between retinoic acid and polyamines have been reported in the PH-induced rat liver regeneration. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of low dosage of α-tocopherol on PH-induced changes in polyamine metabolism. Methods This study evaluated the participation of polyamine synthesis and metabolism during α-tocopherol-induced inhibition of rat liver regeneration. In PH-rats (Wistar treated with α-tocopherol and putrescine, parameters indicative of cell proliferation, lipid peroxidation, ornithine decarboxylase expression (ODC, and polyamine levels, were determined. Results Pre-treatment with α-tocopherol to PH-animals exerted an antioxidant effect, shifting earlier the increased ODC activity and expression, temporally affecting polyamine synthesis and ornithine metabolism. Whereas administration of putrescine induced minor changes in PH-rats, the concomitant treatment actually counteracted most of adverse actions exerted by α-tocopherol on the remnant liver, restituting its proliferative potential, without changing its antioxidant effect. Putrescine administration to these rats was also associated with lower ODC expression and activity in the proliferating liver, but the temporally shifting in the amount of liver polyamines induced by α-tocopherol, was also “synchronized” by the putrescine administration. The latter is supported by the fact that a close relationship was observed between fluctuations of polyamines and retinoids. Conclusions Putrescine counteracted most adverse actions exerted by α-tocopherol on rat liver regeneration, restoring liver proliferative potential and restituting the decreased

  15. Chemotherapy-Induced and/or Radiation Therapy-Induced Oral Mucositis-Complicating the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddireddy Umameshwar Rao Naidu

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The term mucositis is coined to describe the adverse effects of radiation and chemotherapy treatments. Mucositis is one of the most common adverse reactions encountered in radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, as well as in chemotherapy, in particular with drugs affecting DNA synthesis (Sphase-specific agents such as fluorouracil, methotrexate, and cytarabine. Mucositis may limit the patient's ability to tolerate chemotherapy or radiation therapy, and nutritional status is compromised. It may drastically affect cancer treatment as well as the patient's quality of life. The incidence and severity of mucositis will vary from patient to patient. It will also vary from treatment to treatment. It is estimated that there is 40% incidence of mucositis in patients treated with standard chemotherapy and this will not only increase with the number of treatment cycles but also with previous episodes. Similarly, patients who undergo bone marrow transplantation and who receive high doses of chemotherapy have a 76% chance of getting mucositis. Patients receiving radiation, in particular to head and neck cancers, have a 30% to 60% chance. The exact pathophysiology of development is not known, but it is thought to be divided into direct and indirect mucositis. Chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy will interfere with the normal turnover of epithelial, cells leading to mucosal injury; subsequently, it can also occur due to indirect invasion of Gram-negative bacteria and fungal species because most of the cancer drugs will cause changes in blood counts. With the advancement in cytology, a more precise mechanism has been established. With this understanding, we can select and target particular mediators responsible for the mucositis. Risk factors such as age, nutritional status, type of malignancy, and oral care during treatment will play important roles in the development of mucositis. Many treatment options are available to prevent and treat this

  16. Oestrus synchronization treatment induces histomorphological changes on the uterine tube epithelium of the gilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Mosqueda, M L; Anzaldúa Arce, S R; Palma Lara, I; García Dalmán, C; Cornejo Cortés, M A; Córdova Izquierdo, A; Villaseñor Gaona, H; Trujillo Ortega, M E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the histomorphological changes that occurred in response to two treatments for oestrus synchronization in three different regions of the gilt's uterine tubes epithelium: the ampulla (AMP), ampulla-isthmic junction (AIJ) and isthmus (IST). Nine prepuberal gilts were divided into three groups (n = 3): (1) eCG 400 IU and hCG 200 IU (eCG/hCG), (2) progesterone agonist (P4) and (3) control group. The number of secretory cells (stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction or PAS-positive cells) decreased in the AMP in the P4 treated group when compared to the control group, whereas, no difference was observed in the number of PAS-negative cells in the AMP of the three groups. A significant decrease in the number of PAS-positive cells was observed in the AIJ and IST of the P4 treated group when compared to the eCG/hCG and control groups. An increase in the number of PAS-negative cells was observed in the AIJ and IST in the P4 treated group. The epithelium height in the AMP and AIJ was increased in the eCG/hCG group when compared to the control and P4 groups. In this last group, we observed a reduced height compared with the other two groups for the AIJ. In the IST, there were no significant changes in the epithelium height of the control or the other two groups (eCG/hCG and P4). The epithelial cells of the P4 treated group had the least amount of cytoplasmic granules and the lowest intensity of PAS staining in the AMP, AIJ and IST. Animals treated with eCG/hCG showed an intermediate number of cytoplasmic granules and intensity in all regions evaluated. These data show that P4 treatment for synchronization induces a significant (P epithelium. Moreover, eCG/hCG treatment increased the height of the epithelium in the AMP and AIJ, while in this last region, the P4 treatment decreased the epithelium height. These results show that synchronization treatments with P4 and in a smaller proportion with eCG/hCG can modify the amount of PAS

  17. Ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia as a life-threatening complication of antibiotic treatment of 'chronic Lyme disease'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Maarten; Speeckaert, Marijn; Callens, Rutger; Van Biesen, Wim

    2017-04-01

    'Chronic Lyme disease' is a controversial condition. As any hard evidence is lacking that unresolved systemic symptoms, following an appropriately diagnosed and treated Lyme disease, are related to a chronic infection with the tick-borne spirochaetes of the Borrelia genus, the term 'chronic Lyme disease' should be avoided and replaced by the term 'post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome.' The improper prescription of prolonged antibiotic treatments for these patients can have an impact on the community antimicrobial resistance and on the consumption of health care resources. Moreover, these treatments can be accompanied by severe complications. In this case report, we describe a life-threatening ceftriaxone-induced immune hemolytic anemia with an acute kidney injury (RIFLE-stadium F) due to a pigment-induced nephropathy in a 76-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with a so-called 'chronic Lyme disease.'

  18. Sustained Low-Dose Treatment with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor LBH589 Induces Terminal Differentiation of Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Cain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi were identified nearly four decades ago based on their ability to induce cellular differentiation. However, the clinical development of these compounds as cancer therapies has focused on their capacity to induce apoptosis in hematologic and lymphoid malignancies, often in combination with conventional cytotoxic agents. In many cases, HDACi doses necessary to induce these effects result in significant toxicity. Since osteosarcoma cells express markers of terminal osteoblast differentiation in response to DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, we reasoned that the epigenetic reprogramming capacity of HDACi might be exploited for therapeutic benefit. Here, we show that continuous exposure of osteosarcoma cells to low concentrations of HDACi LBH589 (Panobinostat over a three-week period induces terminal osteoblast differentiation and irreversible senescence without inducing cell death. Remarkably, transcriptional profiling revealed that HDACi therapy initiated gene signatures characteristic of chondrocyte and adipocyte lineages in addition to marked upregulation of mature osteoblast markers. In a mouse xenograft model, continuous low dose treatment with LBH589 induced a sustained cytostatic response accompanied by induction of mature osteoblast gene expression. These data suggest that the remarkable capacity of osteosarcoma cells to differentiate in response to HDACi therapy could be exploited for therapeutic benefit without inducing systemic toxicity.

  19. Low-level laser treatment accelerated hair regrowth in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikramanayake, Tongyu Cao; Villasante, Alexandra C; Mauro, Lucia M; Nouri, Keyvan; Schachner, Lawrence A; Perez, Carmen I; Jimenez, Joaquin J

    2013-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is one of the most distressing side effects of antineoplastic chemotherapy for which there is no effective interventional approach. A low-level laser (LLL) device, the HairMax LaserComb®, has been cleared by the FDA to treat androgenetic alopecia. Its effects may be extended to other settings; we have demonstrated that LaserComb treatment induced hair regrowth in a mouse model for alopecia areata. In the current study, we tested whether LLL treatment could promote hair regrowth in a rat model for CIA. Chemotherapy agents cyclophosphamide, etoposide, or a combination of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin were administered in young rats to induce alopecia, with or without LLL treatment. As expected, 7-10 days later, all the rats developed full body alopecia. However, rats receiving laser treatment regrew hair 5 days earlier than rats receiving chemotherapy alone or sham laser treatment (with the laser turned off). The accelerated hair regrowth in laser-treated rats was confirmed by histology. In addition, LLL treatment did not provide local protection to subcutaneously injected Shay chloroleukemic cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that LLL treatment significantly accelerated hair regrowth after CIA without compromising the efficacy of chemotherapy in our rat model. Our results suggest that LLL should be explored for the treatment of CIA in clinical trials because LLL devices for home use (such as the HairMax LaserComb®) provide a user-friendly and noninvasive approach that could be translated to increased patient compliance and improved efficacy.

  20. Protection afforded by pre- or post-treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate against liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Miyata, Keishi; Tomishima, Yoshiro; Kondo, Yuki; Irikura, Mitsuru; Iwawaki, Takao; Oike, Yuichi; Irie, Tetsumi

    2014-09-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) is a widely used analgesic/antipyretic drug with few adverse effects at therapeutic doses; suicidal or unintentional overdose of APAP frequently induces severe hepatotoxicity. To explore a new and effective antidote for APAP hepatotoxicity, this study examined the effects of sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) on liver injury induced by APAP overdose in mice. Liver injury was induced in C57BL/6 male mice by intraperitoneal injection of APAP (400mg/kg). The effects of 4-PBA (100-200mg/kg) treatment at 1h before the APAP injection were evaluated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and blood ammonia levels, hepatic pathological changes, including histopathology, DNA damage, nitrotyrosine formation, and mRNA or protein expression involved in the development of hepatotoxicity, such as X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (Bim). In addition, glutathione depletion and CYP2E1 protein expression, which are measures of the metabolic conversion of APAP to a toxic metabolite, were examined. Furthermore, we examined the effects of post-treatment with 4-PBA against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. When administered at 1h before APAP injection, 4-PBA significantly prevented the increase in serum ALT and blood ammonia levels, centrilobular necrosis of hepatocytes, DNA fragmentation, and nitrotyrosine formation induced by APAP in mice. 4-PBA also inhibited hepatic Xbp1 mRNA splicing and JNK phosphorylation induced by APAP, but did not suppress CHOP and Bim mRNA and protein expression. In addition, 4-PBA had little effect on hepatic glutathione depletion and CYP2E1 expression, parameters of toxic APAP metabolite production. Post-treatment with 4-PBA administration at 1 or 2h after APAP injection also attenuated the increase in serum ALT and blood ammonia levels and hepatic pathological changes in APAP-induced

  1. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  2. KB-R7943 reduces 4-aminopyridine-induced epileptiform activity in adult rats after neuronal damage induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ojeda, Mariana; Ureña-Guerrero, Monica E; Gutierrez-Barajas, Paola E; Cardenas-Castillo, Jazmin A; Camins, Antoni; Beas-Zarate, Carlos

    2017-05-09

    Neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment triggers excitotoxicity and induces a degenerative process that affects several brain regions in a way that could lead to epileptogenesis. Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX1-3) are implicated in Ca 2+ brain homeostasis; normally, they extrude Ca 2+ to control cell inflammation, but after damage and in epilepsy, they introduce Ca 2+ by acting in the reverse mode, amplifying the damage. Changes in NCX3 expression in the hippocampus have been reported immediately after neonatal MSG treatment. In this study, the expression level of NCX1-3 in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus (Hp); and the effects of blockade of NCXs on the seizures induced by 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) were analysed in adult rats after neonatal MSG treatment. KB-R7943 was applied as NCXs blocker, but is more selective to NCX3 in reverse mode. Neonatal MSG treatment was applied to newborn male rats at postnatal days (PD) 1, 3, 5, and 7 (4 g/kg of body weight, s.c.). Western blot analysis was performed on total protein extracts from the EC and Hp to estimate the expression level of NCX1-3 proteins in relative way to the expression of β-actin, as constitutive protein. Electrographic activity of the EC and Hp were acquired before and after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of 4-AP (3 nmol) and KB-R7943 (62.5 pmol), alone or in combination. All experiments were performed at PD60. Behavioural alterations were also recorder. Neonatal MSG treatment significantly increased the expression of NCX3 protein in both studied regions, and NCX1 protein only in the EC. The 4-AP-induced epileptiform activity was significantly higher in MSG-treated rats than in controls, and KB-R7943 co-administered with 4-AP reduced the epileptiform activity in more prominent way in MSG-treated rats than in controls. The long-term effects of neonatal MSG treatment include increases on functional expression of NCXs (mainly of NCX3) in the EC and Hp, which seems to contribute to

  3. Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2002-12-01

    It is well documented that ultraviolet (UV) light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress play an important role in the induction of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), to mouse skin prevents photocarcinogenesis, but the preventive mechanism of photocarcinogenesis in vivo animal system by silymarin is not well defined and understood. To define the mechanism of prevention, we employed immunostaining, analytical assays and ELISA which revealed that topical treatment of silymarin (1 mg/cm2 skin area) to C3H/HeN mice inhibits UVB (90 mJ/cm2)-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to contact sensitizer dinitrofluorobenzene. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of CHS by silymarin was found to be associated with the inhibition of infiltrating leukocytes, particularly CD11b+ cell type, and myeloperoxidase activity (50-71%). Silymarin treatment also resulted in significant reduction of UVB-induced immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 producing cells and its production (58-72%, pskin cancer risk human population and ii) development of sunscreen containing silymarin as an antioxidant (chemopreventive agent) or silymarin can be supplemented in skin care products.

  4. Apoptosis inducer NGFI-B is degraded by the proteasome and stabilized by treatment with EGF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Bjorn O. [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Paulsen, Ragnhild E., E-mail: r.e.paulsen@farmasi.uio.no [Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NGFI-B is a molecular target for some anti-cancer drugs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NGFI-B turnover may be important for their anti-cancer action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NGFI-B is degraded by the proteasome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NGFI-B is stabilized by treatment with EGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mimicking the EGF-induced phosphorylation also stabilizes the protein. -- Abstract: NGFI-B is a nuclear receptor and immediate early gene that is upregulated in many different tumour cell lines. As it is involved in cell death and survival, it has been suggested as a target for anti-cancer drugs. The protein level of NGFI-B is important for its functions and may be regulated through induction or stabilization. NGFI-B protein stability was studied using the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide in CV1 cells transiently transfected with NGFI-B. Inhibiting the proteasome with MG132 stabilized NGFI-B, indicating that the proteasome is responsible for break-down of NGFI-B, as it is for many nuclear receptors. In order to determine regions responsible for the break-down of NGFI-B two N-terminal regions with high PEST-scores were deleted. Deletion of amino acids 122-195 containing a PEST-sequence which includes an ERK2 phosphorylation target, gave a more stable protein. In addition, treatment of the cells with the ERK2 activator EGF increased the stability of wild type NGFI-B. We then tested whether a mutation at threonine 142 influenced the stability of NGFI-B. We found that the phosphorylation-mimicking mutant NGFI-B T142E had an increased stability, while the non-phosphorylable mutant (T142A) showed similar stability to the wild type. Thus, EGF-stimulation of cells may be a mechanism for priming the cells for effects of NGFI-B by increasing its stability.

  5. Prophylaxis and treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral lesions in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denga O.V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the efficacy of developed multimodality therapy and prophylaxis of complications of chemotherapy in the oral cavity of patients with breast cancer. We studied activity of elastase, lysozyme, catalase, urease, malondialdehyde content and the degree of dysbiosis in the oral fluid of patients with breast cancer after chemotherapy, dental prophylaxis, professional oral hygiene and accompanying multimodality therapy. At baseline elastase activity was above normal by 4 times. In 1 month it decreased by 2.1 times. After 6 months it decreased to normal level. The primary analysis showed a decrease of lysozyme activity by 9 times. After 1 month it increased by 4.4 times, and after 6 months – by 9.7 times. At baseline urease activity was several times higher than normal level. After 1 month it decreased by 49.0%, and after 6 months - up to the normal level. The degree of dysbiosis (DD in the oral cavity revealed a very high values of this parameter (mean - 46. After 6 months DD was 1.5. At ba¬seline catalase activity was low. After 1 month it increased by 4.3 times, and then it correspond to the normal values. At baseline the content of malondialdehyde (MDA was increased by 66.7%. After 1 month it decreased by 40.4% and corresponded to normal values. After 3 and 6 months the rate remained at a low level. Study showed a high therapeutic efficacy of the proposed multimodality therapy. The scheme can be used for treatment of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Activated Carbon-Induced Constipation Mice with Lactobacillus fermentum Suo on Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayi Suo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus fermentum Suo (LF-Suo on activated carbon-induced constipation in ICR (Institute of Cancer Research mice. ICR mice were orally administered with lactic acid bacteria for 9 days. Body weight, diet intake, drinking amount, defecation status, gastrointestinal transit and defecation time, and the serum levels of MTL (motilin, Gas (gastrin, ET (endothelin, SS (somatostatin, AChE (acetylcholinesterase, SP (substance P, VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide were used to evaluate the preventive effects of LF-Suo on constipation. Bisacodyl, a laxative drug, was used as a positive control. The normal, control, 100 mg/kg bisacodyl treatment, LB (Lactobacillus bulgaricus-, LF-Suo (L- and LF-Suo (H-treated mice showed the time to the first black stool defecation at 90, 218, 117, 180, 155 and 137 min, respectively. By the oral administration of LB-, LF-Suo (L, LF-Suo (H or bisacodyl (100 mg/kg, the gastrointestinal transit was reduced to 55.2%, 72.3%, 85.5% and 94.6%, respectively, of the transit in normal mice, respectively. In contrast to the control mice, the serum levels of MTL, Gas, ET, AChE, SP and VIP were significantly increased and the serum levels of SS were reduced in the mice treated with LF-Suo (p < 0.05. By the RT-PCR (reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and western blot assays, LF-Suo increased the c-Kit, SCF (stem cell factor, GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and decreased TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, NOS (nitric oxide synthase expressions of small intestine tissue in mice. These results demonstrate that lactic acid bacteria has preventive effects on mouse constipation and LF-Suo demonstrated the best functional activity.

