WorldWideScience

Sample records for hypernociceptive answer induced

  1. Caspase-1 is involved in the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception by contributing to peripheral IL-1β maturation

    Zamboni Dario S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-1 is a cysteine protease responsible for the processing and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, which are closely related to the induction of inflammation. However, limited evidence addresses the participation of caspase-1 in inflammatory pain. Here, we investigated the role of caspase-1 in inflammatory hypernociception (a decrease in the nociceptive threshold using caspase-1 deficient mice (casp1-/-. Results Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. The production of cytokines, PGE2 and neutrophil migration were evaluated by ELISA, radioimmunoassay and myeloperoxidase activity, respectively. The interleukin (IL-1β and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 protein expression were evaluated by western blotting. The mechanical hypernociception induced by intraplantar injection of carrageenin, tumour necrosis factor (TNFα and CXCL1/KC was reduced in casp1-/- mice compared with WT mice. However, the hypernociception induced by IL-1β and PGE2 did not differ in WT and casp1-/- mice. Carrageenin-induced TNF-α and CXCL1/KC production and neutrophil recruitment in the paws of WT mice were not different from casp1-/- mice, while the maturation of IL-1β was reduced in casp1-/- mice. Furthermore, carrageenin induced an increase in the expression of COX-2 and PGE2 production in the paw of WT mice, but was reduced in casp1-/- mice. Conclusion These results suggest that caspase-1 plays a critical role in the cascade of events involved in the genesis of inflammatory hypernociception by promoting IL-1β maturation. Because caspase-1 is involved in the induction of COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, our data support the assertion that caspase-1 is a key target to control inflammatory pain.

  2. Hydrogen-rich saline controls remifentanil-induced hypernociception and NMDA receptor NR1 subunit membrane trafficking through GSK-3β in the DRG in rats.

    Zhang, Linlin; Shu, Ruichen; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Haiyun; Li, Nan; Wang, Guolin

    2014-07-01

    Although NMDAR trafficking mediated by GSK-3β involvement in transmission of pronociceptive messages in the spinal cord has been confirmed by our previous studies, whether NMDAR trafficking is implicated in peripheral sensitization remains equivocal. It is demonstrated that inflammation is associated with spinal NMDAR-containing nociceptive neurons activation and the maintenance of opioid induced pain hypersensitivity. However, whether and how hydrogen-rich saline, as an effective anti-inflammatory drug, could prevent hyperalgesia through affecting peripheral sensitization caused by NMDAR activation remains to be explored. To test these effects, hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5 or 10 ml/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally after remifentanil infusion, NMDAR antagonist MK-801 or GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8 was administrated intravenously before remifentanil infusion in rats. We examined time course of hydrogen concentration in blood after hydrogen-rich saline administration. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated by measuring PWT and PWL for 48 post-infusion hours, respectively. Western blotting and real-time qPCR assay were applied to analyze the NR1 membrane trafficking, GSK-3β expression and activity in DRG. Inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) expressions in DRG were also analyzed. We found that NR1 membrane trafficking in DRG increased, possibly due to GSK-3β activation after remifentanil infusion. We also discovered that hydrogen-rich saline not 2.5 ml/kg but 5 and 10 ml/kg could dose-dependently attenuate mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia without affecting baseline nociceptive threshold, reduce expressions of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and decrease NR1 trafficking mediated by GSK-3β, and minimal effective concentration was observed to be higher than 10 μmol/L, namely peak concentration in arterial blood after administration of HRS 2.5 ml/kg without any influence on hyperalgesia. Our results indicated that

  3. Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris decreases the mechanical inflammatory hypernociception by inhibiting the production of IL-1β and TNF-α.

    Franchin, Marcelo; da Cunha, Marcos Guilherme; Denny, Carina; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; Koo, Hyun; de Alencar, Severino Matias; Ikegaki, Masaharu; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz

    2012-09-28

    The pharmacological activity of geopropolis collected by stingless bees (important and threatened pollinators), a product widely used in folk medicine by several communities in Brazil, especially in the Northeast Region, needs to be studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Melipona scutellaris geopropolis (stingless bee) using different models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) and fractions was evaluated using writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin test, carrageenan-induced hypernociception, and quantification of IL-1β and TNF-α. The chemical composition was assessed by quantification of total flavonoids and phenolic compounds. EEGP and its hexane and aqueous fractions showed antinociceptive activity. Both EEGP and its aqueous fraction presented activity in the mechanical inflammatory hypernociception induced by the carrageenan model, an effect mediated by the inhibition of IL-1β and TNF-α. The chemical composition of EEGP and its hexane and aqueous fractions showed a significant presence of phenolic compounds and absence of flavonoids. Our data indicate that geopropolis is a natural source of bioactive substances with promising antinociceptive activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and toxicological evaluation of semi-synthetic molecules obtained from a benzyl-isothiocyanate isolated from Moringa oleifera Lam. in a temporomandibular joint inflammatory hypernociception model in rats.

    Dos Santos, Alain Oliveira; do Val, Danielle Rocha; da Silveira, Felipe Dantas; Gomes, Francisco Isaac Fernandes; Freitas, Hermany Capistrano; de Assis, Ellen Lima; de Almeida, Diana Kelly Castro; da Silva, Igor Iuco Castro; Barbosa, Francisco Geraldo; Mafezoli, Jair; da Silva, Marcos Reinaldo; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; de Paulo Teixera Pinto, Vicente de Paulo Teixeira; Filho, Gerardo Cristino; Bezerra, Mirna Marques; Chaves, Hellíada Vasconcelos

    2018-02-01

    Inflammation is a key component of many clinical conditions that affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and Moringa oleifera Lam. has been used to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluated the toxicological effects on mice of a naturally-occurring isothiocyanate from M. oleifera and its seven analogue molecules. Further, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on a rat model of TMJ inflammatory hypernociception were assessed. The systemic toxicological profile was determined in mice over a 14-day period: MC-1 1 μg/kg; MC-D1 1 μg/kg, MC-D3 100 μg/kg, MC-D6 1 μg/kg, MC-D7 1 μg/kg, MC-D8 1 μg/kg, MC-D9 10 μg/kg, and MC-H 1 μg/kg. The safest molecules were assayed for anti-nociceptive efficacy in the formalin (1.5%, 50 μL) and serotonin (255 mg) induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception tests. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through the vascular permeability assay using Evans blue. Further, the rota-rod test evaluated any motor impairment. Among the tested molecules, MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were not toxic at the survival rate test, biochemical, and hystological analysis. They reduced the formalin-induced TMJ inflammatory hypernociception, but only MC-H decreased the serotonin-induced TMJ inflammation, suggesting an adrenergic receptor-dependent effect. They diminished the plasmatic extravasation, showing anti-inflammatory activity. At the rota-rod test, no difference was observed in comparison with control groups, reinforcing the hypothesis of anti-nociceptive effetc without motor impairment in animals. The analogues MC-D7, MC-D9, and MC-H were safe at the tested doses and efficient in reducing the formalin-induced TMJ hypernociception in rats. Our next steps include determining their mechanisms of anti-nociceptive action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Answering without answering

    Gabrielsen, Jonas; Jønch-Clausen, Heidi; Pontoppidan, Christina

    2017-01-01

    In the context of political press conferences, the authors explore a particular category of subtle evasions they term shifting. When shifting, the interviewee seemingly accepts to answer the journalist’s question. However, in providing the answer, the interviewee refocuses the question replacing...

  6. Is mechanism and symptom-based analgesia an answer to opioid-Induced hyperalgesia?

    Mayank Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available "Cancer Pain" and "Pain in cancer patient" are not synonymous. Opioid-induced Hyperalgesia (OIH is a paradoxical state of nociceptive sensitization caused by exposure to opioids. Neuropathic pain is only partially responsive to opioids; injudicious increase in dose of opioids in neuropathic pain may not only result in inadequate pain relief but also OIH. Majority of literature on OIH is in non-cancer pain with systemic use of opioids. We describe the development and successful treatment of OIH in a 55-year-old male patient with Small cell Carcinoma Lung. Opioid tapering, rotation, systemic desensitization helps in combatting OIH. The use of anti-neuropathic adjuvant analgesics helps not only in preventing and treating OIH but also in understanding putative mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain and OIH.

  7. Transient anorexia, hyper-nociception and cognitive impairment in early adjuvant arthritis in rats.

    Skurlova, M; Stofkova, A; Kiss, A; Belacek, J; Pecha, O; Deykun, K; Jurcovicova, J

    2010-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, pain, anorexia, and cognitive changes. The enhanced production of cytokines appears before the full manifestation of the disease. So far, any experimental data on behavioral effects of early arthritis are lacking. In the present series we describe anorexia early changes in, pain hyper-sensitivity and altered cognitive behavior during the first four days of adjuvant arthritis in rats (AA), when no clinical signs are yet apparent. AA was induced to male Lewis rats by a single injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (cFA) at the base of the tail. Plasma leptin and ghrelin were measured using specific RIA methods. Gene expressions for food-regulatory peptides, neuropeptide-Y (NPY) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (nARC), were quantitated by TaqMan real-time PCR. Pain sensation was measured on all four limbs and tail by the plantar test. Cognitive functions were tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). Levels of orexigenic ghrelin as well as mRNA expression of orexigenic NPY in nucleus arcuatus (nRC)re significantly enhanced on day 2 of AA only. Reduced body weight and food intake persisted by day 4 with the most profound reduction on day 2. The mRNA for anorexigenic IL-1β in the nARC was significantly enhanced on days 2 and 4. Enhanced pain sensitivity was observed on day 2, as was the cognitive impairment given by longer time to find the hidden platform, longer time spent in thigmotaxis zone, and longer trajectory. The less effective strategy used to find the hidden platform was observed up to the day 4 of AA. Early stage of AA brings about reduced body weight, food intake, and activation of central orexigenic pathways. The observed anorexia could be ascribed to the over-expression of anorexigenic IL-1β which dominates over the NPY orexigenic effects. On day 2 of AA higher pain sensitivity and cognitive impairment appear. All the observed change tend

  8. Rabies: Questions and Answers

    Rabies: Questions and Answers Information about the disease and vaccines What causes rabies? Rabies is caused by a virus. The virus invades ... nervous system and disrupts its functioning. How does rabies spread? The rabies virus is transmitted in the ...

  9. Antinociception induced by rosuvastatin in murine neuropathic pain.

    Miranda, Hugo F; Sierralta, Fernando; Aranda, Nicolas; Poblete, Paula; Castillo, Rodrigo L; Noriega, Viviana; Prieto, Juan Carlos

    2018-06-01

    Neuropathic pain, and subsequent hypernociception, can be induced in mice by paclitaxel (PTX) administration and partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). Its pharmacotherapy has been a clinical challenge, due to a lack of effective treatment. In two models of mouse neuropathic pain (PTX and PSNL) the antinociception induced by rosuvastatin and the participation of proinflammatory biomarkers, interleukin (IL)- 1β, TBARS and glutathione were evaluated. A dose-response curve for rosuvastatin ip was obtained on cold plate, hot plate and Von Frey assays. Changes on spinal cord levels of IL-1β, glutathione and lipid peroxidation were measured at 7 and 14days in PTX and PSNL murine models. PTX or PSNL were able to induce in mice peripheral neuropathy with hypernociception, either to 7 and 14days. Rosuvastatin induced a dose dependent antinociception in hot plate, cold plate and Von Frey assays. The increased levels of IL-1β or TBARS induced by pretreatment with PTX or PSNL were reduced by rosuvastatin. The reduction of spinal cord glutathione, by PTX or PSNL, expressed as the ratio GSH/GSSG, were increased significantly in animals pretreated with rosuvastatin. The anti-inflammatory properties of statins could underlie their beneficial effects on neuropathic pain by reduction of proinflammatory biomarkers and activation of glia. The findings of this study suggest a potential usefulness of rosuvastatin in the treatment of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2018 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CAT questions and answers

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  11. Mathematics year 5 answers

    Alexander, Serena; Poggo, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Features the complete set of answers to the exercises in Mathematics Year 5, to save you time marking work and enable you to identify areas requiring further attention. The book includes diagrams and workings where necessary, to ensure pupils understand how to present their answers. Also available from Galore Park www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics Year 5. - Mathematics Year 6. - 11+ Maths Practice Exercises. - 11+ Maths Revision Guide. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 8-10. - 10-Minute Maths Tests Workbook Age 9-11. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Age 8-10. - Mental Arithmetic Workbook Ag

  12. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2013, held in Granada, Spain, in September 2013. The 59 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers...... are organized in a general session train and a parallel special session track. The general session train covers the following topics: querying-answering systems; semantic technology; patterns and classification; personalization and recommender systems; searching and ranking; and Web and human...

  13. Flexible Query Answering Systems

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2017, held in London, UK, in June 2017. The 21 full papers presented in this book together with 4 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions...

  14. Competition: the answers

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  15. Answers to modernity

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2008-01-01

    - teacher, learner or curriculum planner positions - result in different strategies or 'answers to modernity'. The research has taken place as a study of e-learning and virtual teachhing of Danish as a second language for adults. The fact that relations in virtual learning are established between physically......, locationally distant'. Based on a case study and interviews with e-learning teachers and learner participants in a virtual classroom setting and on extracts of the curriculum developed for the particular e-learning course, the aim of the paper is to discuss how different positions in an e-learning triangle...... absent individuals, who are locationnaly distant and may never meet, seems to necessitate different strategies towards e-learning, depending on the position in the learning triangle. The research results indicate, that teachers compensate for the disembedded social relations in e-llearning environments...

  16. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  17. Novelty Detection via Answer Updating

    Li, Xiaoyan; Croft, W. B

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, we explore the use of question-answering techniques for novelty detection. New information is defined as new/previously unseen answers to questions representing a user's information need...

  18. Efficient question answering with question decomposition and multiple answer streams

    Hartrumpf, Sven; Glöckner, Ingo; Leveling, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The German question answering (QA) system IRSAW (formerly: InSicht) participated in QA@CLEF for the fth time. IRSAW was introduced in 2007 by integrating the deep answer producer InSicht, several shallow answer producers, and a logical validator. InSicht builds on a deep QA approach: it transforms documents to semantic representations using a parser, draws inferences on semantic representations with rules, and matches semantic representations derived from questions and documents. InS...

  19. Getting an Answer Right

    Moore, John W.

    1999-07-01

    really is.) Or we could ask students to make careful observations as an experiment is being carried out and then decide whether the proposed interpretation was correct. (If the only effect of burning a candle in a beaker inverted in a water bath is to use up the oxygen, then the water should rise slowly and steadily into the beaker as long as the candle burns; it does not.) Getting the right answer is not nearly as important as getting an answer right- exploring and experimenting to eliminate alternative hypotheses and finding the best-supported explanation. Diffusion and the fraction of oxygen in air can be studied with simple, inexpensive equipment, and it is easy for students to experiment with them. If we use them appropriately, these two subjects have great potential for enhancing students' skills in critical thinking and experimental design. Many other phenomena reported in these pages provide similar opportunities. Let's apply our ingenuity and effort to making the most of them. Literature Cited 1. Parsons, L. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 898. 2. Birk, J. P.; Lawson, A. E. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 914. 3. Mason, E. A.; Kronstadt, B. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 740. Kirk, A. D. J. Chem. Educ. 1967, 44, 745. 4. Davis, L. C. J. Chem. Educ. 1996, 73, 824. 5. Westbrook, S.; Marek, E. A. J. Res. Sci. Teach. 1991, 28, 649-660 6. Birk, J. P.; McGrath, L.; Gunter, S. K. J. Chem. Educ. 1981, 58, 804.

  20. The handy astronomy answer book

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,000 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein's special theory of relativity? and Who was the first person in space?.

  1. What Can the Answer be?

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 5. What Can the Answer be? Reciprocal Basis in Two Dimensions and Other Nice Things. V Balakrishnan. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 5 May 1997 pp ... Author Affiliations. V Balakrishnan1. Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai 600 036, India ...

  2. What can the Answer be?

    lems is to ask what the answer could possibly be, under the constraints of the given problem. In the first part of this series, this approach is il- lustrated with some examples from elementary vector analysis. Scientific problems are very often first solved by a com- bination of analogy, educated guesswork and elimination.

  3. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  4. Instance-Based Question Answering

    2006-12-01

    cluster-based query expan- sion, learning answering strategies, machine learning in NLP To my wife Monica Abstract During recent years, question...process is typically tedious and involves expertise in crafting and implement- ing these models (e.g. rule-based), utilizing NLP resources, and...questions. For languages that use capitalization (e.g. not Chinese or Arabic ) for named entities, IBQA can make use of NE classing (e.g. “Bob Marley

  5. Nuclear power: Questions and answers

    1988-01-01

    In 1988, the Uranium Institute, a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry, published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation, for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications. Some questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only a few of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail

  6. RHETORICAL STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ANSWER

    Juliano Desiderato ANTONIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the rhetorical structure of the argumentative answer genre in a corpus formed by 15 compositions of the winter vestibular of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The instrument of analysis used in the investigation was RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory. The initial statement was considered the central unit of the argumentative answer. Most of the writers held evidence relation between the central unit (nucleus and the expansion (satellite. Evidence relation is interpersonal and the aim of the writers is to convince their addressees (in this case the compositions evaluation committee that their point is correct. Within the initial statement, the relation with higher frequency was contrast. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet. In the higher level of the expansion text span, list is the most frequent relation because the applicants present various arguments with the same status. Contrast was the second relation with highest frequency in this same level. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet as it happened in the initial statement. Within the 15 compositions, 12 had a conclusion. This part was considered a satellite of the span formed by the initial statement and its expansion. The relation held was homonymous.

  7. Flexible Query Answering Systems 2006

    -computer interaction. The overall theme of the FQAS conferences is innovative query systems aimed at providing easy, flexible, and intuitive access to information. Such systems are intended to facilitate retrieval from information repositories such as databases, libraries, and the World-Wide Web. These repositories......This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Flexible Query Answering Systems, FQAS 2006, held in Milan, Italy, on June 7--10, 2006. FQAS is the premier conference for researchers and practitioners concerned with the vital task of providing easy, flexible...... are typically equipped with standard query systems which are often inadequate, and the focus of FQAS is the development of query systems that are more expressive, informative, cooperative, and productive. These proceedings contain contributions from invited speakers and 53 original papers out of about 100...

  8. Question Answering for Dutch : Simple does it

    Hoekstra, A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van der Vet, P.E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Schobbens, Pierre-Yves; Vanhoof, Wim; Schwanen, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    When people pose questions in natural language to search for information on the web, the role of question answering (QA) systems becomes important. In this paper the QAsystem simpleQA, capable of answering Dutch questions on which the answer is a person or a location, is described. The system's

  9. 31 CFR 10.64 - Answer; default.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer; default. 10.64 Section 10.64... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.64 Answer; default. (a) Filing. The respondent's... need be adduced at a hearing. (d) Default. Failure to file an answer within the time prescribed (or...

  10. Mobile Information Access with Spoken Query Answering

    Brøndsted, Tom; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    window focused over the part which most likely contains an answer to the query. The two systems are integrated into a full spoken query answering system. The prototype can answer queries and questions within the chosen football (soccer) test domain, but the system has the flexibility for being ported...

  11. 6 CFR 13.9 - Answer.

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer. 13.9 Section 13.9 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.9 Answer. (a) The Defendant may request a hearing by serving an answer on the Reviewing Official within 30 days of service of...

  12. HOW TO ANSWER CHILDREN QUESTIONS

    O. Brenifier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclose the possible philosophicalconversation with the child.Methods. The author uses general scientific research methods, including observation and interviews, philosophical analysis.Results and scientific novelty. The author reveals the essence of philosophical conversations with the child, calls the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity, illustrating examples of incorrect behavior of adults to communicate with children. It is recommended how to be responsible for children’s issues. The article discusses the main reasons for the extinction of the children’s curiosity by illustrating examples of an erroneous behaviour of adults in dealing with children. It is shown that if the teacher does not find a systematic way to engage children in the essential discussion, the children most likely will not learn how to contemplate seriously. The author gives detailed guidance how to answer children’s questions.Practical significance. The article may be of interest to parents, teachers, experts in the field of psychology of creativity, post-graduates and organizers of independent activity of students of higher education institutions.

  13. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties

  14. Protein Electrochemistry: Questions and Answers.

    Fourmond, V; Léger, C

    This chapter presents the fundamentals of electrochemistry in the context of protein electrochemistry. We discuss redox proteins and enzymes that are not photoactive. Of course, the principles described herein also apply to photobioelectrochemistry, as discussed in later chapters of this book. Depending on which experiment is considered, electron transfer between proteins and electrodes can be either direct or mediated, and achieved in a variety of configurations: with the protein and/or the mediator free to diffuse in solution, immobilized in a thick, hydrated film, or adsorbed as a sub-monolayer on the electrode. The experiments can be performed with the goal to study the protein or to use it. Here emphasis is on mechanistic studies, which are easier in the configuration where the protein is adsorbed and electron transfer is direct, but we also explain the interpretation of signals obtained when diffusion processes affect the response.This chapter is organized as a series of responses to questions. Questions 1-5 are related to the basics of electrochemistry: what does "potential" or "current" mean, what does an electrochemical set-up look like? Questions 6-9 are related to the distinction between adsorbed and diffusive redox species. The answers to questions 10-13 explain the interpretation of slow and fast scan voltammetry with redox proteins. Questions 14-19 deal with catalytic electrochemistry, when the protein studied is actually an enzyme. Questions 20, 21 and 22 are general.

  15. Answer selection in a multi-stream open domain question answering system

    Jijkoun, V.; de Rijke, M.; McDonald, S.; Tait, J.

    2004-01-01

    Question answering systems aim to meet users' information needs by returning exact answers in response to a question. Traditional open domain question answering systems are built around a single pipeline architecture. In an attempt to exploit multiple resources as well as multiple answering

  16. Participation of the NO/cGMP/K+ATP pathway in the antinociception induced by Walker tumor bearing in rats

    Barbosa, A.L.R.; Pinheiro, C.A.; Oliveira, G.J.; Torres, J.N.L.; Moraes, M.O.; Ribeiro, R.A.; Vale, M.L.; Souza, M.H.L.P.

    2012-01-01

    Implantation of Walker 256 tumor decreases acute systemic inflammation in rats. Inflammatory hyperalgesia is one of the most important events of acute inflammation. The L-arginine/NO/cGMP/K + ATP pathway has been proposed as the mechanism of peripheral antinociception mediated by several drugs and physical exercise. The objective of this study was to investigate a possible involvement of the NO/cGMP/K + ATP pathway in antinociception induced in Walker 256 tumor-bearing male Wistar rats (180-220 g). The groups consisted of 5-6 animals. Mechanical inflammatory hypernociception was evaluated using an electronic version of the von Frey test. Walker tumor (4th and 7th day post-implantation) reduced prostaglandin E 2 - (PGE 2 , 400 ng/paw; 50 µL; intraplantar injection) and carrageenan-induced hypernociception (500 µg/paw; 100 µL; intraplantar injection). Walker tumor-induced analgesia was reversed (99.3% for carrageenan and 77.2% for PGE 2 ) by a selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME; 90 mg/kg, ip) and L-arginine (200 mg/kg, ip), which prevented (80% for carrageenan and 65% for PGE 2 ) the effect of L-NAME. Treatment with the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ (100% for carrageenan and 95% for PGE 2 ; 8 µg/paw) and the ATP-sensitive K + channel (KATP) blocker glibenclamide (87.5% for carrageenan and 100% for PGE 2 ; 160 µg/paw) reversed the antinociceptive effect of tumor bearing in a statistically significant manner (P < 0.05). The present study confirmed an intrinsic peripheral antinociceptive effect of Walker tumor bearing in rats. This antinociceptive effect seemed to be mediated by activation of the NO/cGMP pathway followed by the opening of KATP channels

  17. Answer Sets in a Fuzzy Equilibrium Logic

    Schockaert, Steven; Janssen, Jeroen; Vermeir, Dirk; de Cock, Martine

    Since its introduction, answer set programming has been generalized in many directions, to cater to the needs of real-world applications. As one of the most general “classical” approaches, answer sets of arbitrary propositional theories can be defined as models in the equilibrium logic of Pearce. Fuzzy answer set programming, on the other hand, extends answer set programming with the capability of modeling continuous systems. In this paper, we combine the expressiveness of both approaches, and define answer sets of arbitrary fuzzy propositional theories as models in a fuzzification of equilibrium logic. We show that the resulting notion of answer set is compatible with existing definitions, when the syntactic restrictions of the corresponding approaches are met. We furthermore locate the complexity of the main reasoning tasks at the second level of the polynomial hierarchy. Finally, as an illustration of its modeling power, we show how fuzzy equilibrium logic can be used to find strong Nash equilibria.

  18. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  19. Postsecondary Education Issues: Visible Questions. Invisible Answers.

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO. National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.

    With some justification, the inability to answer most of the important questions in higher education is due to the lack of necessary information. But careful examination of our many faceted questions suggests that more information may not be the only answer. The National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS) has found other…

  20. Two new indices to detect answer copying

    Sotaridona, Leonardo; Meijer, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple-choice test—S1 and S2—were proposed. The S1 index is similar to the K index (Holland, 1996) and the K2 index (Sotaridona & Meijer, 2002) but the distribution of the number of matching incorrect answers of the source and the copier is modeled by

  1. 39 CFR 3030.14 - Answer contents.

    2010-07-01

    ... Initial Pleadings § 3030.14 Answer contents. (a) An answer must: (1) Contain a clear and concise statement... complainant and the Commission fully and completely of the nature of any defense, including factual... as such and presented separately from any denials; (5) State the nature of the evidentiary support...

  2. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  3. Questions and Answers about Sex (For Parents)

    ... español Preguntas y respuestas sobre sexo Answering their kids' questions about sex is a responsibility that many parents dread. Otherwise ... avoided. Parents can help foster healthy feelings about sex if they answer kids' questions in an age-appropriate way. When do ...

  4. Deep Question Answering for protein annotation.

    Gobeill, Julien; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Pasche, Emilie; Vishnyakova, Dina; Gaudet, Pascale; Bairoch, Amos; Ruch, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical professionals have access to a huge amount of literature, but when they use a search engine, they often have to deal with too many documents to efficiently find the appropriate information in a reasonable time. In this perspective, question-answering (QA) engines are designed to display answers, which were automatically extracted from the retrieved documents. Standard QA engines in literature process a user question, then retrieve relevant documents and finally extract some possible answers out of these documents using various named-entity recognition processes. In our study, we try to answer complex genomics questions, which can be adequately answered only using Gene Ontology (GO) concepts. Such complex answers cannot be found using state-of-the-art dictionary- and redundancy-based QA engines. We compare the effectiveness of two dictionary-based classifiers for extracting correct GO answers from a large set of 100 retrieved abstracts per question. In the same way, we also investigate the power of GOCat, a GO supervised classifier. GOCat exploits the GOA database to propose GO concepts that were annotated by curators for similar abstracts. This approach is called deep QA, as it adds an original classification step, and exploits curated biological data to infer answers, which are not explicitly mentioned in the retrieved documents. We show that for complex answers such as protein functional descriptions, the redundancy phenomenon has a limited effect. Similarly usual dictionary-based approaches are relatively ineffective. In contrast, we demonstrate how existing curated data, beyond information extraction, can be exploited by a supervised classifier, such as GOCat, to massively improve both the quantity and the quality of the answers with a +100% improvement for both recall and precision. Database URL: http://eagl.unige.ch/DeepQA4PA/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Smart query answering for marine sensor data.

    Shahriar, Md Sumon; de Souza, Paulo; Timms, Greg

    2011-01-01

    We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  6. Mathematics for common entrance three (extension) answers

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension) , which provides essential preparation for Level 3 of the ISEB 13+ Mathematics exam, as well as for CASE and other scholarship exams. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Mathematics for Common Entrance Three (Extension). - Mathematics for Common Entrance One. - Mathematics for Common Entrance One Answers. - M

  7. Smart Query Answering for Marine Sensor Data

    Paulo de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We review existing query answering systems for sensor data. We then propose an extended query answering approach termed smart query, specifically for marine sensor data. The smart query answering system integrates pattern queries and continuous queries. The proposed smart query system considers both streaming data and historical data from marine sensor networks. The smart query also uses query relaxation technique and semantics from domain knowledge as a recommender system. The proposed smart query benefits in building data and information systems for marine sensor networks.

  8. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM DAN PENERAPANNYA PADA ALKITAB

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Question answering system is a system that allows user to state his or her information need in the form of natural language question, and return short text excerpts or even phrases as an answer. The availability of a wide and various information source and improvements in the techniques of natural language processing, information extraction (wrapper, and information retrieval give a big effect on the development of question answering system, from just answering questions in a specific domain by consulting to structured information source such as database, and like in this research, answering any questions based on information stored in an unstructured text collection. A general architecture of question answering system based on text consists of six processing stages, i.e. question analysis, document collection preprocessing, candidate document selection, candidate document analysis, answer extraction, and response generation. Application of question answering system like AnswerBus, Mulder, and Webclopedia that are developed with its own characteristics has similar processing steps as in the general architecture. Answers returned by a question answering system need to be evaluated for performance measure. This research completed with a simple question answering system application using english Bible in World English Bible (WEB version as the source of information to answer some questions. Because specific domain is selected: Bible, questions that can be posed by user could ask about information in the Bible itself only. Question is also limited to three types of answers that can be supported by the application: person (who, location (where, and date (when. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Question answering system (QA system adalah sistem yang mengijinkan user menyatakan kebutuhan informasinya dalam bentuk natural language question (pertanyaan dalam bahasa alami, dan mengembalikan kutipan teks singkat atau bahkan frase sebagai jawaban. Ketersediaan

  9. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    ... do if they have been exposed to unprotected sex but do not wish to become pregnant because ... A's Zika virus and complications » Zika digital timeline Video Zika virus - Questions and answers (Q&A) Related ...

  10. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-03-19

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  11. Inferring Domain Plans in Question-Answering

    Pollack, Martha E

    1986-01-01

    The importance of plan inference in models of conversation has been widely noted in the computational-linguistics literature, and its incorporation in question-answering systems has enabled a range...

  12. One Answer to "What Is Calculus?"

    Shilgalis, Thomas W.

    1979-01-01

    A number of questions are posed that can be answered with the aid of calculus. These include best value problems, best shape problems, problems involving integration, and growth and decay problems. (MP)

  13. VQABQ: Visual Question Answering by Basic Questions

    Huang, Jia-Hong; Alfadly, Modar; Ghanem, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Taking an image and question as the input of our method, it can output the text-based answer of the query question about the given image, so called Visual Question Answering (VQA). There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the basic questions of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization problem, and also propose a criterion about how to exploit these basic questions to help answer main question. Our method is evaluated on the challenging VQA dataset and yields state-of-the-art accuracy, 60.34% in open-ended task.

  14. Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

    ... Cancer Prevention Genetics of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Dense Breasts: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions What are dense breasts? Breasts contain glandular, connective, and fat tissue. Breast density is a term that describes the ...

  15. Radiation protection in questions and answers

    Ewen, K.; Hoppe, G.

    1976-01-01

    An easily surveyable catalogue of questions is presented which is to make it easier for medical personnel to get acquainted with the basic knowledge according to the X-ray Ordinance and to acquire the expert knowledge in radiation protection. The catalogue is arranged according to different subjects. There are several alternative answers to every question. The right answer is given in the solution index (annex). (HP) [de

  16. Influência dos exercícios físicos de baixa e alta intensidade sobre o limiar de hipernocicepção e outros parâmetros em ratos Influencia de los ejercicios físicos de baja y alta intensidad sobre el límite de hipernocicepción y otros parámetros en ratones Influence of low and high intensity physical exercise on hypernociception threshold and other parameters of rats

    Ademir da Costa Lana

    2006-10-01

    alta intensidad sobre la hipernocicepción, además de evaluar la masa corporal y el peso relativo de algunos órganos de ratones. Para esto, se han utilizado ratones machos, adultos, de linaje Wistar, los que fueron sometidos (grupo entrenado o no (grupo no entrenado a ejercicios en cinta ergo métrica. La inflamación aguda fue inducida por la inyección de carragenina 0,5% en el cóccix de la pata posterior izquierda de los ratones y la nocicepción fue medida por medio del test plantar antes y pos 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 y 24 horas. Al final de las evaluaciones los ratones fueron sometidos a anestesia profunda, incluso la eutanasia, para colectar y pesar las glándulas adrenales, corazón, bazo y riñones y posterior estudio anatomopatológico de estos tejidos. El análisis estadístico de los resultados mostró un aumento significante (P Physical exercise practice is an important habit to maintain the physical and emotional well-being of those who regularly adopt it, and can bring great benefits to health. However, depending on the type, intensity, frequency and duration of the exercises, they can also do a certain degree of harm to the organism. As a benefit, the role of physical exercise is described in the specific and non-specific immune function and, in the latter, the inflammatory process stands out. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to show the effects of low and high intensity physical exercises on hypernociception, and to evaluate the body mass and the relative weight of some organs in rats. For the study, male adult Wistar rats were used and submitted (trained group or not submitted (non-trained group to physical exercises on an ergometric treadmill. The acute inflammation was induced by an injection of carrageenin-0.5% into the plantar tissue of the left hind paw of each rat and the nociception was measured by the plantar test before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hours. At the end of the evaluations, the rats were submitted to deep anesthesia until

  17. Science for common entrance physics : answers

    Pickering, W R

    2015-01-01

    This book contains answers to all exercises featured in the accompanying textbook Science for Common Entrance: Physics , which covers every Level 1 and 2 topic in the ISEB 13+ Physics Common Entrance exam syllabus. - Clean, clear layout for easy marking. - Includes examples of high-scoring answers with diagrams and workings. - Suitable for ISEB 13+ Mathematics Common Entrance exams taken from Autumn 2017 onwards. Also available to purchase from the Galore Park website www.galorepark.co.uk :. - Science for Common Entrance: Physics. - Science for Common Entrance: Biology. - Science for Common En

  18. Illustrating answers: an evaluation of automatically retrieved illustrations of answers to medical questions

    Bosma, W.E.; Theune, Mariet; van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, F.

    In this paper we discuss and evaluate a method for automatic text illustration, applied to answers to medical questions. Our method for selecting illustrations is based on the idea that similarities between the answers and picture-related text (the picture’s caption or the section/paragraph that

  19. 29 CFR 1921.4 - Answer.

    2010-07-01

    ... Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE IN ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS UNDER SECTION 41 OF THE LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT Prehearing Procedures § 1921.4 Answer. (a) Filing and service. Within 14 days after the...

  20. Mathematics for common entrance two answers

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams.

  1. Question-answer sequences in survey interviews

    Dijkstra, W.; Ongena, Y.P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction analysis was used to analyze a total of 14,265 question-answer sequences of (Q-A Sequences) 80 questions that originated from two face-to-face and three telephone surveys. The analysis was directed towards the causes and effects of particular interactional problems. Our results showed

  2. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  3. Two new statistics to detect answer copying

    Meijer, R.R.; Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    Two new indices to detect answer copying on a multiple-choice test, S(1) and S(2) (subscripts), are proposed. The S(1) index is similar to the K-index (P. Holland, 1996) and the K-overscore(2), (K2) index (L. Sotaridona and R. Meijer, in press), but the distribution of the number of matching

  4. Mathematics for common entrance one answers

    Alexander, Serena

    2015-01-01

    Enables efficient assessment of pupils' performance at Levels 1 and 2 of the ISEB 13+ Common Entrance syllabus. Clear layout saves time marking work and identifies areas requiring further attention. Includes diagrams and working where necessary, to demonstrate how to present high-scoring answers in Level 1 and 2 exams

  5. Answer Set Programming and Other Computing Paradigms

    Meng, Yunsong

    2013-01-01

    Answer Set Programming (ASP) is one of the most prominent and successful knowledge representation paradigms. The success of ASP is due to its expressive non-monotonic modeling language and its efficient computational methods originating from building propositional satisfiability solvers. The wide adoption of ASP has motivated several extensions to…

  6. From Answer-Getters to Problem Solvers

    Flynn, Mike

    2017-01-01

    In some math classrooms, students are taught to follow and memorize procedures to arrive at the correct solution to problems. In this article, author Mike Flynn suggests a way to move beyond answer-getting to true problem solving. He describes an instructional approach called three-act tasks in which students solve an engaging math problem in…

  7. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  8. Fuel reprocessing: Citizens' questions and experts' answers

    1982-10-01

    In connection with the intention of DWK to erect a fuel reprocessing plant in the Oberpfalz, citizens have asked a great number of questions which are of interest to the general public. They have been collected, grouped into subject categories and answered by experts. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. 21 CFR 17.9 - Answer.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer. 17.9 Section 17.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES HEARINGS... Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, rm. 1061, Rockville, MD...

  10. DEFINITION OF TYPOS IN ANSWER OF STUDENT IN KNOWN CORRECT ANSWER

    Maria V. Biryukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes method of typo detection in the answers for the questions with open answers. In such questions we know one or several correct answers defining relatively small dictionary of correct words contrasting the usual case of looking for typos in arbitrary text. This fact allows using more complex analysis methods and finding more possible typos, such as extra or missing separators. A typo correction module for the Correct Writing question type (for Moodle LMS was developed using proposed methods. 

  11. Safety Day Prize Competition: results and answers

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    The three winners of the Safety Day Prize Competition are...   • 1st Prize: Fernando LEITE PEREIRA – smoke detector • 2nd Prize: Thomas DE BORTOLI – water filter jug • 3rd Prize: Matti KALLIOKOSKI – safety goggles Please see the image below for the answers to the questionnaire. If you have any questions regarding the Safety Day, please contact: safety.communication@cern.ch. And again, thank you to all the participants!

  12. Hydroelectricity - An Answer To Energy Needs

    Francois-Xausa, Maryse; Havard, David; Czerwinski, Francois; Teller, Olivier

    2010-09-15

    The energy challenges of the next 30 years appear daunting and, in certain cases, in conflict with one another. Their complexity is such that one solution alone cannot provide a full answer. It is nevertheless equally clear that hydro-electricity, being renewable, proven, highly efficient, storable and with still very significant resource potential, possesses a unique combination of attributes which will aid decision-makers to plan and execute energy development with confidence.

  13. Structured Attentions for Visual Question Answering

    Zhu, Chen; Zhao, Yanpeng; Huang, Shuaiyi; Tu, Kewei; Ma, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Visual attention, which assigns weights to image regions according to their relevance to a question, is considered as an indispensable part by most Visual Question Answering models. Although the questions may involve complex relations among multiple regions, few attention models can effectively encode such cross-region relations. In this paper, we demonstrate the importance of encoding such relations by showing the limited effective receptive field of ResNet on two datasets, and propose to mo...

  14. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    1989-04-01

    Leading questions about nuclear power are posed. These include questions about how much extra radioactivity in the environments is due to the nuclear industry, the risk of a nuclear accident, radioactive wastes, nuclear power as a solution to the greenhouse effect, alternative energy sources, and the economics of nuclear power. The answers are presented from the view point of the authors, members of Greenpeace. A glossary, notes and references are included. (UK)

  15. Probability Aggregates in Probability Answer Set Programming

    Saad, Emad

    2013-01-01

    Probability answer set programming is a declarative programming that has been shown effective for representing and reasoning about a variety of probability reasoning tasks. However, the lack of probability aggregates, e.g. {\\em expected values}, in the language of disjunctive hybrid probability logic programs (DHPP) disallows the natural and concise representation of many interesting problems. In this paper, we extend DHPP to allow arbitrary probability aggregates. We introduce two types of p...

  16. Examinations in radiology with commented answers

    Wittmaack, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    This book is meant to be a help in the preparation for the examination in the subject of radiology. Original questions from the examinations of the past years and questions put by the author cover all subjects of the catalogue. All questions are answered, with additional comments in order to ensure the understanding of the subject, thus creating best preconditions for a successful examination. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Finding Question-Answer Pairs from Online Forums

    Cong, Gao; Wang, Long; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    Online forums contain a huge amount of valuable user generated content. In this paper we address the problem of extracting question-answer pairs from forums. Question-answer pairs extracted from forums can be used to help Question Answering services (e.g. Yahoo! Answers) among other applications...

  18. To answer or not to answer? A field test of loss aversion

    Michał Krawczyk

    2011-01-01

    This study is a field experiment on loss aversion. The framing of scoring rules was differentiated in two exams at the University of Warsaw, with only half the students facing explicit penalty points in the case of giving an incorrect answer. Loss aversion predicts that less risk will be taken (less questions will be answered) when losses are possible but in fact, no treatment effect was observed.

  19. Questions and answers on nuclear energy

    Grupe, H.; Koelzer, W.

    Highly developed technologies, such as the nuclear power plant technology, have met with an increasing interest on the part of the general public during the last few years. As it is our duty to meet this demand for information and to supply the general public with objective and complete information on technical details, this series of brochures has been started. The present fourth and revised issue of 'Questions and answers on nuclear energy' explains the subjects in even greater detail and has been enlarged by an additional chapter on 'Waste disposal and waste management.' (orig.) [de

  20. Nuclear power in Canada: questions and answers

    1975-01-01

    To further public understanding of nuclear power generation, the Canadian Nuclear Association commissioned a special task force to coordinate contributions of experts in all parts of the nuclear industry. These contributions have been arranged in a question and answer format and are aimed at the average Canadian reader who is genuinely seeking factual information on nuclear power. Areas covered include electricity demand, comparison of nuclear generation with other forms of thermal electricity production, radiation sources and effects on man and his environment; features of different reactor types, thermal discharges and waste management. (O.T.)

