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  1. St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) Tuesday, 01 May 2018 ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to St. John’s Wort may increase the risk for birth ...

  2. Toxicity of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) administered during pregnancy and lactation in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoretti, Barbara; Stebel, Marco; Candussio, Luigi; Crivellato, Enrico; Bartoli, Fiora; Decorti, Giuliana

    2004-01-01

    The popularity of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the treatment of depression is increasing and, in recent years, concerns about its use during pregnancy and breastfeeding have emerged. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in Wistar rats, the effects of a treatment with hypericum administered prenatally and during breastfeeding (from 2 weeks before mating to 21 days after delivery). Two doses of the extract were chosen, 100 mg/kg per day, which, based on surface area, is comparable to the dose administered to humans, and 1000 mg/kg per day. A microscopical analysis of livers, kidneys, hearts, lungs, brains, and small bowels was performed. A severe damage was observed in the livers and kidneys of animals euthanized postnatally on days 0 and 21. The lesions were more severe with the higher dose and in animals that were breastfed for 21 days; however, an important renal and hepatic damage was evident also with the dose of 100 mg/kg per day. In addition, similar serious hepatic and renal lesions were evident also in animals that were exposed to hypericum only during breastfeeding. In particular, a focal hepatic damage, with vacuolization, lobular fibrosis, and disorganization of hepatic arrays was evident; in the kidney, a reduction in glomerular size, disappearance of Bowman's space, and hyaline tubular degeneration were found. The results obtained in this study indicate that further, appropriate histological studies should be performed in other animal species to better evaluate the safety of hypericum extracts taken during pregnancy and breastfeeding

  3. The Role of St Johns Wort (Hypericum Perforatum and Orphanin Interaction on Depression Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena Yalcin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum/ Cantarion has been well-studied which has been showed to have antidepressant, antiviral, and antibacterial effects. St Johns Wort gained popularity as an alternative treatment for mild to moderate depression. On the other hand, the neuropeptide, orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N, is expressed in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissue. In the brain, OFQ/N has been investigated in relation to stress, anxiety, learning and memory, and addiction. The purpose opf this article is to review the current pharmacological, and clinical papers on St. John's wort, to provide information on orphanin FQ/nociceptin and finally to evaluate probable interaction between two. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 531-541

  4. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) products - an assessment of their authenticity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Agapouda, Anastasia; Frommenwiler, Débora A; Scotti, Francesca; Reich, Eike; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-02-01

    St John's wort products (Hypericum perforatum L.) are widely available for sale in many countries including the UK via the internet. In the UK, these products are required to hold either a marketing authorisation or Traditional herbal registration (THR) to be sold legally. The THR and other regulatory schemes help to ensure product safety and quality providing an example of best practice but there is a risk if both regulated and un-regulated products continue to be available to consumers. The project is embedded in a larger study aiming to investigate the quality of different herbal medicinal products along diverse value chains. Here we focus on a comparison of the quality of the finished products and assess phytochemical variation between registered products (THRs) and products obtained from the market without any registration. 47 commercial products (granulated powders and extracts) were sourced from different suppliers. We analysed these samples using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and 1 H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multi-variate analysis software following a method previously developed by our group. The consistency of the products varies significantly. Adulteration of the products (36%), possibly with other Hypericum species obtained from China or use of chemically distinct H. perforatum cultivars or chemotypes, and adulteration of the products (19%) with food dyes (tartrazine, amaranth, brilliant blue, sunset yellow) were the principle findings of this study. There is significant compositional variation among commercial finished products and two main causative quality problems were identified as adulteration by incorrect species or adulteration with food dyes. Generally, food supplements and unlicensed products were found to be of poorer quality than the regulated ones including THRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Nature cures nature: Hypericum perforatum attenuates physical withdrawal signs in opium dependent rats.

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    Khan, Munasib; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Abbas, Muzaffar; Ali, Gowhar; Rauf, Khalid; Gilani, Anwarul Hassan

    2014-05-01

    Hypericum perforatum Linn. (Hypericaceae) (St. John's wort) attenuates opium withdrawal signs. To explore the therapeutic potential of Hypericum perforatum in the management of opium-induced withdrawal syndrome. The effect of the Hypericum perforatum hydro-ethanol extract was investigated for potential to reverse naloxone (0.25 mg/kg)-induced opium withdrawal physical signs. Rats received opium extract (80-650 mg/kg) twice daily for 8 days along with Hypericum perforatum (20 mg/kg, orally) twice daily in chronic treatment and the same single dose 1 h before induction of withdrawal syndrome in the acute treated group. Hypericum perforatum reduced stereotype jumps and wet dog shake number in the chronic treatment compared to the saline control group (F(2, 24) = 3.968, p opium withdrawal syndrome possibly through direct or indirect interaction with opioid receptors. Further study is needed to clarify its mechanism.

  6. Comparison of Systemic and Topical Hypericum Perforatum on Diabetic Surgical Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıparmak, Mehmet; Eskitaşçıoğlu, Teoman

    2018-02-01

    Surgical wounds in diabetic patients still remain a problem till the present day. As a common plant found around the world, Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) is traditionally prepared as an oily extract and used as a folk remedy for various diseases such as wounds, burns, cuts, etc. This study aims to evaluate the effect of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on problematic wounds while comparing oral and topical applications. Incisional and excisional wound models were made on the dorsal regions of 54 diabetic Spraque-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into the following six groups (n = 9): Group 1: control, Group 2: diabetic, Group 3: diabetic oral Hypericum perforatum, Group 4: diabetic topical Hypericum perforatum, Group 5: diabetic oral olive oil, and Group 6: diabetic topical olive oil. Groups 3 and 4 had significantly higher tensile strength, tissue hydroxyproline concentration, and collagen density compared with Group 2. Inflammatory cell density and collagen density on day 3 were significantly higher in Groups 3 and 6 compared with Group 2. On day 21, Groups 3 and 6 had significantly higher fibroblastic activity compared with Group 2. This study has proved that oral St. John's wort has more positive effects on problematic wounds compared with topical St. John's wort and olive oil, which is a vehicle. Hypericum perforatum results with faster inflammatory response and better healing. These results could be an addition to literature about the clinical usage of Hypericum perforatum on diabetic wounds.

  7. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum Affected by Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers; Humic Acid and Potassium Sulphate

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    Helaleh Sadat KABOLI FARSHCHI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of organic (liquid humic acid and inorganic (potassium sulphate on phytochemical and morphological attributes of St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum. Thus, a research was conducted in a factorial experiment (3×3 based on completely randomized design with three replications. Treatments consisted of potassium sulphate (Kx at three concentrations (0, 60 and 100 Kg/h which were treated before flowering and humic acid (Hx at three concentrations (0, 20 and 40 L/h which were fertigated four times of 15-days intervals. Results showed that the plant stem height, number of flowering stems and number of flowers were significantly affected by simple effect of each fertilizers (p<0.01, while their interaction effect was not significant for the plants height. The highest contents of fresh and dry weight were achieved under the highest amounts of fertilizers (K100 and H40. The highest stem height, number of flowers and number of flowering stems also belonged to these treatments. Increment of applied fertilizers led to increase of obtained essential oils, so that application of these fertilizers simultaneously increased the essential oil content up to 6-fold. Regarding the antioxidant activity, applied fertilizers at their high levels showed significant effects on decrease of EC50, which means the increment of antioxidant activity of H. perforatum.

  8. Genetic diversity analysis in the Hypericum perforatum populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic variability among the Hypericum perforatum populations is critical to the development of effective conservation strategies in the Kashmir valley. To obtain accurate estimates of genetic diversity among and within populations of H. perforatum, inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used.

  9. Effect of St.John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) oily extract for the care and treatment of pressure sores; a case report.

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    Yücel, Ali; Kan, Yüksel; Yesilada, Erdem; Akın, Onat

    2017-01-20

    Topical formulations such as oily extracts or ointments prepared with the flowering aerial parts of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericaceae) have been used in the management of a wide range dermatological problems including superficial wounds and burns, bruises, contusions and many others in the worldwide traditional medicines. This is the first case study reporting the beneficial effects of an oily extract of St. John's wort in the treatment of pressure sores in a intensive care unit (ICU) patient. The oily extract of St. John's wort was applied to a volunteer patient at ICU daily for forty successive days for wound care and treatment. Healing status was monitored macroscopically by measuring the wound size and stages at certain intervals as well as histopathological evaluation of the tissue sections taken at the initial and final dates of treatment. Evaluation of the results obtained from the macroscopical and histopathological experimentation have shown that oily extract of St. John's wort provided significant efficacy for the treatment of pressure sore wounds. St. John's wort oily extract may be suggested as a cost-effective option for the prevention or treatment of pressure sores in ICU patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypericum perforatum: a 'modern' herbal antidepressant: pharmacokinetics of active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurglics, Mario; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort [SJW]) counts among the most favourite herbal drugs, and is the only herbal alternative to classic synthetic antidepressants in the therapy of mild to moderate depression. Several clinical studies have been conducted to verify the effectiveness of ethanolic or methanolic extracts of SJW. Alcoholic SJW extracts are a mixture of substances with widely varying physical and chemical properties and activities. Hyperforin, a phloroglucinol derivative, is the main source of pharmacological effects caused by the consumption of alcoholic extracts of SJW in the therapy of depression. However, several studies indicate that flavone derivatives, e.g. rutin, and also the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, take part in the antidepressant efficacy. In contrast to the amount of documentation concerning clinical efficacy, oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetic data about the active components are rather scarce. The hyperforin plasma concentration in humans was investigated in a small number of studies. The results of these studies indicate a relevant plasma concentration, comparable with that used in in vitro tests. Furthermore, hyperforin is the only ingredient of H. perforatum that could be determined in the brain of rodents after oral administration of alcoholic extracts. The plasma concentrations of the hypericins were, compared with hyperforin, only one-tenth and, until now, the hypericins could not be found in the brain after oral administration of alcoholic H. perforatum extracts or pure hypericin. Until now, the pharmacokinetic profile of the flavonoids in humans after oral administration of an alcoholic H. perforatum extract has been investigated in only one study. More data are available for rutin and the aglycone quercetin after administration of pure substances or other flavonoid sources.

  11. Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) versus an SSRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess whether early changes in HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) versus an SSRI for major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (NIMH) study randomized 340 subjects to hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks. The MGH study randomized 135 subjects to hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. We examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. Results In the NIMH study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety-psychic item (sertraline arm), somatic-gastrointestinal item (hypericum arm), and somatic symptoms-general (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the MGH study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety-psychic (SSRI arm), somatic-gastrointestinal and hypochondriasis (hypericum arm), and anxiety-psychic and somatic symptoms-general (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with improvement in the anxiety-psychic, somatic-gastrointestinal, and somatic symptoms-general items. Conclusions The number and type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization items may help predict remission of MDD. PMID:21278577

  12. Do early changes in the HAM-D-17 anxiety/somatization factor items affect the treatment outcome among depressed outpatients? Comparison of two controlled trials of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) versus a SSRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Stella; Farabaugh, Amy H; Ameral, Victoria E; LaRocca, Rachel A; Clain, Alisabet J; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David

    2011-07-01

    To assess whether early changes in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items predict remission in two controlled studies of Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) versus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for major depressive disorder. The Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group (National Institute of Mental Health) randomized 340 patients to Hypericum, sertraline, or placebo for 8 weeks, whereas the Massachusetts General Hospital study randomized 135 patients to Hypericum, fluoxetine, or placebo for 12 weeks. The investigators examined whether remission was associated with early changes in anxiety/somatization symptoms. In the National Institute of Mental Health study, significant associations were observed between remission and early improvement in the anxiety (psychic) item (sertraline arm), somatic (gastrointestinal item; Hypericum arm), and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). None of the three treatment arms of the Massachusetts General Hospital study showed significant associations between anxiety/somatization symptoms and remission. When both study samples were pooled, we found associations for anxiety (psychic; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors arm), somatic (gastrointestinal), and hypochondriasis (Hypericum arm), and anxiety (psychic) and somatic (general) symptoms (placebo arm). In the entire sample, remission was associated with the improvement in the anxiety (psychic), somatic (gastrointestinal), and somatic (general) items. The number and the type of anxiety/somatization items associated with remission varied depending on the intervention. Early scrutiny of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 anxiety/somatization items may help to predict remission of major depressive disorder.

  13. A toxicidade do Hypericum perforatum administrado a ratas prenhes Evaluation of Hypericum perforatum toxicity when administered to pregnant rats

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    Luciana Valente Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No presente trabalho foi avaliada a toxicidade do H. perforatum administrado a ratas no período de organogênese (9º ao 15º dia de gestação. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratas Wistar inseminadas foram distribuídas aleatoriamente nos grupos controle e tratado, que receberam, respectivamente, 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica e 36 mg/kg de extrato seco de Jarsin diluídos em 0,5 mL de solução fisiológica por gavagem. A toxicidade materna foi avaliada por: consumo de água e ração, peso corporal, piloereção, deambulação, diarréia e ocorrência de mortes. As ratas foram sacrificadas no 21º dia de gestação, quando foram removidos e pesados: rins, fígado e ovários. Foram calculados os índices de implantação e de reabsorção e foi verificado o número médio de fetos por rata. RESULTADOS: Não foram observados sinais clínicos de toxicidade materna e nenhuma das variáveis analisadas apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os grupos experimentais. CONCLUSÃO: Na dose administrada e no modelo experimental utilizado, o Hypericum perforatum não apresenta manifestações tóxicas para ratas prenhas no período de organogênese.BACKGROUND: Saint John's wort (Hypericum perforatum is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders. OBJECTIVE: In the present paper, the toxicity of H. perforatum administered to female rats during organogenesis (9th to 15th day of pregnancy was evaluated. METHODS: Thirty inseminated Wistar rats were randomly distributed into Control and Treated groups, which received by gavage, respectively, 0.5 ml of saline and 36 mg/Kg body weight of Jarsin dried extract diluted into 0.5 ml of saline. Maternal toxicity was evaluated by means of: water and food intake, body weight, piloerection, walking activity, diarrhea and death. Animals were killed on the 21st day of pregnancy, when kidneys, liver and ovaries were weighed. Implantation and reabsorption indices

  14. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Esmaily, Hadi; Rahimi, Roja; Baeeri, Maryam; Sanei, Yara; Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Salehi-Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-?), and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS....

  15. Hyperforin accumulates in the translucent glands of Hypericum perforatum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt; Jäger, Anna K

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypericum perforatum contains the therapeutically important compounds hypericin and hyperforin. Hypericin is known to accumulate in the dark glands. This investigation aimed to determine the accumulation site of hyperforin. METHODS: Dark and translucent glands as well as non......-secretory tissue in leaves were manually isolated under the microscope. Hyperforin content was quantified by UV HPLC. Secretory structures were surveyed anatomically. KEY RESULTS: The hyperforin content of intact leaves was found to be about 3 mg g(-1) fresh tissue, whereas a content of about 7 mg g(-1) fresh...

  16. Hypericum perforatum incorporated chitosan films as potential bioactive wound dressing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güneş, Seda; Tıhmınlıoğlu, Funda

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies in wound dressing applications offer new therapies and promote wound healing process. The aim of this study was to develop Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort) oil incorporated chitosan films for wound dressing applications. H. perforatum oil as a potential therapeutic agent was encapsulated in chitosan film to achieve a better wound dressing material. Oil incorporated chitosan films were successfully prepared by solvent casting method in different oil concentrations (0.25-1.5%v/v). Water vapor permeability (WVP), mechanical test, swelling behavior and surface hydrophobicity were performed in order to characterize the prepared films. Antimicrobial test was performed by disc diffusion method and the growth inhibition effects of the films including different amount of H. perforatum oil were investigated on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. WVP increased with oil incorporation and the highest value was obtained for 0.25% oil concentration.The highest strain value was obtained in 0.25% oil content films although tensile stress decreased with increasing oil content. H. perforatum oil incorporated films had antimicrobial effect on both microorganisms. Chitosan based films had no cytotoxic effects on NIH3T3fibroblast cells and provided a good surface for cell attachment and proliferation. The results showed that the H. perforatum incorporated chitosan films seems to be a potential and novel biomaterial for wound healing applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Study on the Effect of Cadmium, Zinc and Zeolite Application on Physiomorphological Characteristics of St. Johnʼs Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.

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    Zhaleh Zandavifard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the heavy metals, cadmium, because of high mobility and bioavailability in soil and also toxicity at low concentrations is very important. Cadmium (Cd is known as carcinogen and can induce many types of cancers. Human activities (metallic industries, contaminated fertilizer, herbicides or insecticides, irrigation with contaminated groundwater, and use of contaminated sewage sludge are largely responsible for accumulation of different levels of Cd in soil. Saint John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L. is a medicinal plant and belongs to the family Hypericaceae which its extract, one of the best-characterized herbal medicines, known as the Cd-hyperaccumulator, is widely sold for the treatment of depression. Hyperaccumulator plants are species able to accumulate high amounts of heavy metals in their tissue at concentrations of 10 to 100 times higher than tolerated by crop plants. Zinc (Zn is an essential element occurring in several enzymes, where it plays a catalytic or structural role. Cadmium and zinc have similar electron configuration, valence state as well as affinity to S, N and O donor ligands and thus their geochemical and environmental properties are comparable. The antagonism activity between Cd and Zn in the environment and their chemical similarity can lead to interactions between Cd and Zn during plant uptake, transport from roots to shoots, or accumulation in edible tissues. Ion exchange is one of the methods used for the removal of several toxic substances. In recent years, natural amendments, such as zeolite have been widely used to address trace metals contamination. Therefore, adding zinc and zeolite to the growth medium of plant can be moderating the toxic effects of cadmium. Materials and Methods: This pot experiment was conducted at the Experimental Field of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM from September 2013 to June 2014. Treatments consisted of three levels of cadmium (0, 10 and 20 mg Cd kg-1 soil

  18. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Esmaily, Hadi; Rahimi, Roja; Baeeri, Maryam; Sanei, Yara; Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Salehi-Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α), and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS. Settings and Design: IBS was induced by a 5-day restraint stress in rats. The HP extract was administered by gavage in doses of 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg for 26 days. Fluoxetine and loperamide were used as positive controls. Gastric emptying and small bowel and colon transit, besides the levels of TNF-α, MPO, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant power, were determined in colon homogenates. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons. Results: A significant reduction in small bowel and colonic transit (450 mg/kg), TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant power in all HP-treated groups (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) were seen as compared with the control group. Gastric emptying did not alter significantly when compared with the control group. Treatment with loperamide (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited gastric emptying and small bowel and colonic transit, while flouxetine (10 mg/kg) decreased gastric emptying, TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant power of the samples in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: HP diminished the recruitment of inflammatory cells and TNF-α following restraint stress not in a dose-dependent manner, possibly via inhibition of MPO activity and increasing colon antioxidant power, without any difference with fluoxetine. The HP extract inhibits small bowel and colonic transit acceleration like loperamide but has minimal

  19. Hypericum perforatum with Vitex agnus-castus in menopausal symptoms: a randomized, controlled trial.

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    van Die, M Diana; Burger, Henry G; Bone, Kerry M; Cohen, Marc M; Teede, Helena J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a phytotherapeutic intervention comprising a combination of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) and Vitex agnus-castus (Chaste tree/berry) in the management of menopausal symptoms. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel trial was performed over 16 weeks in 100 eligible late-perimenopausal or postmenopausal women experiencing hot flushes and other menopausal symptoms. Herbal combination therapy or placebo tablets were administered twice daily. The primary endpoint was hot flush episodes. Secondary endpoints included Greene Climacteric Scale scores, Hamilton Depression Inventory scores, and Utian Quality of Life Scale scores. Ninety-three women completed the study. Data analysis on an intent-to-treat basis found no significant differences between the two groups for any of the endpoints. Analyses performed at interim data time points revealed no significant differences at week 4, 8, or 12 for daily weighted flushes or scores on the Greene Climacteric Scale or Hamilton Depression Inventory. However, significant improvements across the treatment phase were observed in both the placebo and active treatment groups for these endpoints. No significant change was found for either group on quality of life. The herbal combination of H. perforatum and V. agnus-castus was not found to be superior to placebo for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. The herbal combination was well tolerated with no significant adverse events noted in the short term. Robust findings from quality studies such as this are important for informing the community, healthcare providers, and regulatory authorities.

  20. Optimization of HPLC method for the isolation of Hypericum perforatum L. methanol extract

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    Stamenković, J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum L. is one of the most studied plant species in the family Hypericaceae. The aim of this study was the identification of the constituents of methanol extract of H. perforatum and optimization of conditions for their isolation. The main components of the methanol extract were isolated on preparative ZORBAX Eclipse XDB C18 column with solvent system consisting of methanol and 1x10-2 M ammonium acetate in water. Constituents of the extract were identified by comparing their retention times with the retention times of the standards, with the literature data and the UV spectra. By varying the conditions of chromatography, the optimal conditions for isolation of the methanol extract constituents were determined: mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1x10-2 M ammonium acetate in water in ratio 1 : 1, sample concentration 100 mg/mL, sample volume 30 µL, flow 2 mL/min. Under these conditions 7 components of the methanol extract were isolated.

  1. Life span effects of Hypericum perforatum extracts on Caenorhabditis elegans under heat stress.

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    Kılıçgün, Hasan; Göksen, Gülden

    2012-10-01

    The beneficial effects of antioxidants in plants are mainly extrapolated from in vitro studies or short-term dietary supplementation studies. Due to cost and duration, relatively little is known about whether dietary antioxidants are beneficial in whole animals' life span or not. To address this question, under heat stress (35°C), Hypericum perforatum was extracted with petroleum ether and the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans exposed to three different extract concentrations (1mg/mL, 0.1mg/mL, 0.01mg/mL) of H. perforatum. We report that Hypericum perforatum extracts did not increase life span and slow aging related increase in C. elegans. Moreover, one fraction (1mg/mL) increased declines of C. elegans life span and thermotolerance. Given this mounting evidence for life span role of H. perforatum in the presence of heat stress in vivo, the question whether H. perforatum acts as a prooxidant or an antioxidant in vivo under heat stress arises.

  2. Effects of Hypericum perforatum on turning behavior in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

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    Débora Dalla Vecchia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the slow and progressive death of dopaminergic neurons in the (substantia nigra pars compact. Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum is a plant widely used as an antidepressant, that also presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We evaluated the effects of H. perforatum on the turning behavior of rats submitted to a unilateral administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle as an animal model of PD. The animals were treated with H. perforatum (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg, v.o. for 35 consecutive days (from the 28th day before surgery to the 7th day after. The turning behavior was evaluated at 7, 14 and 21 days after the surgery, and the turnings were counted as contralateral or ipsilateral to the lesion side. All tested doses significantly reduced the number of contralateral turns in all days of evaluation, suggesting a neuroprotective effect. However, they were not able to prevent the 6-OHDA-induced decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the lesioned striatum. We propose that H. perforatum may counteract the overexpression of dopamine receptors on the lesioned striatum as a possible mechanism for this effect. The present findings provide new evidence that H. perforatum may represent a promising therapeutic tool for PD.

  3. A review of issues of nomenclature and taxonomy of Hypericum perforatum L. and Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, Elizabeth Anne; Irving, Jason Thomas Whitley; Allkin, Robert

    2017-10-16

    To review which names are used to refer to Hypericum perforatum L. in health regulation and medicinal plant references, and the potential for ambiguity or imprecision. Structured searches of Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services Resource, supplemented with other online bibliographic resources, found that the scientific name Hypericum perforatum L. is used consistently in the literature, but variation between subspecies is rarely considered by researchers. Research is still published using only the common name 'St John's wort' despite it being imprecise; at least 80 other common names are also used for this plant in multiple languages. Ambiguous and alternative plant names can lead to ineffective regulation, misinterpretation of literature, substitution of raw material or the failure to locate all published research. Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) maps all names used for each plant in medicinal plant references onto current taxonomy, thereby providing for disambiguation and comprehensive access to the regulations and references that cite that plant, regardless of the name used. MPNS also supplies the controlled vocabulary for plant names now required for compliance with a new standard (Identification of Medicinal Products, IDMP) adopted by medicines regulators worldwide. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Hypericum perforatum as a cognitive enhancer in rodents: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Eliezer, Daniel; Yechiam, Eldad

    2016-01-01

    Considered an antidepressant and anti-anxiety agent, Hypericum perforatum affects multiple neurotransmitters in a non-competitive synergistic manner, and may have nootropic potential. We quantitatively reviewed the pre-clinical literature to examine if there is a cognitive-enhancing effect of H. perforatum in healthy rodents. Additionally, within these studies, we compared the effects observed in intact rodents versus those whose performance has been impaired, mostly through stress manipulations. The meta-analysis incorporated studies that examined the effect of H. perforatum versus placebo on memory indices of task performance. All analyses were based on weighting different studies according to their inverse variance. Thirteen independent studies (published 2000–2014) involving 20 experimental comparisons met our inclusion criteria. The results showed a large positive effect of H. perforatum on cognitive performance for intact, healthy rodents (d = 1.11), though a larger effect emerged for stress-impaired rodents (d = 3.10 for restraint stress). The positive effect on intact rodents was observed in tasks assessing reference memory as well as working memory, and was not moderated by the type of memory or motivation (appetitive versus aversive). Thus, while primarily considered as a medication for depression, H. perforatum shows considerable nootropic potential in rodents. PMID:27762349

  5. Pseudohypericin and Hyperforin in Hypericum perforatum from Northern Turkey: Variation among Populations, Plant Parts and Phenological Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt ?irak; Jolita Radusiene; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2008-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum is a perennial medicinal plant known as "St. John's wort" in Western Europe and has been used in the treatment of several diseases for centuries. In the present study, morphologic, phenologic and population variability in pseudohypericin and hyperforin concentrations among H. perforatum populations from Northern Turkey was investigated for the first time. The aerial parts of H. perforatum plants representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering from 10 sites of Northern Turkey to search the regional variation in the secondary metabolits concentrations. For morphologic and phenologic sampling, plants from one site were gathered in five phenological stages: vegetative,floral budding, full flowering, fresh fruiting and mature fruiting. The plant materials were air-dried at room temperature and subsequently assayed for chemical concentrations by high performance liquid chromatography. Secondary metabolite concentrations ranged from traces to 2.94mg/g dry weight (DW) for pseudohypedcin and traces -6.29mg/g DW for hyperforin. The differences in the secondary metabolite concentrations among populations of H. perforatum were found to be significant. The populations varied greatly in hyperforin concentrations, whereas they produced a similar amount of pseudohypericin. Concentrations of both secondary metabolites in all tissues increased with advancing of plant development and higher accumulation levels were reached at flowering. Among different tissues, full opened flowers were found to be superior to stems, leaves and the other reproductive parts with regard to pseudohypericin and hyperforin accumulations. The present findings might be useful to optimize the processing methodology of wild-harvested plant material and obtain Increased concentrations of these secondary metabolites.

  6. Rats treated with Hypericum perforatum during pregnancy generate offspring with behavioral changes in adulthood

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    Leandro V. Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Drugs used in the treatment of depression can cross the placenta giving rise to questions regarding the effects these drugs exert on the fetus. Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericaceae, is a natural product used to treat depression. However, information about its toxicity and the occurrence of alterations in the central nervous system development of the offspring is scarce. This work assessed the behavior of adult male rats born from mothers treated with Hypericum extract during gestation and analyzed the fluorescence of the extract in different organs of mothers and fetuses. Male pups were divided into three treated groups, corresponding to the administration of the Hypericum extract to mothers at the dose levels of 36 mg/kg, 72 mg/kg and 144 mg/kg, and one control group in which the mothers received distilled water. At 90 days of age, the offspring underwent the following tests: rotarod, pentobarbital-induced sleep time, elevated plus maze, hole-board and forced swimming test. The observed fluorescence indicated the presence of the extract in all tissues analyzed. The obtained results suggest lasting changes in the performances displayed in the CNS, depression and anxiety tests, indicating that the use of Hypericum during gestation could interfere with the behavioral development of the offspring reducing anxiety and depression when they become adults. We suggest that these alterations are associated with the reprogramming of the brain regions related to changes in emotional reactivity.

  7. Effect of acute administration of hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine and serotonin release in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Matteo, V; Di Giovanni, G; Di Mascio, M; Esposito, E

    2000-01-01

    The hydromethanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum has been shown to be an effective antidepressant, although its mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, in vivo microdialysis was used to investigate the effects of Hypericum perforatum-CO2 extract on dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) release in various areas of brain. Administration of Hypericum perforatum extract (1 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a slight, but significant increase of DA outflow both in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum. The maximal increase of DA efflux (+19.22+/-1.93%, relative to the control group) in the nucleus accumbens occurred 100 min after administration of Hypericum perforatum. In the striatum, the extract maximally enhanced DA outflow (+24.83+/-7.49 %, relative to the control group) 80 min after administration. Extraneuronal DOPAC levels were not significantly affected by Hypericum perforatum treatment. Moreover, Hypericum perforatum (1 mg/kg, p.o.) did not produce any significant effect on either 5-HT or 5-HIAA efflux in the ventral hippocampus. This study shows for the first time that Hypericum perforatum extract is capable of increasing in vivo DA release.

  8. Lanthanum rather than cadmium induces oxidative stress and metabolite changes in Hypericum perforatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babula, Petr [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 753/5, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Klejdus, Bořivoj [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC–Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Kovacik, Jozef, E-mail: jozkovacik@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); CEITEC–Central European Institute of Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Hedbavny, Josef; Hlavna, Marián [Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Impact of La, Cd and Cd + La on the metabolism of Hypericum perforatum was compared. • La stimulated ROS and suppressed growth and basic antioxidants more than Cd. • Impact of Cd + La was not synergistic including the sod gene expression. • La depleted hypericin and hyp-1 gene expression but amount of hyperforin increased. • La reduced flavonols and procyanidins mainly in the roots and affected anatomy - Abstract: Physiology, oxidative stress and production of metabolites in Hypericum perforatum exposed to moderate Cd and/or La concentration (10 μM) were studied. La evoked increase in reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and proline but suppressed growth, tissue water content, glutathione, ascorbic acid and affected mineral nutrient contents more than Cd while the impact of Cd + La was not synergistic. Similar trend was observed at the level of superoxide dismutase gene expression. Shoot Cd amount increased in Cd + La while only root La increased in the same treatment. Extensive quantification of secondary metabolites revealed that La affected phenolic acids more pronouncedly than Cd in shoots and roots. Flavonols were suppressed by La that could contribute to the appearance of oxidative damage. Procyanidins increased in response to La in the shoots but decreased in the roots. Metabolic responses in Cd + La treatment resembled those of La treatment (almost identically in the roots). Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity was mainly suppressed by La. The presence of La also depleted amount of hypericin and expression of its putative gene (hyp-1) showed similar trend but accumulation of hyperforin increased under Cd or La excess. Clear differences in the stem and root anatomy in response to Cd or La were also found. Overall, H. perforatum is La-sensitive species and rather Cd ameliorated negative impact of La.

  9. Effect of Potassium Sulphate and Humic acid on Growth, Yield and Essential Oil Content in Hypericum perforatum L.

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    H. Kaboli Farshchi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal and aromatic plants can play an important role in commercial crops, which also represent a safe alternative for chemical pharmaceutical industries. St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L. due to its therapeutic efficacy has been used for decades in folk medicine and is considered as a promising medicinal plant with valuable potential as a source of hypericin, essential oils and antioxidants. Studies on agronomic factors such as application of potassium and humic acid as well as nitrogen fertilization on yield, essential oil and antioxidant activity of Hypericum perforatum have not been investigated thoroughly until now. This study was designed to study the effect of using humic acid and potassium sulphate on morphological and phytochemical characteristics of Hypericum perforatum. Materials and Methods: The plant material was prepared from Science and Technology Park in Khorasan-e Razzavi–Mashhad. In spring, the plants were transplanted into the field of Horticulture department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, for fertilizing treatments. The experimental layout was factorial in a complete randomized design (CRD, with three replications. Potassium Sulphate (K2SO4 was applied at the rates of 0.0 (K0, 60 (K60 and 100 (K100 kg ha-1. The other treatment were humic acid, which was applied at three rates 0 (H0, 20 (H20 and 40 (H40 L ha-1. Plants were treated at two stages, before flowering by potassium fertilizer and fertigated four times in 15-day intervals with humic acid. Besides the fresh and dry weight, number of flowers, stem height and number of flowering stems were determined at the end of the growing stage. Results and Discussion: The ANOVA indicated that most of measured attributes of Hypericum perforatum plant were significantly affected by both treatments. Data presented revealed that the highest stem (91.6 cm was recorded at the highest level of potassium sulphate (K100 treatment, while the shortest height (60

  10. Cadmium content in Hypericum perforatum L. and Thymus serpyllum L. from localities of the mountains Rtanj and Ozren

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    Đukić-Ćosić Danijela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The beneficial effects of medicinal plants are well-known from the ancient times. However, expansion of phytopharmacy and phytotherapy occured during the last decades. Medicinal plants can absorb environmental contaminants from the ground and consequently may cause harmful effects on human health. Quality control usually comprises standard methodology which includes macroscopic identification and examination of active ingredients. Additionaly, there is a permanent need to control the level of pollutants in herbs, with a particular attention to the level of toxic metals. In this study we estimated the level of contamination by determining the content of cadmium (Cd in the herbs of Hypericum perforatum and Thymus serpyllum collected from the different localities of the mountains Rtanj and Ozren. Methods. Herbs of investigated plants were collected during July 2005 from various localities of Rtanj and Ozren mountains. After drying, homogenization and mineralization, Cd content was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. The obtained results show that Cd content varies significantly in Hypericum perforatum samples collected. The lowest Cd level was found in samples from the one of Rtanj localities (0.25 mg Cd/kg, while the highest was observed in Hypericum perforatum from Ozren locality (1.24 mg/kg. Levels of Cd in the three of four investigated localities were higher than pro posed by WHO (0.3 mg/kg dried herb material. In all investigated samples of Thymus serpyllum herbs Cd levels were below the limit of detection of analytical method (0.2 mg Cd/kg dried materials. Conclusion. This work contributes to the issue of Cd content in Hypericum perforatum and Thymus serpyllum grown in localities of Rtanj and Ozren, and implies the importance for systemic control of Cd content in Hypericum species in order to provide safety of their preparations. Furthermore, regarding Cd toxicity, maximal permissible level of Cd in

  11. Induction of phenolic compounds in Hypericum perforatum L. cells by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Luis F R; Ferreres, Federico; Tavares, Rui M; Dias, Alberto C P

    2006-01-01

    Changes in phenolic metabolism after elicitation with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (CG) has been studied in Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) cell suspension cultures. Soluble phenolics were analysed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. HP cultures elicited with the CG elicitor showed a significant increase in xanthone accumulation. Xanthone accumulation increased twelve fold when the cells were primed with methyl-jasmonate (MeJ) or salicylic acid (SA), before elicitation. HP cultures exposed only to MeJ produced a set of flavonoids, the flavones which represent a substantial part (approx. 40%) of the total flavonoids accumulated in these cells. The possible importance of xanthones as a component of defence mechanism of HP against biotic stress is discussed.

  12. The Effect of Nitrogen and Zinc Levels on Essential Oil Yield and some Morphological Traits of Hypericum perforatums

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    M.R. Zadeh Esfahlan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of nitrogen and zinc fertilizer on the morphological traits and essential oil yield of St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum a greenhouse experiment in a factorial randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at University of Tabriz, Iran in 2012. Treatments consisted of three levels of zinc sulphate with a concentration of zinc fertilizer (zero, 3 and 6 parts per thousand and four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (zero, 50, 100, 150 kg/ha. One half of the fertilizers were applied 20 days after planting of plants and the rest 40 days after transplanting. Traits evaluated were plant height, inflorescence number, leaf area, plant fresh and dry weights and plant essential oil content. The results showed that the traits under study were affected by rate of fertilizer applications. Highest plant height, number of inflorescences, leaf area and essential oil yield were obtained by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen and applying zinc with 0.006 concentration. Highest fresh and dry weights of above ground parts were also produced by using 150 kg/ha of nitrogen fertilizer along with zinc fertilizer 0.003.

  13. The Healing Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Hypericum Perforatum on Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Male Rats

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    Nader Tanideh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Anti-inflammatory effect of Hypericum have long been considered. Ulcerative Colitis (UC is a form of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. In this study, the effects of Hypericum perforatum on histopathological changes and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA level of colonic tissue in rats with induced UC were evaluated. Materials & Methods: 70 rats were divided into seven equal groups. Colitis was induced by acetic acid.. Groups I and II received 1 mL of 600 and 300 mg/kg H. perforatum extract orally per day respectively; groups III and IV received 1 mL of 20% and 10% intra-colonic gel form of H. perforatum extract daily respectively; group V, as positive control, received 1 mL of intra-colonic Asacol; group VI received 1 mL of normal saline as negative control; group VII received just intra-colonic gel base. All the animals were evaluated for histological changes and tissue MDA level of colon seven days after the treatment. Results: H. perforatum extract in the two forms of trans-rectal and oral administration could result in a more healing effect on acetic acid-induced damaged colonic tissue with a reduction in the MDA activity. In trans-rectal administration, the 20% gel had a better healing response than the 10% gel. In oral administration, the 600 mg/kg dosage had a better healing response than the 300 mg/kg. Conclusions: Therefor, H. perforatum can be considered as a treatment of choice for UC especially in trans-rectal gel form.

  14. The neurocognitive effects of Hypericum perforatum Special Extract (Ze 117) during smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, D A; Scholey, A B; Pipingas, A; Silberstein, R B; Kure, C; Zangara, A; Kras, M; Stough, C

    2013-11-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of current treatments for smoking cessation are relatively poor. More research is required to address the biological mechanisms underpinning nicotine withdrawal and drug treatments for smoking cessation. We assessed the neurocognitive effects of Remotiv® (Hypericum perforatum Special Extract - Ze 117), Nicabate CQ Nicotine Replacement therapy (NRT) and combined NRT/HP during conditions of smoking abstinence in 20 regular smokers aged between 18 and 60 years over a period of 10 weeks during smoking cessation. A Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task was completed at baseline, 4 weeks prior to quitting, as well as at the completion of the study, following the 10 weeks of treatment. Brain activity was recorded during the completion of the SWM task using Steady-State Probe Topography. Reaction time and accuracy on the SWM task were not found to be significantly different between treatment groups at retest. Differences in SSVEP treatment profiles at retest are discussed, including stronger SSVEP Amplitude increase in posterior-parietal regions for the HP and NRT groups and greater fronto-central SSVEP Phase Advance in the HP group. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Hypericum perforatum L. treatment restored bone mass changes in swimming stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seferos, Nikos; Petrokokkinos, Loukas; Kotsiou, Antonia; Rallis, George; Tesseromatis, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Stress, via corticosteroids release, influences bone mass density. Hypericum perforatum (Hp) a traditional remedy possess antidepressive activity (serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and wound healing properties. Hp preparation contains mainly hypericin, hyperforin, hyperoside and flavonoids exerting oestrogen-mimetic effect. Cold swimming represents an experimental model of stress associating mental strain and corporal exhaustion. This study investigates the Hp effect on femur and mandible bone mass changes in rats under cold forced swimming procedure. 30 male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups. Group A was treated with Methanolic extract of Hp (Jarsin®) via gastroesophageal catheter, and was submitted to cold swimming stress for 10 min/daily. Group B was submitted to cold stress, since group C served as control. Experiment duration was 10 days. Haematocrite and serum free fatty acids (FFA) were estimated. Furthermore volume and specific weight of each bone as well as bone mass density via dual energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were measured. Statistic analysis by t-test. Hp treatment restores the stress injuries. Adrenals and bone mass density regain their normal values. Injuries occurring by forced swimming stress in the rats are significantly improved by Hp treatment. Estrogen-like effects of Hp flavonoids eventually may act favorable in bone remodeling.

  16. Hypericum perforatum: pharmacokinetic, mechanism of action, tolerability, and clinical drug-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Emilio; Scicchitano, Francesca; Whalley, Benjamin J; Mazzitello, Carmela; Ciriaco, Miriam; Esposito, Stefania; Patanè, Marinella; Upton, Roy; Pugliese, Michela; Chimirri, Serafina; Mammì, Maria; Palleria, Caterina; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2014-05-01

    Hypericum perforatum (HP) belongs to the Hypericaceae family and is one of the oldest used and most extensively investigated medicinal herbs. The medicinal form comprises the leaves and flowering tops of which the primary ingredients of interest are naphthodianthrones, xanthones, flavonoids, phloroglucinols (e.g. hyperforin), and hypericin. Although several constituents elicit pharmacological effects that are consistent with HP's antidepressant activity, no single mechanism of action underlying these effects has thus far been found. Various clinical trials have shown that HP has a comparable antidepressant efficacy as some currently used antidepressant drugs in the treatment of mild/moderate depression. Interestingly, low-hyperforin-content preparations are effective in the treatment of depression. Moreover, HP is also used to treat certain forms of anxiety. However, HP can induce various cytochrome P450s isozymes and/or P-glycoprotein, of which many drugs are substrates and which are the main origin of HP-drug interactions. Here, we analyse the existing evidence describing the clinical consequence of HP-drug interactions. Although some of the reported interactions are based on findings from in vitro studies, the clinical importance of which remain to be demonstrated, others are based on case reports where causality can, in some cases, be determined to reveal clinically significant interactions that suggest caution, consideration, and disclosure of potential interactions prior to informed use of HP. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Hypericin from St. John’s Wort (hypericum perforatum) as a novel natural fluorophore for chemiluminescence reaction of bis (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate–H2O2–imidazole and quenching effect of some natural lipophilic hydrogen peroxide scavengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazemi, Sayed Yahya; Abedirad, Seyed Mohammad; Zali, Seyed Hassan; Amiri, Mohadeseh

    2012-01-01

    Hypericin (HYP) molecule is a natural photoactive pigment, which plays a role as an effective photoreceptor in some plants of the Hypericum species (the most common of which is Saint John’s Wort) and some insect species. The present work deals with the first attempt to the study of peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (POCL) system in the presense of HYP as a natural fluorophore. Reaction of bis (2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate(TCPO)–H 2 O 2 –imidazole can transfer energy to a HYP via formation of dioxetane through the chemically initiated electron exchange luminescence (CIEEL) mechanism and can emits a very intense red light. The effects of HYP, hydrogen peroxide, TCPO and imidazole concentrations on kinetic chemiluminescence parameters were also studied. These parameters including rise and fall rate constant for the chemiluminescence burst, theoretical and experimental maximum intensity, theoretical and experimental time to reach maximum intensity and total light yield emission were evaluated by using a pooled intermediate model for a non-linear least-squares curve fitting program, KINFIT. Moreover, quenching effect of two lipophilic natural antioxidant, Quercetin and β-carotene on it system was also investigated. The measurable concentration range of 7×10 −6 M to 7.5×10 −5 M of antioxidants were evaluated from the proper Stern–Volmer plots with satisfactory RSD% and corresponding detection limits of 2.2×10 −6 and 3.7×10 −6 for β-carotene and quercetin respectively. - Highlights: ► Red fluorophores may therefore chemiluminescence more intensely than other commonly chemiluminophores and emits light in longer wavelengths. ► Hypericin from St. John’s wort (hypericum perforatum) as natural red fluorophore for peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence was introduced. ► Quenching effect of two antioxidant, quercetin and β-carotene on it system was also investigated. ► The non linear least-squares curve fitting program KINFIT was applied to study of CL

  18. Variation of Bioactive Compounds in Hypericum perforatum Growing in Turkey During Its Phenological Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt Cirak; Jolita Radusiěnё; Birsen (Sa(g)lam) Karabük; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine phenologic and morphogenetic variation of hypericin, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, as rutin, hyperoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercltrin, quercetin content of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Turkey. Wild growing plants were harvested at vegetative, floral budding, full flowering,fresh fruiting and mature fruiting stages and dissected into stem, leaf and reproductive tissues and assayed for bioactive compounds by the High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hyperlcin concentration ranged between 0 and 2.73 mg/g DW, chlorogenic acid 0.00-3.64 mg/g DW, rutin 0.00-3.36 mg/g DW, hyperoside 0.04-22.42 mg/g DW, quercitrin 0.03-3.45 mg/g DW and quercetin 0.04-1.02 mg/g DW depending on ontogenetic and morphogenetic sampling. Leaves were found to be superior to stems and reproductive parts with regard to phenolic accumulation for all compounds tested while flowers accumulated the highest levels of hypericin. Quercitrin,quercetin and hypericin content in all tissues increased with advancing of developmental stages and reached their highest level during flower ontogenesis. Similarly, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside content in different plant parts increased during plant development, however, the highest level was observed at different stages of plant phenology for each tissue. Chlorogenic acid was not detected in stems, leaves and reproductive parts in several stages of plant phenology and its variation during plant growth showed inconsistent manner. In contrast to the other compounds examined, rutin content of stems and leaves decreased with advancing of plant development and the highest level for both tissues was observed at the vegetative stage. However,content of the same compound in reproductive parts was the highest at mature fruiting. The present findings might be useful to obtain increased concentration of these natural compounds.