  7. Efficacy of the paramunity inducer PIND-ORF in the treatment of canine parvovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Unterer, S; Truyen, U; Hartmann, K

    2014-11-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is a common and severe disease particularly affecting young dogs. The paramunity inducer PIND-ORF is reported to stimulate the innate immune system and, if used as a supplementary medication, might lead to a more rapid improvement in clinical signs in dogs with CPV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of PIND-ORF in dogs with CPV infection in a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial using 38 dogs randomly assigned to two groups. Inclusion criteria were clinical signs consistent with CPV infection and a positive faecal CPV PCR. Dogs received either PIND-ORF (n = 20) or placebo (n = 18) and additional symptomatic treatment. Time to recovery and mortality rate were compared between the two groups. Clinical signs, complete blood counts (CBC), and serum protein and albumin concentrations were evaluated daily during hospitalisation and on day 14. Viral shedding and antibody titres were measured by faecal CPV PCR and serum neutralisation assay. There was no significant difference in time to recovery, clinical signs, blood parameters, duration of virus shedding, and antibody titres between the two groups. The only significant difference was an increase in lymphocyte counts and antibody titres observed in the PIND-ORF group only. Three dogs receiving placebo did not survive, but the mortality rate was not significantly different between groups (P = 0.097). No significant effect of PIND-ORF on recovery and outcome could be demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Photon Induced Photoacoustic Streaming for Removal of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Laky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium hydroxide removal from the root canal by photon induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS compared to needle irrigation and irrigation using sonic activation was investigated. Additionally, safety issues regarding apical extrusion were addressed. In endodontic treatment temporary intracanal medication like calcium hydroxide should be completely removed for long term success. For analysis, 60 artificial teeth were prepared, filled with calcium hydroxide, and divided into four groups. The teeth were assigned to needle irrigation, irrigation using a sonic device, PIPS with a lower energy setting (10 mJ, 15 Hz, or PIPS with a higher energy setting (25 mJ/40 Hz. For comparison the weight of each tooth was measured before and after calcium hydroxide incorporation, as well as after removing calcium hydroxide using the four different methods. Regarding safety issues another 24 samples were filled with stained calcium hydroxide and embedded in 0.4% agarose gel. Color changes in the agarose gel due to apical extrusion were digitally analysed using Photoshop. No significant differences were found for calcium hydroxide removal between the two laser groups. Sonic assisted removal and needle irrigation resulted in significant less calcium hydroxide removal than both laser groups, with significantly more calcium hydroxide removal in the ultrasonic group than in the needle irrigation group. For apical extrusion the higher laser (25 mJ/40 Hz group resulted in significant higher color changes of the periapical gel than all other groups. PIPS with the setting of 10 mJ/15 Hz achieved almost complete removal of calcium hydroxide without increasing apical extrusion of the irrigation solution.

  9. The observational study on the graves disease recurrence after the replacement therapy of hypothyroid induced by 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuting; Rui Donghong; Jin Gang

    2011-01-01

    This article used multi-factor revisiting observation method on the patients who had hypothyroid induced by 131 I treatment and then recurred hyperthyroid to find some relative factors, 18 cases of re-hyperthyroidism was compared with 30 cases without hyperthyroid recurrence. All of the patients were given thyroxine when they got hypothyroid after 131 I treatment. Through 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following-up study, the levels of TGAb and TPOAb, clinical signs, mental state, living environment, strength of their labor, mood changes, daily habits, health were analyzed retrospectively. The t-test and χ 2 test were used to analyze the influencing factors. The results showed that the TGAb and TPOAb levels in hyperthyroid recurrence group had no statistic significance with patients without hyperthyroid recurrence group (P>0.05); 131 I dose and the age in two groups had not statistic significance (P>0.05). The thyroxine substitution treatment time and mood change in two groups had statistic significance (P>0.05). Through thyroxine substitution treatment, hyperthyroid may recur in the patients who have hypothyroid induced by 131 I treatment, which may be related with early thyroxine substitution treatment and big mood change. (authors)

  10. High level of oxygen treatment causes cardiotoxicity with arrhythmias and redox modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C.; Panguluri, Siva K. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Bennett, Eric S. [Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Kolliputi, Narasaiah [Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Tipparaju, Srinivas M., E-mail: stippara@health.usf.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxia exposure in mice leads to cardiac hypertrophy and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel remodeling. Because redox balance of pyridine nucleotides affects Kv function and hyperoxia alters cellular redox potential, we hypothesized that hyperoxia exposure leads to cardiac ion channel disturbances and redox changes resulting in arrhythmias. In the present study, we investigated the electrical changes and redox abnormalities caused by 72 h hyperoxia treatment in mice. Cardiac repolarization changes were assessed by acquiring electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac action potentials (AP). Biochemical assays were employed to identify the pyridine nucleotide changes, Kv1.5 expression and myocardial injury. Hyperoxia treatment caused marked bradycardia, arrhythmia and significantly prolonged (ms) the, RR (186.2 ± 10.7 vs. 146.4 ± 6.2), PR (46.8 ± 3.1 vs. 39.3 ± 1.6), QRS (10.8 ± 0.6 vs. 8.5 ± 0.2), QTc (57.1 ± 3.5 vs. 40 ± 1.4) and JT (13.4 ± 2.1 vs. 7.0 ± 0.5) intervals, when compared with normoxia group. Hyperoxia treatment also induced significant increase in cardiac action potential duration (APD) (ex-APD{sub 90}; 73.8 ± 9.5 vs. 50.9 ± 3.1 ms) and elevated levels of serum markers of myocardial injury; cardiac troponin I (TnI) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Hyperoxia exposure altered cardiac levels of mRNA/protein expression of; Kv1.5, Kvβ subunits and SiRT1, and increased ratios of reduced pyridine nucleotides (NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP). Inhibition of SiRT1 in H9C2 cells using Splitomicin resulted in decreased SiRT1 and Kv1.5 expression, suggesting that SiRT1 may mediate Kv1.5 downregulation. In conclusion, the cardiotoxic effects of hyperoxia exposure involve ion channel disturbances and redox changes resulting in arrhythmias. - Highlights: • Hyperoxia treatment leads to arrhythmia with prolonged QTc and action potential duration. • Hyperoxia treatment alters cardiac pyridine nucleotide [NAD(P)H/NAD(P)] levels. • SiRT1 and Kv1.5 are co

  11. High level of oxygen treatment causes cardiotoxicity with arrhythmias and redox modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C.; Panguluri, Siva K.; Bennett, Eric S.; Kolliputi, Narasaiah; Tipparaju, Srinivas M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxia exposure in mice leads to cardiac hypertrophy and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel remodeling. Because redox balance of pyridine nucleotides affects Kv function and hyperoxia alters cellular redox potential, we hypothesized that hyperoxia exposure leads to cardiac ion channel disturbances and redox changes resulting in arrhythmias. In the present study, we investigated the electrical changes and redox abnormalities caused by 72 h hyperoxia treatment in mice. Cardiac repolarization changes were assessed by acquiring electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac action potentials (AP). Biochemical assays were employed to identify the pyridine nucleotide changes, Kv1.5 expression and myocardial injury. Hyperoxia treatment caused marked bradycardia, arrhythmia and significantly prolonged (ms) the, RR (186.2 ± 10.7 vs. 146.4 ± 6.2), PR (46.8 ± 3.1 vs. 39.3 ± 1.6), QRS (10.8 ± 0.6 vs. 8.5 ± 0.2), QTc (57.1 ± 3.5 vs. 40 ± 1.4) and JT (13.4 ± 2.1 vs. 7.0 ± 0.5) intervals, when compared with normoxia group. Hyperoxia treatment also induced significant increase in cardiac action potential duration (APD) (ex-APD 90 ; 73.8 ± 9.5 vs. 50.9 ± 3.1 ms) and elevated levels of serum markers of myocardial injury; cardiac troponin I (TnI) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Hyperoxia exposure altered cardiac levels of mRNA/protein expression of; Kv1.5, Kvβ subunits and SiRT1, and increased ratios of reduced pyridine nucleotides (NADH/NAD and NADPH/NADP). Inhibition of SiRT1 in H9C2 cells using Splitomicin resulted in decreased SiRT1 and Kv1.5 expression, suggesting that SiRT1 may mediate Kv1.5 downregulation. In conclusion, the cardiotoxic effects of hyperoxia exposure involve ion channel disturbances and redox changes resulting in arrhythmias. - Highlights: • Hyperoxia treatment leads to arrhythmia with prolonged QTc and action potential duration. • Hyperoxia treatment alters cardiac pyridine nucleotide [NAD(P)H/NAD(P)] levels. • SiRT1 and Kv1.5 are co-regulated in

  12. Influence of very short patch mismatch repair on SOS inducing lesions after aminoglycoside treatment in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharoglu, Zeynep; Mazel, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Low concentrations of aminoglycosides induce the SOS response in Vibrio cholerae but not in Escherichia coli. In order to determine whether a specific factor present in E. coli prevents this induction, we developed a genetic screen where only SOS inducing mutants are viable. We identified the vsr gene coding for the Vsr protein of the very short patch mismatch repair (VSPR) pathway. The effect of mismatch repair (MMR) mutants was also studied. We propose that lesions formed upon aminoglycoside treatment are preferentially repaired by VSPR without SOS induction in E. coli and by MMR when VSPR is impaired. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Pentoxifylline and vitamin E for treatment or prevention of radiation-induced fibrosis in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Marks, Lawrence B; Jones, Ellen L

    2018-04-23

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an important role in the management of breast cancer. Radiation-induced fibrosis is a side effect of radiation therapy and may occur in up to 13% of the cases in patients (Radiother Oncol, 2009;90:80), fortunately usually is modest/localized and not associated with marked symptoms. However, occasionally, fibrosis can be moderate-to-severe, and cause clinically-meaningful symptoms. The current review summarizes the use of pentoxifylline and vitamin E of treatment or prevention of radiation-induced fibrosis in breast cancer patients. Even though data are limited, this regimen may reduce RT-associated toxicity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A case of all-trans retinoic acid-induced myositis in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K H; Yuen, S L S; Joshua, D

    2005-12-01

    The use of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is now standard therapy for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APML). There have been increasing reports of ATRA-induced myositis, with its frequent association with retinoic acid syndrome and Sweet's syndrome. We report a case of a young man with APML who developed ATRA-induced myositis characterized by unexplained fevers, bilateral leg swelling and a non-painful purpuric, petechial rash, with prompt resolution of symptoms and signs with high-dose steroids and cessation of ATRA. Rapid recognition of this adverse reaction and prompt institution of steroids is of prime importance given its potentially fatal course.

  15. Treatment of Radix Dipsaci extract prevents long bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in hindlimb unloading rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yinbo; Li, Chenrui; Pan, Yalei; Li, Yuhua; Kong, Xianghe; Wang, Shuo; Zhai, YuanKun; Wu, Xianglong; Fan, Wutu; Mei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Radix Dipsaci is a kidney tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use for treatment of bone fractures and joint diseases in China. Previous studies have shown that Radix Dipsaci extract (RDE) could prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats. This study investigates the effect of RDE against bone loss induced by simulated microgravity. A hindlimb unloading rat model was established to determine the effect of RDE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): control (CON), hindlimb unloading with vehicle (HLU), hindlimb unloading treated with alendronate (HLU-ALN, 2.0 mg/kg/d), and hindlimb unloading treated with RDE (HLU-RDE, 500 mg/kg/d). RDE or ALN was administrated orally for 4 weeks. Treatment with RDE had a positive effect on mechanical strength, BMD, BMC, bone turnover markers, and the changes in urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion. MicroCT analysis showed that RDE significantly prevented the reduction of the bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, tissue mineral density, and tissue mineral content as well as improved the trabecular separation and structure model index. RDE was demonstrated to prevent the loss of bone mass induced by HLU treatment, which suggests the potential application of RDE in the treatment of microgravity-induced bone loss.

  16. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Induced by Carbamazepine Treatment in a Patient Who Previously Had Carbamazepine Induced Pruritus - A Case Report -

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Hyun Min; Park, Yoo Jung; Kim, Young Hoon; Moon, Dong Eon

    2013-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare but life-threatening skin reaction disease and carbamazepine is one of its most common causes. We report a case of SJS secondary to carbamazepine in a patient with previous pruritus due to carbamazepine which was given for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. We would like to caution all providers that carbamazepine readministration should be avoided in the patient with a previous history of SJS or adverse skin reaction. In addition, we strongly recommen...

  17. A survey on the effects of Azithromycin in the treatment of gingival overgrowth induced by Cyclosporin in renal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadkhoda Z.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Gingival overgrowth is a side effect commonly induced by Cyclosporin treatment. The effects of Azithromycin, a macrolidic antibiotic, has been focused on gingival enlargement treatment induced by cyclosporine in numerous articles. Purpose: The goal of the present study was to survey the effects of systemic Azithromycin in the treatment of gingival overgrowth induced by cyclosporine among renal transplant patients. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 18 renal transplant patients (6 females and 12 males with gingival overgrowth were studied. Samples were randomly divided into two groups: case group were treated by systemic Azithromycin and controls were treated by systemic placebo. Periodontal parameters including bleeding on probing (BOP, clinical crown length (CL, periodontal pocket depth (PPD, gingival overgrowth (GOI and stent-IDP (vertical distant between a stent or plate with teeth occlusal planes at least from three of the most anterior contact points to mesial papillae before treatment, two and six weeks after treatment were measured. To analyze the data, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Results: Most of the measured indices, among case and control groups, were significantly improved, after two weeks (P<0.05. No statistically significant differences were found between two groups except for BOP index (P<0.05. In other words, more BOP improvement was observed in the case group after six weeks comparing to the control group. Conclusion: Considering the findings of this study, one can assume that the reported effects of Azithromycine on gingival overgrowth, induced by cyclosporine is somehow exaggerated and the effects attributed this medicine is probably inflammation reduction.

  18. [Clinical investigation on treatment of integrated traditional and Western medicine in hyperthyroidism with leukocytopenia induced by sulfourea drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W

    1998-01-01

    To seek for a safe and effective drug to treat hyperthyroidism. Sixty cases of hyperthyroidism with leukocytopenia induced by sulfourea drugs were divided into treatment and control groups by 31 cases who were treated by traditional medicine Syndrome Differentiation and 29 cases who were treated by conventional western medicine alone respectively at random. They were estimated by total effective rate, major symptoms, WBC and immunological tests after four weeks. The total effective rate in the treatment group (96.8%) was more effective than that in the control group (86.2%, P symptom recovery rate in the treatment group was better than that in the control group. The WBC in both were all increased, but in the treatment group, it was better than that in the control group (P symptoms and immune function, but also increase WBC by using western medicine in combination with traditional medicine in treating hyperthyroidism.

  19. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK-dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas T.; Schjerling, Peter; Goodyear, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Metformin-induced activation of the 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent on AMPK signaling. Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given to muscle-specific kinase dead (KD) AMPKα2 mice and wild-type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 wk. Soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot analyses. Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (∼45%, P metformin treatment. Insulin signaling at the level of Akt and TBC1D4 protein expression as well as Akt Thr308/Ser473 and TBC1D4 Thr642/Ser711 phosphorylation were not changed by metformin treatment. Also, protein expressions of Rab4, GLUT4, and hexokinase II were unaltered after treatment. The acute metformin treatment did not affect glucose uptake in muscle of either of the genotypes. In conclusion, we provide novel evidence for a role of AMPK in potentiating the effect of insulin on glucose uptake in soleus muscle in response to chronic metformin treatment. PMID:24644243

  20. Combined Treatment with Hyaluronic Acid and Mesalamine Protects Rats from Inflammatory Bowel Disease Induced by Intracolonic Administration of Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Tung Chiu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drugs such as mesalamine (5-ASA are currently recommended for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. To reduce the frequency of their administration and improve their therapeutic effect, this study investigated the adhesion efficacy, wound healing promotion, and decrease in inflammation in ulcers in the colonic tissue of rats with colitis after combined treatment with hyaluronic acid (HA and 5-ASA (IBD98-M. HA-fluoresceinamine (FL conjugates successfully adhered to the mucosal layer and were conjugated in the vascular tissue. In addition, macroscopic and microscopic observations indicated that colonic injuries reduced significantly after treatment with IBD98-M. Compared with PBS and 5-ASA treatment alone, treatment with IBD98-M more effectively reduced bowel inflammation and promoted colonic mucosal healing in TNBS-induced colitis. IBD98-M treatment also reduced myeloperoxidase activity and the expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 and tumor necrosis factor-αin the colitis tissue. In conclusion, IBD98-M treatment strongly promoted wound healing in colonic injuries and significantly inhibited MPO activity in the inflamed colon tissue of rats. Combined treatment with HA and 5-ASA can accelerate wound healing and reduce inflammatory reaction in rat colitis.

  1. [Tranexamic acid as first-line emergency treatment for episodes of bradykinin-mediated angioedema induced by ACE inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchêne, C; Martins-Héricher, J; Denis, D; Martin, L; Maillard, H

    2018-05-04

    Episodes of acquired bradykinin-mediated angioedema due to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may result in fatal outcomes. There is no consensus regarding emergency pharmacological management of these episodes. Treatment options include icatibant and C1INH concentrate. Tranexamic acid is administered for moderate episodes. Its efficacy in the treatment of ACE inhibitor-induced episodes of angioedema is not established. The aim of this retrospective study is to assess the benefits of emergency tranexamic acid administration in the management of ACE inhibitor-induced episodes of angioedema. Retrospective analysis of the medical files of patients who consulted between 2010 and 2016 in two French tertiary care hospitals for a bradykinic angioedema attributed to an ACE treatment. All of them had received tranexamic acid as a first line treatment. Thirty three patients who had experienced severe episode of angioedema were included. Twenty seven patients showed significant improvement when treated with tranexamic acid alone. The six remaining patients were treated with icatibant (5/33) or C1INH concentrate (1/33), due to partial improvement after tranexamic acid therapy. None of the patients were intubated, no fatalities were recorded and no side effects were reported. Tranexamic acid is an easily accessible and affordable therapy that may provide effective treatment for ACE inhibitor-induced episodes of angioedema. It may help while waiting for a more specific treatment (icatibant and C1INH concentrate) that is at times unavailable in emergency departments. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating the dosimetric effect of treatment-induced changes in virally mediated head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Elizabeth; Owen, Rebecca; Mengersen, Kerrie; Harden, Fiona; Porceddu, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    Patients with virally mediated head and neck cancer (VMHNC) often present with advanced nodal disease that is highly radioresponsive as demonstrated by tumour and nodal regression during treatment. The resultant changes may impact on the planned dose distribution and so adversely affect the therapeutic ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric effect of treatment-induced anatomical changes in VMHNC patients who had undergone a replan. Thirteen patients with virally mediated oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal cancer who presented for definitive radiotherapy between 2005 and 2010 and who had a replan generated were investigated. The dosimetric effect of anatomical changes was quantified by comparing dose–volume histograms (DVH) of primary and nodal gross target volumes and organs at risk (OAR), including spinal cord and parotid glands, from the original plan and a comparison plan. Eleven three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and two intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were evaluated. Dose to the spinal cord and brainstem increased by 4.1% and 2.6%, respectively. Mean dose to the parotid glands also increased by 3.5%. In contrast, the dose received by 98% of the primary and nodal gross tumour volumes decreased by 0.15% and 0.3%, respectively, when comparing the initial treatment plan to the comparison plan. In this study, treatment-induced anatomical changes had the greatest impact on OAR dose with negligible effect on the dose to nodal gross tumour volumes. In the era of IMRT, accounting for treatment-induced anatomical changes is important as focus is placed on minimizing the acute and long-term side effects of treatment

  3. Tenogenically induced allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie eVandenberghe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Suspensory ligament injuries are a common injury in sport horses, especially in competing dressage horses. Because of the poor healing of chronic recalcitrant tendon injuries, this represents a major problem in the rehabilitation of sport horses and often compromises the return to the initial performance level. Stem cells are considered as a novel treatment for different pathologies in horses and humans. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are well known for their use in the treatment of tendinopathies, however, recent studies report a safe use of allogeneic MSCs for different orthopaedic applications in horses. Moreover, it has been reported that predifferentiation of MSCs prior to injection might result in improved clinical outcomes. For all these reasons, the present case report describes the use of allogeneic tenogenically induced peripheral blood-derived MSCs for the treatment of a proximal suspensory ligament injury. During conservative management for 4 months, the horse demonstrated no improvement of a right front lameness with a Grade 2/5 on the AAEP scale and a clear hypo-echoic area detectable in 30% of the cross sectional area. From 4 weeks after treatment, the lameness reduced to an AAEP Grade 1/5 and a clear filling of the lesion could be noticed on ultrasound. At 12 weeks (T4 after the first injection, a second intralesional injection with allogeneic tenogenically induced MSCs and PRP was given and at 4 weeks after the second injection (T5, the horse trotted sound under all circumstances with a close to total fiber alignment. The horse went back to previous performance level at 32 weeks after the first regenerative therapy and is currently still doing so (i.e. 20 weeks later or 1 year after the first stem cell treatment.In conclusion, the present case report demonstrated a positive evolution of proximal suspensory ligament desmitis after treatment with allogeneic tenogenically induced MSCs.