  1. Questions/answers on onshore wind energy

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France over the last 15 years, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  2. First trainer six practice tests with answers

    May, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Six full practice tests with tips and training for the 2015 revised Cambridge English: First (FCE). First Trainer Second edition offers six practice tests for the revised Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam combined with easy-to-follow guidance and exam tips. The first two tests are fully guided with advice on how to tackle each paper. Extra practice activities, informed by the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a bank of real candidates' exam papers, focus on areas where students typically need the most help. This version contains a full answer key. Audio for the listening and speaking test activities is available online for download. Audio CDs featuring the listening material are also available, separately.

  3. Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?

    Brunnander, Björn

    2013-09-01

    It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IMPROVISATION OF SEEKER SATISFACTION IN YAHOO! COMMUNITY QUESTION ANSWERING PORTAL

    K. Latha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One popular Community question answering (CQA site, Yahoo! Answers, had attracted 120 million users worldwide, and had 400 million answers to questions available. A typical characteristic of such sites is that they allow anyone to post or answer any questions on any subject. Question Answering Community has emerged as popular, and often effective, means of information seeking on the web. By posting questions, for other participants to answer, information seekers can obtain specific answers to their questions. However, CQA is not always effective: in some cases, a user may obtain a perfect answer within minutes, and in others it may require hours and sometimes days until a satisfactory answer is contributed. We investigate the problem of predicting information seeker satisfaction in yahoo collaborative question answering communities, where we attempt to predict whether a question author will be satisfied with the answers submitted by the community participants. Our experimental results, obtained from a large scale evaluation over thousands of real questions and user ratings, demonstrate the feasibility of modeling and predicting asker satisfaction. We complement our results with a thorough investigation of the interactions and information seeking patterns in question answering communities that correlate with information seeker satisfaction. We also explore automatic ranking, creating abstract from retrieved answers, and history updation, which aims to provide users with what they want or need without explicitly ask them for user satisfaction. Our system could be useful for a variety of applications, such as answer selection, user feedback analysis, and ranking.

  5. How to answer the industry's opponents

    Chaussade, Jean-Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Full text: 1. Be seen and be heard out in the environmental field: Nuclear power reduces air pollution. - It is an answer to concerns over pollution in cities; - It is an answer to concerns over the earth's changing climate patterns due to the greenhouse effect; - The storage of nuclear waste is now harnessed. 2. Don't let people get away with untruths: The more an untrue notion is repeated, the more truthful it sounds. In confronting this attitude, always take care to denounce lies and assert truths. To this end, I suggest creating an international data bank for quotes, which would collect quotations and the words of internationally known and respected scientists, professors of medicine and experts. 3. Do not forget the basics. Energy power did not develop on the theme of the environment. And it will not do so in the future. Secure power supply and economic appeal are the two themes forming the platform for nuclear power. They must remain the base of our rationale. (author)

  6. Information Presentation in Decision and Risk Analysis: Answered, Partly Answered, and Unanswered Questions.

    Keller, L Robin; Wang, Yitong

    2017-06-01

    For the last 30 years, researchers in risk analysis, decision analysis, and economics have consistently proven that decisionmakers employ different processes for evaluating and combining anticipated and actual losses, gains, delays, and surprises. Although rational models generally prescribe a consistent response, people's heuristic processes will sometimes lead them to be inconsistent in the way they respond to information presented in theoretically equivalent ways. We point out several promising future research directions by listing and detailing a series of answered, partly answered, and unanswered questions. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Oceanic hydrates: more questions than answers

    Laherrere, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Methane hydrates create problems by blocking pipelines and casing; they are also accused of contributing to environmental problems (e.g. global warming). Methane hydrates are also found in permafrost areas and in oceanic sediments where the necessary temperature and pressure for stability occur. Claims for the widespread occurrence in thick oceanic deposits are unfounded: apparently indirect evidence from seismic reflectors, seismic hydrocarbon indicators, logs and free samples is unreliable. At one time, hydrate was seen as a static, biogenic, continuous, huge resource but that view is changing to one of a dynamic, overpressurised, discontinuous and unreliable resource. Only Japan and India are currently showing any serious interest in hydrates. Academic research has raised more questions than answers. It is suggested that more hard exploratory evidence rather than theoretical study is required

  8. Approaches to answering critical CER questions.

    Kinnier, Christine V; Chung, Jeanette W; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2015-01-01

    While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for research, many research questions cannot be ethically and practically answered using an RCT. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) techniques are often better suited than RCTs to address the effects of an intervention under routine care conditions, an outcome otherwise known as effectiveness. CER research techniques covered in this section include: effectiveness-oriented experimental studies such as pragmatic trials and cluster randomized trials, treatment response heterogeneity, observational and database studies including adjustment techniques such as sensitivity analysis and propensity score analysis, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, decision analysis, and cost effectiveness analysis. Each section describes the technique and covers the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.

  9. Interpretation of Genomic Data Questions and Answers

    Simon, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hyperbole and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in devlopingan era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in re-thinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:18582627

  10. Answers at your fingertips: Access to the Internet influences willingness to answer questions.

    Ferguson, Amanda M; McLean, David; Risko, Evan F

    2015-12-01

    Recent technological advances have given rise to an information-gathering tool unparalleled by any in human history-the Internet. Understanding how access to such a powerful informational tool influences how we think represents an important question for psychological science. In the present investigation we examined the impact of access to the Internet on the metacognitive processes that govern our decisions about what we "know" and "don't know." Results demonstrated that access to the Internet influenced individuals' willingness to volunteer answers, which led to fewer correct answers overall but greater accuracy when an answer was offered. Critically, access to the Internet also influenced feeling-of-knowing, and this accounted for some (but not all) of the effect on willingness to volunteer answers. These findings demonstrate that access to the Internet can influence metacognitive processes, and contribute novel insights into the operation of the transactive memory system formed by people and the Internet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Training IBM Watson using Automatically Generated Question-Answer Pairs

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Gyuwan; Yoo, Jaeyoon; Jung, Changwoo; Kim, Minseok; Yoon, Sungroh

    2016-01-01

    IBM Watson is a cognitive computing system capable of question answering in natural languages. It is believed that IBM Watson can understand large corpora and answer relevant questions more effectively than any other question-answering system currently available. To unleash the full power of Watson, however, we need to train its instance with a large number of well-prepared question-answer pairs. Obviously, manually generating such pairs in a large quantity is prohibitively time consuming and...

  12. Explicit Knowledge-based Reasoning for Visual Question Answering

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qi; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den; Dick, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method for visual question answering which is capable of reasoning about contents of an image on the basis of information extracted from a large-scale knowledge base. The method not only answers natural language questions using concepts not contained in the image, but can provide an explanation of the reasoning by which it developed its answer. The method is capable of answering far more complex questions than the predominant long short-term memory-based approach, and outperform...

  13. Selecting Information to Answer Questions: Strategic Individual Differences when Searching Texts

    Cerdan, Raquel; Gilabert, Ramiro; Vidal-Abarca, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore students' selection of information strategies in a task-oriented reading situation. 72 secondary school students read two texts and answered six questions per text, three of which were manipulated to induce a misleading matching between the wording of the question and distracting pieces of information in the…

  14. Production and evaluation of (multimodal) answers to medical questions

    van Hooijdonk, C.M.J.; Krahmer, E.; Maes, A.; Theune, Mariet; Bosma, W.E.; Maes, A.; Ainsworth, S.

    This paper describes two experiments carried out to investigate the production and evaluation of multimodal answer presentations in the context of a medical question answering system. In a production experiment participants had to produce answers to different types of questions. The results show

  15. 49 CFR 31.10 - Default upon failure to answer.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Default upon failure to answer. 31.10 Section 31.10 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.10 Default upon failure to answer. (a) If the defendant does not answer within the time prescribed in § 31.9...

  16. 6 CFR 13.10 - Default upon failure to answer.

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Default upon failure to answer. 13.10 Section 13.10 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.10 Default upon failure to answer. (a) If the Defendant does not answer within the time...

  17. The Artful Dodger: Answering the Wrong Question the Right Way

    Rogers, Todd; Norton, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    What happens when speakers try to "dodge" a question they would rather not answer by answering a different question? In 4 studies, we show that listeners can fail to detect dodges when speakers answer similar--but objectively incorrect--questions (the "artful dodge"), a detection failure that goes hand-in-hand with a failure to rate dodgers more…

  18. What Is the Correct Answer about The Dress’ Colors? Investigating the Relation between Optimism, Previous Experience, and Answerability

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions with controversial answers are (Karlsson et al., 2016). Furthermore, familiarity with a question can create a feeling of knowing the answer (Reder and...

  19. NUGs waiting on OEFC for answers

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    Non-utility generators of electric power (NUGs), holders of more than 80 power sales contracts with the former Ontario Hydro, are anxiously awaiting answers from the Ontario Electricity Finance Corporation (OEFC) regarding the rules for bidding for contracts. It appears that several important deadlines have passed without action by the OEFC, which could result in NUGs being denied the opportunity to bid for generation contracts. One action by the OEFC that was welcomed by the NUGs was the information that holders of NUG contracts are suppliers of power to a wholesale marketer, and it is that marketer who is obliged to comply with the Independent Market Operator (IMO) under the market rules. The information sent to NUG representatives specifically acknowledged that OEFC, which is responsible for managing power purchase contracts of the former Ontario Hydro, is itself a Wholesale Market Participant, which means that the costs related to bidding into the IMO under the new market rules, and the necessary upgrading of systems to allow for that, will be borne by the Marketer, or distributor of power, which in this case is the OEFC. This was one of the many outstanding issues between the NUGs and their counterparts in the power purchase agreements.

  20. Organizational Learning: Some Basic Questions and Answers

    Miran Mihelčič

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “organizational learning” raises a broad range of questions, specifically with regard to its contents. Following the thoughts of eminent philosophers, such as Aristotle and Confucius, the contribution of scientists in any research field to the corpus of human knowledge should also be based on the proper governing of the use of language. Therefore it is, first, of serious importance to be aware that organizational learning is just one dimension or element of the learning organization and not vice versa; second, a good comprehension of basic categories related to the organizational side of (formal social units’ functioning is an imperative part of organizational learning process. In writing this paper, the author started from his experiences acquired in his role as a lecturer on the subject “Theory of Organization”, in which the goal of lecturing was explained to students as gaining knowledge about cooperation and competition of people in the entities of rational production of goods. To generalize the presented questions and answers regarding the use of term “organization” in the field of management, certain similarities and comparisons were sought and found in other fields of science and, more generally, in life itself. After more detailed explanations of other relevant categories for the organizational learning process, the process itself is defined by its goals and steps where the overlapping of the learning process with the organizational change process and the process of increasing organizational capital is shown. Finally, it is also emphasized that the idea of improving internal relationships – as the substance of organization – between employees in a formal social unit through organizational learning could and should be exploited in external relationships between formal social units.

  1. Latent Space Embedding for Retrieval in Question-Answer Archives

    Padmanabhan, Deepak; Garg, Dinesh; Shevade, Shirish

    2017-01-01

    Community-driven Question Answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers have become valuable sources of reusable information. CQA retrieval enables usage of historical CQA archives to solve new questions posed by users. This task has received much recent attention, with methods building upon literature from translation models, topic models, and deep learning. In this paper, we devise a CQA retrieval technique, LASER-QA, that embeds question-answer pairs within a unified latent space preservi...

  2. What Is the Correct Answer about The Dress' Colors? Investigating the Relation between Optimism, Previous Experience, and Answerability.

    Karlsson, Bodil S A; Allwood, Carl Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Dress photograph, first displayed on the internet in 2015, revealed stunning individual differences in color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate if lay-persons believed that the question about The Dress colors was answerable. Past research has found that optimism is related to judgments of how answerable knowledge questions with controversial answers are (Karlsson et al., 2016). Furthermore, familiarity with a question can create a feeling of knowing the answer (Reder and Ritter, 1992). Building on these findings, 186 participants saw the photo of The Dress and were asked about the correct answer to the question about The Dress' colors (" blue and black," "white and gold," "other, namely…," or "there is no correct answer" ). Choice of the alternative "there is no correct answer" was interpreted as believing the question was not answerable. This answer was chosen more often by optimists and by people who reported they had not seen The Dress before. We also found that among participants who had seen The Dress photo before, 19%, perceived The Dress as "white and gold" but believed that the correct answer was "blue and black ." This, in analogy to previous findings about non-believed memories (Scoboria and Pascal, 2016), shows that people sometimes do not believe the colors they have perceived are correct. Our results suggest that individual differences related to optimism and previous experience may contribute to if the judgment of the individual perception of a photograph is enough to serve as a decision basis for valid conclusions about colors. Further research about color judgments under ambiguous circumstances could benefit from separating individual perceptual experience from beliefs about the correct answer to the color question. Including the option "there is no correct answer " may also be beneficial.

  3. The Most Reasonable Answer: Helping Students Build Better Arguments Together

    Reznitskaya, Alina; Wilkinson, Ian A. G.

    2017-01-01

    "The Most Reasonable Answer" is an innovative and comprehensive guide to engaging students in inquiry dialogue--a type of talk used in text-based classroom discussions. During inquiry dialogue, students collectively search for the most reasonable answers to big, controversial questions, and, as a result, enhance their argumentation…

  4. 36 CFR 1150.48 - PER: Citation, answer, amendment.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PER: Citation, answer...; Pleadings and Motions § 1150.48 PER: Citation, answer, amendment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, other..., the citation shall request PER when it appears to the Executive Director that immediate and...

  5. 12 CFR 747.610 - Answer to application.

    2010-01-01

    ... and Procedures Applicable to Recovery of Attorneys Fees and Other Expenses Under the Equal Access to Justice Act in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.610 Answer to application. (a) Within 30 days after service... paragraph (b) of this section, failure to file an answer within the 30-day period will be treated as a...

  6. 49 CFR 1016.303 - Answer to application.

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCEDURES GOVERNING THE RECOVERY OF EXPENSES... Answer to application. (a) Within 30 days after service of an application, counsel representing the... this section, failure to file an answer within the 30-day period may be treated as a consent to the...

  7. Answer Extraction Based on Merging Score Strategy of Hot Terms

    LE Juan; ZHANG Chunxia; NIU Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Answer extraction (AE) is one of the key technologies in developing the open domain Question&an-swer (Q&A) system . Its task is to yield the highest score to the expected answer based on an effective answer score strategy. We introduce an answer extraction method by Merging score strategy (MSS) based on hot terms. The hot terms are defined according to their lexical and syn-tactic features to highlight the role of the question terms. To cope with the syntactic diversities of the corpus, we propose four improved candidate answer score algorithms. Each of them is based on the lexical function of hot terms and their syntactic relationships with the candidate an-swers. Two independent corpus score algorithms are pro-posed to tap the role of the corpus in ranking the candi-date answers. Six algorithms are adopted in MSS to tap the complementary action among the corpus, the candi-date answers and the questions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  8. XACML 3.0 in Answer Set Programming

    Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic technique for transforming XACML 3.0 policies in Answer Set Programming (ASP). We show that the resulting logic program has a unique answer set that directly corresponds to our formalisation of the standard semantics of XACML 3.0 from [9]. We demonstrate how our results make...

  9. 17 CFR 8.13 - Answer to charges.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer to charges. 8.13 Section 8.13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXCHANGE PROCEDURES FOR DISCIPLINARY, SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Disciplinary Procedure § 8.13 Answer to...

  10. Climate warming: answering some basic questions

    Jancovici, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs, drawings, figures and tables, this long publication offers a detailed overview of the physical aspects of climatic change (definition of the greenhouse effect, explanation and assessment of warming, relationship and differences between greenhouse effect and ozone depletion, between climate change and greenhouse effect induced by human activity, and between meteorology and climate) and states some generalities on greenhouse effect gases. The author then discusses prospective issues on climatic change (notion of average temperature, role and liability of climate models, evolutions of temperatures and precipitations in different places, influence of greenhouse gas reduction), the various risks associated with climatic change (changes of sea currents, impact on ecosystems, diseases, ozone depletion, geographical differences, threat from methane hydrate). After a presentation of the carbon cycle, the next chapters are discussing the scientific discourses, the assessment of greenhouse effect in our everyday life, the impact of possible collective and individual actions, the relationship between greenhouse effect and economy, and strategic choices in France on airports and on nuclear energy

  11. Yahoo! Answers as a Space for Informal Language Learning

    Giuliana Dettori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Online social spaces, where users can exchange information, opinions and resources, have achieved wide popularity and are gaining attention in many research fields, including education. Their actual potential support to learning, however, still requires investigation, especially because portals can widely differ as concerns purpose and internal structure. This paper aims to contribute in this respect, by concentrating on question answering, a kind of social space not yet widely discussed in education. We analyzed a small corpus of posts from the Languages section of Yahoo! Answers Italy, checking if the questions reveal some inclination to learning or just the desire to obtain a service and if the answers provided by the community members can be considered as reliable sources of knowledge. Our analysis highlights the presence of a variety of question/answer types, from mere information exchange or help for task completion, up to language-related questions prompting valuable short lessons. The quality of answers may widely vary as concerns pertinence, correctness and richness of supporting elements. We found a high number of purely task-oriented questions and answers, but also a higher number of learning-oriented questions and correct, informative answers. This suggests that this kind of social space actually has valuable potential for informal learning.

  12. A Noisy-Channel Approach to Question Answering

    2003-01-01

    question “When did Elvis Presley die?” To do this, we build a noisy channel model that makes explicit how answer sentence parse trees are mapped into...in Figure 1, the algorithm above generates the following training example: Q: When did Elvis Presley die ? SA: Presley died PP PP in A_DATE, and...engine as a potential candidate for finding the answer to the question “When did Elvis Presley die?” In this case, we don’t know what the answer is

  13. Ontologies and adaptivity in dialogue for question answering

    Sonntag, D

    2010-01-01

    Question answering (QA) has become one of the fastest growing topics in computational linguistics and information access. To advance research in the area of dialogue-based question answering, we propose a combination of methods from different scientific fields (i.e., Information Retrieval, Dialogue Systems, Semantic Web, and Machine Learning). This book sheds light on adaptable dialogue-based question answering. We demonstrate the technical and computational feasibility of the proposed ideas, the introspective methods in particular, by beginning with an extensive introduction to the dialogical

  14. HSIP E911 Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — 911 Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP) service area boundaries in New Mexico According to the National Emergency Number Association (NENA), a Public Safety...

  15. Country plan Zeeland, predesign. Policy note reactions and answers

    1986-10-01

    In this note of the provincial executive of Zeeland the timely entered reactions on the predesign-country plan Zeeland, concerning the location of additional nuclear power plants in Borssele are elaborated. The relevance of the policy can be related to the character of the reactions on the predesign-country plan, as well as to the character of the answers and conclusions associated with them. The answers in this note may be important as explanations of the contents of the predesign-country plan. The remarks are arranged, summarized and answered as much as possible according to the arrangement of the predesign-country plan. By subject, in each case, first the corresponding reactions are summarized, next the reactions are answered. From the conclusions it appears if and to what extent reactions may give motivations for modifications in the predesign

  16. Appropriate technology: Often, the best answers can be found right ...

    2010-10-28

    Oct 28, 2010 ... In each case, however, the technologies have done their job – they have led to lasting solutions ... Appropriate technology: Often, the best answers can be found right at home ... In a Bookless Society, Why Start With Books?

  17. Questions and answers based on revised 10 CFR Part 20

    Borges, T.; Stafford, R.S.; Lu, P.Y.; Carter, D.

    1994-05-01

    NUREG/CR-6204 is a collection of questions and answers that were originally issued in seven sets and which pertain to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions came from both outside and within the NRC. The answers were compiled and provided by NRC staff within the offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Nuclear Regulatory Research, the Office of State Programs, and the five regional offices. Although all of the questions and answers have been reviewed by attorneys in the NRC Office of the General Counsel, they do not constitute official legal interpretations relevant to revised 10 CFR Part 20. The questions and answers do, however, reflect NRC staff decisions and technical options on aspects of the revised 10 CFR Part 20 regulatory requirements. This NUREG is being made available to encourage communication among the public, industry, and NRC staff concerning the major revisions of the NRC's standards for protection against radiation

  18. Country plan Zeeland, predesign. Official note reactions and answers

    1986-10-01

    In this official note of the steering committee Streekplanwerk (country plan work) the timely entered reactions on the predesign-country plan Zeeland, concerning the location of additional nuclear power plants in Borssele are elaborated. The relevance of the policy can be related to the character of the reactions on the predesign-country plan, as well as to the character of the answers and conclusions associated with them. The answers in this note may be important as explanations of the contents of the predesign-country plan. The remarks are arranged, summarized and answered as much as possible according to the arrangement of the predesign-country plan. By subject, in each case, first the corresponding reactions are summarized, next the reactions are answered. From the conclusions it appears if and to what extent reactions may give motivations for modifications in the predesign

  19. chemistry teachers and their senior secondary students' answers

    Preferred Customer

    STUDENTS' ANSWERS TO PICTORIAL AND VERBAL QUESTIONS IN. EVAPORATION ... chemical education have since changed focus along this direction. ... achievement on the conceptual understanding test in chemistry. Teachers feel ..... Nurrenbern, S. C. & Pickering, M. (1987) Two Kinds of Conceptual Problems in.

  20. A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper

    Giesbers, Bas; Taddeo, Antonio; Van der Vegt, Wim; Van Bruggen, Jan; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Giesbers, B., Taddeo, A., van der Vegt, W., van Bruggen, J., Koper, R. (2007). A Question Answering service for information retrieval in Cooper. Paper presented at the Cooper workshop, September 18, Crete, Greece.

  1. Answering Fixed Response Items in Chemistry: A Pilot Study.

    Hateley, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Presents a pilot study on student thinking in chemistry. Verbal comments of a group of six college students were recorded and analyzed to identify how each student arrives at the correct answer in fixed response items in chemisty. (HM)

  2. Learning Convolutional Text Representations for Visual Question Answering

    Wang, Zhengyang; Ji, Shuiwang

    2017-01-01

    Visual question answering is a recently proposed artificial intelligence task that requires a deep understanding of both images and texts. In deep learning, images are typically modeled through convolutional neural networks, and texts are typically modeled through recurrent neural networks. While the requirement for modeling images is similar to traditional computer vision tasks, such as object recognition and image classification, visual question answering raises a different need for textual...

  3. Nociceptive Response to L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Hemiparkinsonian Rats.

    Nascimento, G C; Bariotto-Dos-Santos, K; Leite-Panissi, C R A; Del-Bel, E A; Bortolanza, M

    2018-04-02

    Non-motor symptoms are increasingly identified to present clinical and diagnostic importance for Parkinson's disease (PD). The multifactorial origin of pain in PD makes this symptom of great complexity. The dopamine precursor, L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine), the classic therapy for PD, seems to be effective in pain threshold; however, there are no studies correlating L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) and nociception development in experimental Parkinsonism. Here, we first investigated nociceptive responses in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease to a hind paw-induced persistent inflammation. Further, the effect of L-DOPA on nociception behavior at different times of treatment was investigated. Pain threshold was determined using von Frey and Hot Plate/Tail Flick tests. Dyskinesia was measured by abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) induced by L-DOPA administration. This data is consistent to show that 6-OHDA-lesioned rats had reduced nociceptive thresholds compared to non-lesioned rats. Additionally, when these rats were exposed to a persistent inflammatory challenge, we observed increased hypernociceptive responses, namely hyperalgesia. L-DOPA treatment alleviated pain responses on days 1 and 7 of treatment, but not on day 15. During that period, we observed an inverse relationship between LID and nociception threshold in these rats, with a high LID rate corresponding to a reduced nociception threshold. Interestingly, pain responses resulting from CFA-induced inflammation were significantly enhanced during established dyskinesia. These data suggest a pro-algesic effect of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, which is confirmed by the correlation founded here between AIMs and nociceptive indexes. In conclusion, our results are consistent with the notion that central dopaminergic mechanism is directly involved in nociceptive responses in Parkinsonism condition.

  4. Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.

    Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

  5. AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS’ STRATEGIES IN ANSWERING TOEFL

    Nunung Nurhayati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing types of TOEFL questions seem the most difficult to be answered, the strategies used in answering each type of TOEFL questions, and the TOEFL score of the 8th semester of English Students in STKIP Setia Budhi Rangkasbitung Academic Year 2015/2016. TOEFl test, questionnaires, and interview were used as the instruments. The results showed that understanding idiom in listening, question of noun forms in structure and written expression, and reference question in reading comprehension are the most difficult question types. Related to the strategy, various ways are used in answering the TOEFL test. In addition, the TOEFL score of the eighth semester students of STKIP Setia Budhi was low.

  6. Means of Question-Answer Interaction for Collaborative Development Activity

    Petr Sosnin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of successful developing of the software intensive system (SIS is adequate conceptual interactions of stakeholders at the early stages of designing. Nowadays the success of development is extremely low. It can be increased with using artificial intelligence (AI means including models of reasoning supported by the human-computer interaction in collaborative development activity. In this paper, a number of question-answer means for modeling reasoning are suggested. Such kind of means is defined and implemented in order to get effects of integrating the collective reasoning for their positive influence on the intellectual activity of designers. Question-answer means are arranged as a specialized processor opening the possibility to question-answer programming of the tasks on the conceptual stage of designing. Suggested and investigated means can be used for solving any complicated task.

  7. Learning Domain-Specific Heuristics for Answer Set Solvers

    Balduccini, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the recent improvements in the performance of Answer Set Programming (ASP) solvers, when the search space is sufficiently large, it is still possible for the search algorithm to mistakenly focus on areas of the search space that contain no solutions or very few. When that happens, performance degrades substantially, even to the point that the solver may need to be terminated before returning an answer. This prospect is a concern when one is considering using such a solver in an in...

  8. Semantical Characterizations and Complexity of Equivalences in Answer Set Programming

    Eiter, Thomas; Fink, Michael; Woltran, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In recent research on non-monotonic logic programming, repeatedly strong equivalence of logic programs P and Q has been considered, which holds if the programs P union R and Q union R have the same answer sets for any other program R. This property strengthens equivalence of P and Q with respect to answer sets (which is the particular case for R is the empty set), and has its applications in program optimization, verification, and modular logic programming. In this paper, we consider more lib...

  9. Model answers in pure mathematics for a-level students

    Pratt, GA; Schofield, C W

    1967-01-01

    Model Answers in Pure Mathematics for A-Level Students provides a set of solutions that indicate what is required and expected in an Advanced Level examination in Pure Mathematics. This book serves as a guide to the length of answer required, layout of the solution, and methods of selecting the best approach to any particular type of math problem. This compilation intends to supplement, not replace, the normal textbook and provides a varied selection of questions for practice in addition to the worked solutions. The subjects covered in this text include algebra, trigonometry, coordinate geomet

  10. Reformulation of Crop and Management Factor in ANSWERS Model

    Yayat Hidayat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Crop and management factor value is significantly corelated with outputs of ANSWERS model especially on soil erosion. Using daily crop and management factors (daily C factors, the ANSWERS model performs well in predicting soil erosion which is showed by determination coeffient (R2 = 0.89, model efficiency (0.86, and average of percentage model deviations (24.1%. Whereas using USLE C factor (2 cropping systems, predicted is much higher than measured soil erosion (over estimate. Output of the model is not statisfy; it is represented by model coefficient (0.40 and average of percentage model deviations (63.6%.

  11. Cambridge English First 2 with answers : authentic examination papers

    2016-01-01

    Four authentic Cambridge English Language Assessment examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam. These examination papers for the Cambridge English: First (FCE) exam provide the most authentic exam preparation available, allowing candidates to familiarise themselves with the content and format of the exam and to practise useful exam techniques. The Student's Book is also available in a 'without answers' edition. Audio CDs (2) containing the exam Listening material and a Student's Book with answers and downloadable Audio are available separately. These tests are also available as Cambridge English: First Tests 5-8 on Testbank.org.uk

  12. 7 CFR 900.52a - Answer to petition.

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Practice Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.52a... promptly upon the petitioner. (b) Contents. The answer shall specify which of the material allegations of...

  13. Answers to your questions on high-level nuclear waste

    1987-11-01

    This booklet contains answers to frequently asked questions about high-level nuclear wastes. Written for the layperson, the document contains basic information on the hazards of radiation, the Nuclear Waste Management Program, the proposed geologic repository, the proposed monitored retrievable storage facility, risk assessment, and public participation in the program

  14. 5 CFR 1201.124 - Rights; answer to complaint.

    2010-01-01

    ... PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Procedures for Original Jurisdiction Cases Special Counsel Disciplinary Actions... Special Counsel files a complaint proposing a disciplinary action against an employee under 5 U.S.C. 1215... Counsel disciplinary action complaint may file an answer with the Clerk of the Board within 35 days of the...

  15. Unfinished Student Answer in PISA Mathematics Contextual Problem

    Lutfianto, Moch.; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Solving mathematics contextual problems is one way that can be used to enable students to have the skills needed to live in the 21st century. Completion contextual problem requires a series of steps in order to properly answer the questions that are asked. The purpose of this study was to determine the steps performed students in solving…

  16. Infectious Mononucleosis in Active Patients: Definitive Answers to Common Questions.

    Auwaerter, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes infectious mononucleosis (IM), examining viral transmission and infection, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Focuses on answers to several commonly asked questions about IM in sport (e.g., when it is safe to resume sports after IM, how often fatigue or depression are related to earlier bouts of IM, and how often IM is…

  17. 40 CFR 22.15 - Answer to the complaint.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer to the complaint. 22.15 Section 22.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF... respondent has any knowledge. Where respondent has no knowledge of a particular factual allegation and so...

  18. Advertising, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    Martin, Charles H.; Cyrus, Cinda L.

    This revised manual for individualized instruction of distributive education trainees at the high school or junior college level in basic advertising and sales promotion activities includes 15 self-study assignments, teaching suggestions, and a bibliography. Together with a separate answer key, each assignment provides student questions and…

  19. Question-Answer Pairs in Sign Language of the Netherlands

    Kimmelman, V.; Vink, L.

    2017-01-01

    Several sign languages of the world utilize a construction that consists of a question followed by an answer, both of which are produced by the same signer. For American Sign Language, this construction has been analyzed as a discourse-level rhetorical question construction (Hoza et al. 1997), as a

  20. 19 CFR 212.21 - Answer to application.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Answer to application. 212.21 Section 212.21 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 212.21...

  1. Apparel Marketing. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn

    This document on apparel marketing contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 16 assignments: (1) introduction to fashion and fashion merchandising; (2) current fashion; (3) careers in fashion; (4) buying; (5) retailing; (6) merchandise basics; (7) merchandise--promotion and…

  2. INTELLIGENT QUESTION-ANSWERING SYSTEM “MIVAR VIRTUAL CONSULTANT”

    Larisa Evgen’evna Adamova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the process of designing question-answering system “Mivar Virtual Consultant” using specialized information-technology platform for understanding meaning of text in the natural Russian language. The system is capable of accumulating knowledge from texts in the natural Russian language and managing this knowledge. The methodology for training virtual consultant is described.

  3. Chemistry teachers and their senior secondary students' answers to ...

    The purpose of the study was to compare chemistry teachers' answers in a question related to evaporation with that of their senior secondary students. Two hundred and seventy six senior secondary students and their seven teachers participated in the study. The main data collecting instrument was the pictorial and verbal ...

  4. Answering the Call: How Group Mentoring Makes a Difference

    Altus, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring programs answer the call for social justice for many students who are in success-inhibiting environments. This study employed a case study design to investigate the perceived benefits from a group mentoring program. Data was collected from pre- and post-assessments focus groups, and artifacts. Four participant benefits were revealed:…

  5. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  6. Optimizing Board Effectiveness with Gender Diversity : Are Quotas the Answer?

    Annemarie Durbin

    2011-01-01

    Women are underrepresented on corporate boards but are quotas the answer? Not according to the author. Annemarie Durbin cites evidence that using quotas to increase female representation can lead to tokenism, diminish the overall value of diversity on boards, affect board dynamics, and potentially lead to diluted commitments from existing female board directors. She recommends that, instea...

  7. 15 CFR 785.4 - Request for hearing and answer.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Request for hearing and answer. 785.4 Section 785.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 785...

  8. A New Statistic for Detection of Aberrant Answer Changes

    Sinharay, Sandip; Duong, Minh Q.; Wood, Scott W.

    2017-01-01

    As noted by Fremer and Olson, analysis of answer changes is often used to investigate testing irregularities because the analysis is readily performed and has proven its value in practice. Researchers such as Belov, Sinharay and Johnson, van der Linden and Jeon, van der Linden and Lewis, and Wollack, Cohen, and Eckerly have suggested several…

  9. Questions and Answers about RTI: A Guide to Success

    Moran, Heather; Petruzzelli, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    As Response-to-Intervention (RTI) models continue to attract a great deal of attention, school and district leaders need to understand the structures needed, the personnel required, the challenges faced, and rewards realized from RTI. "Questions and Answers About RTI: A Guide to Success" is designed to guide a school or district through the…

  10. Is aggressive therapy the answer for all cases of emphysematous ...

    Is aggressive therapy the answer for all cases of emphysematous pyelonephritis: A report of three cases. S Kumar, S Neogi, KK Gautam. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2006-8808.110268.

  11. Nuclear power and the environment: questions and answers

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present information and answers to questions about nuclear power and the environment, e.g., questions on its effects on public health, safety, and welfare. Information on the overall U.S. energy outlook, with emphasis on nuclear power generation, is provided. Although proponents of nuclear power, the authors have attempted to present factual information and to maintain objectivity. Included are answers to questions on these aspects of nuclear power: the energy situation and nuclear power; economics and reliability; alternative technologies; radioactivity; biological effects of radiation; transportation in the nuclear fuel cycle; fuel reprocessing and nuclear waste disposal; plutonium toxicity; nuclear plant security; thermal pollution; nuclear power plant siting--earthquakes; nuclear reactor safety; public risk and benefits; nuclear liability and insurance; breeder reactors; and thermonuclear fusion. (232 references)

  12. Who answers the call? Institutional moral agency and global justice

    Klapdor, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This thesis asks who is able to answer the call to action that the problems of global injustice pose. It focuses on the concept of institutions such as states, intergovernmental organisations, corporations and non-governmental organisations as moral agents and whether such institutions can be said to be morally responsible for creating or responding to global injustice. It examines three theories of institutional moral agency as presented by Peter French, Toni Erskine and Onora O’Neill and th...

  13. Mergers and acquisitions. Frequently asked questions and answers.

    Lin, S M; Smeltzer, C H; Thomas, C

    2000-03-01

    This article is structured in a question/answer format based on interviews with Dr. Carolyn Hope Smeltzer and Salima Manji Lin of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Chicago, and Chuck Thomas of Hinshaw & Culbertson, Rockford. The questions come from CEO's, healthcare executives, and nurse executives at hospitals that are contemplating mergers or that have both succeeded and failed to merge their institutions. The experts share their knowledge.

  14. Answers to the questionnaire issued by the Co-Chairmen

    This paper gathers together the original answers to the questionnaire (forming INFCE/DEP./WG4-28) received during March to July 1978 from the following countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Federal Republic, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Philippines, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, U.S.A. Later updating or amendment by the country concerned has been taken into account in the summary (INFCE/DEP./WG4-30)

  15. Use of Credibility Heuristics in a Social Question-Answering Service

    Matthews, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study looked at the effect of community peripheral cues (specifically voting score and answerer's reputation) on the user's credibility rating of answers. Method: Students in technology and philosophy were asked to assess the credibility of answers to questions posted on a social question-answering platform. Through the use of a…

  16. Instructor-Aided Asynchronous Question Answering System for Online Education and Distance Learning

    Wen, Dunwei; Cuzzola, John; Brown, Lorna; Kinshuk

    2012-01-01

    Question answering systems have frequently been explored for educational use. However, their value was somewhat limited due to the quality of the answers returned to the student. Recent question answering (QA) research has started to incorporate deep natural language processing (NLP) in order to improve these answers. However, current NLP…

  17. Usability of Optical Mark Reader Sheet as an Answering Tool in Testing.

    Booka, Masayuki; Oku, Hidehisa; Scheller, Andreas; Yamaoka, Shintaro

    2017-01-01

    The research result on usability of Optical Mark Reader Sheet (OMRS) being used as the standard answering tool is reported. The use of OMRS significantly requires more answer time than the answer time without OMRS, and the use of assistive devices for OMRS has the possibility to reduce the answer time.

  18. Dialogue in mathematics classrooms: Beyond question-and- answer methods

    Karin Brodie

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores different kinds of interaction observed in South African mathematics classrooms in order to unpack the notion of participation in mathematics learning. It argues that conventional question-and-answer methods do not promote the kind of interaction that the new South African curriculum calls for. It presents more appropriate kinds of interactions, where teachers maintain high task demands, respond to genuine learner questions and support conversations among learners. The paper argues that combinations of different kinds of interaction are  most likely to support learner participation and mathematical thinking in classrooms.

  19. THE VACCINATION AGAINST VARICELLA. THE ANSWERS TO THE PEDIATRISTS QUESTIONS

    V.К. Tatochenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicella is a disease which can be stopped by methods of specific prophylaxis. At the same time, there are no official recommendations on vaccinal prophylaxis of varicella in Russia nowadays. The article presents the answers to the most frequently asked questions of pediatrists concerning vaccination techniques, its effectiveness and safety, and vaccination in epidemic nidus. Special attention was given to the questions of vaccinal prophylaxis of varicella in immunocompromised patients.Key words: varicella, prophylaxis, vaccination.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:114-119

  20. Energy and the greenhouse effect. Answers to 60 questions

    Visser, H.; De Wolff, J.J.; Folkert, R.J.M.; Hoekstra, J.; Ruijgrok, W.; Stortelder, B.J.M.; Vosbeek, M.E.J.P.; Ruiter, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this report is to clarify the complex interaction between the greenhouse effect and the energy sector in the Netherlands, focusing on the future of the energy supply and how changes in policies with respect to energy consumption can influence climatic change. The relation between energy sector and greenhouse effect is dealt with on the basis of 60 questions on the greenhouse effect, emission of greenhouse gases and energy scenarios, and concise answers. Calculations of consequences of future scenarios for the climate are executed by means of the KEMA-developed integrated scenario model for climatic change DIALOOG. 27 refs

  1. Everyone's answering: using technology to increase classroom participation.

    Filer, Debra

    2010-01-01

    A study was designed to assess the impact of a wireless technology known as an audience response system (ARS), commonly known clickers, on learning and student engagement in a nursing classroom. Students in the control group responded verbally to questions posed during lectures, while students in the intervention groups responded anonymously using the ARS. Although no significant improvement in postlecture quizzes was noted, students in ARS-enhanced lectures reported significantly higher satisfaction scores. The use of ARS promoted a sense of comfort, encouraged participation, and motivated students to answer questions and interact with the subject matter.

  2. How Pollination Ecology research can help answer important questions

    Carvalheiro, Luisa G.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pollination Ecology is a dynamic field of scientific research constantly adopting novel methods and making progress in understanding the interactions between plants and their pollinators. A recent paper listed the main scientific questions in this field focussing on the ecological and biological system itself. Here, we follow up on that paper and present some ideas on how to broaden our perspective and explore the role that pollination research can play in answering both ecological and societal questions relevant to a range of different stakeholders. We hope this paper may be useful to researchers aiming at improving both the scientific and societal impact of their research.

  3. Questions-answers - Ground-based wind energy

    2017-11-01

    After a presentation of some key data on wind energy in France, this publication proposes a set of questions and answers to highlight the reasons of the development of wind energy, to show that wind energy is a reliable one, to discuss various issues related to the presence of wind turbines (regulations, information, impact on biodiversity, on health and on dwelling environment, exploitation and control, end of life), and to determine the role of wind energy in the French economy (economic returns, costs, and so on)

  4. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-11-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  5. Visual question answering using hierarchical dynamic memory networks

    Shang, Jiayu; Li, Shiren; Duan, Zhikui; Huang, Junwei

    2018-04-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) is one of the most popular research fields in machine learning which aims to let the computer learn to answer natural language questions with images. In this paper, we propose a new method called hierarchical dynamic memory networks (HDMN), which takes both question attention and visual attention into consideration impressed by Co-Attention method, which is the best (or among the best) algorithm for now. Additionally, we use bi-directional LSTMs, which have a better capability to remain more information from the question and image, to replace the old unit so that we can capture information from both past and future sentences to be used. Then we rebuild the hierarchical architecture for not only question attention but also visual attention. What's more, we accelerate the algorithm via a new technic called Batch Normalization which helps the network converge more quickly than other algorithms. The experimental result shows that our model improves the state of the art on the large COCO-QA dataset, compared with other methods.

  6. Exoplanets and Other Modern Answers to Old Astronomical Questions

    Trimble, Virginia

    2002-04-01

    The Greeks were the first to ask, or at least to write about asking, questions like whether there are other planets like earth and whether the universe is finite or infinite. In all cases, they answered both yes and not (since there were lots of Greeks and not much data). A good deal later (but still in the period called history, unless you are very old), astronomers started asking whether the duration of the universe was finite or infinite, what the stars are made of and what keeps them shining, and whether there are other galaxies like ours. All of these now how answers at some confidence level. Close to 100 planets outside our solar system have been reported, starting in 1995, but selection effects mean that none are like earth. Data from many sources (supernovae, radioactive elements, microwave radiation, and all) combine to say that the universe has a finite past but probably an infinite future and an extent that, if not infinite, is anyhow very much larger than a breadbox. The stars run on nuclear fusion, and there are oodles of galaxies. The talk will explore how we have learned some of these things and try to look forward to current unsolved problems in astrophysics and cosmology.