  19. Boronic acid functionalized silica microparticles for isolation of flavonoids from Hypericum perforatum

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    Onur Çetinkaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We have selectively separated cis- and/or vicinal-diol-containing flavonoids from Hypericum perfaratum (HP by adsorption/desorption using aminophenylboronic acid (APBA functionalized uniform (1.6 μm silica microparticles (BASPs synthesized via the Stöber method. Silica particles were alkylated by its terminal –OH with 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTS, glutaraldehyde (GA and APBA. The results from model adsorption studies indicated that these microparticles selectively adsorbed quercetin and rutin but partially apigenin. The antioxidant and antiradical activities of the desorption solution were slightly higher than that of the post-adsorption solution. These results indicated that the BASP selectively adsorbed the cis- and/or vicinal antioxidant and antiradical flavonoids.

  20. Interações medicamentosas de fitoterápicos e fármacos: Hypericum perforatum e Piper methysticum

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    C. H.G. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available A utilização de produtos naturais na medicina popular é milenar e persiste até os dias atuais. Entretanto, a idéia de que estes produtos são isentos de toxicidade torna o uso de medicamentos fitoterápicos cada vez maior e indiscriminado. Este trabalho trata de uma revisão sobre as interações que podem ocorrer com a utilização concomitante de Hypericum perforatum L. (erva de são joão e Piper methysticum F. (kava-kava com fármacos, podendo levar a sérios efeitos tóxicos, incluindo a fatalidade.

  1. The dual effects of polar methanolic extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, U. O.; Nseyo, O. U.; Shiverick, K. T.; Medrano, T.; Mejia, M.; Stavropoulos, N.; Tsimaris, I.; Skalkos, D.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction and background: We have reported on the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Hypericum Perforatum L as a novel photosensitizing agent for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic diagnosis (PDD). PMF has been tested in human leukemic cells, HL-60 cells, cord blood hemopoietic progenitor cells, bladder cancers derived from metastatic lymph node (T-24) and primary papillary bladder lesion (RT-4). However, the mechanisms of the effects of PMF on these human cell lines have not been elucidated. We have investigated mechanisms of PMF + light versus PMF-alone (dark experiment) in T-24 human bladder cancer cells. Methods: PMF was prepared from an aerial herb of HPL which was brewed in methanol and extracted with ether and methanol. Stock solutions of PMF were made in DSMO and stored in dark conditions. PMF contains 0.57% hypericin and 2.52% hyperforin. The T24 cell line was obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). In PDT treatment, PMF (60μg/ml) was incubated with cells, which were excited with laser light (630nm) 24 hours later. Apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation/laddering assay. DNA isolation was performed according to the manufacture's instructions with the Kit (Oncogene Kit#AM41). Isolated DNA samples were separated by electrophoresis in 1.5% in agarose gels and bands were visualized by ethidium bromide labeling. The initial cell cycle analysis and phase distribution was by flow cytometry. DNA synthesis was measured by [3H] thymidine incorporation, and cell cycle regulatory proteins were assayed by Western immunoblot. Results: The results of the flow cytometry showed PMF +light induced significant (40%) apoptosis in T24 cells, whereas Light or PMF alone produced little apoptosis. The percentage of cells in G 0/G I phase was decreased by 25% and in G2/M phase by 38%. The main impact was observed on the S phase which was blocked by 78% from the specific photocytotoxic process. DNA laddering analysis showed that PMF (60

  2. A comparative study on the effects of Hypericum Perforatum and passion flower on the menopausal symptoms of women referring to Isfahan city health care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahami, Fariba; Asali, Zahra; Aslani, Abolfazl; Fathizadeh, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    With regard to an increase in the life expectancy for women and the consistency of the menopause age, a significant portion of women's age is passed after the menopause. Menopause is considered as a critical and sensitive period due to the changes and the disorders that are involved in it. Vasomotor symptoms, sleep disorders and psycho-mental changes are among the most prevalent symptoms of this period. Hormone therapy is a common treatment and it involves some problems for most individuals. The purpose of this study was to comparatively examine the effects of two herbal medications, Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower, on menopause symptoms. This study was of a clinical-experimental type which was done in 1388 in Isfahan. The sample included 59 menopausal women who had the conditions for entering into the study. The individuals were selected via simple sampling and were assigned randomly into two groups of Hypericum Perforatum treatment group (30 women) and Passion Flower group (29 women). The required data were filled out through interview, Personal Characteristics Questionnaire, and Cooperman's Index for menopause symptoms in three stages of pre-intervention, the third week of intervention, and the sixth week of intervention. The results were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods and the statistical software of SPSS. The findings showed that the average score of menopause symptoms in two treatment groups of Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower had a significant decrease throughout the third and the sixth weeks of study (p 0.05). With regard to the effects of Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower on treating menopause precocious symptoms (vasomotor signs, insomnia, depression, anger, headache, etc.), these two herbs can be used as an alternative treatment for individuals who cannot, whatsoever, use hormone therapy.

  3. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used “menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Results: Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. Conclusion: The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review. PMID:27462550

  4. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women. We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used "menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review.

  5. Interações farmacocinéticas entre as plantas medicinais Hypericum perforatum, Gingko bilobae Panax gingseng e fármacos tradicionais

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Ana Elisa; Dalla Costa, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Como o uso de plantas medicinais tem se popularizado, sendo comum sua utilização como complemento aos tratamentos convencionais, a falta de conhecimento sobre interações entre fármacos e plantas medicinais põem em risco a saúde dos usuários. Neste artigo é apresentada uma revisão de literatura sobre interações farmacocinéticas entre fármacos e plantas medicinais utilizadas no Brasil como Hypericum perforatum, Gingko biloba e Panax ginseng. O ajuste da dose recomendada do fármaco d...

  6. High-performance liquid chromatography on-line coupled to high-field NMR and mass spectrometry for structure elucidation of constituents of Hypericum perforatum L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S. H.; Jensen, A. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1999-01-01

    The on-line separation and structure elucidation of naphthodianthrones, flavonoids, and other constituents of an extract from Hypericum perforatum L, using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled on-line with ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry...... (MS) is described. A conventional reversed-phase HPLC system using ammonium acetate as the buffer substance in the eluent tvas used, and proton NMR spectra were obtained on a 500 MHz NMR instrument. The MS and MS/MS analyses were performed using negative electrospray ionization, In the present study...

  7. Effects of a combination of Hypericum perforatum and Vitex agnus-castus on PMS-like symptoms in late-perimenopausal women: findings from a subpopulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Die, Margaret Diana; Bone, Kerry M; Burger, Henry G; Reece, John E; Teede, Helena J

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that some of the symptoms typically attributed to menopause may be more related to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) than menopause, as perimenopausal women appear to be more prone to PMS-like symptoms, or at least to tolerate them less well. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a phytotherapeutic intervention comprising a combination of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) and Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree/berry) in the management of PMS-like symptoms in perimenopausal women. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted over 16 weeks on menopause-related symptoms. Data on PMS-like symptoms were collected at 4-weekly intervals from a small subgroup of late-perimenopausal women (n = 14) participating in this study. The primary endpoint was PMS scores measured on the Abrahams Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire, comprising the subclusters of PMS-A (anxiety), PMS-D (depression), PMS-H (hydration), and PMS-C (cravings). Herbal combination therapy or placebo tablets were administered twice daily. At the end of the 16-week treatment phase, analyses of covariance showed the herbal combination to be superior to placebo for total PMS-like scores (p = 0.02), PMS-D (p = 0.006), and PMS-C clusters (p = 0.027). The active treatment group also showed significant reductions in the anxiety (p = 0.003) and hydration (p = 0.002) clusters, using paired-samples t tests. Results of trend analyses showed significant treatment group effects across the five phases for total PMS and all subscales, all in the clinically expected direction. No significant trends were evident in the placebo group. These results suggest a potentially significant clinical application for this phytotherapeutic combination in PMS-like symptoms among perimenopausal women. Further research is warranted through a randomized, controlled trial dedicated to investigation of these symptoms.

  8. Effect of Hypericum perforatum extract on in vitro labelling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on bioavailability of sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a hypericum extract (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling of blood elements with technetium- 99m ( 99m Tc) and in the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate in Wistar rats. Methods: Blood (heparinized) withdrawn from Wistar rats is incubated with a hypericum extract, with a stannous chloride and with 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate ( 99m TcO Na). Plasma (P) and cells (C) are isolated by centrifugation. Samples of P and C are also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA 5%) and soluble (FS-P; FS-C) and insoluble (FI-P; FI-C) fractions are separated. In the bioavailability analysis, the extract or NaCl 0.9% solution is administrated into Wistar rats (gavage) during 15 days. Sodium pertechnetate was administered and after 10 min, the animals are sacrificed, the organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well counter, and the percentages of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) in the organs are calculated. Results: The hypericum extract decreased significantly (P 99m Tc on the erythrocytes and plasma and cellular proteins. Moreover, it could produce metabolic alterations with influence in the uptake of the radiopharmaceutical 99m TcO 4 Na in bone, muscle, pancreas and thyroid. (author)

  9. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum (hiperico) is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl 2 ) is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl 2 seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl 2 at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system. (author)

  10. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião David Santos-Filho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum (hiperico is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl2 is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl2 seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat.. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl2 at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system.Hypericum perforatum (hiperico tem sido utilizado para tratar diferentes distúrbios e também inibir a contractilidade do ducto deferente em ratos e em humanos. Na medicina nuclear, o cloreto estanoso (SnCl2 é usado como um agente redutor para obter radiofármacos marcados com tecnécio-99m. Como o SnCl2 parece acarretar efeitos indesejáveis relacionados com o desempenho reprodutivo de coelhos machos e o hiperico pode afetar a função sexual em humanos, o objetivo desse trabalho é apresentar resultados sobre o efeito de um extrato de hiperico na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com o tecnécio-99m retirados de ratos jovens e idosos. O hiperico parece alterar a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m isolados de sangue de animais jovens. Embora, esse resultado não seja observado em ratos idosos. Provavelmente, o extrato poderia apresentar uma ação protetora para o sistema reprodutivo contra a ação do SnCl2, pelo menos em ratos jovens. Os resultados

  11. Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, Carolina; Fenster, Charles B

    2016-07-01

    Corolla chirality, the pinwheel arrangement of petals within a flower, is found throughout the core eudicots. In 15 families, different chiral type flowers (i.e., right or left rotated corolla) exist on the same plant, and this condition is referred to as unfixed/enantiomorphic corolla chirality. There are no investigations on the significance of unfixed floral chirality on directed pollen movement even though analogous mirror image floral designs, for example, enantiostyly, has evolved in response to selection to direct pollinator and pollen movement. Here, we examine the role of corolla chirality on directing pollen transfer, pollinator behavior, and its potential influence on disassortative mating. We quantified pollen transfer and pollinator behavior and movement for both right and left rotated flowers in two populations of Hypericum perforatum. In addition, we quantified the number of right and left rotated flowers at the individual level. Pollinators were indifferent to corolla chirality resulting in no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Corolla chirality had no effect on pollinator and pollen movement between and within chiral morphs. Unlike other mirror image floral designs, corolla chirality appears to play no role in promoting disassortative mating in this species.

  12. Effects of Zataria, Mentha Pulegium, Oregano spp Essential Oil and Hydroalcholic Extract of Hypericum perforatum on Cyst of Acanthamoeba spp In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arjmand Shabestary

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Resistance of Acanthamoeba cysts causes recurrence of the disease; so, the patient should be monitored regularly ،The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a few herbal materials on Acanthamoeba cysts in vitro. Materials and Methods: Essential oils (EOs of Zataria, Mint, and Oregano were prepared by steam distillation. The EOs and Hypericum perforatum extract were prepared in three concentrations (0.6%, 1% and 10%، Acanthamoeba cysts in various time intervals (30, 60, 120, 180 and 1440 minutes were exposed with plant extracts. Then, the viability of parasite was investigated by eosin 0.1%. Results: Comparison of the parasite mortality rate between control and case groups showed that the mortality of Acanthamoeba cysts was higher in the case groups that exposed to herbal materials. At the equal concentration (10% and time (24 h, the Zataria and mint EOs produced the highest (22% and lowest (4% mortality, respectively. The results showed the mortality rate of Acanthamoeba was time-dependent. Conclusion: Zataria showed the most fatality effect against Acanthamoeba cysts. In this respect, clinical trial studies are suggested.

  13. Comparison of the effect of omega-3 fatty acids and perforan (Hypericum perforatum on severity of premenstrual syndrome (PMS: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh kheirkhah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Premenstrual syndrome (PMS encompasses a wide variety of cyclic and recurrent physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms that occur before menstruation and has negative impact on activities of daily living, social activities, sexual functioning and quality of life. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of omega-3 fatty acid and perforan (Hypericum perforatum on severity of premenstrual syndrome (PMS. This study is a triple-blind clinical trial that was carried out across three groups with 150 students after considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects of this study were randomly divided into three groups include omega-3 fatty acid group, perforan group and control (placebo group. Every subject in this study took drugs during three subsequent cycles so they took capsules daily in the first cycle for one month and in the second and third cycles they took them from eight days before menstruation to two days after and recorded the severity of premenstrual syndrome questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 17. The repeated measures ANOVA, chi-square and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare mean differences in three groups. The data showed that there were no significant differences between 3 groups before the intervention but 1, 2 and 3 months after consumption of perforan and omega-3 capsules, the severity of PMS was significantly lower than that in control group (p<0.001. perforan and omega-3 significantly reduce the severity of PMS.

  14. The male reproductive system and the effect of an extract of a medicinal plant (Hypericum perforatum) on the labeling process of blood constituents with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: santos-filho@uerj.br; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa

    2007-09-15

    Hypericum perforatum (hiperico) is a plant that has been used to treat diseases and also inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. In nuclear medicine, stannous chloride (SnCl{sub 2}) is used as a reducing agent to obtain radiopharmaceuticals labeling with technetium-99m. As the SnCl{sub 2} seems to have adverse effects related with the reproductive performance of male rabbits as well as the human consumption of hiperico might affect sexual function. In the present work, consistent results show significant changes on the blood constituents labeled by technetium-99m obtained from young rats under the effect of an hiperico extract as opposed to blood samples equally treated taken from elderly rat. Supposedly, this extract could protect the male reproductive system against action of SnCl{sub 2} at least in young rats. The findings described in this work allow introducing a simple assay to evaluate the action of products that could interfere with the male reproductive system. (author)

  15. Aspectos botânicos, químicos, farmacológicos e terapêuticos do Hypericum perforatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S. Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Estima-se que aproximadamente 25% das drogas prescritas em todo o mundo são oriundas de espécies vegetais. Dentre as plantas com alto potencial medicinal, se destaca o Hypericum perforatum L. (HP, planta herbácea perene, pertencente à família Hypericaceae. Extratos orgânicos e aquosos de HP têm sido utilizados na medicina popular e em testes pré-clínicos para o tratamento e prevenção de diversas doenças através de efeitos nefroprotetores, atividades antioxidante, antifúngica, ansiolítica, antiviral e cicatrizante. Estudos clínicos indicaram que esta espécie pode ser útil no tratamento de desordens originadas do sistema nervoso central, especialmente na depressão unipolar. HP contém, ao menos, dez classes de compostos biologicamente ativos, dentre eles antraquinonas/naftodiantronas, derivados de floroglucinol, flavonoides, biflavonas, xantonas, óleos voláteis, aminoácidos, vitamina C, cumarinas, taninos e carotenoides. Ao mesmo tempo em que os constituintes possuem relevantes efeitos farmacológicos, os mesmos podem prejudicar, por antagonismo farmacocinético (interação com algumas enzimas do citocromo, a eficácia de outros fármacos. Devido a relevante importância do HP como agente terapêutico, ressalta-se a importância do desenvolvimento de novos estudos com o intuito de elucidar questões ainda controversas acerca do extrato de HP, e.g., dose, melhor horário para colheita, padronização dos extratos, e possíveis efeitos tóxicos, podendo assim, definir claramente os riscos e benefícios da utilização desta planta.

  16. Efficacy and tolerability assessment of a topical formulation containing copper sulfate and hypericum perforatum on patients with herpes skin lesions: a comparative, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewell, Amy; Barnes, Matt; Endres, John R; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ghambeer, Daljit K S

    2012-02-01

    Topical Acyclovir has moderate efficacy on recurrent HSV symptoms, requiring repeat applications for several days. Topical Dynamiclear, which requires only a single dose application, may provide a more effective and convenient treatment option for symptomatic management of HSV. The study assessed the comparative efficacy and tolerability of a single use, topical formulation containing copper sulfate pentahydrate and Hypericum perforatum that is marketed as Dynamiclear™ to a topical 5% Acyclovir cream standard preparation and use. A prospective, randomized, multi-centered, comparative, open-label clinical study was conducted. A total of 149 participants between 18 and 55 years of age with active HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions were recruited for the 14-day clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: A (n=61), those receiving the Dynamiclear formulation, and B (n=59), those receiving 5% Acyclovir. Efficacy parameters were assessed via physical examination at baseline (day 1), day 2, 3, 8, and 14. Laboratory safety tests were conducted at baseline and on day 14. Use of the Dynamiclear formulation was found to have no significant adverse effects and was well tolerated by participants. All hematological and biochemical markers were within normal range for the Dynamiclear group. Statistically, odds for being affected by burning and stinging sensation were 1.9 times greater in the Acyclovir group in comparison to the Dynamiclear group. Similarly, the odds of being affected by symptoms of acute pain, erythema and vesiculation were 1.8, 2.4, and 4.4 times higher in the Acyclovir group in comparison to the Dynamiclear group. The Dynamiclear formulation was well tolerated, and efficacy was demonstrated in a number of measured parameters, which are helpful in the symptomatic management of HSV-1 and HSV-2 lesions in adult patients. Remarkably, the effects seen from this product came from a single application.

  17. Alteração dos metabólitos secundários em plantas de Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae submetidas à secagem e ao congelamento Secondary metabolite content in Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae plants submitted to drying and freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Boeno Diniz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, o interesse por Hypericum perforatum tem aumentado devido à sua ação antiviral, antidepressiva e moduladora de apoptose em células neoplásicas. O preparo do material vegetal, após ser colhido, envolve freqüentemente a dessecação ou o congelamento e posterior armazenamento, processos que podem alterar o perfil dos metabólitos secundários. Neste sentido, este trabalho avaliou o efeito da secagem, do congelamento e da estocagem sob baixas temperaturas na quantidade de flavonóides e de hipericina nas partes vegetativas de plantas de hipérico. Ramos de hipérico foram submetidos à secagem a 25, 30, 50 e 70 °C, congelados em nitrogênio líquido ou congelados e armazenados a -20 °C por 10, 20 e 30 dias. A quantificação dos flavonóides e de hipericina foi realizada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. Os teores de flavonóides e de hipericina foram afetados pela temperatura de secagem. Secagem a 25 °C causou redução nos teores de grande parte dos metabólitos analisados, enquanto a 50 °C, os teores de rutina livre e glicosilada, de quercetina e quercitrina glicosiladas e de hipericina foram preservados. Apigenina livre e canferol não sofreram reduções significativas nas suas concentrações, independente das temperaturas de secagem. O tratamento de congelamento e imediata análise das amostras não alterou o perfil dos flavonóides, mas causou redução do nível de hipericina nas plantas de hipérico.In recent years, interest in Hypericum perforatum has increased due to its antiviral, antidepressive and apoptosis-inducing properties. Plant material preparation after harvesting often includes dehydration or freezing and further storage, and these procedures can lead to variations in the secondary metabolite profile. In this study the effects of drying, freezing and storage at -20 ºC on flavonoid and hypericin content in H. perforatum were evaluated. Leaves and stems of H. perforatum were

  18. ENCAPSULATION OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM L., JOJOBA OIL AND JASMINE OIL BY SPRAY DRYING AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN TEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖGE Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is a technique that allows liquid or solid agents, such as pharmaceutical agents, pesticides, insect repellent agents, dyes, cosmetics and fragrances, to be encapsulated by a suitable barrier wall. Liquid or solid agents that are encapsulated are called core material. The importance of functional finishes have been increasing rapidly in the World. Microencapsulation is an alternative way to achieve the functional finishes because of their unique properties, such as controlled release, protection against to hazardous and destructive media, and providing higher surface area. In this study, jojoba, jasmine and St. John's Wort oils, were encapsulated according to spray drying method. St. John's Wort and jojoba oils were used at 1:1 ratio as fixed oil. Jasmine essential oil was added to fixed oil mixture at two different ratios. After preparing the core mixture, encapsulation studies were performed three different core : wall ratios. Morphological analyses of microcapsules were carried out using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. FTIR spectroscopy spectrums of microcapsules were determined (Fourier Transform Infrared. Particle size distribution microcapsules were analyzed by laser scattering measurement method. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermographs of microcapsules were obtained. All microcapsules were applied to 100% cotton knitted fabrics. Strength to washing of fabrics were observed by SEM micrographs.

  19. Chemical characterization and chemotaxonomy of Hypericum hirsutum L. 1753 from Vojvodina (Serbia

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    Kladar Nebojša V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Hypericum includes over 500 widely distributed species. The main representative is St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum L. (1753, Hypericaceae, the only approved biological source of Hyperici herba by WHO and EMEA monographs. It is frequently used in the form of oil macerate for treatment of burns, scars, eczema and gas­trointestinal disorders, as well as in the form of water and alcoholic extracts as clinically proved antidepressant. Available data suggest that the amounts of secondary metabolites in the plant vary depending on ecological factors of the habitat, and consequently affect the quality of herbal drug. The reports show that other species of the genus have similar chemical profile as H. perforatum. But, there are also Hypericum species in which some of the secondary metabolites of interest occur in higher quantities than in H. perforatum. As previous data suggest, Hypericum hirsutum L. 1753, could be such example. Therefore, the aim of this study was to chemically characterize water-alcoholic extracts of H. hirsutum samples, collected at four localities in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia by liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD. The obtained results suggest a good match (in a term of a presence of investigated compounds of previously published results describing chemical profile of H. perforatum water-alcoholic extracts with examined H. hirsutum extracts. Also, chemotaxonomic analysis showed variations in quantity of secondary metabolites in the examined extracts. This opens the door to further investigation of H. hirsutum as a new source of bioactive secondary metabolites and additional markers in Hypericum chemotaxonomy.

  20. The immuno-regulatory impact of orally-administered Hypericum perforatum extract on Balb/C mice inoculated with H1n1 influenza A virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Huang

    Full Text Available Hypericumperforatum (H. perforatum ethanol extract has been found to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced production of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in cultured macrophages. Therefore, it may be able to protect the host from excessive inflammation during viral infection. In the current study, the immune-regulatory effect of H. perforatum extract was evaluated in A549 lung epithelial cells and BALB/c mice exposed to Influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 virus. In A549 cells, the extract (30 µg/mL significantly inhibited influenza virus induced monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 and interferon-γ induced protein 10 kD (IP-10, but dramatically increased interleukin-6 (IL-6. In mice inoculated intranasally with 10(7.9 EID50 of Influenza A/PR/8/34 H1N1 (high dose, daily oral treatment of H. perforatum extract at a rate of 110 mg/kg of body weight increased lung viral titer, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels, and the infiltration of pro-inflammatory cells in the lung 5 days post-inoculation, as compared to ethanol vehicle treated mice. Transcription of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 was increased by H. perforatum extract both in A549 cells and BALB/c mice, which could have interrupted anti-viral immune response and thus led to the inefficient viral clearance and increased lung inflammation. H. perforatum treatment resulted in minor reduction in viral titer without affecting body weight when mice were inoculated with a lower dose (~10(5.0 EID50 and H. perforatum was applied in the later phase of infection. Mice challenged intranasally with high dose of influenza virus (10(7.9 EID50 suffered from a higher mortality rate when dosed with H. perforatum extract. In conclusion, the current study showed that SOCS3 elevation by H. perforatum may cause impaired immune defense against influenza virus infection and lead to higher mortality.

  1. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Masumeh Ghazanfarpour

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review.

  2. A comparative study of sedative and anxiolytic effects of the Hypericum perforatumin and diazepam on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypericum perforatum or St. John’s wort is a plant known as a Raee flower (or Hypericum in Persian. Hyperisin and Hyperforin are the main constituents of this plant extract that are connected to sigma opioid and GABA receptors. Its various pharmacological effects, such as analgesia, sedation, anti-spasm, anti-convulsion, anti-anxiety, and anti-bacteria have already been known. Materials and Method: To conduct the study, the authors prepared the hydro alcohol extract taken from the aerial organ of the plant. Then, different groups of female Wistar rats, which were almost equal in age and weight, received doses of 500mg/kg and 250mg/kg of the extract, 1.2mg/kg of diazepam, and di-methyl solphoxid (as placebo with equal volumes. The intraperitoneal injections were administered 15min before assessing the sedative/hypnotic effects (i.e. duration of the induced sleep by ketamin with a dose of 40mg/kg and the anxiolytic effects by means of the elevated plus maze.Results: The results showed a statistically significant increase (p= 0.00 both in the duration of the induced sleep by ketamin and in the time lapsed in the open arms in the experimental groups with high and low doses of the extract.Conclusion: The findings suggest that the extract of Hypericum perforatum with a dose of 500mg/kg could have sedative, preanaesthetic, and anxiolytic effects.

  3. Bigeminy: A result of digoxin and St John’s wort interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slađana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of an by digoxin under unusual circumstances is reported. An 80-year-old man, previously on long-term digoxin treatment, started consuming St John’s wort herbal tea (2 000 ml/daily because of frequent episodes of depression. After the cessation of consuming herbal tea containing Hypericum perforatum, digoxin poisoning developed in our patient. Electrocardiography revealed nodal bradicardia 36/min and bigeminy. Manifested symptoms were the consequence of interaction between digoxin and Hypericum perforatum which were consumed simultaneously, and the cessation of consuming St John’s wort herbal tea afterwards. Therapy was the same as in the standard digitalis poisoning. Consumers of St John’s wort combined with medical products are advised not to discontinue tea consumption on their own, without consulting their physician.

  4. The Study on the Effect of Cadmium, Zinc and Zeolite Application on Physiomorphological Characteristics of St. Johnʼs Wort (Hypericum perforatum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaleh Zandavifard; Majid Azizi; Hossein Aroiee; Amir Fotovat

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Among the heavy metals, cadmium, because of high mobility and bioavailability in soil and also toxicity at low concentrations is very important. Cadmium (Cd) is known as carcinogen and can induce many types of cancers. Human activities (metallic industries, contaminated fertilizer, herbicides or insecticides, irrigation with contaminated groundwater, and use of contaminated sewage sludge) are largely responsible for accumulation of different levels of Cd in soil. Saint John’s Wo...

  5. Inhibition of benzodiazepine binding in vitro by amentoflavone, a constituent of various species of Hypericum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baureithel, K H; Büter, K B; Engesser, A; Burkard, W; Schaffner, W

    1997-06-01

    Flower extracts of Hypericum perforatum, Hypericum hirsutum, Hypericum patulum and Hypericum olympicum efficiently inhibited binding of [3H]flumazenil to rat brain benzodiazepine binding sites of the GABAA-receptor in vitro with IC50 values of 6.83, 6.97, 13.2 and 6.14 micrograms/ml, respectively. Single constituents of the extracts like hypericin, the flavones quercetin and luteolin, the glycosylated flavonoides rutin, hyperoside and quercitrin and the biflavone 13, II8-biapigenin did not inhibit binding up to concentrations of 1 microM. In contrast, amentoflavone revealed an IC50 = 14.9 +/- 1.9 nM on benzodiazepine binding in vitro. Comparative HPLC analyses of hypericin and amentoflavone in extracts of different Hypericum species revealed a possible correlation between the amentoflavone concentration and the inhibition of flumazenil binding. For hypericin no such correlation was observed. Our experimental data demonstrate that amentoflavone, in contrast to hypericin, presents a very active compound with regard to the inhibition of [3H]-flumazenil binding in vitro and thus might be involved in the antidepressant effects of Hypericum perforatum extracts.

  6. Differences of response of human bladder cancer cells to photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Hypericum perforantum L extract and Photofrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nikos E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, Unwana U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    Refractory carcinoma in situ and resistant multifocal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the human urinary bladder respond modestly to PHOTOFRIN (PII) PDT. Hypericum perforatum L., (St. John"s wort /Epirus" Vasalmo, Greece), a medicinal plant used for many human ailments, is under investigation as a new photosensitizer. We have reported on the antiproliferative activity of the lipophilic extract of the Hypericum perforatum L. (HP) against cultured T-24, and NBT-11 bladder cancer cells. We investigated response of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of the HP extract versus PHOTOFRIN in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of human bladder cancer cells, RT-4 and T-24.The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid extraction with petroleum ether. RT-4/T-24, were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PII 2ug/ml, or PMF 60ug /ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were treated with laser light (630nm) with 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules. The cells were then washed and reincubated for another 24 hours. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT induced percent cell kill of 0%, 0%, 0%, 29% and 75%, in RT-4 cells (primary noninvasive urinary bladder TCC) versus 5%, 9%, 13%, 69% and 86%, in T-24 cells(metastatic TTC) at 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules respectively. PII-PDT induced cell kill of 0 %, 0% ,0%,0% and 9 %, in RT-4 cells versus 0%,10%,0%,21% and 77%, in T-24 cells at 0,1,2,4 and 8 Joules respectively.RT-24 cells were relatively more resistant than T-24 cells to PMF and PII-PDT. Understanding mechanisms of such differential responses might prove useful

  7. Genetic diversity analysis in the Hypericum perforatum populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... 2Cancer Genetics Lab, Department of Biochemistry, Maulana Azad Medical College and Associated ... sciatica and depression (Ghasemi et al., 2013; Barnes et .... environmental factors for each sampling site were also.

  8. The biological activities of Hypericum perforatum L. | Okmen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mastitis reduces milk yield and alters milk composition. Antibiotics are widely used in the treatment of the disease. However, this widespread use of antibiotics causes both antibiotic residues in milks and antibiotic resistance developed in bacteria. Today's researches are focused on discovering and using new ...

  9. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2012-01-01

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC 0−t of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C max of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC 0−t and C max of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  10. Belangrijke nieuwe informatie over werkzaamheid en veiligheid : Sint- janskruid op de balans van werking en interacties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smet, P.A.G.M.; Touw, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, two importance articles about St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) appeared in the medical literature: a randomised clinical trial comparing St. John's wort with placebo and imipramine and a commentary about interactions between St. John's wort and registered medicines. These

  11. The Chemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of St. John's Wort Oil Macerates Used in Kosovar Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, James T; Kim, Austin; Nelson, Kate; Bullard-Roberts, Angelle L; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Quave, Cassandra L

    2017-01-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae), or St. John's Wort, is a well-known medicinal herb often associated with the treatment of anxiety and depression. Additionally, an oil macerate (Oleum Hyperici) of its flowering aerial parts is widely used in traditional medicine across the Balkans as a topical wound and ulcer salve. Other studies have shown that Oleum Hyperici reduces both wound size and healing time. Of its active constituents, the naphthodianthrone hypericin and phloroglucinol hyperforin are effective antibacterial compounds against various Gram-positive bacteria. However, hyperforin is unstable with light and heat, and thus should not be present in the light-aged oil macerate. Additionally, hypericin can cause phototoxic skin reactions if ingested or absorbed into the skin. Therefore, the established chemistry presents a paradox for this H. perforatum oil macerate: the hyperforin responsible for the antibacterial bioactivity should degrade in the sunlight as the traditional oil is prepared; alternately, if hypericin is present in established bioactive levels, then the oil macerate should cause photosensitivity, yet none is reported. In this research, various extracts of H. perforatum were compared to traditional oil macerates with regards to chemical composition and antibacterial activity (inhibition of growth, biofilm formation, and quorum sensing) vs. several strains of Staphylococcus aureus in order to better understand this traditional medicine. It was found that four Kosovar-crafted oil macerates were effective at inhibiting biofilm formation (MBIC 50 active range of 0.004-0.016% v/v), exhibited moderate inhibition of quorum sensing (QSIC 50 active range of 0.064-0.512% v/v), and contained detectable amounts of hyperforin, but not hypericin. Overall, levels of hypericin were much higher in the organic extracts, and these also exhibited more potent growth inhibitory activity. In conclusion, these data confirm that oil macerates employed in traditional

  12. Efeito de Hypericum caprifoliatum Cham. & Schltdl. (Guttiferae sobre contrações em íleo isolado de cobaio induzidas por diferentes agonistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice F. Viana

    Full Text Available Na última década, o gênero Hypericum ganhou repercussão mundial devido à utilização de Hypericum perforatum para obtenção de medicamentos antidepressivos. Por esta razão, a maioria dos estudos com outras espécies do gênero centra-se nesta atividade. Porém, um dos usos populares de espécies de Hypericum nativas do sul do Brasil é no tratamento de problemas gastrintestinais, inclusive como antiespasmódico. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de uma das espécies de Hypericum nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, H. caprifoliatum, sobre as contrações induzidas por agonistas em íleo isolado de cobaio. Foi investigado o efeito de um extrato ciclo-hexano purificado (isento de clorofila e ceras, nas concentrações de 1, 3, 10 e 30 mg/mL, sobre curvas cumulativas de acetilcolina, histamina, potássio e serotonina (10-7 a 10-4 M. Na concentração de 30 mg/mL o extrato inibiu totalmente as contrações induzidas por todos os agonistas. Na concentração de 10 mg/mL, o extrato apresentou efeito antagonista não-competitivo de serotonina, reduzindo a contração máxima induzida por serotonina em cerca de 50 %. A resposta contrátil aos outros mediadores não foi alterada. Estes resultados indicam que espécies de Hypericum do sul do Brasil podem ser uma perspectiva interessante na busca de moléculas com atividade sobre a motilidade gastrintestinal.

  13. Leishmanicidal activity of lipophilic extracts of some Hypericum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Ana Paula; Barros, Francisco Maikon Corrêa de; Ccana-Ccapatinta, Gari Vidal; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Poser, Gilsane Lino von; Romão, Pedro R T

    2015-01-15

    Leishmaniasis has emerged as the third most prevalent parasite-borne disease worldwide after malaria and filariasis, with about 350 million people at risk of infection. Antileishmanial drugs currently available have various limitations, mainly because of the parasite resistance and side effects. The search of new antileishmanial drugs is ventured throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to assess the leishmanicidal activity of lipophilic extracts of eight Hypericum species against promastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The dried and powered materials of aerial parts of H. andinum Gleason, H. brevistylum Choisy, H. caprifoliatum Cham. & Schltdl., H. carinatum Griseb., H. linoides A. St.-Hil., H. myrianthum Cham. & Schltdl., H. polyanthemum Klotzsch ex Reichardt and H. silenoides Juss. were extracted by static maceration with n-hexane. Extracts were evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure and stored at -20°C until biological evaluation and HPLC analysis. The metabolites investigated were dimeric phloroglucinol derivatives, benzophenones and benzopyrans. The yields were expressed as mean of three injections in mg of compound per g of extract (mg/g extract). The effect of Hypericum species on the viability of infective forms of L. (L.) amazonensis was determined using a hemocytometer. Amphotericin B was used as a standard drug. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for each extract were determined by linear regression analysis. The cytotoxic effects of extracts were assessed on peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice by MTT assay. The concentration that causes 50% of macrophage cytotoxicity (CC50) was determined by linear regression analysis. The selectivity index (SI) of the extracts was determined considering the following equation: CC50 against mammalian cells/IC50 against L. amazonensis. We demonstrated that H. carinatum, H. linoides and H. polyanthemum were able to kill the parasites in a dose dependent manner. These

  14. Antifungal Activity of Hypericum havvae Against Some Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potency against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus laurentii, with the same MIC value of 1.56 mg/ml. Conclusion: Our findings support the use of Hypericum havvae in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal infections, especially Candidiasis. Keywords: Antifungal activity, Candida, Hypericum havvae, Candidiasis ...

  15. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: hou5133@gmail.com [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  16. Sinaicinone, a complex adamantanyl derivative from Hypericum sinaicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Sigler, Karel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, - (2007), s. 925-934 ISSN 0031-9422 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : hypericum sinaicum * guttiferae * sinaicinone Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.322, year: 2007

  17. A comparison of patterns of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting with St. John's Wort and fluoxetine during the period 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Claire L; Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian F

    2015-07-01

    Herbal medicines are perceived to be safe by the general public and medical practitioners, despite abundant evidence from clinical trials and case reports that show herbal preparations can have significant adverse effects. The overall impact of adverse events to herbal medicines in Australia is currently unknown. Post marketing surveillance of medications through spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports to the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is one way to estimate this risk. The patterns of spontaneously reported ADRs provide insight to herbal dangers, especially when compared with patterns of a mechanistically similar conventional drug. The study compared the pattern of spontaneously reported ADRs to St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), a common herbal treatment for depression which contains selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), to fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed synthetic SSRI antidepressant. Spontaneous ADR reports sent to the TGA between 2000-2013 for St. John's Wort (n = 84) and fluoxetine (n = 447) were obtained and analysed. The demographic information, types of interaction, severity of the ADR, and the body systems affected (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system) were recorded for individual ADR cases. The majority of spontaneously reported ADRs for St. John's Wort and fluoxetine were concerning females aged 26-50 years (28.6%, 22.8%). The organ systems affected by ADRs to St John's Wort and fluoxetine have a similar profile, with the majority of cases affecting the central nervous system (45.2%, 61.7%). This result demonstrates that herbal preparations can result in ADRs similar to those of prescription medications. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. A mixture of St. John's wort and sea buckthorn oils regresses endometriotic implants and affects the levels of inflammatory mediators in peritoneal fluid of the rat: A surgically induced endometriosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, Mert; Süntar, İpek; Demirel, Mürşide Ayşe; Yeşilada, Erdem; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra

    2016-12-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) are used as an emmenagog and for the treatment of other gynecological disorders including uterus inflammation and endometriosis. The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential of a mixture of sea buckthorn and St. John's wort oils (HrHp oil) in the treatment of endometriosis. The activity was assessed in surgically induced endometriosis in rats. A 15-mm piece of endometrium was sutured into the abdominal wall. Twenty-eight days later, a second laparotomy was performed to calculate the endometrial foci areas and to score intra-abdominal adhesions. The rats were treated with either vehicle, HrHp oil formulation, or the reference (buserelin acetate). At the end of the experiment all rats were sacrificed and endometriotic foci areas and intra-abdominal adhesions were re-evaluated. The tissue sections were analyzed histopathologically. Peritoneal fluids of the experimental animals were collected in order to detect the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-6, which might be involved in the etiology of endometriosis. In the HrHp oil-treated group, the volumes of endometriotic implants were found to be significantly decreased (from 50.8 mm 3 to 18.6 mm 3 , pnecrosis factor-α decreased from 7.02±1.33 pg/mL to 4.78±1.02 pg/mL (pvascular endothelial growth factor from 17.39±8.52 pg/mL to 9.67±5.04 pg/mL (ptreatment. HrHp oil may be a promising alternative for the treatment of endometriosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Inhibition of MAO by fractions and constituents of hypericum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladt, S; Wagner, H

    1994-10-01

    The inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO) by six fractions from hypericum extract and three characteristic constituents (as pure substances) were analyzed in vitro and ex vivo to study the antidepressive mechanism of action. Rat brain homogenates were used as the in vitro model, while the ex vivo analysis was performed after intraperitoneal application of the test substances to albino rats. Massive inhibition of MAO-A could be shown with the total extract and all fractions only at the concentration of 10(-3) mol/L. At 10(-4) mol/L, one fraction rich in flavonoides showed an inhibition of 39%, and all other fractions demonstrated less than 25% inhibition. Using pure hypericin as well as in all ex vivo experiments, no relevant inhibiting effects could be shown. From the results it can be concluded that the clinically proven antidepressive effect of hypericum extract cannot be explained in terms of MAO inhibition.

  20. St. John's wort attenuates irinotecan-induced diarrhea via down-regulation of intestinal pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of intestinal epithelial apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zeping; Yang Xiaoxia; Chan Suiyung; Xu Anlong; Duan Wei; Zhu Yizhun; Sheu, F.-S.; Boelsterli, Urs Alex; Chan, Eli; Zhang Qiang; Wang, J.-C.; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel; Koh, H.L.; Huang Min; Zhou Shufeng

    2006-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common dose-limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy, in particular for drugs such as irinotecan (CPT-11), 5-fluouracil, oxaliplatin, capecitabine and raltitrexed. St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum, SJW) has anti-inflammatory activity, and our preliminary study in the rat and a pilot study in cancer patients found that treatment of SJW alleviated irinotecan-induced diarrhea. In the present study, we investigated whether SJW modulated various pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukins (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6), interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and intestinal epithelium apoptosis in rats. The rats were treated with irinotecan at 60 mg/kg for 4 days in combination with oral SJW or SJW-free control vehicle at 400 mg/kg for 8 days. Diarrhea, tissue damage, body weight loss, various cytokines including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α and intestinal epithelial apoptosis were monitored over 11 days. Our studies demonstrated that combined SJW markedly reduced CPT-11-induced diarrhea and intestinal lesions. The production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α was significantly up-regulated in intestine. In the mean time, combined SJW significantly suppressed the intestinal epithelial apoptosis induced by CPT-11 over days 5-11. In particular, combination of SJW significantly inhibited the expression of TNF-α mRNA in the intestine over days 5-11. In conclusion, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and intestinal epithelium apoptosis partly explained the protective effect of SJW against the intestinal toxicities induced by irinotecan. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential for STW as an agent in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs to lower their dose-limiting toxicities

  1. Effect of acute gamma radiation and protective action of different concentration of extracts of safora japonica and hypericum perforatum on the life of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Garibov, A.A.; Samedov, P.A.; Farajov, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : As atomic power is increasingly recognized as a potential energy source to sustain future human development, radiological protection of the environment will become an even more important environmental safety concern. Thus, an understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on non-human biota is required by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the radiological protection of the environment. Soil processes are vital to sustainable terrestrial ecosystems, and soil invertebrates play an important role in nutrient cycling by feeding on microbiota. Because of their ecological importance, soil invertebrates are used for ecological impact assessments of terrestrial ecosystem pollutants. For chemical substances, single-species laboratory tests are used to understand toxicity. Standard tests using earthworms and spring tails have been developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Laboratory toxicity tests are also applicable in field contamination monitoring to determine if test organisms have been exposed to field-corrected soils. In such assays, gene expression as a biomarker has been receiving increased attention as it may produce fast, sensitive and diagnostic assays. A similar use of laboratory tests can be applied to assess the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. An understanding of the dose-effect relations of ionising radiation for non-human biota establishes important baselines for radiobiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, biomass changing, feeding activity, coprolite excretion of aboriginal earthworms

  2. Polycyclic Polyprenylated Acylphloroglucinol Congeners Possessing Diverse Structures from Hypericum henryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Wei; Li, Ming-Ming; Liu, Xia; Ferreira, Daneel; Ding, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liao, Yang; Qin, Hong-Bo; Xu, Gang

    2015-04-24

    Polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) are a class of hybrid natural products sharing the mevalonate/methylerythritol phosphate and polyketide biosynthetic pathways and showing considerable structural and bioactive diversity. In a systematic phytochemical investigation of Hypericum henryi, 40 PPAP-type derivatives, including the new compounds hyphenrones G-Q, were obtained. These compounds represent 12 different structural types, including four unusual skeletons exemplified by 5, 8, 10, and 17. The 12 different core structures found are explicable in terms of their biosynthetic origin. The structure of a known PPAP, perforatumone, was revised to hyphenrone A (5) by NMR spectroscopic and biomimetic synthesis methods. Several compounds exhibited inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase and human tumor cell lines. This study deals with the structural diversity, function, and biogenesis of natural PPAPs.