  4. Flow- and acetylcholine-induced dilation in small arteries from rats with renovascular hypertension - effect of tempol treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frank Holden; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Hansen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    -treated animals, while only the relaxation was improved by the NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP). In conclusion renovascular hypertension selectively inhibits flow-induced NO-mediated vasodilatation, while EDHF-type vasodilatation remains unaffected, suggesting that high blood pressure leads...... blood pressure and tempol treatment. Simultaneous measurements of NO-concentration and relaxation were performed in isolated coronary arteries from the same animals. As compared to vehicle-treated rats, both acetylcholine-induced relaxation and NO-concentration increased in arteries from tempol......-induced dilatation remained normal. Measured by dihydroethidium staining there was an increased amount of superoxide in arteries from vehicle-treated rats, but not from tempol-treated rats. Expression by immunoblotting of endothelial NO synthase and the NAD(P)H oxidase subunit p47phox remained unaffected by high...

  5. Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, Safia, E-mail: safia_akram@yahoomail.com [Department of Basic Sciences, Military College of Signals, National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan); Nadeem, S. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-i-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hanif, M. [Department of Basic Sciences, Military College of Signals, National University of Sciences and Technology (Pakistan)

    2013-11-15

    In this paper the effects of induced magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of a Williamson fluid model in an asymmetric channel has been investigated. The problem is simplified by using long wave length and low Reynolds number approximations. The perturbation and numerical solutions have been presented. The expressions for pressure rise, pressure gradient, stream function, magnetic force function, current density distribution have been computed. The results of pertinent parameters have been discussed graphically. The trapping phenomena for different wave forms have been also discussed. - highlights: • The main motivation of this work is that we want to see the behavior of peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. In literature no attempt is taken to discuss the lateral Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. • We do not want to fill the gap in literature after studying this.

  6. Sensorimotor gating impairments induced by MK-801 treatment may be reduced by tolerance effect and by familiarization in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletti, Patricia G.; Maior, Rafael S.; Hori, Etsuro; Nishijo, Hisao; Tomaz, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Dizocilpine (MK-801) is a non-competitive NMDA antagonist that induces schizophreniclike effects. It is therefore widely used in experimental models of schizophrenia including prepulse inhibition (PPI) impairments in rodents. Nevertheless, MK-801 has never been tested in monkeys on a PPI paradigm. In order to evaluate MK-801 effects on monkeys’ PPI, we tested eight capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) using three different doses of MK-801 (0.01; 0.02; 0.03 mg/kg). Results show PPI impairment in acute administration of the highest dose (0.03 mg/kg). PPI impairment induced by MK-801 was reversed by re-exposure to the PPI test throughout treatment trials, in contrast with rodent studies. These results indicate that tolerance effect and familiarization with PPI test may reduce the sensorimotor gating deficits induced by MK-801 in monkeys, suggesting a drug-training interaction. PMID:26441660

  7. Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Safia; Nadeem, S.; Hanif, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the effects of induced magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of a Williamson fluid model in an asymmetric channel has been investigated. The problem is simplified by using long wave length and low Reynolds number approximations. The perturbation and numerical solutions have been presented. The expressions for pressure rise, pressure gradient, stream function, magnetic force function, current density distribution have been computed. The results of pertinent parameters have been discussed graphically. The trapping phenomena for different wave forms have been also discussed. - highlights: • The main motivation of this work is that we want to see the behavior of peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. In literature no attempt is taken to discuss the lateral Numerical and analytical treatment on peristaltic flow of Williamson fluid in the occurrence of induced magnetic field. • We do not want to fill the gap in literature after studying this

  8. Melatonin pre-treatment mitigates SHSY-5Y cells against oxaliplatin induced mitochondrial stress and apoptotic cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Arnab; Kar, Sudeshna; Tabassum, Heena

    2017-01-01

    Oxaliplatin (Oxa) treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel), could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose) polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin’s protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic pathways of

  9. Melatonin pre-treatment mitigates SHSY-5Y cells against oxaliplatin induced mitochondrial stress and apoptotic cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Waseem

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (Oxa treatment to SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells has been shown by previous studies to induce oxidative stress, which in turn modulates intracellular signaling cascades resulting in cell death. While this phenomenon of Oxa-induced neurotoxicity is known, the underlying mechanisms involved in this cell death cascade must be clarified. Moreover, there is still little known regarding the roles of neuronal mitochondria and cytosolic compartments in mediating Oxa-induced neurotoxicity. With a better grasp of the mechanisms driving neurotoxicity in Oxa-treated SH-SY5Y cells, we can then identify certain pathways to target in protecting against neurotoxic cell damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether one such agent, melatonin (Mel, could confer protection against Oxa-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Results from the present study found Oxa to significantly reduce SH-SY5Y cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Alternatively, we found Mel pre-treatment to SH-SY5Y cells to attenuate Oxa-induced toxicity, resulting in a markedly increased cell viability. Mel exerted its protective effects by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS production and reducing superoxide radicals inside Oxa-exposed. In addition, we observed pre-treatment with Mel to rescue Oxa-treated cells by protecting mitochondria. As Oxa-treatment alone decreases mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm, resulting in an altered Bcl-2/Bax ratio and release of sequestered cytochrome c, so Mel was shown to inhibit these pathways. Mel was also found to inhibit proteolytic activation of caspase 3, inactivation of Poly (ADP Ribose polymerase, and DNA damage, thereby allowing SH-SY5Y cells to resist apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our results suggest a role for melatonin in reducing Oxa induced neurotoxicity. Further studies exploring melatonin's protective effects may prove successful in eliciting pathways to further alter the neurotoxic

  10. Effect of the Type of Surface Treatment and Cement on the Chloride Induced Corrosion of Galvanized Reinforcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittarelli, Francesca; Mobili, Alessandra; Vicerè, Anna Maria; Roventi, Gabriella; Bellezze, Tiziano

    2017-10-01

    The effect of a new passivation treatment, obtained by immersion of the galvanized reinforcements in a trivalent chromium salts based solution, on the chlorides induced corrosion has been investigated. To investigate also the effect of cement alkalinity on corrosion behaviour of reinforcements, concretes manufactured with three different European cements were compared. The obtained results show that the alternative treatment based on hexavalent chromium-free baths forms effective protection layers on the galvanized rebar surfaces. The higher corrosion rates of zinc coating in concrete manufactured with Portland cement compared to those recorded for bars in concrete manufactured with pozzolanic cement depends strongly on the higher chloride content at the steel concrete interface.

  11. Significance of aerophytotherapy in complex sanatorial-climatic treatment of patients with pneumoconiosis and dust-induced bronchitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostapchuk, I.F.; Dubrovina, R.M.; Akimov, Yu.A.; Kalinina, T.F.; Protsko, G.V.; Kudzi, Eh.K.; Soboleva, O.S.

    1986-09-01

    Investigation is conducted to examine effectiveness of sanatorial-climatic treatment of patients with pneumoconiosis and dust-induced bronchitis while including aerophytotherapy. Patients with both lung diseases received sanatorial, gymnastic and climatic procedures. Experimental group also received aerophytotherapy - inhalation of ester oils of lavender, anise, mint, and salvia in form of spray corresponding to their molecular composition in air. Control group did not receive aerophytotherapy. Tables present results of experiment showing changes in parameters of external breathing in patients with pneumoconiosis and in patients with dust-induced bronchitis. Tables show greater improvement in characteristics of external breathing of patients treated with inclusion of aerophytotherapy and confirm effectiveness of combined sanatorial-climatic treatment with aerophytotherapy. Patients with chronic bronchitis also experienced reduction of bronchospasm and improvement in bronchial passability. Method does not require special equipment and is economical. 9 refs.

  12. Chronic β2 -adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn

    2018-01-01

    Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise......-induced bronchoconstriction, but the effects β2 -agonist treatment on muscle remodelling and adaptations to training are unknown. In a placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomized 21 trained men to four weeks of high intensity training with (HIT + β2 A) or without (HIT) daily inhalation of β2 -agonist (terbutaline, 4 mg...... (P ≤ 0.01) and exercise performance (11.6 vs. 6.1%, P ≤ 0.05) in HIT + β2 A compared to HIT. These findings indicate that daily β2 -agonist treatment attenuates the beneficial effects of high intensity training on exercise performance and oxidative capacity, and causes remodelling of muscle proteome...

  13. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC, a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, acute myeloid leukemia (AML and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+, but not CD4(+ T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Low Dose Decitabine Treatment Induces CD80 Expression in Cancer Cells and Stimulates Tumor Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji-Hao; Yao, Yu-Shi; Li, Yong-Hui; Xu, Yi-Han; Li, Jing-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Min-Hang; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Gao, Li; Ding, Yi; Lu, Xue-Chun; Shi, Jin-Long; Luo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jia; Wang, Li-Li; Qu, Chunfeng; Bai, Xue-Feng; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC), a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8+, but not CD4+ T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23671644

  15. Low dose decitabine treatment induces CD80 expression in cancer cells and stimulates tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Xin; Mei, Zhen-Yang; Zhou, Ji-Hao; Yao, Yu-Shi; Li, Yong-Hui; Xu, Yi-Han; Li, Jing-Xin; Gao, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Min-Hang; Jiang, Meng-Meng; Gao, Li; Ding, Yi; Lu, Xue-Chun; Shi, Jin-Long; Luo, Xu-Feng; Wang, Jia; Wang, Li-Li; Qu, Chunfeng; Bai, Xue-Feng; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lack of immunogenicity of cancer cells has been considered a major reason for their failure in induction of a tumor specific T cell response. In this paper, we present evidence that decitabine (DAC), a DNA methylation inhibitor that is currently used for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignant neoplasms, is capable of eliciting an anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response in mouse EL4 tumor model. C57BL/6 mice with established EL4 tumors were treated with DAC (1.0 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 5 days. We found that DAC treatment resulted in infiltration of IFN-γ producing T lymphocytes into tumors and caused tumor rejection. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+) T cells resumed tumor growth. DAC-induced CTL response appeared to be elicited by the induction of CD80 expression on tumor cells. Epigenetic evidence suggests that DAC induces CD80 expression in EL4 cells via demethylation of CpG dinucleotide sites in the promoter of CD80 gene. In addition, we also showed that a transient, low-dose DAC treatment can induce CD80 gene expression in a variety of human cancer cells. This study provides the first evidence that epigenetic modulation can induce the expression of a major T cell co-stimulatory molecule on cancer cells, which can overcome immune tolerance, and induce an efficient anti-tumor CTL response. The results have important implications in designing DAC-based cancer immunotherapy.

  16. A model of type 2 diabetes in the guinea pig using sequential diet-induced glucose intolerance and streptozotocin treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackart, David F.; Richardson, Michael A.; DiLisio, James E.; Pulford, Bruce; Basaraba, Randall J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among noncommunicable diseases, and additional animal models that more closely replicate the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes in guinea pigs, in which diet-induced glucose intolerance precedes β-cell cytotoxicity, two processes that are crucial to the development of human type 2 diabetes. Guinea pigs developed impaired glucose tolerance after 8 weeks of feeding on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, as determined by oral glucose challenge. Diet-induced glucose intolerance was accompanied by β-cell hyperplasia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia with hepatocellular steatosis. Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment alone was ineffective at inducing diabetic hyperglycemia in guinea pigs, which failed to develop sustained glucose intolerance or fasting hyperglycemia and returned to euglycemia within 21 days after treatment. However, when high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet-fed guinea pigs were treated with STZ, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycemia persisted beyond 21 days post-STZ treatment. Guinea pigs with diet-induced glucose intolerance subsequently treated with STZ demonstrated an insulin-secretory capacity consistent with insulin-independent diabetes. This insulin-independent state was confirmed by response to oral antihyperglycemic drugs, metformin and glipizide, which resolved glucose intolerance and extended survival compared with guinea pigs with uncontrolled diabetes. In this study, we have developed a model of sequential glucose intolerance and β-cell loss, through high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and extensive optimization of STZ treatment in the guinea pig, which closely resembles human type 2 diabetes. This model will prove useful in the study of insulin-independent diabetes pathogenesis with or without comorbidities, where the guinea pig serves as a relevant model species. PMID:28093504

  17. A model of type 2 diabetes in the guinea pig using sequential diet-induced glucose intolerance and streptozotocin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Brendan K; Ackart, David F; Richardson, Michael A; DiLisio, James E; Pulford, Bruce; Basaraba, Randall J

    2017-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among noncommunicable diseases, and additional animal models that more closely replicate the pathogenesis of human type 2 diabetes are needed. The goal of this study was to develop a model of type 2 diabetes in guinea pigs, in which diet-induced glucose intolerance precedes β-cell cytotoxicity, two processes that are crucial to the development of human type 2 diabetes. Guinea pigs developed impaired glucose tolerance after 8 weeks of feeding on a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, as determined by oral glucose challenge. Diet-induced glucose intolerance was accompanied by β-cell hyperplasia, compensatory hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia with hepatocellular steatosis. Streptozotocin (STZ) treatment alone was ineffective at inducing diabetic hyperglycemia in guinea pigs, which failed to develop sustained glucose intolerance or fasting hyperglycemia and returned to euglycemia within 21 days after treatment. However, when high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet-fed guinea pigs were treated with STZ, glucose intolerance and fasting hyperglycemia persisted beyond 21 days post-STZ treatment. Guinea pigs with diet-induced glucose intolerance subsequently treated with STZ demonstrated an insulin-secretory capacity consistent with insulin-independent diabetes. This insulin-independent state was confirmed by response to oral antihyperglycemic drugs, metformin and glipizide, which resolved glucose intolerance and extended survival compared with guinea pigs with uncontrolled diabetes. In this study, we have developed a model of sequential glucose intolerance and β-cell loss, through high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and extensive optimization of STZ treatment in the guinea pig, which closely resembles human type 2 diabetes. This model will prove useful in the study of insulin-independent diabetes pathogenesis with or without comorbidities, where the guinea pig serves as a relevant model species. © 2017. Published by

  18. Effects of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome on rat skeletal cells and tissue, and their responses to metformin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Juan Ignacio; Schurman, León; McCarthy, Antonio Desmond; Sedlinsky, Claudia; Aguirre, José Ignacio; Cortizo, Ana María

    2017-04-01

    Deleterious effects of metabolic syndrome (MS) on bone are still controversial. In this study we evaluated the effects of a fructose-induced MS, and/or an oral treatment with metformin on the osteogenic potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), as well as on bone formation and architecture. 32 male 8week-old Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: control (C), control plus oral metformin (CM), rats receiving 10% fructose in drinking water (FRD), and FRD plus metformin (FRDM). Samples were collected to measure blood parameters, and to perform pQCT analysis and static and dynamic histomorphometry. MSC were isolated to determine their osteogenic potential. Metformin improved blood parameters in FRDM rats. pQCT and static and dynamic histomorphometry showed no significant differences in trabecular and cortical bone parameters among groups. FRD reduced TRAP expression and osteocyte density in trabecular bone and metformin only normalized osteocyte density. FRD decreased the osteogenic potential of MSC and metformin administration could revert some of these parameters. FRD-induced MS shows reduction in MSC osteogenic potential, in osteocyte density and in TRAP activity. Oral metformin treatment was able to prevent trabecular osteocyte loss and the reduction in extracellular mineralization induced by FRD-induced MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of Boesenbergia rotunda Treatment against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Cirrhosis in a Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy M. Salama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Experimental research in hepatology has focused on developing traditional medicines into potential pharmacological solutions aimed at protecting liver from cirrhosis. Along the same line, this study investigated the effects of ethanol-based extract from a traditional medicine plant Boesenbergia rotunda (BR on liver cirrhosis. Methodology/Results. The BR extract was tested for toxicity on 3 groups of rats subjected to vehicle (10% Tween 20, 5 mL/kg and 2g/kg and 5g/kg doses of the extract, respectively. Next, experiments were conducted on a rat model of cirrhosis induced by thioacetamide injection. The rats were divided into five groups and, respectively, administered orally with 10% Tween-20 (5 mL/kg (normal control group, 10% Tween-20 (5 mL/kg (cirrhosis control group, 50 mg/kg of silymarin (reference control group, and 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of BR extract (experimental groups daily for 8 weeks. The rats in normal group were intraperitoneally injected with sterile distilled water (1 mL/kg 3 times/week, and those in the remaining groups were injected intraperitoneally with thioacetamide (200 mg/kg thrice weekly. At the end of the 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and samples were collected for comprehensive histopathological, coagulation profile and biochemical evaluations. Also, the antioxidant activity of the BR extract was determined and compared with that of silymarin. Data from the acute toxicity tests showed that the extract was safe to use. Histological analysis of the livers of the rats in cirrhosis control group revealed uniform coarse granules on their surfaces, hepatocytic necrosis, and lymphocytes infiltration. But, the surfaces morphologically looked much smoother and the cell damage was much lesser in those livers from the normal control, silymarin and BR-treated groups. In the high-dose BR treatment group, the livers of the rats exhibited nearly normal looking lobular architecture, minimal inflammation

  20. Fluoxetine treatment is effective in a rat model of childhood-induced post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Lior; Inbar, Sapir; Edut, Schachaf; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2017-11-30

    Although selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, their therapeutic efficacy is limited. Childhood adversities are considered a risk factor for developing PTSD in adulthood but may trigger PTSD without additional trauma in some individuals. Nevertheless, just as childhood is considered a vulnerable period it may also be an effective period for preventive treatment. Using a rat model of childhood-induced PTSD, pre-pubertal stress (juvenile stress, JVS), we compared the therapeutic effects of fluoxetine and examined the effectiveness of 1 month of fluoxetine treatment following JVS and into adulthood compared to treatment in adulthood. Since not all individuals develop PTSD following a trauma, comparing only group means is not the adequate type of analysis. We employed a behavioral profiling approach, which analyzes individual differences compared to the normal behavior of a control group. Animals exposed to JVS exhibited a higher proportion of affected animals as measured using the elevated plus maze 8 weeks after JVS. Fluoxetine treatment following the JVS significantly decreased the proportion of affected animals as measured in adulthood. Fluoxetine treatment in adulthood was not effective. The results support the notion that childhood is not only a vulnerable period but also an effective period for preventive treatment.