  7. Why teach literature and medicine? Answers from three decades.

    Jones, Anne Hudson

    2013-12-01

    In this essay, I look back at some of the earliest attempts by the first generation of literature-and-medicine scholars to answer the question: Why teach literature and medicine? Reviewing the development of the field in its early years, I examine statements by practitioners to see whether their answers have held up over time and to consider how the rationales they articulated have expanded or changed in the following years and why. Greater emphasis on literary criticism, narrative ethics, narrative theory, and reflective writing has influenced current work in the field in ways that could not have been foreseen in the 1970s. The extraordinary growth of interest and work in the field nationally and, especially since 1996, internationally has included practitioners in many additional areas such as disability studies, film studies, therapeutic writing, and trauma studies. Along with the emergence of narrative medicine, this diverse community of scholars and practitioners-affiliated more through their use of narrative methodologies than the teaching of literature-makes the perennial challenge of evaluation and assessment even more complicated.

  8. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    1995-11-01

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  9. Can Ethics answer to the modern environmental problems?

    Ramirez Restrepo, Rubiel

    2012-01-01

    The human being has an indisputable biological and cultural specificity; however, he is constantly in touch with many things of the environment, he uses them, and often depletes beyond the capacity of recovery of that environment. Then, the modern and serious environmental problems arise, and end up compromising the survival of our species as well as every possible shape of life. These situation demands of the human being, attitudes and behaviors that show a responsibility for his environment as for himself, taking into account the gravity of his actions. That the human being gives an account of their own actions, correspond to what historically is known as moral which philosophical study is ethics. But a look to the historically constituted ethics shows that because of their prevailing anthropocentrism, they can not answer to the modern environmental problems. That why is necessary and urgent to think of an alternative ethic, in relation to its principles and its topics, as an answer to the gravity of the environmental issues.

  10. Robustness Analysis of Visual Question Answering Models by Basic Questions

    Huang, Jia-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Visual Question Answering (VQA) models should have both high robustness and accuracy. Unfortunately, most of the current VQA research only focuses on accuracy because there is a lack of proper methods to measure the robustness of VQA models. There are two main modules in our algorithm. Given a natural language question about an image, the first module takes the question as input and then outputs the ranked basic questions, with similarity scores, of the main given question. The second module takes the main question, image and these basic questions as input and then outputs the text-based answer of the main question about the given image. We claim that a robust VQA model is one, whose performance is not changed much when related basic questions as also made available to it as input. We formulate the basic questions generation problem as a LASSO optimization, and also propose a large scale Basic Question Dataset (BQD) and Rscore (novel robustness measure), for analyzing the robustness of VQA models. We hope our BQD will be used as a benchmark for to evaluate the robustness of VQA models, so as to help the community build more robust and accurate VQA models.

  11. Internet delivered question and answer column for patients with schizophrenia.

    Maijala, Riikka; Anttila, Minna; Koivunen, Marita; Pitkänen, Anneli; Kuosmanen, Lauri; Välimäki, Maritta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the use of an Internet delivered question and answer column among patients with schizophrenia. The column was developed for research purposes. The study sample consisted of patients (N = 100) admitted to acute inpatient psychiatric care in two hospital districts. Descriptive data were collected from the column to which a nurse replied within 3 days and analysed using qualitative content analysis. The column had four to five questions weekly. The most common age of users was 18-24 years, and the gender distribution was almost equal. Column use was heaviest among students (44%) and least among unemployed people (19%). Out of 85 questions or comments sent to the column, 25 (29%) were related to program training and the remaining 60 (71%) were related to medication (31%), illness and tests (25%), other questions or comments (9%), daily life and coping with it (4%), and places to receive treatment (2%). An Internet delivered question and answer column can be included in the care of patients with schizophrenia. However, it requires a new type of basic and additional education in the field of mental health care in order for nurses to be able to provide nursing via the Internet forum.

  12. The controversy over food irradiation ''open questions'' and reliable answers

    Diehl, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    During the 1950s and 60s, when ''going nuclear'' was the thing, research and development in the area of food irradiation was generously supported by governments, and was reported by the media with a very positive attitude. In the wake of the antinuclear movement that swept many countries in the 70s and 80s, food irradiation generally had a bad press and governmental support for R and D in this area was reduced more and more. In the meantime, the new technology has become a commerical reality in countries like Belgium, France and the Netherlands. In other countries, Germany for instance, the frightening claims of the opponents that irradiated foods are bad for health and nutritionally worthless - have been gradually replaced by the view: ''There are still too many open questions. A moratorium on food irradiation must be proclaimed until all the questions have been answered''. A situation where no more questions can be asked, will never be reached. However, reliable answers can be given to the important questions concerning nutritional and health quality of irradiated food, and environmental safety, technical efficacy, and economic feasibility of the process. The question that is stipp open, at least in some countries, is to what extent consumers, confused by conflicting claims of opponents and proponents and often misinformed about the difference between radiation and radioactivity, will buy foods labelled ''irradiated''. (orig.) [de

  13. Retrieval practice with short-answer, multiple-choice, and hybrid tests.

    Smith, Megan A; Karpicke, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    Retrieval practice improves meaningful learning, and the most frequent way of implementing retrieval practice in classrooms is to have students answer questions. In four experiments (N=372) we investigated the effects of different question formats on learning. Students read educational texts and practised retrieval by answering short-answer, multiple-choice, or hybrid questions. In hybrid conditions students first attempted to recall answers in short-answer format, then identified answers in multiple-choice format. We measured learning 1 week later using a final assessment with two types of questions: those that could be answered by recalling information verbatim from the texts and those that required inferences. Practising retrieval in all format conditions enhanced retention, relative to a study-only control condition, on both verbatim and inference questions. However, there were little or no advantages of answering short-answer or hybrid format questions over multiple-choice questions in three experiments. In Experiment 4, when retrieval success was improved under initial short-answer conditions, there was an advantage of answering short-answer or hybrid questions over multiple-choice questions. The results challenge the simple conclusion that short-answer questions always produce the best learning, due to increased retrieval effort or difficulty, and demonstrate the importance of retrieval success for retrieval-based learning activities.

  14. NUFACT11 round table discussion questions and answers

    Blondel, A

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model, it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ(13) makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses, it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R&D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and asso...

  15. What is the size of a floating sheath? An answer

    Voigt, Farina; Naggary, Schabnam; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-09-01

    The formation of a non-neutral boundary sheath in front of material surfaces is universal plasma phenomenon. Despite several decades of research, however, not all related issues are fully clarified. In a recent paper, Chabert pointed out that this lack of clarity applies even to the seemingly innocuous question ``What the size of a floating sheath?'' This contribution attempts to provide an answer that is not arbitrary: The size of a floating sheath is defined as the plate separation of an equivalent parallel plate capacitor. The consequences of the definition are explored with the help of a self-consistent sheath model, and a comparison is made with other sheath size definitions. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft within SFB TR 87.

  16. Biased calculations: Numeric anchors influence answers to math equations

    Andrew R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available People must often perform calculations in order to produce a numeric estimate (e.g., a grocery-store shopper estimating the total price of his or her shopping cart contents. The current studies were designed to test whether estimates based on calculations are influenced by comparisons with irrelevant anchors. Previous research has demonstrated that estimates across a wide range of contexts assimilate toward anchors, but none has examined estimates based on calculations. In two studies, we had participants compare the answers to math problems with anchors. In both studies, participants' estimates assimilated toward the anchor values. This effect was moderated by time limit such that the anchoring effects were larger when the participants' ability to engage in calculations was limited by a restrictive time limit.

  17. Retrievability - A too simple answer to a difficult question?

    Odhnoff, C.

    2002-01-01

    Near to Stockholm in October, 1999, KASAM and IAEA held a joint seminar on Retrievability. There were some 40 participants from about ten countries. Consensus was not the objective, moreover, the discussions were conducted in a friendly spirit of respect and wish to understand different opinions. The retrievability option was incorporated into into broader concepts by a stepwise procedure designed to allow the possibility of steps being reversed, thereby reducing the dramatic difference between open and closed repositories. Each step would give you time to consider and best if the repository concept so far was up to expectations. Retrievability is not a simple answer, but it helps to make this question less complicated. (author)

  18. Question answer relationship strategy increases reading comprehension among Kindergarten students

    Leena Furtado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Question Answer Relationship (QAR strategy equips students with tools to successfully decode and comprehend what they read. An action research project over 18 days with twenty-three kindergarteners adapted exposure to QAR’s "In the Book" and "In my Head" categories with similar questions for each of two popular Aesop’s fables. The challenges and outcomes are presented with special emphasis on teacher-preparation, teacher-reflections, and a hands-on, day-by-day project-implementation. An oral pre-test, after reading The Tortoise and the Hare, served as a baseline assessment for student-comprehension levels. The QAR strategy was then explicitly taught, with opportunities to practice the comprehension skills in small and large groups with parental assistance. Students overwhelmingly scored higher on the post-test reading comprehension after the read-aloud of The Jay and the Peacock with some receiving perfect scores.

  19. No easy answers science and the pursuit of knowledge

    Franklin, Allan

    2005-01-01

    In No Easy Answers, Allan Franklin offers an accurate picture of science to both a general reader and to scholars in the humanities and social sciences who may not have any background in physics. Through the examination of nontechnical case studies, he illustrates the various roles that experiment plays in science. He uses examples of unquestioned success, such as the discoveries of the electron and of three types of neutrino, as well as studies that were dead ends, wrong turns, or just plain mistakes, such as the “fifth force,” a proposed modification of Newton's law of gravity. Franklin argues that science is a reasonable enterprise that provides us with knowledge of the natural world based on valid experimental evidence and reasoned and critical discussion, and he makes clear that it behooves all of us to understand how it works.

  20. Why do experts never have the answer to the public?

    Aahagen, H.; Andersson, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Oskarshamn municipality is located on the Swedish south east coast and has about 27,000 inhabitants. Oskarshamn is hosting three nuclear reactors, the Interim Storage Facility where the spent fuel from Sweden's reactors is stored, the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory for underground research and the Encapsulation Laboratory where the welding technology is being developed. The industry is currently planning to apply for licensing of a disposal system for spent nuclear fuel between 2005 to 2010. Since 1992 Oskarshamn is a candidate municipality. Extensive efforts have been taken by the political leaders to initiate a public dialogue. A working model has been developed for the municipality work with seven policy statements (Openness and participation - everything on the table - real influence. EIA our platform - development of the basis for a decision by parties together, decisions independently. The Council our reference group - competent elected officials responsible towards the voters. The public - a resource - concrete plans and clear study results a prerequisite for public engagement and influence. The environmental groups - a resource - the environmental groups and their experts give us valuable contributions. Stretching of SKB to clear answers - we build competence so we can ask the difficult questions - we ask until we get clear answers. The competent authorities - our experts - the authorities visible throughout the process, our decision after statement by the competent authorities. The goal is to have a completely open process with all facts on the table in order to be able to take decisions on ''good grounds'' should the question for the next step in site selection be put to the municipality from the industry. The paper describes the work in Oskarshamn related to spent nuclear fuel and also reflects on the issue of retrievability from a public perspective. (author)

  1. Can online networks provide quality answers to questions about occupational safety and health?

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-05-01

    To assess whether experts can provide high-quality answers to occupational safety and health (OSH) questions in online Question & Answer (Q&A) networks. The authors evaluated the quality of answers provided by qualified experts in two Dutch online networks: ArboAntwoord and the Helpdesk of the Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases. A random sample of 594 answers was independently evaluated by two raters using nine answer quality criteria. An additional criterion, the agreement of answers with the best available evidence, was explored by peer review of a sample of 42 answers. Reviewers performed an evidence search in Medline. The median answer quality score of ArboAntwoord (N=295) and the Netherlands Center for Occupational Diseases Helpdesk (N=299) was 8 of 9 (IQR 2). The inter-rater reliability of the first nine quality criteria was high (κ 0.82-0.90, p<0.05). A question answered by two or more experts had a greater probability of a high-quality score than questions answered by one expert (OR 4.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 9.0). Answers most often scored insufficient on the use of evidence to underpin the answer (36% and 38% for the networks, respectively) and on conciseness (35% and 31%, respectively). Peer review demonstrated that 43%-72% of the answers in both online networks were in complete agreement with the best available evidence. OSH experts are able to provide quality answers in online OSH Q&A networks. Our answer quality appraisal instrument was feasible and provided information on how to improve answer quality.

  2. CMU OAQA at TREC 2015 LiveQA: Discovering the Right Answer with Clues

    2015-11-20

    between question and answer passage, we employ a recurrent neural network based approach [6, 7] that uses a multilayer stacked bidirectional Long...similarity scoring over the title and body texts, and b) a recurrent neural network approach that estimates the relevance of a candi- date answer text given a...Di Wang and Eric Nyberg. A recurrent neural network based answer ranking model for web question answering. In SIGIR Workshop on Web Question

  3. Towards automatic generation of multimodal answers to medical questions: a cognitive engineering approach

    van Hooijdonk, Charlotte; Krahmer, Emiel; Maes, Alfons; Bosma, W.E.; van der Sluis, I; Theune, Mariet; Reiter, E.; Krahmer, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a production experiment carried out to determine which modalities people choose to answer different types of questions. In this experiment participants had to create (multimodal) presentations of answers to general medical questions. The collected answer presentations were coded

  4. 6 CFR 13.11 - Referral of Complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of Complaint and answer to the ALJ. 13.11 Section 13.11 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.11 Referral of Complaint and answer to the ALJ. Upon receipt of an answer, the...

  5. [Dental care in pregnancy. Ten questions and answers].

    Patcas, Raphael; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Zimmermann, Roland; Gnoinski, Wanda

    2012-01-01

    Dental care of pregnant patients is a demanding task. On one hand, clinicians are facing patients with an altered physiology that may cause a greater need for treatment. On the other hand, pregnancy in itself as well as the unborn child involves potential contraindications to dental interventions. It is therefore essential that dentists be knowledgeable of the ramifications pregnancy has on medical findings and therapy. Also, clinicians must be able to conduct their treatment based on well-grounded data to avoid any harm to the pregnant woman and her unborn child. This article focuses on facts specifically relevant to clinicians. Based on most current scientific data, we aim to answer the following ten questions: 1. What are the physiological changes during pregnancy? 2. What is the adequate lying position for a pregnant patient? 3. Is there a pregnancy-related gingivitis? 4. What is the association between periodontitis, pregnancy and preterm birth? 5. Are there oral manifestations of pregnancy-related therapies? 6. Are caries and erosions inevitable during pregnancy? 7. Should the intake of fluoride be advocated? 8. Is it permissible to x-ray pregnant patients? 9. Is orthodontics contraindicated during pregnancy and 10. Which medication should be administered with caution?

  6. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in COPD: Is exercise the answer?

    James, Benjamin D; Jones, Amy V; Trethewey, Ruth E; Evans, Rachael A

    2018-05-01

    Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome. Those with COPD, obesity and/or metabolic syndrome undergoing PR appear to do as well in traditional outcomes as their normal-weight metabolically healthy peers in terms of improvement of symptoms, health-related quality of life and exercise performance, and should therefore not be excluded. To broaden the benefit of PR, for this complex population, we should learn from the extensive literature examining the effects of exercise in obesity and metabolic syndrome discussed in this review and optimize the exercise strategy to improve these co-morbid conditions. Standard PR outcomes could be expanded to include cardiometabolic risk reduction to lower future morbidity and mortality; to this end exercise may well be the answer.

  7. Determinants of quality, latency, and amount of Stack Overflow answers about recent Android APIs

    Filkov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Stack Overflow is a popular crowdsourced question and answer website for programming-related issues. It is an invaluable resource for software developers; on average, questions posted there get answered in minutes to an hour. Questions about well established topics, e.g., the coercion operator in C++, or the difference between canonical and class names in Java, get asked often in one form or another, and answered very quickly. On the other hand, questions on previously unseen or niche topics take a while to get a good answer. This is particularly the case with questions about current updates to or the introduction of new application programming interfaces (APIs). In a hyper-competitive online market, getting good answers to current programming questions sooner could increase the chances of an app getting released and used. So, can developers anyhow, e.g., hasten the speed to good answers to questions about new APIs? Here, we empirically study Stack Overflow questions pertaining to new Android APIs and their associated answers. We contrast the interest in these questions, their answer quality, and timeliness of their answers to questions about old APIs. We find that Stack Overflow answerers in general prioritize with respect to currentness: questions about new APIs do get more answers, but good quality answers take longer. We also find that incentives in terms of question bounties, if used appropriately, can significantly shorten the time and increase answer quality. Interestingly, no operationalization of bounty amount shows significance in our models. In practice, our findings confirm the value of bounties in enhancing expert participation. In addition, they show that the Stack Overflow style of crowdsourcing, for all its glory in providing answers about established programming knowledge, is less effective with new API questions. PMID:29547620

  8. Determinants of quality, latency, and amount of Stack Overflow answers about recent Android APIs.

    Kavaler, David; Filkov, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Stack Overflow is a popular crowdsourced question and answer website for programming-related issues. It is an invaluable resource for software developers; on average, questions posted there get answered in minutes to an hour. Questions about well established topics, e.g., the coercion operator in C++, or the difference between canonical and class names in Java, get asked often in one form or another, and answered very quickly. On the other hand, questions on previously unseen or niche topics take a while to get a good answer. This is particularly the case with questions about current updates to or the introduction of new application programming interfaces (APIs). In a hyper-competitive online market, getting good answers to current programming questions sooner could increase the chances of an app getting released and used. So, can developers anyhow, e.g., hasten the speed to good answers to questions about new APIs? Here, we empirically study Stack Overflow questions pertaining to new Android APIs and their associated answers. We contrast the interest in these questions, their answer quality, and timeliness of their answers to questions about old APIs. We find that Stack Overflow answerers in general prioritize with respect to currentness: questions about new APIs do get more answers, but good quality answers take longer. We also find that incentives in terms of question bounties, if used appropriately, can significantly shorten the time and increase answer quality. Interestingly, no operationalization of bounty amount shows significance in our models. In practice, our findings confirm the value of bounties in enhancing expert participation. In addition, they show that the Stack Overflow style of crowdsourcing, for all its glory in providing answers about established programming knowledge, is less effective with new API questions.

  9. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  10. Anaphora in question-answer sessions in university ELF contexts.

    Thomas Wulstan Christiansen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - Identity chains (Hasan 1984 ˗ strings of co-referential noun phrases ˗ constitute a lesser researched area in the field of ELF, as has the more general area of cohesion (but see Hüttner 2009, Christiansen 2011. Following on the work on anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, and on cohesion (e.g. Halliday and Hasan 1976, Halliday 2004, Christiansen (2009a/b, 2011 focuses on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. The interactive perspective of discourse (seen as the process of which text is the product: see Widdowson 1984: 100 is especially relevant to an ELF context of spontaneous spoken interaction. As Guido (2008 evidences, different inter-cultural concerns constitute a crucial dimension to the complex multi-code interaction. Consequently, the diverse ways in which speakers from different L1 backgrounds employ anaphors and construct identity chains are key elements in the co-construction of a dialogic text. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions set in multicultural contexts are analysed qualitatively. The different ways that participants construct identity chains (e.g. whether they use full forms of various kinds or anaphoric pro-forms are classified. The analysis focuses on both how individual anaphors are resolved and how relations between anaphors and antecedent triggers are encoded, and how identity chains are constructed and organized individually. The objective is to identify which kinds of noun phrase (various subtypes of full and pro-forms are used by diverse groups of EFL speakers both in relation to their own contributions and to those of other speakers (with a threefold distinction made between the same turn of the same speaker, a different turn of the same speaker, and a different turn by a different speaker.

  11. NUFACT11 Round Table Discussion — Questions and Answers

    Blondel, A; Efthymiopoulos, I

    2013-01-01

    This presents the response to questions formulated by a round table discussion panel to the NUFACT11 participants. The main points made were as follows. Neutrino mass is physics beyond the Standard Model; it presents a very deep puzzle to solve, with the answers to several fundamental questions as potential reward. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters is one essential way to access information needed to solve this puzzle and there is a relatively clear (but not easy) way forward. Large θ 13 makes the appearance signals larger, but does not allow to relax the requirements on high beam intensity and large detector masses; it creates a difficult challenge on systematic errors, which will require dedicated ancillary experiments. Of particular interest is a low intensity muon storage ring for required cross-section measurements. There exist already extended bottom-up international collaboration in both physics and R and D experiments. All three main regions have plans for upgraded super-beams and associated detectors, with a variety of (mostly) complementary baselines, proceeding in an incremental way. The ultimate precision and verification of the neutrino mixing picture requires new types of neutrino beams based on storage rings. For low energy neutrinos, the beta-beam is a possible (but substantial) intermediate step. The Neutrino Factory offers the best precision and best sensitivity to deviations from the standard picture. Coordinated international R and D is pursued. International collaboration at the top level would be beneficial in acknowledging the process, so as make sure that intermediate steps are effectively building up in complementary fashion towards the ultimate goals.

  12. Will Veterans Answer Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Questions?

    Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.

  13. Interactions and user-perceived helpfulness in diet information social questions & answers.

    Zhang, Yin; Wang, Peilin

    2016-12-01

    Online health information seeking using social questions and answers (Social Q&A) sites has been increasingly popular in recent years. It calls for better understanding of health information seeking behaviour and interactions between information seekers and information providers. The study investigates how diet information seekers interact with information providers on WebMD Answers, which is a Social Q&A site devoted to health-related topics, and examines the factors that constitute a 'helpful' answer from an information seeker's perspective. Bales' interaction process analysis was applied as the framework to analyse 568 diet-related Q&As from WebMD Answers to identify interaction patterns. Most diet information seekers post questions anonymously and without any detailed description. Individual experts or health organisations provide most answers. Overall, answers are positively received and had a high satisfaction rating. It was also found that information seeker-perceived helpfulness does not depend on who answered the question but to how an information seeker posted the question. This study indicates that answers at WebMD Answers are helpful for diet information seekers. It sheds new light on the interactions during the Q&A process, preferred site functions and important factors that contribute to perceived helpful answers. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  14. Can Emergency Medicine Residents Reliably Use the Internet to Answer Clinical Questions?

    June Abbas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The study objective was to determine the accuracy of answers to clinical questions by emergency medicine (EM residents conducting Internet searches by using Google. Emergency physicians commonly turn to outside resources to answer clinical questions that arise in the emergency department (ED. Internet access in the ED has supplanted textbooks for references because it is perceived as being more up to date. Although Google is the most widely used general Internet search engine, it is not medically oriented and merely provides links to other sources. Users must judge the reliability of the information obtained on the links. We frequently observed EM faculty and residents using Google rather than medicine-specific databases to seek answers to clinical questions. Methods: Two EM faculties developed a clinically oriented test for residents to take without the use of any outside aid. They were instructed to answer each question only if they were confident enough of their answer to implement it in a patient-care situation. Questions marked as unsure or answered incorrectly were used to construct a second test for each subject. On the second test, they were instructed to use Google as a resource to find links that contained answers. Results: Thirty-three residents participated. The means for the initial test were 32% correct, 28% incorrect, and 40% unsure. On the Google test, the mean for correct answers was 59%; 33% of answers were incorrect and 8% were unsure. Conclusion: EM residents’ ability to answer clinical questions correctly by using Web sites from Google searches was poor. More concerning was that unsure answers decreased, whereas incorrect answers increased. The Internet appears to have given the residents a false sense of security in their answers. Innovations, such as Internet access in the ED, should be studied carefully before being accepted as reliable tools for teaching clinical decision making. [West J Emerg Med. 2011

  15. Two layers LSTM with attention for multi-choice question answering in exams

    Li, Yongbin

    2018-03-01

    Question Answering in Exams is typical question answering task that aims to test how accurately the model could answer the questions in exams. In this paper, we use general deep learning model to solve the multi-choice question answering task. Our approach is to build distributed word embedding of question and answers instead of manually extracting features or linguistic tools, meanwhile, for improving the accuracy, the external corpus is introduced. The framework uses a two layers LSTM with attention which get a significant result. By contrast, we introduce the simple long short-term memory (QA-LSTM) model and QA-LSTM-CNN model and QA-LSTM with attention model as the reference. Experiment demonstrate superior performance of two layers LSTM with attention compared to other models in question answering task.

  16. Teaching Teenagers with Autism to Answer Cell Phones and Seek Assistance When Lost

    Hoch, Hannah; Taylor, Bridget A; Rodriguez, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Three participants with autism were taught to answer a cell phone and to follow directions to seek assistance when lost in community settings. During baseline, none of the participants answered a cell phone or sought assistance. Following instruction at school and in the community, all participants learned to answer the cell phone and follow instructions to seek assistance from a naïve adult by exchanging a communication card. Generalization probes were conducted in non-training community sit...

  17. Anti-hyperalgesic activity of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Pittosporum mannii Hook on CFA-induced persistent inflammatory pain.

    Wandji, Bibiane Aimée; Bomba, Francis Desire Tatsinkou; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Piegang, Basile Nganmegne; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît

    2018-02-01

    Previous study showed that aqueous (AEPM) and methanol (MEPM) extracts from the leaves of Pittosporum mannii have analgesic effects in acute pain models. The present study evaluates the acute and chronic anti-hypernociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of AEPM and MEPM in a model of persistent inflammatory pain. The third day after induction of inflammatory pain by subplantar injection of 100 µL of CFA in Wistar rats, AEPM and MEPM were administered orally (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day) and their anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects were follow in acute (1-24 h) and chronic (for 14 days) treatments. At the end of the chronic treatment, oxidative stress and liver parameters were assessed. Effects of plant extracts were also evaluated on nociception induced by Phorbol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) and 8-bromo 3',5'-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) in mice. AEPM and MEPM significantly reversed the mechanical hyperalgesia caused by CFA in acute and chronic treatment. Moreover, AEPM and MEPM also significantly reduced the nociception caused by PMA (60%) and 8-Br-cAMP (87%). Nevertheless, AEPM and MEPM failed to inhibit the paw edema caused by CFA. Plant extracts significantly reduced the nitric oxide content in the spinal cord and the plasmatic concentration of alanine aminotransferase. MEPM also significantly increased the glutathione content in the spinal cord. AEPM and MEPM given orally are effective in inhibiting mechanical hyperalgesia in persistent inflammatory pain caused by CFA. Their mechanisms of action seem to involve an interaction with PKC, PKA and nitric oxide pathways. These extracts might be devoid of hepatotoxic effects.

  18. 14 CFR 232.5 - Filing and service of applications, answers, and replies.

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF MAIL, REVIEW OF ORDERS OF POSTMASTER... written application, answer, or reply filed under this part, and the formal specifications of papers...

  19. Explaining topic prevalence in answers to open-ended survey questions about climate change

    Tvinnereim, Endre; Fløttum, Kjersti

    2015-08-01

    Citizens’ opinions are crucial for action on climate change, but are, owing to the complexity of the issue, diverse and potentially unformed. We contribute to the understanding of public views on climate change and to knowledge needed by decision-makers by using a new approach to analyse answers to the open survey question `what comes to mind when you hear the words `climate change’?’. We apply automated text analysis, specifically structural topic modelling, which induces distinct topics based on the relative frequencies of the words used in 2,115 responses. From these data, originating from the new, nationally representative Norwegian Citizen Panel, four distinct topics emerge: Weather/Ice, Future/Impact, Money/Consumption and Attribution. We find that Norwegians emphasize societal aspects of climate change more than do respondents in previous US and UK studies. Furthermore, variables that explain variation in closed questions, such as gender and education, yield different and surprising results when employed to explain variation in what respondents emphasize. Finally, the sharp distinction between scepticism and acceptance of conventional climate science, often seen in previous studies, blurs in many textual responses as scepticism frequently turns into ambivalence.

  20. Can Workers Answer Their Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Challenges and Solutions

    Rhebergen, Martijn; van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their

  1. A Flexible Question-and-Answer Task for Measuring Speech Understanding

    Virginia Best

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report introduces a new speech task based on simple questions and answers. The task differs from a traditional sentence recall task in that it involves an element of comprehension and can be implemented in an ongoing fashion. It also contains two target items (the question and the answer that may be associated with different voices and locations to create dynamic listening scenarios. A set of 227 questions was created, covering six broad categories (days of the week, months of the year, numbers, colors, opposites, and sizes. All questions and their one-word answers were spoken by 11 female and 11 male talkers. In this study, listeners were presented with question-answer pairs and asked to indicate whether the answer was true or false. Responses were given as simple button or key presses, which are quick to make and easy to score. Two preliminary experiments are presented that illustrate different ways of implementing the basic task. In the first experiment, question-answer pairs were presented in speech-shaped noise, and performance was compared across subjects, question categories, and time, to examine the different sources of variability. In the second experiment, sequences of question-answer pairs were presented amidst competing conversations in an ongoing, spatially dynamic listening scenario. Overall, the question-and-answer task appears to be feasible and could be implemented flexibly in a number of different ways.

  2. Understanding the Factors Influencing User Experience of Social Question and Answer Services

    Deng, Shengli; Fang, Yuling; Liu, Yong; Li, Hongxiu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The popularity of social question and answer sites has made it an important and convenient source for obtaining knowledge. This study quantifies how three different system characteristics (interface design, interaction and answer quality) affect users' perceptions (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and perceived enjoyment),…

  3. 77 FR 74671 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition)

    2012-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-D-1002] Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding Food Facility Registration (Fifth Edition) AGENCY... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Questions and Answers Regarding Food...

  4. Multimodal follow-up questions to multimodal answers in a QA system

    van Schooten, B.W.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a dialogue manager (DM) for a multimodal interactive Question Answering (QA) system. Our QA system presents answers using text and pictures, and the user may pose follow-up questions using text or speech, while indicating screen elements with the mouse. We developed a corpus of

  5. Multiple-Choice and Short-Answer Exam Performance in a College Classroom

    Funk, Steven C.; Dickson, K. Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The authors experimentally investigated the effects of multiple-choice and short-answer format exam items on exam performance in a college classroom. They randomly assigned 50 students to take a 10-item short-answer pretest or posttest on two 50-item multiple-choice exams in an introduction to personality course. Students performed significantly…

  6. The Answering Process for Multiple-Choice Questions in Collaborative Learning: A Mathematical Learning Model Analysis

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Nishi, Shinnosuke; Muramatsu, Yuta; Yasutake, Koichi; Yamakawa, Osamu; Tagawa, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a mathematical model for collaborative learning and the answering process for multiple-choice questions. The collaborative learning model is inspired by the Ising spin model and the model for answering multiple-choice questions is based on their difficulty level. An intensive simulation study predicts the possibility of…

  7. 39 CFR 961.7 - Answer to Petition and Supplement to Petition.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer to Petition and Supplement to Petition. 961... PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO EMPLOYEE HEARING PETITIONS UNDER SECTION 5 OF THE DEBT COLLECTION ACT § 961.7 Answer to Petition and Supplement to Petition. If the employee's Petition states reasons to support the...

  8. Consciousness as a process of queries and answers in architectures based on in situ representations

    van der Velde, F.; van der Velde, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Functional or access consciousness can be described as an ongoing dynamic process of queries and answers. Whenever we have an awareness of an object or its surroundings, it consists of the dynamic process that answers (implicit) queries like "What is the color or shape of the object?" or "What

  9. Can workers answer their questions about occupational safety and health: challenges and solutions.

    Rhebergen, Martijn; Van Dijk, Frank; Hulshof, Carel

    2012-01-01

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). Answers to these questions empower them to further improve their knowledge about OSH, make good decisions about OSH matters and improve OSH practice when necessary. Nevertheless, many workers fail to find the answers to their questions. This paper explores the challenges workers may face when seeking answers to their OSH questions. Findings suggest that many workers may lack the skills, experience or motivation to formulate an answerable question, seek and find information, appraise information, compose correct answers and apply information in OSH practice. Simultaneously, OSH knowledge infrastructures often insufficiently support workers in answering their OSH questions. This paper discusses several potentially attractive strategies for developing and improving OSH knowledge infrastructures: 1) providing courses that teach workers to ask answerable questions and to train them to find, appraise and apply information, 2) developing information and communication technology tools or facilities that support workers as they complete one or more stages in the process from question to answer and 3) tailoring information and implementation strategies to the workers' needs and context to ensure that the information can be applied to OSH practice more easily.

  10. A Strategy for Detection of Inconsistency in Evaluation of Essay Type Answers

    Shukla, Archana; Chaudhary, Banshi D.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of evaluation of essay type answer books involving multiple evaluators for courses with large number of enrollments is likely to be affected due to heterogeneity in experience, expertise and maturity of evaluators. In this paper, we present a strategy to detect anomalies in evaluation of essay type answers by multiple evaluators based…

  11. 41 CFR 300-2.20 - What is the purpose of the question & answer format?

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the question & answer format? 300-2.20 Section 300-2.20 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer Format § 300...

  12. Statistical Methods for the detection of answer copying on achievement tests

    Sotaridona, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    This thesis contains a collection of studies where statistical methods for the detection of answer copying on achievement tests in multiple-choice format are proposed and investigated. Although all methods are suited to detect answer copying, each method is designed to address specific

  13. An Online Partner for Holocaust Remembrance Education: Students Approaching the Yahoo! Answers Community

    Lazar, Alon; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Holocaust education has gained increased importance in recent decades and attention has latterly been directed to the role of the Internet within the field. Of major importance within the virtual space are Question and Answer communities. We investigated the interactions taking place within the Yahoo! Answers community following questions posted…

  14. I Don't Know. The Effect of Question Polarity on No-opinion Answers

    Kamoen, N.; van de Pol, Jasper; Krouwel, A.P.M.; de Vreese, Claes; Holleman, Bregje

    2018-01-01

    A new type of political attitude survey that has gained popularity in Europe and in the United States is the voting advice application (VAA). VAAs provide users with a voting advice based on their answers to a set of attitude questions. In the calculation of this advice, no-opinion answers are

  15. 8 CFR 280.12 - Answer and request or order for interview.

    2010-01-01

    ... any argument made. If a personal interview is requested, the evidence in opposition to the imposition... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer and request or order for interview... IMPOSITION AND COLLECTION OF FINES § 280.12 Answer and request or order for interview. Within 30 days...

  16. Modeling Answer Change Behavior: An Application of a Generalized Item Response Tree Model

    Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul; van der Linden, Wim

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel application of a generalized item response tree model to investigate test takers' answer change behavior. The model allows us to simultaneously model the observed patterns of the initial and final responses after an answer change as a function of a set of latent traits and item parameters. The proposed application is illustrated…

  17. Splitting Computation of Answer Set Program and Its Application on E-service

    Bo Yang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As a primary means for representing and reasoning about knowledge, Answer Set Programming (ASP has been applying in many areas such as planning, decision making, fault diagnosing and increasingly prevalent e-service. Based on the stable model semantics of logic programming, ASP can be used to solve various combinatorial search problems by finding the answer sets of logic programs which declaratively describe the problems. Itrs not an easy task to compute answer sets of a logic program using Gelfond and Lifschitzrs definition directly. In this paper, we show some results on characterization of answer sets of a logic program with constraints, and propose a way to split a program into several non-intersecting parts step by step, thus the computation of answer sets for every subprogram becomes relatively easy. To instantiate our splitting computation theory, an example about personalized product configuration in e-retailing is given to show the effectiveness of our method.

  18. Net improvement of correct answers to therapy questions after pubmed searches: pre/post comparison.

    McKibbon, Kathleen Ann; Lokker, Cynthia; Keepanasseril, Arun; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2013-11-08

    Clinicians search PubMed for answers to clinical questions although it is time consuming and not always successful. To determine if PubMed used with its Clinical Queries feature to filter results based on study quality would improve search success (more correct answers to clinical questions related to therapy). We invited 528 primary care physicians to participate, 143 (27.1%) consented, and 111 (21.0% of the total and 77.6% of those who consented) completed the study. Participants answered 14 yes/no therapy questions and were given 4 of these (2 originally answered correctly and 2 originally answered incorrectly) to search using either the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries narrow therapy filter via a purpose-built system with identical search screens. Participants also picked 3 of the first 20 retrieved citations that best addressed each question. They were then asked to re-answer the original 14 questions. We found no statistically significant differences in the rates of correct or incorrect answers using the PubMed main screen or PubMed Clinical Queries. The rate of correct answers increased from 50.0% to 61.4% (95% CI 55.0%-67.8%) for the PubMed main screen searches and from 50.0% to 59.1% (95% CI 52.6%-65.6%) for Clinical Queries searches. These net absolute increases of 11.4% and 9.1%, respectively, included previously correct answers changing to incorrect at a rate of 9.5% (95% CI 5.6%-13.4%) for PubMed main screen searches and 9.1% (95% CI 5.3%-12.9%) for Clinical Queries searches, combined with increases in the rate of being correct of 20.5% (95% CI 15.2%-25.8%) for PubMed main screen searches and 17.7% (95% CI 12.7%-22.7%) for Clinical Queries searches. PubMed can assist clinicians answering clinical questions with an approximately 10% absolute rate of improvement in correct answers. This small increase includes more correct answers partially offset by a decrease in previously correct answers.

  19. Answers to Health Questions: Internet Search Results Versus Online Health Community Responses.

    Kanthawala, Shaheen; Vermeesch, Amber; Given, Barbara; Huh, Jina

    2016-04-28

    About 6 million people search for health information on the Internet each day in the United States. Both patients and caregivers search for information about prescribed courses of treatments, unanswered questions after a visit to their providers, or diet and exercise regimens. Past literature has indicated potential challenges around quality in health information available on the Internet. However, diverse information exists on the Internet-ranging from government-initiated webpages to personal blog pages. Yet we do not fully understand the strengths and weaknesses of different types of information available on the Internet. The objective of this research was to investigate the strengths and challenges of various types of health information available online and to suggest what information sources best fit various question types. We collected questions posted to and the responses they received from an online diabetes community and classified them according to Rothwell's classification of question types (fact, policy, or value questions). We selected 60 questions (20 each of fact, policy, and value) and the replies the questions received from the community. We then searched for responses to the same questions using a search engine and recorded the Community responses answered more questions than did search results overall. Search results were most effective in answering value questions and least effective in answering policy questions. Community responses answered questions across question types at an equivalent rate, but most answered policy questions and the least answered fact questions. Value questions were most answered by community responses, but some of these answers provided by the community were incorrect. Fact question search results were the most clinically valid. The Internet is a prevalent source of health information for people. The information quality people encounter online can have a large impact on them. We present what kinds of questions people ask

  20. A deep learning approach for predicting the quality of online health expert question-answering services.

    Hu, Ze; Zhang, Zhan; Yang, Haiqin; Chen, Qing; Zuo, Decheng

    2017-07-01

    Recently, online health expert question-answering (HQA) services (systems) have attracted more and more health consumers to ask health-related questions everywhere at any time due to the convenience and effectiveness. However, the quality of answers in existing HQA systems varies in different situations. It is significant to provide effective tools to automatically determine the quality of the answers. Two main characteristics in HQA systems raise the difficulties of classification: (1) physicians' answers in an HQA system are usually written in short text, which yields the data sparsity issue; (2) HQA systems apply the quality control mechanism, which refrains the wisdom of crowd. The important information, such as the best answer and the number of users' votes, is missing. To tackle these issues, we prepare the first HQA research data set labeled by three medical experts in 90days and formulate the problem of predicting the quality of answers in the system as a classification task. We not only incorporate the standard textual feature of answers, but also introduce a set of unique non-textual features, i.e., the popular used surface linguistic features and the novel social features, from other modalities. A multimodal deep belief network (DBN)-based learning framework is then proposed to learn the high-level hidden semantic representations of answers from both textual features and non-textual features while the learned joint representation is fed into popular classifiers to determine the quality of answers. Finally, we conduct extensive experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of including the non-textual features and the proposed multimodal deep learning framework. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 100 commonly asked questions in math class answers that promote mathematical understanding, grades 6-12

    Posamentier, Alfred S (Steven); Germain-Williams, Terri L (Lynn); Paris, Elaine S; Lehmann, Ingmar H (Horst)

    2013-01-01

    100 ways to get students hooked on math! That one question got you stumped? Or maybe you have the answer, but it's not all that compelling. Al Posamentier and his coauthors to the rescue with this handy reference containing fun answers to students'100 most frequently asked math questions. Even if you already have the answers, Al's explanations are certain to keep kids hooked. The big benefits? You'll discover high-interest ways to Teach to the Common Core's math content standards Promote inquiry and process in mathematical thinking Build procedural skills and conceptual understanding Encourage

  2. Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Cui, Bin

    2012-01-01

    , and it applies these approaches to existing question retrieval models, including a state-of-the-art question retrieval model. Experiments conducted on real CQA data demonstrate that the proposed techniques are effective and efficient and are capable of outperforming a variety of baseline methods significantly......Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function...

  3. Catalogue of answers in radiology in accordance with subject catalogue 2, with 212 original questions and answers, including comments. 5. rev. enl. ed.

    Gleitz, C.D.; Freihorst, J.