  3. A pulse radiolysis study of hyperoside isolated from Hypericum mysorense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariharapura, Raghu C.; Mahal, H.S.; Srinivasan, R.; Jagani, Hitesh; Vijayan, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The recent growth in knowledge of free radicals in biology is producing a medical revolution that promises a new age in health and disease management. In the last two decades there has been an explosive interest in the role of oxygen free radicals, more generally known as “reactive oxygen species” and of “reactive nitrogen species” in experimental and clinical medicine. Methods: The flowering top extract of Hypericum mysorense possessing potent anti-oxidant activity was subjected to bio-active guided isolation. Pulse radiolysis technique was used to determine the transient spectrum and rate constant for the one-electron oxidation of hyperoside by · OH, N 3 · , NO 2 · , NO · , CCl 3 OO · radicals in aqueous solution. Results: Three compounds were isolated and characterized as rutin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (hyperoside) and quercetin from spectral analysis. The hyperoside radical showed pK a1 and pK a2 at 5.4 and 9.2. Both, Cu(II) and iron(II) ions form chelate with hyperoside. The Cu–hyperoside chelate was able to scavenge O 2 ·− , k=7.0(±0.3)×10 6 dm 3 mol −1 s −1 at pH 9. The repair rates for tryptophan and guanosine radicals by hyperoside were also determined. Conclusion: The reduction potential of hyperoside radical was determined by cyclic voltammetric and pulse radiolysis methods. - Highlights: • Hyperoside, rutin and quercetin were isolated from extract of Hypericum mysorense. • Rate constant of hyperoside was determined by Pulse radiolysis technique. • The hyperoside radical showed pK a1 and pK a2 at 5.4 and 9.2. • Cu(II) and iron(II)ions form chelate with hyperoside. • Hyperoside can repair the damage to guanosine, tryptophan radicals

  4. Free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition of Hypericum helianthemoides (spach Boiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are compounds that obstruct the oxidation of macromolecules in the body. In general, there are two categories of antioxidants, natural and synthetic. Recently, interest has been increased considerably for obtaining new natural antioxidants. In this study, the scavenging of free radicals such as DPPH, NO and OH by Hypericum helianthemoides extract was evaluated. Also, the antioxidant properties of this extract were evaluated by FRAP, FTC methods and determination phenolic compounds. The plant was collected from north of Fars Province and plant extraction was obtained using ethanol. In DPPH radical scavenging, different concentrations of the Hypericum extract were added to DPPH radical. In hydroxyl radical scavenging, Fenton reaction mixture, TCA and TBA were mixed with Hypericum extract. In nitric radical scavenging, nitropruside was mixed with Hypericum extract and then sulphanilic acid, naphthylene diamine were added. In determination of phenolic compounds, Folin-ciocalteu and sodium carbonate were added to Hypericum extract. In DPPH radical scavenging, the IC50 of Hypericum extract (309.35±6.5μg/ml was higher than the antioxidant standards, BHT (IC50=81.9±2.6 μg/ml and quercetin (IC50=60.04±6.48 μg/ml. The highest scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was observed in Hypericum extract (70.3±0.8%, 125 μg/ml. In gallic acid it was (73.8±3.3%. In 200 μg/ml of Hypericum extract scavenged NO radical (85.2±2.7%. In FRAP method, the IC50 of this extract was 109.7±10.5 μg/ml. In FTC method, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Hypericum extract, BHT and ascorbic acid were 59.2±2.2, 66.9±0.15, 64.06±0.02 respectively. Total phenol of the plant extract was 3±0.4 mg/g.

  5. [The HMPC monograph on Hypericum: Background, development, contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Länger, Reinhard

    2010-12-01

    The adoption of the EU community monograph on Hypericum constitutes a milestone in the process of harmonisation of herbal medicinal products within the European Community. The assessment of the published clinical data revealed that for two types of extracts the evidence of the efficacy in mild to moderate depressive episodes compared to placebo or standard medication was found to be acceptable. Additionally, a sufficient efficacy in relapse prophylaxis could be demonstrated for these two herbal preparations. For some other dry extracts, the efficacy in the short-term treatment of symptoms in mild depressive disorders was found to be substantiated. Short-term treatment with preparations containing low amounts of hyperforin did not increase cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Therefore the oral administration of traditional herbal preparations is restricted to two weeks. In the case that an applicant demonstrates that the daily intake of hyperforin is below 1 mg the warnings on interactions may be omitted in traditional herbal medicinal products. Additionally the cutaneous administration of traditional liquid herbal preparations for the traditional use in symptomatic treatment of minor inflammations of the skin and as an aid in healing minor wounds was included in the monograph.

  6. Antiproliferative Activity and Chemical Constituents of Hypericum dyeri. Rehder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Arfan, M.; Zaman, K.

    2013-01-01

    The antiproliferative activity of hexane (F1), ethyl acetate (F2), butanol (F3) and water (F4) extracts of Hypericum dyeri were tested in vitro for their anti- proliferative (anticancer) activity on the cell lines: HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma, NCI-H460 human non-small cell lung carcinoma, MCF-7 human breast cancer, OVCAR-3 human ovarian adenocarcinoma and RXF-393 human renal cell carcinoma with etoposide as positive control. Among the various extracts the F1 showed relatively potent anti-proliferative activity (IC50, 17.20 +- 4.80 micro g/mL) on NCI-H460 human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell growth. Six compounds were also isolated for the first time from this source. These phytochemicals were identified as 1-Octatriacontanol (1), Hexacosyl tetracosanoate (2), Geddic acid (3), Octacosanoic acid (4), Ceric acid (5) and Sitosterol (6) on the basis of spectroscopic studies such as 1H NMR ,13C NMR, 2D NMR and Mass spectroscopy as well as established with help of reported literature. (author)

  7. The efficacy of St. John's Wort in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia--a double-blind placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randløv, C; Mehlsen, J; Thomsen, C F

    2006-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of St. John's Wort compared with placebo in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia, with the main focus on which diagnostic entities are optimally amenable to treatment with two different doses of Hypericum, and which are not.......We studied the efficacy of St. John's Wort compared with placebo in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia, with the main focus on which diagnostic entities are optimally amenable to treatment with two different doses of Hypericum, and which are not....

  8. Hypericum boehlingraabei (Hypericaceae), a new species from the northern Peloponnese (Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Iatroú, Gregory; Vold, Gert

    2010-01-01

    Hypericum boehlingraabei (Hypericaceae) is described as a new species endemic to Greece and illustrated by photographs. It occurs on rocks in a few localities in north central Peloponnese, and resembles H. taygeteum from Mt Taigetos and Mt Parnon in the south Peloponnese. Its similarities with H........ rumeliacum are also noted; the latter occurs in the Balkans and Romania...

  9. The efficacy of St. John's Wort in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia--a double-blind placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randløv, C; Mehlsen, J; Thomsen, C F

    2006-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of St. John's Wort compared with placebo in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia, with the main focus on which diagnostic entities are optimally amenable to treatment with two different doses of Hypericum, and which are not....

  10. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John's wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostanska, Katarina; Rostock, Matthias; Melzer, Joerg; Baumgartner, Stephan; Saller, Reinhard

    2012-07-18

    Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712-2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712-1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712-3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined "wound field". All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712-2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712-1) at 1:100 dilutions (p 0.05). Preparation (0712-2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712-1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712-2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis.

  11. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hostanska Katarina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2, its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1 and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3 on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2 exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9% vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1 at 1:100 dilutions (p  0.05. Preparation (0712–2 at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p  Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2 exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis.

  12. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1) at 1:100 dilutions (p  0.05). Preparation (0712–2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712–1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis. PMID:22809174

  13. Importance of big pollinators for the reproduction of two Hypericum species in Cameroon, West Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, Štěpán; Hrázský, Záboj; Bartoš, M.; Brom, J.; Reif, J.; Hořák, D.; Bystřická, D.; Riegert, J.; Sedláček, O.; Pešata, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2007), s. 607-613 ISSN 0141-6707 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA601410709; GA AV ČR KJB601110703; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : sunbirds * Hypericum * floral traits Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.688, year: 2007

  14. Induction of apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by active compounds from Hypericum ascyron L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Mei; Luo, Xue-Gang; He, Jun-Fang; Wang, Nan; Zhou, Hao; Yang, Pei-Long; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2018-03-01

    Hypericum ascyron L. (Great St. Johnswort), which belongs to the Hypericaceae family, has been used for the treatment of hematemesis, metrorrhagia, rheumatism, swelling, stomach ache, abscesses, dysentery and irregular menstruation for >2,000 years in China. The aim of the present study was to clarify the anticancer activity compounds from H. ascyron L. and the underlying molecular mechanism. Anticancer activity of H. ascyron L. extract was evaluated using an MTT assay. To confirm the anticancer mechanism of activity compounds, Hoechst 33258, Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, rhodamine 123 staining and caspase-3 activity analysis were performed. The results demonstrated that the anti-proliferative action of the mixture of kaempferol 3-O-β-(2″-acetyl) galactopyranoside (K) and quercetin (Q) (molar ratio, 1:1) was significantly increased compared with either of these two compounds separately, and the active fraction of the H. ascyron L. extract |(HALE). HALE, indicating that the anti-proliferative function of H. ascyron L. may be a synergic effect of K and Q. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of KQ on the growth of HeLa cells was mediated by the induction of apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to identify that KQ exhibits significant anti-proliferation activity on HeLa cells via the apoptotic pathway, and is also the first to evaluate the anticancer potential of H. ascyron L. The results of the present study may provide a rational base for the use of H. ascyron L. in the clinic, and shed light on the development of novel anticancer drugs.

  15. Characterisation of extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. using an on-line HPLC system with UV/visible and fluorescence detection prior to and after photochemical conversion of the effluent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A. G.; Cornett, Claus; Gudiksen, L.

    2000-01-01

    was illuminated with UV light at 254 nm for 1 min. The apparent content of hypericins was dependent on the mode of detection, and it is therefore of importance to state carefully the mode of detection in any analytical method in order to use the method for reproducible standardisation procedures. Copyright (C...

  16. Phloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum species trigger mitochondrial dysfunction in Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Ana Paula Aquistapase; Mesquita, Camila Saporiti; Dorneles, Gilson Pires; Teixeira, Vivian de Oliveira Nunes; de Barros, Francisco Maikon Corrêa; Vidal Ccana-Ccapatinta, Gari; Fonseca, Simone Gonçalves; Monteiro, Marta Chagas; Júnior, Luiz Carlos Rodrigues; Peres, Alessandra; von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Romão, Pedro Roosevelt Torres

    2018-02-27

    Bioactive molecules isolated from plants are promising sources for the development of new therapies against leishmaniasis. We investigated the leishmanicidal activity of cariphenone A (1), isouliginosin B (2) and uliginosin B (3) isolated from Hypericum species. Promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis were incubated with compounds 1-3 at concentrations 1-100 µ m for 48 h. The anti-promastigote effect of compounds was also tested in combinations. The cytotoxicity against macrophages and human erythrocytes were determined using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method and hemolysis assay, respectively. The compounds 1-3 showed high leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes, IC50 values of 10.5, 17.5 and 11.3 µ m, respectively. Synergistic interactions were found to the associations of compounds 1 and 2 [Σ fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) = 0.41], and 2 and 3 (ΣFIC = 0.28) on promastigotes. All Hypericum compounds induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and reactive oxygen species production in promastigotes. The compounds showed low cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells, high selectivity index and killed intracellular amastigotes probably mediated by oxidative stress. These results indicate that these compounds are promising candidates for the development of drugs against leishmaniasis.

  17. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effect and antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities of Hypericum triquetrifolium Turra essential oils from Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of bio-active secondary metabolites have been identified and reported for several Hypericum species. Many studies have reported the potential use of the plant extracts against several pathogens. However, Hypericum triquetrifolium is one of the least studied species for its antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the essential oils of Hypericum triquetrifolium as well as their antimicrobial potential against coxsakievirus B3 and a range of bacterial and fungal strains. Methods The essential oils of Hypericum triquetrifolium harvested from five different Tunisian localities (Fondouk DJedid, Bou Arada, Bahra, Fernana and Dhrea Ben Jouder) were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities by micro-broth dilution methods against bacterial and fungal strains. In addition, the cytotoxic effect and the antiviral activity of these oils were carried out using Vero cell lines and coxsakievirus B3. Results The results showed a good antibacterial activities against a wide range of bacterial strains, MIC values ranging between 0.39-12.50 mg/ml and MBC values between 1.56-25.0 mg/ml. In addition, the essential oils showed promising antifungal activity with MIC values ranging between 0.39 μg/mL and 12.50 μg/mL; MFC values ranged between 3.12 μg/mL and 25.00 μg/mL; a significant anticandidal activity was noted (MIC values comprised between 0.39 μg/mL and 12.50 μg/mL). Although their low cytotoxic effect (CC50 ranged between 0.58 mg/mL and 12.00 mg/mL), the essential oils did not show antiviral activity against coxsakievirus B3. Conclusion The essential oils obtained from Hypericum triquetrifolium can be used as antimicrobial agents and could be safe at non cytotoxic doses. As shown for the tested essential oils, comparative analysis need to be undertaken to better characterize also the antimicrobial activities of Hypericum triquetrifolium extracts with different solvents as well as their

  18. Comparative transcriptome reconstruction of four Hypericum species focused on hypericin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Soták

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing technology (NGS rapidly developed research applications in thefield of plant functional genomics. Several Hypericum spp. with an aim to generate andenhance gene annotations especially for genes coding the enzymes supposedly included inbiosynthesis of valuable bioactive compounds were analyzed. The first de novo transcriptomeprofiling of H. annulatum Moris, H. tomentosum L., H. kalmianum L. and H. androsaemumL. leaves cultivated in vitro was accomplished. All four species with only limited genomicinformation were selected on the basis of differences in ability to synthesize hypericins andpresence of dark nodules accumulating these metabolites with purpose to enrich genomicbackground of Hypericum spp. H. annulatum was chosen because of high number of the darknodules and high content of hypericin. H. tomentosum leaves are typical for the presence ofonly 1-2 dark nodules localized in the apical part. Both H. kalmianum and H. androsaemumlack hypericin and have no dark nodules. Four separated datasets of the pair-end reads weregathered and used for de novo assembly by Trinity program. Assembled transcriptomes wereannotated to the public databases Swiss-Prot and non-redundant protein database (NCBI-nr.Gene ontology analysis was performed. Differences of expression levels in the marginaltissues with dark nodules and inner part of leaves lacking these nodules indicate a potentialgenetic background for hypericin formation as the presumed site of hypericin biosynthesis isin the cells adjacent to these structures. Altogether 165 contigs in H. annulatum and 100contigs in H. tomentosum were detected as significantly differentially expressed (P<0.05 andupregulated in the leaf rim tissues containing the dark nodules. The new sequenceshomologous to octaketide synthase and enzymes catalyzing phenolic oxidative couplingreactions indispensable for hypericin biosynthesis were discovered. The presentedtranscriptomic sequence data will

  19. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed t...

  20. Hepatoprotective effects of Iranian Hypericum scabrum essential oils against oxidative stress induced by acetaminophen in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Dadkhah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This studied examined the protective role of Hypericum scabrum oils (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w, i.p on acetaminophen-induced liver damages in the rat. The hepatic oxidative/antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LP, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP were measured 2, 4, 8, 16 and 24h after the treatments confirmed by histopathological consideration. The results indicated that increased levels of hepatic LP and FRAP and SOD activity were reversed in the rats treated with oils. In addition, the depleted GSH were compensated with the oil treatments. The protective effect of the oils was further confirmed by the histophatological examination carried out on liver biopsies. The data pointed out that H. scabrum oil could modulate the hepatic toxicity induced by the APAP through adjusting the oxidative stress/antioxidant parameters and could be of potential candidate for the treatment of acetaminophen induced oxidative stress liver damages.

  1. Antioxidant, anticancer and anticholinesterase activities of flower, fruit and seed extracts of Hypericum amblysepalum HOCHST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cumali

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is an unnatural type of tissue growth in which the cells exhibit unrestrained division, leading to a progressive increase in the number of dividing cells. It is now the second largest cause of death in the world. The present study concerned antioxidant, anticancer and anticholinesterase activities and protocatechuic, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and o-coumaric concentrations in methanol extracts of flowers, fruits and seeds of Hypericum amblysepalum. Antioxidant properties including free radical scavenging activity and reducing power, and amounts of total phenolic compounds were evaluated using different tests. Protocatechuic, catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid and o-coumaric concentrations in extracts were determined by HPLC. Cytotoxic effects were determined using the MTT test with human cervix cancer (HeLa) and rat kidney epithelium cell (NRK-52E) lines. Acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities were measured by by Ellman method. Total phenolic content of H. amblysepalum seeds was found to be higher than in fruit and flower extracts. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the obtained extracts gave satisfactory results versus butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene as controls. Reducing power activity was linearly proportional to the studied concentration range: 10-500 μg/ mL LC50 values for H. amblysepalum seeds were 11.7 and 2.86 respectively for HeLa and NRK-52E cell lines. Butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity was 76.9±0.41 for seed extract and higher than with other extracts. The present results suggested that H. amblysepalum could be a potential candidate anti-cancer drug for the treatment of human cervical cancer, and good source of natural antioxidants.

  2. Estudo taxonômico das espécies nativas de Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Taxonomy of native species of Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Rodrigues Slusarski

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado o estudo taxonômico de Hypericum no Estado do Paraná. Este gênero inclui cerca de 350 espécies nas regiões temperadas e subtropicais de todo o mundo. No Brasil, ocorrem 17 espécies, 12 das quais confirmadas para o Estado do Paraná, além de três subespécies, distribuídas em todas as regiões fitogeográficas do Estado, principalmente na estepe gramíneo-lenhosa. Apresenta-se chave de identificação dos táxons, descrições, ilustrações, dados ecológicos e de distribuição geográfica.A taxonomic study of the genus Hypericum L. (Hypericaceae in the state of Paraná was carried out. This genus includes about 350 species, mostly cosmopolitan, occurring in temperate and subtropical regions worldwide. Seventeen species are found in Brazil, with twelve species and three subspecies in Paraná, in all phytogeographic regions of the state, mainly in grasslands. An identification key for the taxa, descriptions, illustrations and data on geographic distribution and ecology are provided.

  3. Herbicide hormesis to segregate a weed population? – A case study with Tripleurospermum perforatum (Mérat Lainz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belz, Regina G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Weed populations feature within-population genetic differences. Thus, evaluating mean responses in herbicide treated populations may miss ecologically significant individual responses. Since hormesis can likewise vary between individuals, this study investigated the hypothesis that herbicide hormesis within a high-density weed population is different among slowly-growing individuals, as compared to fast-growing individuals. In a dose-response experiment, Tripleurospermum perforatum (Mérat Lainz was exposed to 12 doses of Atlantis WG (mesosulfuron + iodosulfuron in 24 replicates (50 plants/replicate. Root/shoot growth responses were evaluated as dose-response relationships for the population mean, the 90-97th percentile of the population (fast-growing individuals, and the 5-10th percentile (slow-growing individuals. Growth responses were generally biphasic. Slow-growing individuals had more pronounced hormesis that occurred partially at lower doses as compared to the population mean. With fast-growing individuals, hormesis was instead less pronounced and partially shifted to higher doses. Hence, hormesis was primarily associated with a stimulation of slow-growing individuals, while fast-growing individuals contributed to a lesser extent to the hormetic population response in a dense stand in vitro. This discrepancy may have the potential to segregate an herbicide exposed population and alter its sensitivity in the long-run.

  4. Atividade antibacteriana de floroglucinóis e do extrato hexânico de Hypericum brasiliense Choysi Antibacterial activity of the phloroglucinols and hexanic extract from Hypericum brasiliense Choysi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildegardo Seibert França

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phloroglucinols were obtained from Hypericum brasiliense: japonicine A (1, isouliginosin B (2 and uliginosin B (3. Bioautography and disk diffusion methods were used to determine antibacterial activity of the hexanic extract. Strains of the Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus and American Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones showed a growth inhibition zone ranging from 10 to 12 mm and 7 to 15 mm, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values were used to measure antistaphylococcal activity for all phloroglucinols. Isouliginosin B and uliginosin B presented MIC values of 1.5 and 3.0 µg/mL, respectively, while japonicine A displayed MIC value of 50.0 µg/mL.

  5. Caracterização química do óleo essencial de Hypericum brasiliense Choisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Carvalho

    Full Text Available Hypericum brasiliense Choisy, planta da família Guttiferae, ocorre principalmente nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Em trabalhos anteriores foram isolados e identificados nesta espécie, dentre outras classes de compostos, xantonas, floroglucinóis e flavonóides. Apesar da presença de óleos essenciais ser uma característica do gênero, ainda não há registros na literatura da composição química do óleo essencial desta espécie. Neste trabalho foi realizado o estudo químico da fração volátil de H. brasiliense visando identificar e quantificar as substâncias químicas presentes através da cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massas equipado com banco de dados.

  6. Characterization and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activity was examined by 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. (DPPH) radical ... antifungal, antiviral, anticancer activities [1-3]. Due to its .... Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. Food Chem ... rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro. J Agr.

  7. St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    The population of St Lucia was 123,000 in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2%. The infant mortality rate stands at 22.2/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 70.3 years for males and 74.9 years for females. The literacy rate is 78%. St Lucia's labor force is allocated as follows: agriculture, 36.6%; industry and commerce, 20.1%; and services, 18.1%. The gross national product (GNP) was US$146 million in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 3% and a per capita GNP of $1071. St Lucia is a parliamentary democracy modeled on the British Westminster system. The island is divided into 16 parishes and 1 urban area (the capital, Castries). St Lucia is currently a politically stable country, although the high level of youth unemployment is a cause for concern. Ongoing stability may depend on the government's ability to provide services such as jobs and housing. The economy has evolved from a monocrop sugar plantation type to a diversified economy based on agriculture, industry, and tourism. Agriculture, dominated by the banana industry, is characterized by the participation of a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises. Industry is being encouraged through the provision of incentives such as tax rebates. The government is attempting to maintain a sound investment climate through a tripartite dialogue with the private sector and trade unions. Overall economic policy is predicated on the attraction of sound investments, by both local and foreign entities, to accelerate the rate of economic growth, solve the unemployment problem, and generate a solid balance-of-payments position.

  8. Peter St. John | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John Photo of Peter St. John Peter St. John Researcher III-Chemical Engineering Peter.StJohn @nrel.gov | 303-384-7969 Orcid ID http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7928-3722 Education Peter St. John received his engineering from the University of California at Santa Barbara in 2015. During his Ph.D., St. John applied

  9. Screening of Peruvian Medicinal Plants for Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties: Identification of Tyrosinase Inhibitors in Hypericum laricifolium Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Yanymee Nimesia Guillen; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-03-04

    Tyrosinase inhibitors are of far-ranging importance in cosmetics, medicinal products, and food industries. Peru is a diverse country with a wide variety of plants that may contain excellent anti-tyrosinase inhibitors. In the present study, the tyrosinase inhibitory properties of 50 medicinal plant extracts from Peru were investigated using tyrosinase assay. Among plant extracts, those that showed an inhibition rate >50% were Hypericum laricifolium Juss ., Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg ., and Muehlenbeckia vulcanica Meisn ., with H. laricifolium Juss. showing the greatest anti-tyrosinase activity. Although H. laricifolium Juss. has been widely used as a medicinal plant by Peruvians, little is known regarding its bioactive components and effects on tyrosinase activity. For this reason, we attempted to discover tyrosinase inhibitors in H. laricifolium Juss. for the first time. The bioactive components were separated by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and eluted with 100% methanol. Eight compounds were discovered and characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD): protocatechuic acid, p -hydroxybenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, vanilic acid, caffeic acid, kaempferol 3- O -glucuronide, quercetin, and kaempferol. In addition, the concentration of these compounds required for 50% inhibition (IC 50 ) of tyrosinase activity were evaluated. Quercetin exhibited the strongest tyrosinase inhibition (IC 50 14.29 ± 0.3 μM). Therefore, the Peruvian plant H. laricifolium Juss. could be a novel source for anti-tyrosinase activity.

  10. Isojacareubin from the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum: potent antibacterial and synergistic effects on clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; An, Jing; Han, Jun; Zhang, Yun-Ling; Wang, Gen-Chun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Bian, Zhong-Qi

    2012-01-01

    Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ) was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC(50)/MBC(50)) at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ), Levofloxacin (LEV) and Ampicillin (AMP), with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI(50)) at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log(10)CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity), 0.92 (CAZ, indifference) and 0.82 (AMP, indifference), respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  11. Evaluación de la efectividad de distintas formulaciones de jabón con extracto de Hypericum mexicanum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Carolina Corzo-Barragán; Diana Milena Gaitán-Vaca

    2017-01-01

    Con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de distintas formulaciones de jabón líquido y sólido con extracto etanólico de Hypericum mexicanum L., se llevó a cabo una prueba de manipuladores. El recuento microbiano permitió analizar la efectividad en cada uno de los tratamientos evaluados, encontrando que el jabón líquido y sólido en concentración del 0,1% de extracto es el más efectivo; sin embargo, no existen diferencias significativas entre la concentración de extracto (0,1 – 0,2%) y el cont...

  12. HPLC-UV-ESI-MS analysis of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of Hypericum undulatum shoot cultures and wild-growing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainha, Nuno; Koci, Kamila; Coelho, Ana Varela; Lima, Elisabete; Baptista, José; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    LC-UV and LC-MS analysis were used to study the phenolic composition of water extracts of Hypericum undulatum (HU) shoot cultures and wild-growing (WG) plants. Total phenolic content (TPC), determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, and the antioxidant activity measured by two complementary methods were also performed for each sample. Mass spectrometry revealed several phenolics acids with quinic acid moieties, flavonols, mostly quercetin, luteolin and apigenin glycosides, flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) and the xanthonoid mangiferin. Differences in phenolic composition profile and TPC were found between the samples. The major phenolic in HU culture-growing (CG) samples is chlorogenic acid, followed by epicatechin, quercitrin and isoquercitrin. The WG plants presents hyperoside as the main phenolic, followed by isoquercitrin, chlorogenic acid and quercetin. The TPC and antioxidant activity were higher in samples from WG plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. St. John's Wort (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The herb St. John's Wort is believed to be helpful in relieving mild to moderate depression, but should only be taken under a physician's supervision. St. John's Wort may clash with other medications or ...

  14. Incidence of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Herbal Medicines from German Retail Markets: Risk Assessments and Implications to Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letsyo, Emmanuel; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Lindigkeit, Rainer; Beuerle, Till

    2017-12-01

    The occurrence of potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in herbal medicines (HMs) is currently intensely being discussed in Europe. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids, particularly the 1,2-unsaturated PAs, are undesired compounds in HMs due to their potential hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. In this study, 98 widely patronized HMs from six popular German retail supermarkets/drugstores, as well as from pharmacies, were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of PAs. The results showed that about 63% of the HMs were PA positive, whereas the average PA concentration of the samples was 201 μg/kg, the highest concentration of PAs (3270 μg/kg) was attributed to a product that was purchased from the pharmacy and contained Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) as an active ingredient. In addition, H. perforatum-containing products were frequently contaminated with PAs from Echium spp., while both Cynara cardunculus L. products and fixed-combination products of Gentiana lutea L., Rumex acetosa L., Verbena officinalis L., Sambucus nigra L., and Primula veris L. products were commonly contaminated with PAs of Senecio spp. The study showed that H. perforatum, C. cardunculus, Urtica dioica L., and fixed-combination products were frequently contaminated with PA levels above the recommended values of both the German and European Medicines Agencies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Surveys in 1961 on St. Thomas & St. Croix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Thorkel; Licht, Kjeld de Fine

    Registration of towns and buildings erected during the Danish reign of the Caribbean Isles of St. Thomas, St. Jan and St. Croix 1671-1917 (now belonging to the USA under the name of Virgin Islands)....

  16. Screening In Vitro Targets Related to Diabetes in Herbal Extracts from Peru: Identification of Active Compounds in Hypericum laricifolium Juss. by Offline High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Yanymee N. Guillen; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zuo, Guanglei; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-11-24

    This study investigates in vitro targets related to diabetes in 30 herbal extracts from Peru, for the first time, using α-glucosidase, aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory assays and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging assays. Among the 30 herbal extracts, Hypericum laricifolium Juss. (HL) was the herb which showed more than 50% inhibition in all assays, presenting 97.2 ± 2.0%, 56.9 ± 5.6%, 81.9 ± 2.5%, and 58.8 ± 4.6% inhibition for the α-glucosidase, AR, DPPH, and ABTS assays, respectively. Finally, six bioactive compounds, namely, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, kaempferol 3- O -glucuronide, quercetin, and kaempferol were identified in HL by offline high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quercetin exhibited the strongest inhibition in all enzyme assays and the strongest antioxidant activity. The results suggest that HL shows great potential for the complementary treatment of diabetes and its complications.

  17. Polycyclic phloroglucinols as PTP1B inhibitors from Hypericum longistylum: Structures, PTP1B inhibitory activities, and interactions with PTP1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiangrong; Yang, Xueyuan; Wang, Peixia; Liang, Yue; Liu, Feng; Tuerhong, Muhetaer; Jin, Da-Qing; Xu, Jing; Lee, Dongho; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2017-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been regarded asa target for the research and development of new drugs to treat type II diabetes and PTP1B inhibitors are potential lead compounds for this type of new drugs. A phytochemical investigation to obtain new PTP1B inhibitors resulted in the isolation of four new phloroglucinols, longistyliones A-D (1-4) from the aerial parts of Hypericum longistylum. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis, and the absolute configurations of these compounds were established by comparing their experimental electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra with those calculated by the time-dependent density functional theory method. Compounds 1-4 possess a rare polycyclic phloroglucinol skeleton. The following biological evaluation revealed that all of the compounds showed PTP1B inhibitory effects. The further molecular docking studies indicated the strong interactions between these bioactive compounds with the PTP1B protein, which revealed the possible mechanism of PTP1B inhibition of bioactive compounds. All of the results implied that these compounds are potentially useful for the treatment of type II diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. In-vitro Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activities and Anti-Genotoxic Effects of Hypericum retusum Aucher Flowers, Fruits and Seeds Methanol Extracts in Human Mononuclear Leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cumali; Aktepe, Necmettin; Yükselten, Yunus; Sunguroglu, Asuman; Boğa, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the antioxidant, anticancer, anticholinesterase, anti-genotoxic activities and phenolic contents of flower, fruit and seed methanol extracts of Hypericum retusum AUCHER. The amounts of protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid and syringic acid in methanol extracts were determined by HPLC. Total phenolic content of H. retusum seed extract was found more than fruit and flower extracts. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of flower and seed methanol extracts showed close activity versus BHT as control. Among three extracts of H. retusum only flower methanol extract was exhibited considerable cytotoxic activities against to HeLa and NRK-52E cell lines. Moreover, seed methanol extract showed both acetyl and butyrl-cholinesterase inhibitory activity. The highest anti-genotoxic effects were seen 25 and 50 μg/mL concentrations. In this study, the extracts showed a strong antioxidant and anti-genotoxic effect. The seed extract was more efficient- than extracts of fruit and flowers. Our results suggest that the antioxidant and anti-genotoxic effects of extracts depend on their phenolic contents. Further studies should evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo the benefits of H. retusum seed methanol extracts.

  19. Screening In Vitro Targets Related to Diabetes in Herbal Extracts from Peru: Identification of Active Compounds in Hypericum laricifolium Juss. by Offline High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen Quispe, Yanymee N.; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates in vitro targets related to diabetes in 30 herbal extracts from Peru, for the first time, using α-glucosidase, aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory assays and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging assays. Among the 30 herbal extracts, Hypericum laricifolium Juss. (HL) was the herb which showed more than 50% inhibition in all assays, presenting 97.2 ± 2.0%, 56.9 ± 5.6%, 81.9 ± 2.5%, and 58.8 ± 4.6% inhibition for the α-glucosidase, AR, DPPH, and ABTS assays, respectively. Finally, six bioactive compounds, namely, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, kaempferol 3-O-glucuronide, quercetin, and kaempferol were identified in HL by offline high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Quercetin exhibited the strongest inhibition in all enzyme assays and the strongest antioxidant activity. The results suggest that HL shows great potential for the complementary treatment of diabetes and its complications. PMID:29186785

  20. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  1. Isojacareubin from the Chinese Herb Hypericum japonicum: Potent Antibacterial and Synergistic Effects on Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen-Chun Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts from the aerial parts of the Chinese herb Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Murray, Isojacareubin (ISJ was characterized as a potent antibacterial compound against the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The broth microdilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs of ISJ alone. The results showed that its MICs/MBCs ranged from 4/16 to 16/64 μg/mL, with the concentrations required to inhibit or kill 50% of the strains (MIC50/MBC50 at 8/16 μg/mL. Synergistic evaluations of this compound with four conventional antibacterial agents representing different types were performed by the chequerboard and time-kill tests. The chequerboard method showed significant synergy effects when ISJ was combined with Ceftazidime (CAZ, Levofloxacin (LEV and Ampicillin (AMP, with the values of 50% of the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI50 at 0.25, 0.37 and 0.37, respectively. Combined bactericidal activities were also observed in the time-kill dynamic assay. The results showed the ability of ISJ to reduce MRSA viable counts by log10CFU/mL at 24 h of incubation at a concentration of 1 × MIC were 1.5 (LEV, additivity, 0.92 (CAZ, indifference and 0.82 (AMP, indifference, respectively. These in vitro anti-MRSA activities of ISJ alone and its synergy with conventional antibacterial agents demonstrated that ISJ enhanced their efficacy, which is of potential use for single and combinatory therapy of patients infected with MRSA.

  2. St. Anselm and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gillian R.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the educational principles and methods of the medieval philosopher and theologian, St. Anselm. Educational practices of medieval monastic schools, town schools, private tutors, and pastoral teaching are discussed. Available from: Taylor & Francis Ltd., P.O. Box 9137, Church Street Station, New York, N.Y. 10049. (Author/DB)

  3. Evaluación de la efectividad de distintas formulaciones de jabón con extracto de Hypericum mexicanum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Carolina Corzo-Barragán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de distintas formulaciones de jabón líquido y sólido con extracto etanólico de Hypericum mexicanum L., se llevó a cabo una prueba de manipuladores. El recuento microbiano permitió analizar la efectividad en cada uno de los tratamientos evaluados, encontrando que el jabón líquido y sólido en concentración del 0,1% de extracto es el más efectivo; sin embargo, no existen diferencias significativas entre la concentración de extracto (0,1 – 0,2% y el control (jabón comercial. Por otro lado, usando el método de difusión en disco, se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana de los distintos tratamientos, frente a (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis y Pseudomonas aeruginosa, con lo cual se determinó que: 1 el jabón líquido en concentración de 0,1% y 0,2% de extracto vegetal y el jabón comercial inhiben el crecimiento de Escherichia coli; 2 todos los tratamientos presentaron inhibición frente a Staphylococcus aureus, exceptuando el de uso comercial y el sólido con extracto vegetal al 0,1%; 3 para  Staphylococcus epidermidis, se presentó una inhibición del jabón sólido y líquido sin extracto y del jabón líquido con extracto vegetal al 0, 2%; 4 en la evaluación de Pseudomonas aeruginosa, se observó inhibición del jabón líquido con concentración de extracto del 0,1% y 0,2% y del jabón comercial.

  4. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  5. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses.

  6. ST Safety What's on?

    CERN Document Server

    Jacot, C

    2001-01-01

    Du premier coup de pioche jusqu'à la mise en place de la tente abritant le buffet offert lors de la cérémonie d'achèvement d'un projet, la division ST est sur les rangs et apporte son savoir faire. Ces projets nombreux et pluridisciplinaires sont étudiés, se réalisent, s'exploitent et font l'objet de maintenance jusqu'à leur démantèlement. Durant leurs cycles de vie, la division ST avance les compétences professionnelles spécifiques à chaque corps de métiers incluant le recours à de nombreux contrats avec des entreprises extérieures pour réaliser les travaux sur les sites du CERN. Pour en conserver la maîtrise, la division ST applique une gestion de projet, une assurance de la qualité et s'attache tout particulièrement à la sécurité, à la réglementation, à la prévention des risques et la gestion de ceux-ci. Sous la supervision du DSO, un ensemble de procédures et de démarches a été développé afin de faciliter les tâches du maître d'ouvrage et des entreprises contractantes, c...

  7. Roegneria alashanica Keng: a species with the StStStYStY genome constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard R-C; Jensen, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    The genome constitution of tetraploid Roegneria alashanica Keng has been in question for a long time. Most scientific studies have suggested that R. alashanica had two versions of the St genome, St 1 St 2 , similar to that of Pseudoroegneria elytrigioides (C. Yen & J.L. Yang) B.R. Lu. A study, however, concluded that R. alashanica had the StY genome formula typical for tetraploid species of Roegneria. For the present study, R. alashanica, Elymus longearistatus (Bioss.) Tzvelev (StY genomes), Pseudoroegneria strigosa (M. Bieb.) Á. Löve (St), Pseudoroegneria libanoctica (Hackel) D.R. Dewey (St), and Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve (St) were screened for the Y-genome specific marker B14(F+R) 269 . All E. longearistatus plants expressed intense bands specific to the Y genome. Only 6 of 10 R. alashanica plants exhibited relatively faint bands for the STS marker. Previously, the genome in species of Pseudoroegneria exhibiting such faint Y-genome specific marker was designated as St Y . Based on these results, R. alashanica lacks the Y genome in E. longearistatus but likely possess two remotely related St genomes, St and St Y . According to its genome constitution, R. alashanica should be classified in the genus Pseudoroenera and given the new name Pseudoroegneria alashanica (Keng) R.R.-C. Wang and K.B. Jensen.

  8. Impact of plant extracts tested in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder treatment on cell survival and energy metabolism in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andreas Johannes; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Hemmeter, Ulrich Michael; Kircher, Tilo; Schulz, Eberhard; Clement, Hans-Willi; Heiser, Philip

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts such as Hypericum perforatum and Pycnogenol have been tested as alternatives to the classical ADHD drugs. It has been possible to describe neuroprotective effects of such plant extracts. A reduction of ADHD symptoms could be shown in clinical studies after the application of Pycnogenol, which is a pine bark extract. The impacts of the standardized herbal extracts Hypericum perforatum, Pycnogenol and Enzogenol up to a concentration of 5000 ng/mL on cell survival and energy metabolism in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells has been investigated in the present examination. Hypericum perforatum significantly decreased the survival of cells after treatment with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL, whereas lower concentrations exerted no significant effects. Pycnogenol( induced a significant increase of cell survival after incubation with a concentration of 32.25 ng/mL and a concentration of 250 ng/mL. Other applied concentrations of Pycnogenol failed to exert significant effects. Treatment with Enzogenol did not lead to significant changes in cell survival.Concerning energy metabolism, the treatment of cells with a concentration of 5000 ng/mL Hypericum perforatum led to a significant increase of ATP levels, whereas treatment with a concentration of 500 ng/mL had no significant effect. Incubation of cells with Pycnogenol and Enzogenol exerted no significant effects.None of the tested substances caused any cytotoxic effect when used in therapeutically relevant concentrations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Communication from ST Group

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    In order to prepare the organization of the Open Days, please note that FM Group will not able to take into account either specific requests for waste collection from 2nd to 6th of April, either removal or PC transport requests between the 31st and the 11th of March. We kindly ask you to plan the collection of any type of waste and the urgent transport of office furniture or PC before the 31st of March. Waste collection requests shall be formulated contacting FM Support at 77777 or at the email address mailto:Fm.Support@cern.ch; removal of office furniture or PC transport requests must be made using the EDH ‘Transport request’ form selecting the "Removals" or the "PC transport" category from the drop-down menu. For any question concerning the waste sorting, please consult the following web address: http://dechets-waste.web.cern.ch/dechets-waste/. Thank you for your understanding and collaboration. TS/FM Group

  10. ACHP | News | St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow St. Elizabeths Programmatic Agreement Signed St redevelopment of the St. Elizabeths West Campus, which is part of the St. Elizabeths National Historic Landmark this project, due to the historic significance of the NHL. GSA's client for the St. Elizabeths

  11. Teknisk Ståbi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teknisk Ståbi er de bygningsprojekterendes og entreprenørers håndbog. Den dækker matematik, fysik, statestik, laster og sikkerhed samt beggematerialerne: beton, stål, træ, murværk, letbeton, glas og endelig fundering. Denne udgave er en næsten totalrevision, baseret på de nye Eurocodes, der afløs...

  12. Quality evaluation of Hypericum ascyron extract by two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Mei; Luo, Xue-Gang; Zhang, Chao-Zheng; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a heart-cutting two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was established for controlling the quality of different batches of Hypericum ascyron extract for the first time. In comparison with the common one-dimensional fingerprint, the second-dimensional fingerprint compiled additional spectral data and was hence more informative. The quality of H. ascyron extract was further evaluated by similarity measures and the same results were achieved, the correlation coefficients of the similarity of ten batches of H. ascyron extract were >0.99. Furthermore, we also evaluated the quality of the ten batches of H. ascyron extract by antibacterial activity. The result demonstrated that the quality of the ten batches of H. ascyron extract was not significantly different by MTT. Finally, we demonstrated that the second-dimensional fingerprint coupled with the MTT method was a more powerful tool to characterize the quality of samples of batch to batch. Therefore the proposed method could be used to comprehensively conduct the quality control of traditional Chinese medicines. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. ACRR fission product release tests: ST-1 and ST-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Stockman, H.W.; Reil, K.O.; Grimley, A.J.; Camp, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments (ST-1 and ST-2) have been performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) to obtain time-resolved data on the release of fission products from irradiated fuels under light water reactor (LWR) severe accident conditions. Both experiments were conducted in a highly reducing environment at maximum fuel temperatures of greater than 2400 K. These experiments were designed specifically to investigate the effect of increased total pressure on fission product release; ST-1 was performed at approximately 0.16 MPa and ST-2 was run at 1.9 MPa, whereas other parameters were matched as closely as possible. Release rate data were measured for Cs, I, Ba, Sr, Eu, Te, and U. The release rates were higher than predicted by existing codes for Ba, Sr, Eu, and U. Te release was very low, but Te did not appear to be sequestered by the zircaloy cladding; it was evenly distributed in the fuel. In addition, in posttest analysis a unique fuel morphology (fuel swelling) was observed which may have enhanced fission product release, especially in the high pressure test (ST-2). These data are compared with analytical results from the CORSOR correlation and the VICTORIA computer model

  14. Regenerating Longleaf Pine on Hydric Soils: Short- and Long-term Effects on Native Ground-Layer Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    was completed in August 2003. The chop treatment was done with a 2.4 m Lucas Drum Chopper, pulled by a TD15 Dresser crawler tractor (Cohen and... crossing in the middle of the plot. A total of 600 pyrometers (25 x 8 treatments x 3 blocks) were installed. In this report the data generated...Hypericum hypericoides St. Andrew’s cross woody/woody hyphyp Hypericum reductum Atlantic St. Johnswort woody/woody hypred Hypericum spp. St

  15. Herrens röst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2015-01-01

    Om språket är gränsen mellan djur och människor, vad innebär det när hundar talar? I filmen Upp pratar de animerade hundarna, men med sin husses röst. Lilian Munk Rösing ser filmen i sällskap av bland andra Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Žižek och Renata Salecl och finner en röst utan kropp, en kropp besj...