  1. Effects of drug treatment on inflammation and hyperreactivity of airways and on immune variables in cats with experimentally induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Carol R; Decile, Kendra C; Byerly, Jenni R; Berghaus, Roy D; Walby, William E; Berghaus, Londa J; Hyde, Dallas M; Schelegle, Edward S; Gershwin, Laurel J

    2005-07-01

    To compare the effects of an orally administered corticosteroid (prednisone), an inhaled corticosteroid (flunisolide), a leukotriene-receptor antagonist (zafirlukast), an antiserotonergic drug (cyproheptadine), and a control substance on the asthmatic phenotype in cats with experimentally induced asthma. 6 cats with asthma experimentally induced by the use of Bermuda grass allergen (BGA). A randomized, crossover design was used to assess changes in the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); airway hyperresponsiveness; blood lymphocyte phenotype determined by use of flow cytometry; and serum and BALF content of BGA-specific IgE, IgG, and IgA determined by use of ELISAs. Mean +/- SE eosinophil percentages in BALF when cats were administered prednisone (5.0 +/- 2.3%) and flunisolide (2.5 +/- 1.7%) were significantly lower than for the control treatment (33.7 +/- 11.1%). We did not detect significant differences in airway hyperresponsiveness or lymphocyte surface markers among treatments. Content of BGA-specific IgE in serum was significantly lower when cats were treated with prednisone (25.5 +/- 5.4%), compared with values for the control treatment (63.6 +/- 12.9%); no other significant differences were observed in content of BGA-specific immunoglobulins among treatments. Orally administered and inhaled corticosteroids decreased eosinophilic inflammation in airways of cats with experimentally induced asthma. Only oral administration of prednisone decreased the content of BGA-specific IgE in serum; no other significant local or systemic immunologic effects were detected among treatments. Inhaled corticosteroids can be considered as an alternate method for decreasing airway inflammation in cats with asthma.

  2. Low-Dose Ribavirin Treatments Attenuate Neuroinflammatory Activation of BV-2 Cells by Interfering with Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Bozic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia play a key role in defending central nervous system from various internal and external threats. However, their excessive and/or chronic activation is associated with deleterious effects in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown that ribavirin when applied in clinically relevant dosage (10 μM modulates activated microglia in complex fashion inducing both anti- and proinflammatory effects, simultaneously causing cytotoxicity. Here, we examined potential of low-dose ribavirin (0.1 and 1 μM to modulate activated BV-2 microglia. Morphological and functional activation of BV-2 cells was achieved with lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation. Our results demonstrated that low-dose ribavirin did not induce cell death, while 10 μM ribavirin promoted LPS induced apoptosis. We determined that 1 μM ribavirin was equally efficient in deactivation of LPS induced morphological changes as 10 μM ribavirin treatment. Ribavirin showed halfway success in reducing markers of functional activation of microglia. Namely, none of the doses had effect on LPS triggered production of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. On the other hand, low-dose ribavirin proved its effectiveness in reduction of another inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, by inhibiting inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. Our results imply that low-dose ribavirin may alleviate nitrosative stress during neuroinflammation.

  3. Low-Dose Ribavirin Treatments Attenuate Neuroinflammatory Activation of BV-2 Cells by Interfering with Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Iva; Savic, Danijela; Jovanovic, Marija; Bjelobaba, Ivana; Laketa, Danijela; Nedeljkovic, Nadezda; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Pekovic, Sanja; Lavrnja, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Microglia play a key role in defending central nervous system from various internal and external threats. However, their excessive and/or chronic activation is associated with deleterious effects in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, we have shown that ribavirin when applied in clinically relevant dosage (10 μM) modulates activated microglia in complex fashion inducing both anti- and proinflammatory effects, simultaneously causing cytotoxicity. Here, we examined potential of low-dose ribavirin (0.1 and 1 μM) to modulate activated BV-2 microglia. Morphological and functional activation of BV-2 cells was achieved with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results demonstrated that low-dose ribavirin did not induce cell death, while 10 μM ribavirin promoted LPS induced apoptosis. We determined that 1 μM ribavirin was equally efficient in deactivation of LPS induced morphological changes as 10 μM ribavirin treatment. Ribavirin showed halfway success in reducing markers of functional activation of microglia. Namely, none of the doses had effect on LPS triggered production of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha. On the other hand, low-dose ribavirin proved its effectiveness in reduction of another inflammatory mediator, nitric oxide, by inhibiting inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. Our results imply that low-dose ribavirin may alleviate nitrosative stress during neuroinflammation. PMID:26413464

  4. TRPA1 channels: expression in non-neuronal murine lung tissues and dispensability for hyperoxia-induced alveolar epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannler, Martina; Lüling, Robin; Yildirim, Ali Önder; Gudermann, Thomas; Steinritz, Dirk; Dietrich, Alexander

    2018-05-12

    Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channels were originally characterized in neuronal tissues but also identified in lung epithelium by staining with fluorescently coupled TRPA1 antibodies. Its exact function in non-neuronal tissues, however, is elusive. TRPA1 is activated in vitro by hypoxia and hyperoxia and is therefore a promising TRP candidate for sensing hyperoxia in pulmonary epithelial cells and for inducing alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Here, we isolated tracheal, bronchial, and alveolar epithelial cells and show low but detectable TRPA1 mRNA levels in all these cells as well as TRPA1 protein by Western blotting in alveolar type II (AT II) cells. We quantified changes in intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) levels induced by application of hyperoxic solutions in primary tracheal epithelial, bronchial epithelial, and AT II cells isolated from wild-type (WT) and TRPA1-deficient (TRPA1-/-) mouse lungs. In all cell types, we detected hyperoxia-induced rises in [Ca 2+ ] i levels, which were not significantly different in TRPA1-deficient cells compared to WT cells. We also tested TRPA1 function in a mouse model for hyperoxia-induced alveolar epithelial hyperplasia. A characteristic significant increase in thickening of alveolar tissues was detected in mouse lungs after exposure to hyperoxia, but not in normoxic WT and TRPA1-/- controls. Quantification of changes in lung morphology in hyperoxic WT and TRPA1-/- mice, however, again revealed no significant changes. Therefore, TRPA1 expression does neither appear to be a key player for hyperoxia-induced changes in [Ca 2+ ] i levels in primary lung epithelial cells, nor being essential for the development of hyperoxia-induced alveolar epithelial hyperplasia.

  5. Focused ultrasound treatment of abscesses induced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Feasibility study in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, Birgit; Bates, David; Pichardo, Samuel; Curiel, Laura; Zhang, Kunyan; Escott, Nicholas; Mougenot, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To study the therapeutic effect of focused ultrasound on abscesses induced by methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen where immunocompromised patients are prone to develop infections that are less and less responsive to regular treatments. Because of its capability to induce a rise of temperature at a very precise location, the use of focused ultrasound represents a considerable opportunity for therapy of localized MRSA-related infections. Methods: 50μl of MRSA strain USA400 bacteria suspension at a concentration of 1.32 ± 0.5 × 10 5 colony forming units (cfu)/μl was injected subcutaneously in the left flank of BALB/c mice. An abscess of 6 ± 2 mm in diameter formed after 48 h. A transducer operating at 3 MHz with a focal length of 50 mm and diameter of 32 mm was used to treat the abscess. The focal point was positioned 2 mm under the skin at the abscess center. Forty-eight hours after injection four ultrasound exposures of 9 s each were applied to each abscess under magnetic resonance imaging guidance. Each exposure was followed by a 1 min pause. These parameters were based on preliminary experiments to ensure repetitive accurate heating of the abscess. Real-time estimation of change of temperature was done using water-proton resonance frequency and a communication toolbox (matMRI) developed inhouse. Three experimental groups of animals each were tested: control, moderate temperature (MT), and high temperature (HT). MT and HT groups reached, respectively, 52.3 ± 5.1 and 63.8 ± 7.5 °C at the end of exposure. Effectiveness of the treatment was assessed by evaluating the bacteria amount of the treated abscess 1 and 4 days after treatment. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay evaluating the neutrophil amount was performed to assess the local neutrophil recruitment and the white blood cell count was used to evaluate the systemic inflammatory response after focused ultrasound treatment. Results: Macroscopic

  6. Fatal Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Induced by Carbamazepine Treatment in a Patient Who Previously had Carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yen Huang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a rare but life-threatening skin disease that is most commonly drug-induced. It has recently been suggested that Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS belongs to the same group of skin disorders, although it has a lower mortality rate than TEN. We report the case of a 26-year-old male schizophrenic patient with a history of carbamazepine-induced SJS 5 years earlier. At the time of his current admission, he was admitted to our psychiatry department with acute agitation due to schizophrenia. However, the patient and his family denied history of drug allergy. After 3 days of carbamazepine treatment, the patient developed TEN (body surface area > 90%. He was transferred to the burn center, but despite appropriate treatment, including intravenous hydrocortisone 200 mg q6h and being covered with sterile biological material, he died. It is important to note that re-administration of a drug that previously caused SJS may lead to TEN, which has a very high mortality rate.

  7. Evaluation of the antitumor activity of platinum nanoparticles in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, Amina; Mansour, Somaya; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan; Kandil, Eman; Mahmoud, Mustafa

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antitumor activity of platinum nanoparticles compared with cis-platin both in vitro and in vivo in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced in rats. The treatment efficacy of platinum nanoparticles was evaluated by measuring antioxidant activities against oxidative stress caused by diethylnitrosamine in liver tissue. The measurements included reduced glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as malondialdehyde level. Liver function tests were also determined, in addition to the evaluation of serum alpha-fetoprotein, caspase-3, and cytochrome c in liver tissue. Total RNA extraction from liver tissue samples was also done for the relative quantification of B-cell lymphoma 2, matrix metallopeptidase 9, and tumor protein p53 genes. Histopathological examination was also performed for liver tissue. Results showed that platinum nanoparticles are more potent than cis-platin in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats as it ameliorated the investigated parameters toward normal control animals. These findings were well appreciated with histopathological studies of diethylnitrosamine group treated with platinum nanoparticles, suggesting that platinum nanoparticles can serve as a good therapeutic agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma which should attract further studies.

  8. Vinorelbine Potently Induces Placental Cell Death, Does Not Harm Fertility and is a Potential Treatment for Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Hastie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancies complicate 1–2 pregnancies and are a leading cause of maternal death. An effective oral drug therapy that replaces surgery might make its treatment safer, cheaper, simpler and therefore more widely accessible. The only current medical treatment offered to women is intramuscular methotrexate, but this only reliably resolves smaller ectopic pregnancies. As such, many ectopic pregnancies require surgical excision. We show that vinorelbine, an orally available chemotherapeutic agent, potently induced placental cell death but did not harm fertility in mice. Vinorelbine was 100–1000 times more potent than methotrexate in inducing placental cell death in vitro, and more potent than combination methotrexate and gefitinib (another proposed treatment for ectopic pregnancy being evaluated in phase III trials. Mechanistically, it caused microtubule condensation, blocked mitosis and activated the apoptosis cascade in placental cells. Vinorelbine was more efficacious than methotrexate ± gefitinib in reducing the volume of placental cell tumors xenografted subcutaneously in SCID mice. Mice exposed to vinorelbine and allowed to breed, following a four week washout period, displayed normal fertility, however long-term fertility was not assessed. Human Fallopian tubes treated with vinorelbine did not exhibit up-regulation of apoptosis molecules. Our findings show that placental cells appear sensitive to vinorelbine and it has potential as a tablet-only approach to treat ectopic pregnancy. Keywords: Ectopic pregnancy, Vinorelbine, Methotrexate, Placenta, Treatment

  9. Chronic β2 -adrenoceptor agonist treatment alters muscle proteome and functional adaptations induced by high intensity training in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostrup, Morten; Onslev, Johan; Jacobson, Glenn A; Wilson, Richard; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-15

    While several studies have investigated the effects of exercise training in human skeletal muscle and the chronic effect of β 2 -agonist treatment in rodent muscle, their effects on muscle proteome signature with related functional measures in humans are still incompletely understood. Herein we show that daily β 2 -agonist treatment attenuates training-induced enhancements in exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption, and alters muscle proteome signature and phenotype in trained young men. Daily β 2 -agonist treatment abolished several of the training-induced enhancements in muscle oxidative capacity and caused a repression of muscle metabolic pathways; furthermore, β 2 -agonist treatment induced a slow-to-fast twitch muscle phenotype transition. The present study indicates that chronic β 2 -agonist treatment confounds the positive effect of high intensity training on exercise performance and oxidative capacity, which is of interest for the large proportion of persons using inhaled β 2 -agonists on a daily basis, including athletes. Although the effects of training have been studied for decades, data on muscle proteome signature remodelling induced by high intensity training in relation to functional changes in humans remains incomplete. Likewise, β 2 -agonists are frequently used to counteract exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, but the effects β 2 -agonist treatment on muscle remodelling and adaptations to training are unknown. In a placebo-controlled parallel study, we randomly assigned 21 trained men to 4 weeks of high intensity training with (HIT+β 2 A) or without (HIT) daily inhalation of β 2 -agonist (terbutaline, 4 mg dose -1 ). Of 486 proteins identified by mass-spectrometry proteomics of muscle biopsies sampled before and after the intervention, 32 and 85 were changing (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤5%) with the intervention in HIT and HIT+β 2 A, respectively. Proteome signature changes were different in HIT and HIT+β 2 A (P

  10. Cytokine-induced depression during IFN-α treatment: the role of IL-6 and sleep quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A.; Rabinovitz, Mordechai; Pollock, Bruce G.; Lotrich, Francis E.

    2009-01-01

    Depressive symptoms, poor sleep quality, and systemic markers of inflammation (e.g. interleukin (IL)-6) are frequently associated. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy results in major depressive disorder (MDD) in some people, offering the possibility to elucidate the relationship of MDD to sleep and inflammation during treatment. In particular, delineating the temporal relations among these factors could help inform their causal relationships. To this end, a cohort of 95 non-depressed hepatitis C patients was followed prospectively for four consecutive months during IFN-α therapy. We found that higher pre-treatment levels of circulating IL-6 predicted incidence of MDD (X2(1)=7.7; psleep quality may be risk factors for IFN-α induced depression. Furthermore, these findings highlight the complex temporal relationships that exist among sleep, depression, and inflammation, and support the need for further prospective investigations to elucidate the dynamics that underlie depression during IFN-α treatment. PMID:19615438

  11. TEM and SEM observation of uranium induced renal necrosis and the result of chelates treatment on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan; Li Baoxing; Lai Chixiang; You Zhanyun

    1987-01-01

    The TEM (transmission electron microscope) and SEM (scanning electron microscope) observation of uranium induced renal necrosis and the result of chelates treatment on rats are reported. Ultrastructural changes in kidney related with the impairment of intracellular fluid transportation can be found after acute uranium intoxication in rats, such as: condensation and swelling of mitochondria, matrix edema, dilatation of intercellular space, disappearance of basal folds, thickening of basal web, intensification of basal lamina of the proximal convoluted tubule epithelium cells, and foot processes swelling, diminishing of endothelium fenestrae of the renal glomerulus. Heavy metal chelates DTPA and H-73-10 treatment may result in intracellular fluid accumulation and condensed grannule formation in lysosome. Treatment with these chelates in the critical stage of uranium intoxication may accelerate the necrosis instead of diminishing. This may be related to the augment of the load of lysosome and intracellular system of fluid transportation

  12. Two weeks of metformin treatment induces AMPK dependent enhancement of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse soleus muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Treebak, Jonas Thue; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    signaling. Methods: Oral doses of metformin or saline treatment were given muscle-specific kinase α2 dead AMPK mice (KD) and wild type (WT) littermates either once or chronically for 2 weeks. Soleus and Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles were used for measurements of glucose transport and Western blot......Background: Metformin-induced activation of AMPK has been associated with enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle but so far no direct causality has been examined. We hypothesized that an effect of in vivo metformin treatment on glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscles is dependent upon AMPK...... analyzes. Results: Chronic treatment with metformin enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in soleus muscles of WT (45%, P...

  13. Non-invasive treatment efficacy evaluation for high-intensity focused ultrasound therapy using magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Gepu; Wang, Jiawei; Ma, Qingyu; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2018-04-01

    Although the application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has been demonstrated to be a non-invasive treatment technology for tumor therapy, the real-time temperature monitoring is still a key issue in the practical application. Based on the temperature-impedance relation, a fixed-point magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement technology of treatment efficacy evaluation for tissue thermocoagulation during HIFU therapy is developed with a sensitive indicator of critical temperature monitoring in this study. With the acoustic excitation of a focused transducer in the magnetoacoustic tomography with the magnetic induction system, the distributions of acoustic pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity, and acoustic source strength in the focal region are simulated, and the treatment time dependences of the peak amplitude and the corresponding amplitude derivative under various acoustic powers are also achieved. It is proved that the strength peak of acoustic sources is generated by tissue thermocoagulation with a sharp conductivity variation. The peak amplitude of the transducer collected magnetoacoustic signal increases accordingly along with the increase in the treatment time under a fixed acoustic power. When the temperature in the range with the radial and axial widths of about ±0.46 mm and ±2.2 mm reaches 69 °C, an obvious peak of the amplitude derivative can be achieved and used as a sensitive indicator of the critical status of treatment efficacy. The favorable results prove the feasibility of real-time non-invasive temperature monitoring and treatment efficacy evaluation for HIFU ablation using the magnetically induced magnetoacoustic measurement, and might provide a new strategy for accurate dose control during HIFU therapy.