    1983-01-01

    The physical and biological fundamentals of radiology and radiation protection are presented. Methods of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are outlined, and the fundamentals of radiotherapy are discussed. Original examination questions in radiology are presented together with the correct answers. (orig.) [de

  4. Answers to questions posed during daily patient care are more likely to be answered by UpToDate than PubMed.

    Hoogendam, A.; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Vries Robbe, P.F. de; Overbeke, A.J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: UpToDate and PubMed are popular sources for medical information. Data regarding the efficiency of PubMed and UpToDate in daily medical care are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this observational study was to describe the percentage of answers retrieved by these information sources,

  5. Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers

    ... Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT): Questions and Answers On ... of prostate cancer mean to men who take vitamin E but who were not SELECT participants? The incidence ...

  6. 76 FR 41157 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    2011-07-13

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation'' (the final rule). The...

  7. Field Office Telephone Service - Monthly National Answer Rate and Busy Rate

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides information at the national level by month for federal fiscal year 2013 onward for answer rate and busy rate for calls to our field offices....

  8. Science Matters Podcast: Questions and Answers with EPA's Dr. Peter Grevatt

    Listen to a podcast with Dr. Peter Grevatt, the director of EPA's Office of Children's Health Protection, as he answers questions about children's health, or read some of the highlights from the conversation here.

  9. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding

  10. Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers for Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs)

    ... Campaign About our Partner Spread the Word Know Hepatitis B Questions and Answers Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Overview Transmission Symptoms Testing Treatment Overview What is Hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease. It ...

  11. Municipal Solid Waste Landfill New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and Emission Guidelines (EG) -- Questions and Answers

    This November 1998 document of questions and answers are provided as a guide for those subject to the new source performance standards (NSPS) or emission guidelines (EG), as well as those implementing the NSPS or EG.

  12. Access Answers: A Digest of LISTSERVS of Interest to Access Services

    Smith, Fred W.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a digest of LISTSERVS of interest to access services for the period of April to June 2011. It presents questions and answers from Interlibrary Loan (ILL) people, CIRCPLUS, and OFFCAMP.

  13. Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    1983-12-01

    The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered

  14. Model answers for Yes/No questions from EFL students in public senior high schools

    I Wayan Dirgeyasa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the typical categories of answers to Yes/No questions most used by students at selected Public Senior High Schools in Medan, Indonesia. These schools were classified into top favorite, medium favorite and non-favorite schools. Through a stratified clustered random sampling technique, six schools were chosen consisting of two schools from each classification. A number of 40 students were chosen from three class X, three class XI and three class XII at each of the six chosen schools, making a total sample of 720 students with 360 sets of dialogue scripts. Data was collected through documentation-recording dialogues. The data was transcribed and analyzed by descriptive analysis. The results of the research showed that: 1 the categories of the students’ answers to the Yes/No questions were distributed variously in terms of the six models. However, the distribution of the answers was not proportionally equal amongst all the models, 2 the dominant distribution of the answers was the third model with the formula Yes/No+additional information such as confirming, supporting, etc., reaching 37% of the total answers, whilst the least common models were the sixth and fourth categories respectively, which had 1% and 3% of the answers respectively, and finally 3 there was no significant difference in the distribution of the students’ answers in terms of the class of school whether top favorite, medium favorite or non-favorite. In conclusion, the ways to answer Yes/No questions need to be developed amongst students by their teachers by teaching and learning using natural, real life-like situations and in contextual ways.

  15. A cognitive evaluation of four online search engines for answering definitional questions posed by physicians.

    Yu, Hong; Kaufman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Internet is having a profound impact on physicians' medical decision making. One recent survey of 277 physicians showed that 72% of physicians regularly used the Internet to research medical information and 51% admitted that information from web sites influenced their clinical decisions. This paper describes the first cognitive evaluation of four state-of-the-art Internet search engines: Google (i.e., Google and Scholar.Google), MedQA, Onelook, and PubMed for answering definitional questions (i.e., questions with the format of "What is X?") posed by physicians. Onelook is a portal for online definitions, and MedQA is a question answering system that automatically generates short texts to answer specific biomedical questions. Our evaluation criteria include quality of answer, ease of use, time spent, and number of actions taken. Our results show that MedQA outperforms Onelook and PubMed in most of the criteria, and that MedQA surpasses Google in time spent and number of actions, two important efficiency criteria. Our results show that Google is the best system for quality of answer and ease of use. We conclude that Google is an effective search engine for medical definitions, and that MedQA exceeds the other search engines in that it provides users direct answers to their questions; while the users of the other search engines have to visit several sites before finding all of the pertinent information.

  16. Impact of Answer-Switching Behavior on Multiple-Choice Test Scores in Higher Education

    Ramazan BAŞTÜRK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiple- choice format is one of the most popular selected-response item formats used in educational testing. Researchers have shown that Multiple-choice type test is a useful vehicle for student assessment in core university subjects that usually have large student numbers. Even though the educators, test experts and different test recourses maintain the idea that the first answer should be retained, many researchers argued that this argument is not dependent with empirical findings. The main question of this study is to examine how the answer switching behavior affects the multiple-choice test score. Additionally, gender differences and relationship between number of answer switching behavior and item parameters (item difficulty and item discrimination were investigated. The participants in this study consisted of 207 upper-level College of Education students from mid-sized universities. A Midterm exam consisted of 20 multiple-choice questions was used. According to the result of this study, answer switching behavior statistically increase test scores. On the other hand, there is no significant gender difference in answer-switching behavior. Additionally, there is a significant negative relationship between answer switching behavior and item difficulties.

  17. Accuracy of Answers Provided by Digital/Face-to-Face Reference Services in Japanese Public Libraries and Q & A Sites

    Tsuji, Keita; To, Haruna; Hara, Atsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    We asked the same 60 questions using DRS (digital reference services) in Japanese public libraries, face-to-face reference services and Q & A (question and answer) sites. It was found that: (1) The correct answer ratio of DRS is higher than that of Q & A sites; (2) DRS takes longer to provide answers as compared to Q & A sites; and (3)…

  18. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    2010-12-03

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers.'' The draft questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter Residual Solvents that applies to both human...

  19. America's Answer

    National Math and Science Initiative, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. arm of technology giant Siemens Corp. recently reported it has 3,000 jobs open because of the dearth of skilled workers. More than half of those open jobs require science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) skills. A recent study by ManpowerGroup found that a record 52 percent of U.S. employers have difficulty filling critical…

  20. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version)

    Ghassemi, Farnaz; Moradi, Mohammad Hassan; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. Method This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed), and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP). Results Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one. PMID:22952502

  1. Evaluation of Estimating Missed Answers in Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (Screening Version

    Vahid Abootalebi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS is among the valid questionnaires for evaluating Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in adults. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the validity of the estimation of missed answers in scoring the screening version of the Conners questionnaire, and to extract its principal components. "n Method: This study was performed on 400 participants. Answer estimation was calculated for each question (assuming the answer was missed, and then a Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate the difference between the original answer and its estimation. In the next step, principal components of the questionnaire were extracted by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Finally the evaluation of differences in the whole groups was provided using the Multiple Comparison Procedure (MCP. Results: Findings indicated that a significant difference existed between the original and estimated answers for some particular questions. However, the results of MCP showed that this estimation, when evaluated in the whole group, did not show a significant difference with the original value in neither of the questionnaire subscales. The results of PCA revealed that there are eight principal components in the CAARS questionnaire. Conclusion: The obtained results can emphasize the fact that this questionnaire is mainly designed for screening purposes, and this estimation does not change the results of groups when a question is missed randomly. Notwithstanding this finding, more considerations should be paid when the missed question is a critical one.

  2. Siderophores, the answer for micro to nanosized asbestos fibre related health hazard

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; Ledwani, Lalita; John, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on the potential toxicity of High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles (HARN) has yet once again reinforced the health hazard imposed by asbestos fibres ranging from nano to micro size. Asbestos a naturally occurring fibrous mineral declared a Group I definite carcinogen by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), a unit of WHO in the year 1987, has been extensively used since World War II to the near past for various commercial products. According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, asbestos-related diseases, resulting from exposure at workplace claims more than 107000 lives every year worldwide. The various types of toxic effects induced by asbestos in humans include - i) inflammation and fibrogenesis of lung, ii) mesothelioma iii) asbestosis and iv) bronchogenic carcinoma. The stability of asbestos in natural environment and its biological aggressiveness is related to their fibrous structure and dimensions. The actual risk associated with the exposure to nanosized asbestos, which is still unknown and escapes most regulations worldwide, has been shown in various toxicity assessment studies conducted on various animal models.In an effort to reduce the size of asbestos and therby its toxicity by limiting its biopersistence, oxalic acid treatment of asbestos coupled to power ultrasound treatment was carried out. The nanosized particles formed were still found to retain their hazardous effect. Similar were the results obtained on strong acid treatment of asbestos as well. A probable solution to the asbestos toxicity problem therefore envisaged was bioremediation. This involved the secretion of iron chelating molecules termed siderophores by microbes, which are of significance due to their ability to form very stable and soluble complexes with iron. Iron in asbestos composition is a major factor responsible for its carcinogenicity, removal or extraction of which would prove to be an effective answer to the worldwide problem

  3. Nuclear medicine board review. Questions and answers for self-assessment. 2. ed.

    Goldfarb, C.R.; Ongseng, F.; Zuckier, L.S.; Karam, M.; Cooper, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    This book provides thorough preparation for certification examinations by the American Board of Radiology (Nuclear Medicine section and Special Competency), the American Board of Nuclear Medicine, and the America Board of Nuclear Cardiology. More than 1,780 questions test the reader's knowledge of the diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radionuclides, single-photon applications, and positron emission tomography (PET). Features: - A convenient question and answer format, in which questions appear on the left and answers on the right, allowing the reader to rapidly quiz and review. - New chapters addressing the emergence of PET/CT. - Measurements provided in both American standard and SI metric units. Ideal for board exam preparation, this concise text is an up-to-date question and answer review for the most important topics in nuclear medicine. (orig.)

  4. Towards automatic recognition of irregular, short-open answers in Fill-in-the-blank tests

    Sergio A. Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of student knowledge in Learning Management Systems such as Moodle is mostly conducted using close-ended questions (e.g. multiple-choice whose answers are straightforward to grade without human intervention. FILL-IN-THE-BLANK tests are usually more challenging since they require test-takers to recall concepts and associations not available in the statement of the question itself (no choices or hints are given. Automatic assessment of the latter currently requires the test-taker to give a verbatim answer, that is, free of spelling or typographical mistakes. In this paper, we consider an adapted version of a classical text-matching algorithm that may prevent wrong grading in automatic assessment of FILL-IN-THE-BLANK questions whenever irregular (similar but not exact answers occur due to such types of error. The technique was tested in two scenarios. In the first scenario, misspelled single-word answers to an Internet security questionnaire were correctly recognized within a two letter editing tolerance (achieving 99 % accuracy. The second scenario involved short-open answers to computer programming quizzes (i.e. small blocks of code requiring a structure that conforms to the syntactic rules of the programming language. Twenty-one real-world answers written up by students, taking a computer programming course, were assessed by the method. This assessment addressed the lack of precision in terms of programmer-style artifacts (such as unfamiliar variable or function nomenclature and uses an admissible tolerance of up to 20 % letter-level typos. These scores were satisfactory corroborated by a human expert. Additional findings and potential enhancements to the technique are also discussed.

  5. The Effect of Answering in a Preferred Versus a Non-Preferred Survey Mode on Measurement

    Jolene Smyth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that offering respondents their preferred mode can increase response rates, but the effect of doing so on how respondents process and answer survey questions (i.e., measurement is unclear. In this paper, we evaluate whether changes in question format have different effects on data quality for those responding in their preferred mode than for those responding in a non-preferred mode for three question types (multiple answer, open-ended, and grid. Respondents were asked about their preferred mode in a 2008 survey and were recontacted in 2009. In the recontact survey, respondents were randomly assigned to one of two modes such that some responded in their preferred mode and others did not. They were also randomly assigned to one of two questionnaire forms in which the format of individual questions was varied. On the multiple answer and open-ended items, those who answered in a non-preferred mode seemed to take advantage of opportunities to satisfice when the question format allowed or encouraged it (e.g., selecting fewer items in the check-all than the forced-choice format and being more likely to skip the open-ended item when it had a larger answer box, while those who answered in a preferred mode did not. There was no difference on a grid formatted item across those who did and did not respond by their preferred mode, but results indicate that a fully labeled grid reduced item missing rates vis-à-vis a grid with only column heading labels. Results provide insight into the effect of tailoring to mode preference on commonly used questionnaire design features.

  6. openPDS: protecting the privacy of metadata through SafeAnswers.

    Yves-Alexandre de Montjoye

    Full Text Available The rise of smartphones and web services made possible the large-scale collection of personal metadata. Information about individuals' location, phone call logs, or web-searches, is collected and used intensively by organizations and big data researchers. Metadata has however yet to realize its full potential. Privacy and legal concerns, as well as the lack of technical solutions for personal metadata management is preventing metadata from being shared and reconciled under the control of the individual. This lack of access and control is furthermore fueling growing concerns, as it prevents individuals from understanding and managing the risks associated with the collection and use of their data. Our contribution is two-fold: (1 we describe openPDS, a personal metadata management framework that allows individuals to collect, store, and give fine-grained access to their metadata to third parties. It has been implemented in two field studies; (2 we introduce and analyze SafeAnswers, a new and practical way of protecting the privacy of metadata at an individual level. SafeAnswers turns a hard anonymization problem into a more tractable security one. It allows services to ask questions whose answers are calculated against the metadata instead of trying to anonymize individuals' metadata. The dimensionality of the data shared with the services is reduced from high-dimensional metadata to low-dimensional answers that are less likely to be re-identifiable and to contain sensitive information. These answers can then be directly shared individually or in aggregate. openPDS and SafeAnswers provide a new way of dynamically protecting personal metadata, thereby supporting the creation of smart data-driven services and data science research.

  7. AnswerTree – a hyperplace-based game for collaborative mobile learning

    Moore, Adam; Goulding, James; Brown, Elizabeth; Swan, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present AnswerTree, a collaborative mobile location-based educational game designed to teach 8-12 year olds about trees and wildlife within the University of Nottingham campus. The activity is designed around collecting virtual cards (similar in nature to the popular Top TrumpsTM games) containing graphics and information about notable trees. Each player begins by collecting one card from a game location, but then he or she can only collect further cards by answering question...

  8. Single best answer MCQs: a new format for the FRCR part 2a exam

    McCoubrie, P.; McKnight, L.

    2008-01-01

    The single best answer multiple-choice question (MCQ) format has many advantages over traditional true/false format MCQs. From 2009, the Royal College of Radiologists will be adopting this format for written examinations. This article describes the background of this decision and the evidence behind it. There are numerous benefits to examiners and candidates alike from adopting this format. Using examples, the usual structure of the format of this type of questions is explained, how they are written, and tips provided on how to prepare for and answer them

  9. Using Conditional Random Fields to Extract Contexts and Answers of Questions from Online Forums

    Ding, Shilin; Cong, Gao; Lin, Chin-Yew

    2008-01-01

    Online forum discussions often contain vast amounts of questions that are the focuses of discussions. Extracting contexts and answers together with the questions will yield not only a coherent forum summary but also a valuable QA knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a general framework based...... on Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to detect the contexts and answers of questions from forum threads. We improve the basic framework by Skip-chain CRFs and 2D CRFs to better accommodate the features of forums for better performance. Experimental results show that our techniques are very promising....

  10. Answers to selected problems in multivariable calculus with linear algebra and series

    Trench, William F

    1972-01-01

    Answers to Selected Problems in Multivariable Calculus with Linear Algebra and Series contains the answers to selected problems in linear algebra, the calculus of several variables, and series. Topics covered range from vectors and vector spaces to linear matrices and analytic geometry, as well as differential calculus of real-valued functions. Theorems and definitions are included, most of which are followed by worked-out illustrative examples.The problems and corresponding solutions deal with linear equations and matrices, including determinants; vector spaces and linear transformations; eig

  11. Algorithmic solution of arithmetic problems and operands-answer associations in long-term memory.

    Thevenot, C; Barrouillet, P; Fayol, M

    2001-05-01

    Many developmental models of arithmetic problem solving assume that any algorithmic solution of a given problem results in an association of the two operands and the answer in memory (Logan & Klapp, 1991; Siegler, 1996). In this experiment, adults had to perform either an operation or a comparison on the same pairs of two-digit numbers and then a recognition task. It is shown that unlike comparisons, the algorithmic solution of operations impairs the recognition of operands in adults. Thus, the postulate of a necessary and automatic storage of operands-answer associations in memory when young children solve additions by algorithmic strategies needs to be qualified.

  12. Comparing the use of an online expert health network against common information sources to answer health questions.

    Rhebergen, Martijn D F; Lenderink, Annet F; van Dijk, Frank J H; Hulshof, Carel T J

    2012-02-02

    Many workers have questions about occupational safety and health (OSH). It is unknown whether workers are able to find correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions when they use common information sources, such as websites, or whether they would benefit from using an easily accessible, free-of-charge online network of OSH experts providing advice. To assess the rate of correct, evidence-based answers to OSH questions in a group of workers who used an online network of OSH experts (intervention group) compared with a group of workers who used common information sources (control group). In a quasi-experimental study, workers in the intervention and control groups were randomly offered 2 questions from a pool of 16 standardized OSH questions. Both questions were sent by mail to all participants, who had 3 weeks to answer them. The intervention group was instructed to use only the online network ArboAntwoord, a network of about 80 OSH experts, to solve the questions. The control group was instructed that they could use all information sources available to them. To assess answer correctness as the main study outcome, 16 standardized correct model answers were constructed with the help of reviewers who performed literature searches. Subsequently, the answers provided by all participants in the intervention (n = 94 answers) and control groups (n = 124 answers) were blinded and compared with the correct model answers on the degree of correctness. Of the 94 answers given by participants in the intervention group, 58 were correct (62%), compared with 24 of the 124 answers (19%) in the control group, who mainly used informational websites found via Google. The difference between the 2 groups was significant (rate difference = 43%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 30%-54%). Additional analysis showed that the rate of correct main conclusions of the answers was 85 of 94 answers (90%) in the intervention group and 75 of 124 answers (61%) in the control group (rate difference

  13. Drugstore Selling and Merchandising, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    Adams, J. David

    This manual on drugstore selling and merchandising, together with a separate answer key, is intended for trainees in distributive education. The 18 self-study assignments, developed by an instructional coordinator with the aid of college professors and leaders in business, cover a wide range of topics, from effective sales techniques to specific…

  14. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  15. Exploring the Learning Mechanism of Web-Based Question-Answering Systems and Their Design

    Zhang, Yin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, a number of models concerning question-answering (QA) systems have been put forward. But many of them stress technology and neglect the research of QA itself. In this paper, we analyse the essence of QA and discuss the relationship between technology and QA. On that basis, we propose that when designing web-based QA systems, more…

  16. 77 FR 50372 - Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella...

    2012-08-21

    ..., Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation... Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Final Rule, Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell... 33030), we issued a final rule requiring shell egg producers to implement measures to prevent Salmonella...

  17. 75 FR 29350 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as...

    2010-05-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Questions and Answers Regarding the Reportable Food Registry as Established.... The agency is also seeking comments from industry on the Reportable Food Registry requirements, and... the implementation of the Reportable Food Registry on September 8, 2009, and informs industry about...

  18. Differences in Visual Attention between Those Who Correctly and Incorrectly Answer Physics Problems

    Madsen, Adrian M.; Larson, Adam M.; Loschky, Lester C.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how visual attention differed between those who correctly versus incorrectly answered introductory physics problems. We recorded eye movements of 24 individuals on six different conceptual physics problems where the necessary information to solve the problem was contained in a diagram. The problems also contained areas…

  19. Making Stone Soup: Evaluating a Recall-Oriented Multi-Stream Question Answering Stream for Dutch

    Ahn, D.D.; Jijkoun, V.; Müller, K.E.; de Rijke, M.; Schlobach, K.S.; Mishne, G.A.; Peters, C.; Clough, P.D.; Jones, G.J.F.; Gonzalo, J.; Kluck, M.; Magnini, B.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the participation of the University of Amsterdam in the Question Answering track at CLEF 2004.We took part in the monolingual Dutch task and, for the first time, also in the bilingual English to Dutch task. This year¿s system is a further elaboration and refinement of the multi-stream

  20. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    Ramli, Rindra M.; Ba-Rayyan, Faten A.

    2017-01-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  1. 40 CFR 305.22 - Answer to the request for a hearing.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Answer to the request for a hearing. 305.22 Section 305.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... to which the Claims Official has any knowledge. When the Claims Official has no knowledge of a...

  2. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  3. Is There a Future for Teacher Ed Curriculum? An Answer from History and Moral Philosophy

    Null, J. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    Is there a future for teacher ed "curriculum"? The author contends that he is not sure if there is a future for teacher ed curriculum, but if such a future is to exist, the answer will come only from history and moral philosophy. In this article, the author opines that individuals cannot make good decisions about the future of teacher ed…

  4. LibAnswers: Analyzing tickets (questions) to improve our library's virtual reference service(s)

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    Analyze the questions received in LibAnswers (ticketing system) in order to improve the quality of our virtual reference services. Tickets that were received between June 2015 to April 2017 were analyzed and categorized. It was noted that most questions asked revolved around electronic resources issues as well as circulation/access issues.

  5. Entropy - Some Cosmological Questions Answered by Model of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe

    Miroslav Sukenik

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The paper summarizes the background of Expansive Nondecelerative Universe model and its potential to offer answers to some open cosmological questions related to entropy. Three problems are faced in more detail, namely that of Hawkings phenomenon of black holes evaporation, maximum entropy of the Universe during its evolution, and time evolution of specific entropy.

  6. Long-Term Follow-Up of Echolalia and Question Answering.

    Foxx, R. M.; Faw, Gerald D.

    1990-01-01

    A long-term followup (from 26 to 57 months) of echolalia and correct question-answering was conducted with six mentally retarded adult subjects identified from three previously published studies. Echolalia was lower than in baseline in 80.6 percent of the followups. Issues related to the study of maintenance are discussed. (Author/DB)

  7. Petroleum, Convenience, & Automotive Marketing [Student Book and] Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Kozek, Ed; Faught, Suzanne G.

    This student manual and answer book/teacher's guide focus on the industry-specific information and skills needed by students who plan to enter, or who may already be receiving, training in a petroleum-related business, such as a full-service gas station, convenience store, or automotive specialty service shop. The student manual contains 16…

  8. Copyright Catechism II. Practical Answers to Everyday School Dilemmas. Copyright Series

    Simpson, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This book contains valid, real-world copyright questions posed by real-life educators--all answered by a knowledgeable and experienced school attorney. Poor economic conditions have driven publishers to be more aggressive with pursuing improper use of their copyrighted materials. At the same time, new technologies are complicating old copyright…

  9. What's the Right Answer? Team Problem-Solving in Environments of Uncertainty

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2009-01-01

    Whether in the workplace or the classroom, many teams approach problem-solving as a search for certainty--even though certainty rarely exists in business. This search for the one right answer to a problem creates unrealistic expectations and often undermines teams' effectiveness. To help teams manage their problem-solving process and communication…

  10. Effect of an evidence-based answering service on GPs and their patients : a pilot study

    Verhoeven, A.A.; Schuling, J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For general practitioners (GPs), an important obstacle to practising evidence-based medicine is lack of time. An evidence-based answering service was developed that took over searching and appraisal of medical evidence from the GPs. GPs sent in questions, and the informationist

  11. Differences in visual attention between those who correctly and incorrectly answer physics problems

    N. Sanjay Rebello1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how visual attention differed between those who correctly versus incorrectly answered introductory physics problems. We recorded eye movements of 24 individuals on six different conceptual physics problems where the necessary information to solve the problem was contained in a diagram. The problems also contained areas consistent with a novicelike response and areas of high perceptual salience. Participants ranged from those who had only taken one high school physics course to those who had completed a Physics Ph.D. We found that participants who answered correctly spent a higher percentage of time looking at the relevant areas of the diagram, and those who answered incorrectly spent a higher percentage of time looking in areas of the diagram consistent with a novicelike answer. Thus, when solving physics problems, top-down processing plays a key role in guiding visual selective attention either to thematically relevant areas or novicelike areas depending on the accuracy of a student’s physics knowledge. This result has implications for the use of visual cues to redirect individuals’ attention to relevant portions of the diagrams and may potentially influence the way they reason about these problems.

  12. Mina Shaughnessy in the 1990s: Some Changing Answers in Basic Writing.

    McAlexander, Patricia J.

    Although Mina Shaughnessy remains influential in the basic writing field, her answers to the vital questions of who basic writers are and why they underachieve as writers are changing. Whether she intended to or not, Shaughnessy's book "Errors and Expectations" (published in 1977) was a major force in forming an image of basic writers as…

  13. Question-Answer Activities in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms in Terms of Interest and Usefulness

    Melike Aydemir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Instructors generally convey their face to face habits to synchronous virtual classrooms, but these face to face strategies do not work in these environments. In this sense, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of question type and answer format used in synchronous class implementations on perceived interest and usefulness. To do this, questions were asked in different ways and answers were requested in different formats in synchronous virtual sessions. The participants consisted of 28 postgraduate students registered in an online criminal justice program at a university located in the North-East part of Turkey. Data was collected in the context of a Research Methods in Security Sciences course during 2012–2013 fall semester. Results showed effects of question type on learner interest, while answer format has an effect on usefulness of online activities. In conclusion, to increase interest in synchronous virtual classrooms by asking questions, instead of closed-ended questions, open-ended questions which everybody can answer should be preferred.

  14. Children's Ability to Answer Different Types of Questions

    Salomo, Dorothe; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Young children answer many questions every day. The extent to which they do this in an adult-like way -- following Grice's Maxim of Quantity by providing the requested information, no more no less -- has been studied very little. In an experiment, we found that two-, three- and four-year-old children are quite skilled at answering…

  15. Supermarket Special Departments. [Student Manual] and Answer Book/Teacher's Guide.

    Gaskill, Melissa Lynn; Summerall, Mary

    This document on food marketing for supermarket special departments contains both a student's manual and an answer book/teacher's guide. The student's manual contains the following 11 assignments: (1) supermarkets of today; (2) merchandising; (3) pharmacy and cosmetics department; (4) housewares and home hardware; (5) video/camera/electronics…

  16. Detection of Answer Copying Based on the Structure of a High-Stakes Test

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the Variable Match Index (VM-Index), a new statistic for detecting answer copying. The power of the VM-Index relies on two-dimensional conditioning as well as the structure of the test. The asymptotic distribution of the VM-Index is analyzed by reduction to Poisson trials. A computational study comparing the VM-Index with the…

  17. Developing Independence in a Capstone Course: Helping Students Ask and Answer Their Own Questions

    Camenga, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mathematics capstone course designed to help students grow in mathematical independence. We describe how the course is structured to support this goal and the major assignments: a course wiki, a group expository project, and an individual problem to solve and extend. Students learn to ask and answer their own questions, helping them…

  18. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  19. 8 CFR 1280.12 - Answer and request or order for interview.

    2010-01-01

    ... submitted in support of any argument made. If a personal interview is requested, the evidence in opposition... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Answer and request or order for interview... for interview. Within 30 days following the service of the Notice of Intention to Fine (which period...

  20. Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.

    Hively, Wells

    1984-01-01

    Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

  1. A Social Learning Management System Supporting Feedback for Incorrect Answers Based on Social Network Services

    Son, Jiseong; Kim, Jeong-Dong; Na, Hong-Seok; Baik, Doo-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    In this research, we propose a Social Learning Management System (SLMS) enabling real-time and reliable feedback for incorrect answers by learners using a social network service (SNS). The proposed system increases the accuracy of learners' assessment results by using a confidence scale and a variety of social feedback that is created and shared…

  2. Questions and Answers Explaining the New Tax Rules Applicable to Tax-Sheltered Annuities.

    Gordon, David E.; Spuehler, Donald R.

    1991-01-01

    The Tax Reform Act of 1986 and subsequent legislation have radically altered the rules needed to maintain favorable tax status of tax-sheltered annuity plans for college employees. Application of the new rules is complex. Critical questions facing institutions and organizations are answered, and potential liabilities facing educational employers…

  3. A medical consultation service on Facebook: descriptive analysis of questions answered.

    Helve, Otto

    2014-09-04

    Social media is used increasingly by the general public to access health information. However, a lack of models for health information distribution limits the presence of publicly funded services on social media sites. The goal of the study was to present a model for delivering child health information to parents through a social media site. A Facebook site was launched for 11 months based on a question-and-answer service produced by a pediatrician and open to Facebook users over 18 years old. If the answer did not include a further referral to a health care service provider, the question was considered comprehensively answered. The site was funded by a pharmaceutical company, and it included an advertisement of a pharmaceutical product for children's fever and pain. During the study, 768 questions were submitted: an average of 69.8 (SD 31.7) per month. There were 245,533 independent Facebook users on the site, with an average of 727.0 (SD 2280.6) per day. Infections were the most common theme in questions (355/768, 46.2%). Questions were more likely to be comprehensively answered if they were related to infections (279/355, 78.6%) than questions related to non-infectious symptoms (265/423, 64.2%, P=.003). On this site aimed at parents of small children, personalized answers were an effective way of delivering information. The service is likely to have reduced the need for further contacts with a health care service provider in more than half of the cases. The site could serve as a model for publicly funded health information distribution.

  4. Nuclear Energy is the Answer to Cope with the Lack of Energy and Global Warming

    Wisnu Arya Wardhana

    2009-01-01

    This paper of nuclear energy is the answer to cope with the lack of energy and global warming based on the analysis of energy demand which is increasing rapidly, meanwhile the energy reserve is limited and decreased. Mostly world′s energy is generated by fossil fuel energy, mainly oil and coal. Fossil fuel energy and industrial activities produce green house gases (GHG) such as : COx, CH 4 , N 2 O, and CFC which cause of global warming. Global warming gives bad impact to environment and to human being. Every country in the world needs sufficient energy, but the energy resources is limited and decreased. The answer for this solution must be an energy source which does not produce green house gases. Why nuclear energy is chosen to cope with the lack of energy and global warming will be explained briefly in this paper. (author)

  5. Adding question answering to an e-tutor for programming languages

    Taylor, Kate; Moore, Simon

    Control over a closed domain of textual material removes many question answering issues, as does an ontology that is closely intertwined with its sources. This pragmatic, shallow approach to many challenging areas of research in adaptive hypermedia, question answering, intelligent tutoring and humancomputer interaction has been put into practice at Cambridge in the Computer Science undergraduate course to teach the hardware description language Veri/og. This language itself poses many challenges as it crosses the interdisciplinary boundary between hardware and software engineers, giving rise to severalhuman ontologies as well as theprogramming language itself We present further results from ourformal and informal surveys. We look at further work to increase the dialogue between studentand tutor and export our knowledge to the Semantic Web.

  6. Estimating the Probability of Traditional Copying, Conditional on Answer-Copying Statistics.

    Allen, Jeff; Ghattas, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Statistics for detecting copying on multiple-choice tests produce p values measuring the probability of a value at least as large as that observed, under the null hypothesis of no copying. The posterior probability of copying is arguably more relevant than the p value, but cannot be derived from Bayes' theorem unless the population probability of copying and probability distribution of the answer-copying statistic under copying are known. In this article, the authors develop an estimator for the posterior probability of copying that is based on estimable quantities and can be used with any answer-copying statistic. The performance of the estimator is evaluated via simulation, and the authors demonstrate how to apply the formula using actual data. Potential uses, generalizability to other types of cheating, and limitations of the approach are discussed.

  7. COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCES OF DIFFERENT SVM IMPLEMENTATIONS WHEN USED FOR AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF DESCRIPTIVE ANSWERS

    C. Sunil Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the performances of models built using various SVM implementations during the multiclass classification task of automated evaluation of descriptive answers. The performances were evaluated on five datasets each with 900 samples and with each of the datasets treated using symmetric uncertainty feature selection filter. We quantitatively analyzed the best SVM implementation technique from amongst the 17 different SVM implementation combinations derived by using various SVM classifier libraries, SVM types and Kernel methods. Accuracy, F Score, Kappa and Area under ROC curve are used as model evaluation metrics in order to evaluate the models and rank them according to their performances. Based on the results, we derived the conclusion that SMO classifier when used with Polynomial kernel is the overall best performing classifier applicable for auto evaluation of descriptive answers.

  8. The Impact of Question Format, Context, and Content on Survey Answers in Early and Late Adolescence

    Diersch Nadine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-reports in surveys are often influenced by the presented question format and question context. Much less is known about how these effects influence the answers of younger survey respondents. The present study investigated how variations in response format, answer scale frequency, and question order influence self-reports of two age groups: younger (11–13 years old and older (16–18 years old adolescents. In addition, the impact of the respondents’ level of familiarity with the question content was taken into account. Results indicated that younger adolescents are more strongly influenced by the presented question format and context than older adolescents. This, however, was dependent on the particular question content, implying that response effects are more pronounced when questions deal with issues that lie outside of the respondents’ field of experience. Implications of these findings in survey research with younger respondents are discussed.

  9. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  10. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF PERFORMANCES OF VARIOUS MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS DURING AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF DESCRIPTIVE ANSWERS

    C. Sunil Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Automation of descriptive answers evaluation is the need of the hour because of the huge increase in the number of students enrolling each year in educational institutions and the limited staff available to spare their time for evaluations. In this paper, we use a machine learning workbench called LightSIDE to accomplish auto evaluation and scoring of descriptive answers. We attempted to identify the best supervised machine learning algorithm given a limited training set sample size scenario. We evaluated performances of Bayes, SVM, Logistic Regression, Random forests, Decision stump and Decision trees algorithms. We confirmed SVM as best performing algorithm based on quantitative measurements across accuracy, kappa, training speed and prediction accuracy with supplied test set.

  12. Is world trade law a barrier to saving our climate? Questions and answers

    Bernasconi-Osterwalder, N.; Norpoth, J.

    2009-09-01

    The present 'Questions and Answers' provide an overview of the various climate-related measures and policies that fall under the scope of the WTO (World Trade Organization) and offers an initial assessment of their WTO-compatibility. Is the WTO blocking progress in the fight against climate change? This was the question at the origin of this legal analysis. With this paper and its simple question and answer format, we hope to dispel some myths and shed some light on the reality of world trade rules in their relation with climate-friendly measures. In the end, we hope to encourage policy-makers in Europe and around the world not to see the WTO as an insurmountable barrier and not to use it as an excuse against strong action on climate change.

  13. Does the Model of Evaluation Based on Fair Value Answer the Requests of Financial Information Users?

    Mitea Neluta; Sarac Aldea Laura

    2010-01-01

    Does the model of evaluation based on the fair value answers the requests of the financial information users? The financial situations have as purposes the presentation of the information concerning the enterprise financial position, the performances and modifications of this position which, according to IASB and FASB, must be credible and useful. Both referential maintain the existence of several conventions regarding assessment, like historical cost, actual cost, the realizable value or act...

  14. ASPMT(QS): Non-Monotonic Spatial Reasoning with Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories

    Wałęga, Przemysław Andrzej; Bhatt, Mehul; Schultz, Carl

    2015-01-01

    The systematic modelling of \\emph{dynamic spatial systems} [9] is a key requirement in a wide range of application areas such as comonsense cognitive robotics, computer-aided architecture design, dynamic geographic information systems. We present ASPMT(QS), a novel approach and fully-implemented prototype for non-monotonic spatial reasoning ---a crucial requirement within dynamic spatial systems-- based on Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories (ASPMT). ASPMT(QS) consists of a (qualitative) s...

  15. Non-Monotonic Spatial Reasoning with Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories

    Wałęga, Przemysław Andrzej; Schultz, Carl; Bhatt, Mehul

    2016-01-01

    The systematic modelling of dynamic spatial systems is a key requirement in a wide range of application areas such as commonsense cognitive robotics, computer-aided architecture design, and dynamic geographic information systems. We present ASPMT(QS), a novel approach and fully-implemented prototype for non-monotonic spatial reasoning -a crucial requirement within dynamic spatial systems- based on Answer Set Programming Modulo Theories (ASPMT). ASPMT(QS) consists of a (qualitative) spatial re...

  16. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    Fajrin Azwary; Fatma Indriani; Dodon T. Nugrahadi

    2016-01-01

    Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML). AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering...

  17. General technical comments on climate change - comment 1: Answers to five questions posed at the conference

    Firor, J.

    1992-01-01

    An attempt is made to answer the following five questions: (1) what are the projections of global average temperature increase? (2) What are the prospects for projecting regional climate change? (3) Do the climate models produce outlooks for a group of climate variables closely related to sociatal impacts? (4) What is the feasibility and what are the costs of proposed geoengineering options for responding to climate change? (5) What climate variables co-vary with global average temperature

  18. What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics.

    D. Waltenberg , Fábio

    2004-01-01

    D. Waltenberg, F. (2004). What is justice in education? Sketch of answer based on theories of justice and economics. Les Cahiers de Recherche du Girsef, 32.; What is justice in education? How can we evaluate whether given distributions of educational inputs or educational outcomes are just or not? How should a society distribute its educational resources? How can we evaluate the level of (un)fairness of a schooling system? In this paper, we try to provide a basic framework for thinking about ...

  19. Parental influence on children's answers to an oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire.

    Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Dantas, Laíza Rocha; Dantas, Lívia Rocha; da Silva, Bruno Rafael Cruz; Perazzo, Matheus de França; Siqueira, Maria Betânia Lins Dantas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children's answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (SOHO-5). Seven days later, the children answered their version of the SOHO-5, without the presence of their parents/guardians, and underwent a clinical exam of dental caries, traumatic dental injury and malocclusion, by a previously calibrated researcher. Statistical analysis involved a comparison of mean scores and the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Poisson regression models were used to associate the variables (α = 5%). No significant differences were found between the mean SOHO-5 scores of the children when alone or accompanied by parents/guardians (p > 0.05). The ICC between the answers of the children alone or accompanied was 0.84. White spot (PR = 6.32; 95%CI: 1.36 - 29.40) and cavitated lesions (PR = 9.81; 95%CI: 3.22 - 29.85) had an impact on OHRQoL, according to the children's self-report, whereas cavitated lesions (PR = 90.52; 95%CI: 13.26 - 617.74) and anterior open bite (PR = 1.95; 95%IC: 1.07 - 3.53) remained on the final model, according to the parents' version of the SOHO-5. In conclusion, parents did not influence the children's responses, and dental caries are the oral health problem exerting the greatest impact on the children's OHRQoL.

  20. Vocabulary test Strategies used by the Students to answer Vocabulary Test the Reading Comprehension of TOEFL

    Suyatman Suyatman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Test of English as a foreign Language or TOEFL is a standardized test of English for non-native speaker. It consists of three parts or three sections of tests. In Reading Comprehension test, it consists of vocabulary test. To get better result of score, it needs strategies. The purposes of this study are to know the strategies used by the students to answer the vocabulary test on reading section of TOEFL, to know the most strategy used by the students, to know the least strategy used by the students and to know the distribution of strategies used by the students to answer the Vocabulary test of Reading Comprehension of the TOEFL. The researcher used descriptive qualitative research. The subject was twelve students. The instrument was questionnaire that consisted of thirty questions. Data analyzes technique was by using mean score. The result of the research showed that; (1 students used all strategies to answer the vocabulary test of reading comprehension of TOEFL. (2 the most strategies used by the students was ‘Looking for contextual clues to the meaning of unknown words.(3 the least strategy used by the students to answer vocabulary test was ‘Developing a new vocabulary study system, and (4 the distribution of the strategy number 1 was 3.88,strategy number 2 was 3.61, number 3 was 2.94, number four was 2.91, strategy number 5 was3.88, strategy number six was 3.47, strategy number seven was 3.69, strategy number eight was 3.02, strategy number nine was 3.00 and the last strategy was 3.13.

  1. EBM apps that help you search for answers to your clinical questions.

    Windish, Donna

    2014-06-01

    In the age of smartphones and tablets, it has become common place to find apps that help you do or find almost anything. The quality and breadth of medical apps has improved greatly in recent years. You can now find medical apps that recreate textbooks, search for current articles, calculate likelihood ratios and find point-of-care answers to clinical questions. This article describes and reviews apps aimed at helping clinicians search for evidence to support the practice of EBM.

  2. The new history of psychology II: Some (different) answers to Watrin's four questions.

    Brock, Adrian C

    2017-05-01

    This article is mainly a response to the article by João Paulo Watrin, "The Ambiguous 'New History of Psychology': Some New Questions to Brock (2017)" (Watrin, 2017), which was itself a reply to my article, "The New History of Psychology: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions" (Brock, 2017). Watrin (2017) suggested that previous writers have conflated the terms "critical history" and "new history." They are said to differ, in that although the former is merely a name for a loose collection of approaches to the history of psychology, the latter involves rhetoric about the historiographical commitments of critical history. He also disputed the validity of the distinction between "old" and "new" history. I suggest that he is wrong on all these points. Watrin then poses and answers four rhetorical questions on Whig history, textbooks, critical thinking, and ad hominem arguments, and I provide alternative answers to all of them. After suggesting that our different views can be attributed to different agendas, I conclude with some reflections on how professional historians and psychologists can work together. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Reply & Supply: Efficient crowdsourcing when workers do more than answer questions.

    McAndrew, Thomas C; Guseva, Elizaveta A; Bagrow, James P

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing works by distributing many small tasks to large numbers of workers, yet the true potential of crowdsourcing lies in workers doing more than performing simple tasks-they can apply their experience and creativity to provide new and unexpected information to the crowdsourcer. One such case is when workers not only answer a crowdsourcer's questions but also contribute new questions for subsequent crowd analysis, leading to a growing set of questions. This growth creates an inherent bias for early questions since a question introduced earlier by a worker can be answered by more subsequent workers than a question introduced later. Here we study how to perform efficient crowdsourcing with such growing question sets. By modeling question sets as networks of interrelated questions, we introduce algorithms to help curtail the growth bias by efficiently distributing workers between exploring new questions and addressing current questions. Experiments and simulations demonstrate that these algorithms can efficiently explore an unbounded set of questions without losing confidence in crowd answers.