  16. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction

  17. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  18. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  19. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  20. 1st quarterly report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The present report describes the activities carried out in the 1st quarter of 1977 at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung in Karlsruhe or on its behalf in the framework of the fast breeder project (PSB). The problems and main results of the partial projects fuel rod development, materials testing, reactor physics, reactor safety and reactor technology are presented. (RW) [de

  1. Simple stålrammebygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellum, J.C.; Buhelt, M.

    Ved en simpel stålrammebygning forstås i anvisningen en lukket, fritliggende bygning i én etage, hvor tagkonstruktionen ud over egenlast kun er påvirket af naturlaster, dvs. sne og vind. Dimensioneringen af de bærende konstruktioner gennemføres ved at benytte publikationens omfattende tabeldata o...

  2. Simple stålrammebygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellum, J.C.

    Anvisningen gennemgår dimensioneringen og bringer detaljerede konstruktionstegninger til simple stålrammebygninger, dvs. lukkede, fritliggende bygninger i én etage, hvor tagkonstruktionen ud over egenlast kun er påvirket af naturlaster, dvs. sne og vind. Dimensioneringen sker ved at udfylde et di...

  3. Spot Støjbergs støj

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2015-01-01

    Inger Støjberg er placeret på en af de mest profilerede poster i Løkkes regering. Spørger du hende om fortiden, taler hun om fremtiden. Spørger du hende om fremtiden, taler hun om fortiden. Ergo: Hun taler udenom, og hun er god til det. Hun er så god, at det skader demokratiet. Lær at spotte hend...

  4. Team Danmarks støttekoncept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Rasmus K.

    Evaluering af Team Danmarks støttekoncept 2005-2008 med omfattende analyser af Team Danmarks virke, dets støttekoncept og de samarbejdsrelationer med specialforbund, udøvere, politisk valgte ledere, trænere mv., som udmøntningen af støttekonceptet forudsætter. Herunder analyse af...

  5. 76 FR 44531 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St... proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida during the Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display on Saturday, November 19, 2011...

  6. 75 FR 51945 - Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Potomac River, St. Mary's River, St. Inigoes, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... of the St. Mary's River, a tributary of the Potomac River. This action is necessary to provide for.... Navy helicopter located near St. Inigoes, Maryland. This safety zone is intended to protect the...

  7. 78 FR 19632 - Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, Charlotte Amalie Harbor; St... proposes to establish a special local regulation on the waters of Charlotte Amalie Harbor in St Thomas, USVI during the St. Thomas Carnival Watersport Activities, a high speed boat race. The event is...

  8. 76 FR 68098 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida during the Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display on Saturday, November 19, 2011...

  9. The Danish St. Croix Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. Douma, Michael; Rasmussen, Anders Bo

    2014-01-01

    H. Seward, commonly viewed as an anti-colonizationist, was at least a mild proponent of colonization in its earliest stages. The paper demonstrates further that in the summer of 1862 the St. Croix colonization project was an important stepping stone in the Lincoln administration’s legal......Working from previously unknown sources in Danish archives, this article establishes for the first time the important role that the island of St. Croix played in the Lincoln Administration’s considerations on colonizing African Americans abroad. The paper argues that U.S. Secretary of State William....... The substantial conclusion of the paper is that, contrary to earlier perceptions in the historiography, African American colonization during the Civil War was not led and directed entirely from Washington. Rather, in this case, the Danish minister proposed a colonization plan and then worked with the United...

  10. St. Lawrence action plan meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this bulletin is to report on the progress achieved under the St. Lawrence Action Plan. Under each of the Action Plan`s five objectives, it outlines environmental management indicators which identify actions taken and shows the results. This report presents the data collected in late August 1992 on the activities carried out by all partners of both governments involved in SLAP. The objectives examined in the bulletin are: to reduce by 90% the liquid toxic waste discharged by the 50 plants targeted for priority action; to prepare remediation plans for contaminated federal sites and restore wetlands; to conserve 5000 additional hectares of habitat and create a marine park; to develop and implement recovery plans for mammals, fish, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and plants; and to determine the state of the St. Lawrence River.

  11. 21st Century Security Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian ARION

    2010-01-01

    We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers ...

  12. Impact of human-associated Escherichia coli clonal groups in Antarctic pinnipeds: presence of ST73, ST95, ST141 and ST131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Azucena; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Alonso, María Pilar; Pedraza-Diaz, Susana; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Garcia-Parraga, Daniel; López, Cecilia; Viso, Susana; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Marzoa, Juan; Sergeant, Martin J; García, Vanesa; Blanco, Jorge

    2018-03-16

    There is growing concern about the spreading of human microorganisms in relatively untouched ecosystems such as the Antarctic region. For this reason, three pinniped species (Leptonychotes weddellii, Mirounga leonina and Arctocephalus gazella) from the west coast of the Antartic Peninsula were analysed for the presence of Escherichia spp. with the recovery of 158 E. coli and three E. albertii isolates. From those, 23 harboured different eae variants (α1, β1, β2, ε1, θ1, κ, ο), including a bfpA-positive isolate (O49:H10-A-ST206, eae-k) classified as typical enteropathogenic E. coli. Noteworthy, 62 of the 158 E. coli isolates (39.2%) exhibited the ExPEC status and 27 (17.1%) belonged to sequence types (ST) frequently occurring among urinary/bacteremia ExPEC clones: ST12, ST73, ST95, ST131 and ST141. We found similarities >85% within the PFGE-macrorrestriction profiles of pinniped and human clinic O2:H6-B2-ST141 and O16:H5/O25b:H4-B2-ST131 isolates. The in silico analysis of ST131 Cplx genomes from the three pinnipeds (five O25:H4-ST131/PST43-fimH22-virotype D; one O16:H5-ST131/PST506-fimH41; one O25:H4-ST6252/PST9-fimH22-virotype D1) identified IncF and IncI1 plasmids and revealed high core-genome similarities between pinniped and human isolates (H22 and H41 subclones). This is the first study to demonstrate the worrisome presence of human-associated E. coli clonal groups, including ST131, in Antarctic pinnipeds.

  13. Herb-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  14. The Assessment of Toxic Metals in Plants Used in Cosmetics and Cosmetology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Fischer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals polluting the natural environment are absorbed by plants. The use of herbs as components of cosmetics may pose a health risk for humans. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of Pb, Cd and Hg in selected species of herbs (horsetail Equisetum arvense, nettle Urtica dioica, St. John’s wort Hypericum perforatum, wormwood Artemisia absinthium, yarrow Achillea millefolium, cottonwood Solidago virgaurea self-collected from the natural environment in two different locations, and purchased in stores on the territory of Poland. The concentration of the metals studied was: 4.67–23.8 mg/kg Pb, 0.01–1.51 mg/kg Cd, 0.005–0.028 mg/kg Hg. Different concentrations of metals, depending on species and origin of plants, were found. The mean concentration of all studied metals was the lowest in St. John’s wort, and the highest in nettle. In herbs purchased in Polish stores, the concentration of Pb was higher than in plants self-collected in the natural environment.

  15. Fort St. Vrain core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, D.W.; Brown, J.R.; Heller, R.A.; Franek, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor core performance has been evaluated during the startup testing phase of the reactor operation. The reactor is graphite moderated, helium cooled, and uses coated particle fuel and on-line flow control to each of the 37 refueling regions. Principal objectives of startup testing were to determine: core and control system reactivity, radial power distribution, flow control capability, and initial fission product release. Information from the core demonstrates that Technical Specifications are being met, performance of the core and fuel is as expected, flow and reactivity control are predictable and simple for the operator to carry out

  16. Identification and compatibility of the major active principles in some new natural origin antiseptics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, G. S.; Zlatković, S.; Nikolić, N.

    2009-09-01

    The newly established instrumentation of HPLC/DAD, FTIR, and NMR techniques have been applied for simultaneous identification and physicochemical compatibility determination of the potential major antiseptic constituents ( Hypericum perforatum L. and Usnea barbata extracts) which can be present in some new origin pharmaceutical preparation. Based on the obtained results the conclusion is that a simultaneous use of the analyzed constituents in production of some new preparations with antiseptic properties is possible. The chromatographic separation of antiseptic mixture was performed on a RP-HPLC C18 column. For the NMR detection, the analytes eluted from LC column were trapped and hereafter transported into the NMR flow-cell. The NMR and FTIR techniques allowed the characterization of the major constituent of Hypericum perforatum L., mainly hypericin, as well as of Usnea barbata, mainly usnic acid.

  17. Bilateral posterior RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, Stefanie; Prox-Vagedes, Vanessa; Elolf, Erck; Brueggemann, Ines; Gademann, Guenther; Galazky, Imke; Bartels, Claudius

    2010-01-01

    Radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION) is a rare but severe consequence of radiation therapy that is associated with adjuvant chemotherapy, specifically therapy with vincristine or nitrosoureas. However, there is very little evidence regarding the occurrence of RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. The case of a 63 year old woman with glioblastoma multiforme and concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide is described. Due to a slight depressive episode the patient also took hypericum perforatum. Five months after cessation of fractionated radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide (cumulative dose of 11040 mg) the patient developed bilateral amaurosis due to RION. Tumor regrowth was excluded by magnetic resonance imaging. After the application of gadolinium a pathognomonic contrast enhancement of both prechiasmatic optic nerves could be observed. In this patient, the occurrence of RION may have been the result of radiosensitization by temozolomide, which could have been strengthened by hypericin. Consequently, physicians should avoid a concomitant application of hypericum perforatum and radiochemotherapy

  18. Special report: Mt. St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mt. St Helens Volcano, Cascade Range, Southern Washington, USA (46.20°N, 122.18°W.) All times are local (GMT - 7 h through October 24, GMT - 8 h thereafter. Lava extrusion that probably began October 30 added a new lobe to the composite dome in the crater of Mt. St. Helens. After lava extrusion ended September 10 (see September 22 Eos), rates of deformation in the crater remained low for several weeks, as they had after earlier extrusion episodes. Sulfur dioxide emission ranged from 70 to 190 tons per day between October 9 and 24, but showed no particular trends. Inflation of the dome has caused small thrust faults to form in the surrounding crater floor. In early October the most active thrust, south of the dome, was moving at about 1.5 cm/d, and stations on the north crater rampart showed outward movement of about 0.5 cm/d. By October 24 these rates had increased to 14.5 and 3.5-4 cm/d, respectively, and leveling profiles perpendicular to the dome showed that crater floor tilt rates had reached 400-500 μrad/d, prompting the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to issue an advisory prediction of renewed lava extrusion within the next two weeks.

  19. Hyperforin inhibits vesicular uptake of monoamines by dissipating pH gradient across synaptic vesicle membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roz, Netta; Rehavi, Moshe

    2003-06-13

    Extracts of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) have antidepressant properties in depressed patients and exert antidepressant-like action in laboratory animals. The phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin has become a topic of interest, as this Hypericum component is a potent inhibitor of monoamines reuptake. The molecular mechanism by which hyperforin inhibits monoamines uptake is yet unclear. In the present study we try to clarify the mechanism by which hyperforin inhibits the synaptic vesicle transport of monoamines. The pH gradient across the synaptic vesicle membrane, induced by vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase, is the major driving force for vesicular monoamines uptake and storage. We suggest that hyperforin, like the protonophore FCCP, dissipates an existing Delta pH generated by an efflux of inwardly pumped protons. Proton transport was measured by acridine orange fluorescence quenching. Adding Mg-ATP to a medium containing 130 mM KCl and synaptic vesicles caused an immediate decrease in fluorescence of acridine orange and the addition of 1 microM FCCP abolished this effect. H(+)-ATPase dependent proton pumping was inhibited by hyperforin in a dose dependent manner (IC(50) = 1.9 x 10(-7) M). Hyperforin acted similarly to the protonophore FCCP, abolishing the ATP induced fluorescence quenching (IC(50) = 4.3 x 10(-7) M). Hyperforin and FCCP had similar potencies for inhibiting rat brain synaptosomal uptake of [3H]monoamines as well as vesicular monoamine uptake. The efflux of [3H]5HT from synaptic vesicles was sensitive to both drugs, thus 50% of preloaded [3H]5HT was released in the presence of 2.1 x 10(-7) M FCCP and 4 x 10(-7) M hyperforin. The effect of hyperforin on the pH gradient in synaptic vesicle membrane may explain its inhibitory effect on monoamines uptake, but could only partially explain its antidepressant properties.

  20. Abuse and Misuse of Selected Dietary Supplements Among Adolescents: a Look at Poison Center Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Jessica M; Morgan, Jill A; Lardieri, Allison B; Kishk, Omayma A; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    The use of dietary supplements has increased and is associated with adverse effects. Indications for use include recreation, body image concerns, mood enhancement, or control of medical conditions. The risk of adverse effects may be enhanced if agents are used improperly. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of abuse and misuse of 4 dietary substances among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of medical outcomes, clinical effects, location of treatments provided, and treatments administered. This descriptive retrospective review assessed data concerning the use of garcinia (Garcinia cambogia), guarana (Paullinia cupana), salvia (Salvia divinorum), and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) among adolescents reported nationally to poison centers from 2003 to 2014. Adolescents with a singlesubstance exposure to one of the substances of interest coded as intentional abuse or misuse were included. Poison center calls for drug information or those with unrelated clinical effects were excluded. Data were collected from the National Poison Data System. There were 84 cases: 7 cases of Garcinia cambogia, 28 Paullinia cupana, 23 Salvia divinorum, and 26 Hypericum perforatum. Garcinia cambogia was used more frequently by females (100% versus 0%), and Paullinia cupana and Salvia divinorum were used more frequently by males (61% versus 36% and 91% versus 9%, respectively). Abuse, driven by Salvia divinorum, was more common overall than misuse. Abuse was also more common among males than females (p <0.001). Use of these agents fluctuated over time. Overall, use trended down since 2010, except for Garcinia cambogia use. In 62 cases (73.8%), the medical outcome was minor or had no effect or was judged as nontoxic or minimally toxic. Clinical effects were most common with Paullinia cupana and Salvia divinorum. Treatment sites included emergency department (n = 33; 39.3%), non-healthcare facility (n = 24

  1. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair River...

  2. 21st International Meshing Roundtable

    CERN Document Server

    Weill, Jean-Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This volume contains the articles presented at the 21st International Meshing Roundtable (IMR) organized, in part, by Sandia National Laboratories and was held on October 7–10, 2012 in San Jose, CA, USA. The first IMR was held in 1992, and the conference series has been held annually since. Each year the IMR brings together researchers, developers, and application experts in a variety of disciplines, from all over the world, to present and discuss ideas on mesh generation and related topics. The technical papers in this volume present theoretical and novel ideas and algorithms with practical potential, as well as technical applications in science and engineering, geometric modeling, computer graphics, and visualization.

  3. Fort St. Vrain decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.

    1998-01-01

    Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo), owner of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear generating station, achieved its final decommissioning goal on August 5, 1997 when the Nuclear Regulatory Commission terminated the Part 50 reactor license. PSCo pioneered and completed the world's first successful decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant after many years of operation. In August 1989, PSCo decided to permanently shutdown the reactor and proceed with its decommissioning. The decision to proceed with early dismantlement as the appropriate decommissioning method proved wise for all stake holders - present and future - by mitigating potential environmental impacts and reducing financial risks to company shareholders, customers, employees, neighboring communities and regulators. We believe that PSCo's decommissioning process set an exemplary standard for the world's nuclear industry and provided leadership, innovation, advancement and distinguished contributions to other decommissioning efforts throughout the world. (author)

  4. 21st Century Security Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian ARION

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers thah have government backgroud, or IT security backgroud, or are promoted from organization’s inside leaders. There are six different areas of knowledge that successful security programs of the future must incorporate, either in the knowledge base of their leaders or in the collective knowledge of the leading staff. They are government elements, security organization, emerging issue awareness, IT security, business elements and executive leadership.

  5. Data Abstraction Mechanisms in Sina/st

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyrowitz, N.K.; Aksit, Mehmet; Tripathi, Anand

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a new data abstraction mechanism in an object-oriented model of computing. The data abstraction mechanism described here has been devised in the context of the design of Sina/st language. In Sina/st no language constructs have been adopted for specifying inheritance or

  6. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  7. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  8. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  9. Firmaets Største Bedrift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik

    fortæller, hvordan de tidligere modstandsfolk Arne Sejr og Niels Frommelt få år efter befrielsen etablerede deres såkaldte Firma for med støtte fra ledende danske politikere, Forsvarets Efterretningstjeneste og CIA at organisere en hemmelig krig mod Sovjetunionens danske støtter. Meget tyder på, at både...

  10. 77 FR 59035 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the St. George Airport, St...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... To Release Airport Property at the St. George Airport, St. George, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation... rule and invite public comment on the release of land at St. George Airport under the provisions of..., City of St. George, Utah, at the following address: Mr. Gary Esplin, City Manager, City of St. George...

  11. Galleria mellonella infection model demonstrates high lethality of ST69 and ST127 uropathogenic E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majed F Alghoribi

    Full Text Available Galleria mellonella larvae are an alternative in vivo model for investigating bacterial pathogenicity. Here, we examined the pathogenicity of 71 isolates from five leading uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC lineages using G. mellonella larvae. Larvae were challenged with a range of inoculum doses to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50 and for analysis of survival outcome using Kaplan-Meier plots. Virulence was correlated with carriage of a panel of 29 virulence factors (VF. Larvae inoculated with ST69 and ST127 isolates (10(4 colony-forming units/larvae showed significantly higher mortality rates than those infected with ST73, ST95 and ST131 isolates, killing 50% of the larvae within 24 hours. Interestingly, ST131 isolates were the least virulent. We observed that ST127 isolates are significantly associated with a higher VF-score than isolates of all other STs tested (P≤0.0001, including ST69 (P<0.02, but one ST127 isolate (strain EC18 was avirulent. Comparative genomic analyses with virulent ST127 strains revealed an IS1 mediated deletion in the O-antigen cluster in strain EC18, which is likely to explain the lack of virulence in the larvae infection model. Virulence in the larvae was not correlated with serotype or phylogenetic group. This study illustrates that G. mellonella are an excellent tool for investigation of the virulence of UPEC strains. The findings also support our suggestion that the incidence of ST127 strains should be monitored, as these isolates have not yet been widely reported, but they clearly have a pathogenic potential greater than that of more widely recognised clones, including ST73, ST95 or ST131.

  12. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. First preclinical evaluation of mono-[123I]iodohypericin as a necrosis-avid tracer agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng; Marchal, Guy; Huyghe, Dieter; Verbeke, Kristin; Verbruggen, Alfons M.; Bormans, Guy M.; Witte, Peter A. de; Nuyts, Johan; Mortelmans, Luc

    2006-01-01

    We have labelled hypericin, a polyphenolic polycyclic quinone found in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), with 123 I and evaluated mono-[ 123 I]iodohypericin (MIH) as a potential necrosis-avid diagnostic tracer agent. MIH was prepared by an electrophilic radioiodination method. The new tracer agent was evaluated in animal models of liver infarction in the rat and heart infarction in the rabbit using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining, serial sectional autoradiography and microscopy, and radioactivity counting techniques. Using in vivo SPECT imaging, hepatic and cardiac infarctions were persistently visualised as well-defined hot spots over 48 h. Preferential uptake of the tracer agent in necrotic tissue was confirmed by perfect match of images from post-mortem TTC staining, autoradiography (ARX) and histology. Radioactivity concentration in infarcted tissues was over 10 times (liver; 3.51% ID/g in necrotic tissue vs 0.38% ID/g in normal tissue at 60 h p.i.) and over 6 times (myocardium; 0.36% ID/g in necrotic tissue vs 0.054% ID/g in normal tissue; ratios up to 18 for selected parts on ARX images) higher than in normal tissues. The results suggest that hypericin derivatives may serve as powerful necrosis-avid diagnostic agents for assessment of tissue viability. (orig.)

  14. First preclinical evaluation of mono-[{sup 123}I]iodohypericin as a necrosis-avid tracer agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Yicheng; Chen, Feng; Marchal, Guy [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Huyghe, Dieter; Verbeke, Kristin; Verbruggen, Alfons M.; Bormans, Guy M. [University of Leuven, Laboratory of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Witte, Peter A. de [University of Leuven, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biology and Phytopharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); Nuyts, Johan; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-05-15

    We have labelled hypericin, a polyphenolic polycyclic quinone found in St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), with{sup 123}I and evaluated mono-[{sup 123}I]iodohypericin (MIH) as a potential necrosis-avid diagnostic tracer agent. MIH was prepared by an electrophilic radioiodination method. The new tracer agent was evaluated in animal models of liver infarction in the rat and heart infarction in the rabbit using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) histochemical staining, serial sectional autoradiography and microscopy, and radioactivity counting techniques. Using in vivo SPECT imaging, hepatic and cardiac infarctions were persistently visualised as well-defined hot spots over 48 h. Preferential uptake of the tracer agent in necrotic tissue was confirmed by perfect match of images from post-mortem TTC staining, autoradiography (ARX) and histology. Radioactivity concentration in infarcted tissues was over 10 times (liver; 3.51% ID/g in necrotic tissue vs 0.38% ID/g in normal tissue at 60 h p.i.) and over 6 times (myocardium; 0.36% ID/g in necrotic tissue vs 0.054% ID/g in normal tissue; ratios up to 18 for selected parts on ARX images) higher than in normal tissues. The results suggest that hypericin derivatives may serve as powerful necrosis-avid diagnostic agents for assessment of tissue viability. (orig.)

  15. Eriophyid-myte (Acari: Eriophyoidea: Eriophyidae as moontlike beheeragente van ongewenste uitheemse plante in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Craemer

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Eriophyid-myte kom waarskynlik op die meeste hoër plante voor en is oor die algemeen baie gasheerspesifiek. Sommiges is skadelik genoeg om oorweeg te word vir biologiese beheerprogramme teen ongewenste plante. Algemene belangstelling in die gebruik van eriophyids vir onkruidbeheer het onlangs ontstaan en vyf spesies is reeds, meestal suksesvol, gebruik vir onkruidbeheer in ander lande. Eriophyid-myte is nog nie as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika benut nie. Sewentien spesies wat simptome veroorsaak wat moontlik nuttig kan wees vir die beheer van 12 plantspesies, wat as onkruide in Suid-Afrika beskou word, word gelys en bespreek. Die onkruide is: Acacia saligna (Port Jackson, Acroptilon repens (Russiese dissel, Cardaria draba (peperbos cardaria, Chromolaena odorata (paraffienbos. Convolvulus arvensis (akkerwinde, Cuscuta epithymum (dodder, Hypericum perforatum (St. Janskruid, Lantana camara (lantana, Melia azedarach (sering, Opuntia inermis (doringturksvy, Solanum elaeagnifolium (satansbos, S. mauritianum (luisboom en Spartium junceum (Spaanse besem. Sommige van hierdie eriophyid-spesies kan moontlik suksesvol as onkruidbeheeragente in Suid-Afrika gebruik word en derhalwe is verdere navorsing in hierdie verband geregverdig.

  16. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome

    2018-03-25

    This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Hyperforin prevents beta-amyloid neurotoxicity and spatial memory impairments by disaggregation of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta-deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinamarca, M C; Cerpa, W; Garrido, J; Hancke, J L; Inestrosa, N C

    2006-11-01

    The major protein constituent of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta). In the present work, we have determined the effect of hyperforin an acylphloroglucinol compound isolated from Hypericum perforatum (St John's Wort), on Abeta-induced spatial memory impairments and on Abeta neurotoxicity. We report here that hyperforin: (1) decreases amyloid deposit formation in rats injected with amyloid fibrils in the hippocampus; (2) decreases the neuropathological changes and behavioral impairments in a rat model of amyloidosis; (3) prevents Abeta-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons both from amyloid fibrils and Abeta oligomers, avoiding the increase in reactive oxidative species associated with amyloid toxicity. Both effects could be explained by the capacity of hyperforin to disaggregate amyloid deposits in a dose and time-dependent manner and to decrease Abeta aggregation and amyloid formation. Altogether these evidences suggest that hyperforin may be useful to decrease amyloid burden and toxicity in AD patients, and may be a putative therapeutic agent to fight the disease.

  18. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  19. ST peak during percutaneous coronary intervention serves as an early prognostic predictor in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Kelbæk, Henning; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the clinical importance of the ST peak phenomenon during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS: Continuous ST monitoring was performed in 942 STEMI patients from arrival until 90...... minutes after revascularisation. ST peak was defined as ≥1 mm increase in the ST-segment during PCI compared with the ST elevation before intervention. ST peak was observed in 26.9% of patients. During median follow-up of 4.1 years, 20.7% of patients experienced a major adverse cardiac event (MACE). ST...... and ST peak including ST resolution and epicardial flow, ST peak remained significantly associated with MACE: adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.95) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.02-1.96). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest study hitherto evaluating the ST peak phenomenon during primary...

  20. St2-80: a new FISH marker for St genome and genome analysis in Triticeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Shi, Qinghua; Su, Handong; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2017-07-01

    The St genome is one of the most fundamental genomes in Triticeae. Repetitive sequences are widely used to distinguish different genomes or species. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) screen a new sequence that could easily distinguish the chromosome of the St genome from those of other genomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and (ii) investigate the genome constitution of some species that remain uncertain and controversial. We used degenerated oligonucleotide primer PCR (Dop-PCR), Dot-blot, and FISH to screen for a new marker of the St genome and to test the efficiency of this marker in the detection of the St chromosome at different ploidy levels. Signals produced by a new FISH marker (denoted St 2 -80) were present on the entire arm of chromosomes of the St genome, except in the centromeric region. On the contrary, St 2 -80 signals were present in the terminal region of chromosomes of the E, H, P, and Y genomes. No signal was detected in the A and B genomes, and only weak signals were detected in the terminal region of chromosomes of the D genome. St 2 -80 signals were obvious and stable in chromosomes of different genomes, whether diploid or polyploid. Therefore, St 2 -80 is a potential and useful FISH marker that can be used to distinguish the St genome from those of other genomes in Triticeae.

  1. 21st Century Cell Culture for 21st Century Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamies, David; Hartung, Thomas

    2017-01-17

    There is no good science in bad models. Cell culture is especially prone to artifacts. A number of novel cell culture technologies have become more broadly available in the 21st century, which allow overcoming limitations of traditional culture and are more physiologically relevant. These include the use of stem-cell derived human cells, cocultures of different cell types, scaffolds and extracellular matrices, perfusion platforms (such as microfluidics), 3D culture, organ-on-chip technologies, tissue architecture, and organ functionality. The physiological relevance of such models is further enhanced by the measurement of biomarkers (e.g., key events of pathways), organ specific functionality, and more comprehensive assessment cell responses by high-content methods. These approaches are still rarely combined to create microphysiological systems. The complexity of the combination of these technologies can generate results closer to the in vivo situation but increases the number of parameters to control, bringing some new challenges. In fact, we do not argue that all cell culture needs to be that sophisticated. The efforts taken are determined by the purpose of our experiments and tests. If only a very specific molecular target to cell response is of interest, a very simple model, which reflects this, might be much more suited to allow standardization and high-throughput. However, the less defined the end point of interest and cellular response are, the better we should approximate organ- or tissue-like culture conditions to make physiological responses more probable. Besides these technologic advances, important progress in the quality assurance and reporting on cell cultures as well as the validation of cellular test systems brings the utility of cell cultures to a new level. The advancement and broader implementation of Good Cell Culture Practice (GCCP) is key here. In toxicology, this is a major prerequisite for meaningful and reliable results, ultimately

  2. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  3. Windmill, sugar works, 'Springhall', St. Lucy, Barbados

    OpenAIRE

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    204 x 143 mm. Showing the windmill and other refinery buildings with workers leading bullock teams loaded with cane towards the refinery. The Spring Hall Estate lies in the centre of St. Lucy Parish in northern Barbados.

  4. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  5. 2008 St. Johns County, FL Countywide Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne terrestrial LiDAR was collected for St. Johns County, FL. System Parameters/Flight Plan. The LiDAR system acquisition parameters were developed based on a...

  6. Caribbean ST Thomas trap Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in St. Thomas. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  7. St. Laurent Construction Co., Inc. Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent Construction Co., Inc. (the Company) is located in Nashua, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Merrimack and Nashua, New Hampshire.

  8. Meteor detection on ST (MST) radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    The ability to detect radar echoes from backscatter due to turbulent irregularities of the radio refractive index in the clear atmosphere has lead to an increasing number of established mesosphere - stratosphere - troposphere (MST or ST) radars. Humidity and temperature variations are responsible for the echo in the troposphere and stratosphere and turbulence acting on electron density gradients provides the echo in the mesosphere. The MST radar and its smaller version, the ST radar, are pulsed Doppler radars operating in the VHF - UHF frequency range. These echoes can be used to determine upper atmosphere winds at little extra cost to the ST radar configuration. In addition, the meteor echoes can supplement mesospheric data from an MST radar. The detection techniques required on the ST radar for delineating meteor echo returns are described

  9. Control Strategy Tool (CoST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Strategy Tool (CoST) is a software tool for projecting potential future control scenarios, their effects on emissions and estimated costs. This tool...

  10. St. Augustine in Twentieth-Century Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2012-01-01

    A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine.......A discussion - in a cultural historical perspective - of primarily two important twentieth-century musical works setting texts by St Augustine: Klaus Huber's Soliloquia Sancti Aurelii Augustini and Michael Tippett's The Vision of Saint Augustine....

  11. St Sava and the cloud-chasers

    OpenAIRE

    Loma Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    A gloss in the Nomocanon of St Sava condemns folk superstitions related to magically provoking hailstorms and eclipses. St Sava’s miracle with the king of Hungary as described in his Vitae seems to go back to the same complex of popular beliefs. Its acceptance by the hagiography was probably due to the influence of the figure of prince magician as common to the Serbian and the Russian oral epics.

  12. St Sava and the cloud-chasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A gloss in the Nomocanon of St Sava condemns folk superstitions related to magically provoking hailstorms and eclipses. St Sava’s miracle with the king of Hungary as described in his Vitae seems to go back to the same complex of popular beliefs. Its acceptance by the hagiography was probably due to the influence of the figure of prince magician as common to the Serbian and the Russian oral epics.

  13. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  14. Development of HANARO ST3 shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. N.; Lee, J. S.; Shim, H. S.

    2004-12-01

    This report contains the design, fabrication and accurate installation of ST3 shield, which would be installed at ST3 beam port of HANARO. At first, we designed and fabricated ST3 shield casemate composed of 14 blocks. We filled it with heavy concrete, lead ingot and polyethylene that mixed B 4 C powder and epoxy. The average filling density of total shield casemate was 4.7g/cm 3 . The developed ST3 shield was installed at the ST3 beam port and the accuracy of installation for each beam path and channel was evaluated. We found that the extraction of neutron beam to meet the requirement of neutron spectrometer is possible. Also, we developed ancillary equipment such as BGU, quick shutter and exterior shield door for the effective opening and closing of neutron beam. As a result of this study, it was found that neutron spectrometer such as neutron reflectometer and high intensity powder diffractomater can be installed at the ST3 beam port

  15. St. James marine terminal facility description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  16. 78 FR 16208 - Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; V. I. Carnival Finale; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands AGENCY... establish a safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during the V... between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366...

  17. 78 FR 16211 - Safety Zone, Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... establish a temporary safety zone on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... through Friday, except federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366-9329. See the ``Public...

  18. 78 FR 23489 - Safety Zone; V.I. Carnival Finale, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands during the V.I. Carnival Finale, a... through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this... event. The event will be held on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor, St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands...

  19. 78 FR 22778 - Safety Zone; Corp. Event Finale UHC, St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S.V.I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands during the Corp. Event Finale UHC, a.... and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you..., St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands. The fireworks will be launched from a barge stationed near the St...

  20. 78 FR 7663 - SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... 1625-AA08 SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... special local regulations on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during... 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366-9329. See...

  1. 75 FR 38723 - Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks, East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, MI AGENCY... safety zone on East Moran Bay, Lake Huron, St. Ignace, Michigan. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of East Moran Bay during the St. Ignace 4th of July Fireworks display, July 4, 2010...

  2. 76 FR 55158 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, St. Louis, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Program for Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, St. Louis, MO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... noise compatibility program submitted by the St. Louis Airport Authority under the provisions of 49 U.S...''). On April 5, 2011, the FAA determined that the noise exposure maps submitted by the St. Louis Airport...

  3. Three members of Medicago truncatula ST family are ubiquitous during development and modulated by nutritional status (MtST1) and dehydration (MtST2 and MtST3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornos, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2017-07-10

    ShooT specific/Specific Tissue (ST) belong to a protein family of unknown function characterized by the DUF2775 domain and produced in specific taxonomic plant families, mainly Fabaceae and Asteraceae, with the Medicago truncatula ST family being the largest. The putative roles proposed for this family are cell elongation, biotic interactions, abiotic stress and N reserve. The aim of this work was to go deeper into the role of three M. truncatula ST proteins, namely ST1, ST2 and ST3. Our starting hypothesis was that each member of the family could perform a specific role, and hence, each ST gene would be subjected to a different type of regulation. The search for cis-acting regulatory elements (CREs) in silico in pST1, pST2 and pST3 promoters showed prevalence of tissue/organ specific motifs, especially root- and seed-specific ones. Light, hormone, biotic and abiotic related motifs were also present. None of these pSTs showed the same combination of CREs, or presented the same activity pattern. In general, pST activity was associated with the vascular cylinder, mainly in roots. Promoter activation was highly specific and dissimilar during reproductive development. The ST1, ST2 and ST3 transcripts accumulated in most of the organs and developmental stages analysed - decreasing with age - and expression was higher in the roots than in the aerial parts and more abundant in light-grown plants. The effect of the different treatments on transcript accumulation indicated that ST1 behaved differently from ST2 and ST3, mainly in response to several hormones and dehydration treatments (NaCl or mannitol), upon which ST1 transcript levels decreased and ST2 and ST3 levels increased. Finally, the ST1 protein was located in the cell wall whereas ST2 and ST3 were present both in the cytoplasm and in the cell wall. The ST proteins studied are ubiquitous proteins that could perform distinct/complementary roles in plant biology as they are encoded by differentially regulated genes

  4. The marine Algal Vegetation of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroman, M.

    1968-01-01

    Along the coast of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba the rocks above sea-level often show a number of differently coloured zones. This is clearly visible when the coast over a larger distance is formed by one type of rock, as for instance on Saba. In many places a light-coloured belt is seen above

  5. The Role of the st313-td Gene in Virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium ST313

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Wallrodt, Inke; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 has emerged in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe infections in humans. Therefore, it has been speculated that this specific sequence type, ST313, carries factors associated with increased pathogenicity. We assessed the role in viru...

  6. St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1/3 arc-second St. Thomas and St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands Coastal Digital Elevation Model will be used to support NOAA's tsunami forecast system and for...

  7. VaST: A variability search toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovsky, K. V.; Lebedev, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    Variability Search Toolkit (VaST) is a software package designed to find variable objects in a series of sky images. It can be run from a script or interactively using its graphical interface. VaST relies on source list matching as opposed to image subtraction. SExtractor is used to generate source lists and perform aperture or PSF-fitting photometry (with PSFEx). Variability indices that characterize scatter and smoothness of a lightcurve are computed for all objects. Candidate variables are identified as objects having high variability index values compared to other objects of similar brightness. The two distinguishing features of VaST are its ability to perform accurate aperture photometry of images obtained with non-linear detectors and handle complex image distortions. The software has been successfully applied to images obtained with telescopes ranging from 0.08 to 2.5 m in diameter equipped with a variety of detectors including CCD, CMOS, MIC and photographic plates. About 1800 variable stars have been discovered with VaST. It is used as a transient detection engine in the New Milky Way (NMW) nova patrol. The code is written in C and can be easily compiled on the majority of UNIX-like systems. VaST is free software available at http://scan.sai.msu.ru/vast/.

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), Ocular Methicillin-Resistant Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Nithya

    2014-03-20

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) and ST672 are the two major emerging clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in India. ST672 strains were found to cause severe ocular infections. We report the draft genome sequences of two emerging strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), isolated from patients with ocular infections.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Staphylococcus aureus AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), Ocular Methicillin-Resistant Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Velusamy, Nithya; Prakash, Logambiga; Neelamegam, Sivakumar; Antony, Aju; Prajna, Lalitha; Mohankumar, Vidyarani; Devarajan, Bharanidharan

    2014-01-01

    Sequence type 22 (ST22) and ST672 are the two major emerging clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in India. ST672 strains were found to cause severe ocular infections. We report the draft genome sequences of two emerging strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, AMRF1 (ST22) and AMRF2 (ST672), isolated from patients with ocular infections.

  10. Materials for the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Segal, David

    2017-01-01

    The book is a general text that shows how materials can contribute to solving problems facing nations in the 21st century. It is illustrated with diverse applications and highlights the potential of existing materials for everyday life, healthcare and the economies of nations. There are 13 chapters and a glossary of 500 materials with their descriptions, historical development, their use or potential use and a range of references. Specific areas include synthetic polymers (e.g. nylon), natural polymers (e.g. proteins, cellulose) and the role of materials in the development of digital computers and in healthcare. Solid-state lighting, energy supplies in the 21st century, disruptive technologies and intellectual property, in particular patents, are discussed. The book concludes by asking how the 21st century will be characterised. Will it be the Silicon Age, Genomic Age or New Polymer Age, as examples?

  11. Analyse of Maintenance Cost in ST

    CERN Document Server

    Jenssen, B W

    2001-01-01

    An analyse has been carried out in ST concerning the total costs for the division. Even though the target was the maintenance costs in ST, the global budget over has been analysed. This has been done since there is close relation between investments & consolidation and the required level for maintenance. The purpose of the analyse was to focus on maintenance cost in ST as a ratio of total maintenance costs over the replacement value of the equipment, and to make some comparisons with other industries and laboratories. Families of equipment have been defined and their corresponding ratios calculated. This first approach gives us some "quantitative" measurements. This analyse should be combined with performance indicators (more "qualitative" measurements) that are telling us how well we are performing. This will help us in defending our budget, make better priorities, and we will satisfy the requirements from our external auditors.

  12. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  13. Omsorg/støtte i ungdomsskolen

    OpenAIRE

    Vasseng, Eli Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Special education Denne studien handler om forholdet mellom lærer-elev og ser på hvordan ungdomsskoleelever beskriver omsorgsfulle/støttende lærere og den betydning det har for motivasjon i skolearbeid og læringsmiljø. Jeg har tatt utgangspunkt i ungdomsskoleelevenes forståelse av fenomenet omsorg/støtte og brukt en fenomenologisk tilnærming med intervju som metode. Seks elever fra ungdomstrinnet ble intervjuet og jeg har brukt en intervjuguide som er bygget på det teore...

  14. ST ECS error handling and detector safety

    CERN Document Server

    Esperante Pereira, D

    2010-01-01

    This note describes the automatic operation sequences that the ECS implements in order to operate the ST detector in a safe and reliable way. First, the start-up sequences to set the detector in a well known state are described. In addition the possible ST detector states based on the status of the different detector elements will be defined. The states are of crucial interest for the safe operation of the detector when the LHC beam is ready. Besides, the ECS automatic actions taken in case of abnormal status of any of the detector elements are reported. Next, the operational alarm ranges and the error recovery mechanisms are mentioned.

  15. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  16. Kirjallisuuskatsaus tiimityöstä

    OpenAIRE

    Uimi, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    Laurea-ammattikorkeakoulu Tiivistelmä Laurea Lohja Hoitotyön koulutusohjelma Uimi Jutta Kirjallisuuskatsaus tiimityöstä Vuosi 2012 Sivumäärä 43 Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli kuvata kirjallisuuskatsauksen muodossa, miten tiimityö määritellään terveydenhuollon organisaatiossa ja tiimityön käytettävyyttä sekä millaisissa yhteyksissä tiimityötä käytetään. Tarkoituksena oli tuottaa tutkittua tietoa tiimityöstä Helsingin ja Uudenmaan sairaanhoitopiiriin (HUS) kuulu...

  17. Energirenovering af større bygninger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Birck Laustsen, Jacob; Vorre, Mette Havgaard

    involverede parter i et renoveringsprojekt om, hvordan energirenoveringsprojekter gennemføres i alle faser. SBi-anvisning 269 kan bruges som styringsredskab for bygherrer og kravgrundlag for rådgivere, entreprenører og andre parter, der leverer ydelser til bygherren. For institutioner, der stiller kapital til......​SBi-anvisning 269 omhandler metode og proces for gennemførelse af energirenoveringsprojekter for større bygninger fra idefase til driftsfase. Større bygninger omfatter etageboliger, bygninger til privat handel- og service samt offentlige institutioner. Anvisningen giver vejledning for de...

  18. Unintended and unwanted pregnancy in St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, A B; Chase, W M; Scott, K

    1994-09-01

    Among 200 mothers interviewed in St. Lucia, 82.5% described their pregnancy as unintended and 44% as unwanted; 80% of women having an intended pregnancy and 94.6% having an unintended pregnancy were unmarried and 18.5% were teenagers. Mothers of unintended pregnancies were significantly younger, were of significantly higher parity and had begun sexual relations at a significantly earlier age than mothers of intended pregnancies; and, unlike mothers of planned pregnancies, their desired interpregnancy interval was significantly longer than the actual interval. These results and the sporadic and ineffective use of contraception in St. Lucia emphasize the need for improvements in fertility regulation in that country.

  19. First genome report on novel sequence types of Neisseria meningitidis: ST12777 and ST12778.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Lal, Binesh; Devanga Ragupathi, Naveen Kumar; Neeravi, Iyyan Raj; Jeyaraman, Ranjith; Varghese, Rosemol; Paul, Miracle Magdalene; Baskaran, Ashtawarthani; Ranjan, Ranjini

    2018-03-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important causative agent of meningitis and/or sepsis with high morbidity and mortality. Baseline genome data on N. meningitidis, especially from developing countries such as India, are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the whole genome sequences of N. meningitidis isolates from a tertiary care centre in India. Whole-genome sequencing was performed using an Ion Torrent™ Personal Genome Machine™ (PGM) with 400-bp chemistry. Data were assembled de novo using SPAdes Genome Assembler v.5.0.0.0. Sequence annotation was performed through PATRIC, RAST and the NCBI PGAAP server. Downstream analysis of the isolates was performed using the Center for Genomic Epidemiology databases for antimicrobial resistance genes and sequence types. Virulence factors and CRISPR were analysed using the PubMLST database and CRISPRFinder, respectively. This study reports the whole genome shotgun sequences of eight N. meningitidis isolates from bloodstream infections. The genome data revealed two novel sequence types (ST12777 and ST12778), along with ST11, ST437 and ST6928. The virulence profile of the isolates matched their sequence types. All isolates were negative for plasmid-mediated resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ST11 and ST437 N. meningitidis isolates in India along with two novel sequence types (ST12777 and ST12778). These results indicate that the sequence types circulating in India are diverse and require continuous monitoring. Further studies strengthening the genome data on N. meningitidis are required to understand the prevalence, spread, exact resistance and virulence mechanisms along with serotypes. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. From 21st century skills to 21st century human being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels-Peder Osmundsen; Jørgensen, Tobias Heiberg

    2017-01-01

    In Denmark, in Scandinavia and in all of Europe there is a lot of talk about the skills of the future. But if we want our students to aim for and gain a different learning outcome, we must set new and different standards for the way we teach – and start to walk the talk. The focus of the presenta...... CLD and we must take the next step, where we stop thinking about skills and competencies and start thinking and acting on the fundamental existential implication of the 21st century. What we need now is not more 21st century skills, but 21st century human beings....