  14. Hyperandrogenemia Induced by Letrozole Treatment of Pubertal Female Mice Results in Hyperinsulinemia Prior to Weight Gain and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarra, Danalea V; Hernández-Carretero, Angelina; Rivera, Alissa J; Anvar, Arya R; Thackray, Varykina G

    2017-09-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) diagnosed with hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction have an increased risk of developing metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We previously developed a model that uses letrozole to elevate endogenous testosterone levels in female mice. This model has hallmarks of PCOS, including hyperandrogenism, anovulation, and polycystic ovaries, as well as increased abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance. In the current study, we further characterized the metabolic dysfunction that occurs after letrozole treatment to determine whether this model represents a PCOS-like metabolic phenotype. We focused on whether letrozole treatment results in altered pancreatic or liver function as well as insulin resistance. We also investigated whether hyperinsulinemia occurs secondary to weight gain and insulin resistance in this model or if it can occur independently. Our study demonstrated that letrozole-treated mice developed hyperinsulinemia after 1 week of treatment and without evidence of insulin resistance. After 2 weeks of letrozole treatment, mice became significantly heavier than placebo mice, demonstrating that weight gain was not required to develop hyperinsulinemia. After 5 weeks of letrozole treatment, mice exhibited blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and impaired insulin-induced phosphorylation of AKT in skeletal muscle. Moreover, letrozole-treated mice exhibited dyslipidemia after 5 weeks of treatment but no evidence of hepatic disease. Our study demonstrated that the letrozole-induced PCOS mouse model exhibits multiple features of the metabolic dysregulation observed in obese, hyperandrogenic women with PCOS. This model will be useful for mechanistic studies investigating how hyperandrogenemia affects metabolism in females. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  15. Sibutramine in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a pilot study in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Falko; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Kemmler, Georg; Ebenbichler, Christoph F; Lechleitner, Monika; Hofer, Alex

    2014-05-01

    Weight gain represents a frequent side effect of antipsychotic drug treatment. The current trial investigated the effect of add-on treatment with sibutramine in schizophrenia outpatients who had gained more than 7% of weight during the course of treatment. This 24-week placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of sibutramine added to ongoing antipsychotic treatment. Weight, waist-hip ratio, BMI, blood pressure/pulse and ECG were monitored regularly. In addition, several laboratory tests were performed. Psychopathological symptoms and side effects were assessed frequently. Fifteen patients were assigned randomly to add-on treatment with sibutramine 10 mg or placebo. The two groups did not differ in weight, sociodemographic, or clinical data. Eleven patients were considered for statistical analysis. Significant weight loss was observed in the sibutramine group (mean = -6.1 kg), whereas patients on placebo experienced a mean weight gain of 1.9 kg. A reduction in HbA1c was apparent in the sibutramine but not in the placebo group. No significant between-group differences were found in changes in psychopathology or drug safety. This pilot trial suggests that adjunctive treatment with sibutramine may be safe and effective in schizophrenic patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain.

  16. Inflammatory Mediators in Induced Sputum and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Cough Variant Asthma during Long-Term Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixuan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate improvements in inflammatory mediator levels in induced sputum and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in cough variant asthma (CVA during long-term inhaled corticosteroid (ICS treatment. Patients and Methods. Patients with CVA (=35 and classic asthma (=26 and healthy subjects (=24 were recruited into this study. All patients were treated with budesonide (400 μg/day. Measurement of inflammatory mediators in induced sputum and PD20-FEV1 (the accumulated provocative dose resulting in a 20% decrease in FEV1 in histamine-challenged subjects was performed every three months after the start of medication. Interleukin- (IL- 5 and IL-10 were assayed by ELISA, and the percentage of eosinophils was detected with Giemsa stain. Trends during the follow-up period were analyzed using a general linear model. Results. Inflammatory mediator levels in induced sputum and PD20-FEV1 in patients with CVA and classic asthma differed from those in the control group, although no differences were found in the two asthmatic groups. PD20-FEV1 significantly increased in CVA patients after ICS treatment for 3 months, while classic asthma patients exhibited a delayed change in AHR. After ICS treatment, levels of IL-5 and IL-10 as well as the percentage of eosinophils in the CVA group were altered at 3 months and 6 months, respectively. Accordingly, the level of inflammatory mediators in classic asthma changed more slowly. Conclusion. CVA has a greater improvement in airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR than classic asthma with respect to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS. Short-term ICS considerably reduces AHR although longer treatment is required for complete control of airway inflammation.

  17. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naga, Reem N.

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  18. Pre-treatment with cardamonin protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats: Impact on NOX-1, inflammation and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Naga, Reem N., E-mail: reemelnaga@hotmail.com

    2014-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30 mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7 mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation and depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is

  19. Is addition of sodium fluoride to cyclical etidronate beneficial in the treatment of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.; van Veen, G. J.; Houben, H. H.; Haanen, H. C.; Gerrits, M. I.; van Rijn, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether administration of sodium fluoride (NaF) in addition to cyclical etidronate has a positive effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with established osteoporosis during continued treatment with corticosteroids. 47 patients who were receiving treatment with

  20. Subnormal energy expenditure: a putative causal factor in the weight gain induced by treatment of hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R; Lundsgaard, C; Lorenzen, J; Toubro, S; Perrild, H; Krog-Mikkelsen, I; Astrup, A

    2006-03-01

    To examine the causes of weight gain occurring as an adverse effect of treatment of hyperthyroidism. We measured 24-h energy expenditure (EE), body composition and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) in eight patients before and 1 year after treatment of hyperthyroidism was initiated, and eight controls. One year after initiation of treatment thyrotropin was normalized, thyroid hormones had fallen to the lower end of the reference range and fat mass had increased by 3.5 kg (p hyperthyroid patients before treatment than in controls (p = 0.003), and treatment decreased 24-h EE by 1.9 MJ/day (p = 0.001). After treatment, 24-h EE, adjusted for FFM, was similar to the controls. Multiple regression analyses showed that the suppressed EE could partly be attributed to an iatrogenic suppression of thyroid hormones, resulting in lower sleeping EE. Twenty-four hour SPA was normal in the hyperthyroid state, but decreased after treatment by 21% (p = 0.045), to a level not significantly different, but still below that of the controls. The study suggests that weight gain during treatment of hyperthyroidism might be due to subnormal levels of EE and SPA caused by a suppression of the thyroid hormone to a level in the lower end of the normal range.

  1. UVB-induced epidermal hyperproliferation is modified by a single, topical treatment with a mitosis inhibitory epidermal pentapeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, W.M.; Elgjo, K.

    1990-01-01

    A single application of a water-miscible cream base containing the recently identified mitosis inhibitory epidermal pentapeptide pyroGlu-Glu-Asp-Ser-GlyOH (EPP) to hairless mouse skin is followed by a long-lasting period of reduced epidermal cell proliferation. To examine if a similar growth inhibition could be achieved in stimulated and rapidly proliferating epidermis, EPP was applied at two different concentrations, 0.005 or 0.02%, to hairless mouse skin immediately after exposure of the left flank to an erythemic dose of ultraviolet B light (UVB). This dose of UVB alone induces a sustained period of rapid epidermal cell proliferation, starting at about 18 h after the irradiation. Epidermal cell proliferation was followed from 18 to 54 h (0.005% cream) or from 18 to 30 h (0.02% cream) after the treatment by estimating the rate of G2-M cell flux (the mitotic rate) by means of Colcemid, and epidermal DNA synthesis by counting labeled cells after pulse-labeling with 3H-thymidine. The unirradiated side of the mice was used as reference. The results showed that topical treatment with a 0.02% EPP cream partially inhibited UVB-induced epidermal hyperproliferation, while the 0.005% EPP cream inhibited as well as stimulated the UVB-induced hyperproliferation. Thus, EPP is effective even in rapidly proliferating epidermal cell populations, but the outcome is obviously dose-dependent in this test system

  2. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Suraweera, Chathurie; Ratnatunga, Suhashini S; Dayabandara, Madhubashinee; Wanniarachchi, Nimali; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-10-03

    Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn't been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was -3.27 kg (95 % CI -4.66 to -1.89) (Z = 4.64, p resistance index [-1.49 (95 % CI -2.40 to -0.59)] but not fasting blood sugar [-2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI -5.54 to 0.57]. This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  3. Effects of Pressure, Temperature, Treatment Time, and Storage on Rheological, Textural, and Structural Properties of Heat-Induced Chickpea Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Alvarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pressure-induced gelatinization of chickpea flour (CF was studied in combination with subsequent temperature-induced gelatinization. CF slurries (with 1:5 flour-to-water ratio and CF in powder form were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, temperature (T, and treatment time (t at three levels (200, 400, 600 MPa; 10, 25, 50 °C; 5, 15, 25 min. In order to investigate the effect of storage (S, half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were immediately analyzed for changes in oscillatory rheological properties under isothermal heating at 75 °C for 15 min followed by cooling to 25 °C. The other half of the HHP-treated CF slurries were refrigerated (at 4 °C for one week and subsequently analyzed for changes in oscillatory properties under the same heating conditions as the unrefrigerated samples. HHP-treated CF in powder form was analyzed for changes in textural properties of heat-induced CF gels under isothermal heating at 90 °C for 5 min and subsequent cooling to 25 °C. Structural changes during gelatinization were investigated using microscopy. Pressure had a more significant effect on rheological and textural properties, followed by T and treatment t (in that order. Gel aging in HHP-treated CF slurries during storage was supported by rheological measurements.

  4. EVALUATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS TREATMENT ON KIDNEY FUNCTION AND LIPID PEROXIDATION STATUS IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED WITH L-NAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATTA, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension, the disease known as the s ilent killer , is a common problem facing peoples today with million new cases being diagnosed each year. Although a great amount of money is spent annually for the treatment and detection of this disease and its complications, current conventional treatment have done little to reduce the number of patients with hypertension. Research has found a variety of alternative therapies to be successful in reducing high blood pressure including diet, exercise, stress management, supplements and herbs.In this study, the changes in some selected biochemical blood variables, which are thought to represent risk factors coincident with hypertension and kidney function, were compared between a group of normotensive male albino rats and other group suffered from hypertension induced artificially by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Also, this study investigated the effects of daily administration of some antioxidants nutrients for two weeks namely carnitine, coenzyme Q 1 0 , garlic oil and their mixture on the same variables in order to show to what extent these nutrients are valid to control the levels of these variables without any deleterious effects after treatment. Fifty mg of coenzyme Q 10 and 50 mg of carnitine were daily injected intraperitoneally for two weeks in two groups of hypertensive rats while 200 mg/kg b.wt was given to another group of hypertensive rats by oral intubation. A combination of all the above mentioned nutrients was given to the fourth group. Another hypertensive group was left without any treatment and served as a recovery group. Fasting blood samples were drawn and kidney tissues were taken at the terminal of treatments.The obtained results revealed that induced hypertension caused significant (P<0.05) increase of thiobarbeturic acid reactive substances (TBARs), malondialdehyde (MAD), parathormone (PTH), renin, blood urea, creatinine, phosphorus, sodium and potassium while glutathione (GSH), calcium

  5. Anticonvulsant treatment of sarin-induced seizures with nasal midazolam: An electrographic, behavioral, and histological study in freely moving rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilat, E.; Kadar, T.; Levy, A.; Rabinovitz, I.; Cohen, G.; Kapon, Y.; Sahar, R.; Brandeis, R.

    2005-01-01

    Centrally mediated seizures and convulsions are common consequences of exposure to organophosphates (OPs). These seizures rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to profound brain injury. Effective management of these seizures is critical for minimization of brain damage. Nasal application of midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) after 5 min of sarin-induced electrographic seizure activity (EGSA) ameliorated EGSA and convulsive behavior (238 ± 90 s). Identical treatment after 30 min was not sufficient to ameliorate ECoG paradoxical activity and convulsive behavior. Nasal midazolam (1.5 mg/kg), together with scopolamine (1 mg/kg, im) after 5 min of EGSA, exerted a powerful and rapid anticonvulsant effect (53 ± 10 s). Delaying the same treatment to 30 min of EGSA leads to attenuation of paroxysmal ECoG activity in all cases but total cessation of paroxysmal activity was not observed in most animals tested. Cognitive tests utilizing the Morris Water Maze demonstrated that nasal midazolam alone or together with scopolamine (im), administered after 5 min of convulsions, abolished the effect of sarin on learning. Both these treatments, when given after 30 min of convulsions, only decreased the sarin-induced learning impairments. Whereas rats which were not subject to the anticonvulsant agents did not show any memory for the platform location, both treatments (at 5 min as well as at 30 min) completely abolished the memory deficits. Both treatments equally blocked the impairment of reversal learning when given at 5 min. However, when administered after 30 min, midazolam alone reversed the impairments in reversal learning, while midazolam with scopolamine did not. Rats exposed to sarin and treated with the therapeutic regimen with the exclusion of midazolam exhibited severe brain lesions that encountered the hippocampus, pyriform cortex, and thalamus. Nasal midazolam at 5 min prevented brain damage, while delaying the midazolam treatment to 30 min of EGSA resulted in

  6. Anticonvulsant treatment of sarin-induced seizures with nasal midazolam: An electrographic, behavioral, and histological study in freely moving rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilat, E [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Kadar, T [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Levy, A [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Rabinovitz, I [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Cohen, G [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Kapon, Y [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Sahar, R [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel); Brandeis, R [Department of Pharmacology, Israel Institute for Biological Research, Ness Ziona, 74100 (Israel)

    2005-11-15

    Centrally mediated seizures and convulsions are common consequences of exposure to organophosphates (OPs). These seizures rapidly progress to status epilepticus (SE) and contribute to profound brain injury. Effective management of these seizures is critical for minimization of brain damage. Nasal application of midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) after 5 min of sarin-induced electrographic seizure activity (EGSA) ameliorated EGSA and convulsive behavior (238 {+-} 90 s). Identical treatment after 30 min was not sufficient to ameliorate ECoG paradoxical activity and convulsive behavior. Nasal midazolam (1.5 mg/kg), together with scopolamine (1 mg/kg, im) after 5 min of EGSA, exerted a powerful and rapid anticonvulsant effect (53 {+-} 10 s). Delaying the same treatment to 30 min of EGSA leads to attenuation of paroxysmal ECoG activity in all cases but total cessation of paroxysmal activity was not observed in most animals tested. Cognitive tests utilizing the Morris Water Maze demonstrated that nasal midazolam alone or together with scopolamine (im), administered after 5 min of convulsions, abolished the effect of sarin on learning. Both these treatments, when given after 30 min of convulsions, only decreased the sarin-induced learning impairments. Whereas rats which were not subject to the anticonvulsant agents did not show any memory for the platform location, both treatments (at 5 min as well as at 30 min) completely abolished the memory deficits. Both treatments equally blocked the impairment of reversal learning when given at 5 min. However, when administered after 30 min, midazolam alone reversed the impairments in reversal learning, while midazolam with scopolamine did not. Rats exposed to sarin and treated with the therapeutic regimen with the exclusion of midazolam exhibited severe brain lesions that encountered the hippocampus, pyriform cortex, and thalamus. Nasal midazolam at 5 min prevented brain damage, while delaying the midazolam treatment to 30 min of EGSA resulted

  7. Development of Therapeutics That Induce Mitochondrial Biogenesis for the Treatment of Acute and Chronic Degenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robert B; Beeson, Craig C; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2016-12-08

    Mitochondria have various roles in cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Because mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with many acute and chronic degenerative diseases, mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) is a therapeutic target for treating such diseases. Here, we review the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in acute and chronic degenerative diseases and the cellular signaling pathways by which MB is induced. We then review existing work describing the development and application of drugs that induce MB in vitro and in vivo. In particular, we discuss natural products and modulators of transcription factors, kinases, cyclic nucleotides, and G protein-coupled receptors.

  8. Provider-Induced Demand in the Treatment of Carotid Artery Stenosis: Variation in Treatment Decisions Between Private Sector Fee-for-Service vs Salary-Based Military Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Louis L; Smith, Ann D; Scully, Rebecca E; Jiang, Wei; Learn, Peter A; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Weissman, Joel S; Helmchen, Lorens A; Koehlmoos, Tracey; Hoburg, Andrew; Kimsey, Linda G

    2017-06-01

    Although many factors influence the management of carotid artery stenosis, it is not well understood whether a preference toward procedural management exists when procedural volume and physician compensation are linked in the fee-for-service environment. To explore evidence for provider-induced demand in the management of carotid artery stenosis. The Department of Defense Military Health System Data Repository was queried for individuals diagnosed with carotid artery stenosis between October 1, 2006, and September 30, 2010. A hierarchical multivariable model evaluated the association of the treatment system (fee-for-service physicians in the private sector vs salary-based military physicians) with the odds of procedural intervention (carotid endarterectomy or carotid artery stenting) compared with medical management. Subanalysis was performed by symptom status at the time of presentation. The association of treatment system and of management strategy with clinical outcomes, including stroke and death, was also evaluated. Data analysis was conducted from August 15, 2015, to August 2, 2016. The odds of procedural intervention based on treatment system was the primary outcome used to indicate the presence and effect of provider-induced demand. Of 10 579 individuals with a diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis (4615 women and 5964 men; mean [SD] age, 65.6 [11.4] years), 1307 (12.4%) underwent at least 1 procedure. After adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, the odds of undergoing procedural management were significantly higher for patients in the fee-for-service system compared with those in the salary-based setting (odds ratio, 1.629; 95% CI, 1.285-2.063; P fee-for-service system were significantly more likely to undergo procedural management for carotid stenosis compared with those in the salary-based setting. These findings remained consistent for individuals with and without symptomatic disease.

  9. Tetrabenazine-induced oculogyric crisis – a rare complication in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janik P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Piotr Janik,1 Monika Figura1,2 1Department of Neurology, Anna Gostynska Wolski Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: Tetrabenazine is used in the treatment of chorea, tardive dyskinesia, tics, and dystonia. It rarely causes acute eyeball dystonia and the description of this complication in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is limited. We provide a description of an acute oculogyric crisis caused by tetrabenazine in a patient with severe tics. The patient had never developed acute dystonic reactions, although he was previously exposed to numerous dopamine receptor-blocking agents. After 8 days of therapy with tetrabenazine at a dose of 62.5 mg daily, the patient developed involuntary movement of the eyeballs. Withdrawal of tetrabenazine caused resolution of all symptoms after a week. The purpose of this description is to draw attention to the potential of tetrabenazine to induce acute oculogyric crisis as well as the difficulty of differentiating drug-induced dystonia from dystonic tics in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Keywords: acute dyskinesia, dystonic tics, eyeball dystonia, drug-induced dystonia, tic disorder, tetrabenazine-induced side effects

  10. Surgical treatment is effective in severe cases of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, Katarina; Johansson, Henrik; Jansson, Christer; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif

    2015-01-01

    Surgery is an effective treatment in severe cases of supraglottic exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (E-ILO). Conservatively treated subjects and subjects tested negative for E-ILO, who still experience breathing problems 1-3 years after diagnosis, tend to adjust their physical activity to a greater extent than surgically treated subjects. To investigate how symptoms and level of physical activity change over time in patients with E-ILO who have undergone surgery, patients with E-ILO treated conservatively and patients who tested negative for laryngeal obstruction at continuous laryngoscopy exercise-test (CLE-test). Patients referred for exercise-induced breathing difficulties answered questionnaires at diagnostic CLE-test and at follow-up. Questions regarded exercise-induced breathing problems, current physical activity level, and medical history of asthma and perennial allergy. Out of 84 invited subjects, 59 (70%) answered both questionnaires. Surgically treated subjects had less breathing problems at follow-up compared with conservatively treated subjects and subjects who tested negative (p < 0.001). None of the surgically treated subjects were less physically active or had changed sport due to exercise-induced dyspnoea, whereas 41.7% of the conservatively treated subjects had made such adjustments (p < 0.001).