  4. Answers to arguments of those who doubt of the reality of an anthropogenic climate change

    Petit, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The author aims at answering the arguments stated by climate sceptics who deny the existence of a climate change due to human activities. He addresses and discusses the understanding of climate and its modelling and answers to the following statements made by climate sceptics: climatology is a new science still in its infancy; factors which influence climate remain largely unknown, climate models predict the future by using past observations; the role of water vapour is ignored whereas it is essential; nothing proves that atmosphere composition changes are related to human activities; variations in solar radiations have a more important role than atmosphere composition. In the same way, the author answers statements related to the consequences of climate changes (sea level rise is not significant; ice melt does not result in sea level rise; the Earth has experienced much higher temperatures in the past without major damages), or related to the existence of a recent climate change (the notion of average temperature is meaningless; temperature has been increasing since the beginning of the century), or related to the difference between climatology and meteorology (it's an illusion to predict the climate within a century whereas it's impossible to make weather forecasts for next month; how can we believe in global warming when winter has been long and cold), and finally regarding the IPCC (the scientific consensus of the IPCC reports makes no sense; IPCC is a closed lobby for well paid international public servants; and so on.)

  5. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Kant's answer to the question 'what is man?' and its implications for anthropology.

    Cohen, Alix A

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines Kant's anthropological project and its relationship to his conception of 'man' in order to show that Kant's answer to the question 'what is man?' entails a decisive re-evaluation of traditional conceptions of human nature. I argue that Kant redirects the question 'what is man?' away from defining man in terms of what he is, and towards defining him in terms of what he does, in particular through the distinction between three levels of what I will call 'man's praxis': the levels of technicality, prudence, and morality. As soon as man is understood in terms of what he makes of himself rather than in terms of what he is, two crucial issues arise: what is the purpose of his making? And how can he reach this destination? My claim is that whilst the first question is answered by ethics and a doctrine of prudence, the second question is answered by anthropology. In this sense, anthropology plays the crucial role of identifying the worldly helps and hindrances to the realisation of man's purposes--and this is the reason why it should be understood as a 'pragmatic' discipline.

  7. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    Rhebergen, Martijn D. F.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; Lenderink, Annet F.; van Dijk, Frank J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A)

  8. Answers to questions about removing krypton from the Three Mile Island, Unit 2 reactor building. Public information report

    1980-05-01

    This document presents answers to frequently asked questions about the probable effects of controlled releases of the krypton presently contained within the reactor building of Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Also answered are questions about alternative means for removing the krypton

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 734 - Questions and Answers-Technology and Software Subject to the EAR

    2010-01-01

    ... persons in those fields. Do we need a license to sell our products to foreign customers? Answer: You would... open conference is not subject to the EAR. The conference you describe fits the definition of an open... work with him in his research laboratory inside China? Answer: Application abroad of personal knowledge...

  10. 41 CFR 300-2.21 - How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format?

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is the rule expressed in the question and answer format? 300-2.21 Section 300-2.21 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2-HOW TO USE THE FTR Question & Answer...

  11. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the unrelated... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.512(a)-5T Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable...

  12. Example of answers to the problems of the 37th examination for the Chief Engineer of Nuclear Fuel. 2005

    Harada, Akio; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Yachi, Shigeyasu; Komuro, Yuichi; Kushita, Kouhei

    2005-09-01

    This report provides an example of answers to the problems of the 37th examination for the Chief Engineer of Nuclear Fuel. This examination was done as a national qualification in March 2005. Brief explanations or references are added to some answers. (author)

  13. Social Question and Answer Services versus Library Virtual Reference: Evaluation and Comparison from the Users' Perspective

    Zhang, Yin; Deng, Shengli

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years, the introduction of social question and answer services and other Internet tools have expanded the ways in which people have their questions answered. There has been speculation and debate over whether such services and other Internet tools are replacing library virtual reference services. Method: Most previous…

  14. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2' NUREG-0683

  15. Usability testing of ANSWER: a web-based methotrexate decision aid for patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Li, Linda C; Adam, Paul M; Townsend, Anne F; Lacaille, Diane; Yousefi, Charlene; Stacey, Dawn; Gromala, Diane; Shaw, Chris D; Tugwell, Peter; Backman, Catherine L

    2013-12-01

    Decision aids are evidence-based tools designed to inform people of the potential benefit and harm of treatment options, clarify their preferences and provide a shared decision-making structure for discussion at a clinic visit. For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who are considering methotrexate, we have developed a web-based patient decision aid called the ANSWER (Animated, Self-serve, Web-based Research Tool). This study aimed to: 1) assess the usability of the ANSWER prototype; 2) identify strengths and limitations of the ANSWER from the patient's perspective. The ANSWER prototype consisted of: 1) six animated patient stories and narrated information on the evidence of methotrexate for RA; 2) interactive questionnaires to clarify patients' treatment preferences. Eligible participants for the usability test were patients with RA who had been prescribed methotrexate. They were asked to verbalize their thoughts (i.e., think aloud) while using the ANSWER, and to complete the System Usability Scale (SUS) to assess overall usability (range = 0-100; higher = more user friendly). Participants were audiotaped and observed, and field notes were taken. The testing continued until no new modifiable issues were found. We used descriptive statistics to summarize participant characteristics and the SUS scores. Content analysis was used to identified usability issues and navigation problems. 15 patients participated in the usability testing. The majority were aged 50 or over and were university/college graduates (n = 8, 53.4%). On average they took 56 minutes (SD = 34.8) to complete the tool. The mean SUS score was 81.2 (SD = 13.5). Content analysis of audiotapes and field notes revealed four categories of modifiable usability issues: 1) information delivery (i.e., clarity of the information and presentation style); 2) navigation control (i.e., difficulties in recognizing and using the navigation control buttons); 3) layout (i.e., position of the

  16. Does Correct Answer Distribution Influence Student Choices When Writing Multiple Choice Examinations?

    Jacqueline A. Carnegie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summative evaluation for large classes of first- and second-year undergraduate courses often involves the use of multiple choice question (MCQ exams in order to provide timely feedback. Several versions of those exams are often prepared via computer-based question scrambling in an effort to deter cheating. An important parameter to consider when preparing multiple exam versions is that they must be equivalent in their assessment of student knowledge. This project investigated a possible influence of correct answer organization on student answer selection when writing multiple versions of MCQ exams. The specific question asked was whether the existence of a series of four to five consecutive MCQs in which the same letter represented the correct answer had a detrimental influence on a student’s ability to continue to select the correct answer as he/she moved through that series. Student outcomes from such exams were compared with results from exams with identical questions but which did not contain such series. These findings were supplemented by student survey data in which students self-assessed the extent to which they paid attention to the distribution of correct answer choices when writing summative exams, both during their initial answer selection and when transferring their answer letters to the Scantron sheet for correction. Despite the fact that more than half of survey respondents indicated that they do make note of answer patterning during exams and that a series of four to five questions with the same letter for the correct answer would encourage many of them to take a second look at their answer choice, the results pertaining to student outcomes suggest that MCQ randomization, even when it does result in short serial arrays of letter-specific correct answers, does not constitute a distraction capable of adversely influencing student performance. Dans les très grandes classes de cours de première et deuxième années, l

  17. Is basic research providing answers if adjuvant anti-estrogen treatment of breast cancer can induce cognitive impairment?

    Buwalda, Bauke; Schagen, Sanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Adjuvant treatment of cancer by chemotherapy is associated with cognitive impairment in some cancer survivors. Breast cancer patients are frequently also receiving endocrine therapy with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and/or aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to suppress the growth of

  18. Answering the right question - integration of InSAR with other datasets

    Holley, Rachel; McCormack, Harry; Burren, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The capabilities of satellite Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) are well known, and utilized across a wide range of academic and commercial applications. However there is a tendency, particularly in commercial applications, for users to ask 'What can we study with InSAR?'. When establishing a new technique this approach is important, but InSAR has been possible for 20 years now and, even accounting for new and innovative algorithms, this ground has been thoroughly explored. Too many studies conclude 'We show the ground is moving here, by this much', and mention the wider context as an afterthought. The focus needs to shift towards first asking the right questions - in fields as diverse as hazard awareness, resource optimization, financial considerations and pure scientific enquiry - and then working out how to achieve the best possible answers. Depending on the question, InSAR (and ground deformation more generally) may provide a large or small contribution to the overall solution, and there are usually benefits to integrating a number of techniques to capitalize on the complementary capabilities and provide the most useful measurements. However, there is still a gap between measurements and answers, and unlocking the value of the data relies heavily on appropriate visualization, integrated analysis, communication between technique and application experts, and appropriate use of modelling. We present a number of application examples, and demonstrate how their usefulness can be transformed by moving from a focus on data to answers - integrating complementary geodetic, geophysical and geological datasets and geophysical modeling with appropriate visualization, to enable comprehensive solution-focused interpretation. It will also discuss how forthcoming developments are likely to further advance realisation of the full potential satellite InSAR holds.

  19. Data Mining Student Answers with Moodle to Investigate Learning Pathways in an Introductory Geohazards Course

    Sit, S. M.; Brudzinski, M. R.; Colella, H. V.

    2012-12-01

    The recent growth of online learning in higher education is primarily motivated by a desire to (a) increase the availability of learning experiences for learners who cannot, or choose not, to attend traditional face-to-face offerings, (b) assemble and disseminate instructional content more cost-efficiently, or (c) enable instructors to handle more students while maintaining a learning outcome quality that is equivalent to that of comparable face-to-face instruction. However, a less recognized incentive is that online learning also provides an opportunity for data mining, or efficient discovery of non-obvious valuable patterns from a large collection of data, that can be used to investigate learning pathways as opposed to focusing solely on assessing student outcomes. Course management systems that enable online courses provide a means to collect a vast amount of information to analyze students' behavior and the learning process in general. One of the most commonly used is Moodle (modular object-oriented developmental learning environment), a free learning management system that enables creation of powerful, flexible, and engaging online courses and experiences. In order to examine student learning pathways, the online learning modules we are constructing take advantage of Moodle capabilities to provide immediate formative feedback, verifying answers as correct or incorrect and elaborating on knowledge components to guide students towards the correct answer. By permitting multiple attempts in which credit is diminished for each incorrect answer, we provide opportunities to use data mining strategies to assess thousands of students' actions for evidence of problem solving strategies and mastery of concepts. We will show preliminary results from application of this approach to a ~90 student introductory geohazard course that is migrating toward online instruction. We hope more continuous assessment of students' performances will help generate cognitive models that can

  20. Exploring pre-service science teachers' pedagogical capacity for formative assessment through analyses of student answers

    Aydeniz, Mehmet; Dogan, Alev

    2016-05-01

    Background: There has been an increasing emphasis on empowering pre-service and in-service science teachers to attend student reasoning and use formative assessments to guide student learning in recent years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore pre-service science teachers' pedagogical capacity for formative assessment. Sample: This study took place in Turkey. The participants include 53 pre-service science teachers in their final year of schooling. All but two of the participants are female. Design and methods: We used a mixed-methods methodology in pursing this inquiry. Participants analyzed 28 responses to seven two-tiered questions given by four students of different ability levels. We explored their ability to identify the strengths and weaknesses in students' answers. We paid particular attention to the things that the pre-service science teachers noticed in students' explanations, the types of inferences they made about students' conceptual understanding, and the affordances of pedagogical decisions they made. Results: The results show that the majority of participants made an evaluative judgment (i.e. the answer is correct or incorrect) in their analyses of students' answers. Similarly, the majority of the participants recognized the type of mistake that the students made. However, they failed to successfully elaborate on fallacies, limitations, or strengths in student reasoning. We also asked the participants to make pedagogical decisions related to what needs to be done next in order to help the students to achieve academic objectives. Results show that 8% of the recommended instructional strategies were of no affordance, 64% of low-affordance, and 28% were of high affordance in terms of helping students achieve the academic objectives. Conclusion: If our goal is to improve pre-service science teachers' noticing skills, and the affordance of feedback that they provide, engaging them in activities that asks them to attend to students' ideas

  1. PMP practice makes perfect over 1000 PMP practice questions and answers

    Estrella, John A; Zahran, Sami

    2011-01-01

    A unique learning resource to prepare for the PMP certification exam Without sufficient practice and preparation for taking the Project Management Institute's (PMI's) PMP certification exam, you won't be able to actually put your skills into practice in the real world! To help you achieve your goal of passing the exam, this two-part prep book covers all elements of the brand-new Project Management Professional exam. A team of experts presents you with a solid overview of the exam as well as hundreds of questions, detailed answers, and explanations. In addition, each question is accompa

  2. A quick guide to API 510 certified pressure vessel inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers

    Matthews, Clifford

    2010-01-01

    The API Individual Certification Programs (ICPs) are well established worldwide in the oil, gas, and petroleum industries. This Quick Guide is unique in providing simple, accessible and well-structured guidance for anyone studying the API 510 Certified Pressure Vessel Inspector syllabus by summarizing and helping them through the syllabus and providing multiple example questions and worked answers.Technical standards are referenced from the API 'body of knowledge' for the examination, i.e. API 510 Pressure vessel inspection, alteration, rerating; API 572 Pressure vessel inspection; API

  3. The art of data analysis how to answer almost any question using basic statistics

    Jarman, Kristin H

    2013-01-01

    A friendly and accessible approach to applying statistics in the real worldWith an emphasis on critical thinking, The Art of Data Analysis: How to Answer Almost Any Question Using Basic Statistics presents fun and unique examples, guides readers through the entire data collection and analysis process, and introduces basic statistical concepts along the way.Leaving proofs and complicated mathematics behind, the author portrays the more engaging side of statistics and emphasizes its role as a problem-solving tool.  In addition, light-hearted case studies

  4. Talking Physics: Two Case Studies on Short Answers and Self-explanation in Learning Physics

    Badeau, Ryan C.

    This thesis explores two case studies into the use of short answers and self-explanation to improve student learning in physics. The first set of experiments focuses on the role of short answer questions in the context of computer-based instruction. Through a series of six experiments, we compare and evaluate the performance of computer-assessed short answer questions versus multiple choice for training conceptual topics in physics, controlling for feedback between the two formats. In addition to finding overall similar improvements on subsequent student performance and retention, we identify unique differences in how students interact with the treatments in terms of time spent on feedback and performance on follow-up short answer assessment. In addition, we identify interactions between the level of interactivity of the training, question format, and student attitudinal ratings of each respective training. The second case study focuses on the use of worked examples in the context of multi-concept physics problems - which we call "synthesis problems." For this part of the thesis, four experiments were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional methods employing worked examples on student performance with synthesis problems; these instructional techniques, analogical comparison and self-explanation, have previously been studied primarily in the context of single-concept problems. As such, the work presented here represents a novel focus on extending these two techniques to this class of more complicated physics problem. Across the four experiments, both self-explanation and certain kinds of analogical comparison of worked examples significantly improved student performance on a target synthesis problem, with distinct improvements in recognition of the relevant concepts. More specifically, analogical comparison significantly improved student performance when the comparisons were invoked between worked synthesis examples. In contrast, similar

  5. If the Indicator Game is the Answer, Then What is the Question?

    Irwin, Alan

    2017-01-01

    This contribution begins by arguing that indicators in themselves do not have effects, but that it is crucial to understand which questions in the wider culture and governance of academia their use speaks to. Drawing partly on the author’s own experience in university management but also as an STS...... scholar, five important questions are presented to which indicators provide a kind of answer: ranging from public accountability over public research investment to intellectual and existential uncertainty. It is argued that understanding the wider institutional and professional logics is crucial...

  6. "The new history of psychology: Some (different) answers to Lovett's five questions": Correction to Brock (2017).

    2017-05-01

    Reports an error in "The New History of Psychology: Some (Different) Answers to Lovett's Five Questions" by Adrian C. Brock ( History of Psychology , Advanced Online Publication, Jun 27, 2016, np). In this article there was an error in the 11th paragraph of the Lovett's Five Questions for the New Historians section. The conference paper "The "new" history of science: Implications for philosophy of science" by Rachel Laudan (1992) was wrongly attributed to her husband, Larry Laudan. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-31594-001.) The professionalization of the history of psychology from the 1960s led to significant changes in the way that history was written. Several authors tried to summarize these changes in the 1980s, and Laurel Furumoto's (1989) G. Stanley Hall lecture, "The new history of psychology" is the best-known example of this genre. This journal published a critique of the new history by Benjamin R. Lovett (2006) with the title, "The new history of psychology: A review and critique," and it is still being cited as an authoritative source. The article consists of 3 parts. First, the author attempts to show that the new history is not as different from the old as its proponents claim. He then discusses some problems that he considers to be unique to the new history, and he presents them in the form of 5 questions for the new historians, which he then goes on to answer himself. Finally, he discusses the problematic relationship between critical history and psychology. This article is a reply to Lovett's article. The author argues that the new history is different from the old in every way that Lovett claims that it is not. It critically analyzes Lovett's answers to his own 5 questions and offers some alternative answers to these questions. It also suggests that many psychologist-historians are opposed to new history of psychology, especially in its critical versions, and

  7. Management of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease: frequently asked questions and answers (if any).

    Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Vitti, P

    2016-10-01

    Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete areas. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, no treatment targeting pathogenic mechanisms of the disease is presently available. Therapies for Graves' hyperthyroidism are largely imperfect because they are bound to either a high rate of relapsing hyperthyroidism (antithyroid drugs) or lifelong hypothyroidism (radioiodine treatment or thyroidectomy). Aim of the present article is to offer a practical guidance to the reader by providing evidence-based answers to frequently asked questions in clinical practice.

  8. Long-term follow-up of echolalia and question answering.

    Foxx, R M; Faw, G D

    1990-01-01

    A long-term follow-up of echolalia and correct question answering was conducted for 6 subjects from three previously published studies. The follow-up periods ranged from 26 to 57 months. In a training site follow-up, subjects were exposed to baseline/posttraining conditions in which the original trainer and/or a novel person(s) presented trained and untrained questions. Four subjects displayed echolalia below baseline levels, and another did so in some assessments. Overall, echolalia was lowe...

  9. Answer to an open problem proposed by E Barkai and J Klafter

    Ren Fuyao; Qiu Weiyuan; Xu Yun; Liang Jinrong

    2004-01-01

    In a negative answer to the open problem proposed by E Barkai andJ Klafter, it is proved that the theory presented by Amblard et al is not consistent with the GER. We suggest applying a theory in terms of a fractional Fokker-Planck equation to model the experiment measured by Amblard et al. The result obtained is consistent with the statement by Amblard et al (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 4470) that the numerical pre-factors of the power law would be modified by local geometry and are not exact

  10. Can you play cricket on Mars? and other scientific questions answered

    Moore, Sir Patrick

    2011-01-01

    All those nagging questions you have about the universe are answered here, like 'Is there a dark side to the moon? What happens when a comet hits the sun? Do the Martian canals have any water in them? Is the moon hot inside? What would happen if the sun were to collide with a black hole? Mars has polar ice caps: could polar bears live on Mars? if I could go back to the time of the dinosaurs, would the sky look the same as it does today?' and many more.

  11. Managing the Documentation Maze Answers to Questions You Didn't Even Know to Ask

    Gough, Janet

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with a topic of critical importance for compliance with record-keeping regulations in pharmaceutical and medical device industries. It presents more than 750 questions and answers about documentation management, whether electronic or paper-based. It defines, through a Q&A approach, what document management actually is, and why it should be a core discipline in the industry. Questions and responses also address electronic system selection and validation, system security, user accountability, and audit trails, as well as standard operating procedures for supporting document syste

  12. Using the weighted keyword model to improve information retrieval for answering biomedical questions.

    Yu, Hong; Cao, Yong-Gang

    2009-03-01

    Physicians ask many complex questions during the patient encounter. Information retrieval systems that can provide immediate and relevant answers to these questions can be invaluable aids to the practice of evidence-based medicine. In this study, we first automatically identify topic keywords from ad hoc clinical questions with a Condition Random Field model that is trained over thousands of manually annotated clinical questions. We then report on a linear model that assigns query weights based on their automatically identified semantic roles: topic keywords, domain specific terms, and their synonyms. Our evaluation shows that this weighted keyword model improves information retrieval from the Text Retrieval Conference Genomics track data.

  13. The physics and engineering aspects of radiology. Textbook with questions and answers

    Link, T.M.; Heppe, A.; Meier, N.; Fiebich, M.

    1994-01-01

    The textbook formulates and answers the questions encountered in practice by students in the radiology professions, covering the physics and engineering aspects as well as quality control and the relevant requirements set by the X-ray Ordinance and the Quality Assurance Guide issued by the Bundesaerztekammer for diagnostic radiography and computed tomography. The text is accompanied by simplified illustrations that are easy to remember. The book is intended to serve as a textbook for readers preparing for their examination as a medical specialist, or for participants of obligatory courses in radiological protection, or radiographers. Readers will also find it useful as a refresher course. (orig.) [de

  14. Plasticity and Adult Neurogenesis in Amphibians and Reptiles: More Questions than Answers.

    Powers, Alice Schade

    2016-08-24

    Studies of the relationship between behavioral plasticity and new cells in the adult brain in amphibians and reptiles are sparse but demonstrate that environmental and hormonal variables do have an effect on the amount of cell proliferation and/or migration. The variables that are reviewed here are: enriched environment, social stimulation, spatial area use, season, photoperiod and temperature, and testosterone. Fewer data are available for amphibians than for reptiles, but for both groups many issues are still to be resolved. It is to be hoped that the questions raised here will generate more answers in future studies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A rapid evidence-based service by librarians provided information to answer primary care clinical questions.

    McGowan, Jessie; Hogg, William; Rader, Tamara; Salzwedel, Doug; Worster, Danielle; Cogo, Elise; Rowan, Margo

    2010-03-01

    A librarian consultation service was offered to 88 primary care clinicians during office hours. This included a streamlined evidence-based process to answer questions in fewer than 20 min. This included a contact centre accessed through a Web-based platform and using hand-held devices and computers with Web access. Librarians were given technical training in evidence-based medicine, including how to summarise evidence. To describe the process and lessons learned from developing and operating a rapid response librarian consultation service for primary care clinicians. Evaluation included librarian interviews and a clinician exit satisfaction survey. Clinicians were positive about its impact on their clinical practice and decision making. The project revealed some important 'lessons learned' in the clinical use of hand-held devices, knowledge translation and training for clinicians and librarians. The Just-in-Time Librarian Consultation Service showed that it was possible to provide evidence-based answers to clinical questions in 15 min or less. The project overcame a number of barriers using innovative solutions. There are many opportunities to build on this experience for future joint projects of librarians and healthcare providers.

  16. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  17. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  18. Assessing the quality of pharmacist answers to telephone drug information questions.

    Woodward, C T; Stevenson, J G; Poremba, A

    1990-04-01

    A quality assurance (QA) program is described in which frontline pharmacists were asked test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls. The program was instituted at a university hospital that began providing decentralized pharmaceutical services in 1985. Questions were developed on the basis of a pilot study conducted to determine the types and complexity of drug information questions received by frontline pharmacists at the hospital. Data on departmental clinical productivity were used to determine the number of questions that would be posed during each shift in the various service areas. The questions were posed during a 10-day period; the pharmacists were aware of the program, but the callers did not identify their affiliation with it. In response to 105 questions asked, 86 were judged to have been answered correctly, 13 answers were deemed incomplete, and 6 were judged incorrect. Pharmacists were more likely to respond incorrectly to complex questions and questions posed during the night shift. As a result of the audit, staff members with advanced clinical knowledge were asked to help less experienced pharmacists, the position of assistant director for drug information and staff development was created, and educational programs were instituted. The QA audit has been repeated twice. Posing test drug information questions via anonymous telephone calls is effective in assessing the quality of drug information provided by pharmacists in patient-care areas.

  19. Analysis of students’ incorrect answers at triangle materials in the fifth-grade of primary school

    Shintawati, E.; Jupri, Al

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to analyse the comparison of the predictions made by the author between learning methods with the reality that occur in the class and to analyse students' responses toward questions given by teachers at triangle materials. The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. The subjects of this research are all fifth-grade students from a primary school in the city of Bandung. The results of this research indicated that there are some influences between learning methods and students' responses shown by the way students answer the question. In reality, there are many students’ responses produced beyond the predictions of the author. It shows that as the good teachers, besides setting up learning methods, they should also make predictions toward the responses of the students in answering the questions given. The results of the predictions could be used as a lesson for teachers to run the learning processes as good as possible so the students' responses could being accordance with the concept of materials presented and could also achieve the expected learning goals. Based on this research’s results, as a teacher must have techniques and strategies to overcome things that are not expected during the learning so that learning can be conducive so that students can focus on learning and enjoy learning so that learning outcomes is the ability of students to increase in understanding the material and can construct the concept of material provided.

  20. QUESTION ANSWERING SYSTEM BERBASIS ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE MARKUP LANGUAGE SEBAGAI MEDIA INFORMASI

    Fajrin Azwary

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence technology nowadays, can be processed with a variety of forms, such as chatbot, and the various methods, one of them using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML using template matching, by comparing the specific patterns in the database. AIML template design process begins with determining the necessary information, then formed into questions, these questions adapted to AIML pattern. From the results of the study, can be known that the Question-Answering System in the chatbot using Artificial Intelligence Markup Language are able to communicate and deliver information. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Template Matching, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML Teknologi kecerdasan buatan saat ini dapat diolah dengan berbagai macam bentuk, seperti ChatBot, dan berbagai macam metode, salah satunya menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language (AIML. AIML menggunakan metode template matching yaitu dengan membandingkan pola-pola tertentu pada database. Proses perancangan template AIML diawali dengan menentukan informasi yang diperlukan, kemudian dibentuk menjadi pertanyaan, pertanyaan tersebut disesuaikan dengan bentuk pattern AIML. Hasil penelitian dapat diperoleh bahwa Question-Answering System dalam bentuk ChatBot menggunakan Artificial Intelligence Markup Language dapat berkomunikasi dan menyampaikan informasi. Kata kunci : Kecerdasan Buatan, Pencocokan Pola, Artificial Intelligence Markup Language, AIML

  1. The effect of assessment form to the ability of student to answer the problem correctly

    Arifian Dimas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment is an important part of education. For educators, are collecting information about students learning and information about the learning process. For students, the assessment is the process of informing them about the progress of learning. Effective assessment process is responsive to the strengths, needs and clearly articulated student learning objectives. This research was aimed to know the effect of assessment form towards students ability in answering the problem correctly on kinematics and dynamics of motion. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative. The data collecting method are assessment test and interview. Assessment test instrument are written test and animation form test. The question we use was taken "Force Concept Inventory" on kinematics and dynamics concepts. The sample are 36 student of 6th terms student of Physics Undergraduate Departement in Sebelas Maret University. The result shows that for kinematics concept, more students answer correctly for test presented in animation form but for dynamics concept conventional test is better.

  2. Potassium iodide (KI) to block the thyroid from exposure to I-131: current questions and answers to be discussed

    Reiners, Christoph; Schneider, Rita [Hospital of the University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, German WHO-REMPAN Collaboration Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Thyroid cancer in children and adolescents has to be considered as the most severe health consequence of a nuclear reactor emergency with release of radioiodine into the atmosphere. High doses of potassium iodide are effective to block radioiodine thyroid uptake and to prevent development of thyroid cancer years later. However, there are controversies concerning thyroid cancer risk induced by radioiodine exposure in adults. Further, the interaction of nutritional supply of potassium iodide and radioiodine uptake as well as the interaction of radioiodine with certain drugs has not been addressed properly in existing guidelines and recommendations. How to proceed in case of repeated release of radioiodine is an open, very important question which came up again recently during the Fukushima accident. Lastly, the side effects of iodine thyroid blocking and alternatives of this procedure have not been addressed systematically up to now in guidelines and recommendations. These questions can be answered as follows: in adults, the risk to develop thyroid cancer is negligible. In countries, where nutritional iodine deficiency is still an issue, the risk to develop thyroid cancer after a nuclear reactor emergency has to be considered higher because the thyroid takes up more radioiodine as in the replete condition. Similarly, in patients suffering from thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism or endemic goitre not being adequately treated radioiodine uptake is higher than in healthy people. In case of repeated or continued radioiodine release, more than one dose of potassium iodide may be necessary and be taken up to 1 week. Repeated iodine thyroid blocking obviously is not harmful. Side effects of iodine thyroid blocking should not be overestimated; there is little evidence for adverse effects in adults. Newborns and babies, however, may be more sensitive to side effects. In the rare case of iodine hypersensitivity, potassium perchlorate may be applied as an alternative to iodine for

  3. 5 CFR 2423.20 - Issuance and contents of the complaint; answer to the complaint; amendments; role of Office of...

    2010-01-01

    ... brief statement explaining the nature of the hearing. (b) Answer. Within 20 days after the date of.... (d) Office of Administrative Law Judges. Pleadings, motions, conferences, hearings, and other matters...

  4. Answering Contextually Demanding Questions: Pragmatic Errors Produced by Children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism

    Loukusa, Soile; Leinonen, Eeva; Jussila, Katja; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Ryder, Nuala; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2007-01-01

    This study examined irrelevant/incorrect answers produced by children with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism (7-9-year-olds and 10-12-year-olds) and normally developing children (7-9-year-olds). The errors produced were divided into three types: in Type 1, the child answered the original question incorrectly, in Type 2, the child gave a…

  5. Why do humans behave as they do? Answers based on “human nature" and their critique

    Ciro Flamarion Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focus on one of the possible kinds of answers to the question: what can explain the behavior and the actions of human beings? Namely, it analyses the answers to this question that stress a determinant human nature, be it genetic, otherwise natural, or not clearly attributed to natural factors. Critiques and alternatives, supported by the paper’s author, are also examined.

  6. The new history of psychology: Some (different) answers to Lovett's five questions.

    Brock, Adrian C

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(2) of History of Psychology (see record 2016-53552-001). In this article there was an error in the 11th paragraph of the Lovett's Five Questions for the New Historians section. The conference paper "The "new" history of science: Implications for philosophy of science" by Rachel Laudan (1992) was wrongly attributed to her husband, Larry Laudan. All versions of this article have been corrected.] The professionalization of the history of psychology from the 1960s led to significant changes in the way that history was written. Several authors tried to summarize these changes in the 1980s, and Laurel Furumoto's (1989) G. Stanley Hall lecture, "The new history of psychology" is the best-known example of this genre. This journal published a critique of the new history by Benjamin R. Lovett (2006) with the title, "The new history of psychology: A review and critique," and it is still being cited as an authoritative source. The article consists of 3 parts. First, the author attempts to show that the new history is not as different from the old as its proponents claim. He then discusses some problems that he considers to be unique to the new history, and he presents them in the form of 5 questions for the new historians, which he then goes on to answer himself. Finally, he discusses the problematic relationship between critical history and psychology. This article is a reply to Lovett's article. The author argues that the new history is different from the old in every way that Lovett claims that it is not. It critically analyzes Lovett's answers to his own 5 questions and offers some alternative answers to these questions. It also suggests that many psychologist-historians are opposed to new history of psychology, especially in its critical versions, and that this explains why Lovett's article has been uncritically received. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Mechanisms of Betulinic acid‐induced cell death

    Potze, L.

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this thesis was to investigate the mechanisms by which BetA induces cell death in cancer cells in more detail. At the start of the studies described in this thesis several questions urgently needed an answer. Although BetA induces cell death via apoptosis, when blocking this form of

  8. If reform of science education is the answer - what were the questions?

    2003-01-01

    questions remain open: What is the aim of modern natural science education? How can the teaching methods and curriculum structure best support all this? How are changes of teaching practices best initiated? How does the university teacher improve his or her own teaching? These questions were addressed......At most Danish universities dramatic changes of the natural science programmes are under way. These changes are carried out both in response to external forces, and to internal ones, such as the need to rethink curriculum and pedagogy. But while the answer - structural reforms - is clear, the major...... at the third May Conference of the Centre for Educational Development in University Science (Dansk Center for Naturvidenskabsdidaktik, DCN), 22 -23 May, 2003, in Korsør, Denmark. This publication contains presentations given at the conference by keynote speakers. Further, it includes extensive reports from...

  9. Answer to 'Information flow, causality, and the classical theory of tachyons'

    Recami, E.; Pavsic, M.

    1978-01-01

    Recently Basano (Int. J. Theor. Phys.; 16:715 (1977)) in a paper entitled 'Information Flow, Causality and the Classical Theory of Tachyons' commented on earlier work by the present authors. In answer to those comments it is pointed out that although 'Extended Relativity' seems to allow one to solve any causal paradoxes with both usual particles and tachyons nevertheless a number of paradoxes are continuously proposed. It has already been shown by the authors that tachyons possibly do not imply any causality violations even in macro-physics but Basano claimed that the procedure lead to new, different paradoxes. It is here demonstrated that such presumed difficulties do not exist. (U.K.)

  10. Oxygen Supplementation to Stabilize Preterm Infants in the Fetal to Neonatal Transition: No Satisfactory Answer.

    Torres-Cuevas, Isabel; Cernada, Maria; Nuñez, Antonio; Escobar, Javier; Kuligowski, Julia; Chafer-Pericas, Consuelo; Vento, Maximo

    2016-01-01

    Fetal life elapses in a relatively low oxygen environment. Immediately after birth with the initiation of breathing, the lung expands and oxygen availability to tissue rises by twofold, generating a physiologic oxidative stress. However, both lung anatomy and function and the antioxidant defense system do not mature until late in gestation, and therefore, very preterm infants often need respiratory support and oxygen supplementation in the delivery room to achieve postnatal stabilization. Notably, interventions in the first minutes of life can have long-lasting consequences. Recent trials have aimed to assess what initial inspiratory fraction of oxygen and what oxygen targets during this transitional period are best for extremely preterm infants based on the available nomogram. However, oxygen saturation nomogram informs only of term and late preterm infants but not on extremely preterm infants. Therefore, the solution to this conundrum may still have to wait before a satisfactory answer is available.

  11. The Russian-Ukrainian gas crisis: what answers from consuming countries?

    Gomart, Th.; Pirani, S.; De la Faire, A.

    2009-01-01

    The disruption of gas supplies that occurred in the beginning of 2009 as a result of the Russian-Ukrainian disagreements, represents the most serious gas crisis that Europe has had to face since natural gas is imported from Russia, i.e. 40 years ago. Before the occurrence of this crisis, such a scenario was excluded by most of geopolitical experts who so far had based their analyses on the interdependence between Russia and European Union. Will this crisis change the relationship between European Union and Russia on the one hand, and with Ukraine on the other hand? Do we have to consider it as an incident without further consequences or is it the very first case of a series of unexpected coming crises? How Europe should organize itself to supply more efficient answers in the future? These are the questions debated during this round table organized by the French gas association (AFG) on April 6, 2009. (J.S.)

  12. Questionnaires for eliciting evaluation data from users of interactive question answering

    Kelly, Diane; Kantor, Paul B.; Morse, Emile; Scholtz, Jean; Sun, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating interactive question answering (QA) systems with real users can be challenging because traditional evaluation measures based on the relevance of items returned are difficult to employ since relevance judgments can be unstable in multi-user evaluations. The work reported in this paper evaluates, in distinguishing among a set of interactive QA systems, the effectiveness of three questionnaires: a Cognitive Workload Questionnaire (NASA TLX), and Task and System Questionnaires customized to a specific interactive QA application. These Questionnaires were evaluated with four systems, seven analysts, and eight scenarios during a 2-week workshop. Overall, results demonstrate that all three Questionnaires are effective at distinguishing among systems, with the Task Questionnaire being the most sensitive. Results also provide initial support for the validity and reliability of the Questionnaires.

  13. Oxygen supplementation to stabilize preterm infants in the fetal to neonatal transition: no satisfactory answer.

    Isabel eTorres-Cuevas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fetal life elapses in a relatively low oxygen environment. Immediately after birth with the initiation of breathing the lung expands and oxygen availability to tissue rises by twofold generating a physiologic oxidative stress. However, both lung anatomy and function and the antioxidant defense system do not mature until late in gestation and therefore very preterm infants often need respiratory support and oxygen supplementation in the delivery room to achieve postnatal stabilization. Notably, interventions in the first minutes of life can have long-lasting consequences. Recent trials have aimed to assess what initial inspiratory fraction of oxygen and what oxygen targets during this transitional period are best for extremely preterm infants based on the available nomogram. However, oxygen saturation nomogram informs only of term and late preterm infants but not on extremely preterm infants. Therefore, the solution to this conundrum may still have to wait before a satisfactory answer is available.

  14. An RDF/OWL knowledge base for query answering and decision support in clinical pharmacogenetics.

    Samwald, Matthias; Freimuth, Robert; Luciano, Joanne S; Lin, Simon; Powers, Robert L; Marshall, M Scott; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Dumontier, Michel; Boyce, Richard D

    2013-01-01

    Genetic testing for personalizing pharmacotherapy is bound to become an important part of clinical routine. To address associated issues with data management and quality, we are creating a semantic knowledge base for clinical pharmacogenetics. The knowledge base is made up of three components: an expressive ontology formalized in the Web Ontology Language (OWL 2 DL), a Resource Description Framework (RDF) model for capturing detailed results of manual annotation of pharmacogenomic information in drug product labels, and an RDF conversion of relevant biomedical datasets. Our work goes beyond the state of the art in that it makes both automated reasoning as well as query answering as simple as possible, and the reasoning capabilities go beyond the capabilities of previously described ontologies.

  15. The Bavarian State Minister of Economic Affairs and Transportation: Answers in energy policy

    For a detailed discussion in parliament of the problems of energy supply in Bavaria, the committees for economic affairs and transportation and for regional development and environmental problems reported on the various aspects of power supply in Bavaria in a hearing at the Bavarian Land parliament on June 20-22, 1977. The answers of the ministers to questions raised in parliament are compiled in this documentation which of course, cannot give a full picture of the very detailed material. Part 1 discusses all major problems of energy policy in Bavaria with sections on energy consumption, economic growth, and energy supply from all available energy sources. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 MKO [de

  16. Course design for digital preemptive answer%数字抢答器课程设计

    王革思; 杨大伟; 谢红; 李万臣

    2012-01-01

    Design of an intelligent race equipment, it has preemptive answer, timing, unauthorized, group display, voice, and automatic reset function. Using EDA technology designs and simulates the circuit. The hardware circuit has already been realized by a FPGA innovative development experiment box which researched and developed by ourselves, and the technical performance of the circuit can meet the design requirements.%设计一种集抢答、定时、计时、违例、组号显示、声讯、自动复位的智能化竞赛设备.采用EDA技术进行了电路设计与仿真,硬件电路已在自主研发的FPGA创新开发实验箱上实现,技术性能达到了设计要求.

  17. How Do You Answer the Life on Mars Question? Use Multiple Small Landers Like Beagle 2

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Hurst, S. J.; Richter, L.; Sims, M. R.

    2012-01-01

    To address one of the most important questions in planetary science Is there life on Mars? The scientific community must turn to less costly means of exploring the surface of the Red Planet. The United Kingdom's Beagle 2 Mars lander concept was a small meter-size lander with a scientific payload constituting a large proportion of the flown mass designed to supply answers to the question about life on Mars. A possible reason why Beagle 2 did not send any data was that it was a one-off attempt to land. As Steve Squyres said at the time: "It's difficult to land on Mars - if you want to succeed you have to send two of everything".

  18. THE EXPLICIT COMPREHENSION-STRATEGY INSTRUCTION: QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIP VS SELF-QUESTIONING

    Lalu Thohir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at examining and comparing the effectiveness of the Question-Answer Relationship (QAR and Self-Questioning (SQ strategies in improving the reading ability of the undergraduate students. This study was a quasi-experimental study in which two out of three classes of the third semester students at English department of Mataram University were selected randomly to receive either QAR strategy or SQ strategy instructions for ten weekly meetings. The findings of pre- and posttest with multiple-choice questions revealed that both comprehension strategies were effective in improving the undergraduate students‘ reading ability. The findings from the posttest with multiple-choice questions indicated the students who received SQ strategy instruction scored significantly higher than those students who received QAR strategy instruction. On the other hand, the students who received QAR strategy instruction scored slightly higher than those students who received SQ strategy instruction in the posttest with open-ended questions.

  19. If the Indicator Game is the Answer, Then What is the Question?

    Alan Irwin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This contribution begins by arguing that indicators in themselves do not have effects, but that it is crucial to understand which questions in the wider culture and governance of academia their use speaks to. Drawing partly on the author’s own experience in university management but also as an STS scholar, five important questions are presented to which indicators provide a kind of answer: ranging from public accountability over public research investment to intellectual and existential uncertainty. It is argued that understanding the wider institutional and professional logics is crucial if “better tunes” are to be developed in response to the indicator game: both to strengthen the standing and identity of the field and to support emerging scholars in this challenging context. The paper closes by inviting STSers––and particularly our professional institutions––to celebrate and, at the same time, take a stand for our diverse values, academic practices and notions of quality.