  1. Isolation and characterization of styrene metabolism genes from styrene-assimilating soil bacteria Rhodococcus sp. ST-5 and ST-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroshi; Itoh, Nobuya

    2012-01-01

    Styrene metabolism genes were isolated from styrene-assimilating bacteria Rhodococcus sp. ST-5 and ST-10. Strain ST-5 had a gene cluster containing four open reading frames which encoded styrene degradation enzymes. The genes showed high similarity to styABCD of Pseudomonas sp. Y2. On the other hand, strain ST-10 had only two genes which encoded styrene monooxygenase and flavin oxidoreductase (styAB). Escherichia coli transformants possessing the sty genes of strains ST-5 and ST-10 produced (S)-styrene oxide from styrene, indicating that these genes function as styrene degradation enzymes. Metabolite analysis by resting-cell reaction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that strain ST-5 converts styrene to phenylacetaldehyde via styrene oxide by styrene oxide isomerase (styC) reaction. On the other hand, strain ST-10 lacked this enzyme, and thus accumulated styrene oxide as an intermediate. HPLC analysis showed that styrene oxide was spontaneously isomerized to phenylacetaldehyde by chemical reaction. The produced phenylacetaldehyde was converted to phenylacetic acid (PAA) in strain ST-10 as well as in strain ST-5. Furthermore, phenylacetic acid was converted to phenylacetyl-CoA by the catalysis of phenylacetate-CoA ligase in strains ST-5 and ST-10. This study proposes possible styrene metabolism pathways in Rhodococcus sp. strains ST-5 and ST-10. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Towards a 21st century ready curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vloon, N.G.J.; Hammer, M.H.M.; Brahimi, N.

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education is generally viewed upon as being important for economic growth in the 21st century. Teaching entrepreneurship however seems to need another approach than regular education to fulfill the professional and ever changing needs. In this perspective active

  3. Bathymetry (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  4. St Vincent Youth and Careers in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole; Ganpat, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Given the ageing farming population in the Caribbean and the importance of agriculture to economy, there is cause for concern about the future of farming. This study seeks to explore the extent to which students pursuing agriculture in secondary schools in St Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) were likely to engage in farming as well as…

  5. 21st Century Skills: The Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, Andrew J.; Willingham, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The skills that students need for the 21st century are not really new, assert Rotherham and Willingham. Critical thinking, problem solving, information literacy, and global awareness have been important to human progress throughout history, at least among the elites in different societies. What is new is the extent to which individual and…

  6. Affinity Spaces and 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses video games as "attractors" to "affinity spaces." It argues that affinity spaces are key sites today where people teach and learn 21st Century skills. While affinity spaces are proliferating on the Internet as interest-and-passion-driven sites devoted to a common set of endeavors, they are not new, just…

  7. St. Canute Lavard around the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2018-01-01

    This chapter discusses the Baltic Sea-area manifestations of the cult of the Danish Royal saint, Canute the Duke, in Danish, Knud Lavard, during the Middle Ages. It also applies theories of cultural memory by Jan and Aleida Assmann in order to approach an understanding of how the cult of St. Canu...

  8. Making sense of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Nash

    2010-01-01

    The eruption of Mount St. Helens in 1980 resulted in "a grand experiment that you could never have gotten anybody to fund," says Forest Service ecologist Charles Crisafulli. "Everything's new. It's a new landform." Unlike most misbehaving volcanoes, this one provided an accessible laboratory right along the Interstate-5 corridor, with the...

  9. Morphing into a 21st Century Trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, R. F.

    1996-01-01

    Forces that will affect trainers into the next century include rapid change, information overload, globalization, downsizing, empowerment, and remote worksites. Key characteristics of a 21st-century trainer include performance orientation, technical skills, social skills, self-employability, bilingualism, and international competence. (JOW)

  10. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters...

  11. Ambulatory ST segment monitoring after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H

    1994-01-01

    as important reasons for the inconsistent findings. The precise role of ambulatory ST segment monitoring in clinical practice has yet to be established. Direct comparisons with exercise stress testing may not be appropriate for two reasons. Firstly, the main advantage of ambulatory monitoring may...

  12. Coal into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecy, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Plenary lecture to the conference addresses coal technologies with improved environmental performance to serve 21st century needs. The US DoE recognises the need for 'premium' processes for all stages of the fuel cycle. This has led to a research focus on fundamental science and technology

  13. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  14. St. Luke's Medical Center: technologizing health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanguil, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    The computerization of the St. Luke's Medical Center improved the hospital administration and management, particularly in nuclear medicine department. The use of computer-aided X-ray simulator machine and computerized linear accelerator machine in diagnosing and treating cancer are the most recent medical technological breakthroughs that benefited thousands of Filipino cancer patients. 4 photos

  15. Eesti goes St. Etienne / Anna Roomet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roomet, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Näitus Eesti Kunstiakadeemia tootedisaini osakonna magistrantide viimase kahe aasta projektide paremikust esindas Eestit disainibiennaalil St. Etiennis Prantsusmaal. Näituse panid üles Pent Talvet ja Pavel Sidorenko, näitusel osalejad: Anna-Maria Einla, Kätlin Kangur, Triin Kuusler, Andri Laidre, Veiko Liis, Liina-Kai Raivet, P. Sidorenko, P. Talvet, Ingela Viks, Triin Voss

  16. Bathymetry (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The...

  17. 76 FR 77208 - Affirmation of Vertical Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Islands of St. Croix...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Datum for Surveying and Mapping Activities for the Islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas... datum for surveying and mapping activities for the islands of St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas of the... by other Federal surveying and mapping agencies on St. Croix, St. John, and St. Thomas, with the...

  18. LiDAR Relative Reflectivity Surface (2011) for the St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution relative seafloor reflectivity surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve...

  19. CDC WONDER: Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population - Bridged-Race July 1st Estimates online databases report bridged-race population estimates of the July 1st resident population of the United States,...

  20. Epidemic potential of Escherichia coli ST131 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautzenberg, M J D; Haverkate, M R; Bonten, M J M; Bootsma, M C J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Observational studies have suggested that Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 have hyperendemic properties. This would be obvious from continuously high incidence and/or prevalence of carriage or infection with these bacteria in specific patient populations. Hyperendemicity could result from increased transmissibility, longer duration of infectiousness, and/or higher pathogenic potential as compared with other lineages of the same species. The aim of our research is to quantitatively estimate these critical parameters for E. coli ST131 and K. pneumoniae ST258, in order to investigate whether E. coli ST131 and K. pneumoniae ST258 are truly hyperendemic clones. Primary outcome measures A systematic literature search was performed to assess the evidence of transmissibility, duration of infectiousness, and pathogenicity for E. coli ST131 and K. pneumoniae ST258. Meta-regression was performed to quantify these characteristics. Results The systematic literature search yielded 639 articles, of which 19 data sources provided information on transmissibility (E. coli ST131 n=9; K. pneumoniae ST258 n=10)), 2 on duration of infectiousness (E. coli ST131 n=2), and 324 on pathogenicity (E. coli ST131 n=285; K. pneumoniae ST258 n=39). Available data on duration of carriage and on transmissibility were insufficient for quantitative assessment. In multivariable meta-regression E. coli isolates causing infection were associated with ST131, compared to isolates only causing colonisation, suggesting that E. coli ST131 can be considered more pathogenic than non-ST131 isolates. Date of isolation, location and resistance mechanism also influenced the prevalence of ST131. E. coli ST131 was 3.2 (95% CI 2.0 to 5.0) times more pathogenic than non-ST131. For K. pneumoniae ST258 there were not enough data for meta-regression assessing the influence of colonisation versus infection on ST258 prevalence. Conclusions With the currently available data

  1. Manufacturing and Design Engineering Students St. Mary's Hospital, Phoenix Park.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Poster with details of project to improve ease of movement for Kirton Stirling chairs in St. Mary's Hospital, Phoenix Park, Dublin. Third year students in the B Eng (Honours) Manufacturing and Design Engineering course at Bolton St. completed a project in conjunction with St. Mary‟s Hospital, Phoenix Park. The staff in St Mary‟s were experiencing difficulty in moving the Kirton Stirling chairs (pictured above). These chairs are used to transport elderly patients from one location to another. ...

  2. ST-intuitionistic fuzzy metric space with properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sahil; Kumar, Tanuj

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we define ST-intuitionistic fuzzy metric space and the notion of convergence and completeness properties of cauchy sequences is studied. Further, we prove some properties of ST-intuitionistic fuzzy metric space. Finally, we introduce the concept of symmetric ST Intuitionistic Fuzzy metric space.

  3. Home of the 151st Air Refueling Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    History HRA Alley Public Affairs SAPR Units Contact Us Search 151st ARW: 151st ARW The Roland R. Wright woman in the profession of arms President Trump visits Roland R. Wright Air National Guard Base 151st Commentaries Women's History Month: looking around as important as looking back Veterans Day: Pay tribute with

  4. GeoTIFF of 3x3 m Bathymetry for St. Thomas & St. John, 2011, UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 3x3 meter resolution bathymetric surface for an area of shallow seabed surrounding St. Thomas and St....

  5. Detergents of the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Tan Tai Louis

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Detergents of the 21st century will depend on evolutions in household appliances, in substrates and in consumer needs. In addition, the environmental constraints, which become more and more stringent, will also play an important role, particularly in the formulations. Surfactants, which constitute one of the main raw materials in detergents, will have to be more environmentally friendly with increasing criteria of biodegradability and renewable materials. Builders (phosphates or zeolithes, heavy metal complexants (EDTA and bleaching agents (combination perborate/TAED are also expected to be replaced by biodegradable compounds, with better performances and lower costs. The real raw materials of the detergents of the 21st century will probably be enzymes (oxidase, hydrolase, peroxidase which present several advantages. At the same time, efforts will be made on biodegradable packaging through the use of micro-organisms able to degrade polymers. Finally, in terms of product forms, the concept of concentration might come back through the use of tablets.

  6. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer (GBC is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC.

  7. Perinnöstä luopuminen

    OpenAIRE

    Skoutti, Miia

    2013-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön keskeisenä aiheena oli tutkia perinnöstä luopumiseen liittyviä edellytyksiä ja seurauksia. Tarkoituksena oli käsitellä perinnöstä luopumista erilaisista näkökulmista sekä miettiä joitakin siihen johtavia syitä. Opinnäytetyöhön sisältyy olennaisesti myös yleisesti perintöoikeudellisten asioiden selvittäminen. Opinnäytetyön alussa lukijalle selitetään lyhyesti sitä, mitä on lakimääräinen perimysjärjestys, ja miten perintöä voi Suomessa saada. Lisäksi huomiota kiinnitetään lu...

  8. Marine geology of the St. Lawrence Estuary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St-Onge, Guillaume [Canada Research Chair in Marine Geology, Institut des sciences de la mer de Rimouski (ISMER) and GEOTOP Research Center, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec, G5L 3A1 (Canada); Duchesne, Mathieu J [Geological Survey of Canada, Quebec Division, 490 de la Couronne, Quebec City, Quebec, G1K 9A9 (Canada); Lajeunesse, Patrick, E-mail: guillaume_st-onge@uqar.qc.ca [Departement de geographie and Centre d' etudes nordiques, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-05-15

    The St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada, contains a very thick (>450 m) Quaternary sedimentary sequence. The results from recently conducted geophysical surveys in conjunction with piston coring indicate that these sediments were deposited under very high sedimentation rates, sometimes as high as {approx}30 m/ka during the last deglaciation. Results also reveal evidence of large submarine landslides during the Holocene, changes in sedimentation rates and the significant role of submarine canyons and channels to transfer sediments from the coast to the deeper marine environment. Finally, this paper highlights the presence of more than 1900 pockmarks on the seafloor of the St. Lawrence Estuary and discusses their possible origins: active hydrocarbon seeps in the Laurentian Channel and biogenic gas seepage on the northwestern shoulder of the Laurentian Channel.

  9. Danmarks Største Fossiler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer; Cuny, Gilles Guy Roger

    2008-01-01

    For 8 millioner år siden myldrede Nordsøen af en mangfoldighed af hajer, hvaler, havskildpadder og sæler, mange flere end i dag. Blandt dem finder man Danmarks største fossiler som er udstillet på Museum Sønderjylland - Naturhistorie og Palæontologi i Gram.......For 8 millioner år siden myldrede Nordsøen af en mangfoldighed af hajer, hvaler, havskildpadder og sæler, mange flere end i dag. Blandt dem finder man Danmarks største fossiler som er udstillet på Museum Sønderjylland - Naturhistorie og Palæontologi i Gram....

  10. Marine geology of the St. Lawrence Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Duchesne, Mathieu J; Lajeunesse, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The St. Lawrence Estuary, Eastern Canada, contains a very thick (>450 m) Quaternary sedimentary sequence. The results from recently conducted geophysical surveys in conjunction with piston coring indicate that these sediments were deposited under very high sedimentation rates, sometimes as high as ∼30 m/ka during the last deglaciation. Results also reveal evidence of large submarine landslides during the Holocene, changes in sedimentation rates and the significant role of submarine canyons and channels to transfer sediments from the coast to the deeper marine environment. Finally, this paper highlights the presence of more than 1900 pockmarks on the seafloor of the St. Lawrence Estuary and discusses their possible origins: active hydrocarbon seeps in the Laurentian Channel and biogenic gas seepage on the northwestern shoulder of the Laurentian Channel.

  11. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  12. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  13. Fort St. Vrain circulator operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brey, H. L.

    1988-08-15

    Fort St. Vrain, on the system of Public Service Company of Colorado, is the only high-temperature gas-cooled power reactor in the United States. Four helium circulators are utilized in this plant to transfer heat from the reactor to the steam generators. These unique machines have a single stage axial flow helium compressor driven by a single stage steam turbine. A single stage water driven (pelton wheel) turbine is the back-up drive utilizing either feed water, condensate, or fire water as the driving fluid. Developmental testing of the circulators was accomplished prior to installation into Fort St. Vrain. A combined machine operating history of approximately 250,000 hours has shown these machines to be of conservative design and proven mechanical integrity. However, many problems have been encountered in operating the complex auxiliaries which are necessary for successful circulator and plant operation. It has been 15 years since initial installation of the circulators occurred at Fort St. Vrain. During this time, a number of significant issues had to be resolved dealing specifically with machine performance. These events include cavitation damage of the pelton wheels during the initial plant hot functional testing, cracks in the water turbine buckets and cervic coupling, static shutdown seal bellows failure, and, most recently, degradation of components within the steam drive assembly. Unreliable operation particularly with the circulator auxiliaries has been a focus of attention by Public Service Company of Colorado. Actions to replace or significantly modify the existing circulators and their auxiliaries are currently awaiting decisions concerning the long-term future of the Fort St. Vrain plant. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs.

  14. Fort St. Vrain circulator operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brey, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain, on the system of Public Service Company of Colorado, is the only high-temperature gas-cooled power reactor in the United States. Four helium circulators are utilized in this plant to transfer heat from the reactor to the steam generators. These unique machines have a single stage axial flow helium compressor driven by a single stage steam turbine. A single stage water driven (pelton wheel) turbine is the back-up drive utilizing either feed water, condensate, or fire water as the driving fluid. Developmental testing of the circulators was accomplished prior to installation into Fort St. Vrain. A combined machine operating history of approximately 250,000 hours has shown these machines to be of conservative design and proven mechanical integrity. However, many problems have been encountered in operating the complex auxiliaries which are necessary for successful circulator and plant operation. It has been 15 years since initial installation of the circulators occurred at Fort St. Vrain. During this time, a number of significant issues had to be resolved dealing specifically with machine performance. These events include cavitation damage of the pelton wheels during the initial plant hot functional testing, cracks in the water turbine buckets and cervic coupling, static shutdown seal bellows failure, and, most recently, degradation of components within the steam drive assembly. Unreliable operation particularly with the circulator auxiliaries has been a focus of attention by Public Service Company of Colorado. Actions to replace or significantly modify the existing circulators and their auxiliaries are currently awaiting decisions concerning the long-term future of the Fort St. Vrain plant. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Advanced ST Plasma Scenario Simulations for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Gates, D.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Kaye, S.M.; Mau, T.K.; Menard, J.; Phillips, C.K.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated scenario simulations are done for NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] that address four primary milestones for developing advanced ST configurations: high β and high β N inductive discharges to study all aspects of ST physics in the high-beta regime; non-inductively sustained discharges for flattop times greater than the skin time to study the various current-drive techniques; non-inductively sustained discharges at high β for flattop times much greater than a skin time which provides the integrated advanced ST target for NSTX; and non-solenoidal start-up and plasma current ramp-up. The simulations done here use the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) and are based on a discharge 109070. TRANSP analysis of the discharge provided the thermal diffusivities for electrons and ions, the neutral-beam (NB) deposition profile, and other characteristics. CURRAY is used to calculate the High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating depositions and current drive. GENRAY/CQL3D is used to establish the heating and CD [current drive] deposition profiles for electron Bernstein waves (EBW). Analysis of the ideal-MHD stability is done with JSOLVER, BALMSC, and PEST2. The simulations indicate that the integrated advanced ST plasma is reachable, obtaining stable plasmas with β ∼ 40% at β N 's of 7.7-9, I P = 1.0 MA, and B T = 0.35 T. The plasma is 100% non-inductive and has a flattop of 4 skin times. The resulting global energy confinement corresponds to a multiplier of H 98(y,2) 1.5. The simulations have demonstrated the importance of HHFW heating and CD, EBW off-axis CD, strong plasma shaping, density control, and early heating/H-mode transition for producing and optimizing these plasma configurations

  16. Advanced ST plasma scenario simulations for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Menard, J.; Phillips, C.K.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, R.; Harvey, R.W.; Mau, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated scenario simulations are done for NSTX that address four primary milestones for developing advanced ST configurations: high β and high β N inductive discharges to study all aspects of ST physics in the high beta regime; non-inductively sustained discharges for flattop times greater than the skin time to study the various current drive techniques; non-inductively sustained discharges at high βfor flattop times much greater than a skin time which provides the integrated advanced ST target for NSTX; and non-solenoidal startup and plasma current rampup. The simulations done here use the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) and are based on a discharge 109070. TRANSP analysis of the discharge provided the thermal diffusivities for electrons and ions, the neutral beam (NB) deposition profile and other characteristics. CURRAY is used to calculate the High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating depositions and current drive. GENRAY/CQL3D is used to establish the heating and CD deposition profiles for electron Bernstein waves (EBW). Analysis of the ideal MHD stability is done with JSOLVER, BALMSC, and PEST2. The simulations indicate that the integrated advanced ST plasma is reachable, obtaining stable plasmas with β ∼ 40% at β N 's of 7.7-9, I P = 1.0 MA and B T = 0.35 T. The plasma is 100% non-inductive and has a flattop of 4 skin times. The resulting global energy confinement corresponds to a multiplier of H 98(y,2 ) = 1.5. The simulations have demonstrated the importance of HHFW heating and CD, EBW off-axis CD, strong plasma shaping, density control, and early heating/H-mode transition for producing and optimizing these plasma configurations (author)

  17. Building a Stückelberg portal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Wan-Zhe [Center for Fundamental Physics and Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),80805 München (Germany); Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo; Ye, Fang [Center for Fundamental Physics and Institute for Advanced Study,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin,Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We construct explicit string theory models realizing the recently proposed “Stückelberg Portal” scenario, a framework for building Z{sup ′} mediation models without the need to introduce unwanted exotic matter charged under the Standard Model. This scenario can be viewed purely field-theoretically, although it is particularly well motivated from string theory. By analyzing carefully the Stückelberg couplings between the Abelian gauge bosons and the RR axions, we construct the first global intersecting brane models which extend the Standard Model with a genuine hidden sector, to which it is nonetheless connected via U(1) mass mixings. Utilizing the explicit models we construct, we discuss some broad phenomenological properties and experimental implications of this scenario such as Z−Z{sup ′} mixings, dark matter stability and relic density, and supersymmetry mediation. With an appropriate confining hidden sector, our setup also provides a minimal realization of the hidden valley scenario. We further explore the possibility of obtaining small Z{sup ′} masses from a large ensemble of U(1) bosons. Related to the Stückelberg portal are two mechanisms that connect the visible and the hidden sectors, namely mediation by non-perturbative operators and the hidden photon scenario, on which we briefly comment.

  18. Sediment Characterization in St. Alban's Bay, VT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nethercutt, S.; Manley, T.; Manley, P.

    2017-12-01

    St. Alban's Bay within Lake Champlain is plagued with harmful algal blooms. With future intensification due to climate change, a multidisciplinary program (BREE-Basin Resilience to Extreme Events) was initiated in 2016. In order to assess the mobilization of harmful nutrients from sediment resuspension events and riverine input, 74 sediment samples were collected in a grid fashion throughout St. Alban's Bay. Sediments were deflocculated and analyzed using a LA920 Horiba laser scattering particle size distribution analyzer to define the frequency of sediment sizes from clay to sand. Gridded surfaces of mean sortable silt percentage, silt percentage, sand percentage, and clay percentage were used to represent the sediment distribution of the region. A plot of diameter versus frequency showed the bimodal nature of some of the sediments, with one peak at about 10 microns diameter (silt) and the second at about 525 microns diameter (sand). The data showed an extremely low percentage of clay relative to that of sand and silt. The highest frequencies of sortable silt, which represents the most easily mobilized particle size, are found in the deepest areas of the bay, suggesting that these regions are where dominant bottom flow occurs. The high occurrence of sortable silt in the St. Alban's Bay does suggest that sediment mobilization, and therefore nutrient mobilization has the potential to occur. These data combined with high-resolution multibeam and hydrodynamic data will allow for future models of water flow and remobilization studies in the future.

  19. Carl Størmer Auroral Pioneer

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Alv

    2013-01-01

    This biography summarizes the seminal contributions to auroral and space science of Carl Størmer (1874 - 1957). He was the first to develop precise photographic methods to calculate heights and morphologies of diverse auroral forms during four solar cycles. Størmer independently devised numerical techniques to determine the trajectories of high-energy charged particles allowed and forbidden in the Earth’s magnetic field. His theoretical analyses explained cosmic ray access to the upper atmosphere, 20 years before they were identified by other scientists. Størmer’s crowning achievement, “The Polar Aurora,” published when he was 81 years old, stands to this day as a regularly cited guide in graduate-level courses on space physics.   The authors present the life of this prodigious scientist in relation to the cultural life of early 20th century in Norway and to the development of the space sciences in the post-Sputnik era.

  20. Stereospecificity (ST) of the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, J.; Kato, S.; Lasker, J.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The ST of MEOS for the ethanol 1R hydrogen has been variously reported as absolute, partial or absent, with free radical involvement postulated in the latter case. To determine both the ST of MEOS and the participation of free radicals in the reaction, they investigated MEOS ST using 1R[1- 3 H] ethanol as substrate. ST is expressed as the fraction of 3 H labeling in acetaldehyde formed, relative to that in ethanol, and ranges from 0.5 to 0. Partial ST was observed using liver microsomes from both rats and hamsters; it significantly decreased after ethanol feeding. 0.1 mM desferrioxamine (dfx) did not increase ST in any of these microsomal preparations while ferric EDTA decreased it, suggesting that ethanol treatment induces a cytochrome P-450 with lower ST rather than increasing free radical involvement. This is supported by a virtual absence of ST observed in a reconstituted system containing purified hamster P-450/sub ALC/, a liver cytochrome P-450 isozyme induced in hamsters by ethanol treatment. Their results indicate that, unlike other enzymes that oxidize ethanol, MEOS has only partial ST. Thus, ST alone cannot be used as an index of free radical involvement but, when evaluated with the response of ST to dfx, it indicated that MEOS is unlikely to involve free radical attack on ethanol in solution

  1. Hypericin in the light and in the dark: Two sides of the same coin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana eJendzelovska

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypericin (4,5,7,4',5',7'-hexahydroxy-2,2'-dimethylnaphtodiantrone is a naturally occurring chromophore found in plants of the genus Hypericum, especially Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s wort, and in some basidiomycetes (Dermocybe spp. or endophytic fungi (Thielavia subthermophila. In recent decades, hypericin has been intensively studied for its broad pharmacological spectrum. Among its antidepressant and light-dependent antiviral actions, hypericin is a powerful natural photosensitizer that is applicable in the photodynamic therapy (PDT of various oncological diseases. As the accumulation of hypericin is significantly higher in neoplastic tissue than in normal tissue, it can be used in photodynamic diagnosis (PDD as an effective fluorescence marker for tumor detection and visualization. In addition, light-activated hypericin acts as a strong pro-oxidant agent with antineoplastic and antiangiogenic properties, since it effectively induces the apoptosis, necrosis or autophagy of cancer cells. Moreover, a strong affinity of hypericin for necrotic tissue was discovered. Thus, hypericin and its radiolabeled derivatives have been recently investigated as potential biomarkers for the non-invasive targeting of tissue necrosis in numerous disorders, including solid tumors. On the other hand, several light-independent actions of hypericin have also been described, even though its effects in the dark have not been studied as intensively as those of photoactivated hypericin. Various experimental studies have revealed no cytotoxicity of hypericin in the dark; however, it can serve as a potential antimetastatic and antiangiogenic agent. On the contrary, hypericin can induce the expression of some ABC transporters, which are often associated with the multidrug resistance (MDR of cancer cells. Moreover, the hypericin-mediated attenuation of the cytotoxicity of some chemotherapeutics was revealed. Therefore, hypericin might represent another St. John

  2. Role of myocardial ischemia on exercise-induced ST elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kouhei; Haze, Kazuo; Fukami, Ken-ichi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    1986-01-01

    Exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) has been recognized to be related to left ventricular (LV) asynergy, however it is also recognized that myocardial ischemia can induce ST elevation. In this study, factors which determine the extent of ST elevation, with special reference to myocardial ischemia, was re-evaluated using quantitative analysis of stress myocardial scintigraphy (S-SG). Among 65 patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction and documented single vessel disease of left anterior descending artery (LAD), 19 patients who had exercise-induced ST elevation (ΔST ≥ 2.0 mm) had more abnormal Q waves (p < 0.01), lower LV ejection fraction (EF) (p < 0.01), more severe LV asynergy (p < 0.05) and less incidence of post-MI angina pectoris (AP) (p < 0.01), compared to those with ΔST < 2.0 mm, indicating that ST elevation is primarily related to LV asynergy. Correlation studies among clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic parameters show that ΔST was significantly related to a size of MI represented by Tl score or relative defect Tl activity and number of abnormal Q waves (No.Q), the magnitude of work load expressed by changes in double product (ΔDP) and intervals between the onset and exercise test, as well as myocardial ischemia expressed by the extent of redistribution (%RD) in S-SG. Among 23 patients with post-MI AP, ΔST significantly correlated with %RD (r = 0.47), indicating that myocardial ischemia can be a mechanism of exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous MI. Furtheremore, among those with ST elevation, concave-type ST elevation was more related to myocardial ischemia compared to convex-type ST elevation as expressed by the incidence of post-MI AP and/or significant redistribution. (J.P.N.)

  3. Ambulant ST-segmentmonitorering efter akut myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Junker, A; Friis, E V

    1994-01-01

    Over the last decade the concept of silent myocardial ischaemia has received considerable attention. Without doubt, the increased use of ambulatory ST-segment monitoring is the most important reason for the growing interest in this field. The prevalence of ambulatory ischaemia after myocardial...... with previous myocardial infarction, but there is considerable disagreement about how this is expressed in terms of cardiac events. Patient selection, small patient numbers, and different timing of ambulatory monitoring are proposed as important reasons for the inconsistent findings. The precise role...

  4. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  5. Health Physics in the 21st Century

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a proactive approach and focusing on emerging radiation-generating technologies, Health Physics in the 21st Century meets the growing need for a presentation of the relevant radiological characteristics and hazards. As such, this monograph discusses those technologies that will affect the health physics and radiation protection profession over the decades to come. After an introductory overview, the second part of this book looks at fission and fusion energy, followed by a section devoted to accelerators, while the final main section deals with radiation on manned space missions.

  6. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening and testing programs, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. Selective Reproduction in the 21st Century provides unique ethnographic insights...... from around the world on how SRTs are made available within different cultural, socio-economic and regulatory settings as well as how people in these settings perceive and make use of new possibilities for selective reproduction as they envision and try to form their future family lives....

  7. 31st IMAC Conference on Structural Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Douglas; Carrella, Alex; Mayes, Randy; Rixen, Daniel; Allen, Matt; Cunha, Alvaro; Catbas, Fikret; Pakzad, Shamim; Racic, Vitomir; Pavic, Aleksandar; Reynolds, Paul; Simmermacher, Todd; Cogan, Scott; Moaveni, Babak; Papadimitriou, Costas; Allemang, Randall; Clerck, James; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wicks, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics, Volume 1: Proceedings of the 31st IMAC, A Conference and Exposition on Structural Dynamics, 2013, the first volume of seven from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Structural Dynamics, including papers on:   Nonlinear Oscillations Nonlinearities In Practice Nonlinear System Identification: Methods Nonlinear System Identification: Friction & Contact Nonlinear Modal Analysis Nonlinear Modeling & Simulation Nonlinear Vibration Absorbers Constructive Utilization of Nonlinearity.

  8. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters then into the anode side of the SOFC. The gases from the SOFC stacks enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The off-gases now enter into a heat recovery steam generator to produce steam for a ...

  9. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  10. Ocular Toxicity Profile of ST-162 and ST-168 as Novel Bifunctional MEK/PI3K Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Pawar, Mercy; Van Dort, Marcian E; Galbán, Stefanie; Welton, Amanda R; Thurber, Greg M; Ross, Brian D; Besirli, Cagri G

    2018-04-30

    ST-162 and ST-168 are small-molecule bifunctional inhibitors of MEK and PI3K signaling pathways that are being developed as novel antitumor agents. Previous small-molecule and biologic MEK inhibitors demonstrated ocular toxicity events that were dose limiting in clinical studies. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo ocular toxicity profiles of ST-162 and ST-168. Photoreceptor cell line 661W and adult retinal pigment epithelium cell line ARPE-19 were treated with increasing concentrations of bifunctional inhibitors. Western blots, cell viability, and caspase activity assays were performed to evaluate MEK and PI3K inhibition and dose-dependent in vitro toxicity, and compared with monotherapy. In vivo toxicity profile was assessed by intravitreal injection of ST-162 and ST-168 in Dutch-Belted rabbits, followed by ocular examination and histological analysis of enucleated eyes. Retinal cell lines treated with ST-162 or ST-168 exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of MEK and PI3K signaling. Compared with inhibition by monotherapies and their combinations, bifunctional inhibitors demonstrated reduced cell death and caspase activity. In vivo, both bifunctional inhibitors exhibited a more favorable toxicity profile when compared with MEK inhibitor PD0325901. Novel MEK and PI3K bifunctional inhibitors ST-162 and ST-168 demonstrate favorable in vitro and in vivo ocular toxicity profiles, supporting their further development as potential therapeutic agents targeting multiple aggressive tumors.

  11. Principal Component Surface (2011) for St. Thomas East End Reserve, St. Thomas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER) in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)....

  12. Differentiating ST elevation myocardial infarction and nonischemic causes of ST elevation by analyzing the presenting electrocardiogram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jayroe, Jason B; Spodick, David H; Nikus, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    Guidelines recommend that patients with suggestive symptoms of myocardial ischemia and ST-segment elevation (STE) in > or =2 adjacent electrocardiographic leads should receive immediate reperfusion therapy. Novel strategies aimed to reduce door-to-balloon time, such as prehospital wireless...

  13. ST Implications in the CNGS Project

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelmsson, M

    2000-01-01

    The CNGS project concerns the construction of a neutrino beam facility (CNGS = CERN Neutrino beam to Gran Sasso). A 450 GeV proton beam will be extracted from the SPS accelerator. This proton beam will hit a target a few hundred metres downstream from the extraction point (BA4). In the debris of the proton beam we will find pions which continue down a 1000 m, evacuated tunnel and a fraction of which decay into a neutrino beam. After this decay tunnel (1.1 km), a 'hadron stop' will separate the neutrinos, after which they will resume their journey down to a detector pit, outside Rome (Gran Sasso). The CERN facility has a total length of approximately 3 km. The ST division has an important share in the construction work, both of the above-mentioned tunnels as well as of all other infrastructure services, and this work concerns most of the groups in the division. This report will outline the technical design of the facility and explain how we, in the ST division, are involved in the project. The CERN council app...

  14. 1st Roman Young Researchers Meeting Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    Cannuccia, E; Pietrobon, D; Stellato, F; Veneziani, M

    2009-01-01

    During the last few decades scientists have been able to test the bases of the physics paradigms, where the quantum mechanics has to match the cosmological scales. Between the extremes of this scenario, biological phenomena and their complexity take place, challenging the laws we observe in the atomic and sub-atomic world. In order to explore the details of this world, new huge experimental facilities are under construction. These projects involve people coming from several countries and give physicists the opportunity to work together with chemists, biologists and other scientists. The Roman Young Researchers Meeting is a conference, organised by Ph. D. students and young postdocs connected to the Roman area. It is aimed primarily at graduate students and post-docs, working in physics. The 1st conference has been held on the 21st of July 2009 at the University of Roma Tor Vergata. It was organised in three sessions, devoted to Astrophysics and Cosmology, Soft and Condensed Matter Physics and Theoretical and ...

  15. Organisation des travaux ST-CV

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, C; CERN. Geneva. ST Division

    2003-01-01

    Débutée il y a deux ans, la phase de construction des installations de refroidissement du LHC a atteint en 2003 son apogée. De nombreux autres projets sont également gérés par le groupe dans divers secteurs du laboratoire. La spécificité du groupe est de réaliser des installations complexes impliquant des spécificités diverses telles qu’aéraulique, hydraulique, électrique, etc. Pour faire face à ces demandes la section travaux du groupe ST CV a adopté une structure capable de réaliser ces divers projets avec un minimum de personnel. La première partie de ce document décrit l’organisation de la section travaux ST CV. Dans une deuxième partie, les auteurs dressent un état des lieux des chantiers par projet en décrivant plus particulièrement les activités dans les domaines du traitement d’air et de refroidissement par eau.

  16. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  17. Deposition in St. Mark's Basilica of Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, E; Zendri, E; Piazza, R; Ganzerla, R; Montalbani, S; Marcoleoni, E; Bonetto, F; Scandella, A; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutants may cause damage to monuments and historical buildings. Besides air contaminants, soluble salts are also responsible for stone deterioration and decay in outdoor and indoor monuments. The problem of how to conserve works of arts thus requires a deep knowledge of contaminants' concentration and distribution inside buildings. In this work, water-soluble ions inside St. Mark's Basilica in Venice were studied, with the aim of understanding their principal source and distribution inside the building. With the aid of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis, the interaction between ions and surface's material was also investigated. Ion chromatographic analysis of depositions highlighted a large amount of "deteriorating agents" such as sulphates and chlorides. A possible source in the innermost area of the basilica has been found for formates and nitrates. On the contrary, a decrease of chloride, from the entrance to the innermost area, has been found, which indicates that the source is outside the building. It is emphasized that different contaminants behave differently on different material, and the effect of pollution inside churches and monuments is not easy to predict. Wood and brick seem to react differently than stone and mortar to the damaging action of salts and pollutants. The present work should be considered a useful tool for the future preservation of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice.

  18. Status of the Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain is a high temperature gas cooled reactor. It has been shut down as a result of financial and technical difficulties. Fort St. Vrain has been planning for defueling and decommissioning for at least three years. The preliminary decommissioning plan, in accordance with the NRC's final rule, has been submitted and is being reviewed by the NRC. The basis of the preliminary decommissioning plan has been SAFSTOR. Public Service Company, who is the owner and operator of FSV, is scheduled to submit a proposed decommissioning plan to the NRC in the fourth quarter of 1990. PSC has gone out for bid on the decontamination and dismantlement of FSV. This paper includes the defueling schedule, the independent spent fuel storage installation status, the probability of shipping fuel to DOE, the status of the preliminary decommissioning plan submittal, the issuance of a possession only license and what are the results of obtaining this license amendment, preliminary decommissioning activities allowed prior to the approval of a proposed decommissioning plan, the preparation of a proposed decommissioning plan and the status of our decision to proceed with SAFSTOR or DECON as identified in the NRC's final decommissioning rule

  19. Retendering of ST-CV maintenance contract

    CERN Document Server

    Battistin, M

    2003-01-01

    During the next three years, the ST/CV group will be deeply involved in the installation works for the LHC project. During this period the need for maintenance activity will decrease. The minimum level will be reached during the “long shutdown” of the PS and SPS machines in 2005. The budget for the maintenance will decrease accordingly, thus the CV group had to review its maintenance strategy. The new contract, which started on January 1st 2003, has been defined to cope with these workload variations during the next years and to guarantee the minimum maintenance activity on the existing equipment. A lump-sum contract based on a win-win strategy has been discarded. The contractor no longer has to guarantee the performance of the CERN cooling and ventilation systems. A new price list strategy based on performance indicators and penalties has been chosen. The contractor now has to guarantee the performance of every maintenance operation demanded by CERN. This modification obliged the Operation section of the...

  20. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team's analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor

  1. Diagnostics of ST Plasmas in NSTX: Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Efthimion, P.; Foley, J.; Jones, B.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Taylor, G.; Levinton, F.; Luhmann, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities present in the diagnosis of spherical torus (ST) plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and discuss the corresponding diagnostic development that is presently underway. After a brief description of diagnostic systems currently installed, examples of ST-specific diagnostic challenges will be highlighted, as will another case, where the ST configuration offers opportunities for new measurements

  2. Frauen mit Eßstörungen im Ausdauersport

    OpenAIRE

    Bös, Annette

    2003-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht das Phänomen Eßstörungen bei Ausdauersportlerinnen. Auf dem Hintergrund des identitätstheoretischen Ansatzes von Stahr et al. (1995) geht es um die Frage nach den Hauptverursachungsmomenten der Eßstörungen von sieben jungen Sportlerinnen. Im Rahmen einer qualitativen Sozialforschungsarbeit wurden sieben Athletinnen in einem problemzentrierten Interview zur Phase ihrer Eßstörungserkrankung befragt. Die Arbeit setzt sich zum Ziel, einen Beitrag zur systematisch...

  3. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Amon

    Full Text Available Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping, thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB. As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3 classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The

  4. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  5. The cognitive status of stød

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sara Juul; Kristensen, Line Burholt

    2015-01-01

    marked. Keeping in mind the cross-distribution between phonetic/phonological markedness and distributional patterns, we investigate here whether stød is also related to accent 1 when it comes to cognitive markedness. We present the results of a psycholinguistic study in which participants attended...... for words with non-stød stems, indicating that the cognitive markedness status of stød corresponds to that of accent 2....

  6. Henkilöstövoimavarojen johtamista megamarketissa

    OpenAIRE

    Setälä, Minna

    2016-01-01

    Henkilöstö on lähes kaikkien organisaatioiden tärkein voimavara ja menestyksen perusta. Ilman henkilöstön olemassaoloa ja osaamista, ei mikään organisaatio pystyisi toimimaan. Henkilöstövoimavarojen johtamisen tulisikin olla keskeinen osa yrityksen strategista toimintaa. Osaava ja hyvinvoiva henkilöstö tuottaa luonnollisesti vastinetta siihen sijoitetulle pääomalle. Tämä opinnäytetyö tehtiin Vantaalla sijaitsevalle elintarvike- ja päivittäistavaraketjun myymälälle, supermarketille. Tavo...

  7. Radioimmunoimaging of human colon and gastric cancers xenografts by NCC-ST-439 and NCC-ST-433 monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kayoko; Tsukatani, Yasushi; Nishiguchi, Iku

    1987-01-01

    Both NCC-ST-439 and NCC-ST-433 are monoclonal antibodies raised against human gastric cancer (St-4) xenografts in nude mice. Imaging and localization experiments were performed by injecting I-125 labeled antibodies into nude mice bearing CO-4 (colon carcinoma) and H-111 (gastric carcinoma). There was uptake of NCC-ST-439 (polymer) into the CO-4, though it was not clearly visualized until 5 days post injection. By injecting NCC-ST-439 (monomer), CO-4 was better seen at day 3, while average accumulation into the tumors decreased compared with NCC-ST-439 (polymer). High radioactivities were observed in the liver and spleen, which was probably due to the immunocomplex with the antigen in the blood. NCC-ST-433 was selectively accumulated into the H-111 with tumor to blood ratio 7.8 at day 7, without significant uptake into the liver and spleen. Significant correlation was also found between the tumor uptake level of NCC-ST-433 and size of tumors. Excellent images of H-111 were obtained 3 days after the injection. NCC-ST-433 holds promise for the radioimmunodetection of gastric cancers. (author)

  8. Nuclear Power in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yukiya

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency helps its Member States to use nuclear technology for a broad range of peaceful purposes, one of the most important of which is generating electricity. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan in March 2011 caused anxiety about nuclear safety throughout the world and raised questions about the future of nuclear power. Two years on, it is clear that the use of nuclear power will continue to grow in the coming decades, although growth will be slower than was anticipated before the accident. Many countries with existing nuclear power programmes plan to expand them. Many new countries, both developed and developing, plan to introduce nuclear power. The factors contributing to this growing interest include increasing global demand for energy, as well as concerns about climate change, volatile fossil fuel prices, and security of energy supply. It will be difficult for the world to achieve the twin goals of ensuring sustainable energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gases without nuclear power. The IAEA helps countries that opt for nuclear power to use it safely and securely. Countries that have decided to phase out nuclear power will have to deal with issues such as plant decommissioning, remediation, and waste management for decades to come. The IAEA also assists in these areas. I am grateful to the Russian Federation for hosting the 2013 International Ministerial Conference on Nuclear Power in the 21st Century in St Petersburg in June. This timely conference provides a valuable opportunity to take stock of nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. A high level of public confidence in the safety of nuclear power is essential for the future of the sector. Much valuable work has been done in the past two years to improve safety. But much remains to be done. It is vitally important that the momentum is maintained and that everything is done to ensure that nuclear power is as safe as humanly

  9. Direct imaging of plant metabolites in leaves and petals by Desorption Electrospray Ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Janfelt, Christian

    2013-01-01

    and demonstrated on leaves and petals of Hypericum perforatum. The direct imaging approaches are in contrast to previous DESI imaging studies where indirect analysis via imprints were used in order to overcome the morphological barrier presented by the layer of cuticular waxes covering the surface of a leaf...... of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), a significant class of metabolites located in the cuticle layer in leaves and petals, as well as other plant metabolites. In the case of the petals of H. perforatum, all common metabolites could be imaged directly using the ternary solvent, whereas in the case...... of leaves from the same plant, only some of the metabolites were accessible, even with the ternary solvent system. For these samples, the leaves could be imaged with direct DESI after chloroform had been used to remove most of the cuticle, thus exposing lower layers in the leaf structure. A number...