  11. Effect of Applied Stress and Temperature on Residual Stresses Induced by Peening Surface Treatments in Alloy 600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, A.; Gnäupel-Herold, T.; Gill, A.; Vasudevan, V. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the effects of applied tensile stress and temperature on laser shock peening (LSP) and cavitation shotless peening (CSP)-induced compressive residual stresses were investigated using neutron and x-ray diffraction. Residual stresses on the surface, measured in situ, were lower than the applied stress in LSP- and CSP-treated Alloy 600 samples (2 mm thick). The residual stress averaged over the volume was similar to the applied stress. Compressive residual stresses on the surface and balancing tensile stresses in the interior relax differently due to hardening induced by LSP. Ex situ residual stress measurements, using XRD, show that residual stresses relaxed as the applied stress exceeded the yield strength of the LSP- and CSP-treated Alloy 600. Compressive residual stresses induced by CSP and LSP decreased by 15-25% in magnitude, respectively, on exposure to 250-450 °C for more than 500 h with 10-11% of relaxation occurring in the first few hours. Further, 80% of the compressive residual stresses induced by LSP and CSP treatments in Alloy 600 were retained even after long-term aging at 350 °C for 2400 h.

  12. Apoptosis induced by piroxicam plus cisplatin combined treatment is triggered by p21 in mesothelioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Baldi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM is a rare, highly aggressive tumor, associated to asbestos exposure. To date no chemotherapy regimen for MM has proven to be definitively curative, and new therapies for MM treatment need to be developed. We have previously shown in vivo that piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment in MM, specifically acts on cell cycle regulation triggering apoptosis, with survival increase. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed, at molecular level, the apoptotic increase caused by piroxicam/cisplatin treatment in MM cell lines. By means of genome wide analyses, we analyzed transcriptional gene deregulation both after the single piroxicam or cisplatin and the combined treatment. Here we show that apoptotic increase following combined treatment is mediated by p21, since apoptotic increase in piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment is abolished upon p21 silencing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment determines an apoptosis increase in MM cells, which is dependent on the p21 expression. The results provided suggest that piroxicam/cisplatin combination might be tested in clinical settings in tumor specimens that express p21.

  13. Apoptosis Induced by Piroxicam plus Cisplatin Combined Treatment Is Triggered by p21 in Mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Alfonso; Piccolo, Maria Teresa; Boccellino, Maria Rosaria; Donizetti, Aldo; Cardillo, Irene; La Porta, Raffaele; Quagliuolo, Lucio; Spugnini, Enrico P.; Cordero, Francesca; Citro, Gennaro; Menegozzo, Massimo; Calogero, Raffaele A.; Crispi, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Background Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor, associated to asbestos exposure. To date no chemotherapy regimen for MM has proven to be definitively curative, and new therapies for MM treatment need to be developed. We have previously shown in vivo that piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment in MM, specifically acts on cell cycle regulation triggering apoptosis, with survival increase. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed, at molecular level, the apoptotic increase caused by piroxicam/cisplatin treatment in MM cell lines. By means of genome wide analyses, we analyzed transcriptional gene deregulation both after the single piroxicam or cisplatin and the combined treatment. Here we show that apoptotic increase following combined treatment is mediated by p21, since apoptotic increase in piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment is abolished upon p21 silencing. Conclusions/Significance Piroxicam/cisplatin combined treatment determines an apoptosis increase in MM cells, which is dependent on the p21 expression. The results provided suggest that piroxicam/cisplatin combination might be tested in clinical settings in tumor specimens that express p21. PMID:21858171

  14. alpha(7) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation prevents behavioral and molecular changes induced by repeated phencyclidine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Christensen, Ditte Z; Hansen, Henrik H

    2009-01-01

    in a modified Y-maze test. Polymorphisms in the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene have been linked to schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that acute administration of the selective alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist SSR180711 dose-dependently reversed the behavioral impairment induced by PCP...

  15. Preventive Intra Oral Treatment of Sea Cucumber Ameliorate OVA-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-In; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kang, Shin Ae; Choi, Jun-Ho; Kang, Seok-Jung; Lee, Jeong-Yeol; Yu, Hak Sun

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumber extracts have potent biological effects, including anti-viral, anti-cancer, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammation effects. To understand their anti-asthma effects, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice after 7 oral administrations of the extract. The hyper-responsiveness value in mice with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum-induced asthma after oral injection of sea cucumber extracts was significantly lower than that in the OVA-alum-induced asthma group. In addition, the number of eosinophils in the lungs of asthma-induced mice pre-treated with sea cucumber extract was significantly decreased compared to that of PBS pre-treated mice. Additionally, CD4[Formula: see text]CD25[Formula: see text]Foxp3[Formula: see text]T (regulatory T; Treg) cells significantly increased in mesenteric lymph nodes after 7 administrations of the extract. These results suggest that sea cucumber extract can ameliorate allergic airway inflammation via Treg cell activation and recruitment to the lung.

  16. iTACTIC - implementing Treatment Algorithms for the Correction of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baksaas-Aasen, Kjersti; Gall, Lewis; Eaglestone, Simon

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury is the fourth leading cause of death globally. Half of all trauma deaths are due to bleeding and most of these will occur within 6 h of injury. Haemorrhagic shock following injury has been shown to induce a clotting dysfunction within minutes, and this early trauma-in...

  17. A schizophrenia rat model induced by early postnatal phencyclidine treatment and characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian V; Madsen, Kristoffer H; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    administration of phencyclidine (PCP) induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy volunteers and exacerbates symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. In this study, pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI) was used to evaluate if rats treated with 20mg/kg PCP on postnatal days 7, 9, and 11 (neo...

  18. Hypoxic treatment inhibits insulin-induced chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells despite upregulation of DEC1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Chondrogenesis occurs in vivo in a hypoxic environment, in which the hypoxia inducible factor 1, HIF-1, plays a regulatory role, possibly mediated through the transcription factor DEC1. We have analyzed the effect of hypoxia (1% oxygen) alone and in combination with insulin on the chondrogenic di...

  19. Placebo-controlled phase II study of vitamin K3 cream for the treatment of cetuximab-induced rash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Kaalund, Inger; Clemmensen, Ole; Overgaard, Jens; Pfeiffer, Per

    2017-07-01

    Cetuximab inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and papulopustular eruptions is a frequent side effect. Vitamin K3 (menadione) has preclinically shown to be a potential activator of the EGFR by phosphorylating the receptor (pEGFR). The present randomised study investigated the effect of a vitamin K3 cream on cetuximab-induced rash. Thirty patients were included in this double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Patients receiving cetuximab 500 mg/m 2 every second week plus chemotherapy for metastatic cancer were included. In each patient, vitamin K3 cream and placebo were applied twice daily on two separate areas of the skin of minimum 10 × 10 cm for up to 2 months. Papulopustular eruptions were evaluated clinically and monitored by clinical photos. Skin biopsies, from ten patients taken before and after 1 month of treatment from each treatment area, were stained for EGFR and pEGFR. Application of vitamin K3 cream twice daily during treatment with cetuximab did not reduce the number of papulopustular eruptions, and this was independent of the use of systemic tetracycline. No significant changes in the staining of EGFR or pEGFR were observed in the skin of the vitamin K3-treated area compared to the placebo area. The present data do not support any clinical or immunohistochemical benefit of using vitamin K3 cream for cetuximab-induced rash.

  20. The Therapeutic Potential of Monocyte/Macrophage Manipulation in the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Induced Painful Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karli Montague

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In cancer treatments a dose-limiting side-effect of chemotherapeutic agents is the development of neuropathic pain, which is poorly managed by clinically available drugs at present. Chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy (CIPN is a major cause of premature cessation of treatment and so a greater understanding of the underlying mechanisms and the development of novel, more effective therapies, is greatly needed. In some cases, only a weak correlation between chemotherapy-induced pain and neuronal damage is observed both clinically and preclinically. As such, a critical role for non-neuronal cells, such as immune cells, and their communication with neurons in CIPN has recently been appreciated. In this mini-review, we will discuss preclinical evidence for the role of monocytes/macrophages in the periphery in CIPN, with a focus on that which is associated with the chemotherapeutic agents vincristine and paclitaxel. In addition we will discuss the potential mechanisms that regulate monocyte/macrophage–neuron crosstalk in this context. Informed by preclinical data, we will also consider the value of monocytes/macrophages as therapeutic targets for the treatment of CIPN clinically. Approaches that manipulate the signaling pathways discussed in this review show both promise and potential pitfalls. Nonetheless, they are emerging as innovative therapeutic targets with CX3CL1/R1-regulation of monocyte/macrophage–neuron communication currently emerging as a promising front-runner.

  1. Foliar treatments with Gaultheria procumbens essential oil induce defence responses and resistance against a fungal pathogen in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eVergnes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Gaultheria procumbens is mainly composed of methylsalicylate (>96%, a compound which can be metabolized in plant tissues to salicylic acid, a phytohormone inducing plant immunity against microbial pathogens. The potential use of G. procumbens essential oil as a biocontrol agent was evaluated on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of a selection of defence genes was detected 1, 6 and 24 hours after essential oil treatment (0.1 ml/L using a high-throughput qPCR-based microfluidic technology. Control treatments included methyl jasmonate and a commercialized salicylic acid analog, benzo(1,2,3-thiadiazole-7carbothiolic acid (BTH. Strong induction of defence markers known to be regulated by the salicylic acid pathway was observed after the treatment with G. procumbens essential oil. Treatment induced the accumulation of total salicylic acid in the wild -type Arabidopsis line Col-0 and analysis of the Arabidopsis line sid2, mutated in a salicylic acid biosynthetic gene, revealed that approximately 30% of methylsalicylate sprayed on the leaves penetrated inside plant tissues and was demethylated by endogenous esterases. Induction of plant resistance by G. procumbens essential oil was tested following inoculation with a GFP-expressing strain of the Arabidopsis fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. Flurorescence measurement of infected tissues revealed that treatments led to a strong reduction (60% of pathogen development and that the efficacy of the G. procumbens essential oil was similar to the commercial product BION®. Together, these results show that the G. procubens essential oil is a natural source of methylsalicylate which can be formulated to develop new biocontrol products.

  2. Glutathione Depletion Induced by c-Myc Downregulation Triggers Apoptosis on Treatment with Alkylating Agents1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biroccio, Annamaria; Benassi, Barbara; Fiorentino, Francesco; Zupi, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Here we investigate the mechanism(s) involved in the c-Myc-dependent drug response of melanoma cells. By using three M14-derived c-Myc low-expressing clones, we demonstrate that alkylating agents, cisplatin and melphalan, trigger apoptosis in the c-Myc antisense transfectants, but not in the parental line. On the contrary, topoisomerase inhibitors, adriamycin and camptothecin, induce apoptosis to the same extent regardless of c-Myc expression. Because we previously demonstrated that c-Myc downregulation decreases glutathione (GSH) content, we evaluated the role of GSH in the apoptosis induced by the different drugs. In control cells treated with one of the alkylating agents or the others, GSH depletion achieved by l-buthionine-sulfoximine preincubation opens the apoptotic pathway. The apoptosis proceeded through early Bax relocalization, cytochrome c release, and concomitant caspase-9 activation, whereas reactive oxygen species production and alteration of mitochondria membrane potential were late events. That GSH was determining in the c-Myc-dependent drug-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by altering the intracellular GSH content of the c-Myc low-expressing cells up to the level of controls. Indeed, GSH ethyl ester-mediated increase of GSH abrogated apoptosis induced by cisplatin and melphalan by inhibition of Bax/cytochrome c redistribution. The relationship among c-Myc, GSH content, and the response to alkylating agent has been also evaluated in the M14 Myc overexpressing clones as well as in the melanoma JR8 c-Myc antisense transfectants. All together, these results demonstrate that GSH plays a key role in governing c-Myc-dependent drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:15153331

  3. Hepatoprotective agent tethered isoniazid for the treatment of drug-induced hepatotoxicity: Synthesis, biochemical and histopathological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effect of isoniazid–curcumin conjugate (INH–CRM in INH-induced hepatic injury by biochemical analysis and histology examination of liver in Wistar rats. The biochemical analysis included determination of the levels of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, albumin content, and lipid peroxidation (MDA. INH–CRM administration resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, TG, and MDA levels in the liver tissue homogenate with an elevation in albumin level indicating its hepatoprotective activity. Histology of the liver further confirmed the reduction in hepatic injury. The hepatoprotective with INH–CRM can be attributed to the antioxidant activity of curcumin. The conjugate probably stabilizes the curcumin molecule, preventing its presystemic metabolism thereby enhancing its bioavailability and therefore, its hepatoprotective activity. Thus, the novel INH–CRM has the potential to alleviate INH-induced liver toxicity in antitubercular treatment.

  4. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avisar, D.; Lester, Y.; Mamane, H.

    2010-01-01

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  5. pH induced polychromatic UV treatment for the removal of a mixture of SMX, OTC and CIP from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avisar, D., E-mail: droravi@post.tau.ac.il [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lester, Y. [Hydro-chemistry Laboratory, Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mamane, H. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2010-03-15

    Water and wastewater effluents contain a vast range of chemicals in mixtures that have different chemical structures and characteristics. This study presents a treatment technology for the removal of mixtures of antibiotic residues (sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxtetracycline (OTC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP)) from contaminated water. The treatment combines pH modification of the water to an optimal value, followed by a photolytic treatment using direct polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) irradiation by medium pressure UV lamp. The pH adjustment of the treated water leads to structural modifications of the pollutant's molecule thus may enhance direct photolysis by UV light. Results showed that an increase of water pH from 5 to 7 leads to a decrease in degradation rate of SMX and an increase in degradation rate of OTC and CIP, when studied separately and not in a mixture. Thus, the optimal pH values for UV photodegradation in a mixture, involve initial photolysis at pH 5 and then gradually changing the pH from 5 to 7 during the UV exposure. For example, this resulted in 99% degradation of SMX at pH 5 and enhanced degradation of OTC and CIP from 54% and 26% to 91% and 96% respectively when pH was increased from 5 to 7. Thus the pH induced photolytic treatment has a potential in improving treatment of antibiotics in mixtures.

  6. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine and sertraline prevents forced swimming test-induced hypercontractility of rat detrusor muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Sirri; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Bas, Duygu B; Aksoz, Elif; Savli, Evren; Ilkaya, Fatih; Kesim, Yuksel

    2008-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) reuptake inhibitors represent important targets for the development of new treatments for detrusor overactivity and urinary incontinence. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the forced swimming test (FST) on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle and to examine the effects of in vivo treatments of fluoxetine and sertraline on altered detrusor muscle contractility. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg ip) and sertraline (10 mg/kg ip) were administered once a day for 14 days. Rats were exposed to the FST on the 15th day. After the test, detrusor muscles were removed and placed in organ baths, and the contraction responses induced by carbachol, potassium chloride (KCl) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were recorded. The contractile responses of detrusor muscle strips to carbachol and electrical field stimulation were found to be increased at all carbachol doses and frequencies, respectively. FST also increased the contractile responses to KCl, which is used to test the differences in postreceptor-mediated contractions. The hypercontractile responses of detrusor strips to carbachol, EFS and KCl were abolished by treatment with both fluoxetine and sertraline. These treatments also decreased the immobility duration in the FST consistent with an antidepressant-like effect in this test. The results of this study provide the first evidence that FST increases contractility of the rat detrusor muscle, and this hypercontractility was abolished by chronic treatments of fluoxetine and sertraline at antidepressant doses by decreasing the postreceptor-mediated events.

  7. Photoinhibition-like damage to the photosynthetic apparatus in plant leaves induced by submergence treatment in the dark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingli Fan

    Full Text Available Submergence is a common type of environmental stress for plants. It hampers survival and decreases crop yield, mainly by inhibiting plant photosynthesis. The inhibition of photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency by submergence is primarily due to leaf senescence and excess excitation energy, caused by signals from hypoxic roots and inhibition of gas exchange, respectively. However, the influence of mere leaf-submergence on the photosynthetic apparatus is currently unknown. Therefore, we studied the photosynthetic apparatus in detached leaves from four plant species under dark-submergence treatment (DST, without influence from roots and light. Results showed that the donor and acceptor sides, the reaction center of photosystem II (PSII and photosystem I (PSI in leaves were significantly damaged after 36 h of DST. This is a photoinhibition-like phenomenon similar to the photoinhibition induced by high light, as further indicated by the degradation of PsaA and D1, the core proteins of PSI and PSII. In contrast to previous research, the chlorophyll content remained unchanged and the H2O2 concentration did not increase in the leaves, implying that the damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was not caused by senescence or over-accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. DST-induced damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was aggravated by increasing treatment temperature. This type of damage also occurred in the anaerobic environment (N2 without water, and could be eliminated or restored by supplying air to the water during or after DST. Our results demonstrate that DST-induced damage was caused by the hypoxic environment. The mechanism by which DST induces the photoinhibition-like damage is discussed below.

  8. HIV-1 Myristoylated Nef Treatment of Murine Microglial Cells Activates Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase, NO2 Production and Neurotoxic Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Mangino

    Full Text Available The potential role of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 accessory protein Nef in the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS is still poorly understood. Nef is a molecular adapter that influences several cellular signal transduction events and membrane trafficking. In human macrophages, Nef expression induces the production of extracellular factors (e.g. pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines and the recruitment of T cells, thus favoring their infection and its own transfer to uninfected cells via exosomes, cellular protrusions or cell-to-cell contacts. Murine cells are normally not permissive for HIV-1 but, in transgenic mice, Nef is a major disease determinant. Both in human and murine macrophages, myristoylated Nef (myr+Nef treatment has been shown to activate NF-κB, MAP kinases and interferon responsive factor 3 (IRF-3, thereby inducing tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT-1, STAT-2 and STAT-3 through the production of proinflammatory factors.We report that treatment of BV-2 murine microglial cells with myr+Nef leads to STAT-1, -2 and -3 tyrosine phosphorylation and upregulates the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS with production of nitric oxide. We provide evidence that extracellular Nef regulates iNOS expression through NF-κB activation and, at least in part, interferon-β (IFNβ release that acts in concert with Nef. All of these effects require both myristoylation and a highly conserved acidic cluster in the viral protein. Finally, we report that Nef induces the release of neurotoxic factors in the supernatants of microglial cells.These results suggest a potential role of extracellular Nef in promoting neuronal injury in the murine model. They also indicate a possible interplay between Nef and host factors in the pathogenesis of neuroAIDS through the production of reactive nitrogen species in microglial cells.

  9. Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor induces growth of the rat ventral prostate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, N; Jensen, L V; Wen, J G

    2001-01-01

    of the prostate epithelium, the stroma and the lumen following EGF treatment, in a pattern resembling physiological growth of the ventral prostate. A significant correlation (r = 0.78, p testosterone...

  10. Fasting and meal-induced CCK and PP secretion following intragastric balloon treatment for obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M. H.; de Groot, Gerrit H.