  20. Which climate for tomorrow - 15 questions and answers in order not end under water

    Jouzel, Jean; Nouaillas, Olivier; Bernet, Lison

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the climate issue by answering a set of 15 questions. Why are climate and meteorology not really the same? Has climate already changed in the past? What is the anthropocene? Is mankind responsible of global warming? What is the role of the IPCC? What are tomorrow's economic impacts? What will be the weather in France during the X XI century? Can we attribute natural disasters to climate change? How is the World presently struggling against climate change? How to do without fossil energies? Is geo-engineering a solution? Shall we have to change our way of life? Will economy recover? Are we going towards a sixth extinction? Will there be always more climate refugees? Finally, the authors discuss the perspectives drawn after the COP21, and propose 10 initiatives to struggle against climate change

  1. Use of mobile devices to answer online surveys: implications for research.

    Cunningham, John A; Neighbors, Clayton; Bertholet, Nicolas; Hendershot, Christian S

    2013-07-08

    There is a growing use of mobile devices to access the Internet. We examined whether participants who used a mobile device to access a brief online survey were quicker to respond to the survey but also, less likely to complete it than participants using a traditional web browser. Using data from a recently completed online intervention trial, we found that participants using mobile devices were quicker to access the survey but less likely to complete it compared to participants using a traditional web browser. More concerning, mobile device users were also less likely to respond to a request to complete a six week follow-up survey compared to those using traditional web browsers. With roughly a third of participants using mobile devices to answer an online survey in this study, the impact of mobile device usage on survey completion rates is a concern. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01521078.

  2. Using Text Message Surveys to Evaluate a Mobile Sexual Health Question-and-Answer Service.

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; L'Engle, Kelly Ladin; Jackson, Kennon; Brickman, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Text message programs for sexual health are becoming increasingly popular as practitioners aim to meet youth on media they use frequently. Two-way mobile health (mHealth) interventions allow for feedback solicitation from participants. This study explores the use of a text message survey to assess demographics and program feedback from users of an adolescent sexual health text message question-and-answer service. Development and feasibility of the short-message service survey are discussed. The text message survey achieved a 43.9% response rate, which is comparable to response rates of surveys conducted via other methods. When compared to respondents who used the service and completed an online in-school questionnaire, text survey respondents were more likely to be female and older. They also reported higher service satisfaction. Results have implications for text message service providers and researchers. This article examines a community application of a new intervention strategy and research methodology.

  3. Can naturopathy provide answers to the escalating health care costs in India?

    Jaya Prasad Tripathy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There are substantial areas of overlap between naturopathy and public health, which include a focus on health rather than disease, a preventive approach, and an emphasis on health promotion and health education. Public health can look to naturopathy for answers to the emergence of chronic disease through natural therapies, many of which can take the role of primordial and primary prevention of several diseases. Some selected naturopathic therapies include nutrition, hydrotherapy, fasting therapy, yoga, behavioral therapy, and health promotion. We must reorient our focus on prevention and wellness to make a true impact on escalating health care costs. With the National Health Policy in India emphasizing the need for integrating the Indian Systems of Medicines with modern medicine, now is the right time for naturopathy and public health to come together to provide a holistic health care system.

  4. Example of answers to problems of the 26th and 27th examination for the chief technician of nuclear fuel-2

    Sakuta, Takashi; Minato, Kazuo; Morita, Yasuji; Nishiza, Masahiro; Akatsu, Eiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-10-01

    This is an example of the answers to the 26th and 27th examination problems for certification of the chief technician of nuclear fuel. Short explanations or references are given for each answer. (author).

  5. Example of answers to problems of the 26th and 27th examination for the chief technician of nuclear fuel-2

    Sakuta, Takashi; Minato, Kazuo; Morita, Yasuji; Nishiza, Masahiro; Akatsu, Eiko

    1995-10-01

    This is an example of the answers to the 26th and 27th examination problems for certification of the chief technician of nuclear fuel. Short explanations or references are given for each answer. (author)

  6. INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM CYBER SECURITY: QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELEVANT TO NUCLEAR FACILITIES, SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY

    Robert S. Anderson; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Paul Moskowitz

    2011-07-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  7. Barriers and decisions when answering clinical questions at the point of care: a grounded theory study.

    Cook, David A; Sorensen, Kristi J; Wilkinson, John M; Berger, Richard A

    2013-11-25

    Answering clinical questions affects patient-care decisions and is important to continuous professional development. The process of point-of-care learning is incompletely understood. To understand what barriers and enabling factors influence physician point-of-care learning and what decisions physicians face during this process. Focus groups with grounded theory analysis. Focus group discussions were transcribed and then analyzed using a constant comparative approach to identify barriers, enabling factors, and key decisions related to physician information-seeking activities. Academic medical center and outlying community sites. Purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians, interviewed in 11 focus groups. Insufficient time was the main barrier to point-of-care learning. Other barriers included the patient comorbidities and contexts, the volume of available information, not knowing which resource to search, doubt that the search would yield an answer, difficulty remembering questions for later study, and inconvenient access to computers. Key decisions were whether to search (reasons to search included infrequently seen conditions, practice updates, complex questions, and patient education), when to search (before, during, or after the clinical encounter), where to search (with the patient present or in a separate room), what type of resource to use (colleague or computer), what specific resource to use (influenced first by efficiency and second by credibility), and when to stop. Participants noted that key features of efficiency (completeness, brevity, and searchability) are often in conflict. Physicians perceive that insufficient time is the greatest barrier to point-of-care learning, and efficiency is the most important determinant in selecting an information source. Designing knowledge resources and systems to target key decisions may improve learning and patient care.

  8. Dense Plasma Focus: A question in search of answers, a technology in search of applications

    Auluck, S.K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic information accumulated over four decades of research suggests a directionality of toroidal motion for energetic ions responsible for fusion neutron production in the Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) and existence of an axial component of magnetic field even under conditions of azimuthal symmetry. This is at variance with the traditional view of Dense Plasma Focus as a purely irrotational compressive flow. The difficulty in understanding the experimental situation from a theoretical standpoint arises from polarity of the observed solenoidal state: three independent experiments confirm existence of a fixed polarity of the axial magnetic field or related azimuthal current. Since the equations governing plasma dynamics do not have a built-in direction, the fixed polarity must be related with initial conditions: the plasma dynamics must interact with an external physical vector in order to generate a solenoidal state of fixed polarity. Only four such external physical vectors can be identified: the earth's magnetic field, earth's angular momentum, direction of current flow and the direction of the plasma accelerator. How interaction of plasma dynamics with these fields can generate observed solenoidal state is a question still in search of answers; this paper outlines one possible answer. The importance of this question goes beyond scientific curiosity into technological uses of the energetic ions and the high-power-density plasma environment. However, commercial utilization of such technologies faces reliability concerns, which can be met only by first-principles integrated design of globally-optimized industrial-quality DPF hardware. Issues involved in the emergence of the Dense Plasma Focus as a technology platform for commercial applications in the not-too-distant future are discussed. (author)

  9. Addressing challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony: questions and answers.

    Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2012-11-01

    Introduction of a new version of a psychological test brings with it challenges that can be accentuated by the adversarial nature of the legal process. In the case of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), these challenges can be addressed by becoming familiar with the rationale for and the methods used in revising the inventory, the information contained in the test manuals, and the growing peer-reviewed literature on the test. Potential challenges to MMPI-2-RF-based testimony are identified in this article and discussed in question and answer format. The questions guiding this discussion are based on the Daubert factors, established in 1993 by the US Supreme Court as criteria for gauging the scientific validity of proffered expert testimony. The answers to these questions apply more broadly to testimony in depositions, pre-trial hearings, and at trial. Consideration of the MMPI-2-RF in light of the Daubert factors indicates that the instrument has been subjected to extensive empirical testing and that a substantial peer-reviewed literature is available to guide and support its use. Information about the known and potential rate of error associated with MMPI-2-RF scores is available, and standard procedures for administration, scoring, and interpretation of the inventory are detailed in the test administration manual. Indicators of MMPI-2-RF acceptance can be cited, and criticisms of the MMPI-2-RF can be addressed with information available in the test documents and an extensive, modern, and actively growing peer-reviewed literature.

  10. Validity of a new assessment rubric for a short-answer test of clinical reasoning.

    Yeung, Euson; Kulasagarem, Kulamakan; Woods, Nicole; Dubrowski, Adam; Hodges, Brian; Carnahan, Heather

    2016-07-26

    The validity of high-stakes decisions derived from assessment results is of primary concern to candidates and certifying institutions in the health professions. In the field of orthopaedic manual physical therapy (OMPT), there is a dearth of documented validity evidence to support the certification process particularly for short-answer tests. To address this need, we examined the internal structure of the Case History Assessment Tool (CHAT); this is a new assessment rubric developed to appraise written responses to a short-answer test of clinical reasoning in post-graduate OMPT certification in Canada. Fourteen physical therapy students (novices) and 16 physical therapists (PT) with minimal and substantial OMPT training respectively completed a mock examination. Four pairs of examiners (n = 8) participated in appraising written responses using the CHAT. We conducted separate generalizability studies (G studies) for all participants and also by level of OMPT training. Internal consistency was calculated for test questions with more than 2 assessment items. Decision studies were also conducted to determine optimal application of the CHAT for OMPT certification. The overall reliability of CHAT scores was found to be moderate; however, reliability estimates for the novice group suggest that the scale was incapable of accommodating for scores of novices. Internal consistency estimates indicate item redundancies for several test questions which will require further investigation. Future validity studies should consider discriminating the clinical reasoning competence of OMPT trainees strictly at the post-graduate level. Although rater variance was low, the large variance attributed to error sources not incorporated in our G studies warrant further investigations into other threats to validity. Future examination of examiner stringency is also warranted.

  11. Industrial Control System Cyber Security: Questions And Answers Relevant To Nuclear Facilities, Safeguards And Security

    Anderson, Robert S.; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; Moskowitz, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Typical questions surrounding industrial control system (ICS) cyber security always lead back to: What could a cyber attack do to my system(s) and; how much should I worry about it? These two leading questions represent only a fraction of questions asked when discussing cyber security as it applies to any program, company, business, or organization. The intent of this paper is to open a dialog of important pertinent questions and answers that managers of nuclear facilities engaged in nuclear facility security and safeguards should examine, i.e., what questions should be asked; and how do the answers affect an organization's ability to effectively safeguard and secure nuclear material. When a cyber intrusion is reported, what does that mean? Can an intrusion be detected or go un-noticed? Are nuclear security or safeguards systems potentially vulnerable? What about the digital systems employed in process monitoring, and international safeguards? Organizations expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against physical threats. However, cyber threats particularly on ICSs may not be well known or understood, and often do not receive adequate attention. With the disclosure of the Stuxnet virus that has recently attacked nuclear infrastructure, many organizations have recognized the need for an urgent interest in cyber attacks and defenses against them. Several questions arise including discussions about the insider threat, adequate cyber protections, program readiness, encryption, and many more. These questions, among others, are discussed so as to raise the awareness and shed light on ways to protect nuclear facilities and materials against such attacks.

  12. Exhaustively characterizing feasible logic models of a signaling network using Answer Set Programming.

    Guziolowski, Carito; Videla, Santiago; Eduati, Federica; Thiele, Sven; Cokelaer, Thomas; Siegel, Anne; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2013-09-15

    Logic modeling is a useful tool to study signal transduction across multiple pathways. Logic models can be generated by training a network containing the prior knowledge to phospho-proteomics data. The training can be performed using stochastic optimization procedures, but these are unable to guarantee a global optima or to report the complete family of feasible models. This, however, is essential to provide precise insight in the mechanisms underlaying signal transduction and generate reliable predictions. We propose the use of Answer Set Programming to explore exhaustively the space of feasible logic models. Toward this end, we have developed caspo, an open-source Python package that provides a powerful platform to learn and characterize logic models by leveraging the rich modeling language and solving technologies of Answer Set Programming. We illustrate the usefulness of caspo by revisiting a model of pro-growth and inflammatory pathways in liver cells. We show that, if experimental error is taken into account, there are thousands (11 700) of models compatible with the data. Despite the large number, we can extract structural features from the models, such as links that are always (or never) present or modules that appear in a mutual exclusive fashion. To further characterize this family of models, we investigate the input-output behavior of the models. We find 91 behaviors across the 11 700 models and we suggest new experiments to discriminate among them. Our results underscore the importance of characterizing in a global and exhaustive manner the family of feasible models, with important implications for experimental design. caspo is freely available for download (license GPLv3) and as a web service at http://caspo.genouest.org/. Supplementary materials are available at Bioinformatics online. santiago.videla@irisa.fr.

  13. Induced Abortion

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  14. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  15. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  16. France's answers to question and comments received from other contracting parties on its 1. report for the JC

    2003-10-01

    The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management is supplementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety. It was approved by France on February 22, 2000 and it entered into force on June 18, 2001. France has received 211 questions, coming from 19 Contracting Parties, on its first report and has provided written answers to each one. These answers were gathered in a single document, which lists them along the articles of the Convention. France has presented these answers on November 5, 2003, at the review meeting of the contracting Parties of the Convention and has decided to make them available to the public, however without mention of the countries that had asked them. The 211 questions received on the first report for the Joint Convention are listed along the sections suggested by the guidelines for the answers to the articles of the convention, sorted by the related page number of the French report and, within each section, grouped by issues raised. The written answers to each question have been coordinated by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), but have been provided either by the regulators or by the operators (or even both) depending on the related issue. In the case where various questions are related to a same issue but are referred to different articles of the Conventions, they have been referred to the most relevant article in order to have the same issue dealt with in a single location in the present answers report. The answer to each question is provided immediately under the related question

  17. Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Dysautonomia via Plasticity in Paravertebral Sympathetic Postganglionic

    2017-10-01

    previous annual report (2016) provided details of our recordings of spontaneous and optogenetically evoked synaptic responses. This past year was associated...studies to examine network and cellular plasticity induced by SCI to answer the following two questions : (a) Does SCI lead to plasticity in synaptic...network and cellular plasticity induced by SCI to answer the following two questions : (a) Does SCI lead to plasticity in synaptic interactions between

  18. [Analysis of the question-answer activity of a hospital pharmacy. Example of the handling of drug interactions].

    Jacqueroux, E; Lalande, L; Meddour, N; Papailhau, C; Bernard, E; Charroin, C; Perichou, J; Charpiat, B; Locher, F; Garcia, S

    2015-05-01

    The medical care of patients generates questions among healthcare professionals. Some will necessitate an advanced research. The hospital pharmacist is at the interface between prescribers, caregivers and the medicines and is requested to answer these requests. Studies conducted in other countries showed that this question-answer activity represents a significant amount of time in daily work. In France, this topic was poorly explored. The objective of our work was to study the volume and the type of questions, the clinical situations, the time required, the medicines implicated and the sources of information used. A prospective study was conducted in the pharmacy of a university hospital. All the requests answered by the pharmaceutical team, which needed a specific research, analysis and writing of an answer were collected. A hundred and one questions were analyzed, originating from doctors or medicals interns. Almost half concerned drug interactions, and among them, almost a fourth were not mentioned in the Summary of Product Characteristics of the medicines involved. A pharmaceutical advice was provided in 91.5% of the cases. Time dedicated to the research varied between less than 30 minutes and more than 8 hours. This study illustrates the question-answer activity of a hospital pharmacy, which is currently not taken into account as an indicator of pharmaceutical activity. A large part concerns analysis and management of drug interactions and requires a significant amount of pharmaceutical time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Searching for answers to clinical questions using google versus evidence-based summary resources: a randomized controlled crossover study.

    Kim, Sarang; Noveck, Helaine; Galt, James; Hogshire, Lauren; Willett, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerry

    2014-06-01

    To compare the speed and accuracy of answering clinical questions using Google versus summary resources. In 2011 and 2012, 48 internal medicine interns from two classes at Rutgers University Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, who had been trained to use three evidence-based summary resources, performed four-minute computer searches to answer 10 clinical questions. Half were randomized to initiate searches for answers to questions 1 to 5 using Google; the other half initiated searches using a summary resource. They then crossed over and used the other resource for questions 6 to 10. They documented the time spent searching and the resource where the answer was found. Time to correct response and percentage of correct responses were compared between groups using t test and general estimating equations. Of 480 questions administered, interns found answers for 393 (82%). Interns initiating searches in Google used a wider variety of resources than those starting with summary resources. No significant difference was found in mean time to correct response (138.5 seconds for Google versus 136.1 seconds for summary resource; P = .72). Mean correct response rate was 58.4% for Google versus 61.5% for summary resource (mean difference -3.1%; 95% CI -10.3% to 4.2%; P = .40). The authors found no significant differences in speed or accuracy between searches initiated using Google versus summary resources. Although summary resources are considered to provide the highest quality of evidence, improvements to allow for better speed and accuracy are needed.

  20. Using PICO Methodology to Answer Questions About Smoking in COPD Patients.

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Buljubasich, Daniel; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Acuña Izcaray, Agustín; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; Guerreros Benavides, Alfredo; Paez Espinel, Nelson; Noé, Valeri; Sánchez-Angarita, Efraín; Núñez-Sánchez, Ingrid; Sansores, Raúl H; Casas, Alejandro; Palomar Lever, Andrés; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada

    2017-11-01

    The ALAT and SEPAR Treatment and Control of Smoking Groups have collaborated in the preparation of this document which attempts to answer, by way of PICO methodology, different questions on health interventions for helping COPD patients to stop smoking. The main recommendations are: (i)moderate-quality evidence and strong recommendation for performing spirometry in COPD patients and in smokers with a high risk of developing the disease, as a motivational tool (particularly for showing evidence of lung age), a diagnostic tool, and for active case-finding; (ii)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for using intensive dedicated behavioral counselling and drug treatment for helping COPD patients to stop smoking; (iii)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for initiating interventions for helping COPD patients to stop smoking during hospitalization with improvement when the intervention is prolonged after discharge, and (iv)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for funding treatment of smoking in COPD patients, in view of the impact on health and health economics. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Answer of the cucumber to a variable handling of the catering

    Mario Zamora Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work was developed in areas of the organoponic of the Basic Unit of Cooperative Production “Marcial Jiménez” belonging to the Sugar Company “Enidio Díaz Machado” located in the municipality of Campechuela, county Granma, the sidebar of the experiment you executes October 25 the 2011 with the objective of evaluating the answer of the cultivation of the cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. to a variable supply of watering in those that the Tropical commercial variety SS-5 was used. The experiment settled down in stonemasons of 25 m of long; 1.20 m of wide; 0.30 m of effective basis and 0.5 m of corridors. A design of blocks was used at random with three your reply and four treatments in each experiment. The utilized basis consisted on a floor mixture brown Fersialitico (70 % and organic matter (phlegm and worm humus to 30 %. The treatments consisted on applying reductions to the watering norm indicated by the technical instructive (100, 75, 50 and 25 % in the different stages of the cultivation (of 0-10, 10-40, 40-60 and 60-80 days after the germination. Variable phonological was evaluated, vegetative and reproductive of the variety. The results demonstrate that these valued indicators decrease as a deficit hedrick is believed to the plants due to the decreases of the watering norm.

  2. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    Reutov, Valentin P; Schechter, A N

    2010-01-01

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  3. The Etiology Behind a Complicated Case With Arrested Root Formation: More Questions Than Answers

    Kristian Havsed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This case focuses on dental deviations in a girl now 14 years of age. It is questioned in the article if an accident caused by the girl’s fall into a cactus at the age 1 year and 2 months could possibly result in local dental disorders in the permanent dentition. The disorders were the short roots and small crowns. It is discussed in this paper if it is the pins from the cactus or the many medical and operative procedures for the removal of the pins that caused the disorders. Nine questions concerning etiology are raised and discussed and only partly answered. This case gives new information concerning the normal eruption and resorption processes. It demonstrates how the teeth without roots or with short roots can erupt normally and even earlier than the contralateral teeth. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a second premolar with short root is able to resorb the overlying primary molar. In this dentition with severely malformed teeth, the treatment plan scheduled for the girl still takes into account these normal developmental conditions.

  4. Using ontology databases for scalable query answering, inconsistency detection, and data integration

    Dou, Dejing

    2011-01-01

    An ontology database is a basic relational database management system that models an ontology plus its instances. To reason over the transitive closure of instances in the subsumption hierarchy, for example, an ontology database can either unfold views at query time or propagate assertions using triggers at load time. In this paper, we use existing benchmarks to evaluate our method—using triggers—and we demonstrate that by forward computing inferences, we not only improve query time, but the improvement appears to cost only more space (not time). However, we go on to show that the true penalties were simply opaque to the benchmark, i.e., the benchmark inadequately captures load-time costs. We have applied our methods to two case studies in biomedicine, using ontologies and data from genetics and neuroscience to illustrate two important applications: first, ontology databases answer ontology-based queries effectively; second, using triggers, ontology databases detect instance-based inconsistencies—something not possible using views. Finally, we demonstrate how to extend our methods to perform data integration across multiple, distributed ontology databases. PMID:22163378

  5. Challenges to Professional Football Companies and their Answers with Particular Regard to Organisational Changes

    Bács Éva Bába Ms

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Professional football has been going through a period of unprecedented economic growth since the ’90s. Football ventures are increasingly becoming medium-sized companies. There have also been organizational changes, reflected in changes in the legal forms of professional football clubs, and in the use of modern controlling, planning, risk and financial management. Important questions remain unanswered with regard to the financing of football clubs, such as the impact of risks or the market value of capital costs. In addition to liquidity and the above, the acceptance of the determinational dependence of certain capital funds on sports results and the development of a strategy suitable for the optimal target system are also important requirements. In this article, we would like to present the answers football companies have given to the challenges they have been facing which affect their organisational system. In the light of international comparison, we examine the status of Hungarian football, which was once world famous and enjoyed better times in the past.

  6. How in the 20th century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question: what is life?

    Reutov, Valentin P [Institute for Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schechter, A N [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2010-07-08

    The most essential achievements in 20th century biology are analyzed and the question of how throughout the last century physicists, chemists and biologists answered the question 'What is life?' is considered. The most considerable scientific achievement of 20th century biology, and perhaps of all science, is considered by many to be the discovery by biologist J Watson and physicists F Crick and M Wilkins that resulted in establishing the DNA structure. The related work of well-known scientists of the USA and Europe, E Schroedinger, L Pauling, M Perutz, J Kendrew, and of the Russian scientists N K Koltsov, N V Timofeeff-Ressovsky, G A Gamow, A M Olovnikov, is analyzed. Presently, when the structure of DNA, the process of gene expression and even the genomes of human beings are already known, scientists realize that we still do not know many of the most important things. In our opinion, the 20th century studies of nucleic acids largely ignored the principle of the cyclic organisation of DNA. In this connection, we analyze the principle of cyclicity, which in its generality may well complement the concept of the atomic structure of matter. (from the history of physics)

  7. Why Students Answer TIMSS Science Test Items the Way They Do

    Harlow, Ann; Jones, Alister

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how Year 8 students answered Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) questions and whether the test questions represented the scientific understanding of these students. One hundred and seventy-seven students were tested using written test questions taken from the science test used in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study. The degree to which a sample of 38 children represented their understanding of the topics in a written test compared to the level of understanding that could be elicited by an interview is presented in this paper. In exploring student responses in the interview situation this study hoped to gain some insight into the science knowledge that students held and whether or not the test items had been able to elicit this knowledge successfully. We question the usefulness and quality of data from large-scale summative assessments on their own to represent student scientific understanding and conclude that large scale written test items, such as TIMSS, on their own are not a valid way of exploring students'' understanding of scientific concepts. Considerable caution is therefore needed in exploiting the outcomes of international achievement testing when considering educational policy changes or using TIMSS data on their own to represent student understanding.

  8. Can circular economy be an answer to the depletion of natural resources?

    Dufour, Alma

    2014-08-01

    After having outlined that high rise of raw material prices threatens world economy, and that present consumption modes contribute to a fast depletion of natural resources, the author presents the concept of circular economy which relies on a double process: a systematic decrease of raw material input and of energy and water flows used for production, and an extension of product lifetime through the development of their repair, their re-use and their recycling. She outlines that these principles are closer to the Brundtland report which introduced the notion of sustainable development, than to the Meadows report which advocates a stoppage of demographic growth and of economic growth. She shows that circular economy is a more relevant and credible answer to the stake of sustainable development than solutions proposed by the economic sphere. She comments the present dynamics of circular economy which is still at an experimental stage. As the world system seems to be stuck in the linear system, she discusses whether developing countries are better placed for a transition towards circular economy. She finally analyses and describes the role of markets, governance and regulation as levers for such a transition

  9. False belief attribution in children with Williams syndrome: the answer is in the emotion.

    Campos, R; Martínez-Castilla, P; Sotillo, M

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show difficulties in attributing false beliefs, whereas they are better at attributing emotions. This study examines whether being asked about the emotion linked to a false belief, instead of explicitly about the belief, facilitates performance on theory of mind (ToM) tasks. Thirty children with WS and 90 typically developing children, who were individually matched on mental age (50-112 months), were administered six explicit (i.e. questions on belief) and six implicit (i.e. questions on emotion) trials of false belief tasks. Theory of mind competences were related to cognitive development. Children with WS performed comparably to typically developing children on the emotion questions. Correct answers to questions on emotion reveal an implicit understanding of false belief. The Representational redescription process could be impaired in the domain of ToM in this population. This finding has relevant implications for the design of supports aiming to optimise the development of ToM competences in individuals with WS. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A study of advanced training technology: Emerging answers to tough questions

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This study reports the result of an extensive nationwide review of military, private sector, and other federal agencies and organizations that are implementing a wide variety of advanced training technologies. This report classifies the general categories of advanced training technologies found and provides an overview of each, including specific types and examples. In addition, the research findings present an organizational model for training development linking overall organizational maturity to readiness to implement specific kinds of advanced training technologies. It also presents proposed methods for selecting media, describes the organizations and the data gathered, and provides a summary of implementation success at each organization. This study is organized as a set of five topics. Each topic raises a number of important questions and provides complete or emerging answers. For organizations who have made advanced training selections, this study is a resource to benchmark their success with other organizations who have made similar selections. For new or developing training organizations, this study will help plan their future technology selections by comparing their level of organizational maturity to the documented experiences of similar organizations.

  11. General physicians: born or made? The use of a tracking database to answer medical workforce questions.

    Poole, P; McHardy, K; Janssen, A

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the study was to use a tracking database to investigate the perceived influence of various factors on career choices of New Zealand medical graduates and to examine specifically whether experiences at medical school may have an effect on a decision to become a general physician. Questionnaires were distributed to medical students in the current University of Auckland programme at entry and exit points. The surveys have been completed by two entry cohorts and an exit one since 2006. The response rates were 70 and 88% in the entry and exit groups, respectively. More than 75% of exiting students reported an interest in pursuing a career in general internal medicine. In 42%, this is a 'strong interest' in general medicine compared with 23% in the entry cohort (P Auckland medical students. Only 11% of study respondents reported that student loan burden has a significant influence on career decisions. Quality experiences on attachments seem essential for undergraduates to promote interest in general medicine. There is potential for curriculum design and clinical experiences to be formulated to promote the 'making' of these doctors. Tracking databases will assist in answering some of these questions.

  12. The Janus Cosmological Model (JCM) : An answer to the missing cosmological antimatter

    D'Agostini, Gilles; Petit, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Cosmological antimatter absence remains unexplained. Twin universes 1967 Sakarov's model suggests an answer: excess of matter and anti-quarks production in our universe is balanced by equivalent excess of antimatter and quark in twin universe. JCM provides geometrical framework, with a single manifold , two metrics solutions of two coupled field equations, to describe two populations of particles, one with positive energy-mass and the other with negative energy-mass : the `twin matter'. In a quantum point of view, it's a copy of the standard matter but with negative mass and energy. The matter-antimatter duality holds in both sectors. The standard and twin matters do not interact except through the gravitational coupling expressed in field equations. The twin matter is unobservable from matter-made apparatus. Field equations shows that matter and twin matter repel each other. Twin matter surrounding galaxies explains their confinement (dark matter role) and, in the dust universe era, mainly drives the process of expansion of the positive sector, responsible of the observed acceleration (dark energy role).

  13. Creating and using real-world evidence to answer questions about clinical effectiveness

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available New forms of evidence are needed to complement evidence generated from randomised controlled trials (RCTs. Real-World Evidence (RWE is a potential new form of evidence, but remains undefined.This paper sets to fill that gap by defining RWE as the output from a rigorous research process which: (1 includes a clear a priori statement of a hypothesis to be tested or research question to be answered; (2 defines the data sources that will be used and critically appraises their strengths and weaknesses; and (3 applies appropriate methods, including advanced analytics. These elements should be set out in advance of the study commencing, ideally in a published protocol.The strengths of RWE studies are that they are more inclusive than RCTs and can enable an evidence base to be developed around real-world effectiveness and to start to address the complications of managing other real-world problems such as multimorbidity. Computerised medical record systems and big data provide a rich source of data for RWE studies.However, guidance is needed to help assess the rigour of RWE studies so that the strength of recommendations based on their output can be determined. Additionally, RWE advanced analytics methods need better categorisation and validation.We predict that the core role of RCTs will shift towards assessing safety and achieving regulatory compliance. RWE studies, notwithstanding their limitations, may become established as the best vehicle to assess efficacy. 

  14. "Don't know" answers concerning somatic disease status should not be regarded as "no" responses

    Baumeister, Harald

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With regard to patients' self-reported somatic diseases some researchers transformed “don't know (DK” responses into “no” responses. The present study examines the appropriateness of this procedure. Methods: Analyses were based on the nationally representative German National Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS, which assessed both self-reported diseases and physician-diagnosed diseases (N = 7124. Prevalence rates of persons’ DK responses and the corresponding prevalences of physicians’ diagnoses were calculated for persons with hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD, heart failure, asthma, chronic bronchitis, thyroid disease, diabetes, cancer, gout, arthrosis, arthritis and osteoporosis. Correlates of physicians' diagnosed diseases of DK cases are reported. Results: Between 1.6% and 9.8% of the participants responded with DK to the question of whether they have the disease. In 3.7% to 29.5% of DK cases, the physicians did regard the respective disease as being present. With regard to persons who responded with DK, the probability of a physicians' diagnosis was increased in the case of increased age and a higher number of somatic comorbidities. Conclusion: The procedure of transforming DK responses into “no” answers does not appear to be recommendable.

  15. Solar energy is for now. [Question/answer session with Dr. Barry Commoner

    Commoner, B

    1977-01-01

    Dr. Commoner, in a question/answer format, presents his views on the energy crisis, the part played by OPEC, the part played by the wastage of energy to the problem. He discusses the vulnerability of our economy to the destruction of energy supplies. In discussing alternative energy sources, Commoner says that ''there are only two possible sources of renewable energy. One is solar. . .and the other is nuclear with the breeder.'' But he does feel that the choice for nuclear ''would be a disastrous mistake, partly for obvious environmental reasons and questions of nuclear proliferation but, even more important, for economic considerations. . .'' Solar energy is economical and all the technology exists, he adds. ''Right now, throughout the central band of the USA, it is economic to replace 50 to 60 percent of your conventional heating by building solar collectors,'' he continues. He further discusses other alternative energy sources in the interview and concludes with his views on how seriously energy problems in the U.S. affect the rest of the world. (MCW)

  16. Why the changing American economy calls for twenty-first century learning: answers to educators' questions.

    Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    While struggling with the current pressures of educational reform, some educators will ask whether their efforts make economic sense. Questioning the future makeup of the nation's workforce, many wonder how the educational system should be tempered to better prepare today's youth. This chapter answers educators' and parents' questions around the effect of fluctuations in the American economy on the future of education. The authors offer reassurance that good jobs will always be available, but warn that those jobs will require a new level of skills: expert thinking and complex communication. Schools need to go beyond their current curriculum and prepare students to use reading, math, and communication skills to build a deeper and more thoughtful understanding of subject matter. To explain the implications of the nation's changing economy on jobs, technology, and therefore education, the authors address a range of vital questions. Citing occupational distribution data, the chapter explores the supply and range of jobs in the future, as well as why changes in the U.S. job distribution have taken place. As much of the explanation for the shift in job distribution over the past several decades is due to the computerization of the workforce, the authors discuss how computers will affect the future composition of the workforce. The chapter also addresses the consequences of educational improvement on earnings distribution. The authors conclude that beyond workforce preparedness, students need to learn how to be contributing members of a democracy.

  17. EXPERIMENTS TOWARDS DETERMINING BEST TRAINING SAMPLE SIZE FOR AUTOMATED EVALUATION OF DESCRIPTIVE ANSWERS THROUGH SEQUENTIAL MINIMAL OPTIMIZATION

    Sunil Kumar C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With number of students growing each year there is a strong need to automate systems capable of evaluating descriptive answers. Unfortunately, there aren’t many systems capable of performing this task. In this paper, we use a machine learning tool called LightSIDE to accomplish auto evaluation and scoring of descriptive answers. Our experiments are designed to cater to our primary goal of identifying the optimum training sample size so as to get optimum auto scoring. Besides the technical overview and the experiments design, the paper also covers challenges, benefits of the system. We also discussed interdisciplinary areas for future research on this topic.

  18. Parental influence on children’s answers to an oral-health-related quality of life questionnaire

    Ana Flávia GRANVILLE-GARCIA; Monalisa Cesarino GOMES; Laíza Rocha DANTAS; Lívia Rocha DANTAS; Bruno Rafael Cruz da SILVA; Matheus de França PERAZZO; Maria Betânia Lins Dantas SIQUEIRA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate parental influence on children’s answers to an oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) questionnaire. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-probabilistic sample of 84 pairs of 5-year-olds and parents/guardians. The participants were selected from a primary family healthcare center in Campina Grande, Brazil. First, the children and parents answered respective versions of the Scale of Oral Health Outcomes for Five-Year-Old Children (...

  19. The Geek Perspective: Answering the Call for Advanced Technology in Research Inquiry Related to Pediatric Brain Injury and Motor Disability.

    Wininger, Michael; Pidcoe, Peter

    2017-10-01

    The Academy of Pediatric Physical Therapy Research Summit IV issued a Call to Action for community-wide intensification of a research enterprise in inquiries related to pediatric brain injury and motor disability by way of technological integration. But the barriers can seem high, and the pathways to integrative clinical research can seem poorly marked. Here, we answer the Call by providing framework to 3 objectives: (1) instrumentation, (2) biometrics and study design, and (3) data analytics. We identify emergent cases where this Call has been answered and advocate for others to echo the Call both in highly visible physical therapy venues and in forums where the audience is diverse.

  20. Catalogue of answers in radiology in accordance with subject catalogue 2, with 251 original questions and answers, including comments and an appendix on clinical radiology. 6. rev. and enlarged ed.

    Gleitz, C.D.; Freihorst, J.

    1985-01-01

    The physical and biological fundamentals of radiology and radiation protection are presented. Methods of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine are outlined, and the fundamentals of radiotherapy are discussed. Original examination questions in radiology are presented together with the correct answers. (HP) [de

  1. Towards answering the "so what" question in marine renewables environmental impact assessment.

    Degraer, Steven; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Braeckman, Ulrike; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Dannheim, Jennifer; De Mesel, Ilse; Grégoire, Marilaure; Kerckhof, Francis; Lacroix, Geneviève; Lindeboom, Han; Moens, Tom; Soetaert, Karline; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Van Hoey, Gert

    2016-04-01

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) projects are increasingly occupying the European North-Atlantic coasts and this is clearly observed in the North Sea. Given the expected impacts on the marine environment, each individual project is accompanied by a legally mandatory, environmental monitoring programme. These programmes are focused on the resultant effects on ecosystem component structure (e.g. species composition, numbers and densities) of single industrial projects. To date, there is a tendency to further narrow down to only a selection of ecosystem components (e.g. marine mammals and birds). While a wide knowledge-based understanding of structural impacts on (a selection of) ecosystem components exists, this evidence is largely lacking when undertaking impact assessments at the ecosystem functioning level (e.g. trophic interactions, dispersal and nutrient cycling). This critical knowledge gap compromises a scientifically-underpinned answer to the "so what" question of environmental impacts, i.e. whether the observed impacts are considered to be good or bad, or acceptable or unacceptable. The importance of ecosystem functioning is further acknowledged in the descriptors 4 and 6 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU MSFD) and is at the heart of a sustainable use and management of our marine resources. There hence is a fundamental need to focus on ecosystem functioning at the spatial scales at which marine ecosystems function when assessing MRE impacts. Here, we make a plea for an increased investment in a large (spatial) scale impact assessment of MRE projects focused on ecosystem functioning. This presentation will cover a selection of examples from North Sea MRE monitoring programmes, where the current knowledge has limited conclusions on the "so what" question. We will demonstrate how an ecosystem functioning-focused approach at an appropriate spatial scale could advance our current understanding, whilst assessing these issues. These examples will cover

  2. A cost-consequences analysis of a primary care librarian question and answering service.

    Jessie McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cost consequences analysis was completed from randomized controlled trial (RCT data for the Just-in-time (JIT librarian consultation service in primary care that ran from October 2005 to April 2006. The service was aimed at providing answers to clinical questions arising during the clinical encounter while the patient waits. Cost saving and cost avoidance were also analyzed. The data comes from eighty-eight primary care providers in the Ottawa area working in Family Health Networks (FHNs and Family Health Groups (FHGs. METHODS: We conducted a cost consequences analysis based on data from the JIT project. We also estimated the potential economic benefit of JIT librarian consultation service to the health care system. RESULTS: The results show that the cost per question for the JIT service was $38.20. The cost could be as low as $5.70 per question for a regular service. Nationally, if this service was implemented and if family physicians saw additional patients when the JIT service saved them time, up to 61,100 extra patients could be seen annually. A conservative estimate of the cost savings and cost avoidance per question for JIT was $11.55. CONCLUSIONS: The cost per question, if the librarian service was used at full capacity, is quite low. Financial savings to the health care system might exceed the cost of the service. Saving physician's time during their day could potentially lead to better access to family physicians by patients. Implementing a librarian consultation service can happen quickly as the time required to train professional librarians to do this service is short.

  3. Enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease: some answers but more questions

    Majid Alfadhel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Majid Alfadhel1, Sandra Sirrs21Division of Biochemical Diseases, Department of Paediatrics, BC Children’s and Women’s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Adult Metabolic Diseases Clinic, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Fabry disease (FD is a multisystem, X-linked disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by enzyme deficiency of α-galactosidase A. Affected patients have symptoms including acroparesthesias, angiokeratomas, and hypohidrosis. More serious manifestations include debilitating pain and gastrointestinal symptoms, proteinuria and gradual deterioration of renal function leading to end-stage renal disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and stroke. Heterozygous females may have symptoms as severe as males with the classic phenotype. Before 2001, treatment of patients with FD was supportive. The successful development of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has been a great advancement in the treatment of patients with FD and can stabilize renal function and cardiac size, as well as improve pain and quality of life of patients with FD. In this review, we have provided a critical appraisal of the literature on the effects of ERT for FD. This analysis shows that data available on the treatment of FD are often derived from studies which are not controlled, rely on surrogate markers, and are of insufficient power to detect differences on hard clinical endpoints. Further studies of higher quality are needed to answer the questions that remain concerning the efficacy of ERT for FD.Keywords: Fabry disease, agalsidase α, agalsidase β, Replagal, Fabrazyme, critical appraisal, evidence-based medicine

  4. Overcoming antibiotic resistance: Is siderophore Trojan horse conjugation an answer to evolving resistance in microbial pathogens?

    Dhusia, Kalyani; Bajpai, Archana; Ramteke, P W

    2018-01-10

    Comparative study of siderophore biosynthesis pathway in pathogens provides potential targets for antibiotics and host drug delivery as a part of computationally feasible microbial therapy. Iron acquisition using siderophore models is an essential and well established model in all microorganisms and microbial infections a known to cause great havoc to both plant and animal. Rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial as well as fungal pathogens has drawn us at a verge where one has to get rid of the traditional way of obstructing pathogen using single or multiple antibiotic/chemical inhibitors or drugs. 'Trojan horse' strategy is an answer to this imperative call where antibiotic are by far sneaked into the pathogenic cell via the siderophore receptors at cell and outer membrane. This antibiotic once gets inside, generates a 'black hole' scenario within the opportunistic pathogens via iron scarcity. For pathogens whose siderophore are not compatible to smuggle drug due to their complex conformation and stiff valence bonds, there is another approach. By means of the siderophore biosynthesis pathways, potential targets for inhibition of these siderophores in pathogenic bacteria could be achieved and thus control pathogenic virulence. Method to design artificial exogenous siderophores for pathogens that would compete and succeed the battle of intake is also covered with this review. These manipulated siderophore would enter pathogenic cell like any other siderophore but will not disperse iron due to which iron inadequacy and hence pathogens control be accomplished. The aim of this review is to offer strategies to overcome the microbial infections/pathogens using siderophore. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Do health professionals have a prototype concept of disease? The answer is no.

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-09-11

    Health and disease are core concepts in health care and have attracted substantial interest and controversy. In recent and interesting contributions to the debate it has been argued that the challenges with the concept of disease can be resolved by a prototype concept of disease. As a robin is a more prototypical of a bird than a penguin, some diseases are more prototypical than others. If disease is a prototype concept, it would change nosology, but also health care and the study of health and disease. However, the statement that "disease is a prototype concept" forms an empirically testable hypothesis. Therefore, this study aims to test the hypothesis that health professionals have a prototype concept of disease. Two hundred twenty-three health care professionals in Norway were invited to participate in a survey where they were asked to rank a wide range of diseases according to how typical they considered them to be as diseases. Results were analysed with descriptive statistics. The response rate was 90%. Lung cancer, leukemia, colon cancer, myocardial infarction, and AIDS are the diseases ranged to be most typical, while homosexuality, pregnancy, drapetomania, dissidence, and nostalgia are considered to be the least typical diseases. The results also show that the answers to how typical various diseases are vary greatly, even amongst a relatively homogenous group of health professionals. This study falsifies the hypothesis that disease is a prototype concept for health professionals. This has implications for the debate on core concepts for health care. If health professionals do not have a prototype concept of disease, it is unlikely that there is a prototype concept of disease in general. Consequently, nosologies should not be based on prototypes.