  10. Monoamine Oxidase-A Inhibition and Associated Antioxidant Activity in Plant Extracts with Potential Antidepressant Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Herraiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoamine oxidase (MAO catalyzes the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and is involved in mood disorders, depression, oxidative stress, and adverse pharmacological reactions. This work studies the inhibition of human MAO-A by Hypericum perforatum, Peganum harmala, and Lepidium meyenii, which are reported to improve and affect mood and mental conditions. Subsequently, the antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO is determined in plant extracts for the first time. H. perforatum inhibited human MAO-A, and extracts from flowers gave the highest inhibition (IC50 of 63.6 μg/mL. Plant extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS and contained pseudohypericin, hypericin, hyperforin, adhyperforin, hyperfirin, and flavonoids. Hyperforin did not inhibit human MAO-A and hypericin was a poor inhibitor of this isoenzyme. Quercetin and flavonoids significantly contributed to MAO-A inhibition. P. harmala seed extracts highly inhibited MAO-A (IC50 of 49.9 μg/L, being a thousand times more potent than H. perforatum extracts owing to its content of β-carboline alkaloids (harmaline and harmine. L. meyenii root (maca extracts did not inhibit MAO-A. These plants may exert protective actions related to antioxidant effects. Results in this work show that P. harmala and H. perforatum extracts exhibit antioxidant activity associated with the inhibition of MAO (i.e., lower production of H2O2.

  11. 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Mohd; Aziz, Mohamad; Malek, Mohd

    2015-01-01

    In this book, experts from academia and industry present the latest advances in scientific theory relating to applied electromagnetics and examine current and emerging applications particularly within the fields of electronics, communications, and computer technology. The book is based on presentations delivered at APPEIC 2014, the 1st Applied Electromagnetic International Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia in December 2014. The conference provided an ideal platform for researchers and specialists to deliver both theoretically and practically oriented contributions on a wide range of topics relevant to the theme of nurturing applied electromagnetics for human technology. Many novel aspects were addressed, and the contributions selected for this book highlight the relevance of advances in applied electromagnetics to a variety of industrial engineering problems and identify exciting future directions for research.

  12. Energy strategy for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis in the report is placed on how to cope with the stringent situation of energy resources in Japan when the energy demands are rising with the advance of economies. For the future, countermeasures must be taken in time and on firm basis. The characteristics of respective energy resources are clarified, and on this basis, review is made on the energy supplies up to the beginning of the 21st century. In the above connection, the following measures are taken up: promotion of energy saving, stable supply of petroleum, development and utilization of substitute energies, development of technologies for new energies, enhancement in the location of power stations, and securing of the necessary funds. In conclusion, it points out the need for further efforts on overall energy measures and the need for full co-ordination of the energy policy with the social situation. (Mori, K.)

  13. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement of regional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards

  14. Digital Humanities in the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    In this article it is argued that one of the major transformative factors of the humanities at the beginning of the 21st century is the shift from analogue to digital source material, and that this shift will affect the humanities in a variety of ways. But various kinds of digital material...... are not digital in the same way, which a distinction between digitized, born-digital, and reborn-digital may help us acknowledge, thereby helping us to understand how each of these types of digital material affects different phases of scholarly work in its own way. This is illustrated by a detailed comparison...... of the nature of digitized collections and web archives....

  15. Health care in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, L R

    1996-01-01

    Our primary agenda for the 21st Century is the reinvention of America. We must reinvent democracy, capitalism, entrepreneurism, and community. Indeed, we must recreate all of our major social institutions. This includes health care. A design for a new society requires a new design for health care. In fact, health care enjoys a special privilege in this regard. It is the gateway to total societal redesign. Health is the common denominator in any society. If you loose your health you cannot work, you cannot play, you cannot study; and, if you lose it sufficiently, you cannot even pray. Health and well-being create the foundation for all other constructive human endeavors. Therefore, the design of healthy communities is the necessary first step in the redesign of total human habitats. This massive redesign effort will take a century. However, it will be launched in the next few years.

  16. Fort St. Vrain defueling ampersand decommissioning considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warembourg, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station (FSV) is one of the first commercial reactors to be decommissioned under NRC's decommissioning rule. The defueling and decommissioning of this 330 MWe High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) has involved many challenges for Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC) including defueling to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI), establishing decommissioning funding, obtaining regulatory approvals, arranging for waste disposal, and managing a large fixed price decommissioning contract. In 1990, a team comprised of the Westinghouse Corporation and Morrison Knudsen Corporation, with the Scientific Ecology Group as a major subcontractor, was contracted by PSC to perform the decommissioning under a fixed price contract. Physical work activities began in August 1992. Currently, physical dismantlement activities are about 45% complete, the project is on schedule, and is within budget

  17. Reflector dowel strength test, Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    The strength of the 44.45 mm (1.75 in.) diameter Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reflector dowel for loads directed radially inward toward the center of the element was measured. For a statically applied load, the strength exceeded 5783 N (1300 lb) in direct shear. This strength remained after load cycling 100 times to 4448 N (1000 lb), 10 times to 4893 N (1100 lb), 10 times to 5338 N (1200 lb), and two times to 5783 N (1300 lb). Typically, the deflection to ultimate failure was approximately 1.0 mm (0.04 in.). At about 3316 N (750 lb) and 0.20 mm (0.008 in.) deflection, one of the webs between the dowel and a coolant hole cracked, apparently redistributing the load. No further failure occurred up to the ultimate load of 5783+ N (1300+ lb)

  18. Reuleaux models at St. Petersburg State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteeva, G. A.; Sinilshchikova, G. A.; Trifonenko, B. V.

    2018-05-01

    Franz Reuleaux (1829 - 1905) is a famous mechanical engineer, a Professor of the Berlin Royal Technical Academy. He became widely known as an engineer-scientist, a Professor and industrial consultant, education reformer and leader of the technical elite of Germany. He directed the design and manufacture of over 300 models of simple mechanisms. They were sold to many famous universities for pedagogical and scientific purposes. Today, the most complete set is at Cornell University, College of Engineering. In this article we discuss the history, the modern state and our using the Reuleaux models that survived at St. Petersburg State University for educational purposes. We present description of certain models and our electronic resource with these models. We provide the information of similar electronic resources from other universities.

  19. Radiology in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, P.L.; Seltzer, S.E.; Gore, J.C.; Heiiman, R.S.; Abrams, H.L.; Davis, K.A.; Henkelman, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    On the leading edge in ''high-tech'' medicine, radiology is experiencing several revolutions simultaneously that promise an exciting future. New imaging methods and digital technologies not only offer novel ways to view tissues but also provide opportunities for quantitative evaluation of function and even permit determination of metabolic status. New approaches to technology assessment are being explored that alter the ways in which equipment and procedures are introduced into clinical medicine. With the plethora of radiology services available, the radiologist must serve as a consultant in the triage of patients in radiology and the dissemination of information from radiology. For similar reasons, training in diagnostic radiology may eventually accommodate to the concept of specialization along organ-system lines. Without question, radiology is destined for an exciting period as it moves into the 21st century

  20. Motivating Students in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedden, Mandy L; Clark, Kevin R

    2016-07-01

    To examine instructors' and students' perspectives on motivation in the classroom and clinical environments and to explore instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students in the 21st century. Articles selected for this review were from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources that emphasized student and educator perspectives on motivation and instructional strategies to increase student motivation. Understanding how college students are motivated can help educators engage students in lessons and activities, ultimately improving the students' academic performance. Students exhibit increased motivation in classes when educators have high expectations, conduct an open-atmosphere classroom, and use multidimensional teaching strategies. Instructional styles such as connecting with students, creating an interactive classroom, and guiding and reminding students improved student motivation. Radiologic science educators must be mindful of how college students are motivated and use various instructional strategies to increase students' motivation in the classroom and clinical setting. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  1. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  2. VIA større employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    At studerende udvikler employability under studiet er et centralt indsatsområde for uddannelsesinstitutionerne. Fokus herpå har aldrig været større. Dette projekt ser nærmere på VIA-dimittenders personlige oplevelse og erfaring med ”deres employability” under studiet og hvordan den sættes i spil...... efterfølgende på arbejdsmarkedet. Formålet er at finde muligheder til at forbedre tilbud om employability-skabende processer og aktiviteter og tilpasse disse processer og aktiviteter til konkrete behov. På baggrund af en række kvalitative interviews og personlighedstest af deltagerne foreslås en styrket...... personlig tilgang i arbejdet med employability, der samtidig sikrer en bred vifte af tilbud, som tilgodeser differentierede personlige og faglige tilgange til at udvikle employability....

  3. IAEA safeguards for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The publication includes the lectures held during the seminar on IAEA safeguards for the 21st century. The topics covered are as follows: the nuclear non-proliferation regime; Legal instruments related to the application of safeguards; multilateral nuclear export controls; physical protection and its role in nuclear non-proliferation; the evolution of safeguards; basis for the strengthening of safeguards; information required from states, including 'small quantities protocol'; processing and evaluation of new information for strengthened safeguards; additional physical access and new technologies for strengthened safeguards; equipping the IAEA Inspectorate with new skills; achievements to date the strengthened safeguards; complement ofregional non-proliferation arrangements in international nuclear verification; promotion of transparency through Korean experience; and the future prospects of safeguards.

  4. Cooperative learning in 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century brings four important challenges in which cooperation plays a central role: (1 a rapidly increasing global interdependence that will result in increasing local diversity as well as more frequent and intense conflicts, (2 the increasing number of democracies throughout the world, (3 the need for creative entrepreneurs, and (4 the growing importance of interpersonal relationships that affect the development of personal identity. The tools for meeting these challenges include cooperative learning. In this article the nature of cooperative learning will be reviewed, the underlying theory of social interdependence will be discussed, and the results of the research on cooperative learning will be briefly reviewed. The way in which cooperative learning contributes to meeting the four challenges will then be discussed.

  5. Operational testing highlights of Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, J.J.; McEachern, D.W.; Read, J.W.; Simon, W.A.; Walker, R.F.

    1975-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain program has progressed through construction, preoperational testing, fuel loading, initial criticality, and operational testing at power levels up to 2 percent related power. To date, all tests necessary before the rise to full power have been completed, and the rise-to-power program is expected to be resumed again in late 1975. Major plant systems, including the prestressed concrete reactor vessel and circulators, have demonstrated adequate performance. Extensive tests on the reactor core at zero power and up to 2 percent power have demonstrated the accuracy in the design predictions of such core characteristics as critical rod position, control system worths, neutron flux distributions, and temperature coefficients. Gaseous fission product release measurements to date have confirmed the extensive analytical estimates. 6 references

  6. Caruso St John y Robert Smithson: Interferencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Hernández Pezzi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Los discursos cruzados son el soporte común del presente número de Cuadernos. El cruce que planteamos tiene como protagonistas al artista Robert Smithson y a los arquitectos Adam Caruso y Peter St John. Estos últimos hacen mención del trabajo del artista norteamericano para explicar su proyecto de remodelación de Stortorget, la plaza de la catedral en el centro de Kalmar, Suecia. A partir de aquí, comenzamos una exploración del trabajo y las preocupaciones de ambos que nos permite dibujar convergencias y sintonías procesuales por encima de las diferencias temáticas, ideológicas y estilísticas. Al disponer en paralelo la obra de Smithson y Caruso St John descubrimos vibraciones y resonancias que muestran una interacción productiva de sus preocupaciones. La materia se convierte en sus propuestas en un objeto activo y sensible, un depósito energético con el que operar. El traslado de piedras en Stortorget convoca la memoria de la ciudad del mismo modo que el basalto y la sal del Spiral Jetty, erosionados por el tiempo, nos hablan de procesos abiertos. El tiempo y la memoria pasan a ser soportes estratégicos con los que construyen sus miradas. Los objetos se disuelven en las relaciones que establecen con su entorno produciendo equilibrios frágiles e instantáneos. De esta manera el artículo pretende generar un vórtice de reflexión, una espiral en cuyo recorrido se manifiesten las tensiones parciales del cruce propuesto, sus fijezas momentáneas.

  7. Operational experience at Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramblett, G.C.; Fisher, C.R.; Swart, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain (FSV) station, a 330-MW(e) single reheat steam cycle powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is the first HTGR to enter commercial operation. Designed and built by General Atomic Company (GA), the plant is owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). Many unique design features have been incorporated into this reactor system, including high-pressure helium as the primary system coolant, a graphite-moderated prismatic block core design, fission-product-containing carbide coatings on both fissile and fertile fuel particles, steam-driven helium circulators turning on water bearings, and once-through steam generators. All of these systems are contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Extensive testing has been conducted during the rise to power following first criticality early in 1974 to verify system design performance. During this period, the plant has operated at power levels up to 70% and produced over one billion kilowatt hours of electricity. In 1979, the first refueling was conducted in conjunction with an extensive in-core inspection, the addition of in-core instrumentation, and a planned removal of a circulator for inspection. Later in the year, a scheduled shutdown was undertaken for surveillance tests, insertion of core region constraint devices (RCDs), and other maintenance. Fort St. Vrain has encountered problems of the type that would be expected in a first-of-a-kind system. The plant is currently restricted to 70% of design power by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pending resolution of the core region gas outlet temperature fluctuation problem. Even so, the basic performance of the HTGR concept and all of the unique design features have been successfully demonstrated. The system has been characterized by low personnel radiation exposures, operational flexibility, and long time afforded for status evaluation and response. (author)

  8. Orthodoxy and Islam. St. Cyril and St. Gregory Palamas in Dialogue with Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Makal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present the role of the Holy Fathers in the dialogue between the Orthodox and theMuslims. The first part of the article talks about the mission of St. Cyril in Baghdad Caliphate in historical perspective. Itdeals with his dialogue with Islam and presents an analysis of the arguments used by both sides. In the second part I talkabout the dialogue of St. Gregory Palamas with Muslims in the context of the mission of Cyril, comparing the argumentsof both fathers and their attitudes towards the dialogue with Islam. Finally, the theory of the “biblical roots of Europe” isaddressed, drawing on the example of the abovementioned Holy Fathers. In the article some excerpts from Palamas’worksare published in Polish for the first time.

  9. Bathymetry (2011) of the St. Thomas East End Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), St. Thomas in the...

  10. 77 FR 32391 - Building a 21st Century Digital Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... of May 23, 2012 Building a 21st Century Digital Government Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... century digital Government that delivers better digital services to the American people. Today, the CIO is releasing that strategy, entitled ``Digital Government: Building a 21st Century Platform to Better Serve the...

  11. The non-marine Mollusca of St. Martin (Lesser Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomans, H.E.

    1967-01-01

    After our studies about the marine mollusks of St. Martin, (COOMANS 1963a, 1963b), this publication will deal with the land and freshwater shells of the island. The non-marine mollusks of St. Martin were already fairly well known at the end of the last century (MAZÉ 1890, p. 22—34), who mentioned 36

  12. Orthophoto Mosaic (2012) of the St. Thomas East End Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 0.3x0.3 meter imagery mosaic of the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands was created by the National Oceanic and...

  13. Escherichia coli ST131, an Intriguing Clonal Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Xavier; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. PMID:24982321

  14. Smart Social Networking: 21st Century Teaching and Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boholano, Helen B.

    2017-01-01

    Education in the 21st century highlights globalization and internationalization. Pre-service teachers in the 21st century are technology savvy. To effectively engage and teach generation Z students, preservice teachers will help the educational system meet this requirement. The educational systems must be outfitted with a prerequisite of ICT…

  15. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  16. Aligning Business and Education: 21st Century Skill Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles L., Jr.; Kresyman, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore stakeholder perceptions concerning four key 21st century skills required for graduates to be successful in today's workplace, and to report on common themes surrounding how a post-secondary school in the Southwest United States is preparing graduates with predominant 21st Century skills: interpersonal…

  17. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An illustrated key to families and genera of the flora of the St Katherine Protectorate is provided to facilitate the identification of the unique flora of the area, based on five years of collecting mainly in the mountains and wadis surrounding the town of St Katherine. The key includes 43 families and 141 genera, the families ...

  18. 21st Century leadership skills for learning networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Floor; Evers, Arnoud; Geijsel, Femke; Vermeulen, Marjan

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal: to prepare pupils for a life in a society that requires 21st century skills and actions Immediate focus: teachers and principals develop 21st century skills in the practice of their work → together with researchers principals co-create tools to support teacher learning.

  19. Postcolonial Identity Politics, Language and the Schools in St. Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Hilaire, Aonghas

    2009-01-01

    In the postcolonial era, a cultural nationalist movement has sought to elevate the status of St. Lucia's creole vernacular, Kweyol, and with some success--it is now the most visible symbol of St. Lucian national identity. This relatively new development has altered somewhat the historic linguistic status quo between the official, high status…

  20. Dimensionering af stålrammebygninger mod kipning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchersen, E.; Frederiksen, J.O.; Skov, K.

    Rapporten beskriver en metode til dimensionering af stålrammebygninger mod kipning. Metoden er baseret dels på elasticitetsteoretiske overvejelser, dels på forsøg udført med 3-charniers stålrammmer i fuld skala....

  1. Kalkgraslandvegetaties van de St. Pietersberg ten zuiden van Maastricht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.H.; Blanckenborg, F.G.

    1975-01-01

    In this publication the authors describe the grassland communities rich in species especially those which occur on basic soils. The investigation was done in the Belgian part as well as in the Dutch part of St. Pietersberg situated south of the Dutch town of Maastricht. See map – fig. 1. St.

  2. ST2 IN REJECTION OF THE TRANSPLANTED HEART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the current literature devoted to the analysis of prognostic role of ST2 biomarker in rejection of the transplanted heart. ST2 is one of the most promising diagnostic markers of the development and severity of heart failure as well as the mortality risk in patients with cardiovascular diseases. ST2 is expressed in cardiomyocytes in response to a variety of pathological processes and mechanical damage to the heart, which allows diagnosing cardiovascular diseases before clinical manifestations. Presumably, measuring the level of ST2 in heart transplant may have diagnostic and prognostic value in the assessment of graft and risk of rejection. Currently, accumulated clinical data on the role of given biomarker in heart transplantation are not enough, and further research on the relation of ST2 levels with different clinical and laboratory parameters in heart recipients is necessary. 

  3. The First Outbreak Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii ST208 and ST195 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyan Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients and molecular mechanisms of the first outbreak mainly caused by sequence types (STs 208 multidrug resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii in China. A total of 10 clinical samples were collected from 5 patients who were involved in the outbreak. Bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed by the VITEK-2 COMPACT automated system. MICs of tigecycline for clinical isolates were determined using broth microdilution. The clonal relatedness of A. baumannii clinical isolates in our local settings was determinated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST. A total of 7 A. baumannii strains were isolated and all were MDR strains; two of them were carbapenem-nonsusceptible strains. blaOXA-23 was the only acquired carbapenemase gene in the isolates. The isolates belonged to a single clonal pulsotype determined by PFGE and two sequences types (STs determined by MLST. The isolates belonged to the globally disseminated clonal complex 92, among which ST195 and ST208 were the most common sequence types (71.43% and 28.57%. The outbreak was successfully controlled by stringent infection control measures, especially improving the hand hygiene compliance and enhancing antimicrobial stewardship. In conclusion, this is the first description of an outbreak caused mainly by A. baumannii of ST208 in China. Infection control measures should be strengthened when infection outbreaks in hospital.

  4. St. Louis Airport site environmental report for calendar year 1989, St. Louis, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, continued during 1989 at the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) in St. Louis County, Missouri. SLAPS and its vicinity properties, including ditches north and south of the site, were designated for cleanup as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive material remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. The monitoring program at SLAPS measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma dose rates; and uranium, thorium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. To assess the potential effect of SLAPS on public health, the potential radiation dose was estimated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) during calendar year 1989. 19 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Herbal Treatment in Menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Gun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The digest has been prepared to review available clinical evidence on herbs used in treatment of menopause symptoms. Effectiveness of Humulus lupulus, Vitex agnus-castus, Dioskorea vilosa, Linum usitatissimum, Pinus pinaster, cruciferous vegetables, Cimicifuga racemosa L., Angelica sinensis, Oenothera biennis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Panax ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine soja, Trifolium pratense and Piper methysticum herbs were assessed for treatment of menopausal symptoms in the studies. Herbs used as alternative supplementary treatment for menopause symptoms have been found to have a limited effect. Thus more studies are warranted to assess effectiveness of herbal treatments for menopausal symptoms. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 520-530

  6. [Interactions between herbal medicines and drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, L

    2000-07-01

    At present the use of medicaments of plant origin is on the increase. It is therefore necessary to take into consideration that there exist known as well as potential interactions between the medicament of the medicinal plant. The problematic plants include Echinacea, Allium cepa, Gingko biloba, Panax ginseng, as well as Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, or Glycyrrhiza glabra. Its use should be limited, or completely excluded in the cases of simultaneous therapy with, e.g., warfarin, hepatotoxically acting medicaments, MAOI inhibitors, phenelzin sulphate, or phenytoin, as they may decrease of completely eliminate the therapeutic effect of the administered drugs, or they may cause a toxic damage to the organism.

  7. Identification and characterization of two novel cytosolic sulfotransferases, SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8, from zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.-A. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Bhuiyan, Shakhawat [Division of Arts and Sciences, Jarvis Christian College, Hawkins, TX 75765 (United States); Snow, Rhodora [School of Mathematics and Science, J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College, Richmond, VA 23285 (United States); Yasuda, Shin; Yasuda, Tomoko [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Yang, Y.-S. [Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Williams, Frederick E.; Liu, M.-Y.; Suiko, Masahito [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Carter, Glendora [School of Mathematics and Science, J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College, Richmond, VA 23285 (United States); Liu, M.-C. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)], E-mail: ming.liu@utoledo.edu

    2008-08-29

    Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) constitute a family of Phase II detoxification enzymes that are involved in the protection against potentially harmful xenobiotics as well as the regulation and homeostasis of endogenous compounds. Compared with humans and rodents, the zebrafish serves as an excellent model for studying the role of SULTs in the detoxification of environmental pollutants including environmental estrogens. By searching the expressed sequence tag database, two zebrafish cDNAs encoding putative SULTs were identified. Sequence analysis indicated that these two putative zebrafish SULTs belong to the SULT1 gene family. The recombinant form of these two novel zebrafish SULTs, designated SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8, were expressed using the pGEX-2TK glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene fusion system and purified from transformed BL21 (DE3) cells. Purified GST-fusion protein form of SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8 exhibited strong sulfating activities toward environmental estrogens, particularly hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), among various endogenous and xenobiotic compounds tested as substrates. pH-dependence experiments showed that SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8 displayed pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0, respectively. Kinetic parameters of the two enzymes in catalyzing the sulfation of catechin and chlorogenic acid as well as 3-chloro-4-biphenylol were determined. Developmental expression experiments revealed distinct patterns of expression of SULT1 ST7 and SULT1 ST8 during embryonic development and throughout the larval stage onto maturity.

  8. Virulence of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 in animal models of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Ramachandran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST 313 produces septicemia in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are known genetic and phenotypic differences between ST313 strains and gastroenteritis-associated ST19 strains, conflicting data about the in vivo virulence of ST313 strains have been reported. To resolve these differences, we tested clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and ST19 strains in murine and rhesus macaque infection models. The 50% lethal dose (LD50 was determined for three Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains in mice. For dissemination studies, bacterial burden in organs was determined at various time-points post-challenge. Indian rhesus macaques were infected with one ST19 and one ST313 strain. Animals were monitored for clinical signs and bacterial burden and pathology were determined. The LD50 values for ST19 and ST313 infected mice were not significantly different. However, ST313-infected BALB/c mice had significantly higher bacterial numbers in blood at 24 h than ST19-infected mice. ST19-infected rhesus macaques exhibited moderate-to-severe diarrhea while ST313-infected monkeys showed no-to-mild diarrhea. ST19-infected monkeys had higher bacterial burden and increased inflammation in tissues. Our data suggest that Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 invasiveness may be investigated using mice. The non-human primate results are consistent with clinical data, suggesting that ST313 strains do not cause diarrhea.

  9. Virulence of invasive Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 in animal models of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Girish; Panda, Aruna; Higginson, Ellen E; Ateh, Eugene; Lipsky, Michael M; Sen, Sunil; Matson, Courtney A; Permala-Booth, Jasnehta; DeTolla, Louis J; Tennant, Sharon M

    2017-08-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 produces septicemia in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are known genetic and phenotypic differences between ST313 strains and gastroenteritis-associated ST19 strains, conflicting data about the in vivo virulence of ST313 strains have been reported. To resolve these differences, we tested clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and ST19 strains in murine and rhesus macaque infection models. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was determined for three Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains in mice. For dissemination studies, bacterial burden in organs was determined at various time-points post-challenge. Indian rhesus macaques were infected with one ST19 and one ST313 strain. Animals were monitored for clinical signs and bacterial burden and pathology were determined. The LD50 values for ST19 and ST313 infected mice were not significantly different. However, ST313-infected BALB/c mice had significantly higher bacterial numbers in blood at 24 h than ST19-infected mice. ST19-infected rhesus macaques exhibited moderate-to-severe diarrhea while ST313-infected monkeys showed no-to-mild diarrhea. ST19-infected monkeys had higher bacterial burden and increased inflammation in tissues. Our data suggest that Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 invasiveness may be investigated using mice. The non-human primate results are consistent with clinical data, suggesting that ST313 strains do not cause diarrhea.

  10. Levels of some microelements and essential heavy metals in herbal teas in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaljev, Zeljko; Zivkov-Balos, Milica; Cupić, Zeljko; Jaksić, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Levels of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, Ni, Se, Sn and Al were determined in 14 medicinal plants from Serbia, which are widely used in phytopharmacy as herbal teas. The following plants were investigated: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), basil (Ocimum hasilicum L.), St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.), field horsetail (Equisetum arvense L.), stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.), thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.), maize silk (Zea mays L. - Maydis stigma), hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.), chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), rosehip/dog rose (Rosa canina L.), winter savory (Satureja montana L.) and spearmint (Mentha spicata L.). A total of 16 samples of different parts of medicinal plants (root, leaf, flower, herba) were examined, whereby 13 samples were delivered in original package and three samples were loose leaf herbs. Samples were prepared using the microwave digestion technique, and measurements were performed applying the atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Contents of microelements in the examined samples were in the range: Mn (23.86 - 453.71 mg/kg); Fe (61.87 - 673.0 mg/kg); Cu (6.68 - 24.46 mg/kg); Zn (16.11 - 113.81 mg/kg); Mo (0.576 - 4.265 mg/kg); Co (0.039 - 0.532 mg/kg); Se (0.036 - 0.146 mg/kg); Ni (0.738 - 6.034 mg/kg); Al (154.0 - 3015.0 mg/kg) and Sn (2.68 - 10.22 mg/kg). According to determined amounts of microelements, the investigated samples of herbal teas are considered safe for human consumption.

  11. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome; Panossian, Alexander; Schweitzer, Isaac; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic herbal medicines. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain mechanisms of action of these botanicals, in addition to a systematic review of controlled clinical trials for treatment of mood, anxiety and sleep disorders, which are common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Specific emphasis was given to emerging phytomedicines. Analysis of evidence levels was conducted, as were effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available. Results provided evidence of a range of neurochemical, endocrinological, and epigenetic effects for 21 individual phytomedicines, which are detailed in this paper. Sixty six controlled studies were located involving eleven phytomedicines. Several of these provide a high level of evidence, such as Hypericum perforatum for major depression, and Piper methysticum for anxiety disorders. Several human clinical trials provide preliminary positive evidence of antidepressant effects (Echium amoenum, Crocus sativus, and Rhodiola rosea) and anxiolytic activity (Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Passiflora incanata, E. amoenum, and Scutellaria lateriflora). Caution should however be taken when interpreting the results as many studies have not been replicated. Several herbal medicines with in vitro and in vivo evidence are currently unexplored in human studies, and along with use of emerging genetic technologies "herbomics", are areas of potential future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  13. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Weronika; Wagner, Charles; Moore, Erin M; Matkowski, Adam; Komarnytsky, Slavko

    2018-01-01

    Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort ( Hypericum perforatum L.), wormwood ( Artemisia absinthium L.), garlic ( Allium sativum L.), gentian ( Gentiana lutea L.), lovage ( Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch), and lesser periwinkle ( Vinca minor L.). While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose ( Viburnum opulus L.) and yarrow ( Achillea millefolium L.), Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica ( Angelica archangelica L.) and carline thistle ( Carlina acaulis L.). The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  14. HPLC-UV Analysis Coupled with Chemometry to Identify Phenolic Biomarkers from Medicinal Plants, used as Ingredients in Two Food Supplement Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Maria Pop

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available . High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection is nowadays the reference method to identify and quantify the biomarkers of quality and authenticity of plants and food supplements. Seven medicinal plants were collected from wild flora: Taraxacum officinalis (1, Cynara scolimus (2, Silybum marianum (3, Hypericum perforatum (4,  Chelidonium majus (5, Lycopodium clavatum (6 and  Hippophae rhamnoides (7  leaves and fruits.  Two products (A and B were obtained by mixing individual plant powders. Therefore product A was obtained by mixing dandelion, artichoke and milk thistle, 1:1:1 while product B by mixing St John’s wort, Celandine and Wolf’s claw, 1:1:1. The methanolic extracts of individual plants as well as three different extracts of products A and B (using acidulated water, neutral water and acidulated methanol were analyzed using HPLC-UV for their phenolics’ fingerprint and composition. The qualitative (untargeted analysis and quantitative (targeted analysis results were further compared using Principal Component Analysis (PCA in order to identify their specific biomarkers. Thus, quantitative evaluation of individual phenolics in case of individual plants and products A and B extracts, showed specific and significant differences of composition. Both products A and B contained elagic acid as major compound. For product A, good biomarkers were trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, as well silymarin and silibine originating from milk thistle. For product B, good biomarkers were quercetin and kaempherol, gallic and protocatecuic acids, this product being rich in flavonoids. In conclusion, HPLC-UV coupled with PCA analysis proved to be a rapid and useful way to identify the main biomarkers of plants’ authentication, as well of final products’ quality and safety.

  15. Botanical Provenance of Traditional Medicines From Carpathian Mountains at the Ukrainian-Polish Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Kozlowska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants were an essential part of foraging for food and health, and for centuries remained the only medicines available to people from the remote mountain regions. Their correct botanical provenance is an essential basis for understanding the ethnic cultures, as well as for chemical identification of the novel bioactive molecules with therapeutic effects. This work describes the use of herbal medicines in the Beskid mountain ranges located south of Krakow and Lviv, two influential medieval centers of apothecary tradition in the region. Local botanical remedies shared by Boyko, Lemko, and Gorale ethnic groups were a part of the medieval European system of medicine, used according to their Dioscoridean and Galenic qualities. Within the context of ethnic plant medicine and botanical classification, this review identified strong preferences for local use of St John's-wort (Hypericum perforatum L., wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L., garlic (Allium sativum L., gentian (Gentiana lutea L., lovage (Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, and lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor L.. While Ukrainian ethnic groups favored the use of guilder-rose (Viburnum opulus L. and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., Polish inhabitants especially valued angelica (Angelica archangelica L. and carline thistle (Carlina acaulis L.. The region also holds a strong potential for collection, cultivation, and manufacture of medicinal plants and plant-based natural specialty ingredients for the food, health and cosmetic industries, in part due to high degree of biodiversity and ecological preservation. Many of these products, including whole food nutritional supplements, will soon complement conventional medicines in prevention and treatment of diseases, while adding value to agriculture and local economies.

  16. Interaction of Plant Extracts with Central Nervous System Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various maladies including neurological diseases. Several central nervous system receptors have been demonstrated to interact with plant extracts and components affecting the pharmacology and thereby potentially playing a role in human disease and treatment. For instance, extracts from Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort targeted several CNS receptors. Similarly, extracts from Piper nigrum, Stephania cambodica, and Styphnolobium japonicum exerted inhibition of agonist-induced activity of the human neurokinin-1 receptor. Methods: Different methods have been established for receptor binding and functional assays based on radioactive and fluorescence-labeled ligands in cell lines and primary cell cultures. Behavioral studies of the effect of plant extracts have been conducted in rodents. Plant extracts have further been subjected to mood and cognition studies in humans. Results: Mechanisms of action at molecular and cellular levels have been elucidated for medicinal plants in support of standardization of herbal products and identification of active extract compounds. In several studies, plant extracts demonstrated affinity to a number of CNS receptors in parallel indicating the complexity of this interaction. In vivo studies showed modifications of CNS receptor affinity and behavioral responses in animal models after treatment with medicinal herbs. Certain plant extracts demonstrated neuroprotection and enhanced cognitive performance, respectively, when evaluated in humans. Noteworthy, the penetration of plant extracts and their protective effect on the blood-brain-barrier are discussed. Conclusion: The affinity of plant extracts and their isolated compounds for CNS receptors indicates an important role for medicinal plants in the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, studies in animal and human models have confirmed a scientific basis for the

  17. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental issues in the 21st century D.B. Chambers SENES Consultants Limited, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada Abstract. This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards -- environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others -- will be

  18. Leadership for a healthy 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Every economic institution finds itself caught on the horns of a dilemma: Competing sets of values strike a conflict between social good and economic wealth, regardless of whether organizations articulate it. The struggle in U.S. health care, however, is both more acute and poignant. On the one hand, ethical and cultural values require societal commitments to the well-being of the individual. Who among us would want to refuse help to someone sick or injured? On the other hand, market forces require an economic accounting of health care. Social trends emphasize a mission to provide care for all, while managed care promotes the industry's fidelity to a balanced ledger. U.S. health care is thus defined by paradox. The nation spends more than $1.3 trillion annually on health care--a national line-item larger than the economies of all other nations except two (Germany and Japan). A new study by the Health Care Financing Administration warns that health care spending may nearly double to $2.1 trillion by 2007. Yet the industry is perceived to be too "resource-constrained" to assure health care services for all citizens. This poses a key question: Are there too few resources, or are we simply not allocating them in the best ways possible? Health care's "double bottom line"--social and economic accountability--typifies the social and economic milieu of health care as the final pages turn on the 20th Century. And, it is this duality that forms the underlying theme for the landmark study--Leadership for a Healthy 21st Century--conducted over the course of the past year by Arthur Andersen and The Healthcare Forum Foundation, with primary research support from DYG, Inc. and Baruch Lev, professor at the Stern School of Business, New York University. The study was designed to investigate a new economic model emerging in the information economy and its impact on health care; the evolving values of consumers in relation to business, health and health care; and the values of

  19. 77 FR 19970 - Security Zones; 2012 Republican National Convention, Captain of the Port St. Petersburg Zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Marine Science Technician First Class Nolan L. Ammons, Sector St. Petersburg Prevention Department, Coast... Science Technician First Class Nolan L. Ammons, Sector St. Petersburg Prevention Department, Coast Guard...

  20. Different properties of polysialic acids synthesized by the polysialyltransferases ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Airi; Hane, Masaya; Niimi, Yuki; Kitajima, Ken; Sato, Chihiro

    2017-09-01

    Polysialic acid (polySia) is mainly found as a modification of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in whole embryonic brains, as well as restricted areas of adult vertebrate brains, including the hippocampus. PolySia shows not only repulsive effects on NCAM-involved cell-cell interactions due to its bulky and hydrated properties, but also attractive effects on the interaction with neurologically active molecules, which exerts a reservoir function. Two different polysialyltransferases, ST8SIA2 and ST8SIA4, are involved in the synthesis of polySia chains; however, to date, the differences of the properties between polySia chains synthesized by these two enzymes remain unknown. In this study, to clarify this point, we first prepared polySia-NCAMs from HEK293 cells stably expressing ST8SIA4 and ST8SIA2, or ST8SIA2 (SNP-7), a mutant ST8SIA2 derived from a schizophrenia patient. The conventional sensitive chemical and immunological characterizations showed that the quantity and quality (structural features) of polySia are not so much different between ST8SIA4- and ST8SIA2-synthesized ones, apart from those of ST8SIA2 (SNP-7). Then, we assessed the homophilic and heterophilic interactions mediated by polySia-NCAM by adopting a surface plasmon resonance measurement as an in vitro analytical method. Our novel findings are as follows: (i) the ST8SIA2- and ST8SIA4-synthesized polySia-NCAMs exhibited different attractive and repulsive effects than each other; (ii) both polySia- and oligoSia-NCAMs synthesized by ST8SIA2 were able to bind polySia-NCAMs; (iii) the polySia-NCAM synthesized by a ST8SIA2 (SNP-7) showed markedly altered attractive and repulsive properties. Collectively, polySia-NCAM is suggested to simultaneously possess both attractive and repulsive properties that are highly regulated by the two polysialyltransferases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. ST-HM not only cranes

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, C

    2002-01-01

    This period of LEP dismantling and LHC installation is a real challenge for the ST-HM group. The group is now following several projects to cope with the diversity of requests. Although crane design and procurement still constitutes the majority of the workload, more and more of our time is nowadays dedicated to providing alternative handling solutions. In 2001/2002, our main studies concern cranes for LHC, industrial and shielded motorised doors, the upgrade/replacement of 32 lifts and mobile cranes. The years 2002/2003 will concern mainly the study of LHC handling systems such as trailers and heavy-duty tractors, specifically tailored containers and tools. In parallel, the monorail will be extended in the injection tunnel and CNGS tunnels and a new monorail system for TOF will be installed. Since the tunnel monorail infrastructure will be used for power feed and guidance purposes only, this requires that other transport systems be studied, such as forklift trucks, industrial and telescopic hoists.

  2. Science for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The Federal government plays a key role in supporting the country's science infrastructure, a national treasure, and scientific research, an investment in our future. Scientific discoveries transform the way we think about our universe and ourselves, from the vastness of space to molecular-level biology. In innovations such as drugs derived through biotechnology and new communications technologies we see constant evidence of the power of science to improve lives and address national challenges. We had not yet learned to fly at the dawn of the 20th century, and could not have imagined the amazing 20th century inventions that we now take for granted. As we move into the 21st century, we eagerly anticipate new insights, discoveries, and technologies that will inspire and enrich us for many decades to come. This report presents the critical responsibilities of our Federal science enterprise and the actions taken by the Federal research agencies, through the National Science and Technology Council, to align our programs with scientific opportunity and with national needs. The many examples show how our science enterprise has responded to the President's priorities for homeland and national security, economic growth, health research, and the environment. In addition, we show how the science agencies work together to set priorities; coordinate related research programs; leverage investments to promote discovery, translate science into national benefits, and sustain the national research enterprise; and promote excellence in math and science education and work force development.

  3. Aluminum limiter experiment in ST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meservey, E.B.; Bretz, N.; Dimock, D.L.; Hinnov, E.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of a light-element limiter on plasma parameters, aluminum rail limiters interchangeable with Mo rails were installed top, bottom, and outside directions in the ST tokamak. The inside limiter remained a fixed Mo rail. Compared with discharges produced immediately before and after with the usual Mo limiters, the ''aluminum'' discharges showed an increase of T/sub e/ (by factors of 1.4-2 near the center) and of energy confinement (by factors of 2 to 3 in el. energy/power input, depending on time of observation). H 2 and He discharges showed practically identical effects. In plasma composition, the Mo concentration dropped significantly, but Fe only slightly if at all; the Al concentration was about 3-5 percent (i.e., large compared to the heavier metals), whereas oxygen, about 4 to 8 percent to start with, dropped to insignificance, probably as a result of Al evaporation. The z/sub eff/ from resistivity increased 20-30 percent although the resistance dropped because of the higher T/sub e/. The improved T/sub e/ and energy confinement are thought to be the result of cumulative effects of more favorable radial current and power input distributions rather than direct energy losses by radiation

  4. Operational experience at Fort St. Vrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramblett, G. C.; Fisher, C. R.; Swart, F. E. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1981-01-15

    The Fort St. Vrain (FSV) station, a 330-MW(e) single reheat steam cycle powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), is the first HTGR to enter commercial operation. Designed and built by General Atomic Company (GA), the plant is owned and operated by Public Service Company of Colorado (PSC). Many unique design features have been incorporated into this reactor system, including high-pressure helium as the primary system coolant, a graphite-moderated prismatic block core design, fission-product-containing carbide coatings on both fissile and fertile fuel particles, steam-driven helium circulators turning on water bearings, and once-through steam generators. All of these systems are contained in a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). Extensive testing has been conducted during the rise to power following first criticality early in 1974 to verify system design performance. During this period, the plant has operated at power levels up to 70% and produced over one billion kilowatt hours of electricity. In 1979, the first refueling was conducted in conjunction with an extensive in-core inspection, the addition of in-core instrumentation, and a planned removal of a circulator for inspection.

  5. Ionizing radiation in 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Zbigniew

    2005-01-01

    The paper begins with the author's personal experience in Poland on the occasion of Chernobyl nuclear accident followed by main lessons that the author could deduce from the accident. After the discovery of ionizing radiation at the end of 19th century, social perception has altered between acceptance and rejection stemming from recognition of the basic aspects: usefulness for medical applications and for technical and scientific aims, beneficial effects of their low levels, and harmful effects of high levels. The author explains how linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption according to which even the lowest, near zero doses of radiation may cause cancer genetic harm has become established. Comparing the natural radioactivity of the earth's crust with the activity of much shorter-lived radioactive wastes from the nuclear power cycle, it is concluded that none of the man-made component of the radioactive wastes has higher-toxicity than the natural Th 232. The paper concludes by stating that one century has not been long enough to adapt mentally to ionizing radiation and radioactivity and perhaps 21st century will suffice for this adaptation. (S. Ohno)

  6. Challenges in 21st Century Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    We are truly fortunate to live in one of the great epochs of human discovery, a time when science is providing new visions and understanding about ourselves and the world in which we live. At last, we are beginning to explore the Universe itself. One particularly exciting area of advancement is high-energy physics where several existing concepts will be put to the test. A brief survey will be given of accomplishments in 20th Century physics. These include relativity and quantum physics which have produced breakthroughs in cosmology, astrophysics, and high-energy particle physics. The current situation is then assessed, combining the last 100 years of progress with new 21st Century challenges about unification and where to go next. Finally, the future is upon us. The next frontier in experimental high-energy physics, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva, is scheduled to begin coming online this year (2007). The potential for the LHC to address several of the significant problems in physics today will be discussed, as this great accelerator examines the predictions of the Standard Model of particle physics and even cosmology. New physics and new science will surely emerge and a better vision of the world will unfold.

  7. Departure into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.

    1998-01-01

    At its 51st annual meeting, the Association of Industrial Power Companies (VIK) commented upon the items relating to energy and to the environment contained in the coalition agreement of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and Alliance 90/The Greens, expressing the point of view of industry and trade. In the opinion of the VIK the plans to opt out of nuclear power have not been fully thought out as far as repercussions on the labor market and on energy policy are concerned. Nuclear power must not be given up at the expense of industry engaged in international competition and the jobs provided by industry. Opting out of nuclear power quickly and without indemnification is unacceptable. The VIK regards the labor market effects of any measure planned as the yardstick to be applied to the coalition agreement. Any decision about energy policy must be seen in connection with the deregulation of the electricity and gas markets. The VIK also holds a critical view of the coalition's intention to amend the Power Economy Act adopted only recently. (orig.) [de

  8. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Markwald, R; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R

    2009-01-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry. (topical review)

  9. Biofabrication: a 21st century manufacturing paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, V; Trusk, T; Kasyanov, V; Little, S; Swaja, R; Markwald, R

    2009-06-01

    Biofabrication can be defined as the production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw materials such as living cells, molecules, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials. Cell and developmental biology, biomaterials science, and mechanical engineering are the main disciplines contributing to the emergence of biofabrication technology. The industrial potential of biofabrication technology is far beyond the traditional medically oriented tissue engineering and organ printing and, in the short term, it is essential for developing potentially highly predictive human cell- and tissue-based technologies for drug discovery, drug toxicity, environmental toxicology assays, and complex in vitro models of human development and diseases. In the long term, biofabrication can also contribute to the development of novel biotechnologies for sustainable energy production in the future biofuel industry and dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing 'animal-free' food, leather, and fur products. Thus, the broad spectrum of potential applications and rapidly growing arsenal of biofabrication methods strongly suggests that biofabrication can become a dominant technological platform and new paradigm for 21st century manufacturing. The main objectives of this review are defining biofabrication, outlining the most essential disciplines critical for emergence of this field, analysis of the evolving arsenal of biofabrication technologies and their potential practical applications, as well as a discussion of the common challenges being faced by biofabrication technologies, and the necessary conditions for the development of a global biofabrication research community and commercially successful biofabrication industry.