    2013-01-01

    Satiety is centrally and peripherally mediated by gastrointestinal peptides and the vagal nerve. We aimed to investigate whether intragastric balloon treatment affects satiety through effects on fasting and meal-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) secretion. Patients

  11. Investigation of induced changes after treatment with ionizing radiation and saturated steam in the case of paprika

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispeter, J.; Bajusz-Kabok, K.; Fekete, M.; Szabo, G.; Fodor, E.; Pali, T.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Beside conventional food preservation methods, such new physical methods are also applied as ionising radiation, high hydrostatic pressure, high-tension gradient, fluctuating strong magnetic field as well as treatments with high-pressure saturated steam and microwaves. Since radiation treatment is the best known, it can be regarded as a basic method in comparative tests. In our work the preservation-induced changes were investigated for paprika griests of various origin and quality (different dyestuff contents). Samples were treated with ionising radiation, high-pressure saturated steam (140 deg C, 30 s) or with combinations of these. The changes were followed as a function of absorbed dose (2, 5, 7.5, 10 kGy) and storage time (0, 1, 2, 4, 12 weeks) using colour measurements, rheological and ESR methods. Our results are summarised as follows: (1) The treatment with high-pressure saturated steam is equivalent to that of 5 kGy absorbed γ-doses. Significant changes in dyestuff contents and surface colours can't be detected immediately after treatments. After storage of 12 weeks, decomposition of dyestuffs and changes in surface colours in samples treated with saturated steam are 20% greater than in control. Radiation results in a slight (few %) dyestuff decomposition and colour change (i.e. discolouration). (2) Rheological characteristics were changed in both treatments (apparent viscosities were increased) during storage. This is a reversible and permanent change in the case of treatments with ionising radiation and with high-pressure saturated steam, respectively. (3) Changes induced by microwave treatment are in accordance with rheological changes. (4) Treatment with saturated steam results in a decrease in the cellulose free radical content. The decrease is inversely proportional to dyestuff contents. (5) Decrease of cellulose radical concentration with the storage time is of exponential-like character. Radicals disappear at

  12. Abatacept Treatment Does Not Preserve Renal Function in the Streptozocin-Induced Model of Diabetic Nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Norlin

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the most severe complications of diabetes and remains the largest cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. Treatment options are limited and novel therapies that effectively slow disease progression are warranted. Previous work suggested that treatment with CTLA4-Ig (abatacept, a molecule that binds and blocks B7-1 and is licensed for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, could ameliorate DN. This study was designed to assess whether B7-1 signalling constitutes a promising therapeutic pathway for DN. Mice injected with streptozotocin (STZ were treated with abatacept and glycemia and renal function were assessed. No differences were found in diabetes progression, albumin excretion rates or albumin/creatine ratios, while mesangial expansion was unaltered at endpoint. Except for increased renal CCL5, treatment did not affect a panel of gene expression endpoints reflecting early fibrotic changes, inflammation and kidney injury. Finally, abatacept treatment effectively reduced the accumulation of activated CD4+ T cells in the kidney, suggesting that renal T cell inflammation is not a driving factor in the pathology of the STZ model. In conjunction with the recent data discounting the expression of B7-1 on podocytes, our present data do not support a role for abatacept in DN treatment.

  13. Sickle Mice Are Sensitive to Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Stroke but Respond to Tissue-Type Plasminogen Activator Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Lee, Jolly; Huang, Henry; Wagner, Mary B; Joiner, Clinton H; Archer, David R; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2017-12-01

    The effects of lytic stroke therapy in patients with sickle cell anemia are unknown, although a recent study suggested that coexistent sickle cell anemia does not increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. This finding calls for systemic analysis of the effects of thrombolytic stroke therapy, first in humanized sickle mice, and then in patients. There is also a need for additional predictive markers of sickle cell anemia-associated vasculopathy. We used Doppler ultrasound to examine the carotid artery of Townes sickle mice tested their responses to repetitive mild hypoxia-ischemia- and transient hypoxia-ischemia-induced stroke at 3 or 6 months of age, respectively. We also examined the effects of tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator) treatment in transient hypoxia-ischemia-injured sickle mice. Three-month-old sickle cell (SS) mice showed elevated resistive index in the carotid artery and higher sensitivity to repetitive mild hypoxia-ischemia-induced cerebral infarct. Six-month-old SS mice showed greater resistive index and increased flow velocity without obstructive vasculopathy in the carotid artery. Instead, the cerebral vascular wall in SS mice showed ectopic expression of PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and P-selectin, suggesting a proadhesive and prothrombotic propensity. Indeed, SS mice showed enhanced leukocyte and platelet adherence to the cerebral vascular wall, broader fibrin deposition, and higher mortality after transient hypoxia-ischemia. Yet, post-transient hypoxia-ischemia treatment with tPA reduced thrombosis and mortality in SS mice. Sickle mice are sensitive to hypoxia/ischemia-induced cerebral infarct but benefit from thrombolytic treatment. An increased resistive index in carotid arteries may be an early marker of sickle cell vasculopathy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fei; Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Shulin; Fu, Jingshu; Xie, Zhao

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of induced membrane technique combined with two-stage internal fixation in the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects. A retrospective analyses for 67 cases of tibialosteomyelitis defects were admitted to our department between September 2012 to February 2015, which were treated with induced membrane technique. At the first stage, implanted with a PMMA cement spacer in the defects after radical debridement and fixed with reconstructive locked plate. Bone grafting and exchanged the plate with intramedullary nail at the second stage. In current study, all patients were followed up for 18-35 months. Sixty-six patients achieved bone union with the average radiographic and clinical healing times of 5.55±2.19 and 7.45±1.69months, respectively. Seven patients required a second debridement before grafting, while four patients experienced a recurrence of infection or a relapse following second stage treatment. Twelve patients experienced either knee or ankle dysfunctions and 2 patients faced delayed wound healing. Donor site complications includes pain and infection were found in 7 and 3 patients, respectively with delayed stress fracture in 1 patient only. Induced membrane technique for the treatment of tibial osteomyelitis defects, seems a reliable method. The use of reconstructive locked plate as a temporary internal fixation at the first stage and exchanged with intramedullary nail at the second stage, potentially achieves good clinical efficacy. Care should be taken to restore the joint function especially in distal tibia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of CTA1R7K-COL-DD as a novel therapeutic mucosal tolerance-inducing vector for treatment of collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselberg, Annemarie; Schön, Karin; Tarkowski, Andrej; Lycke, Nils

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether a cholera toxin-derived, novel immunomodulating fusion protein, CTA1R7K-COL-DD, carrying the class II major histocompatibility complex H-2q-restricted type II collagen peptide aa 259-274, can induce therapeutic tolerance and prevent collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) when administered intranasally in DBA/1 mice, and to assess whether ADP-ribosylation at the mucosal membranes exerts a regulatory function such that the outcome of tolerance or immune enhancement can be controlled. DBA/1 mice with CIA were treated intranasally with CTA1R7K-COL-DD. The therapeutic effect was monitored for 46 days after the onset of disease. Clinical scoring of disease, histologic examination of inflammation, and bone erosion were assessed, and cytokine levels were determined in the serum or supernatants from splenocytes stimulated with recall antigen. The protective effect of CTA1R7K-COL-DD resulted in roughly 60% of the mice having no clinical signs or histologic evidence of disease after treatment, and those with CIA had significantly milder disease with less bone erosion. The protective status was associated with lower serum titers of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 anticollagen and a substantial decrease in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-17, and interferon-gamma, while levels of IL-10 were markedly up-regulated both in the serum and at the T cell level. The enzymatically inactive mutant fusion protein CTA1R7K-COL-DD provided substantial therapeutic protection against CIA following intranasal administration. The mechanism behind the effect appears to be mediated by peptide-specific regulatory T cells induced by mucosal exposure to the peptide containing CTA1R7K-COL-DD vector. In addition, ADP-ribosylation at the mucosal membranes acts as a key regulator controlling mucosal tolerance or immunity.

  16. Cycloserine Induced Late Onset Psychosis and Ethambutol Induced Peripheral Neuropathy Associated with MDR-TB Treatment in an Indian Patient- A Rare Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holla, Sadhana; Amberkar, Mohan Babu; Bhandarypanambur, Rajeshkrishna; Kamalkishore, Meenakumari; Janardhanan, Manju

    2015-02-01

    Adverse reactions and toxicity inevitably accompany all treatment courses for drug-resistant TB. Our case underscores the importance of awareness regarding neuropsychiatric adverse reactions due to MDR-TB therapy and reversible nature of it. Cycloserine induced psychosis is most life threatening complication and sometimes could be fatal. A 42-year-old male on MDR-TB therapy got admitted for his persistent psychotic complaints like hallucinations, delusions and suicidal ideations, despite being treated with quetiapine/olanzapine. Eventually patient was rehabilitated, cycloserine was stopped and psychotic events regressed slowly. Other culprit drugs like ethambutol and levofloxacin causing psychosis was ruled out because there was no relapse of psychotic events despite being continued with these drugs. He also complained of tingling, numbness, swaying, pain and weakness. On examination, he had distal motor weakness in lower limbs, tandem gait positive, altered position sense, and tenderness over toes and positive Romberg's sign with ataxia. He was diagnosed to have drug induced sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. All these symptoms persisted after stopping cycloserine and patient continued to have neuropathy with ethambutol and ethionamide. Considering the nature of neuropathy which was mild, mixed sensorimotor and resolved completely after 2-3 weeks of stopping, it was more in favour of ethambutol. However, we could not rule out the possibility of ethionamide or (ethionamide + ethambutol) causing neuropathy or both could have accelerated the neurotoxic effects of cycloserine which remained elusive.

  17. Acupuncture for radiation or combined treatment induced edema in arms and legs of breast and cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardychev, M.S.; Guseva, L.I.; Zubova, N.D.

    1988-01-01

    Acupuncture was carried out in 141 sufferers from delayed radiation injuries to skin and soft tissues. 122 patients (86%) revealed clinical manifestations of edema of varying gravity in arms and legs, while 19 (14%) suffered radiation-induced neufritis or plexitis unaccompanied by edema. Radionuclide and rheographic studies as well as evaluation of hemostatic function showed acupuncture to be an effective treatment for edema and pain. it also improved lymph flow, rheovasographic indexes and normalized hemostasis. The best results were obtained in cases of stage 1-2 edema

  18. RISK-FACTORS, PATHOGENESIS, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPROACHES FOR TREATMENT OF STEROID-INDUCED BONE INFARCTION OF FEMORAL HEAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Yang; Hu, Ningning; Miao, Xuman

    2016-01-01

    During first year of steroid usage, osteocyte necrosis and blood vessel blockage may occur, which subsequently may produce steroid-induced bone infarction (SIBI) resulting in painful movement of patient. For treatment of SIBI, pharmaceutical strategy is the basic approach. It involves the use of various pharmacologically active compounds including bisphosphonates, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), coenzyme Q10, erythropoietin, antihyperlipidemics, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and tissue repair protein. Out of these, there is no pharmaceutical agent that may completely treat this disease because many factors are found to be responsible for SIBI development; therefore, there are multiple biomarkers of this disease. This situation argues for need of new therapeutic agents for SIEB1.

  19. Influence of pre- and post-treatment with caffeine on UV-induced effects in Oedogonium gunnii Wittr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Sudha; Sarma, Y.S.R.K.

    1981-01-01

    Zoospores and mature filaments of O.gunnii were treated with 0.05 and 0.25% of caffeine 2 hr prior and immediately after exposure to UV. While the caffeine treatment given 2 hr prior to UV-exposure lowered the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, the same concentrations of caffeine, when employed immediately after UV-exposure, resulted in an increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine appears to act as protective as well as potentiating agent in relation to UV-induced effects both with respect to survival of zoospores and chromosomal aberrations in mature filaments. (author)

  20. Exact matrix treatment of statistical mechanical lattice model of adsorption induced gate opening in metal-organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, Lawrence J; Manos, George

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a statistical mechanical lattice model which is exactly solvable using a matrix method and allows treatment of adsorption induced gate opening structural transformations of metal-organic frameworks which are nanoporous materials with exceptional adsorption properties. Modelling of these structural changes presents a serious theoretical challenge when the solid and gas species are treated in an even handed way. This exactly solvable model complements other simulation based approaches. The methodology presented here highlights the competition between the potential for adsorption and the energy required for structural transition as a driving force for the features in the adsorption isotherms. (paper)

  1. Acupuncture for radiation or combined treatment induced edema in arms and legs of breast and cervical cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardychev, M S; Guseva, L I; Zubova, N D

    1988-01-01

    Acupuncture was carried out in 141 sufferers from delayed radiation injuries to skin and soft tissues. 122 patients (86%) revealed clinical manifestations of edema of varying gravity in arms and legs, while 19 (14%) suffered radiation-induced neufritis or plexitis unaccompanied by edema. Radionuclide and rheographic studies as well as evaluation of hemostatic function showed acupuncture to be an effective treatment for edema and pain. it also improved lymph flow, rheovasographic indexes and normalized hemostasis. The best results were obtained in cases of stage 1-2 edema.

  2. Effect of treatment duration on surface nanocrystallization induced by fast multiple rotation rolling and its thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui Pengfei; Liu Yi; Liang Yanjie; Li Yang [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structure Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Fan Suhua [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structure Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Shandong Women' s University, Jinan 250300 (China); Sun Kangning, E-mail: sunkangning@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structure Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of treatment time on surface nanocrystallization of a low carbon steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grain size decreases gradually with the increase of treatment duration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microhardness of FMRR treated sample reaches 284 HV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanocrystalline layer is stable during annealing treatment up to 400 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A nanocrystalline surface layer of low carbon steel induced by fast multiple rotation rolling (FMRR) was determined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the grain size decreases gradually with the increase of treatment duration. Equiaxed nanocrystalline with the average grain size about 20 nm is obtained in the top surface layer after FMRR treatment for 30 min. With the increase of treatment duration (60 min), the average grain size further reduces to about 9 nm. At the same time, the microhardness of surface layer for treated sample is improved correspondingly owing to grain refinement and work-hardening. Compared with original sample, the microhardness of FMRR treated sample is increased by more than 200%. After annealing treatment, the investigation of thermal stability of nanocrystalline layer indicates that the grains begin to grow obviously at annealing for 400 Degree-Sign C, and abnormal grain growth also occurs in individual grains. Due to grain growth and stress relaxation during annealing, the microhardness slightly decreases at 400 Degree-Sign C. In spite of this, the majority of grains are still nanocrystalline, ranging from about 30 to 60 nm. It demonstrates that the nanocrystalline layer has high thermal stability.

  3. Modifications of roughness and wettability properties of metals induced by femtosecond laser treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizi-Bandoki, P.; Benayoun, S.; Valette, S.; Beaugiraud, B.; Audouard, E.

    2011-01-01

    Topographic and wetting properties of AISI 316L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-V alloys were modified via linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. In order to induce a gradual evolution of the surface topography and wettability, four samples of each alloy were irradiated with different number of pulses. From the topographic point of view, a multi-scale morphology made of nano- and micro-periodic ripples was induced. The increase in the number of pulses led to the appearance of a third scale structure of waviness that is due to the laser scanning. The wettability of alloys was changed from a hydrophilic behavior to a hydrophobic one without lowering surface energies by chemical coatings. The apparent contact angle (CA) increased with increasing the number of pulses. A rise of about 50 deg. of the apparent CA of the Ti-6Al-V was noticed.

  4. Radiation as an inducer of in-situ autologous vaccine in the treatment of solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mansoor M.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is conventionally used for local tumor control. Although local control of the primary tumor can prevent the development of subsequent systemic metastases, tumor irradiation is not effective in controlling pre-existing systemic disease. The concept of radiation-enhanced antigen presentation and immunomodulation allows the harnessing of tumor cell death induced by radiation as a potential source of tumor antigens for immunotherapy. Immunomodulation using RT is a novel strategy of in situ tumor vaccination where primary tumor irradiation can contribute to the control of pre-existing systemic metastatic disease. The absence of systemic immunosuppression (often associated with chemotherapy) and the generally lower toxicity makes radiation a desirable adjuvant regimen for immunotherapy and tumor vaccination strategies. Increased understanding of tumor immunology and the biology of radiation-mediated immune modulation should enhance the efficacy of combining these therapeutic modalities. Here we aim to provide an overview of the biology of radiation-induced immune modulation. (author)

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced resistance to doxorubicin is reversed by paeonol treatment in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress is generally activated in solid tumors and results in tumor cell anti-apoptosis and drug resistance. Paeonol (Pae, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone, is a natural product extracted from the root of Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrew. Although Pae displays anti-neoplastic activity and increases the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in various cell lines and in animal models, studies related to the effect of Pae on ER stress-induced resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response during resistance of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to doxorubicin. Treatment with the ER stress-inducer tunicamycin (TM before the addition of doxorubicin reduced the rate of apoptosis induced by doxorubicin. Interestingly, co-pretreatment with tunicamycin and Pae significantly increased apoptosis induced by doxorubicin. Furthermore, induction of ER stress resulted in increasing expression of COX-2 concomitant with inactivation of Akt and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP (GADD153 in HepG2 cells. These cellular changes in gene expression and Akt activation may be an important resistance mechanism against doxorubicin in hepatocellular carcinoma cells undergoing ER stress. However, co-pretreatment with tunicamycin and Pae decreased the expression of COX-2 and levels of activation of Akt as well as increasing the levels of CHOP in HCC cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that Pae reverses ER stress-induced resistance to doxorubicin in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting COX-2 mediated inactivation of PI3K/AKT/CHOP.

  6. Acute phencyclidine treatment induces extensive and distinct protein phosphorylation in rat frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmowski, Pawel; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Williamson, James

    2014-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP), a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, induces psychotomimetic effects in humans and animals. Administration of PCP to rodents is used as a preclinical model for schizophrenia; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the symptoms remain largely unknown...... data sets to date of a preclinical model of schizophrenia. Our findings contribute to the understanding of alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia and provide a foundation for discovery of novel targets for pharmacological intervention. © 2014 American Chemical Society....

  7. Assessment and Treatment of Blast-Induced Auditory and Vestibular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    VsEP testing at Dr. Alan Cheng’s Laboratory at Stanford University and the ear specimens were delivered to NIDCD for pathological evaluation.  One...shockwave induced auditory functional and structural changes in mice,” presented at the National Capital Area TBI symposium in March 2017 in Bethesda...response waveform and the next stimulus level that produces no visible response waveform. 7 Pathology : Under deep anesthesia, mice received

  8. Experimentally induced tumors used for angiographic estimation of embolisation and cytostatic treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, E P; Kraus, W; Fiebig, H H; Kauffmann, G; Hauenstein, K H

    1982-02-01

    In 12 rats tumors have been induced chemically by intraperitoneal application of dimethylnitrosamine. This method is simple and reliable and the effect of tumor embolization can be followed easily. Thymus aplastic nude mice with transplanted human tumors deserve strict care. Tumor microangiograms of 48 animals demonstrate a close similarity with angiograms of corresponding human tumors. The vascular pattern does not alterate after several transplantations, after cytostatic therapy a slight hypervascularisation developes.