  6. Patient perspectives on answering questions about sexual orientation and gender identity: an integrative review.

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W

    2017-07-01

    To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay

  7. "Will my work affect my pregnancy?" Resources for anticipating and answering patients' questions.

    Grajewski, Barbara; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Lawson, Christina C; Johnson, Candice Y

    2016-05-01

    Authoritative information on occupational reproductive hazards is scarce and complex because exposure levels vary, multiple exposures may be present, and the reproductive toxicity of many agents remains unknown. For these reasons, women's health providers may find it challenging to effectively address workplace reproductive health issues with their patients who are pregnant, breast-feeding, or considering pregnancy. Reproductive epidemiologists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health answered >200 public requests for occupational reproductive health information during 2009 through 2013. The most frequent occupations represented were health care (41%) and laboratory work (18%). The most common requests for exposure information concerned solvents (14%), anesthetic gases (10%), formaldehyde (7%), infectious agents in laboratories (7%) or health care settings (7%), and physical agents (14%), including ionizing radiation (6%). Information for developing workplace policies or guidelines was sought by 12% of the requestors. Occupational exposure effects on breast-feeding were an increasing concern among working women. Based on information developed in response to these requestors, information is provided for discussing workplace exposures with patients, assessing potential workplace reproductive hazards, and helping patients determine the best options for safe work in pregnancy. Appendices provide resources to address specific occupational exposures, employee groups, personal protective equipment, breast-feeding, and workplace regulations regarding work and pregnancy. These tools can help identify those most at risk of occupational reproductive hazards and improve workers' reproductive health. The information can also be used to inform research priorities and assist the development of workplace reproductive health policies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Evolutionary explanations in medical and health profession courses: are you answering your students' "why" questions?

    Malyango Avelin A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical and pre-professional health students ask questions about human health that can be answered in two ways, by giving proximate and evolutionary explanations. Proximate explanations, most common in textbooks and classes, describe the immediate scientifically known biological mechanisms of anatomical characteristics or physiological processes. These explanations are necessary but insufficient. They can be complemented with evolutionary explanations that describe the evolutionary processes and principles that have resulted in human biology we study today. The main goal of the science of Darwinian Medicine is to investigate human disease, disorders, and medical complications from an evolutionary perspective. Discussion This paper contrasts the differences between these two types of explanations by describing principles of natural selection that underlie medical questions. Thus, why is human birth complicated? Why does sickle cell anemia exist? Why do we show symptoms like fever, diarrhea, and coughing when we have infection? Why do we suffer from ubiquitous age-related diseases like arteriosclerosis, Alzheimer's and others? Why are chronic diseases like type II diabetes and obesity so prevalent in modern society? Why hasn't natural selection eliminated the genes that cause common genetic diseases like hemochromatosis, cystic fibrosis, Tay sachs, PKU and others? Summary In giving students evolutionary explanations professors should underscore principles of natural selection, since these can be generalized for the analysis of many medical questions. From a research perspective, natural selection seems central to leading hypotheses of obesity and type II diabetes and might very well explain the occurrence of certain common genetic diseases like cystic fibrosis, hemochromatosis, Tay sachs, Fragile X syndrome, G6PD and others because of their compensating advantages. Furthermore, armed with evolutionary explanations, health care

  9. A short review of primary aldosteronism in a question and answer fashion

    Farrugia Frederick-Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this study was to present up to date information concerning the diagnosis and treatment of primary aldosteronism (PA. PA is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. It has been reported up to 24% of selective referred hypertensive patients. Methods. We did a search in Pub-Med and Google Scholar using the terms: PA, hyperaldosteronism, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia, diagnosis of PA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, adrenalectomy, and surgery. We also did cross-referencing search with the above terms. We had divided our study into five sections: Introduction, Diagnosis, Genetics, Treatment, and Conclusions. We present our results in a question and answer fashion in order to make reading more interesting. Results. PA should be searched in all high-risk populations. The gold standard for diagnosis PA is the plasma aldosterone/plasma renin ratio (ARR. If this test is positive, then we proceed with one of the four confirmatory tests. If positive, then we proceed with a localizing technique like adrenal vein sampling (AVS and CT scan. If the lesion is unilateral, after proper preoperative preparation, we proceed, in adrenalectomy. If the lesion is bilateral or the patient refuses or is not fit for surgery, we treat them with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, usually spironolactone. Conclusions. Primary aldosteronism is the most common and a treatable case of secondary hypertension. Only patients with unilateral adrenal diseases are eligible for surgery, while patients with bilateral and non-surgically correctable PA are usually treated by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA. Thus, the distinction between unilateral and bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is crucial.

  10. Women, pharmacy and the World Wide Web: could they be the answer to the obesity epidemic?

    Fakih, Souhiela; Hussainy, Safeera; Marriott, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how giving women access to evidence-based information in weight management through pharmacies, and by utilising the World Wide Web, is a much needed step towards dealing with the obesity crisis. Women's needs should be considered when developing evidence-based information on weight. Excess weight places them at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, infertility and complications following pregnancy and giving birth. Women are also an important population group because they influence decision-making around meal choices for their families and are the biggest consumers of weight-loss products, many of which can be purchased in pharmacies. Pharmacies are readily accessible primary healthcare locations and given the pharmacist's expertise in being able to recognise underlying causes of obesity (e.g. medications, certain disease states), pharmacies are an ideal location to provide women with evidence-based information on all facets of weight management. Considering the exponential rise in the use of the World Wide Web, this information could be delivered as an online educational resource supported by other flexible formats. The time has come for the development of an online, evidence-based educational resource on weight management, which is combined with other flexible formats and targeted at women in general and according to different phases of their lives (pregnancy, post-partum, menopause). By empowering women with this knowledge it will allow them and their families to take better control of their health and wellbeing, and it may just be the much needed answer to complement already existing resources to help curb the obesity epidemic. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Topology of Innovation Spaces in the Knowledge Networks Emerging through Questions-And-Answers

    Andjelković, Miroslav; Tadić, Bosiljka; Mitrović Dankulov, Marija; Rajković, Milan; Melnik, Roderick

    2016-01-01

    The communication processes of knowledge creation represent a particular class of human dynamics where the expertise of individuals plays a substantial role, thus offering a unique possibility to study the structure of knowledge networks from online data. Here, we use the empirical evidence from questions-and-answers in mathematics to analyse the emergence of the network of knowledge contents (or tags) as the individual experts use them in the process. After removing extra edges from the network-associated graph, we apply the methods of algebraic topology of graphs to examine the structure of higher-order combinatorial spaces in networks for four consecutive time intervals. We find that the ranking distributions of the suitably scaled topological dimensions of nodes fall into a unique curve for all time intervals and filtering levels, suggesting a robust architecture of knowledge networks. Moreover, these networks preserve the logical structure of knowledge within emergent communities of nodes, labeled according to a standard mathematical classification scheme. Further, we investigate the appearance of new contents over time and their innovative combinations, which expand the knowledge network. In each network, we identify an innovation channel as a subgraph of triangles and larger simplices to which new tags attach. Our results show that the increasing topological complexity of the innovation channels contributes to network’s architecture over different time periods, and is consistent with temporal correlations of the occurrence of new tags. The methodology applies to a wide class of data with the suitable temporal resolution and clearly identified knowledge-content units. PMID:27171149

  12. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  13. The ontology-based answers (OBA) service: a connector for embedded usage of ontologies in applications.

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Wingender, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    The semantic web depends on the use of ontologies to let electronic systems interpret contextual information. Optimally, the handling and access of ontologies should be completely transparent to the user. As a means to this end, we have developed a service that attempts to bridge the gap between experts in a certain knowledge domain, ontologists, and application developers. The ontology-based answers (OBA) service introduced here can be embedded into custom applications to grant access to the classes of ontologies and their relations as most important structural features as well as to information encoded in the relations between ontology classes. Thus computational biologists can benefit from ontologies without detailed knowledge about the respective ontology. The content of ontologies is mapped to a graph of connected objects which is compatible to the object-oriented programming style in Java. Semantic functions implement knowledge about the complex semantics of an ontology beyond the class hierarchy and "partOf" relations. By using these OBA functions an application can, for example, provide a semantic search function, or (in the examples outlined) map an anatomical structure to the organs it belongs to. The semantic functions relieve the application developer from the necessity of acquiring in-depth knowledge about the semantics and curation guidelines of the used ontologies by implementing the required knowledge. The architecture of the OBA service encapsulates the logic to process ontologies in order to achieve a separation from the application logic. A public server with the current plugins is available and can be used with the provided connector in a custom application in scenarios analogous to the presented use cases. The server and the client are freely available if a project requires the use of custom plugins or non-public ontologies. The OBA service and further documentation is available at http://www.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de/projects/oba.

  14. Ethylic or methylic route to soybean biodiesel? Tracking environmental answers through life cycle assessment

    Alejos Altamirano, Carlos Alberto; Yokoyama, Lídia; Medeiros, José Luiz de; Queiroz Fernandes Araújo, Ofélia de

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle of biodiesel using alternative transesterification routes is analyzed. • Bioethanol can potentially decrease CO_2 emissions of methanol biodiesel. • Contrarily, equivalent CO_2 emissions are retained and renewability is reduced. • Water footprint increases from 37.12 (methanol) to 44.88 m"3/GJ biodiesel (ethanol). • Energy efficiency is reduced from 79.37% (methanol) to 75.19 (ethanol %). - Abstract: Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced by transesterification of triacylglicerides (TAG) contained in vegetable oils and animal fats, to yield alkyl esters (biodiesel) and glycerin. Methanol is the main transesterification agent employed resulting in FAME (fatty acid methyl esters), which is primarily obtained from natural gas reforming (fossil source). Substitution of methanol by ethanol produces FAEE (fatty acid ethyl esters) and has the potential to render biodiesel a fully renewable fuel. Although renewability is a significant driving force for the proposed alcohol replacement, environmental performance of the alternative transesterification is questioned. The answer is herein sought through a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the two production chains. The study tracks CO_2 emissions, energy efficiency, water and resources consumption, and environmental impacts (Acidification Potential – AP, Global Warming Potential – GWP, Eutrophication Potential – EP, and Human Toxicity Potential – TP). The boundaries of the biodiesel production chains extend from the extraction of raw-materials to its final use as transportation fuel in buses, applied to the Brazilian scenario. Results show that substitution of the methylic route with the ethylic route does not attribute significant environmental benefits. Furthermore, the ethylic route presents competitive advantages only in the category of GWP, and exhibits inferior performance in the remaining evaluated impact categories. Finally, a greater consumption of water and energy

  15. A short review of primary aldosteronism in a question and answer fashion.

    Farrugia, Frederick-Anthony; Zavras, Nicolaos; Martikos, Georgios; Tzanetis, Panagiotis; Charalampopoulos, Anestis; Misiakos, Evangelos P; Sotiropoulos, Dimitrios; Koliakos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present up to date information concerning the diagnosis and treatment of primary aldosteronism (PA). PA is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. It has been reported up to 24% of selective referred hypertensive patients. We did a search in Pub-Med and Google Scholar using the terms: PA, hyperaldosteronism, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia, diagnosis of PA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, adrenalectomy, and surgery. We also did cross-referencing search with the above terms. We had divided our study into five sections: Introduction, Diagnosis, Genetics, Treatment, and Conclusions. We present our results in a question and answer fashion in order to make reading more interesting. PA should be searched in all high-risk populations. The gold standard for diagnosis PA is the plasma aldosterone/plasma renin ratio (ARR). If this test is positive, then we proceed with one of the four confirmatory tests. If positive, then we proceed with a localizing technique like adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and CT scan. If the lesion is unilateral, after proper preoperative preparation, we proceed, in adrenalectomy. If the lesion is bilateral or the patient refuses or is not fit for surgery, we treat them with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, usually spironolactone. Primary aldosteronism is the most common and a treatable case of secondary hypertension. Only patients with unilateral adrenal diseases are eligible for surgery, while patients with bilateral and non-surgically correctable PA are usually treated by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). Thus, the distinction between unilateral and bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is crucial.

  16. Withholding answers during hands-on scientific investigations? Comparing effects on developing students' scientific knowledge, reasoning, and application

    Zhang, Lin

    2018-03-01

    As more concerns have been raised about withholding answers during science teaching, this article argues for a need to detach 'withholding answers' from 'hands-on' investigation tasks. The present study examined students' learning of light-related content through three conditions: 'hands-on' + no 'withholding' (hands-on only: HO), 'hands-on' + 'withholding' (hands-on investigation with answers withheld: HOW), and no 'hands-on' + no 'withholding' (direction instruction: DI). Students were assessed in terms of how well they (1) knew the content taught in class; (2) reasoned with the learned content; and (3) applied the learned content to real-life situations. Nine classes of students at 4th and 5th grades, N = 136 in total, were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. ANCOVA results showed that students in the hands-on only condition reasoned significantly better than those in the other two conditions. Students in this condition also seemed to know the content fairly better although the advance was not significant. Students in all three conditions did not show a statistically significant difference in their ability to apply the learned content to real-life situations. The findings from this study provide important contributions regarding issues relating to withholding answers during guided scientific inquiry.

  17. Area Source Boiler National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), 40 CFR Part 63, Subpart JJJJJJ: Questions and Answers

    This October 2016 question and answer (Q&A) document is in response to a number of questions the EPA has received from delegated state and local agencies and the regulated community regarding the NESHAP for Area source boilers. Document updates 4/2014 PDF.

  18. The Impact of Political Context on the Questions Asked and Answered: The Evolution of Education Research on Racial Inequality

    Wells, Amy Stuart; Roda, Allison

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines how the larger political context and policies enacted at different points in American history have affected the questions education researchers asked and answered. The authors argue that while education researchers are often quick to consider how their research should shape policy, they are less likely to contemplate the…

  19. "I don't get it." Response difficulties in answering political attitude questions in Voting Advice Applications

    Kamoen, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314011951; Holleman, B.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183083547

    2017-01-01

    Study 1 is a think-aloud study among 60 VAA users. The SPSS datafile lists the questions and the verbalizations coresponding to comprehension problems and their categorization. Study 2 is an analysis of all answers provided by over 350,000 respondents during the Municipal Elections of 2014. These

  20. An Online Network Tool for Quality Information to Answer Questions about Occupational Safety and Health: Usability and Applicability

    Rhebergen, M.D.F.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Lenderink, A.F.; van Dijk, F.J.H.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online

  1. Does the Man in the Moon Ever Sleep? An Analysis of Student Answers about Simple Astronomical Events: A Case Study.

    Dove, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the answers provided by (n=98) 12-year-old students to questions on an end-of-the-year science examination. Points out that although students are able to explain day and night, they have difficulties explaining why the moon always presents the same face to Earth. Addresses implications for teaching and learning. (Contains 17 references.)…

  2. Perspectives from the Avian Phylogenomics Project: Questions that Can Be Answered with Sequencing All Genomes of a Vertebrate Class.

    Jarvis, Erich D

    2016-01-01

    The rapid pace of advances in genome technology, with concomitant reductions in cost, makes it feasible that one day in our lifetime we will have available extant genomes of entire classes of species, including vertebrates. I recently helped cocoordinate the large-scale Avian Phylogenomics Project, which collected and sequenced genomes of 48 bird species representing most currently classified orders to address a range of questions in phylogenomics and comparative genomics. The consortium was able to answer questions not previously possible with just a few genomes. This success spurred on the creation of a project to sequence the genomes of at least one individual of all extant ∼10,500 bird species. The initiation of this project has led us to consider what questions now impossible to answer could be answered with all genomes, and could drive new questions now unimaginable. These include the generation of a highly resolved family tree of extant species, genome-wide association studies across species to identify genetic substrates of many complex traits, redefinition of species and the species concept, reconstruction of the genomes of common ancestors, and generation of new computational tools to address these questions. Here I present visions for the future by posing and answering questions regarding what scientists could potentially do with available genomes of an entire vertebrate class.

  3. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  4. Revisiting "No Easy Answers": Application of Sally Smith's Methods in the Lab School of Washington High School Program

    Reynolds, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The first edition of "No Easy Answers" (Smith, 1995) was published in 1979, thirty years ago. That seminal work is as relevant today as it was when the book first appeared. This article provides a description of how Sally Smith's Academic Club Method is implemented in the High School program of The Lab School of Washington.

  5. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions. 260.7a-16 Section 260.7a-16 Commodity and... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and...

  6. I don't get it : Response difficulties in answering political attitude statements in Voting Advice Applications

    Kamoen, Naomi; Holleman, Bregje

    2017-01-01

    What question characteristics are related to comprehension problems in political attitude questions? And what type of answering behaviour do people expose when they do not understand the question? We investigated these issues in the context of Voting Advice Applications (VAAs). These online tools

  7. "Remember to Hand out Medals": Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    Ponti, Marisa

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A) study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can…

  8. Chinese Medical Question Answer Matching Using End-to-End Character-Level Multi-Scale CNNs

    Sheng Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on the problem of Chinese medical question answer matching, which is arguably more challenging than open-domain question answer matching in English due to the combination of its domain-restricted nature and the language-specific features of Chinese. We present an end-to-end character-level multi-scale convolutional neural framework in which character embeddings instead of word embeddings are used to avoid Chinese word segmentation in text preprocessing, and multi-scale convolutional neural networks (CNNs are then introduced to extract contextual information from either question or answer sentences over different scales. The proposed framework can be trained with minimal human supervision and does not require any handcrafted features, rule-based patterns, or external resources. To validate our framework, we create a new text corpus, named cMedQA, by harvesting questions and answers from an online Chinese health and wellness community. The experimental results on the cMedQA dataset show that our framework significantly outperforms several strong baselines, and achieves an improvement of top-1 accuracy by up to 19%.

  9. Exploring viewing behavior data from whole slide images to predict correctness of students' answers during practical exams in oral pathology.

    Walkowski, Slawomir; Lundin, Mikael; Szymas, Janusz; Lundin, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The way of viewing whole slide images (WSI) can be tracked and analyzed. In particular, it can be useful to learn how medical students view WSIs during exams and how their viewing behavior is correlated with correctness of the answers they give. We used software-based view path tracking method that enabled gathering data about viewing behavior of multiple simultaneous WSI users. This approach was implemented and applied during two practical exams in oral pathology in 2012 (88 students) and 2013 (91 students), which were based on questions with attached WSIs. Gathered data were visualized and analyzed in multiple ways. As a part of extended analysis, we tried to use machine learning approaches to predict correctness of students' answers based on how they viewed WSIs. We compared the results of analyses for years 2012 and 2013 - done for a single question, for student groups, and for a set of questions. The overall patterns were generally consistent across these 3 years. Moreover, viewing behavior data appeared to have certain potential for predicting answers' correctness and some outcomes of machine learning approaches were in the right direction. However, general prediction results were not satisfactory in terms of precision and recall. Our work confirmed that the view path tracking method is useful for discovering viewing behavior of students analyzing WSIs. It provided multiple useful insights in this area, and general results of our analyses were consistent across two exams. On the other hand, predicting answers' correctness appeared to be a difficult task - students' answers seem to be often unpredictable.

  10. Results of the ANSWER Trial Using the PulseRider for the Treatment of Broad-Necked, Bifurcation Aneurysms.

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Derdeyn, Colin P; Tateshima, Satoshi; Mocco, Jay; Crowley, R Webster; Liu, Kenneth C; Jensen, Lee; Ebersole, Koji; Reeves, Alan; Lopes, Demetrius K; Hanel, Ricardo A; Sauvageau, Eric; Duckwiler, Gary; Siddiqui, Adnan; Levy, Elad; Puri, Ajit; Pride, Lee; Novakovic, Roberta; Chaudry, M Imran; Turner, Raymond D; Turk, Aquilla S

    2017-07-01

    The safety and probable benefit of the PulseRider (Pulsar Vascular, Los Gatos, California) for the treatment of broad-necked, bifurcation aneurysms was studied in the context of the prospective, nonrandomized, single arm clinical trial-the Adjunctive Neurovascular Support of Wide-neck aneurysm Embolization and Reconstruction (ANSWER) Trial. To present the results of the United States cases employing the PulseRider device as part of the ANSWER clinical trial. Aneurysms treated with the PulseRider device among sites enrolling in the ANSWER trial were prospectively studied and the results are summarized. Aneurysms arising at either the carotid terminus or basilar apex that were relatively broad necked were considered candidates for inclusion into the ANSWER study. Thirty-four patients were enrolled (29 female and 5 male) with a mean age of 60.9 years (27 basilar apex and 7 carotid terminus). Mean aneurysm height ranged from 2.4 to 15.9 mm with a mean neck size of 5.2 mm (range 2.3-11.6 mm). In all patients, the device was delivered and deployed. Immediate Raymond I or II occlusion was achieved in 82.4% and progressed to 87.9% at 6-month follow-up. A modified Rankin Score of 2 or less was seen in 94% of patients at 6 months. The results from the ANSWER trial demonstrate that the PulseRider device is safe and offers probable benefit as for the treatment of bifurcation aneurysms arising at the basilar apex or carotid terminus. As such, it represents a useful addition to the armamentarium of the neuroendovascular specialist. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  11. Genetic effects of ionizing radiation – some questions with no answers

    Mosse, Irma B.

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of questions about genetic effects of ionizing radiation, the main one is does ionizing radiation induce mutations in humans? There is no direct evidence that exposure of parents to radiation leads to excess heritable disease in offspring. What is the difference between human and other species in which radiation induced mutations are easily registered? During evolution germ cell selection ex vivo has been changed to a selection in vivo and we cannot observe such selection of radiation damaged cells in human. Low radiation doses – are they harmful or beneficial? The “hormesis” phenomenon as well as radioadaptive response proves positive effects of low radiation dose. Can analysis of chromosomal aberration rate in lymphocytes be used for dosimetry? Many uncontrolled factors may be responsible for significant mistakes of this method. Why did evolution preserve the bystander effect? This paper is discussion one and its goal is to pay attention on some effects of ionizing radiation. - Highlights: ► There are a lot of questions about genetic effects of ionizing radiation. ► Does ionizing radiation induce mutations in human? ► During evolution germ cell selection ex vivo has been changed to a selection in vivo. ► Radioadaptive response proves positive effects of low radiation doses. ► Many uncontrolled factors may be responsible for significant biodosimetry mistakes.

  12. Taylor dispersion in premixed combustion: Questions from turbulent combustion answered for laminar flames

    Daou, Joel; Pearce, Philip; Al-Malki, Faisal

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of Taylor dispersion in premixed combustion and use it to clarify fundamental issues related to flame propagation in a flow field. In particular, simple analytical formulas are derived for variable density laminar flames with arbitrary Lewis number Le providing clear answers to important questions arising in turbulent combustion, when these questions are posed for the case of one-scale laminar parallel flows. Exploiting, in the context of a laminar Poiseuille flow model, a thick flame distinguished asymptotic limit for which the flow amplitude is large with the Reynolds number Re fixed, three main contributions are made. First, a link is established between Taylor dispersion [G. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 219, 186 (1953), 10.1098/rspa.1953.0139] and Damköhler's second hypothesis [G. Damköhler, Ber. Bunsen. Phys. Chem. 46, 601 (1940)] by describing analytically the enhancement of the effective propagation speed UT due to small flow scales. More precisely, it is shown that Damköhler's hypothesis is only partially correct for one-scale parallel laminar flows. Specifically, while the increase in UT due to the flow is shown to be directly associated with the increase in the effective diffusivity as suggested by Damköhler, our results imply that UT˜Re (for Re≫1 ) rather than UT˜√{Re} , as implied by Damköhler's hypothesis. Second, it is demonstrated analytically and confirmed numerically that, when UT is plotted versus the flow amplitude for fixed values of Re, the curve levels off to a constant value depending on Re. We may refer to this effect as the laminar bending effect as it mimics a similar bending effect known in turbulent combustion. Third, somewhat surprising implications associated with the dependence of UT and of the effective Lewis number Leeff on the flow are reported. For example, Leeff is found to vary from Le to Le-1 as Re varies from small to large values. Also, UT is found to be a monotonically increasing function

  13. An online network tool for quality information to answer questions about occupational safety and health: usability and applicability

    van Dijk Frank JH

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common information facilities do not always provide the quality information needed to answer questions on health or health-related issues, such as Occupational Safety and Health (OSH matters. Barriers may be the accessibility, quantity and readability of information. Online Question & Answer (Q&A network tools, which link questioners directly to experts can overcome some of these barriers. When designing and testing online tools, assessing the usability and applicability is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the usability and applicability of a new online Q&A network tool for answers on OSH questions. Methods We applied a cross-sectional usability test design. Eight occupational health experts and twelve potential questioners from the working population (workers were purposively selected to include a variety of computer- and internet-experiences. During the test, participants were first observed while executing eight tasks that entailed important features of the tool. In addition, they were interviewed. Through task observations and interviews we assessed applicability, usability (effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction and facilitators and barriers in use. Results Most features were usable, though several could be improved. Most tasks were executed effectively. Some tasks, for example searching stored questions in categories, were not executed efficiently and participants were less satisfied with the corresponding features. Participants' recommendations led to improvements. The tool was found mostly applicable for additional information, to observe new OSH trends and to improve contact between OSH experts and workers. Hosting and support by a trustworthy professional organization, effective implementation campaigns, timely answering and anonymity were seen as important use requirements. Conclusions This network tool is a promising new strategy for offering company workers high quality information

  14. Evaluation and interpretation of maternal toxicity in Segment II studies: Issues, some answers, and data needs

    Rogers, John M.; Chernoff, Neil; Keen, Carl L.; Daston, George P.

    2005-01-01

    Biologically rational regulatory policies with regards to developmental toxicity are often based on the extrapolation of standard laboratory rodent bioassay results to the human population. Significantly contributing to the difficulty of this task is the possibility that general toxic effects on the maternal organism may affect the developing conceptus. This review examines maternal factors which may bear directly or indirectly upon developmental outcome, with emphasis on those of greatest relevance to the hazard assessment process. Standard teratology testing protocols call for top dosage levels that induce overt maternal toxicity, and the developmental effects of this toxicity (both alone, and with concurrent embryo/fetal insult) continue to present regulators with considerable interpretive difficulties. In response to these problems, there have been both research and literature review efforts dealing with the relationship of maternal and developmental toxicity. Maternally mediated developmental toxicity occurs with a number of agents, and toxicant-induced alterations in maternal physiology may affect the conceptus at dosages not causing overt maternal toxicity. Relevant studies are reviewed here, and suggestions for avenues of future research are offered including the identification of any syndromes of developmental effects occurring at maternally toxic levels irrespective of the causative agent, and experimental approaches for the characterization of maternal toxicity

  15. The 5 key questions coping with risks due to natural hazards, answered by a case study

    Hardegger, P.; Sausgruber, J. T.; Schiegg, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    Based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, human endeavours concern primarily existential needs, consequently, to be safeguarded against both natural as well as man made threads. The subsequent needs are to realize chances in a variety of fields, as economics and many others. Independently, the 5 crucial questions are the same as for coping with risks due to natural hazards specifically. These 5 key questions are I) What is the impact in function of space and time ? II) What protection measures comply with the general opinion and how much do they mitigate the threat? III) How can the loss be adequately quantified and monetized ? IV) What budget for prevention and reserves for restoration and compensation are to be planned ? V) Which mix of measures and allocation of resources is sustainable, thus, optimal ? The 5 answers, exemplified by a case study, concerning the sustainable management of risk due to the debris flows by the Enterbach / Inzing / Tirol / Austria, are as follows : I) The impact, created by both the propagation of flooding and sedimentation, has been forecasted by modeling (numerical simulation) the 30, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 1000 year debris flow. The input was specified by detailed studies in meteorology, precipitation and runoff, in geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology and slope stability, in hydraulics, sediment transport and debris flow, in forestry, agriculture and development of communal settlement and infrastructure. All investigations were performed according to the method of ETAlp (Erosion and Transport in Alpine systems). ETAlp has been developed in order to achieve a sustainable development in alpine areas and has been evaluated by the research project "nab", within the context of the EU-Interreg IIIb projects. II) The risk mitigation measures of concern are in hydraulics at the one hand and in forestry at the other hand. Such risk management is evaluated according to sustainability, which means economic, ecologic and social, in short, "triple

  16. Reactor physics modelling of accident tolerant fuel for LWRs using ANSWERS codes

    Lindley, B.A.; Lillington, J.N.; Kotlyar, D.; Parks, G.T.; Petrovic, B.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of nuclear reactors operating in the world today and similarly the majority of near-term new build reactors will be LWRs. These currently accommodate traditional Zr clad UO_2/PuO_2 fuel designs which have an excellent performance record for normal operation. However, the events at Fukushima culminated in significant hydrogen production and hydrogen explosions, resulting from high temperature Zr/steam interaction following core uncovering for an extended period. These events have resulted in increased emphasis towards developing more accident tolerant fuels (ATFs)-clad systems, particularly for current and near-term build LWRs. R and D programmes are underway in the US and elsewhere to develop ATFs and the UK is engaging in these international programmes. Candidate advanced fuel materials include uranium nitride (UN) and uranium silicide (U_3Si_2). Candidate cladding materials include advanced stainless steel (FeCrAl) and silicon carbide. The UK has a long history in industrial fuel manufacture and fabrication for a wide range of reactor systems including LWRs. This is supported by a national infrastructure to perform experimental and theoretical R and D in fuel performance, fuel transient behaviour and reactor physics. In this paper, an analysis of the Integral Inherently Safe LWR design (I"2S-LWR), a reactor concept developed by an international collaboration led by the Georgia Institute of Technology, within a US DOE Nuclear Energy University Program (NEUP) Integrated Research Project (IRP) is considered. The analysis is performed using the ANSWERS reactor physics code WIMS and the EDF Energy core simulator PANTHER by researchers at the University of Cambridge. The I"2S-LWR is an advanced 2850 MWt integral PWR with inherent safety features. In order to enhance the safety features, the baseline fuel and cladding materials that were chosen for the I"2S-LWR design are U_3Si_2 and advanced stainless steel respectively. In addition, the I"2S-LWR design

  17. Answerability versus Enforceability: A Study of Accountability in the Relationships Between Donors and Recipients of Foreign Aid

    Wilson, Evan Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accountability is an indispensable element of any democratic political system. Yet, few empirical studies have gone about systematically measuring the concept. This study aims to measure accountability in the relationships between donors and recipients of foreign aid grants. In doing so, accountability is operationalized into two dimensions; answerability and enforceability. Each dimension was measured along seven indicators based on data gathered from four recipient organizations in Kenya an...

  18. [Formation of the compensation answer in the system "lipid peroxidation - antioxidant protection" in rats with alimentary dislipidemia].

    Karaman, Iu K; Novgorodtseva, T P; Vitkina, T I; Lobanova, E G

    2011-01-01

    It is investigated conditions of system "lipid peroksidation - antioxidant protection" at rats of the line Wistar at prolonged formation alimentary dyslipidemia (DLP). It is established, that at formation DLP during 46 days in cells there was no increase in resistance and capacity of processes antioxidant protection. In prolonged DLP (90 days) was characterized by occurrence of the compensation-adaptive answer in the system "lipid peroksidation - antioxidant protection".

  19. Relationship between VacA Toxin and Host Cell Autophagy in Helicobacter pylori Infection of the Human Stomach: A Few Answers, Many Questions

    Vittorio Ricci

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of about half the global population and represents the greatest risk factor for gastric malignancy. The relevance of H. pylori for gastric cancer development is equivalent to that of tobacco smoking for lung cancer. VacA toxin seems to play a pivotal role in the overall strategy of H. pylori towards achieving persistent gastric colonization. This strategy appears to involve the modulation of host cell autophagy. After an overview of autophagy and its role in infection and carcinogenesis, I critically review current knowledge about the action of VacA on host cell autophagy during H. pylori infection of the human stomach. Although VacA is a key player in modulation of H. pylori-induced autophagy, a few discrepancies in the data are also evident and many questions remain to be answered. We are thus still far from a definitive understanding of the molecular mechanisms through which VacA affects autophagy and the consequences of this toxin action on the overall pathogenic activity of H. pylori.

  20. Randomized controlled trials in evidence-based mental health care: getting the right answer to the right question.

    Essock, Susan M; Drake, Robert E; Frank, Richard G; McGuire, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of clinical research is to answer this question: Would a new treatment, when added to the existing range of treatment options available in practice, help patients? Randomized controlled trials (RCTs)--in particular, double-blind RCTs--have important methodological advantages over observational studies for addressing this question. These advantages, however, come at a price. RCTs compare treatments using a particular allocation rule for assigning patients to treatments (random assignment) that does not mimic real-world practice. "Favorable" results from an RCT indicating that a new treatment is superior to existing treatments are neither necessary nor sufficient for establishing a "yes" answer to the question posed above. Modeled on an experimental design, RCTs are expensive in time and money and must compare simple differences in treatments. Findings have a high internal validity but may not address the needs of the field, particularly where treatment is complex and rapidly evolving. Design of clinical research needs to take account of the way treatments are allocated in actual practice and include flexible designs to answer important questions most effectively.

  1. Comparing Effect of 'Summarizing', 'Question-Answer Relationship', and 'Syntactic Structure Identification' on the Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL students

    Fatemeh Hemmati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at comparing the effects of 'question-answer relationship strategy', 'summarizing', and 'syntactic structure identification training'on the reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The participants were sixty (34 women and 26 men intermediate students who answered an English reading comprehension test consisting of three reading passages as the pretest. During the treatment, the students in the first group were supposed to summarize the passages. The subjects in the second group familiarized with the syntactic structure identification strategy and the ones in the third group were taught the question-answer relationship strategy. At the end of the treatment, an English reading comprehension test similar to the pretest was administered to the groups as a posttest. The results suggested that there is statistically significant difference between the reading comprehension abilities of the three classes. Furthermore the use of QAR strategy led to better comprehension of reading texts with syntactic structure training and summarizing between which there was no significant difference.

  2. Example of answers to the problems of 31st to 35th examinations for the chief engineer of nuclear fuel. 1999 to 2003

    Yachi, Shigeyasu; Satoh, Tadashi; Suga, Shin-ichi

    2003-09-01

    This report contains example of answers to the Problems of 31st(1999) to 35th(2003) Examinations for the Chief Engineer of Nuclear Fuel which were conducted as a national qualification examination. Brief explanations or references are given to some answers. (author)

  3. Translating Answers to Open-Ended Survey Questions in Cross-Cultural Research: A Case Study on the Interplay between Translation, Coding, and Analysis

    Behr, Dorothée

    2015-01-01

    Open-ended probing questions in cross-cultural surveys help uncover equivalence problems in cross-cultural survey research. For languages that a project team does not understand, probe answers need to be translated into a common project language. This article presents a case study on translating open-ended, that is, narrative answers. It describes…

  4. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary).

    2010-04-01

    ... or on behalf of an employee is excluded from the definition of “wages” if at the time such benefit is... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... relating to the definition of wages in section 3121(a) (Temporary). The following question and answer...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3306(b)-1T - Question and answer relating to the definition of wages in section 3306(b) (Temporary).

    2010-04-01

    ... employee is excluded from the definition of “wages” if at the time such benefit is provided it is... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Question and answer relating to the definition... (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3306(b)-1T Question and answer relating to the definition...

  6. 26 CFR 1.505(c)-1T - Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under...

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Questions and answers relating to the... Questions and answers relating to the notification requirement for recognition of exemption under paragraphs... taxation need not submit the notification required by section 505(c). [T.D. 8073, 51 FR 4330, Feb. 4, 1986...

  7. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  8. Understanding the cellular mode of action of vernakalant using a computational model: answers and new questions

    Loewe Axel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vernakalant is a new antiarrhythmic agent for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. While it has proven to be effective in a large share of patients in clinical studies, its underlying mode of action is not fully understood. In this work, we aim to link experimental data from the subcellular, tissue, and system level using an in-silico approach. A Hill’s equation-based drug model was extended to cover the frequency dependence of sodium channel block. Two model variants were investigated: M1 based on subcellular data and M2 based on tissue level data. 6 action potential (AP markers were evaluated regarding their dose, frequency and substrate dependence. M1 comprising potassium, sodium, and calcium channel block reproduced the reported prolongation of the refractory period. M2 not including the effects on potassium channels reproduced reported AP morphology changes on the other hand. The experimentally observed increase of ERP accompanied by a shortening of APD90 was not reproduced. Thus, explanations for the drug-induced changes are provided while none of the models can explain the effects in their entirety. These results foster the understanding of vernakalant’s cellular mode of action and point out relevant gaps in our current knowledge to be addressed in future in-silico and experimental research on this aspiring antiarrhythmic agent.

  9. Is life the rule or the exception? The answer may be in the interstellar clouds

    2002-05-01

    . For example, can these results really be a clue to what happened about four billion years ago on the early Earth? Can researchers be truly confident that the conditions they recreate are those in the interstellar space? Guillermo M. Muñoz Caro from the European team writes "several parameters still need to be better constrained (...) before a reliable estimation on the extraterrestrial delivery of amino acids to the early Earth can be made. To this end, in situ analysis of cometary material will be performed in the near future by space probes such as Rosetta ..." The intention for ESA's spacecraft Rosetta is to provide key data for this question. Rosetta, to be launched next year, will be the first mission ever to orbit and land on a comet, namely Comet 46P/Wirtanen. Starting in 2011, Rosetta will have two years to examine in deep detail the chemical composition of the comet. As Rosetta's project scientist Gerhard Schwehm has stated, "Rosetta will carry sophisticated payloads that will study the composition of the dust and gas released from the comet's nucleus and help to answer the question: did comets bring water and organics to Earth?" If amino acids can also form in the space amid the stars, as the new evidence suggests, research should also focus on the chemistry in the interstellar space. This is exactly one of the main goals of the astronomers preparing for ESA's space telescope Herschel. Herschel, with its impressive mirror of 3.5 metres in diameter (the largest of any imaging space telescope) is due to be launched in 2007. One of its strengths is that it will 'see' a kind of radiation that has never been detected before. This radiation is far-infrared and submillimetre light, precisely what you need to detect if you are searching for complex chemical compounds such as the organic molecules.

  10. How much flower-rich habitat is enough for wild pollinators? Answering a key policy question with incomplete knowledge.

    Dicks, Lynn V; Baude, Mathilde; Roberts, Stuart P M; Phillips, James; Green, Mike; Carvell, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In 2013, an opportunity arose in England to develop an agri-environment package for wild pollinators, as part of the new Countryside Stewardship scheme launched in 2015. It can be understood as a 'policy window', a rare and time-limited opportunity to change policy, supported by a narrative about pollinator decline and widely supported mitigating actions. An agri-environment package is a bundle of management options that together supply sufficient resources to support a target group of species. This paper documents information that was available at the time to develop such a package for wild pollinators. Four questions needed answering: (1) Which pollinator species should be targeted? (2) Which resources limit these species in farmland? (3) Which management options provide these resources? (4) What area of each option is needed to support populations of the target species? Focussing on wild bees, we provide tentative answers that were used to inform development of the package. There is strong evidence that floral resources can limit wild bee populations, and several sources of evidence identify a set of agri-environment options that provide flowers and other resources for pollinators. The final question could only be answered for floral resources, with a wide range of uncertainty. We show that the areas of some floral resource options in the basic Wild Pollinator and Farmland Wildlife Package (2% flower-rich habitat and 1 km flowering hedgerow), are sufficient to supply a set of six common pollinator species with enough pollen to feed their larvae at lowest estimates, using minimum values for estimated parameters where a range was available. We identify key sources of uncertainty, and stress the importance of keeping the Package flexible, so it can be revised as new evidence emerges about how to achieve the policy aim of supporting pollinators on farmland.

  11. Exploring viewing behavior data from whole slide images to predict correctness of students′ answers during practical exams in oral pathology

    Slawomir Walkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of viewing whole slide images (WSI can be tracked and analyzed. In particular, it can be useful to learn how medical students view WSIs during exams and how their viewing behavior is correlated with correctness of the answers they give. We used software-based view path tracking method that enabled gathering data about viewing behavior of multiple simultaneous WSI users. This approach was implemented and applied during two practical exams in oral pathology in 2012 (88 students and 2013 (91 students, which were based on questions with attached WSIs. Gathered data were visualized and analyzed in multiple ways. As a part of extended analysis, we tried to use machine learning approaches to predict correctness of students′ answers based on how they viewed WSIs. We compared the results of analyses for years 2012 and 2013 - done for a single question, for student groups, and for a set of questions. The overall patterns were generally consistent across these 3 years. Moreover, viewing behavior data appeared to have certain potential for predicting answers′ correctness and some outcomes of machine learning approaches were in the right direction. However, general prediction results were not satisfactory in terms of precision and recall. Our work confirmed that the view path tracking method is useful for discovering viewing behavior of students analyzing WSIs. It provided multiple useful insights in this area, and general results of our analyses were consistent across two exams. On the other hand, predicting answers′ correctness appeared to be a difficult task - students′ answers seem to be often unpredictable.

  12. Can simply answering research questions change behaviour? Systematic review and meta analyses of brief alcohol intervention trials.