  10. Vaccines for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, Isabel; Rappuoli, Rino; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    In the last century, vaccination has been the most effective medical intervention to reduce death and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. It is believed that vaccines save at least 2–3 million lives per year worldwide. Smallpox has been eradicated and polio has almost disappeared worldwide through global vaccine campaigns. Most of the viral and bacterial infections that traditionally affected children have been drastically reduced thanks to national immunization programs in developed countries. However, many diseases are not yet preventable by vaccination, and vaccines have not been fully exploited for target populations such as elderly and pregnant women. This review focuses on the state of the art of recent clinical trials of vaccines for major unmet medical needs such as HIV, malaria, TB, and cancer. In addition, we describe the innovative technologies currently used in vaccine research and development including adjuvants, vectors, nucleic acid vaccines, and structure-based antigen design. The hope is that thanks to these technologies, more diseases will be addressed in the 21st century by novel preventative and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:24803000

  11. Fort St. Vrain hot functional test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.D.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of Fort St. Vrain hot functional tests performed to evaluate the initial nonnuclear performance of the primary coolant system and the associated effects on the various internal components of the reactor vessel and primary coolant system. The components included the twelve steam generator modules, the four helium circulators, the PCRV thermal barrier and liner coolant system, the helium purification system, and the primary and secondary closures at each of the PCRV penetrations. Additional objectives included analysis of the parallel operation of the four helium circulators and the performance of several circulator start/stop transients under various conditions of primary coolant temperature and pressure. Vibration and acoustical phenomena within the vessel were measured, recorded, and compared to theoretical analyses; a verification of reverse flow in the shutdown loop steam generator during one loop operation was performed; the PCRV was again observed for its structural response to internal pressure; and comparisons were made relative to data recorded during the initial pressure test completed in July 1971. (U.S.)

  12. Engineering toxins for 21st century therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

    2011-04-01

    'Engineering Toxins for 21st Century Therapies' (9-10 September 2010) was part of the Royal Society International Seminar series held at the Kavli International Centre, UK. Participants were assembled from a range of disciplines (academic, industry, regulatory, public health) to discuss the future potential of toxin-based therapies. The meeting explored how the current structural and mechanistic knowledge of toxins could be used to engineer future toxin-based therapies. To date, significant progress has been made in the design of novel recombinant biologics based on domains of natural toxins, engineered to exhibit advantageous properties. The meeting concluded, firstly that future product development vitally required the appropriate combination of creativity and innovation that can come from the academic, biotechnology and pharma sectors. Second, that continued investigation into understanding the basic science of the toxins and their targets was essential in order to develop new opportunities for the existing products and to create new products with enhanced properties. Finally, it was concluded that the clinical potential for development of novel biologics based on toxin domains was evident. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  13. MHD simulation of relaxation to a flipped ST configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagei, Y [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Himeji Institute of Technology, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Nagata, M [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Himeji Institute of Technology, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Suzuki, Y [Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taito-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Y [Naka Fusion Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Naka-machi, Ibaraki (Japan); Hayashi, T [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Uyama, T [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Himeji Institute of Technology, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    The dynamics of spherical torus (ST) plasmas, when the external toroidal magnetic field is decreased to zero and then increased in the opposite direction, has been investigated using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations. It has been found that the flipped ST configuration is self-organized after the ST configuration collapses because of the growth of the n = 1 mode in the open flux region and a following magnetic reconnection event. During the transition between these configurations, not only the paramagnetic toroidal field but also the poloidal field reverses polarity spontaneously. (letter to the editor)

  14. Plutonium-induced osteosarcomas in the St. Bernard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Thurman, G.B.; Mays, C.W.; Shabestari, L.; Angus, W.; Atherton, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen osteosarcomas were observed among the eight St. Bernards that died following the injection of 239 Pu. Early data tentatively indicate that the St. Bernard is about 5 times more sensitive than the beagle and about 130 times more sensitive than the average person is estimated to be to 239 Pu-induced bone sarcomas. Thus the St. Bernard may be an excellent model in which to study the pathogenesis of bone cancer induction, to evaluate the relationship between spontaneous susceptibility and radiosensitivity, and to determine whether radiosensitivity significantly affects the toxicity ration of 239 Pu/ 226 Ra

  15. Plutonium-induced osteosarcomas in the St. Bernard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Thurman, G.B.; Mays, C.W.; Shabestari, L.; Angus, W.; Eaton, J.; Hitchman, J.

    1978-01-01

    Thirteen osteosarcomas have been observed among the 7 St. Bernards that have died following the injection of 239 Pu. Preliminary data indicate that the St. Bernard is about 6 times more sensitive than the Beagle, and about 150 times more sensitive than the average person is to 239 Pu-induced bone sarcomas. Thus, the St. Bernard may be an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of bone cancer induction, to evaluate the relationship between spontaneous susceptibility and radiosensitivity, and to determine whether or not radiosensitivity significantly affects the toxicity ratio

  16. ST Elevation in AVR: When Time May Not Mean Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-31

    REPORT TYPE 1013112017 Presentation 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ST Elevation in AVR: When Thne May Not Mean !Vfu&cle 6. AUTHOR{S) Capt \\Villiam T...ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of ST -Elevation Myocardial Infarction A Report of the Arnerican College of C ardiology Foundation/ Ameri can...C7Q n ([) G) ro )::>t w :J r+ c.. < -· ro ti) ti) ro ti) OJ m ti) -ro n Take home points •Don’t ignore ST elevation in aVR •Look closely

  17. Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hinzey, Shawn Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Proicou, Michael Chris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borges, Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-03

    ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams' experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.

  18. Constructive singularities and energy efficiency of St. Petersburg historic circuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysoeva, Elena; Trushina, Ekaterina

    2017-10-01

    The article is devoted to the design and construction of St. Petersburg circuses during the period since 1822 till nowadays. The article presents the characteristics of all eight historic buildings of St. Petersburg and their structural and architectural features. The article raises some issues of energy-optimal shape of a building on the example of St. Petersburg modern circus building. There are several historical drawings and photographs of the circus buildings. The article includes overview of normative regulation of circus buildings in Russia since the middle of the twentieth century and prospects for the future.

  19. Inferior ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Associated with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Koeth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM is usually characterized by transient left ventricular apical ballooning. Due to the clinical symptoms which include chest pain, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated myocardial markers, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is frequently mimicking ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the absence of a significant coronary artery disease. Otherwise an acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery can produce a typical Takotsubo contraction pattern. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is frequently associated with emotional stress, but to date no cases of STEMI triggering TCM have been reported. We describe a case of a female patient with inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated by TCM.

  20. St. Vicent Ferrer’s Catalán sermon on St. Martin of Tours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreiro, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most widely venerated saints in the Middle Ages was St. Martin of Tours whose cult continues to this day in many parts of the world. In the Middle Ages, he became as popular as other major saints such as Thomas Becket, Santiago de Compostela and the Virgin Mary. St. Martin’s cult became very prominent in the Iberian Peninsula before and after the emergence of the cult of Santiago de Compostela. In St. Vicent Ferrer’s voluminous sermons this one in Catalán is dedicated to this most venerated Gallic saint. The most important late antique and early medieval sources that form the background of this sermon are by Sulpicius Severus- the Gallus and Vita Sancti Martini. In the high Middle Ages, however, his cult was popularized through the Legenda Aurea written by the Dominican Jacobus of Voragine, who synthesized Sulpicius’ two works on St. Martin. Moreover, St. Vicent preached not to make any major doctrinal breakthroughs- his main interest was to evangelize, not to write academic theology- he nevertheless exhibited great creativity. The object of this study is St. Vicent’s Catalán sermon Alius Sermo Sancti Martini, CXXXIV.Uno de los santos más venerados en la edad media fue San Martín de Tours, cuyo culto continúa hasta hoy en muchas partes del mundo. En la edad media, se hizo tan popular como otros grandes Santos: Thomas Becket, Santiago de Compostela y la Virgen María. El culto de San Martín se hizo prominente en la Península Ibérica antes y después de la aparición del culto a Santiago de Compostela. En los sermones voluminosos de San Vicente Ferrer esta uno en Catalán que está dedicado a este santo tan venerado de Galia. Las fuentes más importantes procedentes de la antigu.edad tardía y principios medievales que forma el fondo de este sermón son Gallus y la Vita Sancti Martini de Sulpicio Severo. Sin embargo, en la alta edad media, su culto se popularizó a través de la Legenda Aurea escrita por el dominico

  1. ST Elevation in aVR with Coexistent Multilead ST Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cooper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: An 80-year-old female with a history of Crohn’s disease presented to the emergency department with chest pain. She had two weeks of exertional chest pain that preceded an episode of chest pain immediately prior to arrival associated with diaphoresis. Her pain nearly completely resolved with sublingual nitroglycerin provided by pre-hospital personnel. She was hemodynamically stable with normal vital signs on arrival. An ECG was immediately obtained. Significant findings: The ECG shows ST-segment depressions in precordial leads V3 through V6, and limb leads I, II, and aVL, and 1 mm of ST-segment elevation in aVR. The initial troponin I was elevated at 1.37 ng/mL (upper limit of normal 0.40. Cardiology decided to delay catheterization until the next day when diffuse coronary disease was discovered (including 90% of the left circumflex stenosis, 60% proximal and 75% mid-left anterior descending stenosis, 75% third diagonal branch stenosis, and 90% posterior descending artery stenosis. The following day, the patient went to the operating room for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Discussion: Traditionally, lead aVR has not received attention when interpreting acutely ischemic changes on ECG, leading some to refer to it as “the forgotten lead.”1 Current guidelines acknowledge the significance of multilead ST depression with coexistent ST elevation in aVR, and this pattern has been identified as the strongest predictor of severe left main coronary artery and/or 3-vessel disease (LM/3VD.2-3 When this ECG pattern is recognized in patients with ischemic symptoms, the emergency physician should involve cardiology early. When managing patients with suspected LM/3VD, it is important to withhold dual anti-platelet therapy as CABG is likely to be indicated,1,3 and guidelines recommend discontinuing P2Y12 inhibitors like clopidogrel or ticagrelor at least 24 hours prior to urgent CABG.2

  2. The structural features of the sulfated heteropolysaccharide (ST-1) from Sargassum thunbergii and its neuroprotective activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weihua; Liu, Bing; Li, Shuai; Chen, Jing; Tang, Hong; Jiang, Di; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhong, Weihong

    2018-03-01

    Polysaccharide (ST) was prepared from Sargassum thunbergii using hot water. Two fractions (ST-1 and ST-2) were prepared using anion exchange chromatography. One desulfated polysaccharide (ST-1-DS) was also prepared. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) performed on ST-1-DS showed that the desulfated polysaccharides contained methyl glycosides of mono-sulfated and di-sulfated galacto-fucooligosaccharides. This result suggested that ST-1 might contain sulfated galactofucan, which consists of a backbone of alternating (Gal) n and (Fuc) n and sulfated randomly on Gal and mainly on C-2 in Fuc. In addition, ST-1 was degraded in 1M sulfuric acid. The solution was centrifuged, and the supernatant was concentrated and precipitated in ethanol to obtain the precipitate (ST-1-P). ST-1-P was then separated using gel chromatography and anion exchange chromatography to obtain the oligomers. ESI-MS spectra of oligomers indicated that ST-1 mostly contained sulfated glucuronomannan and fucoglucuronan. ESI-MS with collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-CID-MS/MS) suggested that glucuronomannan contained alternating 2-linked Man and 4-linked GlcA, while fucoglucuronan contained 4-linked glucuronan with branched Fuc at C-3. Finally, the neuroprotective activities of ST, ST-1, ST-2 and MIX (a mixture of ST-1 and ST-2) were determined. ST showed the most neuroprotective activity, which indicated that ST might be a good candidate for curing neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  4. Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues EHR Electronic Health Records Place 1st at Indy 500 Past ... last May's Indy 500 had thousands of personal Electronic Health Records on hand for those attending—and ...

  5. St. John Shallow-water Ground Validation Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The...

  6. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, FY08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann

    2008-01-28

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2007 - December 2007) of Fiscal Year 2008.

  7. Seismic Stability of St. Stephen Hydropower Plant, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebeling, Robert M; Hall, Robert L; Strom, Ralph W; Yule, Donald E; Chowdhury, Mostafiz

    2006-01-01

    .... Two site-specific design response spectra were used to evaluate the structure. These included a 2,475-year probabilistic earthquake event and a deterministic Maximum Credible Earthquake plus one standard deviation event. The St...

  8. Integration of the "Americas" in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guimaraes, Milton

    2001-01-01

    Through a program of comprehensive research and detailed analysis, the paper presents current and proposed steps for the Integration of the Americas in the 21st Century within the time frame agreed...

  9. St. Louis River water quality assessment 2012, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — St. Louis River Area of Concern surface water nutrient (TP, TN, NOx-N, NH4-N), dissolved oxygen, and particulate (TSS, chlorophyll a) concentration data from 2012...

  10. St. Louis River Estuary 2011 - 2013 Faucet snail location data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of GPS coordinates for benthic invertebrate collections made in the St. Louis River Estuary in 2011 through 2013, and information on whether and...

  11. Refresher Course in Theoretical Physics at St. Stephen's College ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 5. Refresher Course in Theoretical Physics at St. Stephen's College University of Delhi, Delhi. Information and Announcements Volume 7 Issue 5 May 2002 pp 103-103 ...

  12. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-09-27

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements.

  13. Caribbean ST Thomas all gears Logbook Survey (Vessels)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by vessels fishing in St. Thomas. The catch and effort data for the entire trip are...

  14. St. Croix: Shore-based Fishing Access Points (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two local experts delineated access points for shore-based fishing along the shoreline of St. Croix, USVI. The points were documented at different times, and then...

  15. State Waste Discharge Permit ST-4502 Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, M.J.; LECLAIR, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    Plan has been developed to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements set forth in Permit ST-3502 and as a line management tool for use in maintaining configuration control of permit as well as documentation used to implement permit requirements

  16. Hydrogen applications for Lambert-St. Louis International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Today, major airports are facing challenges related to pollution, energy efficiency, and safety and security. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, regarded as one of the key energy solutions of the 21st century are more energy efficient and reliable ...

  17. EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report: 1st Quarter, Fiscal Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showalter, Mary Ann; Kathmann, Loel E.; Manke, Kristin L.

    2009-02-02

    The EMSL Quarterly Highlights Report covers the science, staff and user recognition, and publication activities that occurred during the 1st quarter (October 2008 - December 2008) of Fiscal Year 2009.

  18. (ICT) and Teacher Education in the 21st Century Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Communication Technology (ICT) and Teacher Education in the 21st ... The teacher is one of the most important factors in the business of teaching and ... inadequate facilities as factors that can impair ICT use in teachers training.

  19. Climate: Into the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, William

    2003-08-01

    Toward the end of the twentieth century, it became evident to professionals working within the meterological arena that the world's climate system was showing signs of change that could not be adequately explained in terms of natural variation. Since that time there has been an increasing recognition that the climate system is changing as a result of human industries and lifestyles, and that the outcomes may prove catastrophic to the world's escalating population. Compiled by an international team formed under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Climate: Into the 21st Century features an unrivalled collection of essays by the world's leading meteorological experts. These fully integrated contributions provide a perspective of the global climate system across the twentieth century, and describe some of the most arresting and extreme climatic events and their effects that have occurred during that time. In addition, the book traces the development of our capabilities to observe and monitor the climate system, and outlines our understanding of the predictability of climate on time-scales of months and longer. It concludes with a summary of the prospects for applying the twentieth century climate experience in order to benefit society in the twenty-first century. Lavishly illustrated in color, Climate is an accessible acccount of the challenges that climate poses at the start of the twenty-first century. Filled with fascinating facts and diagrams, it is written for a wide audience and will captivate the general reader interested in climate issues, and will be a valuable teaching resource. William Burroughs is a successful science author of books on climate, including Weather (Time Life, 2000), and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2001), Does the Weather Really Matter? (1997) and The Climate Revealed (1999), all published by Cambridge University Press.

  20. Pediatrics in 21st Century and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meharban

    2016-11-01

    Pediatrics is a dynamic discipline and there is awareness and hope for actualizing outstanding achievements in the field of child health in 21 st century and beyond. Improved lifestyle and quality of children's health is likely to reduce the burden of adult diseases and enhance longevity because seeds of most adult diseases are sown in childhood. Identification and decoding of human genome is expected to revolutionize the practice of pediatrics. The day is not far off when a patient will walk into doctor's chamber with an electronic or digital health history on a CD or palmtop and a decoded genomic constitution. There will be reduced burden of genetic diseases because of selective abortions of "defective" fetuses and replacement of "bad" genes with "good" ones by genetic engineering. Availability of totipotent stem cells and developments in transplant technology are likely to revolutionize the management of a variety of hematologic cancers and life-threatening genetic disorders. The possibility of producing flawless designer babies by advances in assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is likely to be mired by several ethical and legal issues.The availability of newer vaccines by recombinant technology for emerging infective and for non-infective lifestyle diseases is likely to improve survival and quality of life. There is going to be a greater focus on the "patient" having the disease rather than "disease" per se by practicing holistic pediatrics by effective utilization of alternative or complementary strategies for health care. Due to advances in technology, pediatrics may get further dehumanized. A true healer cannot simply rely on technology; there must be a spiritual bond between the patient and the physician by exploiting the concept of psycho-neuro-immunology and body-mind interactions. In the years to come, physicians are likely to play "god" but medicine can't achieve immortality because anything born must die in accordance with nature's recycling

  1. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  2. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  3. Diagnostic Development for ST Plasmas on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.

    2003-01-01

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) have much lower aspect ratio (a/R) and lower toroidal magnetic field, relative to tokamaks and stellarators. This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities these features pose in the diagnosis of ST plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and discuss some of the corresponding diagnostic development that is underway. The low aspect ratio necessitates a small center stack, with tight space constraints and large thermal excursions, complicating the design of magnetic sensors in this region. The toroidal magnetic field on NSTX is less than or equal to 0.6 T, making it impossible to use ECE as a good monitor of electron temperature. A promising new development for diagnosing electron temperature is electron Bernstein wave (EBW) radiometry, which is currently being pursued on NSTX. A new high-resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system is being installed. Since non-inductive current initiation and sustainment ar e top-level NSTX research goals, measurements of the current profile J(R) are essential to many planned experiments. On NSTX several modifications are planned to adapt the MSE technique to lower field, and two novel MSE systems are being prototyped. Several high speed 2-D imaging techniques are being developed, for viewing both visible and x-ray emission. The toroidal field is comparable to the poloidal field at the outside plasma edge, producing a large field pitch (>50 o ) at the outer mid-plane. The large shear in pitch angle makes some fluctuation diagnostics like beam emission spectroscopy very difficult, while providing a means of achieving spatial localization for microwave scattering investigations of high-k turbulence, which are predicted to be virulent for NSTX plasmas. A brief description of several of these techniques will be given in the context of the current NSTX diagnostic set

  4. Myocarditis with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes misdiagnosed as an ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Seth H; Crandall, Mark A; Jaffe, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocarditis can mimic ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Quickly determining the correct diagnosis is critical given the "time is muscle" implication with a STEMI and the potential adverse effects associated with use of fibrinolytic therapy. A 46-year-old man presented to a rural emergency department with chest pain, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) read as showing 0.1 mV of ST-segment elevation in leads III and aVF. His initial cardiac troponin T was 0.44 ng/mL. He received fibrinolytic therapy for presumed STEMI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was later performed and showed epicardial delayed enhancement consistent with myocarditis. Upon further questioning, he acknowledged 3 days of stuttering chest discomfort and a recent upper respiratory infection, as well as similar chest pain in his wife. A systematic evaluation is essential for acute chest pain, including a focused history, identification of cardiac risk factors, and ECG interpretation. A history of recent viral illness, absence of cardiac risk factors, or ECG findings inconsistent with a single anatomic lesion would suggest a potential alternate diagnosis to STEMI. This case emphasizes the importance of a focused history in the initial evaluation of chest pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ST/EL and ST/CV services for TI2 & TI8 LHC injection tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Akhtar, S; CERN. Geneva. ST Division

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the ST/EL and ST/CV services for TI2 & TI8 LHC injection tunnels. The cooling and ventilation part describes the requirements for design and installation of more than 10 km of pipeline that is going to be laid down in the tunnels. Main operating parameters as well as manufacture procedures are explained. Preliminary work schedule with the cost estimate is also presented. Electrical power will be distributed from the LHC side and the SPS side for the machine and the general services. All power converters will be installed on surface buildings. The link between the main bend converters and the main bend magnets will be realised with water-cooled cables. Rest of the magnets will be cabled by using conventional copper and aluminium cables. Due to long lengths of the injection tunnels a dry 18kV transformer will be installed in TJ8 to serve the general services for TI8. The same will apply to TI2 by installing a transformer at the bottom of the PMI2 shaft.

  6. "Vi er ikke støttepædagoer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Louise Stjerne

    2014-01-01

    Hvilket talent(udviklings)miljø har talentfulde gymnasieelever brug for, og hvordan ’plejer’ man dem bedst muligt, så de ikke føler, at de bliver ’støttepædagoger’?......Hvilket talent(udviklings)miljø har talentfulde gymnasieelever brug for, og hvordan ’plejer’ man dem bedst muligt, så de ikke føler, at de bliver ’støttepædagoger’?...

  7. Audiovisuaalinen koulutuspaketti ensihoitohenkilöstölle peruselintoimintojen mittaamisesta

    OpenAIRE

    Pelkonen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tämä opinnäyteyö oli kehittämistyö, jonka tarkoituksena oli laatia audiovisuaalinen koulutuspaketti peruselintoimintojen mittaamisesta Pohjois-Savon pelastuslaitokselle ensihoitohenkilöstölle. Kehittämistyön tavoitteena oli vahvistaa pelastuslaitoksen ensihoitohenkilöstön osaamista peruselintoimintojen mittaamisessa. Koulutuspaketin tavoitteena oli antaa vaihtoehtoinen tapa kerrata jo vanhaa opittua sekä motivoida uuteen oppimiseen audiovisuaalisesti demonstraati...

  8. The significance of early post-exercise ST segment normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Rudy; Fordyce, Christopher B; Gao, Min; Chan, Sammy; Gin, Kenneth; Bennett, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The persistence of ST segment depression in recovery signifies a strongly positive exercise treadmill test (ETT). However, it is unclear if early recovery of ST segments portends a similar prognosis. We sought to determine if persistence of ST depression into recovery correlates with ischemic burden based on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). This was a retrospective analysis of 853 consecutive patients referred for exercise MPI at a tertiary academic center over a 24-month period. Patients were stratified into three groups based on the results of the ETT: normal (negative ETT), persistence (positive ETT with >1mm ST segment depression at 1minute in recovery) and early normalization (positive ETT with normalization, while 105 patients met criteria for persistence. The persistence group had a significantly greater SSS (8.48±7.77) than both the early normalization (4.34±4.98, pnormal (4.47±5.31, pnormalization and normal groups were not statistically different and met the prespecified non-inferiority margin (mean difference 0.12, -0.66=lower 95% CI, pnormal and 7.4% of early normalization groups. Among patients with an electrically positive ETT, recovery of ST segment depression within 1minute was associated with a lower SSS than patients with persistence of ST depression beyond 1minute. Furthermore, early ST segment recovery conferred a similar SSS to patients with a negative ETT. These results suggest that among patients evaluated for chest pain with a positive ETT, early recovery of the ST segment during recovery is associated with a significantly less ischemic burden on subsequent MPI and thus may represent a false positive finding in exercise treadmill testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. At stå i det åbne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    Bogen At stå i det åbne: Dannelse gennem filosofisk undren og nævær er en pædagogisk-filosofisk undersøgelse af, hvad det vil sige at stå i et "undringsfællesskab" i en undervisnings- og vejledningssituation. Ved at trække på den eksistentiel-fænomenologiske og filosofisk-hermeneutiske forskning ...

  10. Moving towards first science with the St. George recoil separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Zachary; Berg, G. P. A.; Gilardy, G.; Moran, M.; Schmitt, J.; Seymour, C.; Stech, E.; Couder, M.

    2015-10-01

    The St. George recoil mass separator has recently been coupled to the 5MV St. Ana accelerator at the University of Notre Dame's Nuclear Science Lab. St. George is a unique tool designed to measure radiative alpha-capture reactions for nuclei up to A = 40 in inverse kinematics in order to directly obtain cross sections required for astrophysical models of stellar and explosive helium burning. Commissioning of St. George is presently taking place with primary beams of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. In this presentation, results will be shown for the measured energy acceptance of St. George, which compare favorably to COSY results when employing the calculated optimal ion-optical settings. Additionally, future plans will be discussed, such as assessing the angular acceptance of St. George and the re-integration of HiPPO at the separator target position to provide a dense, windowless helium gas-jet target. The material presented in this work is partially supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1419765.

  11. 76 FR 68101 - Safety Zone; Art Gallery Party St. Pete 2011 Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... questions on this temporary final rule, call or email Marine Science Technician First Class Nolan L. Ammons, Sector St. Petersburg Prevention Department, Coast Guard; telephone (813) 228-2191, email Nolan.L.Ammons...

  12. 31st Annual conference and the 21st annual theoretical seminar of the South African Institute of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The 31st annual conference and the 21st annual theoretical seminar of the South African Institute of Physics was held from 7-11 July 1986 at the Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg. This publication contains only the abstracts of seminars delivered on the conference. The topics that were covered include the various facets of physics such as solid state physics, nuclear and particle physics, optics and spectroscopy, solar-terrestrial physics, education, and applied and industrial physics

  13. Clinical significance of stress-induced ST segment changes in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futagami, Yasuo; Hamada, Masayuki; Makino, Katsutoshi; Ichikawa, Takehiko; Konishi, Tokuji

    1984-01-01

    To explain the clinical significance of stress(st)-induced ST-segment (ST) changes postinfarction, 93 patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) were performed st- 201 Tl myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and compared ST changes with SPECT, coronary arteriographic and left ventriculographic findings. 30 out of 93 cases (32%) had ST depression, 20 (21.5%) had ST elevation, 9 (10%) had both ST depression and elevation and remaining 34 (36.5 %) had no significant ST changes. In single vessel disease, ST depression were noted in 29% (12/42), while in multivessel disease, 53% (27/51). 35 out of 39 cases (90%) with ST depression had transient perfusion defect but no apparent relation was noted between location of ST depression on ECG and region of transient perfusion defect in SPECT. All of 28 cases with ST elevation were noted in anterior MI cases, and 26 out of these showed severe LV wall motion abnormality in contrast left ventriculography and broad anterior permanent defect in SPECT. Only 15 cases (54%) showed slight redistribution. Thus, we conclude that in patients with previous MI, st-induced ST depression seems to reflect myocardial ischemia and ST elevation possibly related abnormal LV wall motion. (author)

  14. 78 FR 22416 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; St. Helena, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * AWP CA E5 St. Helena, CA [Amended] Napa County Fire... the name of the heliport listed in the Class E airspace for St. Helena, CA. St. Helena Fire Department Heliport has been changed to Napa County Fire Department Heliport, St. Helena, CA. This action does not...

  15. Reliability and Validity of Michigan School Libraries for the 21st Century Measurement Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Natosha N.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Michigan School Libraries for the 21st Century Measurement Benchmarks (SL21). The instrument consists of 19 items with three subscales: Building the 21st Century Learning Environment Subscale, Teaching for 21st Century Learning Subscale, and Leading the Way to 21st Century…

  16. Comparative endocrinology in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denver, R.J.; Hopkins, P.M.; McCormick, S.D.; Propper, C.R.; Riddiford, L.; Sower, S.A.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    responses to the environment. A major challenge for life scientists in the 21st century is to understand how a changing environment impacts all life on earth. A full understanding of the capabilities of organisms to respond to environmental variation, and the resilience of organisms challenged by environmental changes and extremes, is necessary for understanding the impact of pollution and climatic change on the viability of populations. Comparative endocrinologists have a key role to play in these efforts.

  17. Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, C. A.; Bralower, T. J.; Blockstein, D.; Keane, C. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Schejbal, D.; Wilson, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Geoscience knowledge and skills play new roles in the workforce as our society addresses the challenges of living safely and sustainably on Earth. As a result, we expect a wider range of future career opportunities for students with education in the geosciences and related fields. A workshop offered by the InTeGrate STEP Center on 'Geoscience and the 21st Century Workforce' brought together representatives from 24 programs with a substantial geoscience component, representatives from different employment sectors, and workforce scholars to explore the intersections between geoscience education and employment. As has been reported elsewhere, employment in energy, environmental and extractive sectors for geoscientists with core geology, quantitative and communication skills is expected to be robust over the next decade as demand for resources grow and a significant part of the current workforce retires. Relatively little is known about employment opportunities in emerging areas such as green energy or sustainability consulting. Employers at the workshop from all sectors are seeking the combination of strong technical, quantitative, communication, time management, and critical thinking skills. The specific technical skills are highly specific to the employer and employment needs. Thus there is not a single answer to the question 'What skills make a student employable?'. Employers at this workshop emphasized the value of data analysis, quantitative, and problem solving skills over broad awareness of policy issues. Employers value the ability to articulate an appropriate, effective, creative solution to problems. Employers are also very interested in enthusiasm and drive. Participants felt that the learning outcomes that their programs have in place were in line with the needs expressed by employers. Preparing students for the workforce requires attention to professional skills, as well as to the skills needed to identify career pathways and land a job. This critical

  18. Environmental issues in the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of some of the environmental challenges facing the uranium production industry in the 21st century. For many years, the linear, non-threshold (LNT) model has been regarded as a prudent hypothesis for radiation protection purposes. This paradigm has been challenged at the same time for both underestimating and overestimating the risks from ionizing radiation. The reality is that the ability of conventional epidemiology to distinguish small risks will always be limited by statistical power at low doses. In the future, there will be increased emphasis on better understanding the effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular (and sub cellular) level. The concept of 'controllable dose' has been proposed as an alternative to the ICRP's current approach to dose limitation. The concept is that if the most exposed individual is protected, then society as a whole is protected. A hazard ranking scale based on comparisons to natural background levels of radiation has been proposed. Adoption of a concept such as 'controllable dose' would require a parallel re-evaluation of the concepts and application of collective dose and ALARA optimization. The protection of non-human biota is an issue of considerable interest in many countries. The science in this area is rapidly evolving, as are discussions of a more philosophical nature. For example, should the focus of environmental risk assessment be the sustainability of the population or should the focus be to limit effects on a single member of the population? The future of environmental risk assessment should be of great interest to the uranium production industry. A systematic approach to risk assessment addressing the full scope of potential hazards - environmental, human health, engineering, financial and others - will be increasingly important in the future. What level of risk is it reasonable to accept? What is meant by 'reasonable'? How much risk can be engineered away, for how long, and at what

  19. The Workforce for the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry O'Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: In today’s changing economy, economic growth depends on career and technical programs for skill training. Background: This study discusses the key area in promoting individual learning and skill training and discusses the importance of career education and training as a way of promoting economic growth. Methodology\t: This study uses a qualitative study approach to investigate and report on the status and influence of Workforce Education and Development and its economic importance. Contribution: This report contributes to the knowledge base common to all work settings that can solve many human performance problems in the workplace. Findings: This study also justifies and validates the ideas on the importance of workforce education and development in the 21st century as a way of developing economic growth and providing learning to make individuals competitive in the global economy. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: For practitioners, this study suggests that we must always have discussions of what leads to career success and understanding that there is not enough high-skill/high-wage employment to go around. Therefore, developing these skills requires a decision about a career or related group of jobs to prepare to compete for them; we have to provide training needed in order to be competitive in global economy. Recommendation for Researchers: Researchers have to develop strategies to promote career direction with willingness to evaluate the level of academic interest, level of career focus and readiness for life away from home (attitudes, skills and knowledge of self. Impact on Society: Institutions must regularly evaluate curriculum to reflect the rapid technological changes and the globalization of world markets that reflect their mission and develop students’ mindset to always think big and think outside the box in order to be competitive in the global market. Change is external, transition is internal. It is important

  20. The spread of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Spain: WGS analysis of the emerging high-risk clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST11/KPC-2, ST101/KPC-2 and ST512/KPC-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteo, Jesús; Pérez-Vázquez, María; Bautista, Verónica; Ortega, Adriana; Zamarrón, Pilar; Saez, David; Fernández-Romero, Sara; Lara, Noelia; Ramiro, Raquel; Aracil, Belén; Campos, José

    2016-12-01

    We analysed the microbiological traits and population structure of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected in Spain between 2012 and 2014. We also performed a comparative WGS analysis of the three major KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clones detected. Carbapenemase and ESBL genes were sequenced. The Institut Pasteur MLST scheme was used. WGS data were used to construct phylogenetic trees, to identify the determinants of resistance and to de novo assemble the genome of one representative isolate of each of the three major K. pneumoniae clones. Of the 2443 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates identified during the study period, 111 (4.5%) produced KPC. Of these, 81 (73.0%) were K. pneumoniae and 13 (11.7%) were Enterobacter cloacae. Three major epidemic clones of K. pneumoniae were identified: ST11/KPC-2, ST101/KPC-2 and ST512/KPC-3. ST11/KPC-2 differed from ST101/KPC-2 and ST512/KPC-3 by 27 819 and 6924 SNPs, respectively. ST101/KPC-2 differed from ST512/KPC-3 by 28 345 SNPs. Nine acquired resistance genes were found in ST11/KPC-2, 11 in ST512/KPC-3 and 13 in ST101/KPC-2. ST101/KPC-2 had the highest number of virulence genes (20). An 11 bp deletion at the end of the mgrB sequence was the cause of colistin resistance in ST512/KPC-3. KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasing in Spain. Most KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates belonged to only five clones: ST11 and ST512 caused interregional spread, ST101 caused regional spread and ST1961 and ST678 produced independent hospital outbreaks. ST101/KPC-2 had the highest number of resistance and virulence genes. ST101/KPC-2 and ST512/KPC-3 were recently implicated in the spread of KPC in Italy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Henkilöstötilinpäätös konsultointiyritykselle

    OpenAIRE

    Halmesvaara, Riikka

    2010-01-01

    Tämän toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli antaa Konsultointiyritykselle kokonaiskuvaa henkilöstöstä tekemällä ilmapiirikartoitustutkimus sekä kirjallinen henkilöstötilinpäätös, joka koostui henkilöstötuloslaskelmasta ja henkilöstökertomuksesta. Työ suoritettiin tutkimuksellisena kehittämishankkeena konsultointiyritykselle. Tutkimusongelmana oli kuvata Konsultointiyrityksen osaamispääomaa ja henkilöstön rakennetta sekä luoda työkalu strategiassa määriteltyjen henkilöstöä koskevien o...

  2. Genomic Epidemiology of Hypervirulent Serogroup W, ST-11 Neisseria meningitidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2015-10-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading bacterial cause of sepsis and meningitis globally with dynamic strain distribution over time. Beginning with an epidemic among Hajj pilgrims in 2000, serogroup W (W) sequence type (ST) 11 emerged as a leading cause of epidemic meningitis in the African 'meningitis belt' and endemic cases in South America, Europe, Middle East and China. Previous genotyping studies were unable to reliably discriminate sporadic W ST-11 strains in circulation since 1970 from the Hajj outbreak strain (Hajj clone). It is also unclear what proportion of more recent W ST-11 disease clusters are caused by direct descendants of the Hajj clone. Whole genome sequences of 270 meningococcal strains isolated from patients with invasive meningococcal disease globally from 1970 to 2013 were compared using whole genome phylogenetic and major antigen-encoding gene sequence analyses. We found that all W ST-11 strains were descendants of an ancestral strain that had undergone unique capsular switching events. The Hajj clone and its descendants were distinct from other W ST-11 strains in that they shared a common antigen gene profile and had undergone recombination involving virulence genes encoding factor H binding protein, nitric oxide reductase, and nitrite reductase. These data demonstrate that recent acquisition of a distinct antigen-encoding gene profile and variations in meningococcal virulence genes was associated with the emergence of the Hajj clone. Importantly, W ST-11 strains unrelated to the Hajj outbreak contribute a significant proportion of W ST-11 cases globally. This study helps illuminate genomic factors associated with meningococcal strain emergence and evolution.

  3. Hmong Political Involvement in St. Paul, Minnesota and Fresno, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past several years, Hmong in the United States have gained prominence for their increasing involvement in politics. Most of the attention has understandably focused on Fresno, California and St. Paul, Minnesota, home to the two largest Hmong populations in this country. While the Hmong communities in both cities are similar in size and have made significant political progress as evidenced by the election of Hmong candidates, the Hmong community in St. Paul has made greater inroads in the political realm. In addition to the elections of two Hmong candidates to the Minnesota State Legislature and two to the St. Paul School Board, the Hmong community in St. Paul has been able to engage local and state governments in Minnesotato address issues that affect the Hmong community. Through interviews, census data, and newspaper coverage of political campaigns, I show that Hmong in St. Paul have achieved greaterrepresentation in local and state governments and received greater support from government officials than Hmong in Fresno because Minnesota offers a social, economic, and politicalcontext that is favorable to fostering Hmong political involvement. Compared to Hmong in Fresno, Hmong in St. Paul have higher levels of socioeconomic resources and are more visible given their large size relative to other minority groups. They live in a region with consistently high levels of political participation and have political candidates who devote resources to mobilizing the Hmong community. Moreover, the Hmong vote has been critical to the success of Hmong candidates in St. Paul, an indication of the increasing political clout of the Hmong community there and a major reason why politicians in Minnesota are more willing to respond toissues that affect the Hmong community. Overall, this study highlights the importance of local and regional context in understanding the political incorporation of immigrants.

  4. GeoTIFF of 3x3 m Bathymetry for St. Thomas & St. John, 2011, UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 3x3 meter resolution bathymetric surface for an area of shallow seabed surrounding St. Thomas and St....

  5. Cardiogenic shock with ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ReNa-Shock ST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Castillo Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiogenic shock (CS in the setting of an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI is a severe complication and constitutes one of the principal causes of death associated with this condition. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment strategies and hospital outcome of CS associated with STEMI in Argentina. The Argentine Registry of Cardiogenic Shock (ReNA-Shock was a prospective and multicenter registry of consecutive patients with CS hospitalized in 64 centers in Argentina between July 2013 and May 2015. Only those with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI were selected for this analysis. Of the 165 patients included in the ReNa-Shock registry, 124 presented STEMI. Median age was 64 years (IQR 25-75: 56.5-75 and 67% were men; median time from symptom onset to admission was 240 minutes (IQR 25-75: 132-720. 63% of the cases presented CS at admission. Eighty-seven percent underwent reperfusion therapy: 80% primary percutaneous intervention with a median door-to-balloon time of 110 minutes (IQR 25-75: 62-184. Inotropic agents were used in 96%; 79% required mechanical ventilation; a Swan Ganz catheter was inserted in 47% and 35% required intra-aortic balloon pumping. Most patients (59% presented multivessel disease (MV. Hospital mortality was 54%. Multivariate analysis identified that time from symptom onset to admission (> 240 min was the only independent predictor of mortality (OR: 3.04; CI 95%: 1.18-7.9. Despite using treatment strategies currently available, morbidity and mortality of STEMI complicated with CS remains high.

  6. If F(ST) does not measure neutral genetic differentiation, then comparing it with Q(ST) is misleading. Or is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelaar, Pim; Björklund, Mats

    2011-05-01

    The comparison between neutral genetic differentiation (F(ST) ) and quantitative genetic differentiation (Q(ST) ) is commonly used to test for signatures of selection in population divergence. However, there is an ongoing discussion about what F(ST) actually measures, even resulting in some alternative metrics to express neutral genetic differentiation. If there is a problem with F(ST) , this could have repercussions for its comparison with Q(ST) as well. We show that as the mutation rate of the neutral marker increases, F(ST) decreases: a higher within-population heterozygosity (He) yields a lower F(ST) value. However, the same is true for Q(ST) : a higher mutation rate for the underlying QTL also results in a lower Q(ST) estimate. The effect of mutation rate is equivalent in Q(ST) and F(ST) . Hence, the comparison between Q(ST) and F(ST) remains valid, if one uses neutral markers whose mutation rates are not too high compared to those of quantitative traits. Usage of highly variable neutral markers such as hypervariable microsatellites can lead to serious biases and the incorrect inference that divergent selection has acted on populations. Much of the discussion on F(ST) seems to stem from the misunderstanding that it measures the differentiation of populations, whereas it actually measures the fixation of alleles. In their capacity as measures of population differentiation, Hedrick's G'(ST) and Jost's D reach their maximum value of 1 when populations do not share alleles even when there remains variation within populations, which invalidates them for comparisons with Q(ST) . © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. 21st Century Water Conservation Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2013-12-01

    This is an encore presentation of what was presented at the 2012 AGU International Conference. It was entitled: 'The Importance of Water Conservation in the 21st Century.' The poster presentation, however, has been redesigned and reorganized with new, revised perspectives. The importance of water conservation principles has been emphasized. The population of United States has more than doubled over the past 50 years. The need for water however, has tripled. The EPA estimates that more than 36 states face water shortage during the forthcoming years. The EPA has prepared a plan for achieving environmental and energy performance. This will be coupled with leadership and accountability. Carbon neutrality is also of prime importance. The objective is to focus on six important, essential areas. 1. Efficient use of already available energy resources. 2. Intelligent water consumption and focusing on water conservation. 3. Expand the use of renewable energy resources. 4. Explore innovative transportation systems and methodologies. 5. Change building codes and promote high performance sustainable buildings. 6. Focus on developing creative environment management systems. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is also emitted to the atmosphere through a variety of natural processes and also some human activities. However, fluorinated gases are emitted to the atmosphere solely through human activities, because they are created by humans. It is very important to observe that water conservation is probably the most cost-effective way to reduce our demand for water. Furthermore, it is certainly environmentally justifiable. The Environmental Protection Agency has a plan called E2PLAN. It is EPA's plan for achieving energy and environmental performance, leadership, accountability, and carbon neutrality. In June 2011, the EPA published a comprehensive, multi-year planning document called Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan. The

  8. St. Sofia in Ohrid, space, structure, forms: Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korać Vojislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work comments in particular on studies dealing with the church of St. Sofia in Ohrid. Among them are the monographs of two authors, Barbara Maria Schellewald (Die Arhitektur der Sophien Kirchen in Ohrid, Bon 1986 and Boris Čipan (Sveta Sofija, katedralen hram na ohridskata arhiepiskopija, Skopje 1995. Special attention is devoted to the typological interpretation of St. Sofia, to its initial design as a triple-nave basilica with a dome at the centre. Insightful descriptions are given about the older monuments in the Byzantine capital, Constantinople. Special attention is paid to the external architectonic workmanship. The western façade of St. Sofia demonstrates the features of Late Byzantine architecture, while the eastern façade directly reveals the triple-nave spatial design. That is why this article on St. Sofia contains sketches of the western and the eastern façades, illustrating the features of its architectonic specificities. On the whole, the author presents St. Sofia in Ohrid as a unique work of architecture of the Byzantine region. .