  9. Bilirubin treatment suppresses pulmonary inflammation in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jingjing; Zhao, Hui; Fan, Guoquan; Li, Jianqiang

    2015-09-18

    Cigarette smoking is a significant risk factor for emphysema, which is characterized by airway inflammation and oxidative damage. To assess the capacity of bilirubin to protect against smoke-induced emphysema. Smoking status and bilirubin levels were recorded in 58 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and 71 non-COPD participants. The impact of smoking on serum bilirubin levels and exogenous bilirubin (20 mg/kg/day) on pulmonary injury was assessed in a rat model of smoking-induced emphysema. At sacrifice lung histology, airway leukocyte accumulation and cytokine and chemokine levels in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung were analyzed. Oxidative lipid damage and anti-oxidative components was assessed by measuring malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione. Total serum bilirubin levels were lower in smokers with or without COPD than non-smoking patients without COPD (P pulmonary injury by suppressing inflammatory cell recruitment and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine levels, and anti-oxidant SOD activity in a rat model of smoke-induced emphysema. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. SiRNA Crosslinked Nanoparticles for the Treatment of Inflammation-induced Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaqin; Zeng, Ziying; He, Xiao; Wang, Tingting; Ning, Xinghai; Feng, Xuli

    2017-02-01

    RNA interference mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) provides a powerful tool for gene regulation, and has a broad potential as a promising therapeutic strategy. However, therapeutics based on siRNA have had limited clinical success due to their undesirable pharmacokinetic properties. This study presents pH-sensitive nanoparticles-based siRNA delivery systems (PNSDS), which are positive-charge-free nanocarriers, composed of siRNA chemically crosslinked with multi-armed poly(ethylene glycol) carriers via acid-labile acetal linkers. The unique siRNA crosslinked structure of PNSDS allows it to have minimal cytotoxicity, high siRNA loading efficiency, and a stimulus-responsive property that enables the selective intracellular release of siRNA in response to pH conditions. This study demonstrates that PNSDS can deliver tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) siRNA into macrophages and induce the efficient down regulation of the targeted gene in complete cell culture media. Moreover, PNSDS with mannose targeting moieties can selectively accumulate in mice liver, induce specific inhibition of macrophage TNF-α expression in vivo, and consequently protect mice from inflammation-induced liver damages. Therefore, this novel siRNA delivering platform would greatly improve the therapeutic potential of RNAi based therapies.

  11. Early Treatment of radiation-Induced Heart Damage in Rats by Caffeic acid phenethyl Ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; Mansour, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    The study designed to determine the therapeutic effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in minimising radiation-induced injuries in rats. Rats were exposed to 7 Gy γ-rays, 30 minutes later; rats were injected with CAPE (10μmol/ kg body, i.p.) for 7 consecutive days. Rats were sacrificed at 8 and 15 days after starting the experiment. Gamma-irradiation induced significant increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) level and xanthine oxidase (XO) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, and significant decrease in total nitrate/nitrate (NO (x)) level and glutathione peroxidise (Gpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)and catalase (CAT) activities in heart tissue and augmented activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum. Irradiated rats early treated with CAPE showed significant decrease in MDA, XO and ADA and significant increase in group. Cardiac enzymes were restored. Conclusion, CAPE could exhibits curable effect on gamma irradiation-induced cardiac-oxidative impairment in rats. (Author)

  12. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced macular ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamim A Haji

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Shamim A Haji1,2, Ronald EP Frenkel1,2,31Eye Research Foundation, Stuart, FL, USA; 2East Florida Eye Institute, Stuart, FL, USA; 3Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To report a case of radiation-induced macular ischemia where vision and macular perfusion improved after hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy.Methods: A 62-year-old male patient developed radiation-induced macular ischemia after he was treated with radiation for brain glioma. The patient presented with best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA acuity of 20/400 in his right eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT showed central macular thickness of 468 μm. The patient received focal laser, intravitreal triamcinolone, and HBO therapy.Results: The patient’s vision improved from 20/400 to 20/100 after focal laser and intravitreal triamcinolone. His central macular thickness improved from 468 μm to 132 μm. After receiving HBO therapy, his VA improved to 20/50 and fluorescein angiography showed improvement in macular perfusion.Conclusion: HBO therapy improves macular perfusion in patients with radiation-induced macular ischemia.Keywords: macular ischemia, visual acuity, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, macular perfusion

  13. Potential of Gene Editing and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) in Treatment of Retinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Katherine; Fields, Mark A; Del Priore, Lucian V

    2017-12-01

    The advent of gene editing has introduced the ability to make changes to the genome of cells, thus allowing for correction of genetic mutations in patients with monogenic diseases. Retinal diseases are particularly suitable for the application of this new technology because many retinal diseases, such as Stargardt disease, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), are monogenic. Moreover, gene delivery techniques such as the use of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been optimized for intraocular use, and phase III trials are well underway to treat LCA, a severe form of inherited retinal degeneration, with gene therapy. This review focuses on the use of gene editing techniques and another relatively recent advent, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and their potential for the study and treatment of retinal disease. Investment in these technologies, including overcoming challenges such as off-target mutations and low transplanted cell integration, may allow for future treatment of many debilitating inherited retinal diseases.

  14. Evaluation of effect of 3D video glasses on perceived pain and unpleasantness induced by restorative dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Bo; Svensson, Peter; Wenzel, Ann

    2001-01-01

    whether distraction induced by video glasses also had an effect on the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness during dental treatment. Pain and unpleasantness was evoked by the preparation (drilling) of a minor dental cavity (class I). Twenty-three patients (17 female and six male, age range 20......-49 years) with a need for an occlusal dental restoration in two homologous teeth participated in the study, In this split-mouth design, the patient received the dental treatment wearing 3D video glasses and without video glasses (control situation) in a randomized order. The tooth cavities were prepared...... in accordance with conventional techniques after mounting the video glasses. The patient rated the intensity of pain and unpleasantness on 100 mm visual analogue scales (VASs) after preparation of the first cavity; immediately after, the opposite tooth was prepared and again the volunteer rated the intensity...

  15. Terbinafine hydrochloride treatment of Microsporum canis experimentally-induced ringworm in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotnik, T; Kozuh Erzen, N; Kuzner, J; Drobnic-Kosorok, M

    2001-11-08

    Cats represent the most important source of Microsporum canis infection to people. Terbinafine hydrochloride is commonly used in the treatment of microsporosis. Its fungicidal action permits short period of treatment. It was our objective to evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in treatment of microsporosis in cats. We treated nine experimentally M. canis infected cats with terbinafine at a dose of 10-20mg/kg SID (low-dose group, LDG), nine cats with 30-40mg/kg SID (high-dose group, HDG), and nine cats were left untreated (control group, CG). The drug's levels in cats' plasma and hair were measured by a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method (RP-HPLC) and the cats' cure was followed by Wood's lamp illumination, microscopic exam and fungal culture. We showed no difference between the clinical course in CG and LDG, but HDG were significantly differentiated from both other groups. Terbinafine levels in plasma at 120 days of treatment were not statistically different among LDG (4.13 microg/l) and HDG (5.48 microg/l), but levels in hair of LDG (1.24 microg/l) and HDG (3.62 microg/l) were significantly different. Terbinafine can be used for the treatment of microsporosis in cats in the dose of 30-40mg/kg SID.

  16. The Responsive Amygdala: Treatment-induced Alterations in Functional Connectivity in Pediatric Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, LE; Pielech, M; Erpelding, N; Linnman, C; Moulton, E; Sava, S; Lebel, A; Serrano, P; Sethna, N; Berde, C; Becerra, L; Borsook, D

    2014-01-01

    The amygdala is a key brain region with efferent and afferent neural connections that involve complex behaviors such as pain, reward, fear and anxiety. This study evaluated resting state functional connectivity of the amygdala with cortical and subcortical regions in a group of chronic pain patients (pediatric complex regional pain syndrome) with age-gender matched controls before and after intensive physical-biobehavioral pain treatment. Our main findings include (1) enhanced functional connectivity from the amygdala to multiple cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions in patients compared to controls, with differences predominantly in the left amygdala in the pre-treated condition (disease state); (2) dampened hyperconnectivity from the left amygdala to the motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cingulate cortex after intensive pain rehabilitation treatment within patients with nominal differences observed among healthy controls from Time 1 to Time 2 (treatment effects); (3) functional connectivity to several regions key to fear circuitry (prefrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobe, bilateral cingulate, hippocampus) correlated with higher pain-related fear scores and (4) decreases in pain-related fear associated with decreased connectivity between the amygdala and the motor and somatosensory cortex, cingulate, and frontal areas. Our data suggest that there are rapid changes in amygdala connectivity following an aggressive treatment program in children with chronic pain and intrinsic amygdala functional connectivity activity serving as a potential indicator of treatment response. PMID:24861582

  17. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaker, Mohamed E.; Zalata, Khaled R.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.; Shiha, Gamal E.; Ibrahim, Tarek M.

    2011-01-01

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl 4 twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) during the last 4 weeks of CCl 4 -intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20 mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10 mg/kg), nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl 4 -treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl 4 -induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and imatinib (20 mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20 mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: → The anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin were compared. → These effects were

  18. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Mohamed E; Zalata, Khaled R; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Shiha, Gamal E; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl(4) twice weekly for 8weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) during the last 4weeks of CCl(4)-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10mg/kg), nilotinib (20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl(4)-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20mg/kg) and imatinib (20mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct observation of deformation of nafion surfaces induced by methanol treatment by using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemura, Kazuo; Kuroda, Reiko; Gao Yanfeng; Nagai, Masayuki; Maeda, Yuta

    2008-01-01

    We successfully characterized the effect of methanol treatment on the nanoscopic structures of a nafion film, which is widely used in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to repetitively image a particular region of a nafion sample before and after methanol solutions were dropped onto the nafion film and dried in air. When the surface was treated with 20% methanol for 5 min, many nanopores appeared on the surface. The number of nanopores increased when the sample was treated twice or thrice. By repetitive AFM imaging of a particular region of the same sample, we found that the shapes of the nanopores were deformed by the repeated methanol treatment, although the size of the nanopores had not significantly changed. The creation of the nanopores was affected by the concentration of methanol. Our results directly visualized the effects of methanol treatment on the surface structures of a nafion film at nanoscale levels for the first time

  20. Reducing the pollution risk of pesticide using nano networks induced by irradiation and hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Zuojun; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Zhong, Naiqin; Wu, Lifang; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pesticides (TP) often do not adhere tightly to crop foliage. They can easily enter the surrounding environment through precipitation and volatilization. This can result in the pollution of the surrounding soil, water, and air. To reduce pesticide pollution, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding attapulgite with a nano networks structure fabricated using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment to TP. HEEB irradiation effectively dispersed originally aggregated attapulgite through modified thermal, charge, and physical effects. Hydrothermal treatment further enhanced the dispersion of attapulgite to form nano porous networks via thermal and wet expansion effects, which are beneficial for pesticide binding. An LCP has improved retention on crop leaf surfaces. It has a higher adhesion capacity, reduced leaching and volatilization, and extended residual activity compared with the TP formulation. The treatment increases the residual activity of pesticides on crop foliage and decreases environmental pollution.

  1. Treatment of human embryonic stem cells with different combinations of priming and inducing factors toward definitive endoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtani, Yasser; Azarnia, Mahnaz; Farrokhi, Ali; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Aghdami, Nasser; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-05-01

    Despite the enormous progress in studying definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), none of the reported protocols have produced a universal, cost-effective, and competent DE with the capability to further differentiate into endodermal derivatives. In this study, by using a 2-step differentiation strategy, we have treated hESCs for 1 day with "priming" small molecules (SM), [stauprimide, NSC-308848, rapamycin (Rapa), and/or CHIR] and for the next 3 days with "inducing" SM (LY294002, cymarin, IDE1, and/or IDE2) in conjunction with activin A. In the positive control group, we treated hESCs with Wnt3a (25 ng/mL) for 1 day and activin A (100 ng/mL; W/A100-A100) for the next 3 days. Gene expression analysis showed that treatment of hESCs with 100 nM Rapa and 50 ng/mL activin A (Rapa-A50) out of 25 combinations of factors gave rise to higher expressions of 2 DE-specific genes, SOX17 and FOXA2. Similar results were obtained after treating 2 other hESC lines with this regimen. To investigate the competency of Rapa-A50-induced DE for further differentiation into endodermal derivatives, these cells and W/A100-A100-induced DE cells (positive control) were further differentiated into pancreatic progenitors (PP), then into pancreatic endocrine (PE) cells using 5 previously described differentiation protocols. Gene analysis of differentiated cells showed that the established protocols were insufficient to enable universal differentiation into PE, whereas Rapa-A50-induced DE cells were more competent for PP differentiation in a protocol-dependent manner. Additionally, Rapa-A50-induced DE had the capability to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) as efficiently as W/A100-A100-induced DE. These data have indicated that hESCs primed with Rapa, and induced by a lower concentration of activin A, could lead to DE that had the capability to further differentiate into HLCs and PP cells, but not PE cells. Thus, current protocols

  2. Remission of aplastic anemia induced by treatment for Graves disease in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prabodh Kumar; Wherrett, Diane; Dror, Yigal

    2007-08-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is mediated by T-cell autoimmunity in the majority of cases; it is rare and mostly idiopathic in children. We describe a child, who developed AA following Graves' disease which could not be attributed to antithyroid drugs. We hypothesized that both diseases were caused by similar autoimmune process. We monitored the blood counts and did not administer any conventional treatment for AA assuming that the existing anti- hematopoietic stem cell humoral and cellular immunity might subside with induction of remission of Grave's disease. The child went into complete remission with the treatment of the Graves' disease.

  3. Efficacy of a protocol including heparin ointment for treatment of multikinase inhibitor-induced hand-foot skin reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-ri; Yang, Chi-rei; Cheng, Chen-li; Ho, Hao-chung; Chiu, Kun-yuan; Su, Chung-Kuang; Chen, Wen-Ming; Wang, Shian-Shiang; Chen, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Cheng-Kuang; Ou, Yen-chuan

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a protocol including topical heparin therapy for hand-foot skin reactions (HFSR) during multikinase (MKI) treatment. We prospectively collected 26 patients who had HFSRs during treatment with the MKIs, sunitinib, sorafenib, or axitinib. The age distribution ranged from 46 to 87 years, with a mean of 66 years. The distribution of HFSR severity was 12 patients with grade 1, 12 with grade 2, and 2 with grade 3. A heparin-containing topical ointment treatment, combined with hand-foot shock absorbers and skin moisturizers, was used at the lesion sites. Changes in the grade of HFSR, MKI dosage, and interruptions of MKI therapy were recorded. The results showed that 66.7% of grade 1 patients were cured of disease, 83.3% of grade 2 patients had improved symptoms, and both grade 3 patients (100%) had improved symptoms and were downgraded to grade 2. Four (15.4%) patients required reduction of MKI dosage, but there were no treatment interruptions or dropouts. Our protocol is beneficial in promoting resolution of HFSRs induced by MKIs. Further validation in large control studies should be investigated.

  4. Focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening to enhance temozolomide delivery for glioblastoma treatment: a preclinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chen Wei

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the preclinical therapeutic efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-monitored focused ultrasound (FUS-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB disruption to enhance Temozolomide (TMZ delivery for improving Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM treatment. MRI-monitored FUS with microbubbles was used to transcranially disrupt the BBB in brains of Fisher rats implanted with 9L glioma cells. FUS-BBB opening was spectrophotometrically determined by leakage of dyes into the brain, and TMZ was quantitated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma by LC-MS\\MS. The effects of treatment on tumor progression (by MRI, animal survival and brain tissue histology were investigated. Results demonstrated that FUS-BBB opening increased the local accumulation of dyes in brain parenchyma by 3.8-/2.1-fold in normal/tumor tissues. Compared to TMZ alone, combined FUS treatment increased the TMZ CSF/plasma ratio from 22.7% to 38.6%, reduced the 7-day tumor progression ratio from 24.03 to 5.06, and extended the median survival from 20 to 23 days. In conclusion, this study provided preclinical evidence that FUS BBB-opening increased the local concentration of TMZ to improve the control of tumor progression and animal survival, suggesting its clinical potential for improving current brain tumor treatment.

  5. Percutaneous CT-guided high frequency induced thermotherapy as a treatment hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastatic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ligong; Luo Pengfei; Chen Xiaoming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the efficacy, side effects and complications of percutaneous high frequency induced thermotherapy (HiTT) performed under CT guidance involving 36 patients with hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and hepatic metastatic lesions. Methods: HiTT was performed in treatment of 36 patients (24 men and 12 women) with 42 hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastatic carcinoma (six patient out of 36 had two nidi). The diameter of the tumors ranged from 1.6 to 7.8 cm (mean, 3.2 cm). The efficacy of HiTT was evaluated with triphasic spiral CT performed 1 month after the procedure. Results: The post-treatment CT scan showed complete necrosis in 33 nidi (78%) out of 42 nidi of hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic metastatic carcinoma in 30 patients out of 36. Complete necrosis was obtained in 18 (95%) of 19 tumors no larger than 3 cm in diameter, 13 (72%) of 18 tumors between 3.0 and 5.0 cm in diameter. Eleven tumors showed incomplete necrosis. In our study, none of the patients experienced severe complications. All the patients are alive in the follow-up ranging from 2 to 12 months (mean, 7 months). Conclusion: Our research suggests that HiTT can be a safe and effective treatment of hepatocellular carcinomas and hepatic metastatic carcinoma when the lesion is no larger than 3 cm. The treatment is relatively effective for hepatocellular carcinoma between 3 and 5 cm in size. (authors)

  6. Radiation-induced temporo-mandibular joint disorder in post-radiotherapy nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients: assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Vincent W C; Lam, Ying-Na

    2016-06-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in southern China, and its incidence in Hong Kong is relatively high. Radiotherapy is the mainstay treatment for NPC due to its relatively high radiosensitivity and deep-seated anatomical position, which is not readily accessible by surgery. Although the technique of radiotherapy in NPC has been advancing and offers promising treatment outcome, complications around the irradiation areas are inevitable and the quality of life of the post-radiotherapy patients is often compromised. Trismus, which is defined as the restricted mouth opening or jaw movement due to the disorder of temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ), is one of the possible late complications for radiotherapy of NPC and is found in 5-17% of the post-radiotherapy (post-RT) patients. Trismus at early stage may only affect the speech, but in severe cases nutritional intake and oral hygiene condition may deteriorate seriously. This article reviewed the possible causes of radiation-induced TMJ damage, the various assessments including imaging modalities and possible treatments. The conclusion is that the availability of simple, yet effective examinations for trismus is essential for delaying the progression and restoring TMJ functions. Although there is no absolutely effective treatment for trismus, many supportive, restorative and palliative management are possible under different clinical situations.

  7. N-Acetylcysteine treatment of dystrophic mdx mice results in protein thiol modifications and inhibition of exercise induced myofibre necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2012-05-01