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available Participant reports of their own behaviour are critical for the provision and evaluation of behavioural interventions. Recent developments in brief alcohol intervention trials provide an opportunity to evaluate longstanding concerns that answering questions on behaviour as part of research assessments may inadvertently influence it and produce bias. The study objective was to evaluate the size and nature of effects observed in randomized manipulations of the effects of answering questions on drinking behaviour in brief intervention trials.Multiple methods were used to identify primary studies. Between-group differences in total weekly alcohol consumption, quantity per drinking day and AUDIT scores were evaluated in random effects meta-analyses. Ten trials were included in this review, of which two did not provide findings for quantitative study, in which three outcomes were evaluated. Between-group differences were of the magnitude of 13.7 (-0.17 to 27.6 grams of alcohol per week (approximately 1.5 U.K. units or 1 standard U.S. drink and 1 point (0.1 to 1.9 in AUDIT score. There was no difference in quantity per drinking day.Answering questions on drinking in brief intervention trials appears to alter subsequent self-reported behaviour. This potentially generates bias by exposing non-intervention control groups to an integral component of the intervention. The effects of brief alcohol interventions may thus have been consistently under-estimated. These findings are relevant to evaluations of any interventions to alter behaviours which involve participant self-report.

  13. Epistemological Obstacles Experienced by Indonesian Students in Answering Mathematics PISA Test on the Content Uncertainty and Data

    H Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is trying to identify epistemological obstacles which were experienced by Indonesian students in answering PISA test for mathematics literacy content uncertainty and data. Epistemological obstacles was identified by giving a test to the respondent, students of grade 7th and 8th who have studied data representation in the class. Respondents’ work analysed by qualitative method. The result showed that respondents have epistemological obstacles in reading the data, reading between the data, and reading beyond the data. To gain further understanding, some respondents chose to be interviewed.

  14. Examining the Effects of Two Computer Programming Learning Strategies: Self-Explanation versus Reading Questions and Answers

    Nancy Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study described here explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on learning the computer programming language JavaScript. Students’ test performance and perceptions of effectiveness toward the two strategies were examined. An online interactive tutorial instruction implementing worked-examples and multimedia learning principles was developed for this study. Participants were 147 high school students (ages 14 to 18 of a computer introductory course in six periods which were randomly divided into two groups (n = 78; n = 69 of three periods each. The two groups alternated learning strategies to learn five lessons. Students’ prerequisite knowledge of XHTML and motivation to learn computer programming languages were measured before starting the tutorial. Students largely expressed their preference toward self-explanation over reading questions and answers. They thought self-explanation incurred much more work yet was more effective. However, the two learning strategies did not have differential effects on students’ test performance. The seeming discrepancy arising from students’ preferred strategy and their test performance was discussed in the areas of familiar versus new strategy, difficulty of learning materials and testing method, and experimental duration.

  15. eSensor: an electrochemical detection-based DNA microarray technology enabling sample-to-answer molecular diagnostics

    Liu, Robin H.; Longiaru, Mathew

    2009-05-01

    DNA microarrays are becoming a widespread tool used in life science and drug screening due to its many benefits of miniaturization and integration. Microarrays permit a highly multiplexed DNA analysis. Recently, the development of new detection methods and simplified methodologies has rapidly expanded the use of microarray technologies from predominantly gene expression analysis into the arena of diagnostics. Osmetech's eSensor® is an electrochemical detection platform based on a low-to- medium density DNA hybridization array on a cost-effective printed circuit board substrate. eSensor® has been cleared by FDA for Warfarin sensitivity test and Cystic Fibrosis Carrier Detection. Other genetic-based diagnostic and infectious disease detection tests are under development. The eSensor® platform eliminates the need for an expensive laser-based optical system and fluorescent reagents. It allows one to perform hybridization and detection in a single and small instrument without any fluidic processing and handling. Furthermore, the eSensor® platform is readily adaptable to on-chip sample-to-answer genetic analyses using microfluidics technology. The eSensor® platform provides a cost-effective solution to direct sample-to-answer genetic analysis, and thus have a potential impact in the fields of point-of-care genetic analysis, environmental testing, and biological warfare agent detection.

  16. Analysis of Students’ Incorrect Answers on the Topic of Roman Numerals in The Fourth-Grade of Primary School

    Selvianiresa, D.; Jupri, Al

    2017-02-01

    Mathematics has an important role in solving problems related to mathematical symbols. Mathematics topics are related to the daily life of students, as well as mathematics in the primary school level. In this paper, we report the results of research that aims to understand the difficulties of primary school students towards mathematics, especially on the topic of Roman numerals. The subject of this research included 38 students of fourth grade students from a primary school in the city of Bandung. The results showed that the teacher is more likely do the learning to deliver topic directly to students, rather than having to relatethe learning with a real context. In addition, after the teacher gave some exercises to students, we observed that there are some students’ answers that are unpredictable and made errors. Unexpected answers are caused by student’s unconscientious, misunderstanding, or inability to memorize in seven Roman numeral in general. The results of this analysis can be used to develop teacher competence in the teaching and learning process in the future. In this way, we expect the teacher can prepare various student responses to the given problems in the learning process.

  17. Is obesity a risk factor for low back pain? An example of using the evidence to answer a clinical question

    Mirtz Timothy A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity as a causal factor for low back pain has been controversial with no definitive answer to this date. The objective of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with low back pain. In addition this paper aims to provide a step-by-step guide for chiropractors and osteopaths on how to ask and answer a clinical question using the literature. Methods A literature review using the MEDLINE search engine using the keywords "obesity", "low back pain", "body mass index" "BMI" and "osteoarthritis" from years 1990 to 2004 was utilised. The method employed is similar to that utilised by evidence-based practice advocates. Results The available data at this time is controversial with no clear-cut evidence connecting low back pain with obesity. Conclusion There is a lack of a clear dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI and low back pain. Further, studies on the relationship between obesity and related lumbar osteoarthritis, knee pain, and disc herniation are also problematic.There is little doubt that future studies with controlled variables are needed to determine the existence of an unambiguous link, if any.

  18. Value Creation Reporting: Answering the Question ‘Value to Whom’ according to the International Integrated Reporting Framework

    Soner Gokten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Value Creation Reporting: Answering the Question ‘Value to Whom’ according to the International Integrated Reporting Framework The principal function of integrated reporting is the reporting of value and this phenomenon seems the most philosophical part of the International Framework. This paper discusses what the value concept refers to in the Framework: Value to investors, value to society or value to present and future generations? In this sense, we try to answer this question by highlighting the dynamics of capital formations according to interrelations between capitals and demonstrating the value creation process in the short, medium, and longer term. We show that (1 „profit” is the result of short term value creation, which indicates the „value to value chain stakeholders”, (2 „expected fair value of equity” represents the „value to investors” and (3 „longer term value” represents the „value to society” according to the International Framework. Additionally, we touch on the inadequacies of the current Framework and suggest future research opportunities within the scope of value creation reporting. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide a detailed framework on the dynamics of capitals usage and it attempts to show the intersection of accounting and finance in terms of value creation reporting.

  19. “Remember to Hand Out Medals”: Peer Rating and Expertise in a Question-and-Answer Study Group

    Marisa Ponti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an exploratory study of giving medals as part of a peer rating system in a question-and-answer (Q&A study group on Python, a programming language. There are no professional teachers tutoring learners. The study aimed to understand whether and how medals, awarded to responses in a peer-based learning environment, can work as a mechanism to assess the value of those responses when traditional markers of expertise are not always clearly defined and identifiable. Employing a mixed-method approach, the analysis examined (a the content of the answers that were awarded medals and their perceived immediate value and (b the nature of the networked relationships resulting from participants’ interactions. The findings suggest that the peer rating system makes visible what the participants find immediately valuable and allocates a form of recognition that extends the “legitimation code”, which refers to the credentials that make someone competent and worthy of recognition.

  20. A hermeneutical reflection on the resurrection of Jesus Christ in question and answer 45 of the Heidelberg Catechism

    Kobus Labuschagne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to elaborate hermeneutically on the different historical contexts, related the one to the other and to the centre point of the resurrection of Jesus Christ, in question and answer 45 of the Heidelberg Catechism. The aim is not only to find the true meaning that the Heidelberg Catechism intends to convey in the mentioned question and answer, but also to explain the underlying hermeneutical thinking as well as to bring to the surface and explain alternative assumptions that ordinary church-going Christians experience as the unusual outcome of an unknown and different kind of approach. Different hermeneutical processes lead to different outcomes of understanding − sometimes worlds apart. Vanuit die sentrale punt van die opstanding van Jesus Christus in vraag en antwoord 45 van die Heidelbergse Kategismus, wil hierdie artikel in ’n hermeneutiese besinning oor die verskillende verbandhoudende historiese kontekste uitbrei. Die doel is nie slegs om die ware betekenis te vind van wat die Heidelbergse Kategismus in genoemde vraag en antwoord poog om weer te gee nie, maar ook om die onderliggende hermeneutiese denke te verduidelik en alternatiewe aannames, wat gewone Christen-kerkgangers as ’n vreemde en verskillende benaderings ervaar, na die oppervlakte te bring en te verduidelik. Verskillende hermeneutiese prosesse lei tot verskillende uitkomste van verstaan – soms wêrelde van mekaar verwyderd.

  1. Sensitivity and predictive value of 15 PubMed search strategies to answer clinical questions rated against full systematic reviews.

    Agoritsas, Thomas; Merglen, Arnaud; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Combescure, Christophe; Garin, Nicolas; Perrier, Arnaud; Perneger, Thomas V

    2012-06-12

    Clinicians perform searches in PubMed daily, but retrieving relevant studies is challenging due to the rapid expansion of medical knowledge. Little is known about the performance of search strategies when they are applied to answer specific clinical questions. To compare the performance of 15 PubMed search strategies in retrieving relevant clinical trials on therapeutic interventions. We used Cochrane systematic reviews to identify relevant trials for 30 clinical questions. Search terms were extracted from the abstract using a predefined procedure based on the population, interventions, comparison, outcomes (PICO) framework and combined into queries. We tested 15 search strategies that varied in their query (PIC or PICO), use of PubMed's Clinical Queries therapeutic filters (broad or narrow), search limits, and PubMed links to related articles. We assessed sensitivity (recall) and positive predictive value (precision) of each strategy on the first 2 PubMed pages (40 articles) and on the complete search output. The performance of the search strategies varied widely according to the clinical question. Unfiltered searches and those using the broad filter of Clinical Queries produced large outputs and retrieved few relevant articles within the first 2 pages, resulting in a median sensitivity of only 10%-25%. In contrast, all searches using the narrow filter performed significantly better, with a median sensitivity of about 50% (all P PubMed pages. These results can help clinicians apply effective strategies to answer their questions at the point of care.

  2. An artificially intelligent chat agent that answers adolescents' questions related to sex, drugs, and alcohol: an exploratory study.

    Crutzen, Rik; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Portugal, Sarah Dias; Fisser, Erwin M; Grolleman, Jorne J

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if and how an artificially intelligent chat agent (chatbot) that answers questions about sex, drugs, and alcohol is used and evaluated by adolescents, especially in comparison with information lines and search engines. A sample of 929 adolescents (64% girls, mean age = 15), varying in urbanization level and educational level, participated in this study. Use of the chatbot was objectively tracked through server registrations (e.g., frequency and duration of conversations with the chatbot, the number and topics of queries), and a web-based questionnaire was used to evaluate the chatbot (e.g., the perception of anonymity, conciseness, ease of use, fun, quality and quantity of information, and speed) and to compare it with information lines and search engines. The chatbot reached high school attendees in general and not only adolescents with previous experience related to sex, drugs, or alcohol; this is promising from an informed decision-making point of view. Frequency (M = 11) and duration of conversations (3:57 minutes) was high and the chatbot was evaluated positively, especially in comparison with information lines and search engines. The use of chatbots within the field of health promotion has a large potential to reach a varied group of adolescents and to provide them with answers to their questions related to sex, drugs, and alcohol. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Public meeting on radiation safety for industrial radiographerss: remarks, questions and answers at five NRC regional meetings

    1978-11-01

    Over the past several years thenumber of radiation overexposures experienced in the radiography industry has been higher than for any other single group of NRC licensees. To inform radiography licensees of NRC's concern fo these recurring overexposure incidents, NRC staff representatives met with licensees in a series of five regional meetings. At these meetings the staff presented prepared remarks and answered questions on NRC regulations and operations. The main purposes of the meetings were to express NRC's concern for the high incidence of overexposures, and to open a line of communication between the NRC and radiography licensees in an effort to achieve the common goal of improved radiation safety. The remarks presented by the staff and subjects discussed at these meetings included: the purpose, scope, findings and goals of the NRC inspection program; ways and means of incorporating safety into radiography operations; and case histories of overexposure incidents, with highlights of the causes and possible preventions. At each of the regional meetings the staff received a request for a copy of the prepared remarks and a consolidation of the questions and answers that were discussed. This document includes that information, and a copy is being provided to each organizaion or firm attending the regional meetings. Requests for other copies should be made in accordance with the directions printed inside the front cover of this document

  4. OECD/NEA WGRisk CAPS on PSA for Advanced Reactors: a summary of questionnaires and answers report

    Ahn, K.I.; Han, S.J.; Han, S.H.; Yang, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Main objectives of the WGRisk CAPS on the probabilistic safety analysis for advanced reactors which was approved by the OECD/NEA CSNI in June 2008, are to 1) characterize the ability of current PSA (Probability Safety Assessment) technology to address key questions regarding the development and licensing of advanced reactor designs; 2) characterize the potential value of advanced PSA methods and tools; and 3) develop recommendations to CSNI for any needed developments. For this purpose, the two following sub-tasks have been set up: -) A survey of participating countries regarding the state of PSA technologies for advanced reactors and -) Organization of an international workshop for detailed follow-up discussions related to the topic. In order to meet the objectives of the CAPS (CSNI Activity Proposal Sheet), the questionnaires to elicit the respondents' viewpoints had been distributed to the WGRisk member countries during the period of 2009 to 2010, and answers from the 12 countries (13 organizations) have been collected until February 2010. This paper summarizes the current status of the answers to the questionnaires and the international status and insights into PSA technologies for advanced reactors. (authors)

  5. Induced Seismicity

    Keranen, Katie M.; Weingarten, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    The ability of fluid-generated subsurface stress changes to trigger earthquakes has long been recognized. However, the dramatic rise in the rate of human-induced earthquakes in the past decade has created abundant opportunities to study induced earthquakes and triggering processes. This review briefly summarizes early studies but focuses on results from induced earthquakes during the past 10 years related to fluid injection in petroleum fields. Study of these earthquakes has resulted in insights into physical processes and has identified knowledge gaps and future research directions. Induced earthquakes are challenging to identify using seismological methods, and faults and reefs strongly modulate spatial and temporal patterns of induced seismicity. However, the similarity of induced and natural seismicity provides an effective tool for studying earthquake processes. With continuing development of energy resources, increased interest in carbon sequestration, and construction of large dams, induced seismicity will continue to pose a hazard in coming years.

  6. Exorcising ghosts in induced gravity

    Narain, Gaurav [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-10-15

    Unitarity of the scale-invariant coupled theory of higher-derivative gravity and matter is investigated. A scalar field coupled with a Dirac fermion is taken as the matter sector. Following the idea of induced gravity the Einstein-Hilbert term is generated via dynamical symmetry breaking of scale invariance. The renormalisation group flows are computed and one-loop RG improved effective potential of scalar is calculated. The scalar field develops a new minimum via the Coleman-Weinberg procedure inducing the Newton constant and masses in the matter sector. The spin-2 problematic ghost and the spin-0 mode of the metric fluctuation get a mass in the broken phase of the theory. The energy dependence of the vacuum expectation value in the RG improved scenario implies a running for the induced parameters. This sets up platform to ask whether it is possible to evade the spin-2 ghost by keeping its mass always above the running energy scale? In broken phase this question is satisfactorily answered for a large domain of coupling parameter space where the ghost is evaded. The spin-0 mode can be made physically realisable or not depending upon the choice of the initial parameters. The induced Newton constant is seen to vanish in the ultraviolet case. By properly choosing parameters it is possible to make the matter fields physically unrealisable. (orig.)

  7. Answers to questions at public meetings regarding implementation of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 55 on operators' licenses

    1987-11-01

    This document presents questions and answers based on the transcripts of four public meetings (and from written questions submitted after the meetings) conducted from April 9 to April 20, 1987 by the staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The meetings discussed implementation of the Commission's final rule governing Operators' Licenses and Conforming Amendments (10 CFR Parts 55 and 50). The rule became effective May 26, 1987 and is intended to clarify the regulations for issuing licenses to operators and senior operators; revise the requirements and scope of written examinations and operating tests for operators and senior operators, require a simulation facility; clarify procedures for administering requalification examinations; and describe the form and content for operator license applications

  8. A Christian view on the task of the historian provides an answer to the present crisis in historical study

    P. de Klerk

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Historians of today probably have to face more criticism of and attacks on their discipline than any of their predecessors. Twentieth century society and its political and intellectual leaders- including scholars in fields other than history - are seriously questioning the value of history, and doubt whether history is able to make a contribution towards the solution of contemporary problems. Many people have looked to historians for an authoritative answer on questions concerning the future of Western Civilization and the possibility of averting further catastrophic world conflicts, only to be disappointed. People of our age expect science to be of direct practical value, and students of today, who are often disillusioned with the society in which they are living and with its inability to achieve peace and prosperity for all people, want to study only subjects which can make an evident contribution toward the solution of contemporary problems and the creation of a better world.

  9. Answering the question, "what is a clinical nurse leader?": transition experience of four direct-entry master's students.

    Bombard, Emily; Chapman, Kimberly; Doyle, Marcy; Wright, Danielle K; Shippee-Rice, Raelene V; Kasik, Dot Radius

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the experience of students learning the clinical nurse leader (CNL) role can be useful for faculty, preceptors, staff nurses, and interdisciplinary team members who guide them. This article analyzes the experience of four direct-entry master's students in the first cohort to complete the CNL curriculum and to sit for the pilot CNL certification examination. Using action research methodology, the students worked with the clinical immersion practicum faculty and a writing consultant to develop the study purpose, collect and analyze data, and prepare a manuscript. The main theme that emerged was, answering the question, "what is a CNL?" Subthemes supporting the main theme involved coming to the edge, trusting the process, rounding the corner, and valuing becoming. The analysis confirmed the value the CNL offers as a new vision to nursing education and practice. The students offered suggestions for the CNL curriculum and practicum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The NordiNet® International Outcome Study and NovoNet® ANSWER Program®

    Höybye, Charlotte; Sävendahl, Lars; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2013-01-01

    on the safety and effectiveness of reallife treatment with the recombinant human GH, Norditropin®. We describe the origins, aims, objectives, and design methodology of the studies, as well as their governance and validity, strengths, and limitations. CONCLUSION: The NordiNet® IOS and ANSWER Program® studies...... will provide valid insights into the effectiveness and safety of GH treatment across a diverse and large patient population treated in accordance with real-world clinical practice and following the Good Pharmacoepidemiological Practice and STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology......OBJECTIVE: Randomized controlled trials have shown that growth hormone (GH) therapy has effects on growth, metabolism, and body composition. GH therapy is prescribed for children with growth failure and adults with GH deficiency. Carefully conducted observational study of GH treatment affords...

  11. The physics and engineering aspects of radiology.. Textbook with questions and answers. 2. enl. and rev. ed.

    Link, T.M.; Heppe, A.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have chosen the form of questions and answers derived from practice in order to present and explain the fundamental physics and engineering aspects of radiology. The second, completely revised edition of the textbook has been updated so as to include recent legislation and the guidelines for specialized medical education and training for specialists in diagnostic radiology. One new chapters added deals with the diagnostic method of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the chapters on computed tomography (CT), digital radiography and ultrasonography have been enlarged to include recent developments. The text is accompanied by illustrations that are easy to remember, showing the typical aspects and information, and the chapter containing and discussing diagnostic images has likewise been enlarged by representative CT and MRI images. The book is intended for readers preparing for their examination as specialists, for participants of courses in radiological protection, radiological medical technicians or medical students, and may also serve as a refresher course. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Answering Gauguin's Questions in Particle Physics: Where are we coming from? What are we? Where are we going?

    Ellis, John

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of matter revealed by the current reigning theory of particle physics, the so-called Standard Model, still leaves open many basic questions. What is the origin of the matter in the Universe? How does its mass originate? What is the nature of the dark matter that fills the Universe? Are there additional dimensions of space? The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, where high-energy experiments have now started, will take physics into a new realm of energy and time, and will address these physics analogues of Gauguin's questions. The answers will set the stage for possible future experiments beyond the scope of the LHC.

  13. A passage retrieval method based on probabilistic information retrieval model and UMLS concepts in biomedical question answering.

    Sarrouti, Mourad; Ouatik El Alaoui, Said

    2017-04-01

    Passage retrieval, the identification of top-ranked passages that may contain the answer for a given biomedical question, is a crucial component for any biomedical question answering (QA) system. Passage retrieval in open-domain QA is a longstanding challenge widely studied over the last decades. However, it still requires further efforts in biomedical QA. In this paper, we present a new biomedical passage retrieval method based on Stanford CoreNLP sentence/passage length, probabilistic information retrieval (IR) model and UMLS concepts. In the proposed method, we first use our document retrieval system based on PubMed search engine and UMLS similarity to retrieve relevant documents to a given biomedical question. We then take the abstracts from the retrieved documents and use Stanford CoreNLP for sentence splitter to make a set of sentences, i.e., candidate passages. Using stemmed words and UMLS concepts as features for the BM25 model, we finally compute the similarity scores between the biomedical question and each of the candidate passages and keep the N top-ranked ones. Experimental evaluations performed on large standard datasets, provided by the BioASQ challenge, show that the proposed method achieves good performances compared with the current state-of-the-art methods. The proposed method significantly outperforms the current state-of-the-art methods by an average of 6.84% in terms of mean average precision (MAP). We have proposed an efficient passage retrieval method which can be used to retrieve relevant passages in biomedical QA systems with high mean average precision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Using answer set programming to integrate RNA expression with signalling pathway information to infer how mutations affect ageing.

    Papatheodorou, Irene; Ziehm, Matthias; Wieser, Daniela; Alic, Nazif; Partridge, Linda; Thornton, Janet M

    2012-01-01

    A challenge of systems biology is to integrate incomplete knowledge on pathways with existing experimental data sets and relate these to measured phenotypes. Research on ageing often generates such incomplete data, creating difficulties in integrating RNA expression with information about biological processes and the phenotypes of ageing, including longevity. Here, we develop a logic-based method that employs Answer Set Programming, and use it to infer signalling effects of genetic perturbations, based on a model of the insulin signalling pathway. We apply our method to RNA expression data from Drosophila mutants in the insulin pathway that alter lifespan, in a foxo dependent fashion. We use this information to deduce how the pathway influences lifespan in the mutant animals. We also develop a method for inferring the largest common sub-paths within each of our signalling predictions. Our comparisons reveal consistent homeostatic mechanisms across both long- and short-lived mutants. The transcriptional changes observed in each mutation usually provide negative feedback to signalling predicted for that mutation. We also identify an S6K-mediated feedback in two long-lived mutants that suggests a crosstalk between these pathways in mutants of the insulin pathway, in vivo. By formulating the problem as a logic-based theory in a qualitative fashion, we are able to use the efficient search facilities of Answer Set Programming, allowing us to explore larger pathways, combine molecular changes with pathways and phenotype and infer effects on signalling in in vivo, whole-organism, mutants, where direct signalling stimulation assays are difficult to perform. Our methods are available in the web-service NetEffects: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/software/NetEffects.

  15. Quality assessment of expert answers to lay questions about cystic fibrosis from various language zones in Europe: the ECORN-CF project

    d'Alquen Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European Centres of Reference Network for Cystic Fibrosis (ECORN-CF established an Internet forum which provides the opportunity for CF patients and other interested people to ask experts questions about CF in their mother language. The objectives of this study were to: 1 develop a detailed quality assessment tool to analyze quality of expert answers, 2 evaluate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this tool, and 3 explore changes in the quality of expert answers over the time frame of the project. Methods The quality assessment tool was developed by an expert panel. Five experts within the ECORN-CF project used the quality assessment tool to analyze the quality of 108 expert answers published on ECORN-CF from six language zones. 25 expert answers were scored at two time points, one year apart. Quality of answers was also assessed at an early and later period of the project. Individual rater scores and group mean scores were analyzed for each expert answer. Results A scoring system and training manual were developed analyzing two quality categories of answers: content and formal quality. For content quality, the grades based on group mean scores for all raters showed substantial agreement between two time points, however this was not the case for the grades based on individual rater scores. For formal quality the grades based on group mean scores showed only slight agreement between two time points and there was also poor agreement between time points for the individual grades. The inter-rater agreement for content quality was fair (mean kappa value 0.232 ± 0.036, p Conclusions The quality assessment tool described in this study was feasible and reliable when content quality was assessed by a group of raters. Within ECORN-CF, the tool will help ensure that CF patients all over Europe have equal possibility of access to high quality expert advice on their illness.

  16. France's answers to question and comments received from other contracting parties on its 1. report for the JC

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management is supplementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety. It was approved by France on February 22, 2000 and it entered into force on June 18, 2001. France has received 211 questions, coming from 19 Contracting Parties, on its first report and has provided written answers to each one. These answers were gathered in a single document, which lists them along the articles of the Convention. France has presented these answers on November 5, 2003, at the review meeting of the contracting Parties of the Convention and has decided to make them available to the public, however without mention of the countries that had asked them. The 211 questions received on the first report for the Joint Convention are listed along the sections suggested by the guidelines for the answers to the articles of the convention, sorted by the related page number of the French report and, within each section, grouped by issues raised. The written answers to each question have been coordinated by the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN), but have been provided either by the regulators or by the operators (or even both) depending on the related issue. In the case where various questions are related to a same issue but are referred to different articles of the Conventions, they have been referred to the most relevant article in order to have the same issue dealt with in a single location in the present answers report. The answer to each question is provided immediately under the related question.

  17. Answer This Simple Question

    Smith, J. Elspeth S.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author discusses her journey from her first year of the PhD program at USC, and the work she is doing now for a company that builds infrastructure in Afghanistan. She explores the ways in which studies for her 1985 PhD in Rhetoric, Linguistics and Literature did and did not prepare her for the work she does now. Her memoir…

  18. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    ... the atmosphere. Manufactured perchlorate is used as an industrial chemical and can be found in rocket propellant, explosives, ... of the FAQs from May 2017. More in Chemical ... Foods Toxic Elements in Foods & Foodware Page Last Updated: 12/ ...

  19. Tetanus: Questions and Answers

    ... given to adolescents and adults, usually as a single dose; the exception is pregnant women who should receive Tdap during each pregnancy. • Td: ... catch-up vaccinations. All adults should receive a single dose of Tdap as soon as ... women should receive Tdap during each preg- nancy. Adolescents ...

  20. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    ... virus vaccine that was licensed in 1968. The mumps vaccine first became available in 1967, fol- lowed by ... vaccine. • people vaccinated before 1979 with either killed mumps vaccine or mumps vaccine of unknown type who are ...

  1. Teen Diabetes Quiz Answers

    ... home the night before is one way to eat healthy foods at school. Use leftovers from dinner or make a tuna sandwich and add raw ... something fun with you—take a walk after dinner instead of watching TV and playing ... B You can eat at fast-food restaurants, just not every day. ...

  2. Pneumococcus: Questions and Answers

    ... rise. In 2011, an estimated 31% of pneumococcal bacteria were resistant to one or more antibiotics. How common drug resis- tance is depends on ... conjugate vaccine includes purified capsular polysaccharides from the bacteria that ... able to produce an immune response in infants and antibody booster ...

  3. Seeking anthropic answers

    Jaffe, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk

    2006-11-15

    The anthropic principle, as originally expressed by Brandon Carter in 1974, states that: 'What we can expect to observe must be restricted by the conditions necessary for our presence as observers'. That is, given that we are here, we already know that the universe must have had properties - values of coupling constants, number of space-time dimensions, magnitude of the cosmological constant, and so on - such that life could evolve. Is this a vacuous statement, a tautology? Is it at least descriptive? Or could it even be predictive - can we get a better handle on fundamental theories armed with this knowledge? Davies, a cosmologist who has just moved to Arizona State University in the US, starts by inverting the question to ask what it is about the properties of the universe that make it so perfectly suited to life. In the canonical example, Fred Hoyle pointed out that the formation of heavy elements in stars depends exquisitely on thermonuclear reaction rates. Tiny deviations in either direction would make stars unable to turn helium into the carbon of which all life (with the usual 'as we know it' caveat that lurks behind these arguments) is made. But these rates are not written in any obvious way into the fabric of the Standard Model of particle physics. They just emerge in an as-yet incalculable way from the more fundamental parameters of the model. The first half of The Goldilocks Enigma is a workmanlike introduction to the standard models of particle physics and cosmology. This material has been treated at least as well elsewhere, but is necessary background for the discussion of the anthropic argument itself. But it is when Davies moves into these murkier waters that he starts to get into trouble. Still, Davies himself is convinced that these arguments have force. He describes two extreme possibilities: a unique, 'just-so' universe that will only be understandable in the light of a truly final theory; and an 'absurd' universe that just happens to have its properties randomly dialled-in for no underlying reason at all. (U.K.)

  4. Questions and Answers

    2009-01-01

    [问4] (1) It produces metals, precious stones, coal, grain, meat and wines, and has the biggest iron mines in the world. (2) Materials such as paper, glass or metal are collected, sorted, treated and used again.从句(1)来看,metal是个可数名词,而从句(2)来看,它是个不可数名词。它到底是个什么样的名词呢?(广东广州杨月娇)

  5. Seasonal Influenza Questions & Answers

    ... Information for Travelers Flu Activity & Surveillance CDC's WHO Collaborating Center Situation Update: Summary of Weekly FluView Overview ... illness in young children as well as a leading cause of death from respiratory illness in those ...

  6. Answering the environmental challenge

    Meyer, G.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Public opinion surveys indicate environmental sensitivity in the US and throughout the world is on an ever-increasing upward trend. This sensitivity can evidence itself in many different ways. Of particular interest to mining companies is that public opposition to projects, such as new mines, has often become the limiting factor in project success. Opposition can delay projects, wreaking havoc with budgets and schedules, and can even derail the project entirely, resulting in loss of upfront investments and lost opportunities to capitalize on reserves. With the public playing such a critical role, it becomes essential for companies to develop a solid understanding of what factors cause citizens to trust or distrust a company and to support or oppose a given project. With such insight, the company can then employ techniques for gaining community support. If a company can develop this expertise to the extent that it becomes preferred by communities because of its environmental reputation, the company will have turned a potential threat into a business advantage. This advantage will show up, not only in smoother relationships with the public, but also in the bottom line because of the ability to develop mines more quickly and more efficiently

  7. Campylobacter Questions and Answers

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F (62.8 °C) as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  8. Salmonella Questions and Answers

    ... veal steaks, chops, and roasts to a minimum internal temperature of 145 °F as measured with a food thermometer before removing meat from the heat source. For safety and quality, allow meat to rest for at least three ...

  9. Benzene: questions and answers

    1999-01-01

    This information booklet is intended to inform residents near natural gas dehydration facilities about benzene and its levels in the atmosphere. It was issued following the federal government's decision to place benzene on its Priority Substances List and to require industry to establish means for reducing benzene emissions from natural gas dehydrators and to inform residents about benzene emissions from glycol dehydration facilities. Accordingly, the booklet explains what benzene is (a colourless flammable liquid component of hydrocarbons) how it gets into the air (during gasoline refining, vehicle refueling and the production of steel and petrochemicals), the associated health hazards (a recognized carcinogen, causing an increased incidence of leukemia in concentrations of 100 parts per million), defines a glycol dehydrator (a facility built at or near some natural gas fields for the removal of water from the natural gas to prevent corrosion and freezing of pipelines), and enumerates the steps that are being taken to reduce benzene levels in the air (benzene levels in gasoline have been reduced, along with benzene emissions from petrochemical plants, refineries, steel plants and glycol dehydrators by 54 per cent to date; this will rise to 90 per cent by 2005). In addition to these actions, industry plans call for all existing glycol dehydrators within 750 metres of any permanent residence to be limited to benzene emissions of no more than three tonnes per year before 2001; new glycol dehydrators after that date will be expected to have benzene emissions reduced to the lowest level that can be practically achieved

  10. Questions & Answers about Psoriasis

    ... strong enough to improve the condition of the skin. Therefore, they usually are combined with stronger remedies. Light Therapy Natural ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and controlled delivery of ...

  11. Why do they not answer and do they really learn? A case study in analysing student response flows in introductory physics using an audience response system

    Jääskeläinen, Markku; Lagerkvist, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate teaching with a classroom response system in introductory physics with emphasis on two issues. First, we discuss retention between question rounds and the reasons why students avoid answering the question a second time. A question with declining response rate was followed by a question addressing the student reasons for not answering. We find that there appear to be several reasons for the observed decline, and that the students need to be reminded. We argue that small drops are unimportant as the process appears to work despite the drops. Second, we discuss the dynamics of learning in a concept-sequence in electromagnetism, where a majority of the students, despite poor statistics in a first round, manage to answer a followup question correctly. In addition, we analyse the response times for both situations to connect with research on student reasoning on situations with misconception-like answers. From the combination of the answer flows and response time behaviours we find it plausible that conceptual learning occurred during the discussion phase. (paper)

  12. Reaching out to people struggling with their lives: a discourse analysis of answers from Internet-based services in Norway and Sweden

    Andersen AJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Anders Johan W Andersen,1 Tommy Svensson21Department of Psychosocial Health, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenAbstract: The Internet has enlarged the scope of human communication, opening new avenues for connecting with people who are struggling with their lives. This article presents a discourse analysis of 101 responses to 98 questions that were posted on 14 different Internet-based mental health services in Norway and Sweden. We aimed to examine and describe the dominant understandings and favored recommendations in the services’ answers, and we reflected upon the social consequences of those answers. The services generally understood life struggles as an abnormal state of mind, life rhythms, or self-reinforcing loops. Internet-based mental health services primarily counsel service users to seek help, talk to health care professionals face-to-face, and discuss their life struggles openly and honestly. They also urge service users to take better care of themselves and socialize with other people. However, such answers might enhance the individualization of life problems, masking social origin and construction. Consequently, the services are challenged to include social explanations in their answers and strengthen their responsibility to amplify peoples’ messages at a societal level. Potentially, such answers could strengthen democratic structures and put pressure on social equity.Keywords: depression, e-mental health, health psychology, Internet, public health

  13. High Precision Positioning at Field Camp: Using GNSS as the primary data source to answer geologic questions

    Crosby, B. T.; Lauer, I. H.; Pratt-Sitaula, B.

    2017-12-01

    Thanks to the availability and accessibility of GPS/GNSS enabled consumer grade positioning devices, GNSS are nearly ubiquitous in both geologic field research and education. Though the devices offer sufficient precision to geotag images, digital field book entries or measurements, positions themselves are not precise enough to accomplish independent geodetic analysis. As a consequence, most students learn about GNSS at a tool that aids other forms of geologic data acquisition rather serving as the primary source itself. To resolve this, we developed and tested a three-unit teaching module within the GETSI - SERC curriculum framework that reinforces high precision positioning as a primary source of geologic data. Units focus on three core topics: GNSS Fundamentals, Kinematic GNSS and Static GNSS Methods. Module goals enable students to (a) design and conduct a GNSS survey to answer a geologic question, (b) justify why their GNSS technique is appropriate to their question and (c) to articulate how answering their question benefits society. Skill building is via quantitative and qualitative analysis, concept sketches, and both field and office based data acquisition and interrogation. Exercises are site-independent and include example datasets for those unable to travel. In the summer of 2017, we tested the module with 20 undergraduate students over two days at the ISU field geology course. Located in the Lost River Range of Idaho, positioned among active normal faults, we not only explored the use of static GNSS data for active tectonics but visited a station in person. For a summative assessment, we focused on kinematic GNSS, using RTK rovers to reoccupy leveling monuments spanning the active Lost River fault that ruptured in 1983 (M 7.0). The data collected by our class quantified aseismic deformation occurring in the 30+ years since that event. Displacements were significantly larger than the instrumental uncertainty, confirming that RTK was an appropriate tool

  14. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  15. Conflicting paradigms in radiation protection: 20 Questions with answers from the regulator, the health physicist, the scientist, and the lawyers

    Strom, D.J.; Stansbury, P.S.; Porter, S.W. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    George Orwell's open-quotes doublethinkclose quotes should be generalized to open-quotes polythinkclose quotes to describe the multiplicity of views that radiation protection professionals must simultaneously accommodate. The paradigms, that is, organizing principles and beliefs, that (1) regulators, (2) operational health physicists, (3) scientists, (4) lawyers for the defendant, and (5) lawyers for the plaintiff use in their approaches to radiation protection are presented. What we believe as scientists often conflicts with what we do for purposes of radiation protection. What we need to do merely to protect humankind and the environment from harmful effects of radiation is far less than what we must do to satisfy the regulator, whose paradigm has checklists, score-keeping, and penalties. In the hands of lawyers, our work must overcome different challenges. Even if the paradigms of the operational health physicist, the scientist, and the regulator match, the odds against the lawyers paradigms also matching are astronomical. The differing paradigms are illustrated by example questions and answers. It is important for educators, trainers, and health physicists to recognize and separate the score-keeping, practice, science, and legal issues in health physics

  16. The case for multimodal analysis of atypical interaction: questions, answers and gaze in play involving a child with autism.

    Muskett, Tom; Body, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Conversation analysis (CA) continues to accrue interest within clinical linguistics as a methodology that can enable elucidation of structural and sequential orderliness in interactions involving participants who produce ostensibly disordered communication behaviours. However, it can be challenging to apply CA to re-examine clinical phenomena that have initially been defined in terms of linguistics, as a logical starting point for analysis may be to focus primarily on the organisation of language ("talk") in such interactions. In this article, we argue that CA's methodological power can only be fully exploited in this research context when a multimodal analytic orientation is adopted, where due consideration is given to participants' co-ordinated use of multiple semiotic resources including, but not limited to, talk (e.g., gaze, embodied action, object use and so forth). To evidence this argument, a two-layered analysis of unusual question-answer sequences in a play episode involving a child with autism is presented. It is thereby demonstrated that only when the scope of enquiry is broadened to include gaze and other embodied action can an account be generated of orderliness within these sequences. This finding has important implications for CA's application as a research methodology within clinical linguistics.

  17. The effects of perception of risk and importance of answering and initiating a cellular phone call while driving.

    Nelson, Erik; Atchley, Paul; Little, Todd D

    2009-05-01

    Recent data suggest that laws banning cellular phone use while driving may not change use patterns, especially among young drivers with high rates of mobile phone adoption. We examined reasons younger drivers choose or do not choose to talk on a phone while driving among a sample of young drivers (n=276) with very high ownership of cellular phones (over 99%) and a very high use of cellular phones while driving (100% for those that were primary operators of an automobile). Respondents were surveyed for patterns of use, types of call, perceived risk, and motivations for use. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the relationships between perceived risk of the behavior, emotionality of the call, perceived importance of the call, and how often calls were initiated versus answered. The model suggests that even though people believe that talking on a cellular phone while driving is dangerous, they will tend to initiate a cellular conversation if they believe that the call is important.

  18. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  19. Answers to if the lead aprons are really helpful in nuclear medicine from the perspective of spectroscopy

    He, X.; Zhao, R.; Rong, L.; Yao, K.; Wei, B.; Chen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Wearing lead X-ray-protective aprons is a routine in nuclear medicine department in parts of China. However, the staff are often perplexed by questions such as if it is imperative to wear aprons when injecting radioactive drugs, how much radiation dosage can be shielded and if the apron will produce secondary radiation instead? To answer these questions, a semiconductor detector was employed to record different gamma and X-ray spectra with and without the lead apron or lead sheet. Then, we could estimate the signal shielding ratio to different photons for the lead apron and compare with the hospitals measured data. In general, the two results coincided well. The spectral results showed that the detrimental secondary X-rays irradiation rises when the energy of gamma rays exceeds the K absorption edge of lead (88 keV). Moreover, the aprons are not so effective for gamma rays of 364 keV emitted from "1"3"1I and 511 keV emitted from the positron radioactive nuclides. This work is purely a physical measurement in the laboratory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study on the level of gamma rays protection offered by the medical lead aprons and the importance of the spectroscopic measurements is discussed in this paper. (authors)

  20. On permission of waste-burying business in Tokai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (Answer)

    1995-01-01

    As to this case written in the title which was inquired on July 19, 1994, from the prime minister, and changed partly on November 21, 1994, the Nuclear Safety Commission answered to the prime minister as follows after the prudent deliberation. As for the application of the criteria for permission, the technical capability is adequate, and the results of the examination of safety by the expert committee for examining nuclear fuel safety is adequate. It was judged that the safety after the permission of this waste-burying business can be secured. The expert committee reported on the policy of the investigation and deliberation, and the contents of the investigation and deliberation, such as the basic location conditions, namely, site, weather, ground, hydraulics, earthquakes and social environment, the radioactive wastes to be buried, the method of determining radioactivity concentration, the expected time of changing the measures to be taken for security, the safety design for the waste-burying facility related to radiation control, environment safety, earthquakes, fires and explosion, the loss of electric power and the standards and criteria to be conformed, and the assessment of dose equivalent in normal state, after finishing the period of control and safety evaluation, and the course of the investigation and deliberation. (K.I.)