  9. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2009-06-01

    The St. Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St. Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St. Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial "seed" value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the median heuristic , strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St. Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St. Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  10. Drinking games and contextual factors of 21st birthday drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M; Rinker, Dipali V; DiBello, Angelo M; Young, Chelsie M; Chen, Chun-Han

    2014-09-01

    21st birthday celebrations are among the highest risks for alcohol use throughout emerging adulthood and celebrants often experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. The present research considered what happens when drinking games are paired with an already high-risk event (i.e., 21st birthday celebrations) and how drinking games compare with other contextual factors on 21st birthdays. Approximately four days after turning 21, 1124 college students (55% women) completed an online survey assessing alcohol use and related consequences experienced during their birthday celebrations. Participants were also asked whether drinking games and other contextual factors were associated with their celebrations. Overall, 18% of participants reported playing drinking games during their 21st birthday celebrations. These individuals reported consuming more alcohol, had higher estimated BACs, and experienced more negative consequences than those who did not play drinking games. The association between playing drinking games and alcohol use and negative consequences was stronger for men. The effect of drinking games on negative consequences was mediated through elevated BAC levels. Receiving bar specials, having drinks purchased, playing drinking games, and loud music were uniquely and significantly associated with all alcohol outcomes. Together, these results suggest that drinking games are part of a larger context of risk contributing to extreme drinking on 21st birthdays. Furthermore, these results will help to facilitate interventions that are more individually tailored to target specific contextual risks, behaviors, and events.

  11. The mean, the median, and the St. Petersburg paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Y. Hayden

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The St.~Petersburg Paradox is a famous economic and philosophical puzzle that has generated numerous conflicting explanations. To shed empirical light on this phenomenon, we examined subjects' bids for one St.~Petersburg gamble with a real monetary payment. We found that bids were typically lower than twice the smallest payoff, and thus much lower than is generally supposed. We also examined bids offered for several hypothetical variants of the St.~Petersburg Paradox. We found that bids were weakly affected by truncating the gamble, were strongly affected by repeats of the gamble, and depended linearly on the initial ``seed'' value of the gamble. One explanation, which we call the extit{median} extit{heuristic}, strongly predicts these data. Subjects following this strategy evaluate a gamble as if they were taking the median rather than the mean of the payoff distribution. Finally, we argue that the distribution of outcomes embodied in the St.~Petersburg paradox is so divergent from the Gaussian form that the statistical mean is a poor estimator of expected value, so that the expected value of the St.~Petersburg gamble is undefined. These results suggest that this classic paradox has a straightforward explanation rooted in the use of a statistical heuristic.

  12. Three centuries of multi-storied St. Petersburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Leonid; Perov, Fedor; Eremeeva, Aleksandra; Temnov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to assessment of the role of high-rise buildings in the St. Petersburg historic city's ensemble. Features of formation of city architectural look, the conditions of city typical silhouette's appearance which is characterized by the contrast of a small number of high-rise structures with a low horizontal mass building are observed. The consequences of the emergence of a significant number of great height buildings, the silhouette of which conflicts with the traditional St. Petersburg landscape's compositional principles, are analyzed. The economic reasons of high-rise construction of residential and office buildings are given. The conclusions about the prospects of St. Petersburg high-rise construction in the light of city-building and economic factors are made.

  13. Superconducting poloidal field magnet engineering for the ARIES-ST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, Leslie; Pourrahimi, S.; Schultz, J.H.; Titus, P.; Jardin, S.; Kessel, C.; Reiersen, W.

    2003-01-01

    The critical issues of the poloidal systems for the ARIES-ST design have been presented in this paper. Because of the large plasma current and the need of highly shaped plasmas, the poloidal field (PF) coils should be located inside the toroidal field in order to reduce their current. Even then, the divertor coils carry large currents. The ARIES-ST PF coils are superconducting using the internally cooled cable-in-conduit conductor. The peak self field in the divertor coils is about 15 T and the highest field in the non-divertor coils is about 6 T. The PF magnets have built-in margins that are sufficient to survive disruptions without quenching. The costing study indicates that the specific cost of the PF system is $80/kg. Detailed design and trade-off studies of ARIES-ST are presented and remaining R and D issues are identified

  14. Severe Hyperthyroidism Presenting with Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute myocardial infarction is life-threatening. A cardiac troponin rise accompanied by typical symptoms, ST elevation or depression is diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction. Here, we report an unusual case of a female who was admitted with chest pain. However, she did not present with a typical profile of an acute myocardial infarction patient. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old Han nationality female presented with chest pain. The electrocardiogram (ECG revealed arched ST segment elevations and troponin was elevated. However, the coronary angiography showed a normal coronary arterial system. Thyroid function tests showed that this patient had severe hyperthyroidism. Conclusion. Our case highlights the possibility that hyperthyroidism may cause a large area of myocardium injury and ECG ST segment elevation. We suggest routine thyroid function testing in patients with chest pain.

  15. Imaging QRS complex and ST segment in myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacharova, Ljuba; Bang, Lia E; Szathmary, Vavrinec

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction creates regions of altered electrical properties of myocardium resulting in typical QRS patterns (pathological Q waves) and ST segment deviations observed in leads related to the MI location. The aim of this study was to present a graphical method for imaging...... the changes in the sequence of depolarization and the ST segment deviations in myocardial infarction using the Dipolar ElectroCARdioTOpography (DECARTO) method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Simulated ECG data corresponding to intramural, electrically inactive areas encircled by transmural areas with slowed impulse...... propagation velocity in anteroseptal and inferior locations were used for imaging the altered sequence of depolarization and the ST vector. The ECGs were transformed to areas projected on the image surface so as to image the process of ventricular depolarization based on the orientation and magnitude...

  16. Construction: first of St. Lucie unit 2 successes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, W.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) granted a full power operating license for St. Lucie Unit 2 on June 10, 1983, just six years after construction began. The industry average for nuclear power plant construction during this time was approximately ten years. The rate of completion had a positive effect on the cost of the facility. The price of the unit was $1.42 billion as compared to the $2 billion to $5 billion range experienced by other utilities for nuclear plants. These accomplishments were not serendipitous but the results of management techniques and personnel attitudes involved in the construction of the unit. More importantly, many of these same techniques and attitudes have now become part of a quality improvement program at St Lucie and are reflected in its performance indicators. This paper analyzes the construction success of St Lucie Unit 2 and demonstrates that excellent performance in the construction phase can be carried over to the operation of a facility

  17. Geology of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Douglas W.

    2002-01-01

    The rocks of St. John, which is located near the eastern end of the Greater Antilles and near the northeastern corner of the Caribbean plate, consist of Cretaceous basalt, andesite, keratophyre, their volcaniclastic and hypabyssal intrusive equivalents, and minor calcareous rocks and chert. These rocks were intruded by Tertiary mafic dikes and tonalitic plutons. The oldest rocks formed in an extensional oceanic environment characterized by abundant keratophyre and sheeted dikes. Subduction-related volcanism of the east-west-trending marine Greater Antilles volcanic arc began on St. John near the transition between the Early and Late Cretaceous. South-directed compression, probably caused by the initial collision between the Greater Antilles arc of the Caribbean plate and the Bahama platform of the North American plate, deformed the Cretaceous strata into east-west-trending folds with axial-plane cleavage. Late Eocene tonalitic intrusions, part of the Greater Antilles arc magmatism, produced a contact aureole that is as much as two kilometers wide and that partly annealed the axial-plane cleavage. East-west compression, possibly related to the relative eastward transport of the Caribbean plate in response to the beginning of spreading at the Cayman Trough, produced long-wavelength, low-amplitude folds whose axes plunge gently north and warp the earlier folds. A broad north-plunging syncline-anticline pair occupies most of St. John. The last tectonic event affecting St. John is recorded by a series of post-late Eocene sinistral strike-slip faults related to the early stages of spreading at the Cayman Trough spreading center and sinistral strike-slip accommodation near the northern border of the Caribbean plate. Central St. John is occupied by a rhomb horst bounded by two of these sinistral faults. Unlike other parts of the Greater Antilles, evidence for recent tectonic movement has not been observed on St. John.

  18. Bilateral posterior RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gademann Guenther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation induced optic neuropathy (RION is a rare but severe consequence of radiation therapy that is associated with adjuvant chemotherapy, specifically therapy with vincristine or nitrosoureas. However, there is very little evidence regarding the occurrence of RION after concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide. Case Presentation The case of a 63 year old woman with glioblastoma multiforme and concomitant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide is described. Due to a slight depressive episode the patient also took hypericum perforatum. Five months after cessation of fractionated radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide (cumulative dose of 11040 mg the patient developed bilateral amaurosis due to RION. Tumor regrowth was excluded by magnetic resonance imaging. After the application of gadolinium a pathognomonic contrast enhancement of both prechiasmatic optic nerves could be observed. Conclusions In this patient, the occurrence of RION may have been the result of radiosensitization by temozolomide, which could have been strengthened by hypericin. Consequently, physicians should avoid a concomitant application of hypericum perforatum and radiochemotherapy.

  19. Screening of the Antidepressant-like Activity of Two Hypericum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty percent methanol extract of H. quartinianum and H. revolutum was investigated using learned helplessness models of depression such as tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming tests (FST) and avoidance tests. In addition, locomotor activity was investigated with open field test (OFT). Mice (for TST, avoidance ...

  20. Antifungal Activity of Hypericum havvae Against Some Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antifungal activity of the extracts was tested against medical yeast, Candida (C. albicans ATCC 10231, ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), .... It is important to bear in mind that the.

  1. Henkilöstötilinpäätös Yritys Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Tytti

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena oli Yritys Oy:n henkilöstötilinpäätös vuodelta 2009. Henkilöstötilinpäätös jaetaan kahteen osaan, henkilöstötuloslaskelmaan ja henkilöstökertomukseen. Tavoitteena oli laatia Yritys Oy:lle henkilöstötilinpäätöksestä malli, jota yritys voi käyttää ja hyödyntää tulevaisuudessa henkilöstötilinpäätöstä laatiessa. Tavoitteena oli myös antaa kehittämisehdotuksia, minkälaista tietoa kannattaa kerätä seuraavia henkilöstötilinpäätöksiä varten. Henkilöstötilinpäätöksen tavoit...

  2. ST product characteristics and relationships with perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Elizabeth T; Darius, Ellen F; Walsh, Margaret M; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2017-12-01

    Although smoking declines in the United States, the prevalence of male adolescent smokeless tobacco (ST; moist snuff and chewing tobacco) use remains unchanged. ST product characteristics, such as flavoring, packaging, and branding, could influence adolescents' ST initiation and continued use. This qualitative study examines the potential role of product characteristics in shaping ST-related perceptions and behaviors among rural adolescent males. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted at three California rural high schools. ST users were asked about their experiences and perceptions related to product characteristics. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a general inductive approach. Participants associated flavored ST with appealing non-tobacco products, such as chewing gum and alcohol. Availability of different varieties and flavors stimulated interest and curiosity in sampling or switching between ST products. Time-limited promotional flavors and packaging also enhanced product appeal. Adolescent ST users preferred certain brands based on perceived brand features and perceived nicotine content, associating higher-strength brands as better suited for experienced ST users. Brand preferences frequently reflected perceived ST brand popularity within peer groups. Based on these observations, potential ST regulation and health education campaigns to address misconceptions about ST characteristics could influence adolescents' ST-related perceptions and reduce ST use among this vulnerable population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, L

    1994-01-01

    In conclusion, physical medicine and rehabilitation in the 21st century will be: new, exciting technologies, different patient populations, different practice settings, fewer PM&R residents, and more physician assistants, all operating under a universal access, single payer, Canadian-style health care system. I began my presentation with a quote from Yogi Berra. I'll close by paraphrasing the immortal words of Charles Dickens in the opening lines of A Tale Of Two Cities. PM&R in the 21st century will be "the best of times, the worst of times, the epoch of belief, the epoch of incredulity."

  4. Spolia from the Church of St. Nicholas in Nikoljac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejić Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two, so far unknown, spolia with carved interlace ornaments, built into the wall of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nikoljac are analyzed. These spolia are a part of the collection of fragments discovered earlier in the Church of St. Peter in Bijelo Polje. A comparative analysis was performed on a multitude of pre-Romanic material, in order to determine the time when they were made and whether they originated from any specific circle of stonemasons, and also to identify the initial position of the fragments in the liturgical church furniture for which they had been carved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177036

  5. 21st Century Power Partnership: September 2016 Fellowship Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reber, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rambau, Prudence [Eskom, Pretoria (South Africa); Mdhluli, Sipho [Eskom, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2017-09-29

    This report details the 21st Century Power Partnership fellowship from September 2016. This Fellowship is a follow-up to the Technical Audit of Eskom's Medium- and Long-term Modelling Capabilities, conducted by U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in April 2016. The prospect and role of variable renewable energy (vRE) in South Africa poses new modelling-related challenges that Eskom is actively working to address by improving the fidelity of PLEXOS LT and ST models.

  6. Performance Evaluation and Opportunity Assessment for St. Bernard Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, B.

    2011-06-01

    This report describes efforts by IBACOS, a Department of Energy Building America research team, in the St. Bernard Project, a nonprofit, community-based organization whose mission is to assist Hurricane Katrina survivors return to their homes in the New Orleans area. The report focuses on energy modeling results of two plans that the St. Bernard Project put forth as 'typical' building types and on quality issues that were observed during the field walk and Best Practice recommendations that could improve the energy efficiency and durability of the renovated homes.

  7. Performance Evaluation and Opportunity Assessment for St. Bernard Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Bruce [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report describes efforts by IBACOS, a Building America research team, in the St. Bernard Project, a nonprofit, community-based organization whose mission is to assist Hurricane Katrina survivors to return to their homes in the New Orleans area. The report focuses on energy modeling results of two plans that the St. Bernard Project put forth as 'typical' building types and on quality issues that were observed during the field walk and best practice recommendations that could improve the energy efficiency and durability of the renovated homes.

  8. Construction experience on PCRV liners at Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cliff, J.O.; Wunderlich, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The construction of the steel liners for the Fort St. Vrain prestressed concrete reactor vessel presented many unique problems for which techniques were developed to satisfy the rigid specification requirements. The PCRV cavity liner was fabricated from 1.9cm carbon steel plate. The liners were partially fabricated by Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Company at their Pittsburgh manufacturing facility. The liners were then shipped by rail to within approximately five miles of the jobsite and then trucked the remaining distance. The construction techniques, dimensional control, concrete support and testing utilized on the Fort St. Vrain project are presented in detail and demonstrate the flexibility of the PCRV for field construction. (author)

  9. Rwanda. Dansk støtte er en god investering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel

    2012-01-01

    Danmark fortsætter militær støtte til Rwanda mens andre lande fryser bistand Rwandas regering har siden 2005 bidraget betydeligt til fredsbevarende operationer. Rwanda har gennem sit styrkebidrag til fredsbevarende operationer potentialet til at spille en væsentlig regional rolle pga. landets...... militære styrke og erfaring med forsoning, konfliktløsning og genopbygning efter krigen og folkemordet i 1994. Aktuelt bidrager Rwanda med 4,577 soldater til fredsbevarende missioner i FN-regi, hvilket betyder, at Rwanda er det land i verden, der leverer det sjette største militære styrkebidrag til FN...

  10. Efficiency revolution in the monastery St. Ottilien; Effizienzrevolution im Kloster St. Ottilien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauch, Wolfgang [Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the monastery St. Ottilien near Munich (Federal Republic of Germany) registered an annual emission of 2,500 tonnes of CO{sub 2}. The associated costs and environmental concerns disposed the monastery to a reduction in the consumption of fossil fuels (about 700,000 liters of heating oil per year) by 90 % by means of a variety of measures. An extensive program of thermal insulation was carried out, and a highly efficient heating system for the restoration of 45 buildings was installed. A thermographic analysis of the existing buildings resulted in an energy-efficient renovation. Efforts have been made for thermal insulation. Windows were replaced. The heating sysem and steam production were optimized. A central power supply with two wood pellet boilers and a combined heat and power plant based on biogas were installed. Thus 90 % of heat supply and 100 % of the power generation of the monastery were covered. Thus, the CO{sub 2} emissions were reduced to 500 tons in 2009, and to 250 tons in 2010.

  11. Reciprocal ST-Segment Changes in Myocardial Infarction: Ischemia at Distance Versus Mirror Reflection of ST-Elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Gaurang Nandkishor; Antoine, Steve; Imam, Syed Haider; Kozman, Hani; Smulyan, Harold; Villarreal, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Reciprocal ST-depression in the electrocardiograms (ECGs) of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) results from either true ischemia at a distance via collateral circulation diverting blood to the infarcted region or an electrical phenomenon that results from a mirror reflection of ST-elevation. We aimed to identify the role of reciprocal ECG changes in predicting collateral circulation to the infarcted area determined angiographically. In a retrospective study, ECG and angiography of 53 STEMI patients admitted to SUNY Upstate Medical University in 2014 were reviewed independently by experts blinded to the results of ECG and coronary angiography. Reciprocal changes (RC) in ECG were present in 41 patients (77%) and on angiography, 14 patients (26%) exhibited collateral vessels to the ischemic areas. No correlation was found between the presence of RC and collateral circulation (P = 0.384), or between the depth of reciprocal ST-depression and the degree of the collateral circulation (P = 0.195). However, 84% of patients without collaterals exhibited resolution of RC after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (P = 0.036), suggesting that the ST depressions that resolved after reperfusion were directly caused by the culprit vessel. Patients without RC presented late after symptom onset (9.25 versus 3.83 hours, P = 0.004), also suggesting time related resolution. RC had no relation to or predictive value for collaterals on angiography. Among late presenting patients, RC were less frequent. Thus, reciprocal ST-depression may represent subendocardial ischemia from the primary coronary event or simply an electrical phenomenon, rather than ischemia at distance from impaired collateral circulation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. 76 FR 38357 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 102, Under Alternative Site Framework; St. Louis, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Zone 102, Under Alternative Site Framework; St. Louis, MO Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign.../2010) as an option for the establishment or reorganization of general-purpose zones; Whereas, the St... the City of St. Louis and St. Louis County, Missouri, within and adjacent to the St. Louis Customs and...

  13. Short Communication A near mass stranding of cetaceans in St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of 70 false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens and 124 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp., and a separate group of 13 Risso's dolphins Grampus griseus, assembled close inshore off a known mass-stranding site in St Helena Bay, South Africa, in October 2003. However, only a single Risso's dolphin attempted to ...

  14. St. Ola sõitis Virumaa lipulaevana Soome / Gerli Romanovitsh

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Romanovitš, Gerli, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 10. juuni lk 1,4. Parvlaev St. Ola alustas sõitu Sillamäelt Kotkasse, et viia Ida-Virumaa esindajad Kouvolas toimuvale messile, millest poole võtab enda alla Virumaa väljapanek. Järgmisel aastal käivitub Sillamäe-Kotka regulaarlaevaliin. Ida-Viru maavanema Ago Silde kommentaar

  15. Marketing and 21 st Century Technological Challenges: The Need ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing and 21 st Century Technological Challenges: The Need for Curricula Review. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... Marketing had over the years served the dominant function of bridging the gap between production and consumption through a conceptualized, well structured programme of academic ...

  16. The English of Gustavia, St. Barthélemy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decker, Ken; Williams, Jeffrey P.; Schneider, Edgar W.; Trudgill, Peter; Schreier, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a variety of English spoken in the port city of Gustavia on the French island of St. Barthélemy in the Leeward Islands in the northeastern corner of the Caribbean. It has the smallest population of speakers of English in the Caribbean and is probably the most endangered

  17. Transforming Power Systems; 21st Century Power Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-20

    The 21st Century Power Partnership - a multilateral effort of the Clean Energy Ministerial - serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with deep energy ef?ciency and smart grid solutions.

  18. Støtte til udsatte børnefamilier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle; Skov, Peter Rohde; Munkholt Sørensen, Kresta

    ’Praktisk Pædagogisk Støtte’ og ’Familiebehandling’ er de to familiebevarende foranstaltninger i serviceloven, som familier oftest visiteres til i Danmark. Dette studie er et af de første, der kortlægger, hvordan kommunerne udmønter de to foranstaltninger, og måler samtidig effekten ved et random...

  19. 21st centuries skill implication on educational system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrahatnolo, T.; Munoto

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify skill needed in 21st centuries and its implication on Indonesia’s educational system. This research found that the 21st centuries skill application has more measurable benefits in some sections of life, such as critical thinking and problem solving, initiative, creativity, and entrepreneurship, communication, teamwork, metacognition (change of mindset), digital literature. This study applied qualitative data analysis. The data were taken from different sources and literature. The analysis showed that The 21st centuries education concept’s implementation can be applied in the curriculum of the required subject that is addressed to achieve learning and innovation skills competence and also technology and information media skills competence. While supporting subject group directed to achieve life and career skills competence. All subjects are the derivation from core subject 3R, which are reading, writing, and arithmetic. Based on the description above, it can be concluded that 21st centuries skill needs; (1) a life planning; (2) flexibility and adaptability; (3) initiative and self-management (4) entrepreneurship; (5) social and cultural interaction; (6) productivity and accountability; (7) leadership; (8) critical thinking, (9) problem solving; (10) communication; (11) collaboration and teamwork; (12) lifelong learning; and (13) digital literation.

  20. (HIV) INFECTION AMONG ANTENATAL CLINIC ATTENDEES IN St ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was estimated among pregnant women attending clinic at St. ... percentage prevalence by educational status was: women with no formal education 37.5%; those with secondary education, 11.3% and ..... 81% at age 18. These young married girls lack proper.

  1. Department of Energy: Nuclear S&T workforce development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, Michelle; Bala, Marsha; Beierschmitt, Kelly; Steele, Carolyn; Sattelberger, Alfred P.; Bruozas, Meridith A.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories use their expertise in nuclear science and technology (S&T) to support a robust national nuclear S&T enterprise from the ground up. Traditional academic programs do not provide all the elements necessary to develop this expertise, so the DOE has initiated a number of supplemental programs to develop and support the nuclear S&T workforce pipeline. This document catalogs existing workforce development programs that are supported by a number of DOE offices (such as the Offices of Nuclear Energy, Science, Energy Efficiency, and Environmental Management), and by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Naval Reactor Program. Workforce development programs in nuclear S&T administered through the Department of Homeland Security, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Department of Defense are also included. The information about these programs, which is cataloged below, is drawn from the program websites. Some programs, such as the Minority Serving Institutes Partnership Programs (MSIPPs) are available through more than one DOE office, so they appear in more than one section of this document.

  2. An Empirical Approach to the St. Petersburg Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyve, Dominic; Lauren, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The St. Petersburg game is a probabilistic thought experiment. It describes a game which seems to have infinite expected value, but which no reasonable person could be expected to pay much to play. Previous empirical work has centered around trying to find the most likely payoff that would result from playing the game n times. In this paper, we…

  3. Laser stimulation of the acupoint 'Zusanli' (ST.36) on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-13

    Feb 13, 2016 ... [Frederico ÉHFF, Santos AA, Sá-Caputo DC, Neves RF, Guimarães CAS, Chang5 S and Bernardo-Filho .... ST.36 of the stomach meridian (de Souza Franco et al. ..... S, Ailton Alexandre Santos AAV, Paoli S, Presta GA, et al.

  4. Safety and licensing analyses for the Fort St. Vrain HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, S.J.; Conklin, J.C.; Harrington, R.M.; Cleveland, J.C.; Clapp, N.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) safety analysis program for the HTGR includes development and verification of system response simulation codes, and applications of these codes to specific Fort St. Vrain reactor licensing problems. Licensing studies addressed the oscillation problems and the concerns about large thermal stresses in the core support blocks during a postulated accident

  5. Resource scarcity in the 21st century: conflict or cooperation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qasem, I.

    2010-01-01

    Oil and natural gas, water, food, and minerals are critical to ensuring our wellbeing and prosperity. The mismatch between future demand and supply is crystallizing into one of the most complex and urgent issues policymakers will face in the 21st Century. Unless the challenges arising from these

  6. Clinical implications of ST segment time-course recovery patterns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    Journal home page: http://www.akspublication.com/ijmu. Original Work. 3. Copyrighted © by Dr. ... KEY WORDS: Exercise stress test; ST segment time course patterns. INTRODUCTIONᴪ .... using simple descriptive statistics (mean ± SD) and contingency .... two patients who had the recovery time of less than. 3 minutes, had ...

  7. A 3000 yr paleostorm record from St. Catherines Island, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Erick; Meyer, Brian; Deocampo, Daniel; Kiage, Lawrence M.

    2017-09-01

    Tropical cyclones (hurricanes in the northern hemisphere) are amongst the most devastating of the world's natural disasters and cause billions of dollars in damage every year. Data on the likelihood of a coastal site being struck by a major hurricane strike can potentially aid in planning and mitigation efforts that could save money and lives. However, forecasting requires data that are currently insufficient for the Georgia Bight. This study provides information to enhance the paleohurricane record by analysis of a 467 cm thick vibracore raised from St. Catherines Island, GA. Sediment geochemistry and foraminiferal assemblages indicate deposits attributable to seven paleohurricane events, five of which were likely major hurricanes when they made landfall on St. Catherines. Magnitudes were estimated by comparison to the overwash deposit left by ;The Sea Islands hurricane of 1893;, a major hurricane recorded by the recent sediment of St. Catherines Island. The St. Catherines record also shows a change in the activity levels on the Georgia coast with two distinct activity regimes over the past 3000 years.

  8. Fostering 21st Century Skills through Game Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    This reflection paper argues that the design and development of digital games teach essential 21st century skills. Intrinsic to application and game development is design thinking. Design thinking requires iterative development, which demands creativity, critical thinking and problem solving. Students are engaged through learning by doing in both…

  9. St. Cloud State University's Impact on the Local Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Mark D.

    The economic impact of St. Cloud State University, Minnesota, on the local economy was studied. Using models developed by the American Council on Education, estimates were made of the dollar outlays by the local economic sectors that are associated with or influenced by the university. The focus is the measurable impacts, in dollar terms, of the…

  10. A 21st-Century Humanities for the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Barry; Elden, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    This essay examines not only the role the humanities play in the community college curriculum but also how our approach to and understanding of the humanities must change. The defense of a 21st-century humanities has to begin in the experience of our students and not in the traditional canons of our disciplines.

  11. St. George at Prague Castle and Perseus: an Impossible Encounter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bažant, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1/2 (2015), s. 189-201 ISSN 1212-5865 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Bellerophon * St. George * iconography * Prague Castle * classical tradition Subject RIV: AB - History http://studiahercynia.ff.cuni.cz/wp-content/uploads/sites/79/2016/05/jan_bazant_189-201.pdf

  12. The 21st Century Skills and Job Performance of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa-alisbo, Mark Anthony Cenas

    2017-01-01

    The Philippines' Department of Education through the implementation of the Basic Education Sector Reform Agenda (BESRA) is pursuing a package of policy reforms to further improve education. One of its reforms is the K-12 Program which has opened the way to the mandated 21st Century Skills. These include Learning and Innovation; Information, Media…

  13. 21st Annual Conference of Ramanujan Mathematical Society

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paper Presentation: Those who want to present papers should send an abstract of the paper along with a hard copy of the paper so as to reach the Local Secretary, 21st Annual. Conference of Ramanujan Mathematical Society, Department of Mathematics and Statis- tics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 on or ...

  14. Cybercare: Combining Healthcare and Cyberspace in the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosen, J

    2001-01-01

    ... physician and a cybercare vision of a new healthcare system We will then predict what type of large-scale medical disaster would prompt the creation of a cybercare healthcare system Finally, we discuss the challenges to be faced in the 21st century.

  15. An Institutional Autopsy of St. Augustine Junior College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Institutional autopsies can teach much about why learning centers fail the test of time. St. Augustine Junior College in north Florida, the brainchild of Dr. George Apel, was begun in 1942 and ended seven years later in 1949. The purposes of the short-lived college are identified for discussion in this paper. Also identified are the reasons for…

  16. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  17. Sunrayce 97 Continues Day 7 - Smith Center to St. Francis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manager (202) 586-0713 St. Francis, Kan. -- It was a close race for the top three places on the 7th day of running great. It's a solid car. We may not have the fastest or most efficient vehicle in the race, but we withdraw from the race yesterday due to suspension problems. The team was presented an "Inspector's

  18. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  19. Principal Component Surface (2011) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 0.3x0.3 meter principal component analysis (PCA) surface for areas inside Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). It was...

  20. 21st Annual Conference of Ramanujan Mathematical Society

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. 21st Annual Conference of Ramanujan Mathematical Society. Information and Announcements Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 108-108. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Cyberbullying and Sexting: Technology Abuses of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    Many young people cannot remember a time before Instant Messaging (IM), cell phone text messaging, video conferencing, blogging, e-mailing, and MySpace and Facebook postings existed. Thanks to the ubiquitous nature of technology in the 21st century, digital natives are accustomed to seeing, and being seen, on a scale that was unimaginable by their…

  2. Encouraging results for controlling an Agricultural pest on St. Eustatius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Reid, A.; Leslie, T.W.; Madden, H.; Stapel, J.; Dalm, Friso; Uphoff, Lara; Zwet, van der Leonie

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, the invasive Giant African Land Snail, Achatina fulica was found in a small part of urban St. Eustatius. In collaboration with local government agencies and Dutch universities, IMARES* conducted field and laboratory pilot trials of control methods from October 2015 to June 2016.

  3. ST2 and Galectin-3 : Ready for Prime Time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Wouter C; van der Velde, A Rogier; de Boer, Rudolf A

    ST2 and galectin-3 are emerging biomarkers in the field of heart failure and have been extensively studied, and that whether they provide additional prognostic value on top of the clinical models and the gold standard in HF, (NT-pro)BNP. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of these

  4. Mapping ecosystem services in the St. Louis River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable management of ecosystems for the perpetual flow of services beneficial to human communities requires reliable data about from where in the ecosystem services flow. Our objective is to map ecosystem services in the St. Louis River with the overarching U.S. EPA goal of ...

  5. Mapping ecosystem services in the St. Louis River estuary (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of ecosystems for sustainable provision of services beneficial to human communities requires reliable data about from where in the ecosystem services flow. Our objective is to map ecosystem services in the St. Louis River with the overarching EPA goal of community sust...

  6. Orthophoto Mosaic (2012) for Coral Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 0.3x0.3 meter imagery mosaic of Coral Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands was created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using a...

  7. Climate Prediction Center - Outreach: 41st Annual Climate Diagnostics &

    Science.gov (United States)

    home page National Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Annual Climate Diagnostics & Prediction Workshop NOAA's 41st Climate Diagnostics and Prediction Climate Diagnostics Prediction Workshop (CDPW) news, visit the CDPW list server Abstract Submission Has

  8. Data-to-Decisions S&T Priority Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    Decisions S&T Priority Initiative Dr. Carey Schwartz PSC Lead Office of Naval Research NDIA Disruptive Technologies Conference November 8-9, 2011...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Presented at the NDIA Disruptive ... Technologies Conference, November 8,-9, 2011,Washington, DC 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  9. Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st century | Thomas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bringing Foreign Language Learning into the 21st Century. The different challenges facing foreign language lecturers are considered as well as the different methods used to teach a foreign language. Technology and multimedia are proposed not only as tools and supports but also as a possible solution. With the change ...

  10. Assessing 21st Century Skills: Summary of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Judith Anderson

    2011-01-01

    The routine jobs of yesterday are being replaced by technology and/or shipped off-shore. In their place, job categories that require knowledge management, abstract reasoning, and personal services seem to be growing. The modern workplace requires workers to have broad cognitive and affective skills. Often referred to as "21st century…

  11. 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornnes, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The 21st European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynaecology took place in Antwerp 5-8 May 2010. The congress provided the participants with an overview of recent scientific and clinical developments throughout the field of obstetrics and gynaecology, and these are summarized in this article....

  12. Magmagenesis at Soufriere volcano St Vincent, Lesser Antilles Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, E.; Macdonald, R.; Belkin, H.; Hawkesworth, C.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur

    1998-01-01

    Soufriere volcano of St Vincent (3 wt %, whereas various projections onto phase diagrams are more consistent with relatively anhydrous magmas. Primary magmas at Soufriere were generated by around 15% melting of mid-ocean ridge basalt type mantle sources which had been modified by addition of fluids released from the slab containing contributions from subducted sediments and mafic crust.

  13. Nye arbejdsorganisationsformer i de største danske virksomheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Baseret på et sample af de 1000 største danske virksomheder undersøgesforekomsten af nye arbejdsorganiseringsformer i dansk erhvervsliv. Endvidereundersøges det, hvilke virksomheder der typisk implementerer de nye måder atorganisere arbejdet på. Det vises at det primært er virksomheder ikonkurren...

  14. Pulmonary embolism presenting with ST segment elevation in inferior leads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Kahyaoğlu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pulmonary embolism is a form of venous thromboembolism that is widespread and sometimes mortal. The clinical presentation of pulmonary embolism is variable and often nonspecific making the diagnosis challenging. In this report, we present a case of pulmonary embolism characterized by ST segment elevation in inferior leads without reciprocal changes in the electrocardiogram.

  15. Proceedings of the 1st LAK Data Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Aquin, Mathieu; Dietze, Stefan; Drachsler, Hendrik; Herder, Eelco; Taibi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    d'Aquin, M., Dietze, S., Drachsler, H., Herder, E., & Taibi, D. (Eds.) (2013, April). Proceedings of the 1st LAK Data Challenge, held at LAK 2013, the Third Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge. Published by CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2013, Vol. 974.

  16. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera. Wafaa Kamel, Magda Gazar, Samy Zalat, Francis Gilbert. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Natural History Vol.1 1999: 1-39. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Moscow and St. Petersburgpsychological schools: from opposition to friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an attempt to summarize the interaction of the two largest schools of psychology in Russia: the psychological schools of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The paper is a sketch dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the psychological faculties of Moscow and St. Petersburg, and should not be appreciated as a historical treatise. Tense ties between the psychological schools, that originate in the distant past, have gone through different historical stages. Slavophilevs Westernizer traditions affected the initial difference in these schoolsemerging into the opposition: either the human being is studied entirety with his/her vast subjective experience, but losing the reliability of our statements (peculiarity of Moscow school, or we study the human being accurately using objective methods, but losing the integrity of our ideas (peculiarity of St.-Petersburg school. Both psychological schools, having gone through the ups and downs, have retained their identity and their emphasis on research. Moscow scholars in their studies are aimed to larger issues and still rely on large-scale Vygotsky-Leontiev approach. Scholars of St.-Petersburgtouch upon more specific issues using empirical methods, but still continue with nostalgia and hope making plans about creating a common concept of human individual according to Ananiev. Nowadays between the two schools there is no opposition, but only one mutual love.

  18. Economic and Financial Education for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Mark; Lopus, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills places an important emphasis on fundamental social science subjects including history, geography, government and civics, and economics as well as a stress on other important subjects such as English, foreign languages, arts, and science in the school curriculum. It has also identified what it calls 21st…

  19. Teaching with Autoharps in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    The excitement of playing an instrument is one of the greatest motivating forces in teaching general music to students. The autoharp, which may be long forgotten in the general music classrooms of the 21st century, is an ideal instrument to "re-introduce" to students. The teaching of a traditional folk instrument provides advantages for…

  20. Essentials for Engaged 21st-Century Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Virginia R.

    2012-01-01

    The Millennial Generation is a subject of paramount interest for 21st-century educators. It is a generation unlike its predecessors, with some stating it is the most intelligent consumer generation in history. Experts in the fields of neurobiology and psychology have found that Millennial brains may actually be "physically different" because of…

  1. Proceedings of the 1st JAERI symposium on HTGR technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report was edited as the Proceedings of the 1st JAERI Symposium on HTGR Technologies, - Design, Licensing Requirements and Supporting Technologies -, collecting the 21 papers presented in the Symposium. The 19 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Orthophoto Mosaic (2012) for Fish Bay, St. John

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 0.3x0.3 meter imagery mosaic of Fish Bay, St. John in the U.S. Virgin Islands was created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) using a...

  3. Bovine-associated MRSA ST398 in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavakol Mehri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During routinely screening (50.000 milk samples on an annual basis 14 MRSA ST398 strains were identified in the period of January 2008 to September 2008 in 14 different dairy herds located in the provinces Overijssel and Gelderland, The Netherlands. Molecular analysis was performed by Cfr9I PFGE, ST398-specific diagnostic PCR, spa typing, SCCmec typing and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL gene PCR. The molecular analyses of 14 MRSA (one MRSA strain per herd strains revealed that all strains belong to ST398 with 3 closely related spa types (t011, t108 and t889, all commonly found in pigs and carry 2 different SCCmec types, IVa and V. All MRSA strains were resistant to two or more classes of antibiotics and also PVL negative. The majority of farms (n = 9, 64% harboured combined livestock with both cows and pigs present. Our study contributes to the growing evidence that MRSA ST398 is transmitted among various animal species and can be considered as an etiological agent of mastitis in dairy cows.

  4. Volcano ecology: flourishing on the flanks of Mount St. Helens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli

    2016-01-01

    Mount St. Helens’ explosive eruption on May 18, 1980, was a pivotal moment in the field of disturbance ecology. The subsequent sustained, integrated research effort has shaped the development of volcano ecology, an emerging field of focused research. Excessive heat, burial, and impact force are some of the disturbance mechanisms following an eruption. They are also...

  5. Mount St. Helens 30 years later: a landscape reconfigured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2010-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, after two months of tremors, Mount St. Helens erupted spectacularly and profoundly changed a vast area surrounding the volcano. The north slope of the mountain catastrophically failed, forming the largest landslide witnessed in modern times. The largest lobe of this debris avalanche raced 14 miles down the Toutle River...

  6. Anipamil prevents ST depression in patients with stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Rasmussen, V

    1993-01-01

    test with > or = 0.10 mV horizontal or down-sloping ST-segment depression and limited by angina pectoris, and at least 10 attacks of angina pectoris in the initial single-blind placebo period. During the placebo period, a total duration of transient myocardial ischemia > or = 0.10 mV during the 24-hour...

  7. Mount St. Helens: Still erupting lessons 31 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Charlie Crisafulli; Fred Swanson

    2011-01-01

    The massive volcanic eruption of Mount St. Helens 31 years ago provided the perfect backdrop for studying the earliest stages of forest development. Immediately after the eruption, some areas of the blast area were devoid of life. On other parts of the volcanic landscape, many species survived, although their numbers were greatly reduced. Reassembly began at many...

  8. Servant Leadership: Guiding Extension Programs in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Goodwin, Jeff; Hodnett, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A new set of leadership skills is required for Extension administrators for the 21st century. Past models and theories are reviewed and discussed. The old "power" model of leadership is no longer relevant. A relatively new model called "Servant Leadership" is reviewed and explained. Seven key practices of servant leadership are outlined, and the…

  9. New Challenges in 21st-Century Dance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassing, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    To become competent in today's society, individuals need multiliteracies. The 21st-century dancer needs to be an artist, choreographer, educator, and researcher who can meet challenges and make an impact within the profession, as well as across education, the arts, and society. As dance professionals assess how to utilize their resources better…

  10. Developing Classroom Web Sites for 21st Century Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingen, Jennifer; Philbeck, Lauren; Holcomb, Lori B.

    2011-01-01

    Classroom Web sites have the potential to support and enhance student learning by targeting 21st century skills, such as collaboration among teachers, students, parents, and other teachers, media literacy, and interpersonal and self-directional skills, as well as thinking and problem-solving skills. Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, vokis, and podcasts…

  11. European governance challenges in 21st century bio-engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Est, van R.; Stemerding, D.; Est, van R.; Stemerding, D.

    2012-01-01

    This Final Report discussed four case studies (whole genome sequencing, neuromodulation, biocybernetic adaptation and standardization in synthetic biology) focusing on particular developments in the four fields of 21st-century bio-engineering that were explored more extensively in the earlier

  12. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 76, 1st Quarter 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    should be a humanist approach that emphasizes the importance of meeting the student’s full range of needs: emotional, spiritual, physical, and...always be calibrated against the Soviet Union’s existential threat. In contrast, the 21st century’s strategic context is much harder to define and

  13. Naval S&T Strategy: Innovations For The Future Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    promote fundamental knowledge expansion to collectively paint a picture of the future naval force that today’s initiatives will help build. Scientists and... graphene , QuikClot and many more). In fiscally austere times like today, there is great pressure to tie S&T more closely to R&D technology

  14. RESTAURANT AND CAFETERIA SERVICES ARRANGEMENTS FOR MAY 1ST, 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Restaurant Supervisory Committee

    2001-01-01

    1. Restaurants As Tuesday, May 1st, is an official CERN holiday, restaurants no 2 (DSR : Bldg. 504 - Meyrin) and no 3 (Avenance : Bldg. 866 - Prévessin) will be closed as from Monday, April 30 at 18h00. They will reopen on Wednesday, May 2nd at 6h30 (rest. no 2) and at 7h00 (rest. no 3). On May 1st, a limited service will be provided by restaurant no. 1 (COOP : Bldg. 501 - Meyrin) from 8h00 to 21h00 with hot meals served from 11h30 to 14h00 and from 18h00 to 19h30. 2. Satellite cafétérias All satellite cafétérias will be closed on May 1st. They will all operate normally on Monday, April 30, except for buildings 17 (Meyrin), 865 and 892 (Prévessin) which will be closed. 3. Newspaper stand The newspaper kiosque in building 501 will be closed on May 1st.

  15. Monitoring birds, reptiles and butterflies in the St Katherine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Egypt has a ... mixed blessing of tourism, which increases the value of preserving the region's wildlife, but .... Canal University's Research Centre at the edge of the town of St Katherine for approximately .... distance from the observer, the whole basis of the Line Transect method. ...... Concise edition. Oxford ...

  16. Vegetation and Grazing in the St. Katherine Protectorate, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants were surveyed in the St. Katherine Protectorate of South Sinai, Egypt. The most frequently recorded plant species include: Artemisia herba-alba, Artemisia judaica, Fagonia arabica, Fagonia mollis, Schismus barbatus, Stachys aegyptiaca, Tanacetum sinaicum, Teucrium polium and Zilla spinosa. Dominant plant ...

  17. Monitoring birds, reptiles and butterflies in the St Katherine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifty-two bird species were recorded during transect and point count surveys of wadis in the St Katherine Protectorate in the mountainous southern region of the Sinai, Egypt. Two species are new to Egypt: Rock Nuthatch (Sitta neumeyer) and Rock Sparrow (Petronia petronia). There were several other notable species: ...

  18. Healing the Wounds: St. Augustine, Catechesis, and Religious Education Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    St. Augustine of Hippos' writing on education offers a fresh lens through which the conceptual framework of religious education in the Catholic school can be understood. Recent teaching of the Magisterium of the Catholic Church on the distinctive nature of religious education and catechesis has challenged religious educators to find an alternative…

  19. New St-chromosome-specific molecular markers for identifying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    et al. 1994) or JJsSt (Chen et al. 1998) was widely used in wheat breeding programme (Chen .... Japan). Table 1. The features of primers used in this study. Homologous ..... Redinbaugh M. G., Jones T. A. and Zhang Y. T. 2000 Ubiquity of.

  20. Proceedings of the 1st Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This proceedings contains articles of the 1st Symposium on Laser Spectroscopy. It was held on Nov 11, 1993 in Taejeon, Korea. The main topics are as follows: Laser Isotope, Laser Spectroscopy, Laser Fusion, Laser Applications and so on. (Yi, J. H.)